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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1937]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL KEPOET
LANDS AND SURVEY BRANCHES
OP  THE
DEPAKTMENT OF LANDS
TEAE ENDED DECEMBEE 31ST, 1936
HON. A. WELLS GRAY, MINISTER OF LANDS
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1937.  Victoria, B.C., April 5th, 1937.
To His Honour E. W. Hamber,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual  Report of the Lands  and  Survey
Branches of the Department of Lands for the year ended December 31st, 1936.
A. W. GRAY,
Minister of Lands.
Victoria, B.C., April 5th, 1937.
The Honourable A. W. Gray,
Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Survey Branches
of the Department of Lands for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1936.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PAET I.
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     5
Revenue       5
Sale of Town Lots     6
Pre-emption Records      7
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges     7
Land-sales      7
Sale of Reverted Lands     8
Process Summary     8
Land Inspections     9
Summary  10
Letters inward and outward   11
Coal Licences, Leases, etc.  11
Crown Grants issued  11
Total Acreage deeded  11
B.C. Government Relief Land Settlement Plan  12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., February 1st, 1937.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith statements containing details of land administration by the Lands Branch of the Department of Lands during the year ended December
31st, 1936.
It is gratifying to note a substantial increase, over 26 per cent., in general revenue,
notwithstanding the reduction in interest rates as from June 1st and an extensive acreage
disposed of under the reverted land deferred-payment plan. As this plan has occasioned
widespread attention not confined to our Province, more particularly among officials concerned
with the problem of unemployment and relief, the within progress summary may be of
special interest.
It will be of interest to note that Peace River District is the only part of the Province
where settlers have taken advantage of the statutory provision of 1934 for exchange to more
suitable locations.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
NEWMAN TAYLOR,
Superintendent of Lands.
STATEMENT OF REVENUE, YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31st, 1936.
Land-sales.
Sundry Revenue.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
Under " Taxation Act "—
             $33,425.26
$37,533.49
411.21
25,801.13
       4,108.23
$37,533.49
9,455.42
Under " Land Act "—
$9,044.21
13,163.64
515.10
6,770.56
1,261.35
38,964.77
515.10
6,770.56
544.35
1,805.70
Totals	
$64,290.18
$30,754.86
$95,045.04
Under " Land Act "—
$85,410.49
5,288.82
5,666.92
14,617.00
500.85
3,499.14
416.50
56.82
$85,410.49
$764.09
862.00
5,288.82
Survey fees—
Under " Land Act "    $6,153.28
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands.         277.73
6,431.01
15,479.00
500.85
1,066.62
180.00
4,706.08
4,565.76
596.50
Under " Taxation Act "—
4,762.90
$115,456.54
$7,578.79
$123,035.33 0 6
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
Revenue under " Coal and Petroleum Act."
Sundry Receipts.
Victoria.
Agencies.
Total.
$5,400.00
13,982.20
5,620
450.00
$5,400.00
13,982.20
5,620.00
450.00
Totals	
$25,452.20
$25,452.20
$8,956.50
207.08
6,756.42
14,221.57
$8,956.50
207.08
6,756.42
$1,741.31
15,962.88
Totals..	
$30,141.57
$1,741.31
$31,882.88
Summary op Revenue.
$64,290.18
115,456.54
25,452.20
30,141.57
$30,754.86
7,578.79
$95,045.04
123,035.33
25,452.20
1,741.31
31,882.88
Totals ...	
$235,340.49
$40,074.96
$275,415.45
Summary op Cash received.
$235,340.49
36,565.03
303.08
59,250.00
28,784.40
18,002.78
54,336.57
1,106.60
$40,074.96
$275,415.45
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
36,565.03
303.08
" Better Housing Act "—
59,250.00
28,784.40
Land Settlement Board—
18,002.78
54,336.57
1,106.60
Totals  	
$433,688.95
$40,074.96
$473,763.91
SALE OF TOWN LOTS DURING 1936.
Disposail of lots placed on the market at previous auction sales:-
1 lot at Vancouver 	
12 lots at Creston	
13 lots at Osoyoos ....
13 lots at Quesnel ....
7 lots at Erickson „
13 lots at Castlegar .
7 lots at Kimberley
 $15,000
  3,719
11 lots at Oliver   2,635
  2,215
  2,470
  945
 :  595
  555
And 30 lots in various townsites  1,403
Total.
$29,537
During the year an auction was held at Trail, disposing of 17 lots for $3,645.
Southern Okanagan Project sold 70 parcels, comprising 479.91 acres, the purchase price
being $36,935.83. LAND-SALES.
0 7
In the University Hill Subdivision in Lot 140, New Westminster District (Endowment
Lands), no new sales or leases during the year, but collections on existing agreements show a
considerable improvement.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1936.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
22
1
1
24
33
7
14
2
30
10
125
3
43
9
4
12
4
3
19
10
1
29
64
1
20
3
14
8
231
6
73
10
1
16
8
3' '■
2
27
28
3
1
13
1
23
3
113
171
18
32
15
48
1
5
42
20
1,132
Atlin
15
2
7
18
2
Kaslo    	
Nanaimo  _  	
3
7
4
Pouce Coupe 	
26
11
3
6
3
Totals	
347
514
1,701
107
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to " Land Act."
1934
1935
1936
No.
. 21
. 41
. 21
Total
All of the exchanges apply to lands within the Peace River District.
83
LAND-SALES, 1936.
" Land Act "—
Surveyed (first class)	
Surveyed (second class)	
Unsurveyed	
Total   	
Acres.
60
3,817
3,877
811
4,688
" Taxation Act "—
Cash and conditional sales  8,956.75
Deferred-payment settlement plan  7,512.20 O 8
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
1936 SALE OF REVERTED LANDS UNDER DEFERRED-PURCHASE
REGULATIONS  (1933).
No.
Acreage.
Appraised Value.
1
92                        7,512.20
45           J            4,519.84
$28,365.00            •
17,908.00
Totals    	
47
2,992.36
$10,457.00
Payments, 1936 (principal, interest, and existing improvements at
date of sale)   .... $3,595.14
PROCESS SUMMARY.
No.
Acreage.
Appraised Value.
Total allowances since inception 	
697
74
58,489.20
6,573.57
$232,371.00
29,416.00
Totals 	
623
51,915.63
$202,955.00
Total deposits due-
No.
  399
Total deposits paid and partly paid 126
Instalments in arrear	
Contracts paid in full and lands Crown-granted (approx.).
Contracts subsisting	
Contracts abandoned 	
$13,255.76
4,825.36
$8,430.40
Per Cent.
      1.0
  88.4
   10.6
1936.—Reverted land applications statused and cleared for timber-sale under the " Forest
Act," 414.
* LAND INSPECTIONS.
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O 11
STATEMENT OF LETTERS INWARD AND OUTWARD, 1936.
Letters inward  21,572
  19,796
Letters outward
Included in the above total of letters inward are general inquiry letters as follows:
January   260' July   143
February  .  186 August   125
March  263 September   152
April   137 October   152
May   141 November   128
June  177 December     128
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1936.
Licences under the " Coal, and Petroleum Act."
Original licences issued  32;   area, 17,274.00 acres.
Renewal licences issued  22;   area, 13,212.00 acres.
Totals..
54;   area, 30,486.00 acres.
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act."
New leases issued	
Renewal leases issued..
5;   area,    4,795.00 acres.
40;   area, 22,721.00 acres.
Totals  45;   area, 27,516,00 acres.
Sundry Leases under the " Land Act."
Number of leases issued  194;   area, 17,294.04 acres.
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1936.
Pre-emptions 	
Dominion homesteads 	
Purchases (other than town lots).
Mineral claims 	
Town lots 	
Reverted lands (other than town lots).
Reverted town lots	
Reverted mineral claims	
Supplementary timber grants	
" Dyking Assessment Act "	
" Public Schools Act "	
Miscellaneous  	
108
159
116
277
53
99
75
122
2
9
1
7
Total Mi- 1,028
Applications for Crown grants  1,165
Certified copies   3
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims given...     216
Total Acreage deeded.
Pre-emptions   15,399.60
Dominion homesteads   23,330.56
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  10,591.46
Reverted mineral claims    4,520.20
Purchase of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)  11,283.31
Purchase of reverted lands (other than town lots)    3,304.01
Supplementary timber grants        178.96
Total..
68,608.10 0 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
B.C. GOVERNMENT RELIEF LAND SETTLEMENT PLAN, 1932.
Victoria, B.C., January 7th, 1937.
To the Deputy Minister of Lands,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith my report on the operation of above plan
for the year 1936.
The tri-party agreement between the Dominion, the Province, and the municipalities for
the purpose of carrying out the Relief Land Settlement Plan, 1932, expired in March, 1936,
and was not renewed or extended; consequently, as each relief settler reached the third
anniversary of his " settlement date," he automatically passed out from under the scheme,
which in due course came to an end. The three-year period for the last settler was reached
on October 19th, 1936.
The situation as at October 19th, 1936, with regard to the fifty families placed on the
land in 1933 is as follows:—
Families sent out from Vancouver    37
Families sent out from New Westminster .  13
Total   50
Farms abandoned in 1933     4
Farms abandoned in 1934       5
Farms abandoned in 1935     6
Farms abandoned in 1936     2
(From Vancouver, 15;  from New Westminster, 2.) —
Total   17
Still remaining on farms and making progress—
Vancouver   22
New Westminster  11
Total   33
Not all of those who have abandoned their farms can be classed as failures. The reasons
for abandonment have been reported as follows:—■
Obtained work elsewhere at more congenial occupation     3
Ill-health or death in the family     3
Definitely failed or found to be unsuitable for farm-life  11
Total   17
The allowance of $700 per family to cover a three-year period was found to be inadequate,
and in the majority of cases it was found necessary to supplement this allowance from direct
relief.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. S. LATTA,
Secretary B.C. Government Relief Land
Settlement Committee. PAET II.
SURVEY BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General   15
General Review of Field-work .:  16
Office-work    17
Survey Branch   18
Table A—Summary of Office-work  18
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  19
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  20
Geographic Division  23
Table D—List of Lithographed Maps  25
Reports of Surveyors—
Topographical  Surveys,  Cariboo District  26
Topographical Surveys, Cariboo District  28
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island  30
Topographical Surveys, Vancouver Island   32
Triangulation Survey in the Big Bend of the Columbia River and Canoe River Valley.... 34  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., February 11th, 1937.
H. Cathcart, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the Survey
Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1936:—
The field-work of the Survey Branch may be divided into three main classes: (1) Triangulation, this being the best and cheapest means of determining the true position of main features
and of placing a rigid foundation under all other surveys; (2) topographical surveys, now
mostly carried on with the aid of aerial photography, with ground control supplied by minor
triangulation and the surveying camera; (3) cadastral surveys, in preparation for settlement.
Theoretically, surveys should be made in the above order, but with appropriations dependent
on annual revenues, surveys for settlement must often be put first.
The appropriation made for surveys, though about one-quarter of the average of the past
twenty years, took care of all urgent needs in connection with settlement, permitted a full
season for the staff on the very important aero-phototopographical work, and enabled us to
close a gap in our triangulation net around the Big Bend of the Columbia River, where Mr.
HaWam's survey party met disaster six years ago.
Some gaps remain in the main triangulation system that should be closed as soon as funds
can be provided, for until this is done the full benefit of large past expenditures cannot be
reaped. Aerial photography has revolutionized topographical surveying, and our survey staff
is keeping well abreast of the times in developing new methods to increase performance and to
reduce costs in our rugged country. The results being secured are interesting and well worthy
of study by those interested in the development of the Province on economically sound lines-.
Altitude and slopes place definite limits to our agricultural areas; geological formations
govern the occurrence of the various minerals; watershed areas and the drop therefrom limit
power; while the potentialities of our forests are closely bound up with latitude, altitude,
slopes, and drainage. Altitude and slope have a far more important bearing on economic
development here than in any other Province of Canada; hence the necessity for contour-lines.
With contour maps and a soil examination it can with full confidence be determined whether an
area should be reserved for forest, grazing, or other purposes, or whether there is a sufficient
area of suitable land to make a successful community possible, and to warrant the consequent
provision of roads, schools, etc. The new maps make the best possible foundation for an
inventory of resources in the areas covered, and it is my belief that the doubling of the
appropriations for this topographical phase of our work would be justified by results.
So that there may be no duplication of effort, the closest co-operative contact is maintained
with the various Dominion Government survey organizations operating in this Province.
These include the Topographical and Air Surveys Bureau, Geological Survey, Geodetic Survey,
Department of National Defence, and the Hydrographic Survey. In the belief that accurate
mapping, no matter by which Government carried out, is wholly beneficial, we give all possible
assistance in the way of information, land-ties, etc., to all, and in turn we have had much help
from the photographic units of the Royal Canadian Air Force and from the other Ottawa
departments. Under the co-operative scheme we have supplied Ottawa with full survey details
and manuscript maps covering sixteen standard contoured map-sheets, and delivery of the
published maps to us has commenced with the Nimpkish sheet, and other sheets are expected
daily.
By Order in Council effective November 1st, 1936, effect was given to a revision of Provincial administrative boundaries which has occupied every spare hour of the time of the Surveys
Branch of the Department of Lands for several years past. The effect will be a large direct
yearly saving in the costs of administration, and in addition it will result in a simplification of
Provincial maps and in greater convenience to the public dealing with Government offices.
The boundaries affected by these changes are those of mining divisions, land recording districts,
assessment and collection districts, land registration districts, and Sheriffs' jurisdictions.
County boundaries in accord with the scheme were dealt with at the last session of the Legislature. Work is now proceeding on other boundaries, such as those of land districts, and these
will be dealt with on completion. 0 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1986.
In over sixty years of Provincial history, administrative districts have been established
and their boundaries defined as the development of the Province demanded. Numerous
changes have from time to time been made in these boundaries as the population changed
and as surveys progressed and geographical knowledge increased, but these efforts were not
fully co-ordinated and in recent years many discrepancies and ambiguities have been found,
all of this resulting in overlapping, considerable uncertainty, some costly errors, and much
waste of time. Boundaries of different systems in places where they should obviously coincide
have been found to be a few miles apart, and in some instances so vaguely described that
different interpretations could be put on them. This is easily understood when it is recalled
that the period under review has seen millions of dollars expended on surveys, our whole
system of railways and highways built up, new cities such as Vancouver, Prince George, and
Prince Rupert started, and hundreds of lakes, rivers, and mountains discovered and named.
The only wonder is that the confusion has not been worse and that costly mistakes have been
so rare.
In the work now completed and in progress, close touch has been kept with the Dominion
census authorities and much help given them, with the result that Dominion and Provincial
statistics can now be combined over any area with a minimum of clerical work. A close study
has been made of transportation systems, drainage areas, and convenience of access by sections
of the public affected to Government offices, and an attempt has been made to look a little
into the future.
On account of the rugged character of the Province, administration problems in British
Columbia are more difficult and differ from those in other parts of Canada. Ten miles across
a snowy mountain range may, in practice, offer greater obstacles to travel than 100 miles
along a valley. On this account the principle already successfully used in the case of mining
division boundaries is now being more extensively applied to other boundaries, and the divide
between watersheds has largely supplanted unsurveyed meridians and parallels of latitude,
with the result that any one noting which way the water flows can generally tell in what
division he is.
Another object largely accomplished is to have the larger administrative units coincide
in boundaries with groups of the smaller units. For example, the County of Yale will embrace
exactly the Mining Divisions of Kamloops, Nicola, Vernon, Similkameen, Osoyoos, Greenwood,
and Grand Forks, while Similkameen Land Recording District will embrace exactly Similkameen, Osoyoos, Greenwood, and Grand Forks Mining Divisions. Only administrative officials
can appreciate the thousands of letters and public inconvenience such co-ordination will save.
Although the changes made involve the transfer of many records, this transfer has been
kept as low as possible. A district active in a mining sense is seldom active in a land sense,
so in active mining districts preference has been given to old mining division boundaries over
former land recording district boundaries, and vice versa. It is expected that after a short
period of readjustment the changes will be welcomed by those dealing with Government offices,
and from comments received in the past three months it is evident that this expectation is
justified.
A series of maps showing the new boundaries is now in course of preparation for publication and should be ready for distribution about March 31st. These maps, in addition to
boundaries, will be up to date in all other respects and will supplant the older one-sheet maps
of the Province now largely out of print. Complete descriptions of the new boundaries were
published in a special issue of The British Columbia Gazette of October 19th, 1936, and large-
scale maps have been supplied the Government offices mainly affected.
GENERAL REVIEW OF FIELD-WORK.
Four survey parties were engaged on aero-phototopographical control-work, two of
these parties mapping in the Cariboo District east and south-east of Horsefly Lake, one in
Strathcona Park, and the fourth north of Quatsino Sound. For the Vancouver Island work
we had the advantage of aerial photographs taken without cost to us by the Royal Canadian
Air Force.
In addition to closing the triangulation gap at the Big Bend of the Columbia River, above
referred to, certain ties to the land-survey system along the Bulkley and Nechako Rivers,
necessary for mapping purposes, were made. REPORT OF THE  SURVEYOR-GENERAL. 0 17
A resurvey of the entire Hedley Townsite was made under the " Special Surveys Act,"
the object being to straighten out difficulties which had arisen over encroachments and the
practical disappearance of the original lot stakes.
A few additional minor items were attended to, but, speaking generally, land surveys are
well in advance of demand by settlers.
OFFICE-WORK.
The office staff is divided into two main sections—namely, the Survey Division and the
Geographic Division. Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and by G. G- Aitken, who are
respectively in charge of these Divisions, follow.
The tables show a very marked increase in office-work over the deep depression years.
Improvement in the mining industry has been mainly responsible for this. About 90 per
cent, of the land surveyors of the Province are in private practice, and these surveyors are
responsible for the surveys of mineral claims and other classes of Crown lands. The field
notes and plans' of such surveys are filed in this office, and a considerable proportion of the
staff is engaged in checking and replotting these surveys.
The final edition of the Quesnel pre-emptors' sheet will be available for distribution by
February 15th, 1937. This map is an advance on any previous maps of this series, as we
were able to incorporate in it a mass of contour information made available by our standard
topographical surveys. A small-scale map for distribution by'the Department of Mines and
showing the new boundaries of the mining divisions will be ready in April. A revised edition
of the Bulkley pre-emptors' sheet will be ready for publication about June 1st, a revision of
the Southerly Vancouver Island sheet is under way, and it is hoped that a new degree sheet
covering the Hope-Princeton area can be put in hand in 1937.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. 0 18
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEY BRANCH.
This Branch deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to
land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying, checking
survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many
minor activities. In the average day's work it is found necessary to secure and consult 100
documents from the vault.    An efficient blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations
and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and mineral reference
maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen, are maintained by the Survey
Branch. There are now 188 reference maps and 70 mineral reference maps, making a total of
258 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—(1) by adding new survey information as it
becomes available, and (2) by renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling
in the blue-print machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Branch. During
the year six new reference maps and five new mineral reference maps were prepared. Tables
B and C, attached hereto, give a list of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1936, Survey Branch.
Number of field-books received
lots surveyed	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted	
lots cancelled 	
mineral-claim field-books prepared 	
reference maps compiled 	
miles of right-of-way plans dealt with
applications for purchase cleared 	
applications for pre-emption cleared —
applications for lease cleared 	
coal licences cleared 	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared 	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared 	
Crown-grant applications cleared
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made 	
inquiries cleared 	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps
letters received 	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made in duplicate..
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made 	
blue-prints made ...
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints from other departments
and public	
Value of blue-prints for Lands Department	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault ..
350
377
464
449
27
360
10
10
118
448
410
67
181
1,739
328
38
993
1,178
1,420
1,661
72®
5,868
4,698
1,259
112
449
34,225
$5,212.37
$3,884.60
29,027 m
m
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APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. 0 19
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T-IrHrHrHrHrHrHrHTH    rH    rH    rH    rH    rHrHrH    CM APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
0 23
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Miles.
3,600
1,050
3,200
Aug.    1936
May,    1936
Mar.,   1936
4c
3g
3q
2 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
3,100
9,500
9,600
Quesnel Pre-emptors' Map, with descriptive and
economic detail, second printing of "advance"
Peace River Block Pre-emptors' Map	
In Course of Printing.
Quesnel Pre-emptors'  Map, with standard contouring, final edition	
Southerly Vancouver, Island temporary edition .
British Columbia—Commercial—
Land Recording Districts  	
Mining Divisions   	
Assessment and Collection Districts-
Counties   	
Land Registration Districts -
6,700
1,200
7,000
6,000
650
1,050
750
Feb.,    1937
Mar.,   1937
April, 1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
3g
2a
lJC
lJD
1JE
1JGC
lJGL
3 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
9,500
16,000
(B.C.)
366,255
(B.C.)
366,255
(B.C.)
366,255
(B.C.)
366,255
(B.C.)
366,255
In Course of Preparation.
3d
2a
3 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
11,000
16,000
The Map-mounting unit of the Department of Lands was discontinued after April 30th,
1936. On that date Mr. Edmund Sturgeon, Map-mounter, was retired from service, after
completing 21% years of service. Mr. Sturgeon came into the Provincial Service, October 14th,
1914.
Addition to Staff.—On August 1st, 1936, Mr. Thomas Hdnton commenced employment
as an apprentice.
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Map-sheets, namings reviewed 	
Recommendations to Geographic Board
New names recorded	
Geographical Work for other Departments.
34 items, receipts and value of work	
Map-mounting.
(To April 30th, 1936.)
Work done, items	
Revenue from departments and public 	
Value of map-mounting for Lands Department, etc. 	
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps and Gazetteers issued to departments and public 	
Maps received into Geographic stock	
Total value of printed maps and Gazetteers issued	
Revenue from printed maps and Gazetteers	
13
1,442
221
3,147.26
235
$137.95
$150.75
12,474
9,795
$4,455.35
$2,948.58 O 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  2,089
Revenue from departments and public  $775.05
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc.    $1,718.25
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  2,035
Standard Base Map.
Standard Base Map sheets (skeleton) produced   2
Plan of Cadastral Surveys, vicinity Forbidden Plateau, sheets  2
Department of the Interior sheets, Fraser Valley, compiled   9
School districts, plotted from description   32
Control nets supplied  39
Triangulation.
Main, by least-square adjustment, triangles adjusted     77
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations   686
Index cards, records  .  860
Triangulation index maps        3 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
0 25
Table D.—List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
lA
lA
tlcx
lEM
IG
IH
lJCA
1933
1933
1987
1930
1916
1933
1923
1937
1937
1937
1937
1937
1925
1929
1937
1914
1929
1923
1924
1927
1930
1926
1923
1937
192S
1934
1935
1931
1932
1932
1929
1924
1936
1927
1936
1913
1925
1913
1914
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1916
1929
1929
1929
1930
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1934
1930
1907
1898
1896
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc.
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways,   etc.    Special  edition  showing   .Electoral  Districts,
Redistribution 1932, with 1934 Amendment
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
Divisions
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
31.53 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m.#to 1 in.
3 m.'to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 ra. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 ra. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
V^ m. to 1 in.
y<> m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
2.00
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
Qirrj
uno
SO jj     .
^     %g
qj tn u
■Sijs
ru rrj
mWs
G      G
■tt   . o
«J Qj'rri
ci OJ*'
O'*
.B0
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
2.00
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.35
Free
.10
.10
.10
$14.00
20.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
British   Columbia.    In   one   sheet.    Showing   rivers,   railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc.,
tlJC
tlJD
flJE
flJGL
tlJGC
IK
IL
|2A
Ditto            ditto            and Assessment and Collection Districts-.
Ditto            ditto            and Land Registration Districts- 	
South   Western   Districts   of   B.C.,   Commercial   and   Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Land Series—
4.00
4.00
2f
3a
3b
3C
f3D
3e
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography   (preliminary) _
Pre-emptors' Series—
2.00
Bulkley Valley                                             	
2 00
2.00
2.00
2.00
3m
2 00
2.00
3q
4a
2 00
Degree Series—
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4f
Duncan River  Sheet       	
2.00
2.00
2.00
4j
Vernon Sheet   (contoured)   	
4.00
4.00
4l
4.00
4.00
4.00
4f
4.00
5A
5b
Topographical Series—
2.00
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet  (contoured), South sheet   (special)
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), North sheet (special)
4.00
4.00
4.00
GEOGRAPHICAL   GAZETTEER  OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA	
18.00
MRMl
MRM2
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 ra. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
6,000 ft. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
Miscellaneous—
2.50
9
.50
5
.50
2
Kootenay District, West, Portion of  ._._ —	
.50
f In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map Number " of map
desired.
We can  supply information  concerning maps  of  British  Columbia  printed and published  at  Ottawa by the
Canadian Geological Survey, or the Dominion Department of the Interior, etc., etc.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands, Victoria, B.C. 31st December, 1936. 0 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, CARIBOO DISTRICT.
By R. D. McCaw.
Victoria, B.C., December 28th, 1936.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to report on topographical surveys carried on by me in the Cariboo District
during the past season. Your instructions, dated June 15th, stated that the area allotted to
me was that embraced in Map-sheet 93 A/2, lying to the south-east of Horsefly Lake. As
there were no aerial photographs for the area, photo-topographical methods were to be used,
and such other methods as might be found best suited to the area, the object of the survey
being to obtain sufficient information for a final map on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, with
contours at 100-foot vertical intervals. You also instructed me that, should it be found more
economical, I might cover other areas' in the immediate vicinity, even should it leave some
part of the main map-sheet unfinished, but that first consideration should be given to the
completion of that sheet.
I left Victoria for the field on June 17th, and after making exhaustive inquiries decided
to go into the area from Canim Lake. From the end of the road at Canim Lake Post-office
the equipment and supplies were taken down the lake to the Hendrix Ranch at the east end
by launch. The pack-horses were sent around the south side to the east end, where it was
necessary to swim them. From the Hendrix Ranch a system of good pack-trails was followed
northerly to a point on Martin Creek where the surveyed line (called the 52nd parallel)
crosses that stream. Camp was located there. While this line is called the 52nd parallel,
it is really some 3,400 feet south of the true position of that parallel, which is the south limit
of Map-sheet 93 A/2. It was the intention to make this surveyed line the south limit of our
surveys.
It was evident, from the information I was able to obtain, that there would be a great
deal of trail-work for transportation by pack-horses, and in this regard I may say that during
the summer it was necessary to cut new or open up old trails to the extent of about 40 miles.
In time spread over the season this was the equivalent of the whole party working for about
ten days in addition to a great deal of time expended by the packer and one or two helpers.
The general route of travel for our main camps may be followed on a reference map as
follows: Starting at the 52nd parallel, the route goes up Martin Creek to Sunset Lake, over
the ridge to McKinley Creek above Boss Lake, up McKinley Creek past Katharine Lake and
over the divide to Deception Creek, down Deception Creek to the 52nd parallel, then retracing
over trail to Boss Lake, Boss Lake to Elbow Lake, Elbow Lake to McKinley Lake, McKinley
Lake to Black Creek. Side-trips were made and fly-camps located to reach outlying sections
which could not be done from main camp.
The area covered will not include the entire map-sheet as it was deemed advisable to
leave the south-west corner, which can be done more economically when adjoining sheets are
done. At the same time information was obtained which would permit of plotting a small
area in the north-east corner of Map-sheet 93 A/3, and a small area to the east of 93 A/2,
as well as the portion extending south to the surveyed boundary of the 52nd parallel. By
arrangement with A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., who was working to the north, I covered the
portion in the sheet to the north in vicinity of McKinley Lake. The total area done, while it
can only be given approximately now, will be about 360 square miles. It should also be noted
that portions of the area have been very difficult for photo-topography or any method other
than the combined method using aerial and horizontal ground photography, and parts of the
resultant map, while being generally correct, will lack the exactness which we would obtain
by the combined method.
The triangulation system was set out to join that of A. J. Campbell, and is an extension
easterly of the triangulation of the previous year. Two former stations to the west were
occupied—namely, Spokin and Black. Spokin, on a timbered ridge north of Spokin Lake, was
this year established as a primary triangulation station by the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
Three new main stations were chosen in my area. Boss is on the north spur of the mountain
by that name and about one-quarter of a mile north of the highest point.    This position was TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, CARIBOO DISTRICT. O 27
chosen since black was not visible from the highest point. Hendrix triangulation station is
on the highest point of the mountain so named by us. This feature lies between Martin
Creek and Deception Creek. Church (a temporary station name) is on the highest peak
(about 8,000 feet) of the high and rugged range lying south of the Crooked Lake Valley.
Brass bolts were placed at all three stations, as also at four other triangulation stations of
lesser importance. Galvanized-iron bars were placed at some thirty other triangulation
stations. The position of all marked stations has been computed for rectangular co-ordinates,
with origin at latitude 521° 00' and longitude 121° 00'. Photographs were taken from all
triangulation stations. In addition, there were numerous other photographic stations most
of which are unmarked, other than by signals of some description. Positions of some of these
have been calculated.
A number of connections were made to mineral-claim and timber-limit monuments and
also to mile-posts on the surveyed boundary between the Cariboo and Lillooet Land Districts.
Two precise instruments reading to seconds were used for triangulation—namely a Wild
transit and a Zeiss. Where great precision was unnecessary, transits reading to minutes
were used. Photography was done with the old survey cameras, using Ilford panchromatic
plates and a few infra-red.
With previously constructed trails and the trails we made this summer, it is possible to
take pack-horses through the area from Canim Lake to the Horsefly River at Black Creek.
While the trails we cut were done only with the idea of getting through, with a little more
work and revision around swampy parts they will make good means for pack-horse travel.
The Boss Mountain area is reached by going in by road from Lac la Hache to the west end
of Murphy Lake (about 27 miles). From here a good pack-trail extends easterly to the open
reaches of Boss Mountain and gives access to several mining properties in that vicinity.
From Black Creek, at the end of the Horsefly-Black Creek Road, an excellent pack-trail goes
in to Elbow and Cruiser Lakes, with a branch to Boss Lake, giving access to several mining
properties. Unfortunately the ford across the Horsefly River is bad until flood-water is over.
There is a cable and basket at this crossing, used by travellers on foot, but at present it is
in poor state of repair and is not considered safe. From the east end of Canim Lake a trail
northerly connects with what is known as the Clearwater Trail, starting at Canim Lake
Post-office, at the upper end of that lake. From the Clearwater Trail branch trails used for
many years go up Martin Creek as far as the 52nd parallel and up Deception Creek for a
distance of about 8 miles within the area under survey. We continued the trail up Martin
Creek and over the ridge to connect with a very poor trail along the Upper McKinley Creek.
While our trail is rough, with a little more work and revision a very good1 route would be
obtained. Between Boss Lake and Deception Creek we followed an old trail and trap-line,
improving it as much as we could, but it is very swampy and poor travelling for horses. This
trail connects the trail up Deception Creek with the trail going out to Black Creek.
The whole area has been pretty well prospected, but up to the present time the main scenes
of such operations are on Boss Mountain and at Elbow Lake. Boss Mountain is near the west
side of the sheet and is supposed to be an extinct volcano. The altitude is about 7,000 feet.
Lead, zinc, copper, and molybdenum are known to exist and energetic work was being done
for several months this year by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company on their
property there. The eastern portion of the area under survey rises to an altitude of about
7,800 feet, a large extent being alpine. At the head of Deception Creek the mica-schist formation so general in this locality is very much in evidence.
The chief types of timber usually found are spruce and balsam in the valley-bottoms,
and spruce, fir, and cedar, with some areas of lodgepole pine, on the lower benches and slopes
up to about 4,000 feet in elevation. Spruce and balsam with some lodgepole pine run up to
about 5,200 feet in altitude. Above this come the alpine growth, alpine meadows, and barren
areas. That great enemy of the forest, fire, has destroyed much good timber on McKinley,
Martin, and Deception Creeks. In places it seems that fire has visited the same area again
and again, so that there are large extents of brule only partly reproducing.
For detailed reports on the geology, minerals, and forestry of the area I would refer to
the Report of the Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey.
Weather conditions during the season were varied. There was a great deal of rain during
the first half of July, following a very hot spell.    The latter half of July was hot and dry. 0 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
This continued into August, with smoky atmosphere becoming a nuisance for photography
and triangulation readings. Towards the latter part of August there occurred another rainy
spell which extinguished some fires near by set by electrical storms. A very stormy period
occurred between September 9th and 25th. Heavy snow fell in the high altitudes. On Boss
Mountain, where I was in fly-camp from the 6th to 13th, there was considerably over a foot
of snow when I left on the latter date. Most of this disappeared in about ten days, but light
falls continued in the high altitudes at intervals. On the whole, atmospheric conditions for
photography were only fair.
The whole area has been pretty well trapped by neighbouring settlers and Indians, so
that the fur-producing animals do not seem to be very plentiful. Of the large game, moose,
deer, black and brown bears seem to be quite numerous. No cariboo were seen, but there are
a few. In the high eastern range goats abound and seemed quite unafraid of man. Grizzlies
are said to be very numerous in the rugged areas on Deception Creek and Boss Mountain, but
only a couple were seen. Big-game hunters come to this locality from all over the country
and give employment to the local guides in the hunting season. Fishing is good in all lakes
and streams.
The topographical information is being plotted on a scale of 40 chains to 1 inch for the
ultimate reproduction of a map 1 inch to the mile.
I have, etc.,
R. D. McCAW, B.C.L.S.
topographical surveys, cariboo district.
By A. J. Campbell.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1936.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I beg to submit the following report on the topographical surveys carried out by
me, under your instructions, during the past season:—
Your instructions, dated June 15th, 1936, describe the area as that covered by Map-sheet
93 A/7 in the Cariboo District. This sheet extends from Quesnel Lake on the north to
Crooked Lake on the south, and contains the easterly portion of Horsefly Lake, the upper part
of the Horsefly River (including its branches, the North and South Forks), the Crooked
River Valley, and part of McKinley Lake and Creek. With the exception of a part in the
north-west corner, lying between Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes and another part extending
from McKinley to Crooked Lake, the whole area is mountainous with altitudes extending from
2,380 feet above sea-level at Quesnel Lake to 8,313 feet on a mountain lying between the forks
of the Horsefly River. This mountain is one of our triangulation stations and called " Head "
for purposes of identification only.    It will probably be given another name.
As there are no vertical aerial views covering the area, photo-topographical methods were
to be used, supplemented by any other system found to be suited to the terrain. It was found
that the whole area was sufficiently mountainous to obtain photographic stations from which
it was possible to cover the whole area. Certain parts will be somewhat lacking in detail,
principally in respect to the watercourses, due entirely to the heavy covering of forest-growth
in the valleys. It is believed that sufficient information has been obtained to prepare a map
on a scale of 1 mile to 1 inch with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals.
According to your instructions, we were to extend from the triangulation in the vicinity
and in planning further triangulations to keep in mind the probable extension of the topographical work to the north and east. As Quesnel Lake is the natural route through to the
east, it seemed suitable to establish stations that were accessible from it to the north, as well
as to the south. Hence a station well north of Quesnel Lake and in such a position as to be
perfectly clear to the east and north. This station is quite a distance outside our map-sheet,
but on the expedition to reach it several other stations were occupied which give sufficient
information to map a portion along the south boundary of Map-sheet 93 A/10.    This triangu- TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, CARIBOO DISTRICT. '     0 29
lation station, " Bend," north of Quesnel Lake, and " Head," previously mentioned, provide
a good base from which the system may be produced easterly.
In planning the season's work, it was evident, from the information about trails and
routes of travel we had, that the most central and accessible point from which to commence
operations was at the mouth of Archie Creek on Horsefly Lake. Accordingly, after the party
was organized at Williams Lake on June 19th, and certain established triangulation stations
visited to recondition the signals, a camp was established at this point. This camp formed
the hub from which the different parts of our area were reached. Across the lake lay Suey
Bay, at which point it is only a little over 3 miles to Slate Bay on Quesnel Lake. An old
trail led in from Suey Bay to Suey Lake, one-third of the distance across. This trail was
continued through to Slate Bay. A horse-trail runs from Horsefly Lake and over Archie
Pass and joins the main trail up the Horsefly Valley from Black Creek, about half a mile below
the junction of the North and South Forks. This trail branches at the forks and follows up
both valleys, up the North Fork about 12 miles and a similar distance up the South Fork to
Fraser Creek. All these trails required considerable work to make them passable for horses.
On Fritz Creek, which flows into Horsefly Lake about a mile below Archie Creek, a well-built
trail follows up the creek to its head and on over what is known as Fritz Pass to Prairie
Creek, and thence to the small meadow, known at Little Prairie, where it joins the main
Horsefly River Trail about 7 miles from Black Creek. This trail has been kept open in part
by trappers working from Horsefly Lake, otherwise it has not been used for some time.
It had been arranged with R. D. McCaw, B.C.L.S., who was to work in the area covered
by Map-sheet 93 A/2, which lies directly to the south of Map-sheet 93 A/7, that, as soon as
possible after going into the field, we were to erect signals on two selected triangulation points
to the south of Horsefly Lake. The cairns were erected on these and a further triangulation
station selected on Big Slide Mountain, lying between Archie and Fritz Creeks, south of
Horsefly Lake. These, along with the triangulation station " Bend " established north of
Quesnel Lake, are all the main triangulation stations established this season. Camera stations
were occupied north of Quesnel Lake covering the northerly portion of our area and triangulated ties made to three posts of the Quesnel Lake survey. On Horsefly Lake ties were made
to several posts of the groups of timber surveys there and other points established on the
lake-shore, their positions fixed by triangulation. A point was established near the forks of
the Horsefly River which should prove useful in fixing the position of any mining claims or
other surveys that may be made in the vicinity. Several stations were occupied on the range
between the Horsefly Lake and Horsefly River, also up the North Fork and South Fork of
the Horsefly River, so that the whole area is fairly well covered. In all, some sixty-six stations
were occupied, and all that were considered important enough were marked either with brass
bolt cemented in rock or with the B.C.L.S. iron post. Where possible, these posts were witnessed by bearing trees in the usual manner, or else with rock cairns.
Two Wild universal transits were used throughout for the angle readings and their
positions of the stations have been calculated, also the altitude of all points occupied has been
found. All stations, with the exception of those established on the like-shore and in the
valleys, were occupied with the camera, and thirty-five dozen panchromatic plates and a few
infra-red were exposed.
The weather conditions during the season were very variable and could not be classed as
good photographically. Much rain fell during the early part of July, and in September two
weeks of cold weather, during which much snow and rain fell, were experienced. During this
period the snow at times reached down in the valleys and the clouds were almost continually
very low, making it impossible to occupy any point of reasonable altitude.
The forest-cover is indicative of a wet climate and in some respects is similar to the
Coast. Spruce and balsam are the types most generally prevalent, particularly in the valleys.
Along the slopes from Horsefly Lake and up into the small side-valleys, such as Archie and
Fritz Creeks, considerable cedar, spruce, and some fir are located. Around the forks of the
Horsefly River, and up the North Fork Valley a few miles, a peculiarly isolated stretch of
jack-pine is found. With the exception of that found in the burnt areas, this is the only
jack-pine noticed. The only burnt areas of any size within the limits of the map-sheet are
in the comparatively flat areas, situated in the north-west and south-west parts. The part
between the Horsefly and Quesnel Lakes has been burnt and reburnt, particularly on the O 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
higher parts, where very little reproduction has commenced. Jack-pine and poplar is found
in places which escaped the later burns. Beyond 5,200 feet is found the alpine growth,
generally balsam, reaching up to timber-line at 6,700 feet.
The country has been well prospected, particularly on some of the branch creeks of the
South Fork. Several abandoned workings on Fraser and Eureka Creeks were seen. Farther
down the South Fork, on the west of the valley, other prospects were noticed on which recent
work had been done.
The Pacific Great Eastern Resources Survey includes reports on the geology, minerals,
and forestry of the area.    Reference may be made to these for more detailed information.
The whole area is included in registered trap-lines, and from information received is a
good trapping country. Big-game hunters visit the area during the seasons. It is reported
to be a very good grizzly country and some were encountered by members of the party. Moose,
caribou, goat, and deer are fairly plentiful. Fishing is good in the lakes and many of the
streams.    In Horsefly Lake rainbow trout and char of large size are caught.
Acknowledgment must be made of the courtesy of the Forest Branch, which, through
your arrangement, permitted us to use their boat on Horsefly Lake. This was much appreciated, as it is the only available boat suitable for the purpose.
The map-sheets are being prepared and will be finished at the usual time.
I have, etc.,
A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By N. C. Stewart.
Victoria, B.C., December 30th, 1936.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the topographical survey carried
out according to your instructions of June 15th, 1936:—
The map-sheet controlled lies between latitudes 49° 45' and 50° 00' and longitudes 125° 30'
and 126° 00'. It includes the northerly half of Strathcona Park and has an area of approximately 380 square miles.
The field party consisted of W. J. Moffatt, B.C.L.S., assistant; A. G. Slocomb, instrument-
man; and five men, including a cook. Two additional packers were employed for a portion
of the season.
We were supplied with air photographs of the area; these were taken by the Royal Canadian Air Force in 1931. Owing to the very mountainous- nature of the terrain covered by this
map-sheet, the ground control was obtained solely by triangulation and ground photography.
The only means of access to this area is by the road to Upper Campbell Lake. From this
lake there is a good trail to Buttle Lake, about 8 miles distant, and from Upper Campbell Lake
there is also a good trail up the Elk River to Summit Lake, and an old trail, which is hard to
follow, leads from Summit Lake down the Gold River to Muchulat Arm on. the west coast.
After a short stay at Upper Campbell Lake we proceeded up the Elk River to the mouth
of the North Fork, where we established a cache camp at a trapper's cabin. Reblazing the old
trail up the North Fork, we fly-camped to Crown and Flannigan Mountains. Then proceeding
farther up the Elk River we established another camp at the crossing of the Elk River near
Drum Lakes. From this camp as base many trips were made to the south, west, and north,
thus covering the westerly portion of the map-sheet, including the country around Mount
Kings, Mount Elkhorn, Mount Foster, Donner Lake, and northerly to the 50th parallel in
vicinity of Gold Lake. We made ties to the survey of the west boundary of Strathcona Park,
and to a triangulation on the Gold River made by W. J. H. Holmes, B.C.L.S., in 1926.
Returning in September to our cache camp at the mouth of the North Fork, Mr. Moffatt's
party proceeded up the South Branch of the Elk River, climbing the mountains to the east of TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. O 31
that stream. The other crew went to Buttle Lake and thence up the Wolf River as far as
Mount El Piveto. We joined forces again at Buttle Lake. After occupying two peaks west
of Buttle Lake and making ties to surveyed lots along the lake we returned to Upper Campbell
Lake, completing the field-work at the end of September.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
This map-sheet covers an extremely mountainous area. It is divided into two portions
of varying aspect by the transverse valley containing the Elk River and the East Branch of
the Gold River. To the north of this valley the mountains are lower, with rounded or flat tops,
while, to the south, there are sharp jagged peaks, difficult of ascent, often rising sheer for
several thousand feet. The highest mountain is Mount Elkhorn, 7,200 feet. Numerous small
glaciers are found on northerly exposures. The main streams are the Campbell River out of
Buttle Lake; the Elk, which joins the Campbell River in a swampy area south of Upper
Campbell Lake; the branches of the Gold River which flow westerly; and along the northerly
boundary of the map-sheet there are branches of the Salmon River. There are many beautiful
lakes; the largest are Buttle, Upper Campbell, and Donner Lake. Crater Lake is the largest
of a great number of alpine lakes. At the summit of the transverse valley are found the Drum
Lakes and Summit Lake. The altitude of the summit of the pass is 1,100 feet, and as the
gradient both east and west is gradual, this valley provides one of the best routes from the
east coast to the west coast of Vancouver Island. The location of this pass is rather remarkable, for the highest mountains on the Island are found immediately to the south.
The mountains south of the Elk River and west of Buttle Lake compare in rugged
grandeur with those found elsewhere in British Columbia. Although the tops do not much
exceed 7,200 feet, the valley-floors are low; hence on the mountain-sides are found those great
walls and precipices that provide the scenic splendour and make the ascents so long and
arduous.
FORESTS.
All the valley-bottoms are heavily timbered; Douglas fir, red cedar, and hemlock predominate, but other varieties found include balsam, white pine, yellow cedar, cottonwood, alder,
maple, and yew trees. The merchantable timber grows to an approximate altitude of 3,000
feet. The forest-growth above that level becomes stunted, timber-line being reached around
4,500 feet above the sea. Some huge Douglas fir were seen in the Elk River Valley; one
measured 28 feet in circumference. In the forest there is the usual coast undergrowth of
huckleberry, devil's-club, and salal. Wild flowers are abundant, especially at timber-line.
Along the shores of Buttle Lake dogwoods and arbutus grow profusely, adding greatly to the
beauty of its shores. MINERALS.
There is little known mineral wealth in this area. Two mineral claims have been Crown-
granted on Upper Campbell Lake; a small shaft on one of these has copper indications.
Another group of claims is located on Greenstone Creek, near its crossing with the 50th parallel
of latitude. Some other mining claims are located at Buttle Lake. We saw mineralized rock
on tributaries of the Elk and Gold Rivers, but nothing of a striking nature. Many fossil-beds
were found up the Wolf River and on the high ridge between the Wolf and the South Fork
of the Elk River. During the 1935 field season we saw iron deposits on Iron Hill south of
Upper Quinsam Lake. Dr. H. C. Gunning, in his report (see Summary Report, 1930, Part A,
Geological Survey), gives geological data covering this map-sheet. He suggests areas that
should be prospected, the most likely of these being in the neighbourhood of Upper Campbell
Lake- CLIMATE.
The first three weeks were very wet, but during the remainder of the field season reasonably good weather prevailed. The highest temperature, 78°, was recorded on July 19th.
There was a snowfall at high altitudes on September 11th. There were very few days absolutely clear. Usually the mornings were fine and bright, while in the afternoons clouds would
form along the Island's crest, making photography difficult in the southerly and easterly
directions. In winter the rainfall is very plentiful in the valleys, with a corresponding large
snowfall on higher levels. This snow persists on the peaks until late summer, and on the
northerly slopes there are many small areas of continuous snow. 0 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
GAME.
In Strathcona Park game is not plentiful at present, though it appears, from the many
well-defined game-trails, that, just a few years ago, there was an abundance. We saw black
bear, deer, blue and willow grouse, and ptarmigan. There are a few elk in the Elk River
watershed, for fresh tracks were seen. A cougar-hunter bagged three cougars up the Elk
Valley shortly before our arrival in June. Wolves have been reported recently. Along the
gravel-bars in the larger streams we saw wild geese and ducks, and also signs of beaver on
the river-banks. Mink, marten, and squirrels are present, but not numerous. There are also
many small birds such as robins, blue jays, etc. Trout-fishing is very good ih most of the
larger streams and lakes, especially so in the Upper Campbell and Buttle Lakes and in the
Elk River. Dolly Varden, rainbow, and cut-throat trout are the varieties found. We saw
many large salmon in the East Fork of the Gold River.
There is a notice scribed on a cedar-tree at Summit Lake stating that some members of the
survey party on the west boundary of Strathcona Park, in 1914, placed some fifty trout in
Summit Lake.    These have multiplied, for the lake is now well stocked.
ACCESSIBILITY.
Beyond the roads and trails already mentioned, the country is very difficult and consequently unattractive to the average person. Its beauty-spots are now only accessible to the
determined mountaineer, prospector, or trapper. The Elk River Timber Company has completed a railway to the lower end of Upper Campbell Lake, and are working on a grade up the
Elk Valley, this new grade being completed as far as the North Fork of the Elk River.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES.
There is very little development. At an auto camp at Upper Campbell Lake, boats for
fishing may be had and saddle and pack horses for the Buttle Lake Trail. Also boats may be
rented at Buttle Lake. There is a privately owned lodge at both Upper Campbell and Buttle
Lakes.
The chief natural resources are the forest wealth and the tourist possibilities, which can
be expected when the scenic attractions and the fishing are made accessible.
From the past season's field-work it has been definitely established that a peak situated
about 9 miles south of Mount Elkhorn is 20 feet higher than the latter, and is therefore the
high point of Vancouver Island.    Its altitude is 7,220 feet.
I have, etc.,
N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By G. J. Jackson.
Victoria, B.C., December 31st, 1936.
F. C Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the photo-topographic survey
made by me during the past summer:—
The area covered is on Vancouver Island and lies south of Goletas Channel, between Hardy
Bay and Cache Creek. It is in Rupert District and comprises Townships 8, 21, 22, 23, 24, 33,
34, 35, 36, and portions of Townships 9, 20, 25, and 32.
The area has all been covered by vertical aerial views, taken by the Royal Canadian Air
Force. The triangulation was controlled by four stations of the British Columbia triangulation system.    Elevations were obtained from sea-level.
The party of seven was organized at Victoria and arrived at Port Hardy on June 11th,
where work was commenced. From here we first erected signals on Shushartie and Lemon
Triangulation Stations near Shushartie Bay and extended the Coast triangulation into Hardy TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYS, VANCOUVER ISLAND. O 33
Bay. From June 22nd until July 17th we were camped on Kains and Nahwitti Lakes.
We occupied the possible hills within reach, ten in all. Instruments and supplies had to be
packed 18 miles to our farthest camp. On this trip a great deal of time was lost during
heavy rains. When we came back to Port Hardy we extended the Coast triangulation westward, along Goletas Channel to Sutil Point, moving camp to Shushartie during the operation.
From Shushartie we made a trip inland: to reach stations on Shushartie Ridge and
Mountain, also occupied Lemon Triangulation Station, which took four days to clear of timber.
We now had camps at Nahwitti River and Cache Creek, where we occupied several stations,
ran a lot of traverse, and walked many miles of survey-lines to get elevations by barometer.
On September 13th we caught the south bound boat at Shushartie, and arrived in Victoria
September 15th, where the party was disbanded.
During the season thirty dozen views were taken, twenty camera stations and four
triangulation stations occupied, and thirty Coast triangulation stations established and read.
Views were taken from most of them. Thirty-four miles of traverse were run and sixteen ties
made to land surveys.    In addition, many barometer readings were taken throughout the area.
The whole area is comparatively low, as only a few of the highest hills reach an elevation
of 2,000 feet. The hills are all timbered, making necessary a lot of falling to clear sufficiently
for a station. There are four fair-sized lakes and a great number of small lakes and ponds.
The largest is Georgie Lake, which is over 5 miles in length. The easterly 12 miles of the
area drains east and north into Hardy Bay and Goletas Channel, while the remainder is
drained north by the Shushartie and Nahwitti Rivers and Cache Creek. The country between
Hardy Bay and Shushartie Bay and lying north of Georgie Lake is very rough, as it consists
of a series of rocky hills and ravines. The rest of the area is more or less regular, with fairly
gentle slopes.
Most of the area is timbered, and much, particularly near the coast, covered with a dense
growth of salal and other underbrush. Between Cache Creek and Shushartie River, and also
between Kains and Georgie Lakes, there are considerable areas of meadows and semi-open
hillsides, which are very wet and dotted with pools of water. The soil, being clay and small
boulders, seems to hold on the surface all the water that cannot drain away. The meadows
are grassy, and cattle can get a living from them in summer and have even been able to stay
out on them all winter.
Most of the open and semi-open country was taken up by pre-emption about twenty years
ago. Cabins' were built and slight improvements made. These pre-emptions are all deserted
now and the cabins, in many cases, have fallen down.
Commercial timber, which is all taken up by timber limits, is limited to strips along the
coast and in the valleys of the main rivers and creeks. The timber is mostly hemlock and
balsam, with some spruce cedar, yellow cedar, and black pine. On most of the area the timber
is small and scrubby.
As yet there is little mining activity. The H.P.H. Group, situated 4 miles west of Kains
Lake, is the most active. It is a very promising silver-lead-zinc property, carrying gold values.
Work has been carried on here since 1930. Other claims have been located on Nahwitti Lake
and on Irony Creek, near Cache Creek. Gold has been recovered from the sands at Nahwitti
River and Gold Creek.
The chief industry is the salmon-fishing, a fleet of several hundred boats operating in the
vicinity. A number of the fishermen live at Hardy Bay and near-by points, while others are
only there during the fishing season.
Game and fupbearing animals are scarce. A few elk still remain in the Nahwitti and
Cache Creek Valleys, and a few deer, bear, and grouse are scattered over the area. Geese nest
in some of the ponds and lakes.
Salmon run up all the rivers to spawn and there are trout in most of the lakes and rivers.
The climate is very even and not subject to great extremes of heat or cold. Rainfall is
heavy, even in summer. There is seldom snow at the beach, but back in the hills 1 to 2 feet
may last for some time.
The town of Port Hardy has several stores and hotels, a school, etc., and is connected to
the west coast by a motor-road. Boats call nearly every day on their way up and down
the coast. O 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
At Shushartie there is a store and post-office, and one boat a week, each way, calls here.
From Shushartie mail is distributed by launch to points farther west on the Island. From
Shushartie westward there are no people until Cache Creek, where there is one family. Then
no more until Cape Scott, at the extreme west of the Island.
There is a good motor-road between Port Hardy and Coal Harbour. There is a fair
pack-trail between Port Hardy and Kains- Lake, which continues around the south side of
Kains Lake and on to Nahwitti Lake. There are two small rowboats on Kains Lake and one
on Nahwitti Lake.
There was a road built from Shushartie to Cache Creek and westward, but this is now
badly grown up with brush and the bridges washed out or rotted away, so that it is only
possible now as a pack-trail. There are a number of trails leading south from this road, but
these have not been travelled for years and are difficult to follow.
A telephone-line connects Shushartie to Port Hardy by way of Cape Scott, Holberg Inlet,
and Coal Harbour. There is also a wireless station at Bull Harbour, on Hope Island, only
6 miles by water from Shushartie.
The work on the maps is now in progress and the usual plans are being prepared.   '
I have, etc.,
G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY IN THE BIG BEND OF THE COLUMBIA
RIVER AND CANOE RIVER VALLEY.
By Frank Swannell.
The season's operations consisted of closing a wide gap in the Columbia Valley triangulation and extending this system northward up the Rocky Mountain Trench, here occupied by
the Canoe River, with the ultimate object of connecting through to the monuments of the
Geodetic Survey of Canada in the vicinity of the Yellowhead Pass. My assistant, J. R. C.
Hewett, B.C.L.S., and myself, by occupying stations set by William Hallam's party, prior to
the unfortunate drowning of Mr. Hallam and two of his men in Kinbasket Lake in 1930, carried
his triangulation 25 miles westward and connected rigidly with the triangulation made up the
Columbia to the Big Bend, in the same year 1930. The remainder of the season we devoted
to triangulating up Canoe River, occupying stations set on our way down to the Big Bend
from Valemont, on the Canadian National Railway.
The Upper Canoe River Valley having been reported on by A. W. Johnson, B.C.L.S., in
1912, and more fully in 1913 by Hugh D. Allan, B.C.L.S., who surveyed much of it, nothing need
here be said about it, and I shall confine my report to the area around the Big Bend of the
Columbia.
COLUMBIA RIVER—KINBASKET LAKE TO MICA CREEK.
Kinbasket Lake, a widening of the Columbia, is about 7 miles long and under a mile in
width. Its upper end, where the river enters in several channels, is very shallow, with extensive mud flats at low water. The conjunction of a strong wind- up-lake piling waves against
these shallows and against the current of the river makes this end of the lake very dangerous—it was here that Mr. Hallam's canoe was swamped and its occupants drowned. Middle
River, a glacial stream with a very wide flood-bed which enters from the north halfway up the
lake, has built a delta far out into the lake. As all streams entering the lake, including the
Columbia itself, are clogged with glacial silt, the lake-waters never clear. Owing to this and
the fact that the shores, with the exception of a sandy stretch of beach at Trident Creek, are
either mud-flats or boulder-strewn, the lake has none of the attractiveness of the usual
mountain lake, although it is walled in by high glacial-bearing mountains.
The river leaves the lake with a very strong draw, is barely 100 yards wide, and a quarter
of a mile down-stream wild- rapids commence. These are known locally as the " Twenty-one
Mile" or "Long Rapids"; although by far the worst water occurs in the first 16 miles.
The river is nowhere wider than 100 yards, the channel in places is constricted to 75 yards, TRIANGULATION SURVEY, BIG BEND OF COLUMBIA, ETC. 0 35
and its course consists of a succession of boulder-strewn rapids linked by short stretches of
quieter water. The banks rise abruptly on either side, the shores at low water being narrow
boulder-strewn beaches. The rapids would appear to be caused by tremendous boulders in
midstream, although reef-rock was1 evident above Cummins Creek and in a wild rapid above
Yellow Creek and in the Red Canyon Rapids. According to levels taken by the Federal Public
Works Department, the fall in the first 1V2 miles below Kinbasket Lake is nearly 40 feet.
The next mile, including the Boulder and an unnamed rapid, falls 30 feet. From here down
the fall decreases, excepting 25 feet for the ninth mile and 20 feet per mile at Yellow Creek.
At Red Canyon Rapids there is 8 feet fall, with a strong riffle below. From here to the crossing
of the Big Bend Bridge (270 feet between abutments) the water is good. We ran the river
from Cummins' Creek down with an unloaded boat, lining the Weasel Rapids above Yellow
Creek. The surges were very high, but it being medium high water most of the large boulders
were submerged. Most of the water above may be run by expert boatmen at the same stage
of water; but walking down the shore to size up the channel before running is the only sane
procedure at most of the bad places.
A short distance below the Big Bend Bridge the river widens, is split into many channels-
by gravel-bars and islands, particularly so at the entry of the Wood and Canoe Rivers, 1%
miles below the bridge. The mountains recede and there is a wide area of bench lands.
From here to Mica Creek the river is swift, with many bars and islands, bed-rock only showing
occasionally. The only bad place is above Potlatch Creek, where jutting bed-rock causes heavy
swells and eddies at high water.
BOAT ENCAMPMENT AND WOOD RIVER.
Boat Encampment, on the left bank of Wood River at its junction with the Columbia, is
an historic spot. David Thompson crossed the Athabaska Pass in January, 1811, and wintered
there. From that date on it became an important point in the far-stretched trade route
from Fort Vancouver to Hudson Bay. Governor Sir George Simpson passed here in 1825;
Ermatinger, in charge of the York Factory Express, in 1827 and- again in 18-28, this time
accompanied by the young Scots botanist, David Douglas. Paul Kane, the artist, camped
here, and in 1859 came Dr. Hector, of Palliser's expedition. On some maps the name " Boat
Encampment" is placed at the old ferry where the Big Bend Bridge now crosses, but there
seems to be no doubt that the mouth of Wood River is the correct locality. There is a small
brushy flat here and near by many very old moss-covered cedar-stumps; these crumble at the
touch and may well be the remains of trees cut down from which boat-timber was split in the
old fur-trade days.
CANOE RIVER FROM THE MOUTH TO HUGHALLAN RIVER.
The Canoe and the Wood enter the Columbia together, separated by a narrow, rapidly
eroding point of timber; the Wood being 70 yards wide, the Canoe about 80. The waters
of both are much muddier than the Columbia, those of the Canoe heavy with glittering mica-
wash. The Canoe is swift, but without rapids for 11 miles up, the lower portion being broken
by bars and islands and obstructed by drift-piles. Eleven miles up-stream are the Dawson
(Boulder) Creek Rapids; at high water broken with heavy swells, but may be run without
danger as there is plenty of water. At low water in September, just below the confluence of
Dawson Creek, we were confronted with a boulder-strewn cascade in the side-channel left bank
and had to portage the load and clear a channel among the boulders up which to manhaul
the boat. Below Foster Creek there were nasty over-falls diagonally across the river, necessitating heavy lining in deep water. Sixteen miles up is the foot of the so-called " Canyon,"
where the river for a mile is contracted into one channel between high banks. It runs swiftly
over small rounded boulders, causing formidable-looking waves, but there is plenty of room
to clear. Between here and Hughallan (Goat) River, 32 miles from the mouth, is much
swift water but no real rapids. At low water, however, it is one riffle after another and one
is overboard most of the time leading or dragging the boat. Mr. Johnson, in the 1912 report,
pithily states: " Below Goat River the Canoe is only navigable for expert boatmen and the
less said about the navigability of the Columbia the better." ■
0 36 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF LANDS, 1936.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BIG BEND AREA.
All the river-valleys described are surrounded by towering mountains. The scenery down
the Canoe is superb, the river flowing in the Rocky Mountain Trench which runs straight as a
tremendous gash for many hundreds of miles. From our station " Goosegrass " (7,645 feet),
on the north rim of the Selkirks, we could look straight up the Canoe and see faintly the
mountains beyond Tete Jaune, and even pick out Mount Robson towering highest of all.
The view into the Athabaska Pass and to the north-east over the Columbia ice-field was even
more wonderful.
RESOURCES.
The valley of the Lower Canoe is narrow, but wherever there is bottom land and far up
the mountain-slope the timber is very heavy, spruce and cedar predominating, with considerable fir, hemlock, and balsam. There is dense undergrowth and devil's-club exactly like the
Coast. There are no agricultural lands. The Columbia Valley proper from Kinbasket Lake
down is also densely timbered with the same species. Below the bridge, where the valley
widens and bench and bottom lands are extensive, the timber grows to a very large size, but
much appeared to be overmature; much of the cedar, although attaining up to 8 feet in
diameter, being of poor quality. This summer, preparatory to starting logging operations up
the Canoe, several miles of road were cut from the Big Bend Bridge and a crib-work bridge
thrown across Wood River.    There is no mining activity at present around the Big Bend.
CLIMATE.
We experienced a wet season, but, judging by the almost coast-like luxuriance of
vegetation all through the Big Bend and Lower Canoe country, probably last summer was
not as wet as usual. In July rain fell on ten days. The first part of August was dry and hot,
bul the weather broke on the 13th and continued bad for a week. The weather broke again
on September 10th, with snow falling in the mountains and heavy rains at lower levels.
Altogether rain fell on eleven days in September.
GAME.
Game was not at all plentiful; a few deer and moose were seen in the Canoe Valley and
an occasional goat or caribou in the mountains. Only two black bear and one grizzly were
seen.    Small game such as grouse and rabbits was very scarce.
Fish were very scarce in the Canoe, probably owing to its waters being full of silt and
mica-wash. Only a few small trout were to be caught in the Columbia and we had no luck
in Kinbasket Lake.
I have, etc.,
Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
193T.
1,125-437-5787

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