UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The 432 Jan 6, 1988

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Display in SUB
Concourse _
*Chem Magic
*Blood donor
Clinic in SUB
Give a little, Save a
Give Blood during
the Science Week
Daily Draws and
Grand Frizes from:
Fiasco, Arts Club
Theatre, Jerry's Cove
and many more.
*Paper Airplane contest
12:30 Hebb
Tricycle Race
down Main
-Blade Runner
-Holy Grail
*Car Rally
(sign up a
week before)
-Wall Street
-Tickets $5
-Sub Ballroom
-2 for 1 BZZR
mo Cwmmmlty Relations
At* &feM*3oj&ed jtnine i» &€/*
Interior will sooa. fcecome a asas-
ur& grove for UBC Instead, ftf
~1<J--~"1 gpm3> the treasure Is
Under a feceftt!f<8lg»ed ajgree-
menf, 1$BC will gain access to- the
mine to recover top^mlM^ «m*
tals„ ltfs all part of a dealittvolviflg
an Aimeric&n. entrepreneur, a &C
Mining Oompaayi M<Y< Williams
Geological Museum curator Joe
Nagel and ait old ifcifte neat1 Crattd
Mention Rock. Candy Mine fen
anyone who knows any thing about
crystals, and youll have Ms and**
vided attention. If s one of the few
places in Canada that produces ttot
only top^quality crystal sperime»#,
Magel said those two- ffeafcurfes
make it extremely valuable to
people who are interested in
crystals. It* fact, if $ so valuable,
that Nagel says It should be a
nanonalh^ritage site.
Crystals are formed whesrt
water containing minerals trickles
dowr* the watts of ^dergrouiad
openings. M th© chemical nature
of the water changes, *he cry&ate
change in color and shape,
' "At Rock Candy Mine, these
underground pockets a*6
anusually large «c*d there aire
many of them* That's why It has
produced thousands of specimen^/ Nagel says. I've seea an
underground pocket that's four
feet wide and 35 feet long lined
with crystals *
Under ferms of the agreement
the university retains access to the
mine, first marfc-eting fights to the
best crystal Specimens,, and a pet*
cmtage of the profits, The best
specimens from Rock Candy Mfos
could tee worth thousands oi
dollars/ Nagel $a*d>
Composed of green colored or
purple flourlte, golden, yellow or
grey barite, and white quartz
crystals, they are bought as often
by individual to display in an
office or on a coffee table, as they
are by collectors or museums.
by David Suzuki
The headlong rush to industrialize the university is being done under
the assumption that it is the economic
engine of free enterprise. This assumption has been questioned many times
by academics.
For example, free enterprise,
like most economic systems, is based
on the unquestioned necessity for
steady growth in gross national product, consumption and consumer goods.
Steady incremental growth
within a given interval is called "exponential growth." Any scientist knows
that nothing in the universe grows
exponentially indefinitely. Yet economists, business people and politicians
assume the explosive increase in
income, consumer goods and GNP
Canada over the imminent industrialization of academe.
The activity and knowledge of
our university scientists are paid for by
the public and should be available for
its benefit, not hidden behind a curtain
of classified information, profit priorities or patent secrecy.
Academics who accept grants
or investments from the military or the
pharmaceutical, forestry and computer
industries, for example, will be reluctant to jeopardize that support by criticizing those industries when necessary.
There is another consequence
of the increased industrialization of our
universities that stems from the mentality of scientists themselves. Among
scientists there is a hierarchy of position that is directly correlated with
In a number of international
meetings held at universities to discuss
the future of biotechnology, none has
seriously considered the potential
misuses or hazards of the technology.
Surely an academic community of
scholars that maintains an arm's-length
relationship with vested interests of
society should be expected to raise
historical and ethical matters that impinge on the field.
One of the claims made to
encourage greater investment in biotechnology is its potential to "feed the
world's hungry." It is a self-serving,
shallow justification. Starvation on this
planet is a consequence more of political and technological factors than a
shortage of food. Even if it weren't, the
exponential growth of our species'
Economic course can't be
charted at the university
(and inflation) of the past decades must
be maintained to sustain our quality of
Historians know that this
growth is an aberration, a blip that
must inevitably stop and reverse itself.
But how can the fallacy of maintainable
exponential growth be seriously challenged when the university is busy
selling the myth that it can help maintain such growth?
Scholars in universities represent tiny islands of thought in society.
They are sufficiently detached from the
priorities of various interest groups
such as business, government and the
military to point out flaws in our
current social truths. But by focusing
on issues that are socially relevant or
economically profitable, we lose sight
of the broader context within which
that activity falls; we forget history; we
become blind to environmental and social costs of our innovations.
In the United States, a significant portion of the budgets of such
universities as the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology, Harvard,
Stanford and the California Institute of
Technology comes from private investment. This has split their faculties in
debate over whether there should be
such close ties with private enterprise.
But while those institutions are
private, most of Canada's major
universities are publicly supported.
Yet there has been little debate in
grant size and continued research output.
A scientist has to keep his
"hand in" to maintain status and credibility with his peers. Anyone who decides to look at a wider range of social,
environmental or ethical matters
instead of focusing with tunnel vision
on specific problems at the cutting edge
of research, loses status in the scientific
pecking order.
As university scientists become
bound to private enterprise more
tightly, their horizons will be restricted
even further and they will be far less
patient with those who raise social and
ethical implications of their work.
Let me be specific by considering one of the hottest areas of applied
science -biotechnology- genetic engineering of organisms for commercial
numbers, which has already doubled
the global population twice in the past
century, will far outstrip any increase
in food production brought about by
biotechnology. Scientists anxious to
justify their research for more grants
are resistant to such objections.
Today, biologists propose to
determine by the end of the century the
entire sequence of chemical "letters" in
the hundreds of thousands of sentences
or genes in the genetic blueprint of a
human cell.
The most immediate application of the sequence of human DNA
will be to diagnose defective fetuses for
abortion and to identify people in high-
risk categories for various problems.
But the definition of "problem" depends on who is doing the defining.
Besides finding the relationship
between medical defects and DNA
sequences, the easiest use of this
information will be to show statistical
correlations of genetic similarities between people with common socioeconomic problems.
A university is the one place in
society where there should be scholars
ready to point out the hazards of rushing to apply these new insights. Canadians should be wary of the uncritical
push to increase the links between
university academics and private
Globe & Mail October 3,1987
Congratulations to Andrew Weaver, Rob
Swiniarski and Jonathan Berkowitz. Your
entries were the first three submitted with
the solutions to the Grid Word Contest correct. So come on down to Scarfe 9 and pick
up your Beer Mug. To everyone who gave it
a shot, better luck next time. For more
contests and prizes, THE 432 has it.
UBC Kaon Factory
The B.C. construction industry is
throwing its weight behind the kaon
project planned as an addition to the
University of B.C.'s TRIUMF facility. The
facility's director, Eric Vogt is currently on
a worldwide tour to raise the money to
build a kaon factory which would cost
about $500 million. The GVRD Board of
Directors has unanimously endorsed the
Provincial Government's efforts to obtain
funding assistance for the Kaon Factory'.
The Province, which has committed $87
million toward the project, is seeking
funding assistance from the Federal
Government and other countries. In
addition to creating an estimated 19,000
person years of direct and indirect
employment, the Kaon Factory will boost
industrial production across canada by an
estimated $1.2 billion over a five-year
The Vancouver Sun / GVRD News
December 1987
Recent Studies
Science Council of Canada
The Council is about to publish
the two discussion papers described
in this article as part of its "University
Science and Technology and Canadian Economic Renewal" study. They
will soon be available from the
Publications Office, Science Council of
Canada, 100 Metcalfe Street, Ottawa,
Canada, KIP 5M1.
Many Canadian universities now
offer students cooperative education
programs made up of alternating terms
of formal instruction and on-the-job
Because of the popularity of these
programs and the paucity of reference
material about them, the Science
Council commissioned surveys of
participating faculty member, employers, and students as the basis for a
discussion paper on their worth.
The survey show that co-op
education is valued highly by all
participants. It enriches both the
education of the student and his or her
ability to be an effective employee. Its
growth is impeded by lack of resources
and lack of support by senior admini-
stration and faculty. The author of
Postsecondary Cooperative Education
in Canada, Robert J. Ellis, praises its
usefulness in bringing our universities
and colleges together with industry so
they can all participate more effectively
in economic renewal.
Research and development links
between firms and universities in
Canada are not new. What is new is
their larger number and growing
importance to the collaborators.
In R&D Links between Firms and
Universities: Six Case Studies, William
Hutchison, Peter Milley, Neil Baird,
and Donna Bevelander discuss factors
that cause links to succeed. For ex
ample, in all the cases that they
looked at, one highly motivated
person was critical to the success of
the collaboration. The authors also
conclude that the benefits or R&D
links should flow both ways and that
key persons must be committed to
seeing a project through to its conclusion. Funding must be flexible:
serious problems have been caused
by rigid administration of grants.
The authors urge universities to
regard industrial R&D as a legitimate
activity and provide academic
rewards for this work.
In Touch November 1987 Forestry Biotechnology Established
The federal government, provincial government and B.C. Research
have concluded an agreement to
establish a Forest Biotechnology
Centre at B.C. Research.
The Centre will make a major
contribution to forest productivity
and reforestation in British Columbia. Its establishment is consistent
with recommendations made in two
reports last year, one by the then
Ministry of Universities, Science and
Cornmunications, and the other by
the Forestry Industry Task Force of
the B.C. Science Council. Both
identified the need for research in
forest biotechnology.
The work of the Centre will be
oriented to the Forest Sector's needs,
and closely linked with related
research in industry, the universities,
and government.
The staff of the Centre comprises
12 scientists with expertise in mo
lecular biology, biochemistry, tree
physiology, tissue culture, microbiology, plant pathology and ecophysiol-
This group provides a major
addition to B.C. Research's technical
capability, increasing the technical/
professional complement to 95 individuals, or a total of 130 including
support staff.
The Centre's core research program
focuses on: Genetic transformation of
conifers, Conifer tissue culture, Development of bio-fertilizer and biological
control, Ecophysiological assessment of
superior stocktypes and genotypes.
This work will lead to increased
success in reforestation, greater productivity from forest stands, and reduced
losses due to insects and disease.
Superior genotypes will be selected
from traditional breeding programs
and propagated by tissue culture.
Through genetic engineering, valuable
traits will be introduced: for example, improved tolerance against
insects and disease.
Beneficial microbes will be used
to improve root development, plant
growth and the control of fungal
Ecophysiological methods will
be used to monitor nursery and field
performance of seedlings and other
propagates to assess their success in
improving reforestation operations.
This integration of basic research
and intensive field assessment will
enable rapid incorporation of
research results into forest production.
For more info, contact Paul
Webb, B.C. Research, 3650
Westbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC
V6S2L2 (2244331)
BC Research Newsletter No.2/1987
with US
by The Discovery Foundation
Regulation of the immune system
to treat diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis is now on
the horizon. Genetech, the US biotechnology giant, has signed a collaboration
agreement with Quadra Logic Technologies (QLT) Inc. of Vancouver, BC.
These two leaders will concentrate on
developing for commercialization,
factors effective in the regulation of the
immune system. "Finding the key that
unlocks the mysteries of immune
system regulation is the most needed
breakthrough in medicine today" says
QLT President Dr. James Miller. "We
have made significant discoveries that
can be used to turn the system up or
QLT's leading edge developments
in immunobiology and the production
of monoclonal antibodies, paired with
Genetech's expertise in genetic engineering will produce essential im-
munosuppressor factors able to fine
tune the body's immune system. "We
have been approached by several
companies to collaborate in this area,
but we chose Genetech because its
world renowned expertise in the field
of genetic engineering," explained Dr.
The therapeutic products being
developed will allow physicians to
regulate the immune system much like
controlling a thermostat on a furnace.
Doctors will be able to up regulate or
down regulate the body's response
depending on the particular disease
In diseases such as cancer, QLT's
immune modifiers would act to turn up
the immune system, and in auto
immune conditions such as arthritis
and multiple sclerosis, the system could
be turned down to avoid harmful over-
response by the body. QLT has already
demonstrated the effectiveness of their
proprietary monoclonal antibodies for
the treatment of cancerous tumors in
certain experimental conditions. It is
estimated that the market for biological
response modifiers will be in excess of
$2 billion by the late 1990's.
Support for these new developments has come not only from the
biotechnology industry, but also from
the Medical Research Council of
Canada. The MRC has awarded DR.
Julia Levy, QLT's Vice President of
Research and Development, the First
Industrial professorship which provides $750,000 over three years. Dr.
Levy will work in conjunction with
scientists from the University of British
Columbia to complete the clinical
application research for the immuno-
suppressor factors. This includes
human trials and the studies necessary
for approval by regulatory bodies.
Genetech is the leading pharmaceutical
company both in developing recombinant DNA technology and in bring to
market pharmaceutical products based
on this technology.
Quadra Logic Technologies is a
Canadian biotechnology company
focused in the development and
commercialization of diagnostic and
therapeutic products for human and
veterinary medicine. Details: Quadra
Logic Technologies, 520 W. 6th Ave,
Vancouver, BC V5Z 1S6 (872-7881).
BC*R+D September 1987
The 432
Vail, Issue #3
feat* Quay
'   WMXIKS     ,
Mer MaeDougaS.
. Km Otter   -
Barry Sfcaaka
Dr> Dmid Suzuki
mc Coirommity Motions
BC Research
The Discovery Foundation
Science Council o$ Canada
faster Pfcmd*
Peter Lankester
Jean Guay
Submissions and inquiries should
be sent to;
The 432 c/O Ifw Science Under-
graduate Society of UBC
im Main Mm (Scarfe 9>, Vancouver, BC Canada
T4k (604)228-4235
The 432 te p&tehed hi-weekly fey
the Science Undergraduate Soei
ety of UBC The submission
deadline for the next Issue is
Thawte January 14, 1988
<4;30pm)* The paper fe distributee
on the following: Wednesday, Departmental news, tetters, creative
work*, short t&mp md announcements are welcome.
Subscriptions are encouraged,
Twe1v*i$sue&$7, MakemoMy
order or certified cheque payable
to the SUS'.
1/2 page $140
V4 page $75
1/8 page $40
1/16 page $25
Bigger Fish Could Mean Bigger Profits for BC Fish Farmers
by The Discovery Foundation
That's why research now underway at Quadra Logic Technologies, a
Vancouver biotechnology firm, is being
watched with interest by the province's
fast-developing aquaculture industry.
The Chairman of the Science Council of
British Columbia, Dr. Denis Connor,
has announced that a $25,000 Industrial
Postdoctoral Fellowship has been
awarded to QLT. The Fellowship has
enabled the company to hire Dr. N.E.
"Ted" Down, a specialist in fish physiology. Dr. Down is a graduate of the
University of Guelph.
A hormone called somatostatin is
responsible for regulation growth in
salmon. Working under research
supervisor Dr. James Raybold, Dr.
Down will try to develop a monoclonal
antibody to suppress the effects with
anti-somatost8tin. With the somato
statin neutralized, the fish could put on
up to 25% more flesh that it would
naturally. Cooperating with Dr. Down
and QLT are the University of British
Columbia and the West Vancouver,
Laboratory of the Federal Department
of Fisheries and Oceans.
Industrial Postdoctoral Fellowships
are another method used by the Science
Council to encourage the private sector
to expand its vital research and devel
opment activities in the province.
Industrial Postdoctoral Fellowships are
for one year, and may be renewed once.
Details: Science Council of BC, 100-
3700 Gilmore Way, Burnaby, BC V5G
4M1 (438-2752) or David Rodger,
SCBC Information Officer (986-0836), or
QLT, Barbara Kelly (875-0836).
BC*R+D September 1987 A
OW could so many authors
be so thoroughly out of touch? The answer lies in
the dramatic changes that have taken place over
the past quarter-century in the way textbooks are
published. The repetition in text after text of discredited data is part of a larger trend - a trend toward greater emphasis on packaging and less concern with content. Today's textbooks are thicker,
slicker, more elaborate, and more expensive than
they used to be. They are also more alike. Indeed,
many are virtual clones, both stylistic and substantive, of a market leader. These trends are not
unique: in fact, cribbing - authors' borrowing liberally from other textbooks - is widespread.
s recently as the 1960s, textbooks tended to be idiosyncratic,
reflecting the author's own approach in
both style and substance. Their singularity was not surprising, since authors
wrote texts mainly to impress their
stamp on a field.
The trend toward homogenization
began with the enrollment surge of the
sixties. During that decade, the number of undergraduates in U.S. colleges
more that doubled. The most rapid rise
occurred in state schools, particularly
in two-year community colleges, in
which nationwide enrollment rose from
fewer than half a million in 1960 to
more than two million in 1970. The
expansion opened a whole new market,
which textbook publishers moved
aggressively to exploit. Two-year
schools became a mainstay of the
industry, and remain so today, enrolling more than forty percent of all
But community colleges demanded
textbook editor describes them, are
expensive. Professionals in test construction, for instance, charge three to
five dollars for each of the one thousand to two thousand questions in a
typical test bank. Technical illustrators
may charge as much as four hundred
dollars for a single drawing. And
quarter-page photographs, of which
there are often hundreds in a basic text,
cost as much as two hundred and fifty
dollars each, just for permission to
reproduce. As a result, publishers
came to spend increasing amounts of
time and money on packaging. Today,
the prevailing belief is that a basic
science, social science, or business text
that does not include the standard
satellite material will fail - regardless of
its other virtues - since many instructors look first at the supplements and
only later at the text itself.
As the market grew and textbooks
changed, some publishers started
looking for a different kind of author.
They became less interested in a
writer's scientific expertise and more
a new sort of textbook. In many ways,
these institutions were more like high
schools than like traditional four-year
colleges. Faculty members were not
expected to do research and so were
give heavy teaching loads: four, five,
even six courses a semester, sometimes
covering every subfield of a discipline.
Since instructors were not well
equipped to handle such wide range of
subjects (few had Ph. D.'s and many
were part-time), they looked for texts
that came with teaching manuals and
ready made tests. Indeed, some
community college instructors were
former high school teachers who had
come to expect such satellite materials.
Meanwhile, the changing demands
and increasing volume of the college
textbook market attracted a new kind
of publisher - one with a heightened
concern for the bottom line.
The new players were prepared to
invest huge sums in texts, and this had
the effect of reducing competition by
raising the costs of production and
driving smaller presses into specialized
niches or out of the market altogether.
Publishers dressed up their books with
photographs and full-color figures;
packaged them with such accessories as
instructors' manuals, slides (with
accompanying lecture notes), and
tutorial programs on floppy disks; and
even offered subsidies for the purchase
of educational films. Large banks of
test questions, sold with the texts, were
offered in a variety of formats: on
floppy disks, formatted for the
instructor's personal computer; on
magnetic tapes, for use on the campus
main frame; or as separately bound
booklets. With these test banks,
instructors could generate tests on
specific chapters or topics or to fit
particular course objectives, which
some publishers offered to print.
Such "bells and whistles," as one
concerned with his ability to reach a
mass audience. Hence, many publishers stopped recruiting authors from
prestigious universities - where professors may not have taught introductory
courses in years and were more prone
to write for their peers than for students - and began to look for successful
teachers of larger classes at state
schools. But, in the end, this development was probably less significant than
changes in the authors' own motivations.
Some textbooks are, of course,
still written out of authors' beliefs that
they have something important to offer,
and these authors have no incentive to
copy other texts; indeed, it would
defeat their purpose. But some editors
say that a new kind of writer has
emerged: one motivated more by
potential profit that by the desire to
leave an intellectual legacy. Writing
textbooks had never conferred great
prestige, but as enrollment rose during
the sixties, it suddenly became a
plausible route to wealth. As a result, it
began to attract authors who have little
emotional involvement with the text
and few ideas of their own - authors
who draw inspiration from editors and,
especially, from other textbooks.
The incentive to borrow from other
texts is heightened by the need to cover
an expanding number of topics. Since
the mid-sixties, biology textbooks have
increased in length by about two-thirds
(most are now between eight hundred
and twelve hundred pages long), and
the average length of psychology
textbooks have grown from fewer than
five hundred pages to more than seven
hundred. This is partly due to the
expansion of knowledge - many of the
topics in current texts, such as genetic
engineering or sociobiology, scarcely
existed twenty years ago - but it is also
partly the result of marketing considerations. Publishers trying to capture
the largest possible market are loathe to
OLD TEXT omit anyone's pet topic. Professors
asked to review manuscripts often
agree that the text is too long but many
not agree on what should be cut.
Hence, the safest policy is to leave
everything in, and textbooks grow
without evidence that students are
actually reading more pages.
Of the multitude of topics covered
in contemporary textbooks, the author
is likely to have expertise in only a few.
One way to master the unfamiliar
topics, of course, is to read the professional literature - to comb through
specialized monographs and journals.
Some authors do this. But it is much
easier to borrow predigested material
from other textbooks. And with so
many text books currently in print -
more than a hundred in introductory
psychology alone - authors who crib
can feel secure that their sources will
not be easily identified.
Even when authors want to be
original, publishers may pressure them
to conform. At times this pressure is
quite overt; the publisher explicitly sets
out to mimic the style and content of
the most successful text in the field. In
a 1974 lawsuit, Harper & Row charged
the Meredith Corporation with plagiarizing its developmental-psychology
text "Child Development and Personality", which at the time was enjoying
approximately a thirty-percent market
share. The suit unearthed internal
memorandums indicating that
Meredith had hired free-lance writers,
many having no background in psychology, and had provided them with
detailed chapter outlines of the Harper
& Row text, on which they were to base
their drafts. (These draft chapters were
to be edited by a well-known psychologist, the official "author" of the text.)
One memorandum even warned
writers to "resist the temptation to
impose your own view of the subject
matter; the model (Harper & Row text)
and the marketing report are the
arbiters combined with your own
common sense."
Such extensive copying of a single
text is unusual. What is not unusual,
however, is a fear of deviating from the
mainstream - from textbook formulas
that have already proved successful. It
is not uncommon today for a press to
invest as much as half a million dollars
in a single text. To protect that investment, the publisher relies heavily on
the results of market research and
manuscript reviews to ensure that the
product is salable. These results, as it
turns out, almost inevitably prod the
publisher to produce a textbook that
resembles all others in the field.
Virtually all publishers use the
same forms of market research -
principally questionnaires that ask
potential adopters of a text how much
emphasis various topics should receive,
in what sequence they should appear,
and how the book in question compares with others. The research typically indicates that most college teachers will resist any change in a text book
that necessitates revising their lecture
If the guidelines an author receives
for writing his book are based largely
on market research, the editing of the
text depends largely on manuscript
reviews. Two types of reviewers are
used: experts, chosen for their ability
to judge the accuracy of the text, and
"market knowledgeable" reviewers,
selected not for their expertise but for
their preferences as consumers.
The larger and more competitive
market for a text, the greater the
dependence on market-knowledgeable
reviewers; for an introductory text in a
field such as psychology, market-
knowledgeable reviewers often outnumber experts by two to one. Such
reviewers naturally reflect the market's
conservatism, and when they dislike
what is original in a new book's
organization or approach, the editor
often responds by encouraging the
author to "study" other texts. Thus, the
whole process of textbook development
conspires to wash out any substantive
innovation, even in books that were
originally attractive because they
appeared to offer something new. Of
course, publishers must do something
to distinguish their texts from the
dozens of others on the market, so
while meaningful innovations are
eliminated, novelty is introduced in the
externals - the color illustrations,
teaching manuals, lecture slides, and
test banks. Originality is thus restricted
to areas in which it is trivial, and it
becomes little more than a strategy for
marketing the same old book under a
new author's name.
The pressures that have produced
so many meaningless variations on
standard textbooks are, if anything,
increasing with hard times in the
industry. College enrollment stabilized
around 1981 and is expected to decline
greater use of color...The ancillary
packages will become more comprehensive, resembling the elementary-
high school materials, and more
costly... New, more aggressive marketing plans will be needed just to maintain a company's position. The quality
of marketing will make the difference."
One could argue that these developments are really no cause for
alarm. After all, not every textbook
published before 1970 was a model of
wit, clarity, and scholarship. Some of
the old, idiosyncratic texts were genuinely inspiring to students, but others
were simply exercises in self-indulgence: poorly written, lightly edited,
and unintelligible to anyone but a
specialist. The prose in today's homogenized primers may be bland, but
in most cases its is clear. And there is
no denying that lavish use of photo- •
graphs, figures, and illustrations has
made textbooks more engaging. Nor is
their substantive similarity a bad thing,
per se. The purpose of an introductory
text is to summarize the central facts
and theories of a discipline, not to
break new ground or convey novel
insights. Books covering the same
material are bound to be similar. So
what is the problem?
If the leading texts were ideal, there
would be not problem. But when the
models are flawed, imitating them
stifles development of better ones. And
to the extent that imitation consists of
cribbing information or insights, it
guarantees that textbooks will become
less reliable as a field advances. An
author working from the professional
literature is not likely to fill a text with
dated ideas and discredited data. But
an author drawing from existing
textbooks, even good ones, has no way
of knowing whether he is describing
the current state of a discipline. Rather
than discard worthless remnants from
the past, he gives them a new air of
It is doubtful that authors still
publishing such data are trying to
mislead their readers; more likely, they
are simply playing by the industry's
by ten percent by the end of the decade,
and a growing used-book industry has
added to the strains on publishing
houses. The number of hardbound text
sold declined by three and a half
percent in 1985 and by another three
percent last year. The conglomerates
(ITT, IBM, CBS, RCA, Raytheon Company, Bell & Howell and Xerox Corporation) that bought out so many
textbooks publishers twenty years ago,
with visions of virtually risk-free profit
have now begun to sell them. Textbook
publishing, in short, has become an
intensely competitive business.
This competition might have
inspired greater innovation in the
writing of texts. Instead, it has created
a situation in which textbooks are being
produced and sold like toothpaste. In
"The Book Publishing Annual" of 1.984,
industry analyst Thomas W. Gornick
summed up the new ethic with his
prediction that future textbooks will
have "more elaborate designs and
new rules - modeling their textbooks on
others and ignoring the literature they
claim to be summarizing. References
are essentially decorative; indeed, one
editor at a major publishing house calls
them "window dressing."
Reliable textbooks are especially
important, and shoddy ones particularly invidious, in the sciences. For
whereas humanities professors often
assemble reading lists from current
paperbacks, a textbook is still the
typical gateway to biology or chemistry
or physics. As the sciences explode
into subfields - making it less likely that
any give professor will be expertin all
the subjects he must teach - reliable
textbooks become all the more important. In short, circumstances are
forcing us to place ever greater faith in
science texts, and fewer and fewer seem
to warrant it.
The Sciences  May/June 1987
Apologies to Diane B. Paul
OOKS NEVER DIEMThey just get paraphrased cientist
Does the Loch Ness Monster have a
cousin in the Straight of Georgia?
From the Oregon coast to the coast
of Alaska, including B.C.'s Georgia
Strait, at least 20 people have reported
sighting a sea monster with a giraffe,
camel or horse-like head; a long neck; a
mane; and humps on its back.
In Victoria in the 1930s, the apparition was named "Caddy" because it
sighted in Cadboro Bay. The most
recent sightings were recorded at
English Bay in Vancouver and in the
Sechelt area of the Sunshine Coast.
People who claim they have seen
"a large, unidentified marine animal"
are absolutely convinced it is real,
according to Dr. Paul LeBlond, head of
Oceanography at the University of B.C.
and the author of a recent federal
report on West Coast lighthouses.
LeBlond is a director of the International Society of Cryptozoologists,
established to investigate reports of
unidentifiable species.
The earliest in a series of sightings
reported to LeBlond took place in 1906.
He said he does not necessarily believe
the reports, but he does not disbelieve
them either.
"In the sense that I do observations
on the oceans, I wouldn't have to go on
the basis of belief or disbelief that I'm
going to find something, and yet, the
word belief smacks too much of
acceptance without sufficient proof."
Colin Cole is a believer. On a
summer day in 1985, Cole was sitting
on his waterfront veranda at Roberts
Creek near Sechelt, eating a late afternoon meal.
"About a half mile our from shore,
I saw a six foot long neck," he said.
"The thing's head looked something
like a dinosaur's and it had about a 12
to 14 foot long body."
Cole said he lived in his waterfront
home for years and can identify sea life,
but he had never seen anything like
"As far as I'm concerned, there's no
doubt there's something out there," he
said. "I still look for it."
LeBlond has never seen a sea
monster, although he has travelled to
Scotland and to B.C.'s Okanagan,
hoping to catch a glimpse of the Lock
Ness monster and the Ogopogo. He
compares looking for sea monsters to
piecing together a puzzle, but in this
case, "they don't show you the final
image on the box."
If once a year people saw a dozen
of them, it would be easier to live with
because then you could say, well,
they're migratory animals and they'll
go back to the bottom of the ocean
somewhere. But, we have one here this
year and one there the next, so what are
they doing?
LeBlond published his first report
on the strange sighting 14 years ago.
Since then, he has pursued numerous
leads and is currently investigating two
The Vancouver Courier December 13,
Do you have any photos worth publishing? The 432 will print them in the
January 20th issue of the paper. This is your chance to show everybody the
'shutterbug' in you. Prizes may even be awarded for the best three entries.
Photos will be returned and credits will be given. Please put your name and
phone number on the back of each photo submitted. Color as well as black
and white photos will be accepted. The deadline is January 14,4:30pm. So
get those cameras out and make those shots count!
To all Students, Staff, and Faculty;
Together, everyone in the Faculty of
Science constitutes a vast body of
knowledge. The 432 is the forum for
that knowledge. The editors and
writers of the 423 are looking for our
support, our theses, our research and
experiments, and our ideas. They are
looking for news and reports that show
the usefulness of the scientific method
and sheer ingenuity in solving problems. They are looking for cross-
discipline applications of ideas.
(They're looking for good jokes too!)
Simply, they would like us to write for
the 432 about what we know and love.
The 432 does not exist for its own
benefit (Hell, none of us gets a salary,
'cept perhaps the typist). It exists as a
popular forum for our ideas and points.
I am a fourth year Biochemistry
student (Ed's note: Peter M.) who
writes for the 432 for the fun of it (As I
said, I ain't getting paid).  The 432 is
inviting anyone (You're right; this
means you) to write for the 432 about
anything they want. Take me for
example;  although I am sure that
some of the other members of the
Science faculty know more about and
have a better understanding of some of
the subjects I write about than I do, like
anyone else can, I've been writing
about subjects I am interested in.
Furthermore, anyone who knows better
is invited to write in and set the record
straight. The 432 is a chance for you to
get your ideas, thoughts, and knowledge published and read by thousands!
Write to the 432 and the faculty of
Science. Argue with the other writers.
Volunteer your own ideas; what may
be good for your discipline may be
good for others! Send us your letters.
Departmental Displays
his year Science
Week is the last week of
January, the 24th to the
30th. We have already
booked space in the Student union Building concourse on Monday and
Tuesday (Jan. 25th and
26th) for Departmental
What are these displays you ask?
These Displays are
usually done on a departmental basis and the idea
is to show off some aspect
of your department or
field of scientific study. It
can be an interesting lab or
experiment, an example of
some research project, an
interesting machine or
device or almost anything
that you wish to show off.
Now you want to
know who can get involved?
Any science undergraduate or graduate student or member of the faculty. We have asked the
department heads for their
support. But if you have an
idea then go ask the professor involved. Don't be shy
about it and remember
many professors and graduate students are very busy
people but wtith your help
and support a display can
be fun, interesting, a chance
to learn how to deal with
people, or show off something that interested you
and yet not terribly time
consuming. The Science
Undergraduate Society wrill
try to help you find anything you need whether it is
equipment or students or
whatever it takes to get
special note to any professors or grad students; If
you are interested but require some student support please leave a message at 228-4235 and we
will find some willing
These Displays will
be booked on a first come
first serve basis. The display can be shown on
monday or tuesday or both
days. The approximate
times are from 10:00am to
2:00pm but you can go
longer. Tables will be
provided but please tell us
of your approximate space
requirements. So if you or
your department would
like to confirm space
please contact the Science
Undergraduate Society
office at 228-4235 (re: Science Week Displays )as
soon as possible as space is
limited. EARTHQUAKES: Whose Fault?
1 Earthquake prediction
appears in press.
2 Alarmed public starts
homes, buildings.
The Rictus Scale
In order to describe the intensity of earthquakes objectively, scientists use a scale of numbers based on
observed phenomina.
Small articles in
local papers.
Lead story on local
news; mentioned on
network news.
Lead story on network news; wire
service photos	
3 Birds and animals,
sensing fear among
humans, and upset by
commotion of increased
construction work,
become agitated.
appear mnewspers
nationally, governor
visits scene.
Network correspondents sent to scene;
prime minister visits
area; commemorative
T-shirts appear,
Covers of weekly
network specials;
"instant books"
appear. * Vibration from
construction and from
o   ■ ••   j    <-.!      -j    ■_    -T-        ,.f   •,      animals jumping up and
Science Made Stupid   by Tom Weller down on surface i.
transmitted to fault.
 — i
7.5 up
I   by Art Gfhgson
1st year rep*.
If you have never seen, the
f   Science IJndtfrgradaate office, let
I   me describe it to you in.one word;
I   "crowded". Coiislderalg that the
| , office accommodates one of the
largest undergraduate societies on
campus, and serve as m editorial
office for the 453:, this 3 X 5m rtoovn
brings ait of us closer together
Only Time Will Tell
The office also serves a& Our
sales showroom and in impossible
to see some of our clothing merchandise hanging from the walls.
Like the Japanese, we must utilise
all the space as efficiently as
possible. Even our ceiling shows
the stark sophistication or a tyo.4-
ding Mkhaelangelo*
As one walks into the office,
one will see the famed SUS notice
board on the right Vk this
remarkable organ of commurtiea-
tiort, it is possible to send a mes*
sage to yo«r favorite, or rjerhaps
most <ietes.ted„ SITS cottneit mem*
ber. Ifciseven faster thanCariada
Come on down to $carfe #*
Have a look arwrwl md say hello,
but you'd better bring a shoehorn
if there Are more than $ of us in,
■I'm trying to write j
by Todd Abiett -SUS President
An important event took place in
Washington D.C. between the two most
powerful nations on earth; it was the
signing of the missile treaty between
the USSR and the United States.
Basically, this agreement called for the
elimination of all medium range
nuclear missiles, stationed mainly in
Even with total elimination of this
class of missiles, both sides still have
the capability to annihilate each other
several times over with long range
missiles, which are far more destructive. Since past arms limitation treaties
have been violated by both sides, who
is to say that this agreement will not be
rescinded if an international crisis
arises somewhere concerning these two
Nevertheless, this is the first time
an arms elimination, not a restriction of
numbers, has ever existed between
Russia and the United States. It is a
precedence that talks has existed on the
possibility of reducing the number of
long range missiles. It is also a first that
each side has allowed for verification,
ensuring the terms of the treaty are not
broken. In short, the elimination of
these missiles may reduce the tension
in Europe and the chances for a worldwide nuclear holocaust.
The treat of a nuclear war still
exists in all its fuiy but if these two
superpowers actually begin a total
nuclear arms reduction, think of the
consequences. This agreement may
open a new chapter in human history.
Imagine if the budget allocated to
the buildup of these expensive implements of destruction were spent on
reducing government deficit, health
care, welfare, education and research,
reducing taxes, and other worthy
causes. Though there will always be
research money spent by the military, it
will not be the only route available to
many top scientists. The economic
pressure to perform controversial
military research would be at least
neutralized, if not eradicated.
Do you realize that in 1969, Neil
Armstrong was the first man to set foot
on the surface of the moon? It has been
over a decade since anyone has been
there. What if more funding were
channeled to space exploration?
The moon is only a stepping stone
to other planets and beyond. It is a
whole new world with resources
untapped and areas undiscovered.
Despite its harsh environment, the
prospects of settlement is not impossible, only difficult; it is much like the
discovery of the new world by early
explorers. Maybe the timing is right as
the Shuttle Program starts and we once
again look towards the heavens to
wonder and dream...
Only time will tell if the excitement
created by the signing of this new
treaty is premature. For us, it is one of
the brightest hopes we can cling to. I
hope that we will be remembered as
the first generation of space and not the
last generation of mankind.
Doomsday Receding?
We're three minutes further
removed from nuclear annihilation.
That's the good news from a
scientific magazine whose doomsday
clock has been a 40 year symbol of the
dangers of the nuclear age.
Editors of the Bulletin of Atomic
Scientists, keepers of the clock, yesterday set it at six minutes before midnight, signaling optimism for warmer
super-power relations after last week's
summit between U.S. President Ronald
Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhaii
The clock had stopped at three
minutes to midnight since 1983.
Editors of the scientific magazine
said the move was a result of the
medium-range missile treaty signed at
the summit "combined with an im-
provedment in U.S.-Soviet relations
and a greater concern about common
security matters."
The clock, which has appeared on
the cover of the Bulletin since 1947, has
been as far as 12 minutes from midnight in 1963 and 1972 and as close as
two minutes in 1953.
The clock announcement came as
the Soviet Union's ruling Politburo
gave its formal approval to the missile
treaty. The 12 member Politburo said
the accord, which would eliminate
medium-range nuclear missiles is "an
important milestone in international
The Politburo also called for closer
consultations between the Soviet Union
and its East bloc partners in future
arms agreements with the U.S. and its
NATO allies.
The Province  December 18,1987
by Ky|e R. Kirkwood
Riley was a film major at the
University of, well that doesn't
matter. Suffice it to say Riley
was a film major and he was on
a mission. A gaeas of sorts for
professor Hardy. And Riley
didn't like it.
Hardy had sent him to the
physics department because
some old doddering fool wanted
to video tape some experiment.
Riley was an artist, not a video
technician. Riley fluffed himself
up and brushed past the doors of
Dr. Eziekel Vander Starre's
The room was bare except
for a large awkward looking
camera, a cross on the far wall
and a picture of Stephen Hawkins with a dart in the nose. Riley
had never seen anything like it;
the camera looked like a Well-
sian war machine, a Martian.
The huge bulbous lens, the head
of some alien carnivore while
strewn below the camera hung
tentacles that flowed with electricity and power. Riley was a
little scared.
"Ach, mien boy, blessed are
te meek, eh?", the professor
leered over the young film
Riley gulped, "Yup."
"Ah, little, one, come here
and I vill show you te project I
started as a choir boy in te olden
country. See, it is a camera, but
it is more. All my life I have
wondered about the mysteries of
Gott." The professor swung his
arms about the room, one of
them lacing under Riley's elbow
and drawing him nearer the
camera. "Do you feel it? Destiny."
"No, I'm an atheist." The
words seemed to drool out of
Riley's mouth, each syllable
squeezing out between his
"At least you are a existentialist, no?"
"No." Riley mused that
Hardy must have really hated
his last film, to punish him like
"Never mind. Ve vill carry
on and see if maybe you are
right and I am wrong, eh?" The
professor's eyes gleamed like a
child about to do something
really naughty. "The camera
operates like this, and here, and
there. Okay? Good. Any
questions before we begin our
"Urn, what does it do?"
queried Riley.
"It films time my boy, very
slowly, so very slowly. It vill let
us see te mysteries of te universe.
Gott, maybe. That vould'be nice
eh, to see the hand of Gott at
work?" The professor crossed
himself and stepped to the cross.
"Film me from here. I shall valk
across te room, turn and valk
"Sure, I think." The professor had already focused the
camera on the cross, Riley made
a slight fine tuning and released
the filming trigger.
The sky split asunder, angels
wept in multitudes, as saintly
olcf figures beat on brassen
gongs. An Archangel fluttered
in front of the camera and a
voice boomed from the heavens.
OF THERE." A demon leaped
through the floor and rapped the
Archangel on the head with a
cueing board while another
shuffled cue cards just out of
Riley was a film major at the
University of, well that doesn't
matter. Suffice it to say Riley
was a film major and he was on
a mission. A gaeas of sorts for
professor Hardy. And Riley
didn't like it. |elcome back to another year of Science in Sports.
Remember that science students who participate in any intramural
event for SCIENCE are eligible for a 2/3 rebate of the event cost.
To sign up or for more information, come and see the sport coordinators at SCARFE 9. Register early to ensure your placing and do
it for the glory of your Faculty:
Registration: January 4-8.
Fee: $75/term
VOLLEYBALL: Women. Corec.
Registration: January 4-8.
Fee: $65/term
HOCKEY: Women. Men.
Registration: January 4-8.
Fee:Women, $225/term
Men, Div 1: $325/term
Div 2: $275/term
Div 3: $250/term
BALL HOCKEY: Men. Women.
Registration: January 4-8.
Fee:Men, $85/team
Women, $65/team
Thursday, January 21.
Registration: January 4-15.
Fee: $35.
Thursday, February 11 (12:30pm).
Registration: January 25-February 5.
Fee: $25 Women's team,
$30 Men's team.
Sunday, February 28 (8:00am-)
Registration: February 1-17.
Fee: $35/team in soap box.
Thursday, January 28.
Registration: January 11-22.
Fee: $25/team.
Thursday, February 11.
Registration: January 25-February 5.
Fee: $25/team.
Saturday, February 27.
Registration: February 8-17.
Fee: $15/team.
(Men & Women).
Friday and Saturday, January 29/30.
Registration January 11-22.
Fee: $30/team.
January 29-30.
Registration: January 11-22.
Fee: $4/round
February 26-27.
Registration: February 8-17.
Fee: $4/round
February 2-7.
Registration: January 18-29.
Fee: $4/tourney
March 1-6.
Registration: Feb. 15-26.
Fee: $4/tourney
January 22-23.
Registration: January 4-15.
Fee: $10/tourney
February 12-13.
Registration: January 25-February 5.
Fee: $10/tourney
at Scarfe #9
(downstairs, across from Edibles)
COST $35.00
for a full day of
skiing, lunch, dinner
and dance
Note: Science Students who
participate for Science
are eligible for a $20
rebate after the even!.
Actual cost: $15.00
J Typists
i Writers
J Illustrators
Ad Salesperson
If you wmi to help, come to Scarfe 9
and see Vince or Jean.
Our meetings are every Friday and our
next production day is January 13,
Why not drop by*
i If you have any ideas for feature articles or photo essays, jot them down. If
you have any comments or complaints With what we are doing right or
wrong, lefs here from you. It is your paper. The more input we have, the
more we'll know of what you expect.
Science Students.   Do you want to
place an advertisement? For the
next issue, the 432 will not charge
you. It must be 25 words or less.
Here's your chance to impress
somebody. Get those pens and
pencils going and let's here from
you. Get rid of those old boots and
Its FREE!!!!!
Wednesday, January 6
Richard Hebda: The Brooks Peninsula:
A Unique Area on the West Coast of
Vancouver Island. Vancouver Museum and Planetarium Auditorium,
Dr. Morteza Ghomshei: Natural
Piezoelectric Fabric, an Evidence for
Paleoelectrification. Geophysics and
Astronomy Building. Room 260,
Thursday, January 7
Dr. John E. Carlson: Genetic Engineering for Herbicide Resistance in Canola.
IRC. Lecture Hall 3,4:00pm.
Dr. J. Richard Bond: The Dilemma of
Large Scale Cosmic Structures: Great
Attractors, Cluster Islands and All That.
Hennings Building. Room 201,
Monday, January 11
Carol Christopher: Food Security.
IRC (Woodward Building). Room 1,
Dr. Gordon Keller: Gene Transfer into
Hoempoietic Stem Cells. Biochemistry
Department. Room 4210,10:30pm.
Dr. M. Bolte: Globular Clusters , Some
New Results. Geophysics and Astronomy Building. Room 260,4:00pm.
Tuesday, January 12
Dr. Louise Glass : A Molecular Analysis
of Mating Type in Filamentous fungus
Neurospora crassa. Biological Sciences
Building. Room 2000,4:00pm.
Dr. William Graham: Carbon-Hydrogen
Activation by Transition Metal Complexes: Recent Developments. Chemistry
Building. Room 250,1:00pm.
Dr. P. Budgell: The Kolaman filter/
smoother for Ocean Data Assimilation.
Biological Sciences Building. Room
1465,3:30 pm.
Thursday, January 14
Dr. Werner Israel: From White Dwarfs
to Black Holes: The Story of a Revolutionary Idea. Hennings Building. Room
Tuesday, January 19
Dr. Harry Wasserman: A New Look at
the Chemistry ofCarbonyl Compounds.
Chemistry Building. Room 250,
Dr. D. Jacobson: Feeding Biology of
Thecate Heterotrophic Dinoflagellates.
Biological Sciences Building. Room
Announcements are welcome. Please
address submissions to: The 432 c/o
The Dean's Office, Faculty of Science.
The next submission deadline is
January 14,1988.
I.N. STEIN by Ken Otter
...When suddenly, two beavers with a tranquilizer gun jumped
out from behind the tree...


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