BC Sessional Papers

Lode Metals British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1958

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 Lode Metals
CONTENTS
Page
General Review       9
Notes on Metal Mines—
Rainy Hollow—
Maid of Erin (St. Eugene Mining Corporation Limited)     11
McDame—
Mount Haskin—
Northwestern Explorations, Limited     11
Reed (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)     11
Taku River—
Big Bull, Tulsequah Chief (Tulsequah Mines, Limited)     12
Stikine—
Callison Copper (Brikon Explorations Limited)     14
BUY and HAB (Hudson Bay Exploration and Development Company
Limited)     14
Windy (Conwest Exploration Company Limited)     14
Unuk River—
Granduc (Granduc Mines, Limited)     15
South Leduc (Northwest Ventures Ltd.)     17
Portland Canal—
Salmon River—
Silbak Premier Mines Limited     17
Silver Tip (Silver Tip Gold Mines Limited)     18
American Creek—
Argentine (Canadian Exploration Limited)     18
Maple Bay—
Maple Bay Copper Mines Limited     18
Alice Arm—
Toric (Torbrit Silver Mines Limited)     19
Boulder (Torbrit Silver Mines Limited)     21
Kinskuch, Reina Blanca (Northwestern Explorations, Limited)     21
Observatory Inlet—
Any ox (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)     21
Double Ed (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)     22
Moresby Island—
Swede (New Jersey Zinc Explorations Company (Canada) Ltd.)     22
McMillin (Silver Standard Mines Limited)     22
Tassoo     22
Bella Coola—
Torger Copper (Silver Standard Mines Limited)     22
Porcher Island—
Star (Utah Co. of the Americas)     23 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Hazelton—
Silver Standard (Silver Standard Mines Limited).
Three Hills (Silver Standard Mines Limited)	
Page
     23
     25
Erie (Silver Standard Mines Limited)___      26
Smithers—
Duthie (Sil-Van Consolidated Mining & Milling Company Ltd.)     26
Cronin Babine (New Cronin Babine Mines Limited)     27
Topley—
Topley Richfield (Silver Standard Mines Limited)     28
Fraser Lake—•
Abe, Babs, Ike, Pat, Zeke, Wow (American Standard Mines Limited)     28
Omineca—■
Babine Lake—
McDonald Island (The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and
Power Company Limited)	
French Peak—
Rio Canadian Exploration Ltd	
Fort St. James—
29
29
29
DA. (Canadian Exploration Limited)	
Ingenika River—
Ferguson (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)     30
Swannell (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)     3 0
Upper Fraser River—
Hansard—
Rio Canadian Exploration Ltd     30
Hutton—
Rio Canadian Exploration Ltd     31
Cariboo—■
Wells-Barkerville—
Aurum and Cariboo Gold Quartz (The Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining
Company Limited)	
Quesnel—
Yanks Peak—
Jim	
Mouse Mountain—
31
33
33
Mouse Mountain Nos. 1 to 15	
Williams Lake—
McLeese Lake—
Iron Mountain .     3 3
Ni     34
Lac la Hache—
Takomkane (Big Timothy) Mountain—
Boss Mountain (Climax Molybdenum Company)     34
Taseko Lake—■
Mohawk and Spokane (Canadian Exploration Limited)     35
Clinton—
Poison Mountain—
Copper Nos. 1 to 4 (The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and
Power Company Limited)     35 LODE METALS 3
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Lillooet—
Blue Creek— page
Elizabeth  37
Bridge River—
Bralorne Mines Limited  3 7
Pioneer Gold Mines of B.C. Limited  39
Little Gem (Northern Gem Mining Corporation Ltd.)  40
Cayoosh Creek—
Dry Gulch  41
Rusty Creek—
Copper King (Highland Valley Mining Corporation Ltd.)  41
Highland Valley  41
Krain Copper Ltd  43
Salmo Prince Mines Limited  43
Trojan Consolidated Mines Ltd  43
Northlodge Copper Mines Limited  44
Beaver, Outrider, D.W  44
Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd  45
Bethsaida Copper Mines Limited  45
Graham Bousquet Gold Mines Limited  45
Laco Mines Limited  45
Victor (Skeena Silver Mines Ltd.)  46
Jericho Mines Ltd  46
Meadow Creek—
Dunmore Mines Ltd  46
Guichon Creek—
Northwestern Explorations, Limited  46
Nicola—
Copperado (Western Copperada Mining Corporation)  47
Kamloops—
Deposits Associated with the Eastern Part of the Iron Mask Batholith
near Kamloops  47
Makaoo Development Company Limited  54
Galaxy Minerals Ltd  57
Inland Copper Mines Ltd  58
Iron Mask (Kamloops Copper Company Ltd.)  58
Ajax and Monte Carlo  (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, Limited)  63
Commercial Minerals Limited  67
Other Mineralized Localities  68
Clearwater—
Trophy Mountain—
Ash, Cam, etc. (Goldcrest Mines Ltd., Ormsby Mines Ltd.)  69
Birch Island— >
Rexspar Uranium & Metals Mining Company Limited  70
Tulameen River—
Summit Camp—
Silver Hill Mines Ltd  71
Similkameen River—
Red Star (Woodbury Mines Limited)  71 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Copper Mountain—
Copper Mountain (The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power
Company Limited)	
Hedley—
French (French Mines Ltd.)	
Olalla—
Olalla Mines Limited	
Fairview Camp—
Fairview (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)	
Beaverdell—
Highland-Bell (Highland-Bell Limited)	
Greenwood—
Greyhound-
Mother Lode (Woodgreen Copper Mines Limited).
Copper Queen (Aztec Exploration Ltd.)	
Phoenix—
Phoenix Copper Company Limited	
Eholt—
Noranda Exploration Company, Limited	
Rossland—
Velvet (Mid-West Copper & Uranium Mines Ltd.)_
Snowdrop (Snowdrop Mining Company Ltd.)_
O.K., Midnight, I.X.L. (Midnight Consolidated Mines Ltd.).
Crescent Valley—
Lucky Boy	
Nelson—
Bil Mecky, Archer	
Queen Victoria	
Eureka (Copper Leaf Mines Limited) _
Silver King	
Hungry Man-
Deer Horn (Bartlet).
Salmo—
Lucky Boy	
Erie Creek-
Go Lucky, Hard Luck
Sheep Creek—
Nugget	
Queen	
Iron Mountain—
Emerald, Jersey, Dodger, Feeney (Canadian Exploration Limited)
Aspen Creek—
H.B. (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)	
Nelway—
Reeves MacDonald Mines Limited	
Boundary Lake—
Copper Queen	
Page
72
73
73
74
74
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
77
77
77
78
78
79
79
79
80
80
80
80
80
83
85
85 LODE METALS 5
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
South Kootenay Lake—
Next Creek— page
Spokane  86
Sanca—
Lakeview (Blumont Mines Ltd.)  86
Boswell—
Hope  87
North Kootenay Lake—
Crawford Creek—
United Copper  87
Santa Fe  88
Dixie  89
Riondel—
Bluebell (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited)  89
Tam O'Shanter, etc  90
Ainsworth—
Highlander, etc. (Yale Lead & Zinc Mines Limited)  91
Kootenay Florence (Western Mines Limited)  91
Highland  91
Hercules, Silver Glance (Triumph Mines Limited)  92
Tariff  92
Laura M .  92
Woodbury Creek—
Amazon (Kaslo Base Metals, Ltd.)  92
Can-Amer Mining & Milling Company Ltd  93
Paddy Peak—
Utica  93
Retallack-Three Forks—
Caledonia  93
Whitewater  93
Min, Cork  93
Sandon—
Silversmith, etc. (Carnegie Mines of British Columbia, Ltd.)  94
Noble Five, etc. (Cody-Reco Mines Limited)  94
Victor (Violamac Mines Limited)  95
Lone Bachelor (Lone Bachelor Mines Limited)  95
Hinckley  95
Wonderful (Silver Ridge Mining Company Limited)  95
Discovery Fraction  96
Slocan Lake—
Mammoth, Standard, Enterprise, Monarch (Western Exploration Company Limited)  9 6
Bosun (New Santiago Mines Limited)  96
Van Roi, Hewitt (Slocan Van Roi Mines Limited)  97
Galena Farm  98
Noonday  98
A.U. (Lucky Thought)  98
Fisher Maiden  9 8
Westmont  98
Austin  98
Boomerang  99 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Notes on Metal Mines—Continued
Springer Creek—
Ottawa (Ottawa Silver Mining & Milling Company)	
Lower Arrow Lake—
Promistora	
North Lardeau—
Spider, Eclipse, etc. (Sunshine Lardeau Mines Limited).
Beatrice (Beatrice Mining Co. Ltd.)	
South Lardeau—
J.G	
Moonshine, Right Bower (Willett Mines Ltd.) _
Creston—
Bob	
King
Aurea	
Creston Hill (Bon Ton Syndicate).
May-Bee	
M.B	
Cranbrook—
Campsall	
King
St. Mary River—
Mystery (Green Bay Mining & Exploration Ltd.)	
Boy Scout (Thomas Consolidated Mines Incorporated)	
KlMBERLEY	
Sullivan (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited)	
Fort Steele—
Kootenay-Selkirk	
Windermere—
Toby Creek—
Mineral King (Sheep Creek Mines Limited)	
Red Ledge	
Page
99
99
99
105
106
106
106
106
107
107
107
107
108
108
108
108
108
109
Horsethief Creek—
Ptarmigan	
Swansea Mountain—
Cu (Mid-West Copper & Uranium Mines Ltd.)_
Spillimacheen—
Silver Giant (Giant Mascot Mines Limited)	
Lead Mountain (Giant Mascot Mines Limited)	
Vowell Creek—
Ruth-Vermont (Rio Canadian Exploration Ltd.)
Revelstoke—
King Fissure (American Standard Mines Limited)	
Skagit River—
A.M. (Canam Copper Company Ltd.)	
Cheam Range—
Lucky Four (Rico Copper Mines Limited)	
Howe Sound—
Britannia Mining and Smelting Co. Limited	
Texada Island—
Texada Mines Ltd	
110
110
111
111
111
112
112
114
114
115
115
116 LODE METALS
nlETAL Mines—Continued
jver Island—
latsino—
Yreka (Noranda Exploration Company, Limited)
nson (Elk) Lake—
Old Sport (Coast Copper Company, Limited)
Page
117
117
Empire Development Company Limited  117
hsis Inlet—
Star of the West (Rosea Copper Mines Ltd.)  119
Sydney Inlet—
Indian Chief  .119
Upper Quinsam Lake-
Iron Hill (Argonaut Mine) (Utah Co. of the Americas).
Tsolum River—
Domineer (Mt. Washington Copper Co. Ltd.)	
Cowichan Lake—
Blue Grouse (Cowichan Copper Co. Ltd.)	
Lorry	
Fraser	
Nitinat	
Nadira Mines Limited	
Avallin	
Tanitin	
Jordan River—
119
119
120
122
122
122
123
124
124
Sunloch and Gabbro (Sumo Mines Limited)  124
Iron-ore Deposits in Coastal and Southwestern British Columbia—
Contact Metamorphic Deposits—
Tassoo (Wesfrob Mines Limited)  125
Star (Utah Co. of the Americas)  129
Texada Mines Ltd	
Iron River (Utah Co. of the Americas)	
Glengarry and Stormont (Canadian Collieries (Dunsmuir) Limited)
Klaanch	
Taconite Deposits—
Lady A	
E.B.V	
Pyroxenite Deposits—
Lodestone Mountain	
129
131
131
133
135
136
136  GENERAL REVIEW
The average prices of all principal metals except gold were higher in 1956 than in
1955. Gold was valued at 9 cents per ounce less in Canadian funds. The price of silver
varied only slightly during the year and averaged lV_t cents per ounce higher than in
1955. The United States price of export copper rose from 45.57 cents at the start of
the year to a record high of 49.121 cents on March 21st, and sank to 33.58 cents at the
year-end. The average price of copper in Canadian funds was XVi cents per pound
higher than in 1955. The prices of New York lead and East St. Louis zinc were steady
for the greater part of the year, being 16 cents per pound and 13.5 cents per pound
respectively; these represented increases above the average 1955 prices of approximately
0.8 cent for lead and approximately 1.2 cents for zinc.
Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc produced at British Columbia lode mines in
1956 had a gross value of $135,113,813. Miscellaneous metals, including iron ore,
tungsten, tin, and minor metals recovered at the Trail smelter, had a gross value of
$14,327,010. The total quantity of ore mined at all lode mines amounted to 8,824,440
tons and came from seventy mines, of which forty produced 100 tons or more. The
average number employed in the lode-mining industry in 1956, including mines, concentrators, and smelters, was 9,846.
In 1956 thirty mills were operated, twenty-one of them throughout the year. Three
mills were reopened, one of them being the Silbak Premier mill, which operated at
capacity only five days before it was destroyed by fire. The others were the Van Roi
and Cronin mills. Two new mills came into production—one at the old Velvet mine
near Rossland and the other at the Silver Hill property on Tulameen River. Four mills
accepted custom ore; two of these had no regular source of ore. The magnetic concentrator of Texada Mines Ltd. was modified to effect wet separation and the production
of a copper concentrate in addition to the magnetite concentrate.
The Trail smelter recorded custom receipts of 1,008 tons of crude ore, 9,832 tons
of lead concentrates, and 6,049 tons of zinc concentrates from properties in British
Columbia. Totals of approximately 31,000 tons of lead concentrates and approximately
81,000 tons of zinc concentrates were shipped out of the country for smelting. Copper
concentrates and ores, and dross from the Trail smelter were shipped to the Tacoma
smelter. Concentrated iron ore was shipped to Japan. Tungsten concentrates were
sold to the United States Government under contract.
Gold production was sharply reduced, largely in consequence of the closing of the
Nickel Plate mine in 1955. In 1956 there were only three producing gold mines left—
Cariboo Gold Quartz, Bralorne, and Pioneer. The French mine, which had been worked
as a small seasonal operation in conjunction with the Nickel Plate, was purchased from
Kelowna Mines Hedley Limited by The Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company Limited.
To operate the mine, French Mines Limited was formed, the first new gold-mining
company in several years.
Silver, lead, and zinc were mined and sought for at a satisfactory rate. The Silbak
Premier reopened after being shut down since 1952, but unfortunately the mill was
destroyed by fire after only a few days of capacity operation. Exploration at the Kootenay Florence at Ainsworth reached a stage that promised production. Investigation
began of the Ferguson mine on Ingenika River. A discovery of silver-lead was made on
Tootsee Lake on the Alaska Highway, and of silver-lead-zinc near Revelstoke.
Copper deposits and copper-bearing areas were investigated throughout the Province.
At Rainy Hollow copper-silver ore was shipped from the Maid of Erin; at Granduc,
shaft-sinking commenced; at Greenwood, a 1,000-ton mill was under construction, and
several ore zones known from former operations were diamond drilled; on Vancouver
Island, investigation of ore zones continued.   One dissident note was the decision by the 10
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1956
Granby Company to suspend operations at Copper Mountain. The outstanding event
was the start of drilling of the Bethlehem Copper property in Highland Valley by
American Smelting and Refining Company, and although no official statement was made
by the end of 1956 regarding tonnage, production at some future time was assured.
Low-grade but extensive copper mineralization in south central British Columbia
was the object of much activity. A total of 7,324 mineral claims were located in
Kamloops Mining Division, and about 6,000 of these were in the Highland Valley-
Kamloops-Merritt area. A record number of 26,170 claims was located in the Province
in 1956, a number four and a half times the last ten-year average.
Much exploration was conducted with the aid of geophysical and geochemical
surveys. This was most evident in the case of copper deposits in south central British
Columbia, but was true of other metals and other areas. Modern techniques permitted
reappraisal of many showings which had been known for years but which apparently
did not warrant physical work being done on them.
A discovery of nickel ore was made north of Telegraph Creek, and cinnabar was
found on the Pinchi Lake fault zone near Fort St. James. Drilling of the Boss Mountain
deposit near Lac la Hache indicated considerably more molybdenite than was previously
recognized there.
The Iron Hill magnetite deposit became exhausted, although clean-up work continued and plans were made to open the Iron River deposit near by. Diamond drilling
at Tasu Sound showed a considerable quantity of chalcopyrite-bearing magnetite. The
Provincial Government conducted air-borne magnetometer surveys on Texada Island
and in the general vicinity of Campbell River. The resulting magnetic maps were made
available to the public in 1957.
Exploration activity in the north, which has been gradually increasing with modern
means of air transport, was spurred by the prospect of a road from Dease Lake to the
British Columbia coast south of the Alaska panhandle. The Geological Survey of Canada
in 1956 performed a history-making exploit by geologically mapping in one season 25,000
square miles at a scale of 1 inch to 4 miles. Helicopter-assisted Operation Stikine was
conducted by E. F. Roots and six other field officers, and will make available an
unprecedented amount of basic information in a very short time. Company exploration
activity greatly increased, and many Provincial and Canadian companies were engaged
in prospecting and the examination of showings over a wide area. The greatest general
concentration of activity was in Stikine River drainage. LODE METALS
11
NOTES ON METAL MINES
RAINY HOLLOW*
Copper, Silver
(59° 136° N.W.) Company office, Suite 401-5, 402 West Pen-
Maid of Erin der Street, Vancouver. Allan J. Anderson, president. Capital:
(St. Eugene Mining 3,000,000 shares, $1 par value.   The St. Eugene Mining Corpo-
Corporation        ration owns the Maid of Erin and thirteen other Crown-granted
Limited) claims and four full and two fractional recorded claims.    The
property is on the southwestern slope of Mineral Mountain, 3 miles
west of the hairpin bend in the Haines road at Rainy Hollow.   This area, in the extreme
northwest corner of the Province, is accessible from the Alaska Highway via the Haines
cut-off road 100 miles west of Whitehorse, or from the south via Haines, Alaska.
The showings on the Maid of Erin claim consist of flat-lying bornite-chalcopyrite
replacement deposits associated with skarn and marble. The claim was originally located
in 1903 and was Crown-granted in 1910. Development work was done at intervals from
1907 to 1928, and the showings were explored by an incline, several open-cuts, a vertical
shaft, two short adits, and four diamond-drill holes. Sorted ore totalling 157 tons was
shipped in the years between 1911 and 1922.
The present company began work on the property in 1955 when a 4-mile road from
Mile 53 on the Haines road to the property was partly completed. Work in 1956 was
started on May 25th and continued until October 6th. The road to the property was
completed, and a total of 3,463 tons of copper-silver ore was mined by open-pit methods.
The ore was hauled by truck from the mine to tidewater at Haines, a distance of 56 miles,
and from there was shipped by scow to the Tacoma smelter. Five short holes were
diamond drilled, totalling 260 feet. A crew averaging ten men was employed under the
supervision of C. M. Campbell, Jr.
[Reference: Watson, K. de P.: The Squaw Creek-Rainy Hollow Area, Northern
British Columbia, B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 25, pp. 42-47.]
McDAME*
Mount Haskin (59° 129° S.E.)
Lead-Zinc
Company office, 402 West Pender Street, Vancouver.    Capital:
Northwestern       5,000 shares,  $100 par value.   This property comprises forty
Explorations,       claims optioned in May, 1956, from R. L. McKamey, Glen Hope,
Limited and J. W. Thompson, and sixty-nine claims held by record.   The
property is on Mount Haskin, 14 miles east of Cassiar and 4 miles
north of McDame Creek. The showings are reported to be of lead-zinc mineralization
occurring at a contact between limestone and chert of the Atan group of rocks. The best
exposures are reported to occur on the west-dipping limb of an anticline, where mineralization ranges in thickness from a few inches to as much as 20 feet.
A jeep-road 4.3 miles long was built from the Cassiar road to the property, and some
trenching was done by D8 bulldozer. Four holes were diamond drilled, totalling 1,128
feet.   Surface exposures of mineralization were mapped and sampled.
[Reference: Geol. Surv., Canada, Preliminary Map 54-10, McDame, British Columbia, 1954.]
Reed (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited).—
This property is 15 miles east of Cassiar and comprises fifteen located claims optioned
from J. Reed. The principal showing is reported to consist of a vein mineralized with lead
* By A. R. C. James. 12 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
and zinc that cuts limestone and quartzite of the Atan group of rocks. A crew of seven
men was employed under the supervision of R. A. Dunsworth from June 6th to September 17th. An access road 1V_. miles long was built and five holes were drilled, totalling
1,498 feet.   It is reported that the option has been abandoned.
TAKU RIVER*
Gold-Silver-Copper-Lead-Zinc
(58° 133° N.W.) Company office, Trail; mine office, Tulsequah.
Big Bull, J. J. McKay, property superintendent; R. M. Mattson, mine super-
Tulsequah Chief intendent; O. I. Johnson, maintenance superintendent; E. N.
(Tulsequah Mines, Doyle, mill superintendent. Capital: 3,000,000 shares, $1 par
Limited) value.   In 1956 this company, a subsidiary of The Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, operated the
Big Bull and Tulsequah Chief mines. Ore from both mines is treated at the Polaris Taku
concentrator, which is operated under lease. The mines are situated a few miles from the
confluence of the Taku and Tulsequah Rivers, 5 miles from the International boundary
and 50 miles east of Juneau, Alaska. The Tulsequah Chief mine, the mill, and the camp
are in the Tulsequah River valley, and the Big Bull mine is in the Taku Valley. Access
to the property for personnel and light freight is by charter aircraft from Juneau. All
heavy freight and outgoing concentrates are transported on the Taku River by shallow-
draught barges plying between the company wharf and tidewater, about 30 miles downstream.   River freighting is only possible during the summer months.
Production, ore milled: 203,688 dry tons. Concentrates totalling 34,291 dry tons
were shipped to the Tacoma and Trail smelters. The concentrator has throughout the
year been milling over 530 tons per day of gold-silver-copper-lead-zinc ores produced
mainly from the Tulsequah Chief mine. Separate copper, lead and zinc concentrates are
produced by selective flotation based on the primary bulk flotation of copper and lead
followed by conventional zinc flotation. The primary bulk copper-lead concentrate, after
two stages of cleaning, is refloated, with depression of the copper minerals by cyanide
additions. All concentrates produced after the end of the Taku River navigation season
are stockpiled at the camp until the following May.
The Tulsequah Chief mine was brought into production in 1951. The orebodies are
mainly pyritic sulphide stringer lodes and replacement bodies. The principal ore minerals
are galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and tennantite-tetrahedrite, with appreciable amounts
of gold and silver; the gold occurs partly in association with the copper mineralization,
and the silver occurs mainly with the tetrahedrite. The orebodies so far developed are
known respectively as the Upper orebody and the A, B, C, D, and E orebodies. The
original discovery and early development was at the outcrop of the Upper orebody, above
the present 6500 adit level, at an elevation of 1,600 feet, on the steep rocky slopes of
Mount Eaton, on the east side of the Tulsequah River valley. This orebody extends about
700 feet vertically below the surface and narrows out above the present 5900 level. The
A, B, C, D, and E orebodies occur several hundred feet deeper and, so far as is known,
do not outcrop on the surface. These latter orebodies were first developed from the 5400
adit level and, within the past year, have also been developed from the 5200 adit level.
The general method of mining all the orebodies is by shrinkage stopes. Pillars in the A
orebody have been mined by long-hole blasting. At the end of 1956 approximately 45
per cent of the ore produced was from the lower levels, mainly from the 52-A stope in
the A orebody.
The mine is at present developed from nine levels—the 6500, 6400, 6200, 6100,
5900, 5700, 5500, 5400, and 5200. An internal two-compartment vertical shaft, 1,017
feet long, serves all levels from the 5400 to the 6400 adit level.   Broken ore from the
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS 13
upper levels is passed down via the ore-passes to the 5400 adit level, which is a main
haulage level. A considerable amount of the broken ore from the lower orebodies is now
being loaded into cars at the 5200 adit level, which in 1956 was established as a second
main haulage level. On October 25th a Ruston 48-horsepower diesel locomotive was
put into operation on this level, together with a train of nine 90-cubic-feet-capacity
Granby cars.
The following is a summary of development work completed at the Tulsequah Chief
mine in 1956: Drifting, 2,044 feet; crosscutting, 1,343 feet; subdrifting, 1,301 feet;
raising, 4,423 feet; underground diamond drilling, 25,384 feet.
The Big Bull mine was brought into production in 1951. The orebodies are similar
in mineral content to those of the Tulsequah Chief and occur as steep west-dipping sulphide stringer lodes in a zone of altered rocks adjacent to a north-trending fault. The ore-
shoots lie in a shallow zone which does not extend more than 300 feet below the surface.
The mine has been developed from an open pit and three underground levels—the 5000
adit level, the 4850, and the 4700 levels. In 1956 mining was mainly confined to the
recovery of broken ore from old stopes above the 5000 level. A total of 7,228 tons of
ore was recovered by a crew averaging six men. This work was begun on July 19th and
was completed on November 13th. A surface diamond-drilling programme was carried
out from March 10th to May 31st, and a total of 3,194 feet was drilled. It is understood
that the Big Bull mine is now to be permanently abandoned. The total ore milled from
the Big Bull from 1951 to the end of 1956 was 389,465 tons.
Additions to the main camp in 1956 included a bowling-alley extension to the
Geigerich Recreation Hall and the addition of extra bedrooms to some of the homes.
Eight houses were moved over from the Big Bull to the main camp. Improvements on
other parts of the property included the construction of a new freight dock at the Polaris
Landing on the Taku River and the building of two new bridges on the road between the
camp and the airstrip. A twice-weekly mail service via Atlin was inaugurated in 1956
and has proved very satisfactory.
The total crew (including staff) employed in December was as follows: Tulsequah
Chief mine, 127; mill, 28; other surface, 79; total, 234. A shortage of labour was
experienced throughout the summer and fall, and many of those who presented themselves at the mine for work were found to lack skill and experience. Turnover of labour
was very heavy, amounting to 388 men during the year.
The year 1956 has been a most unhappy one in regard to accidents. There were
forty lost-time compensable accidents, and three fatal accidents occurred on the property
during the year. The first fatality was on August 6th, when Harry M. Stanley, a truck-
driver, was drowned in the Tulsequah River. The other two fatalities occurred on November 25th, when George Ludwick and Thomas Royko, both miners, were killed in a
blast in the Tulsequah Chief mine. A full-time safety engineer is employed, and a safety
committee meets regularly and carries out monthly inspections of the property. A real
effort is made at this property to maintain a high standard of safety consciousness, but
probably the high turnover of labour in 1956 has contributed to a high accident rate.
A resident doctor is available at the camp to give immediate attention in case of injuries
or illness, and serious cases are usually evacuated by air to hospitals at Juneau or
Vancouver.
The annual " Tulsequah Flood," a remarkable feature of this locality caused by the
sudden draining of Tulsequah Lake through a channel in the glacier ice, began on August
29th, reached a peak about midnight on August 31st and dropped back to near normal
by September 1st. At the crossing to the Tulsequah Chief mine, approximately 375 feet
of bridging was rebuilt after the flood, and at the Big Bull crossing about 175 feet of
bridging was rebuilt. 14
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
STIKINE*
Copper
Callison Copper
(Brikon
Explorations
Limited)
(58° 131° S.W.) Company office, 1158 Melville Street, Vancouver; field office, Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. J. D. Mason, president; A. Allan, geologist. Capital: 100,000 shares, $1 par value.
This property includes four adjoining claim groups, comprising
eight claims held under option and 192 claims held by location.
The claims are situated in the Hackett River valley between Ken-
nicott Lake and Sheslay and are about 30 miles northwest of Telegraph Creek. The
showings are reported to consist of irregular patches of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite
mineralization, occupying fractures and fissures in basic volcanics. A few patches of finegrained disseminated chalcopyrite were found in the granodiorite near the eastern margin
of the Coast Range batholith.
Work was begun on the property in the middle of May and continued until August.
A crew averaging eight men was employed under the supervision of A. Allan. Two holes
totalling 286 feet were diamond drilled, and approximately 2,000 cubic yards of trenching
and open-cutting was done. The Telegraph Creek trail was rehabilitated, and about 6
miles of new trail was made to the various showings.
The company reports that the deposits appeared to be too erratic and too low in
grade to be of commercial interest at this time.
(57° 131° S.W.) Company office, 500 Royal Bank Building,
Winnipeg, Man.; mine office, Flin Flon, Man. R. H. Channing,
president. The BUY group, consisting of forty-eight claims, and
the HAB group of 105 claims were located by the company in
1956. They are in mountainous country about 8 miles east of the
Stikine River between the Scud and Porcupine Rivers, approximately 60 miles downstream from Telegraph Creek. The claim
groups cover parts of Saddlehorn Mountain, Mount Scotsimpson, and the headwaters of
Galore Creek, a tributary of Scud River, Anuk River, and Split Creek, a tributary of the
Porcupine River. The showings are reported to consist of finely disseminated chalcopyrite associated with pyrite in a complex of volcanic fragmental rocks intruded by feldspar porphyry and later narrow dykes.
The work done on this property formed part of a wide exploration programme carried out by the company in northern British Columbia in 1956. A total of twenty-five
men, including prospectors, diamond drillers, air transport personnel, geologists, and
geophysicists were employed under the supervision of Russel T. Mcintosh. On the BUY
and HAB groups forty-five holes totalling 1,253 feet were drilled. Twenty-one cubic
yards of trenching was done on the HAB No. 9 and No. 20 mineral claims. The work
was begun on June 20th and completed on September 28th. All transportation to the
showings was by helicopter.
(57° 129° N.W.) Company office, Suite 1001, 85 Richmond Street
Windy (Conwest    West, Toronto; British Columbia office, 901 Royal Bank Building,
Exploration        Vancouver.   F. M. Connell, president.   Capital: 3,000,000 shares,
Company Limited) no par value.  This property, consisting of thirty claims held by
record, is approximately 3 miles northwest of Cluea Lake, near
the headwaters of the Iskut River system.    The showings are reported to consist of
a large oxidized area with small amounts of azurite and malachite.   Under the supervision of A. E. Storey, a crew of six men did a limited amount of open-cutting and pack-
sack drilling.  The company reports that the results of this work were not encouraging.
* By A. R. C. James.
BUY and HAB
(Hudson  Bay
Exploration and
Development
Company Limited) LODE METALS
15
UNUK RIVER*
Copper
Granduc (Granduc
Mines, Limited)
(56° 130° S.E.)   Company office, Room 307, 1111 West Georgia
Street, Vancouver;  mine office, Stewart.   L. T. Postle, president;
J.  J.  A.  Crowhurst,  manager;   J.  M.   Parker,  superintendent.
Capital: 4,000,000 shares, $1 par value. This company holds sixteen Crown-granted and 183 recorded claims at the head of the Leduc River. The
property is 25 miles north 35 degrees west of Stewart, and the outcrops of the orebodies
are at elevations between 3,260 and 4,800 feet on the mountain slope on the north side
of the Leduc Glacier. The extensive copper orebodies at present being developed are in
the Coast Mountains about 2 miles north of a large mass of the Coast intrusions. They
occur in siliceous sediments that strike slightly east of north and dip steeply, generally
westward. The mineralized zones are essentially conformable with the sediments and
consist mainly of chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite. There are two main ore zones,
known respectively as the A (or West) and the B (or East) zones. At the 3250 level
the A orebody is from 25 to 50 feet wide and the B orebody is from 50 to 150 feet wide,
the average grade of the ore being a little over 1.60 per cent copper. Near the 3250
portal the two zones are over 400 feet apart, but this distance soon narrows in a northerly
direction to 150 feet and less. At approximately 1,700 feet from the portal the two zones
merge. At the 3250 level, drifting and diamond drilling have indicated that the ore zones
extend over a strike distance of 3,200 feet. Vertical continuity of ore zones has been
established at five points, as follows:—
Distance from
Explored Uppermost Ore Inter-
Dip Length section to Surface
1,700 feet	
1,850   „ 	
1,500   „       400 feet
700   „    1,050   „
300   „    1,900   „
The ore zones are still open above and below these explored dip lengths, except for
the first two that reach surface. The orebodies are open to the south, beneath the south
fork of the Leduc Glacier. At the north end of the 3250 level, drifting and drilling have
disclosed continuity of the favourable quartzite beds, but economic mineralization has
not been encountered.   Further exploration to the north is currently under way.
The development of this important property, begun in 1953, was continued throughout 1956. The principal operation in 1956 was the sinking of a shaft to explore the ore
zones at depth. This is an internal shaft, collared at the 3250 level in the footwall
sediments east of the B orebody and about 1,200 feet from the portal. It is a three-
compartment vertical shaft, 8 by 22 feet, each compartment being 6 feet square inside
the timbers. Preliminary work was begun early in the year. The first 220 feet of the
3250 adit level was slashed out to 10 by 10 feet, and 250 feet of drifting and 750 feet of
crosscutting was completed to the site of the hoistroom. An additional 470 feet of cross-
cutting was completed to the site of the shaft waste-chute. The hoistroom, 30 by 40 feet,
was cut out east of the shaft collar. The shaft was raised 90 feet for the headframe installations, and was connected to the hoistroom by a rope raise 120 feet long. The hoist was
installed in August; it is a Coeur d'Alene hoist with two 62-inch-diameter tandem drums,
electrically powered by two 200-horsepower 2,300-volt 3-phase 60-cycle G.E. slip-ring
motors.   It is fitted with Lilly controls and hydraulically operated post brakes.
Shaft-sinking was begun on September 15th, 1956, by the Pogue Exploration Company under contract. By the end of the year the shaft was 363 feet deep, and the first
two stations had been cut at 150 and 300 feet from the collar, respectively.   Progress
* By A. R. C. James, except as noted. 16 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
was delayed by a continuous heavy inflow of water, making it necessary to drill ahead
of the shaft-bottom and pump cement grouting under pressure to seal off breaks and
fissures in the rocks. It is understood that the shaft is to be sunk to a depth of 1,200
feet. It is interesting to note that a Cryderman shaft mucker is being used in the sinking,
the first time one of these machines has been used in British Columbia. The machine is
equipped with a 40-cubic-foot bucket and operates from the west compartment of the
shaft. In the Granduc shaft it can muck at the rate of about a ton a minute and leaves
very little rock to be hand-mucked.
Other underground development work in 1956 included the driving of an exploration
drift 508 feet at the north extremity of the 3250 level; the level is now 3,468 feet long.
Five diamond-drill crosscuts totalling 94 feet were driven from this drift. No work was
done at the 3750 level in 1956. Nineteen holes were diamond drilled, totalling 6,980
feet; of this total, 871 feet comprised drilling for grouting prior to shaft-sinking.
A new power-house was built at the surface at the 3250 level portal to house diesel
engines and compressors. New equipment installed in 1956 included one 550-cubic-
feet-per-minute electrically driven Joy Sullivan air compressor and three 150-kilowatt
Caterpillar diesel generator sets, together with the necessary switching and transformer
gear, to supply 2,300 or 440 volts (a.c). Oil-tanks with a total storage capacity of
176,000 gallons were installed in 1956.
A crew averaging thirty-five men (reaching a maximum of fifty in the middle of
the summer) was employed at the property. In addition, an average crew of twenty was
employed by the Pogue Exploration Company on the shaft-sinking. The men are housed
in a small camp consisting of prefabricated plywood buildings on the north side of the
Leduc Glacier. Owing to the danger of snowslides the camp has to be established on the
glacier for the winter months, and in the summer is moved back to the hillside near the
3250 level portal. In 1956 the camp was moved to the hillside in the last half of May
and on to the glacier in the first half of November.
An attempt was made during the year to test the thickness of ice on the glaciers at
various points over possible haulage routes. Nine holes totalling 13,297 feet were drilled
with special electrical hot-point drilling equipment. Six of the holes were drilled in the
west arm of the Salmon Glacier, which is about \lA miles wide. Some difficulty was
experienced when moraine gravels were encountered, but one hole in the centre of the
glacier penetrated 2,365 feet of ice. One hole was drilled in the snowfield at 5,000 feet
elevation between the head of the Leduc Glacier but remained unfinished at the end of
the year at a depth of 770 feet. Two holes were drilled on the north fork of the Leduc
Glacier.
A crew averaging six men was employed in the summer on a survey of a proposed
access road up the Unuk River valley.
The problem of transporting heavy equipment to a large property like Granduc is
exceptionally difficult, situated as it is in a region of changeable and often severe climatic
conditions and surrounded on all sides by rugged mountains, glaciers, and snowfields. In
1956 the company again obtained the services of the Patricia Transportation Company,
a firm with much experience in tractor transportation over snow and ice. Between February 3rd and April 20th this company transported 2,096 tons of equipment and supplies
to the property. The materials were taken by road for a distance of 11 miles from Stewart
to a point near the foot of the Salmon Glacier and there transferred to sleighs and hauled
by tractors up the Salmon Glacier and over the high glaciers and snowfields to the
property, a distance of about 23 miles.
Routine servicing of the property and transportation of personnel and light freight
were carried out by aeroplane. A Piper Super Cub, a de Havilland Beaver, and a Fair-
child 82 were used for this purpose, and an experienced pilot was employed on a full-
time basis. In winter and spring the Beaver and the Super Cub land with ski landing-gear
on an improvised airstrip on the snow-covered glacier.   In the summer a 1,200-foot LODE METALS 17
airstrip built in 1955 on the northwest flank of Granduc Mountain is used. A total of
345 tons of light freight was taken in by aeroplane during the year. The year was marred
by two serious flying accidents; one on June 27th resulted in the death of the pilot, W.
Kellough, and the total loss of a new aircraft, and the other on July 30th resulted in
serious injuries to the passenger in the aircraft.
The mine office is at present established in Stewart, and communication with the
camp is maintained by two-way radio. Seven new houses were built by the company and
two others were purchased in Stewart for managerial and supervisory employees.
Working conditions were found to be satisfactory considering the location of the
property. A safety committee was established in the latter part of 1956, and at the
year-end a safety engineer was appointed. There were ten compensable accidents in
1956. The only ones classified as serious were the two flying accidents mentioned above.
[Reference: Bacon, W. R.: Preliminary Map, Granduc Area, B.C. Dept. of Mines
(1956).]
Copper
(56° 130° S.E.)    This property consists of thirty claims on the
South Leduc       southwestern side of the south fork of Leduc Glacier.   The claims
(Northwest        adjoin on the south the property of Granduc Mines, Limited.   The
Ventures Ltd.)*   South Leduc property is under option to Jaye Explorations Limited, of Toronto.   During the 1956 season 3,770 feet of diamond
drilling was done, of which 1,715 feet was through ice.
The drilling was done near the base of a steep hanging glacier, tributary to the
south fork of Leduc Glacier. Its purpose was to investigate the assumed prolongation
of the Granduc ore structure. According to drill logs supplied by Northwest Ventures
Ltd., the rocks intersected by the holes are sediments similar to those occurring on the
Granduc property. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite were encountered in
a number of the holes.
As far as is known, the key ground lies beneath the hanging glacier. Extensive
surface exploration of this ground is virtually impossible because the steep rock walls
on both sides of the glacier do not afford natural sites for drill set-ups.
[Reference:   B.C. Dept. of Mines, Preliminary Map of the Granduc Area, 1956.]
PORTLAND CANALf
Salmon River (56° 130° S.E.)
Gold-Silver-Lead-Zinc
Company office, 572 Howe Street, Vancouver; mine office, Stew-
Silbak Premier     art.   A. E. Bryant, president; G. W. McCool, resident manager;
Mines Limited     P. Kindrat, mine superintendent;  O. C. Gilroy, surface superintendent.   Capital:  3,000,000 shares, $1 par value.   After remaining idle for two years, development work on this well-known property was resumed in
1955 under the technical direction and management of Henry L. Hill & Associates, of
Vancouver.   This work was continued in 1956, and rehabilitation of the surface plant
was begun late in May.    The plant was in partial operation by September, and the
property was placed in full production in mid-November.   On November 20th a disastrous fire totally destroyed the concentrator, compressor plant, and all the service buildings west of the No. 4 level portal.   No work has been done since the fire, but it is understood that a resumption of operations is planned for 1957.
Approximately 10,000 tons of ore was mined in the Silbak workings. Stoping was
concentrated in 9f and 9h stopes on the 940 level, 10a stope on the 1060 level, and
* By W. R. Bacon.
t By A. R. C. James. 18 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
79b stope on the 790 level. No stoping was done in the Premier Border section of the
mine, but 30 feet of drifting and 10 feet of raising were done. Production: Ore milled,
5,580 tons. Of the 470 tons of lead and 564 tons of zinc concentrates produced, 177
tons of lead and 355 tons of zinc concentrates were shipped to the smelter at Kellog,
Idaho, the balance being left at the property. Gross content of concentrates shipped:
Gold, 89 oz.; silver, 5,021 oz.; lead, 395,568 lb.; zinc, 373,455 lb.
During the reconstruction period the crew averaged approximately seventy men.
With the resumption of production in September the crew averaged thirty-two men underground and sixty-five men on the surface.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1947, pp. 74-82; Geol. Surv.,
Canada, Mem. 175, pp. 161-166 (1935).]
Silver-Lead-Zinc
Company office, 303 Times Building, Victoria.    K. C. Drury,
Silver Tip president.    This property is on Silver Creek, on the south slope
(Silver Tip Gold    of Mount Dilsworth, 21 miles north of Stewart.    From the old
Mines Limited)     Big Missouri mine at Joker Flats, a trail YVi miles long leads to
the Silver Tip cabin at an elevation of 3,450 feet.   Development
work has been done intermittently on this property for nearly forty years, and descriptions of it have been published in previous Annual Reports.   In 1956 a crew of two men
was employed in the summer months under the supervision of Hunter Smith.   Approximately 100 feet of drifting was done on the Blind vein on the May P.J. claim.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1950, pp. 77-78.]
Copper
American Creek (56° 129° S.W.)
Company office, 1100 Royal Bank Building, Vancouver.   G. A.
Argentine Gordon, general manager;   J. A. Mitchell, exploration manager
(Canadian Explo- for western division. This property comprises twenty-four recorded
ration Limited) claims held by Messrs. McLeod, Bugnello, and Jokanovitch, of
Stewart. It is 20 miles north of Stewart on the west side of American Creek at 3,800 feet elevation. The showings are reported to consist of disseminations and streaks of chalcopyrite in andesitic breccias which are intermingled with flow
rocks. The present company took an examination option in September and did 300 feet
of diamond drilling. A crew averaging four men was employed under the supervision
of H. Priske. It is reported that the results of the drilling were not encouraging, and the
option was dropped.
Maple Bay (55° 130° S.E.)
Copper
Head office, Room 906, 357 Bay Street, Toronto; British Colum-
Maple Bay        bia office, 315 Credit Foncier Building, 850 West Hastings Street,
Copper Mines      Vancouver; mine office, P.O. Box " W," Stewart.   W. J. Lawson,
Limited president.   Capital:   3,500,000 shares, $1 par value.    The com
pany holds twenty-two Crown-granted claims, twenty-four recorded claims, and sixteen fractions near Maple Bay on the east side of Portland Canal, 37
miles south of Stewart. The showings consist of a series of quartz veins mineralized with
chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite. The vein on the Star claim is exposed above an elevation
of 375 feet, and the remainder of the showings are mainly at elevations of 2,400 feet and
higher. Access to the property is by charter boat from Stewart to Maple Bay, or
arrangements may be made with Pacific Western Airlines for their scheduled flight to
call at Maple Bay. A camp has been established at the beach. A half-mile truck-road
has been made to the adit portal on the Star claim, while the upper showings are reached LODE METALS 19
by means of a 3-mile pack-trail. An upper camp was established in the summer of 1956
at an elevation of 2,400 feet near the Anaconda showings.
Some drilling and development work have been done on the Maple Bay group in
previous years, particularly by Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited. On the Eagle and May Queen claims a large vein was diamond drilled.
On the Star claim a 650-foot adit was driven, and in 1916, 4,000 tons of copper ore was
shipped. On the neighbouring Outsider group a copper-bearing quartz vein was mined
from 1906 to 1907 and from 1922 to 1926; a total of 138,854 tons of ore was produced.
Work by the present company began in June, 1955 {see 1955 Annual Report).
In 1956 work was started again in June and continued until December 1st. A crew
averaging twelve men was employed under the supervision of the late Frank L. Smith.
At the upper showings, most of the diamond drilling was done on the Anaconda and
Princess veins, but some packsack drilling was done on the Lizzie vein. Sixteen EX
holes were drilled, totalling 3,400 feet, and eleven short holes were drilled into the outcropping for core sampling.
One-half mile of road was constructed from the beach camp to the Star adit portal.
The old adit was rehabilitated and track laid to the face. Three underground diamond-
drill holes totalling 400 feet were drilled to pick up the Star vein and explore for parallel
fissures. The Star adit was driven a further 165 feet on the vein, a total length of 815
feet.
A camp to accommodate a crew of twenty men, and comprising a cook-house,
bunk-house, and office, was erected at the beach at Maple Bay.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1921, p. 59; Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 175, p. 100.]
ALICE ARM*
Silver
(55° 129° N.W.) Registered office, 309 Royal Bank Building,
Toric (Torbrit      Vancouver; executive office, 44 King Street West, Toronto; mine
Silver Mines office, Alice Arm. R. W. Burton, manager; A. M. Cormie, mine
Limited) superintendent;   A.  R. Johnson, mill superintendent.    Capital:
3,000,000 shares, $1 par value. The Torbrit mine camp and mill
are at an elevation of 1,000 feet on the west side of the Kitsault River, 17 miles by road
from Alice Arm. The portal of the 1,000-foot or main haulage level of the mine is on
the opposite side of the river, half a mile north of the mill. The mine and the mill are
connected by an extension of the mine haulage system. Five miles farther up the Kitsault River valley, near the mouth of Clearwater Creek, the company operates a hydroelectric power plant of 1,600 horsepower capacity.
Production: Ore milled, 134,652 tons. Flotation concentrates amounting to 1,713
dry tons were shipped to the smelter, and additional silver amounting to 289,933 ounces
was sold as bullion. Gross contents of concentrates and bullion shipped: 1,562,437
ounces of silver and 1,051,376 pounds of lead. The greater part of the silver is recovered with the galena as a bulk concentrate, which is shipped to the lead plant at Trail.
The native silver is recovered by cyanidation of the flotation tailings and is refined and
shipped as bullion.   The milling capacity is between 400 and 450 tons a day.
The ore occurs in shoots in a quartz-barite-hematite-jasper replacement deposit
within a country rock consisting of agglomerates and tuffs of the Hazelton group. The
important ore minerals are galena, ruby silver, and native silver. Most production is at
present obtained from three levels of the mine at 1,000, 900, and 800 feet elevation
respectively; in 1956, 94 per cent of the ore production was from the 800 level, 5 per
cent from the 900 level, and 1 per cent from the 1000 level. The method of mining is
by long blast-hole and conventional shrinkage stopes.   The 1000 level is the main haul-
* By A. R. C. James. 20 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
age level. A vertical shaft driven from the surface provides access to the lower levels.
Development of reserves below the 800 level was carried out at the beginning of the
year when a 16-degree winze was driven in the footwall for a distance of approximately
500 feet to the 700 level. Ventilation of the mine is mainly natural, but assistance in
ventilation of the lower workings is provided at the 800 level by a Canadian Sirocco
Vanaxial fan powered by a 15-horsepower electric motor; this fan circulates approximately 30,000 cubic feet of air per minute.
A crew averaging 118 was employed. A mine safety committee carried out regular
inspections of the mine and mill and holds monthly meetings. Sixteen compensable
accidents occurred in 1956, eleven of which took place in the mine, one in the mill, and
four on other surface operations. One of these accidents resulted in the death on August
29th of Keith Kavanagh, a mucking-machine operator. The remainder of the accidents
were not classified as serious.
There were no important additions to the camp buildings or surface plant in 1956.
The winter of 1955-56 was the most severe experienced in seven years of operation.
Production was curtailed for twenty days in April, when it appeared that the stored water
for the hydro-electric plant might not be sufficient to last until the spring thaw.
The following is a summary of mining operations:—
Ore Broken Tons
Stoping   142,751
Stope raises and stope drifts  7,255
Level development  1,350
Total   151,356
Waste Broken Tons
Level development  3,420
Stope raises and stope drifts  4,503
Winze  2,103
Total   10,026
Development in Linear Feet Ft
Drifts and crosscuts  671
Sublevel drifts and boxholes  2,423
Winze-sinking   388
Total        3,482
Ft.
Underground diamond drilling       5,612
Long-hole drilling with tungsten carbide bits     87,096
On the Moose and Lamb claims of the Toric group, a total of 2,933 feet of diamond
drilling was done from the surface. The company reports that sufficient encouragement
was obtained to justify further drilling in 1957. On the North Star claim, a total of
2,885 feet of diamond drilling was done from surface sites. Further drilling is planned
on this claim in 1957. In addition to the diamond drilling, a geological and topographic
survey was carried out on these properties and some adjoining ground, in more detail than
any earlier work. Both the drilling and the mapping programmes were aided by the
use of a helicopter, which was chartered intermittently over a period of three months. LODE METALS 21
Copper
(55° 129° N.W.)    This property, on the east side of Kitsault
Boulder (Torbrit    River, 3 miles south of the Torbrit mine, comprises eleven claims
Silver Mines       located in 1955 by Torbrit Silver Mines Limited.    The property
Limited) is characterized by the presence of a number of very large boulders
composed of volcanic rock locally mineralized with pyrite and
chalcopyrite. A geophysical (resistivity) survey and a limited amount of diamond drilling were done in 1955. In 1956 the property was mapped and some trenching was done,
followed by a total of 1,370 feet of diamond drilling. It is reported that the results of
this work were not encouraging and no further work is planned.
(55° 129° N.W.)   Company office, 402 West Pender Street, Van-
Kinskuch, Reina    couver.   Capital:   50,000 shares, $100 par value.   This property
Blanca (North-     consists of eight claims held under option from W. McLean and
western Explo-     associates, of Alice Arm, and ten claims held under option from
rations, Limited)   Gunn Fiva, of Alice Arm, together with an additional twenty-four
claims held by record.    It is on the southeast side of Kinskuch
Lake, approximately 15 miles in a direct line north-northeast of Alice Arm.   Kinskuch
Lake is at 3,700 feet elevation in mountainous country east of the Kitsault River, and
drains into the Nass River via the Kinskuch River.
The writer was unable to visit the property and is indebted to C. S. Ney, engineer
in charge, for the following description of the showings:—
" There are several showings of copper mineralization in the area covered by the
claims. Work was done in two localities—on a peninsula of bare rock at the southeast
corner of the lake, and on a mineralized outcrop adjacent to the glacier, a mile east of
the lake and 1,000 feet above it. The first showing is essentially a stockwork of pyrite-
chalcopyrite veinlets outcropping over an area 200 by 400 feet. The second showing
is characterized by areas of minute fracturing sparsely mineralized with chalcopyrite,
with some veinlets of chalcopyrite in addition. The host rocks are volcanics of intermediate composition affected over a wide area by chloritization, and more locally by
carbonate alteration."
The company did some preliminary work on the property in the fall of 1955, including 500 feet of sample drilling with a packsack drill. In the early months of 1956,
diamond-drilling equipment, fuel, and lumber for camp buildings were taken into the
property in a ski-equipped Junkers aircraft operating out of Terrace. Transportation
of men and supplies from Alice Arm was accomplished by Bell helicopter from May
15th until July 9th, when the lake became open for float aircraft. A camp was occupied
at Kinskuch Lake from May 15th to October 9th. A crew averaging twelve men was
employed under the supervision of C. S. Ney. Fourteen AX holes totalling 6,300 feet
were diamond drilled.   Eleven holes totalling 964 feet were drilled with a packsack drill.
OBSERVATORY INLET*
Copper
Anyox (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited).
(55° 129° S.W.) This property is on the east side of Observatory Inlet and comprises
sixty-five Crown-granted claims, three leased claims, and eighteen recorded claims, all
held by The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited. The
company has been carrying out geological investigations in this area for several seasons.
In 1956 a crew averaging sixteen men under the supervision of L. Coulter worked on
the property from May 15th to September 28th. Twelve AX holes totalling 11,740 feet
were diamond drilled to explore an area south and west of the old Hidden Creek mine
workings. Approximately 5 miles of tractor-road was built and additional geological
mapping was done.
* By A. R. C. James. 22 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Double Ed (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada,
Limited).—(55° 129° S.W.) This property, comprising fifteen located claims, is on
Bonanza Creek, 3 miles west of Anyox. The showings are reported to consist of chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pyrite disseminated in volcanics near an argillite contact. In
recent years the company has carried out drilling, open-cutting, and geological mapping
on this property. In 1956 a start was made on the construction of a truck-road from
the dock at Granby Bay to a proposed adit-site. This work was carried out by a contracting company between August 15th and December 15th. One and a half miles of
road was completed, and the dock at tidewater was repaired. A crew averaging twelve
men was employed.   C. Smith was the engineer in charge for the company.
MORESBY ISLAND*
Copper
(52° 131° N.W.)    Company office, 606, 525 Seymour Street,
Swede (New Jersey Vancouver. The property is on Swede Peninsula, near the entrance
Zinc Explorations   of Lockeport Harbour on the east coast of Moresby Island.    It
Company consists of sixteen claims held under option from W. A. Rutledge
(Canada) Ltd.) and L. P. Kenwood, of Vancouver. The showings have been
described in previous Annual Reports and comprise an extensive
area of low-grade copper mineralization consisting of chalcopyrite and bornite disseminated in small bunches and veinlets through a host rock of greenstone. The original
claims were first located in 1907, and a limited amount of development work was done
about forty years ago. Two adits were driven; one was driven 170 feet and another
farther north was driven 80 feet.
The present company began work on the property on July 15th, 1956. E. Livingston and an assistant carried out geological mapping and sampled the existing adits and
underground workings. A crew of two men drilled three X-ray diamond-drill holes
totalling 326 feet.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1907, p. 69;  1929, p. 57.]
Iron, Copper
(52° 131° S.E.)   Company office, 609, 602 West Hastings Street,
McMillin (Silver    Vancouver.   R. R. Wilson, president.   Capital:   3,500,000 shares,
Standard Mines    50 cents par value.    The property is in the vicinity of Harriet
Limited) Harbour at Jedway Bay in the southern part of Moresby Island.
It consists of twenty-one Crown-granted claims held under option
agreement and one claim held by record. The showings include bodies of magnetite
containing some copper mineralization. The present company began work on the property on July 30th and continued until November 30th. A crew averaging seven men was
employed under the general supervision of W. St. C. Dunn. Twenty-five holes were
diamond drilled, totalling 3,539 feet. Twenty-two trenches were cut, totalling 900 linear
feet, and 5 miles of trail was cleared. The property was serviced by chartered boats
and by aeroplane.
Tassoo.—(52° 132° N.E.)    This property on Tasu Sound is described on page 125.
BELLA COOLA*
Copper
(52° 126° N.W.)   Company office, 609, 602 West Hastings Street,
Torger Copper     Vancouver.    R. R. Wilson, president.    The property, consisting
(Silver Standard    of four Crown-granted claims held by option agreement and eight
Mines Limited)     claims held by record, is on the east side of the Salloomt River,
12 miles north of Hagensborg.   It is reported that a series of dykes
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS 23
ranging from quartz biotite granite to quartz feldspar porphyry intrude a large mass of
andesite and that the dykes are mineralized in places with chalcopyrite. Work on the
property was started on May 24th and was continued until July 3rd. A crew of four
men was employed under the general supervision of W. St. C. Dunn. Nine holes totalling 299 feet were drilled with a packsack drill. Ten trenches were cut, totalling 560
linear feet. It is reported that insufficient mineralization was found to warrant continuance of the work.
PORCHER ISLAND*
Iron
(54° 130° S.E.) Company office, Room 1502, 736 Granville
Star (Utah Co. of Street, Vancouver. A. D. Christiansen, president. Capital: 250,-
the Americas) 000 shares, no par value. The property consists of ten Crown-
granted claims and one claim and several fractions held by record.
It is on the northeast coast of Porcher Island opposite Chismore Passage, 22 miles by sea
from Prince Rupert. Topographic relief is low and elevations range from sea-level to 250
feet. Sporadic magnetite replacement of schist occurs over a strike length of nearly 3
miles. Investigations to date indicate that most occurrences are a few hundred feet in
length with barren areas between. Some magnetically anomalous areas have outcrops
and others have none. The magnetite deposits have been known for many years, but no
previous work has been done on them. The present company established a camp on the
property in October, 1955, and carried out a programme of work which included topographic and magnetometer surveys, diamond drilling, and sampling. The work was
completed by March 5th, 1956. A crew of seven men was employed under the supervision of J. T. Lafranier. A total of 2,285 feet of diamond drilling and 245 feet of surface
sampling of outcrops was done.   (See also p. 129.)
HAZELTON*
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Cadmium
(55°  127° S.W.)    Company office, 602 West Hastings Street,
Silver Standard     Vancouver; mine office, New Hazelton.   R. R. Wilson, president;
(Silver Standard    H. B. Gilleland, manager; A. C. Ritchie, general superintendent;
Mines Limited)     N. G. Cornish, mine superintendent.   Capital:   3,500,000 shares,
50 cents par value. The property is on Glen Mountain, 5>Vi miles
north of Hazelton, the mill and camp being located on the northwest side of the mountain
at an elevation of 1,300 feet.   In 1956 the mine was in operation 280 days, and 13,879
man-shifts were worked.   Total ore production was 20,352 tons.   The mill, which remained closed for the first few months of 1956, resumed operation on May 2nd.   It was
operated on a SVi-days-per-week basis until November 1st and continuously from then
until the end of the year.   A total of 13,762 tons of ore was treated by selective flotation,
the remainder being sorted out as waste. The indicated mill recovery was 94.5 per cent of
the gross metal content of the ore. The mill capacity is from 60 to 75 tons per day.
Until 1956 all the ore was mined from shoots in a series of parallel quartz veins.
These veins range in width from a fraction of a foot to 12 feet. Most of them strike
northeast and dip from 40 to 80 degrees southeast. Sixteen such quartz veins are known
on the property, named respectively the Discovery vein, Nos. 00, 0, and 1 to 12 veins;
the distance from No. 00 vein to No. 12 vein is about 1 mile. In 1955 a new vein was
discovered to the south of Nos. 9 and 11 veins. This vein strikes north 37 degrees west
(at right angles to the other veins) and dips from 25 to 50 degrees east. As far as is
known, it is a blind vein with no surface outcrop. The vein is cut by a large fault and
is divided into two main segments known as No. 11 cross-vein and No. 10 cross-vein
* By A. R. C. James. 24 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
respectively, No. 11 being the easterly segment and No. 10 the westerly segment.
Important oreshoots were found in both segments in 1955 and 1956 and are now being
mined.
The country rock at the Silver Standard property consists mainly of tuffaceous
sandstones of the Hazelton group. A small granitic intrusion cuts the Hazelton group
about 900 feet south of the mine portals and lies just to the south of most of the major
oreshoots. On the east side of the property a post-vein fault which dips 40 degrees to
the west divides the property into an east and a west block. This fault extends for a
known distance of 2,000 feet and has an indicated normal dip slip of 250 feet.
The mine has been developed by two crosscut adits driven southeastward on the
1500 and 1300 levels, cutting Nos. 4 to 11 cross-veins and Nos. 1 to 11 cross-veins
respectively, and by a 510-foot vertical three-compartment shaft from the 1300 level
with crosscuts on the 1150, 1000, and 850 levels. Nos. 1, 4, and 6 veins have been
worked from these lower levels. By the end of 1956 all known ore had been extracted
from below the 1300 level, and the shaft was abandoned and allowed to flood.
The following is a summary of work done underground:—
Work Done
Drifting—
1500 level -
Advance
(Ft.)
551
1300 level	
          256
Total 	
          807
Raising—
1500 level..    .    	
       ____           331
1300 level •	
            438
Total .   	
_.__                 769
Subdrifting—
1500 level	
            491
1300 level	
               27
1250 level	
        101
1000 level           	
                5
Total	
          624
Crosscutting—
1500 level -     -	
            417
1300 level	
     1,000
Total .. ..   	
....              1,417
Diamond drilling—
Underground .        	
  11,279
Surface            _            .,..,....
  13,958
Total 	
  25,237 LODE METALS 25
Ore Broken
(Tons)
Stoping and development—
No. 4 vein  306
No. 6 vein  422
No. 7 vein  402
No. 8 vein  437
No. 11 vein  625
No. 10 cross-vein  6,261
No. 11 cross-vein  8,104
Ore-passes  121
Development  3,674
Total  20,352
A considerable amount of exploration and development was done during the year
to develop known or indicated ore reserves and to try to find new reserves.
In 1955 No. 11 cross-vein was intersected by a crosscut driven south from the
1500 level, and the vein was followed by drift for 178 feet. In 1956 a further 199 feet
of drifting was done on this vein. Over a considerable length of this drift the vein was
of ore grade but very narrow. Three raises driven from the 1500 drift intersected good
ore 70 feet above the rail. The bottom of this ore was followed by subdrift for 458 feet;
three stopes opened up have produced 40 per cent of the ore mined in 1956.
The 1500 crosscut was driven 417 feet from No. 11 cross-vein drift to intersect
the faulted segment of this vein on the west side of the main fault. This segment, called
No. 10 cross-vein, was followed by drift for 352 feet, and good ore was found over widths
ranging from 1.5 to 2 feet. Three stopes opened up in this vein have produced 31 per
cent of the ore mined in 1956.
The 1300 level crosscut was extended 246 feet to intersect No. 11 cross-vein, and
256 feet of drifting was done. The vein at this elevation is narrow and, although mineralized, is not of ore grade.
A crosscut was driven from 1308 drift south for 754 feet to develop the downward
extension of 1510 drift oreshoot in No. 10 cross-vein. A steep raise was driven from
this crosscut to intersect the vein just above and on the east side of the major fault. This
raise cut the vein, which was 4 feet wide and of marginal grade, at the end of the year.
A raise is to be driven up dip on the vein for 200 feet to the 1510 cross-drift.
A total of 5,000 feet of surface stripping by bulldozer was done in the area overlying Nos. 10 and 11 cross-veins. No new oreshoots were uncovered in the course
of this work.
Thirty-six holes totalling 13,958 feet were drilled on the surface, and forty holes
totalling 11,279 feet were drilled underground. Apart from some good intersections in
Nos. 10 and 11 cross-veins, the results of this drilling were largely negative. All known
ore has now been mined from the parallel veins, and the only ore reserves are in Nos. 10
and 11 cross-veins.
The company carried out exploration work on the following outside properties:
Erie (Mohawk), Three Hills, Topley, McMillin, and Torger. This work is described
under the respective headings elsewhere in this Report.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1950, pp. 87-95.]
Copper
(55°  127° S.W.)    Company office, 602 West Hastings Street,
Three Hills        Vancouver. This property consists of six claims optioned by Silver
(Silver Standard    Standard Mines Limited from A. LeToile, D. R. Willemar, and
Mines Limited)     E. H. Harbottle, and thirty-two claims held by record. The claims
are between South Hazelton and Skeena Crossing on the east side 26 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
of the highway, VA miles south of Seeley Lake. The property was described in the 1955
Annual Report.   In 1956 a crew of two men, under the supervision of A. C. Ritchie, did
2,150 feet of stripping with a D-8 bulldozer and drilled one hole 75 feet in length. The
results of this work are reported to be discouraging, and no further work is planned.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1955, p. 24.]
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(55°  127° S.W.)    Company office, 602 West Hastings Street,
Erie (Silver Vancouver. This property, also known as the Mohawk mine, con-
Standard Mines    sists of four old Crown-granted claims on the south side of Four
Limited) Mile Mountain, about 5 miles by road from Hazelton.   Briefly, the
showings consist of several veins of banded quartz and siderite, for
the most part sparsely mineralized but containing a number of small oreshoots which
were mined about thirty years ago. The ore minerals are jamesonite, sphalerite, galena,
and tetrahedrite with high silver content. The veins occur in altered sediments intruded
by granitic rock. There are approximately 1,500 feet of underground workings, now
inaccessible.
A crew of two men was employed in May under the general supervision of A. C.
Ritchie. A total of 2,500 feet of trenching was done by D-8 bulldozer. It is reported
that no new oreshoots were found.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Repts., 1928, p. 158; 1950, p. 98-99.
Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem. 223 (Revised Edition), pp. 40-43 (1954).]
SMITHERS*
Silver-Lead-Zinc
(54° 127° N.E.)   Company office, 609, 602 West Hastings Street,
Duthie (Sil-Van    Vancouver.   R. R. Wilson, president.  The Duthie mine is on the
Consolidated       southwest slope of Hudson Bay Mountain and is about 16 miles
Mining & Milling   by road from Smithers.  The principal mine workings are between
Company Ltd.)     elevations of 3,200 and 4,500 feet on the Raven, Raven Fraction,
Henderson, Hummingbird, and Canary claims of the Henderson
group, which also includes the Galena Queen, Dome, Dome Fraction, White Swan,
Pacific, and Vancouver Crown-granted claims.
The mineralized zones were discovered in 1908, and the area was prospected by
trenches. The Henderson zone was found in 1921, and, starting in 1922, this zone was
developed by several drift-adits at the 3600 (Compressor) level, 3800 (McPherson)
level, and 3850 (Thompson) level, and selected ore was shipped. A mill was built in
1927 and operated until 1930, when work stopped. Shipments of ore were made by
lessees in 1939-42. In 1946 and 1947 Duthie Mines (1940) Limited built a new diesel
power plant, carried out a diamond-drilling programme, and extended the drift on the
3800 level. Sil-Van Consolidated Mining & Milling Company Ltd. took over the property in 1950, did further development work, and built a new mill. Between July, 1953,
and April, 1954, a total of 41,369 tons of ore was milled. Production was then suspended
due to unfavourable prices of lead and zinc. Total production of ore since the property
was discovered has been nearly 80,000 tons.
The property is underlain by rhyolite, dacite, and andesite flows and flow breccias.
The mineral deposits occupy four main fault zones, known as the Henderson, Ashman,
Fault-plane, and Dome. Of these, the Henderson zone has been the most widely developed and has been traced on the surface for 3,500 feet, from an elevation of 3,500 feet to
4,500 feet. These mineralized fault zones strike northeastward and range in dip from 50
degrees southeast to 70 degrees northwest. They are sliced, sheared, and brecciated zones
along which occur sulphide veins and replacement deposits, the latter associated with
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS 27
some vein quartz and carbonate. The most important ore minerals are galena and
sphalerite. The mine has been developed by five adit levels known respectively as the
3300 (Mill) level, 3600 (Compressor) level, 3800 (McPherson) level, 3849 (Thompson) level, and 4100 (Hummingbird) level. Mining has been carried out in the Henderson vein from the 4100 level down to a level 100 feet below the 3300 level; mining
has been more limited in the Ashman and Fault-plane veins.
In the fall of 1956 the company entered into an agreement with Silver Standard
Mines Limited whereby the latter undertook to expend the sum of $32,000 on development work by January 1st, 1957. The immediate object of this work was to develop
sufficient additional ore reserves to warrant further expenditures in 1957, and ultimately
to develop sufficient ore reserves to justify a resumption of production. A contract for the
development work and diamond drilling was let to S. Homenuke, of Hazelton, and a
crew of seven men commenced work on October 17th. The work was mainly on the
Hummingbird and Canary claims. By the year end the 3800 F. raise had been driven
135 feet, the 3950 footwall drift had been driven 93 feet, and the 3950 subdrift 48 feet.
The diamond drilling had not been started. The work was under the general supervision
of A. C. Ritchie and N. G. Cornish, general superintendent and mine superintendent
respectively of Silver Standard Gold Mines Limited.
[References: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1948, pp. 82-85; Geol. Surv.,
Canada, Mem. 223 (Revised Edition), pp. 103-111 (1954).]
Silver-Lead-Zinc-Cadmium
(54° 126° N.W.) Company office, 744 West Hastings Street,
Cronin Babine Vancouver; mine office, Smithers. L. C. Creery, president; F.
(New Cronin Babine Robinson, property superintendent; W. Robinson, mine superin-
Mines Limited) tendent. The company owns the Sunrise No. 7 Crown-granted
claim and holds under option from the Babine Bonanza Mining &
Milling Company Limited the following Crown-granted claims: Lucky Strike, Home-
stake, Bonanza, Eureka, Babine Chief, Bulkley Pioneer, Sunflower, and Sunflower fraction. The property is on the east slope of Cronin Mountain between elevations of 4,750
and 5,250 feet, and is about 30 miles by road northeast of Smithers.
The orebodies are at the northeast end of a large body of rhyolite, at its contact
with surrounding argillites. In the underground workings the three known mineralized
veins range up to 5 feet wide and are either at or near the rhyolite-argillite contact.
They strike northeastward and dip from 40 to 60 degrees north-northwestward. The
ore minerals are galena, sphalerite, boulangerite, and tetrahedrite, with appreciable
amounts of silver.
The showings were discovered in the early years of the century, and development
work on the property has continued intermittently since 1909. In 1952 a 40-ton mill
was completed and 3,510 tons of ore was milled. Operations ceased in November,
1952, due to low base-metal prices, and the mine remained idle until 1956. The property has been explored by several shafts and raises and by three adit-drifts at elevations
of 4,775 feet, 5,000 feet, and 5,065 feet respectively. The No. 5 level at 4,775 feet
elevation is the main level.
In 1956 work on the property was resumed under the direction of Henry L. Hill &
Associates, of Vancouver. Work was started on June 9th and continued until November
19th.   Production:   Ore milled, 4,200 tons.
The following work was done underground: No. 323 stope was driven through to
No. 2 (5,065-foot) level, 2,000 tons of ore was mined between the 421 sublevel and
No. 3 (5,000-foot) level, and a 25-foot raise was driven in ore from the top of this
stope to the 421 sublevel.   A crew averaging twenty men was employed.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Aim. Rept., 1949, pp. 94-98.] 28 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES, 1956
TOPLEY*
Gold-Silver
(54°  126° N.E.)    Company office, 602 West Hastings Street,
Topley Richfield    Vancouver.  This group of eighteen claims was optioned in 1955.
(Silver Standard    The property is about 7 miles north of Topley, a small settlement
Mines Limited)     between Smithers and Burns Lake.   A considerable amount of
development work was done in 1926 and 1927, and work has been
done intermittently since that time.
In 1955 the company drilled two diamond-drill holes, but difficulties in drilling due
to caving rock stopped the first hole at 293 feet and the second at 243 feet. In 1956 a
crew of four men was employed from March 5th until April 15th under the general
supervision of W. St. C. Dunn. The second drill-hole mentioned above was lengthened
to 361 feet. Another hole was drilled to 301 feet. It is reported that caving rock forced
abandonment of the holes before reaching the ore zone.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1926, pp. 138-143; 1927, pp.
140-147; 1937, pp. C26-27.]
FRASER LAKE*
Uranium
(53° 124° N.W.)    Company office, 711, 525 Seymour Street,
Abe, Babs, Ike,     Vancouver.   H. T. James, president.   This property, comprising
Pat, Zeke, Wow    thirty recorded claims, was optioned by the company from C. S.
(American Standard Powney, E. A. Floyd, and partners, of Fort St. James, in Decem-
Mines Limited)     ber, 1955.  The claims are at an elevation of 3,500 to 4,000 feet
on the northern slope of Nithi Mountain and are reached by about
9 miles of road from Fraser Lake P.O.
The area south of Fraser Lake, including the vicinity of the claims, is underlain by
a coarse-grained pink granite. On the claims the granite is intruded by a rhyolite porphyry dyke that has been traced on the surface by a series of shallow trenches for a
length of 670 feet and over an average width of 100 feet. This dyke strikes generally
north and dips from 35 to 70 degrees to the west. Low-grade mineralization consisting
of the secondary uranium minerals autunite, torbernite, and sabugalite occurs in small
random fractures at and near the surface in the rhyolite porphyry. No primary uranium
mineralization was observed.
Under the supervision of J. S. Ives, a crew of four men worked on the property from
June 6th to July 13th. A jeep-road Wi miles long was constructed to the claims from
the end of the logging-road. One thousand two hundred feet of trenching was done, and
four diamond-drill holes were drilled, totalling 333 feet. It is reported that the results of
this work indicate that the uranium mineralization does not extend more than a few feet
beneath the surface exposures and is thus insufficient to be of economic interest at the
present time.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1955, p. 28.]
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS
29
Copper
OMINECA*
Babine Lake (54° 126° N.E.)
McDonald Island
(The Granby Consolidated Mining
Smelting and
Power Company
Limited)
Head office, 1111 West Georgia Street, Vancouver. L. T. Postle,
president. This property consists of a group of thirty-five recorded
claims, some of which are held under option agreement, and is on
McDonald Island (also known as Copper Island) in the northern
section of Babine Lake at the mouth of Hagan Arm. The property
may be reached by boat from Topley Landing or by float-plane.
Low-grade copper mineralization was discovered here in the early
years of the century, and prospecting and exploration have been
carried on intermittently since then, especially in 1929 when The Consolidated Mining
and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, took an option on the property and did
some diamond drilling. Mineralization appears to be extensive but of low grade, and
consists of chalcopyrite and small amounts of bornite disseminated and in fractures in
volcanic rocks. A central knoll about 250 feet above the level of the lake carries the
principal showings.
The Granby Company began work on the property in 1955, when a diamond-
drilling programme was started. This programme was continued in 1956. Crews and
equipment were taken over the lake ice in March and a tent camp was established. The
work was continued until August. A crew averaging twelve men was employed under
the supervision of L. R. Haggard. Forty holes were diamond drilled, totalling 11,158
feet, and some test-pits were put in to the west of the ore zone by hand work.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1913, pp. 113-114; 1927,
pp. 149-150;  1929, pp. 180-181;  1940, p. 78;  1946, p. 89;  1955, p. 29.]
French Peak (55° 126° S.W.)
Silver-Lead
Company office, 1001, 335 Bay Street, Toronto; Vancouver office,
Rio Canadian      9,  515 Granville Street, Vancouver.    D.  R. Derry, president.
Exploration Ltd.    This property consists of twenty-four claims held by location and
is on French Peak, about 8 miles west of the north end of Babine
Lake. The property is reached from the head of Babine Lake by 8 miles of tractor-road.
The showings were discovered in 1955 and are reported to consist of narrow silver-lead
mineralization in two subparallel shear zones in bedded volcanic rocks of the Hazelton
group. A crew averaging ten men was employed under the supervision of H. B. Johnston
and H. S. Lazenby from June 1st to September 15th. Mineralized structures were investigated over a length of 1,200 feet by about 4,500 linear feet of bulldozer trenches and
1,737 feet of diamond drilling.
Fort St. James (54° 124° S.E.)
Mercury
Company office, Royal Bank Building, Vancouver.   J. A. Mitchell,
D.A. (Canadian     exploration manager.    The property consists of sixteen claims
Exploration Limited) which were located in 1956 by D. Rottacker and are now held by
record by Centennial Mines Ltd. It is 6 miles east of Fort St.
James on the Fort St. James-Manson Creek road and is on the west side of Murray
Ridge on the general line of the Pinchi fault zone. It is reported that the showings
include occurrences of cinnabar in highly altered volcanic rocks associated with the
ultrabasic intrusive of Murray Ridge.   A crew of about sixteen men was employed by
* By A. R. C. James. 30 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Canadian Exploration Limited on this property in the summer of 1956, and ten holes
were diamond drilled. It is reported that the results of the drilling were inconclusive,
but that heavily faulted ground was disclosed. The work was under the general direction
of J. A. Mitchell.    Further work is planned for 1957.
INGENIKA RIVER*
Lead-Zinc
(56° 125° N.E.)   This property includes thirty-two Crown-granted
Ferguson (The Con- and twenty-two recorded claims held under option from Ingenika
solidated Mining    Mines Limited.   It is on the south side of the Ingenika River, 21
and Smelting Com- miles west of Fort Grahame.    The showings consist of lead-zinc
pany of Canada,    replacement in limestone and were originally discovered about
Limited) 1925.   From 1926 to 1930 some development work, including the
driving of crosscut tunnels, was carried out by Ingenika Mines
Limited; since that time no further development work has been done on the property.
In 1956 The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, sent a
geological party of nine men into the area.   The work was begun on June 15th and
continued until September 15th, with A. C. Taplin in charge.   Geological and geophysical
(electromagnetic) surveys were carried out and geochemical testing was done.    Two
miles of trail was made and the old workings were reopened.    Transportation to the
property was by float-plane to Delkluz Lake, which is close to the showings.
[References:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1926, pp. 155-157;  1928, pp.
182-185.]
Swannell (The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited.
—(56° 125° N.E.) This property consists of a group of thirty-four recorded claims on
Swannell River, a tributary of the Ingenika River, and is 20 miles west of Fort Grahame.
The showings are reported to consist of lead-zinc replacement in limestone. In 1956
The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Canada, Limited, optioned the
property from Gust Ola. A crew of three men under the supervision of A. C. Taplin did
geological and geophysical work from June 15th to September 15th. Transportation
was by float-plane to Delkluz Lake, near the property, and by small gasoline-driven
tractor on the property.
UPPER FRASER RIVER*
Hansard (54° 121° S.W.)
Copper
Company office, 1001 335 Bay Street, Toronto; Vancouver office,
Rio Canadian       9, 515 Granville Street, Vancouver.   D. R. Derry, president.   In
Exploration Ltd.    1956 this company held under option from Desoto Mines Limited
a property consisting of seventeen claims and fractions on Mine
Creek, a tributary of McGregor River.   The property is reached from Hansard station
on the Canadian National Railway by boat down the Fraser and up the McGregor River
to Mine Creek, and thence by 1 mile of trail.   It is reported that the showings consist
of scattered chalcopyrite mineralization in a silicified zone in argillites and limestones.
A crew of about six men under the supervision of D. Calimente worked on the property
from June 21st to August 1st.   Two holes were diamond drilled, totalling 495 feet, and
some soil-testing work was done.
* By A. R. C. James. LODE METALS
31
Rio Canadian
Exploration Ltd.
Hutton (53° 121° N.W.)
Company office, 1001, 335 Bay Street, Toronto; Vancouver office,
9, 515 Granville Street, Vancouver. D. R. Derry, president. In
1956 this company held under option from Desoto Mines Limited
a property consisting of eighteen claims and fractions straddling
the Fraser River about 3 miles west of Hutton station on the Canadian National Railway.
The copper showings, which were discovered many years ago, are on the west bank of
the river. A crew of six men under the supervision of D. Calimente worked on the
property from May 12th to June 24th. The showings were stripped by bulldozing and
sluicing, exposing about 2,500 square feet of bedrock. One hole, 148 feet long, was
diamond drilled, but core recovery was poor.   Soil testing was done on the claims.
CARIBOO*
Wells-Barkerville (53° 121° S.W.)
Gold
Aurum and Cariboo Gold Quartz (The Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company
Limited).—Company office, 1007 Royal Bank Building, Vancouver. W. B. Burnett,
president; A. Shaak, general manager; M. Guiguet, general superintendent; J. Stone,
mill superintendent. Capital: 2,000,000 shares, $1 par value. The Cariboo Gold
Quartz and Aurum mines operated by this company are adjacent to the town of Wells,
which is 51 miles by road from Quesnel on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
* By J. W. Patterson. 32 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Work done underground at the two mines was as follows:—
Work Done
Zone
Mine
Advance
Ore
Waste
Level development—
1700 level
Rainbow	
Rainbow and Tailings —	
Rainbow and Tailings	
No. 1 	
C.G.Q 	
C.G.Q. 	
Ft.
38
212
866
59
904
121
156
26
251
205
488
244
Tons
28
124
1,116
17
2,078
145
86
60
19
2,425
Tons
113
1800 level
729
1900 level                   -    -
C.G.Q	
2,060
2000 level           	
C.G.Q	
174
2100 level
C.G.Q	
2,258
3500 level	
Aurum	
560
3375 level                  .
526
3250 level    . .    _
148
3125 level    ,   —	
Aurum  .„.
Aurum 	
Aurum	
Aurum 	
1,169
3000 level 	
516
2850 level 	
288
2550 level -     -
886
Totals    	
3,570
6,098
9,427
Sublevel development—
1600level... -   - -
1800 level               	
Rainbow 	
Rainbow. .„	
Tailings	
Tailings...     „
C.G.Q	
C.G.Q   ..
64
28
146
171
29
14
259
81
112
68
	
131
53
C.G.Q...	
105
180
344
135
24
87
2100 level
C.G.Q 	
Aurum	
Aurum 	
Aurum	
Aurum.—	
Annim 	
Aurum.	
3625 level 	
88
3500 level       	
32
3375 level 	
443
3125 level             -
188
3000 level    	
161
2550 level               	
114
972
788
1,297
C.G.Q	
Diamond drilling—
373
1,021
1,194
349
2,195
372
508
1,195
1,154
560
	
1800 level           	
C.G.Q	
C.G.Q 	
C.G.Q... 	
1900 level            -
2100 level
C.G.Q	
3750 level       	
Aurum.	
Aurum... — ,,...	
Aurum	
Aurum	
Aurum	
3500 level-	
3375 level                   	
3125 level      	
3000 level        -	
Total 	
9,221
Stoping—
1100 level 	
Saunders -
No. 1  ._  .    	
Rainbow..  	
C.G.Q	
	
211
1,063
753
9,966
22,356
400
10,870
1,911
570
2,305
6,973
297
1,385
11,713
13,905
3,132
C.G.Q    ..   .
1700 level	
C.G.Q.
	
C.G.Q	
C.G.Q 	
No. 1. ..
C.G.Q	
C.G.Q 	
Tailings and No. 1  	
	
4000 level   - -
Aurum 	
Aurum 	
Aurum	
Aurum..	
Aurum  .	
Aurum	
Aurum	
Aurum   	
3625 level
3500 level               	
3375 level   . 	
3250 level
3125 level     	
	
3000 level               - .
2850 level
2550 level
Total
	
87,810
Except for two holes drilled to determine the bottom of Jack of Clubs Lake, all
diamond drilling was done to check for possible extensions of known orebodies and for
geological and mineralogical information in ground not explored previously.
Production: Ore mined, 94,696 tons; waste mined, 10,724 tons; ore milled,
94,721 tons.    Of the ore mined, 45,429 tons was from the Aurum mine.
The average number of men employed was 210, of which 135 were employed underground.
Due to greater stress being placed on accident prevention by the company, the
accident-frequency rate was reduced by approximately 70 per cent from that of the
previous year. LODE METALS
33
Gold
QUESNEL*
Yanks Peak (52° 121° N.E.)
The Jim group of mineral claims is near Yanks Peak, about 11
Jim miles by road from Keithley Creek P.O.   The claims are held by
F. H. M. Codville, of Duncan, who, with two partners, W. E.
Edwards and G. Burgleman, did 50 feet of crosscutting, a small amount of diamond
drilling, and hauled 50 tons of ore by truck to the pilot mill on the adjoining Midas
property. Changes in the milling process are contemplated, as gold recovery was considered unsatisfactory.
[Reference:   B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 34, 1954, pp. 65-68.]
Copper
Mouse Mountain (53° 122° S.E.)
Mouse Mountain
Nos. 1 to 15t
about 110 by 30 feet.
This property is 13 miles from Quesnel on the road to Wells.
It includes fifteen claims located in 1955 by C. M. Fuller, J. Mac-
Gowan, and D. Pearson. The main showing at the side of the
road exposes greenish intermediate volcanic rocks for an area of
Beyond the exposure is deep alluvium. About half the exposure
is mineralized in some degree by chalcopyrite, bornite, and malachite. The chalcopyrite
and bornite replace the volcanic rock and the malachite occurs chiefly in small slicken-
sided fractures that strike on the average north 40 degrees east and mostly dip about
35 degrees northwest.   There is no obvious control of the primary mineralization.
During the autumn of 1955 and spring of 1956, exploration consisted of stripping
the showing, hand-sorting a carload of ore which reportedly assayed 5 Vi per cent copper,
and diamond drilling about 8,500 feet by Harrison Minerals Ltd., which had the property
under option.
WILLIAMS LAKEJ
McLeeseLake (52° 122° S.E.)
Copper
This property includes 130 claims that extend eastward from a
Iron Mountain line joining McLeese and Cuisson Lakes. The showings are about
3 miles northeast of McLeese Lake and may be reached from
the Cariboo Highway at McLeese Lake by a branch from the dirt road that follows
Sheridan Creek. The original nucleus of claims, the Iron Mountain group, was located
in 1952 by S. Pearson. Additional claims were located by C. M. Fuller, J. MacGowan,
and others from 1954 to 1956. The groups were optioned and further claims were
located by The Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company Limited in August, 1956. The
main showings are on the Iron Mountain and Iron Mountain Nos. 1 to 7 claims.
The area of the showing is underlain by light-green schists with interbedded lenses
and beds of marble that may be part of the Cache Creek group. Bedding and schistosity
are parallel and strike eastward and dip about 30 degrees to the south. A contact with
a granitic intrusion lies about 500 feet north of the showings and approximately parallel
with the strike of the metamorphic rocks.
The showings consist of an aligned series of thin lenses of magnetite or specular
hematite with chalcopyrite which, together with garnet, pyroxene, and epidote, replace
the enclosing marble and schist. The lenses of iron oxides parallel the bedding and
have been traced for over 5,000 feet.    Specular hematite forms the lenses in the central
* By J. W. Patterson, except as noted.
t By A. S. Brown.
t By A. S. Brown, except as noted.
2 34 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
section of the showings, and magnetite those at either end. Individual lenses of iron
oxides range between a few inches and 4 feet thick. The chalcopyrite occurs chiefly
as disseminated blobs and grains within the iron oxide lenses, but malachite is widely
distributed in small amounts in the surrounding schists, particularly on the footwall side
of the lenses.   The average copper content of the iron oxide lenses is about 2 per cent.
Old workings include three shallow prospect shafts and a number of pits and
trenches.    In general the area of the showings is moderately well exposed.
The exploration programme of Cariboo Gold Quartz Mining Company included
a magnetometer survey, bulldozer trenching, and diamond drilling. The magnetometer
survey revealed three anomalies—one over the outcrop zone and two farther south.
Trenching proved the iron oxide lenses to be consistent but thin, and in addition proved
a consistent, if low, copper content of the footwall schists. The X-ray drilling was
inconclusive; only a total of 150 feet in five holes was completed before weather forced
abandonment for the winter. Three holes on the main showings had extremely poor
core recovery. Two holes on the southernmost anomaly showed it to be due to disseminated magnetite and that only traces of copper were present.
Nickel
(52° 122° S.E.) The Ni group of eight claims, located by Frank
Ni* Merryth in April, 1956, lies immediately south of the east end of
Williams Lake. The claims cover a band of rusty-brown ankeritic
carbonate alteration that outcrops in prominent bluffs about 1,000 feet above Williams
Lake and is readily visible from the north side of the lake. A zone of brecciation as
much as 400 feet wide and trending about west is almost completely replaced by ankeritic
carbonate. The faint brecciation is still evident in a few outcrops. The ankeritic carbonate is crossed by narrow veinlets of chalcedonic quartz and in some areas contain
small flakes of pale-green mariposite. Minute grains of millerite have been identified
by Professor R. M. Thompson, of the University of British Columbia.
The locator of the claims reported having obtained assays as high as 0.7 per cent
nickel from some samples of selected material. During the early summer a road was
bulldozed to the foot of the ankerite bluff and three short drill-holes were put down by
The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and Power Company Limited. This work
had been completed by late July, and nothing further was done on the claims.
A sample of selected material assayed: Nickel, 0.23 per cent; chromium, 0.27
per cent.
LAC LA HACHEf
Takomkane (Big Timothy) Mountain (52° 120° S.W.)
Molybdenum
British Columbia office, 718 Granville Street, Vancouver.   In 1956
Boss Mountain     the Climax Molybdenum Company acquired by option 103 mineral
(Climax Molybde-   claims, including the Adanac, Adanac Fraction, Adanac No. 1,
num Company)     Adanac No. 2, Blacky, Bonnie, Geraldine, Tip Top, Tooty Fruity,
and Utoo Crown-granted  claims.    The Crown-granted claims,
located at various times between 1928 and 1935 and the recorded claims located in 1956,
are at present owned by H. H. Huestis, of Vancouver, and associates.
The claims are on both sides of a small eastward-flowing tributary of Molybdenite
Creek. The headwaters of this tributary are on Takomkane Mountain, also known
as Big Timothy or Boss Mountain. Takomkane Mountain is approximately 30 miles
northeast of Lac la Hache. Access to the property can be gained by road from 100 Mile
House through Forest Grove village and along Bradley Creek to the southern end of
* By S. S. Holland.
t By J. W. Patterson. LODE METALS
35
Murphy Lake and thence northeastward by pack-horse trail for about 20 miles. The
last 22 miles of the road to Murphy Lake is suitable only for four-wheel-drive vehicles.
Between September 26th and October 14th, five holes totalling 1,714 feet were
diamond drilled on the property.
[Reference:  B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 9, 1940, pp. 34-47.]
TASEKO LAKE*
Copper
Mohawk and
Spokane (Canadian
Exploration
Limited)
(51°  123°  S.E.)    General access to these groups of mineral
claims is most easily gained by float-equipped aircraft to Taseko
Lake and thence by about 9 miles of jeep-road from the south end
of the lake along the north side of Taseko River.    From the end
of this road there are branch tractor-roads to the Spokane group
at the headwaters of McClure Creek and the Mohawk group on
the east side of Granite Creek, a short distance from its mouth.    The north end of
Taseko Lake can be reached by 55 miles of road from Hanceville, which is about 40 miles
southwest of Williams Lake.
In this area in 1956 Canadian Exploration Limited acquired by option 230 mineral
claims from the Gadara Copper Syndicate, of Williams Lake, and G. N. Beattie, of
Vancouver. G. N. Beattie owns the Mohawk group, while the Gadara Syndicate holds
by record and option the remainder of the claims, including the Spokane group.
A D-7 bulldozer and a jeep were brought to the properties via the Hanceville-
Taseko Lake road and by a circuitous route which is not recommended for general use,
from the north end of the lake to its south end. Three short diamond-drill holes totalling
228 feet were drilled on the Spokane group; one hole, 507 feet deep, was drilled on
a west tributary of Granite Creek, 2VS_ miles above the junction of Granite Creek with
Taseko River; one hole was drilled 457 feet deep east of Granite Creek near its mouth.
Surface mapping, sampling, and trenching were done on the Mohawk group.
In addition, the 9 miles of road from the south end of Taseko Lake along Taseko
River was improved and tractor-roads were constructed to the Spokane and Mohawk
groups.
An average of eleven men was employed under the direction of C. C. Rennie, field
engineer.
[Reference: Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1935, pp. F 22-26.]
Copper
CLINTON*
Poison Mountain (51° 122° S.W.)
Copper Nos. 1 to 4
(The Granby Consolidated Mining
In March, 1956, The Granby Consolidated Mining Smelting and
Power Company Limited recorded thirty-nine mineral claims on
Poison Mountain around and adjacent to the Copper Nos. 1, 2,
3 and 4 claims.   These four claims were located by H. Reynolds,
Smelting and Power of Lillooet, in 1955 and cover ground originally located in 1935.
Company Limited) The entire group of forty-three claims is at the junction of Copper
Creek with Poison Mountain Creek.    Before staking the Granby
Company had acquired an option on the four copper claims.    Staking crews were transported to Poison Mountain from Lillooet by helicopter.
Poison Mountain is about 40 miles northwest of Lillooet and is near the headwaters
of Yalakom River and Churn Creek. Access is by 36 miles of road from Big Bar ferry
on the Fraser River. Thirty-two miles of this road was constructed by the Granby
Company.    It is suitable only for four-wheel-drive vehicles.
* By J. W. Patterson. 36
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
The principal sedimentary rocks underlying the property consist of interbedded
sandstone and argillite overlain in several areas by pebble and boulder conglomerate,
all of which have been intruded by a complex body of diorite porphyry and granodiorite.
The sulphide mineralization, chalcopyrite and pyrite predominating, occurs as disseminations and fracture fillings in the porphyries, usually in greater amounts where the biotite
content of the porphyries increases. As revealed by trenching, stripping, and diamond
drilling, the most favourable zone is adjacent to and north of Copper Creek. Figure 1
shows this zone.
Figure 1. Poison Mountain area.   Showing approximate position of the
Copper group of mineral claims.
The average assay of samples taken by the Granby Company along the western end
of this zone at 5-foot intervals over a continuous length of 250 feet was 0.60 per cent
copper.   The assays ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 per cent copper.
Another mineralized zone lies east of Poison Mountain Creek immediately south of
Fenton Creek, one of its tributaries. Fenton Creek is about half a mile north of Copper
Creek.    Deep overburden separates the two zones. LODE METALS
37
In both zones, minor amounts of sphalerite and molybdenite occur with the copper
and iron sulphides.   The gold and silver content is small.
During the month of August 3,800 feet of bedrock was exposed by the removal
of 25,900 cubic yards of overburden with a D-6 bulldozer, and ten holes totalling 1,973
feet were diamond drilled.
Six men were employed under the direction of W. C. Cheesman.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1946, pp. 101-102.]
LILLOOET*
Blue Creek (51° 122° S.W.)
Gold
The Elizabeth group of four Crown-granted claims is north of
Elizabeth Blue Creek, a tributary of Yalakom River.    They are owned by
Elizabeth U. White, of Vancouver, and T. W. Illidge, of Bralorne.
Access to the property is by 48 miles of road from Lillooet. On this and adjoining
ground, during the years 1941 and 1942 and 1946 to 1953, Bralorne Mines Limited did
approximately 1,700 feet of stripping, 2,000 feet of crosscutting, 2,000 feet of drifting,
2,000 feet of diamond drilling, and 350 feet of raising.
In 1956 five men, supervised by T. W. Illidge, collared a crosscut on the Elizabeth
No. 1 claim at 7,230 feet elevation and drove 466 feet at about north 70 degrees west to
explore two quartz veins exposed on surface. Both veins, the Main vein and the West
vein, were intersected by the crosscut at 110 and 455 feet from the collar respectively.
Twenty-four feet of drifting was done on the West vein. Mining equipment consisted
of one 384-cubic-feet-per-minute Sullivan compressor powered by a D-13000 Caterpillar diesel, two Copco jackleg drills, one 2-ton rocker side-dumping car, and one
Eimco 12B overhead loader.
In addition to the underground work, the access road was repaired for 25 miles
along Yalakom River and Blue Creek, and the former Bralorne camp was rehabilitated.
Mining exploration was under the direction of W. H. White.
[Reference:  B.C. Dept. of Mines, Bull. 32, 1953, pp. 46-50.]
Gold
Bridge River (50° 122° N.W.)
Bralorne Mines
Limited
Company office,  555 Burrard Street, Vancouver;   mine office,
Bralorne.   A. C. Taylor, president; M. M. O'Brien, vice-president
and managing director; D. N. Matheson, general manager; C. M.
Manning, general superintendent;  C. D. Musser, mill superintendent.    Capital:   1,250,000 shares, no par value.   The Bralorne mine is on Cadwallader
Creek, a tributary of Bridge River, and is 75 miles by road from Lillooet on the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway.
* By J. W. Patterson. 38 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
A summary of underground development and exploration work follows:
Advance
Work Done (Ft.)
Drifting—
1951 drifts east and west  602
2002 drift west  384
2579 drift west  42
2793 drift east  133
2877 hangingwall drift west  106
2893 drift west  335
2977 drifts east and west  1,187
3077 drifts east and west  1,898
3177 drifts east and west  486
3277 drift east  133
3279 drift east  28
Total   5,334
scutting—
2002 hangingwall crosscut
__„    _        292
2677 No. 2 crosscut                         	
           80
2977 crosscut                  	
      356
2979 crosscut              __
           73
3277 crosscut
        241
3279 crosscut	
      253
2900 and 3200 level tail tracks	
         114
Total      	
ne	
1,409
Raising __ _ 2,170
Shaft-sinking—
Queen shaft (19^ by 7 feet, four compartments)       56
Crown shaft (14V__ by 7 feet, three compartments)     122
Total       178
Diamond drilling  5,972
Most of the development work was done below the 2600 level on the 77 and 93
veins. The levels below the 2600 level are serviced by the Queen shaft, the greater part
of which was sunk in 1954. Other major development was on the 2000 level in the area
below the old King mine and in the adjoining property of Taylor (Bridge River) Mines
Limited.
Facilities are being provided in the Crown shaft for handling ore hauled from the
Queen shaft on the 2600 level. The Crown shaft has been deepened 122 feet and the
excavation of a loading-pocket has been started.
A new Ingersoll-Rand 72- by 58-inch double-drum electric hoist equipped with
internal expanding jaw-type clutches has been installed on the 2600 level to service the
Queen shaft.
Most of the diamond drilling was directed to locate the extensions of known veins
on new development levels and to test the walls of veins on productive levels for possible
parallel structures.
Production: Ore mined, 114,909 tons; waste mined, 19,781 tons; ore milled,
131,662 tons. At the end of 1956, 55 per cent of the ore mined was from the Queen
shaft levels. Fill for the stopes on these levels was brought into the mine from the waste
dump at the mill-site. LODE METALS
39
The average number of men employed was 370, of which 265 were employed
underground.
Due mainly to the efforts of G. J. Lee, safety director, the accident-frequency rate
was reduced by about 50 per cent from that of the previous year. Twenty-seven supervisors were trained in job safety and job instruction.
Company office, 711 Yorkshire Building, 525 Seymour Street,
Pioneer Gold       Vancouver; mine office, Pioneer Mine.   Victor Spencer, president;
Mines of B.C.      H.  T.  James,  managing director;   W.  B.  Montgomery,  mine
Limited manager;   J. C. Moore, mine superintendent;   T. Bevister, mill
superintendent.    Capital:   2,500,000 shares, $1 par value.    The
Pioneer mine is on Cadwallader Creek, a tributary of Bridge River, and is about 78 miles
by road from Lillooet on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.   The property adjoins that
of Bralorne on the east.
The following is a summary of the work performed underground:—•
Work Done
Advance
Ore
Waste
Drifting—
Ft.
827.0
83.0
44.0
624.5
Tons
624
434
114
1,938
Tons
3,491
56
28 level, 27 HW vein   	
1,211
Totnls
1,578.5
3,110
4,758
Crosscutting—
20 level                          -	
1,977.0
57.0
543.5
25
51
8,832
25 level   .                          	
284
29 level   - -
1,087
Totals	
2,577.5
76
10,203
Raising—
141.5
138.0
152.0
157.5
209.5
154.0
207
22 level, waste pass  „ 	
26 lev. 1j 77 win
338
261
687
445
293
?8 Jrvpl, 77 vein
47
. Q lfVP'j 77 vRin
Totals     	
952.5
1,731
547
Stope development and production—
13
3,643
9,953
5,473
1,624
32,881
27,466
6,969
823
1,447
29
T> level, 77 vein
165.0
147.5
23 level, 27 vein  _ _	
24 level, 27 vein.  	
26 level, 27 vein _	
130.0
119.5
25.5
138.0
31
27 level, 27 vein „    .	
41
28 level, 27 vein  	
17
29 level, 27 vein	
Totals	
725.5
90,292
118
Diamond drilling—
10 level  _	
221
407
6,193
800
440
630
5,111
50
(Purpose)
Testing 27 vein.
15 level _.
Southward   exploration   in   FW   of
Main vein.
Exploration and testing 89 and 92
veins.
Exploration of Main vein FW structures.
20 level  ,           	
25 level 	
27 level.	
28 level-	
Testing 29 vein and HW of 27 vein.
29 level    _
29 level sump  	
also HW structures.
Drainage holes to sump.
Total   	
13,852 40 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Exploration was concentrated on the 2000 and 2900 levels. Three hundred and
sixty-four feet of marginal ore was exposed by drifting along the 89 vein on the 2000
level. On the 2900 level, drifting was continued to the north along the 27 vein. No
new oreshoots were found.
The Taylor tunnel was reopened, and a raise was driven 141 feet on the 40 vein,
the last 75 feet being in ore above average mine grade.
New construction consisted of a warehouse and a core-shed on the mill-site and
a shed at No. 3 shaft headframe. Major repairs were made to the mill foundation, to
the cribbing along Cadwallader Creek, and to the No. 2 pipe-line which supplies water
to the hydro-plant.
Underground, new measuring hoppers were installed in No. 2 shaft in the 2000 level
and 2600 level loading-pockets. Two loading-pockets were excavated at No. 3 shaft
above the 2200 level and were equipped with measuring-hoppers. On surface a new
sheave was installed in the No. 3 shaft headframe, and a 25-kva. 2,200-110/220-volt
transformer was installed to improve domestic distribution of electricity. In the mill,
No. 1 conveyor was replaced by a Syntron feeder.
Late in 1956 the number of tons milled per day was increased from 250 to 275.
This increase was made possible by the introduction of Aerofloc 3000 to the mill circuit,
which promoted settling of slimes in the thickeners.
Production: Ore mined, 95,209 tons; waste mined, 15,626 tons; ore milled (after
sorting), 88,537 tons.
Due mainly to B. C. Murray's continuing efforts as safety director, the accident-
frequency rate was reduced by 56 per cent from that of the previous year. A total of
forty-one persons were trained in first aid, seven of whom received industrial certificates. Twenty-eight employees and two supervisors were trained in job safety and job
instruction.
Cobalt-Gold-Uranium
Company office, 510 West Hastings Street, Vancouver. A. R.
Little Gem (North- Allen, president; J. MacBeth, superintendent. This property,
ern Gem Mining consisting of eight Crown-granted and twenty-six recorded mineral
Corporation Ltd.) claims, is on Roxey Creek near its headwaters. Roxey Creek
flows northeast into Gun Creek and is west of Gun Lake. The
main ore-mineral occurrences are about half a mile east of and 700 feet above the mine
camp on Roxey Creek. By road the camp is 3 miles from Gun Creek and 15 miles from
the Bridge River road. The 3 miles of road from Gun Creek is suitable only for four-
wheel-drive vehicles.
The mineral occurrences were discovered by W. Haylmore and W. H. Ball in 1934.
J. M. Taylor acquired the claims in 1937, and in 1938 optioned them to the United States
Vanadium Corporation. This option was relinquished in 1939 after the mineral occurrences had been explored by two adits at elevations of 6,192 and 6,250 feet. In 1940,
for part of the year, Bralorne Mines Limited held an option, during which time the lower
adit was extended and two short raises were driven from that level. No further extensive exploration was done until Estella Mines Limited drilled twelve diamond-drill
holes from the lower adit.   This company relinquished its option in 1953.
In 1956 Northern Gem Mining Company acquired an option on the Crown-granted
claims and ownership of the adjoining Palang and Paul groups of recorded claims.
Ten claims comprising the O.K. group were recorded in 1956. Work commenced on
June 1st and continued until October 27th. The Gun Creek road and the road from
Gun Creek to the mine camp were repaired. The latter road required rebuilding in
places. A camp consisting of semi-permanent buildings of frame construction was
established on the east bank of Roxey Creek. A cook-house, powder-house, blacksmith-
shop, and a compressor-house were erected and four tents with wood floors and walls to LODE METALS 41
house the crew. Equipment and materials were transported from the camp-site to the
portal of the lower adit by truck and a jigback-single-track-cable tramway.
Four diamond-drill holes totalling 697 feet were drilled downwards from the lower
adit.   The upper adit was prepared for drifting and crosscutting.
The number of employees averaged eight.
[Reference:   Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1948, pp. 112-119.]
Cayoosh Creek (50° 122° N.W.)
Gold
The Dry Gulch group of five claims is owned by P. Meury, of
Dry Gulch Lillooet.   The claims are adjacent to Cayoosh Creek and are about
1 mile above the mouth of Enterprise Creek.    Four open-cuts,
all within 1,000 feet of Meury's cabin, were examined.   Three of the open-cuts exposed
narrow quartz stringers for short distances;   one open-cut was entirely in quartzite.
Two chip samples taken of the quartz in two open-cuts assayed:   Gold, nil; silver, nil.
Rusty Creek (50° 121° N.W.)
Copper
Company office, 569 Howe Street, Vancouver. R. A. Brossard,
Copper King (High- president; C. W. S. Tremaine, consulting engineer. This property
land Valley Mining is at the headwaters of Rusty Creek, a tributary of Fountain Creek
Corporation Ltd.) which flows north into the Fraser River. A jeep-road 3 miles long
connects the property to the Fountain Valley road 5 miles from
its junction with the Lillooet-Pavilion road. Work consisted chiefly of extending and
sampling several of the old open-cuts. A 105-cubic-foot-per-minute compressor provided air for drilling.
Two miles of road suitable only for four-wheel-drive vehicles was built, and 1 mile
of existing road was repaired and improved.
The work was done by a crew of four men supervised by A. Greenway, of Lillooet.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1949, pp. 114-115.]
HIGHLAND VALLEY*
The encouraging results of exploration work on the property of Bethlehem Copper
Corporation Ltd. in Highland Valley in 1955 served to focus interest in the copper
possibilties of that area, and of the Guichon Creek batholith in general. As a result,
7,324 mineral claims were located in the Kamloops Mining Division in 1956. Of these,
more than 6,000 were in the Highland Valley and near vicinity.
The location of some groups of claims with relation to Highland Valley and to the
holdings of Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd. are shown on the index map, Figure 2.
Numerous other groups lying to the north and south are not shown.
Highland Valley is southeast of Ashcroft, about 30 miles distant by road. Alternatively it may be reached by the Tunkwa Lake road extending south from Savona or by
the Mamit Lake road extending north from Merritt.
The Highland Valley is underlain by the Guichon Creek batholith and associated
intrusives, which on Forge Mountain are unconformably overlain by mid-Tertiary
basaltic lavas. The dominant rock of the Guichon Creek batholith is quartz diorite, but
detailed geological work, especially that done by company geologists on the Bethlehem
Copper property, has shown that the older quartz diorite is intruded by several distinctive younger quartz diorites and by several porphyries as well. Rocks instrusive into
the older quartz diorite have been recognized on several of the other properties, but
* By Stuart S. Holland and E. R. Hughes. 42
REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Figure 2. Index Map of some properties in Highland Valley.
1. Krain Copper Ltd.
2. Salmo Prince Mines Limited.
3. Trojan Consolidated Mines Ltd.
4. Northlodge Copper Mines Limited.
5. Farwest Tungsten Copper Mines Limited and Beaver
Lodge Uranium Mines Limited.
6. Bethlehem Copper Corporation Ltd.
7. Outrider group (Farwest Tungsten and Beaver Lodge
Uranium).
8. O.K. mine.
9. Bethsaida   Copper   Mines   Limited,   including   the
Crown-granted Tamarac and Osprey groups.
10. Graham Bousquet Gold Mines Limited.
11. Empire claim.
12. Kathleen claim.
13. Laco Mines Limited.
14. Skeena Silver Mines Ltd.
15. Sheba Copper Mines Limited.
16. Jericho Mines Ltd.
a considerable amount of petrographic work will be necessary in order to relate them
to the Bethlehem Copper intrusive sequence.
On the Bethlehem Copper and Trojan properties there are areas of breccia composed of fragments of quartz diorite and porphyry. These may represent explosive volcanic vents that were associated with deep-seated instrusions represented by the several
porphyries.
It is worth noting at this time that the breccia occurrences were recorded in the
Annual Report for 1907, and that in the Annual Report for 1923 the Iona copper LODE METALS
43
occurrence, on what is now Bethlehem Copper, was commended because of its resemblance to the porphyry copper occurrence at Bingham Canyon, Utah.
Primary copper mineralization consisting largely of chalcopyrite and bornite, with
which some molybdenite may be associated, is in zones of fracturing or sheeting within
the quartz diorites and breccia, or may be disseminated through a mass of hydrothermally
altered rock.
Structural controls of mineralization seem to differ from one property to another,
and no common denominator is yet apparent.
[References: Duffell, S., and McTaggart, K. C: Ashcroft Map Area, Geol. Surv.
Canada, Mem. 262, 1952. Cockfield, W. E.: Nicola Map Area, Geol. Surv. Canada,
Mem. 249, 1948. White, W. H.: Bethlehem Copper, Canadian Mining Jour., Vol. 77,
No. 4, pp. 76-77, 1956.]
(50°  121° N.E.)    Company office,  1008, 850 West Hastings
Krain Copper Ltd.   Street, Vancouver.    President, D. F. Farris.   This company holds
(1) twenty-one claims and fractions on the east side of the north peak
of Forge Mountain adjoining the Transvaal group on the northeast.
The main showing is 1 mile northeast of the Transvaal camp.   The claims cover copper
showings described in earlier Annual Reports under Keystone.
The old work was done in an area of quartz diorite containing malachite and underlying basaltic lavas which cap the north peak of Forge Mountain. Surface diamond
drilling and bulldozer trenching have explored the zone of mineralized quartz diorite.
During 1956 exploratory work consisted of: Geochemical soil sampling on one
claim, 34,000 lineal feet of line cutting for surveying and geological mapping, magnetometer surveying of six claims, and 6,478 feet of diamond drilling and 3,500 feet of
bulldozer trenching in the mineralized zone.
The work was done by Farwest Tungsten Copper Mines Limited under the direction
of W. M. Sirola, chief geologist, and G. E. Apps, engineer.
Camp buildings to accommodate sixteen men were constructed.
(50° 120° N.W.) Company office, 108, 413 Granville Street,
Vancouver. R. T. Blackmore, president. The company holds
fifty-eight claims to the east of the Krain and about \Vi miles
north of the Trojan camp. The claims were prospected, and
under the direction of R. B. Stokes a geochemical soil survey was
made of the property. This involved the cutting of 76 miles of picket line and the
analyses of 4,000 soil samples.
An area of high copper content was found which subsequently was explored by
2,400 feet of bulldozer stripping in an area 2,500 feet long and 300 feet wide. Seven
men were employed.
Company office, 303 Williams Building, 413 Granville Street, Vancouver. A. J. McClellan, president; M. Hunt, resident engineer.
On November 27th, 1956, Trojan Exploration Limited, Jackson
Mines Limited, and Tri-Side Mining Corporation Limited went
into voluntary liquidation and were merged as one company, Trojan Consolidated Mines
Ltd.   This company holds 110 claims east and southeast of Forge Mountain.
Trojan.—(50° 120° N.W.) The Trojan mine area lies between the Transvaal and
Lodge groups and is about 3 miles northwest of Jersey Lake on the Bethlehem Copper
Corporation ground. Old workings are on copper showings described in earlier Annual
Reports under Albatross and Canopus.
The claims are underlain by quartz diorite of the Guichon Creek batholith. Breccia
composed of fragments of quartz diorite and porphyry occupies an area 1,500 feet long
and 800 feet wide. In some zones it it chloritized and tourmalinized, and mineralized
with chalcopyrite and bornite and a variety of secondary copper minerals.
Salmo Prince
Mines Limited
(2)
Trojan Consolidated
Mines Ltd. (3) 44 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
The breccia zone was under active exploration by stripping and diamond drilling.
In 1956, 500 lineal feet of bulldozed trenches were dug and forty diamond-drill holes
totalling 27,718 feet were drilled.
In November preparations were made for sinking a 250-foot 2-compartment shaft.
At the end of the year the shaft was 40 feet deep and sinking was being continued.
A camp to accommodate thirty-five men was built on a site about 1,000 feet from the
shaft. Included in the camp buildings are three bunk-houses, washroom, cook-house,
first-aid room, office, lighting-generator room, and warehouses. Twenty men were
employed.
Transvaal.—(50° 121° N.E.) The Transvaal is one of the oldest groups in the
area, having been located in 1899. It lies east of the south peak of Forge Mountain
and about Wi miles northwest of the Trojan.
Over the years a considerable amount of underground work has been done on the
Transvaal veins, which are northerly striking fractures along which there has been intense
tourmalinization of the quartz diorite and introduction of copper mineralization.
In 1956 the Nos. 1 and 2 levels of the old Transvaal shaft were cleaned out and
a new headframe was erected. Underground work was discontinued after some sampling
and diamond drilling had been done.
During the summer a small crew was employed prospecting and in making a detailed
geological map of the holdings.
Tri-Side.—(50° 120° N.W. and 121° N.E.) A small crew was employed prospecting and making a geochemical soil survey. Copper anomalies were subsequently
trenched by bulldozer.
(50° 120° N.W.)    This company is jointly controlled by Farwest
Northlodge Copper Tungsten Copper Mines Limited (company office, 206, 1178 West
Mines Limited     Pender Street, Vancouver;  D. T. Farris, president) and Beaver
(4) Lodge Uranium Mines Limited.   The company holds seventy-two
claims, of which the main Northlodge group lies directly north
of the Bethlehem Copper Corporation claims.
The Northlodge camp is IVi miles north of Quiltanton (Divide) Lake and 1 mile
south of the Trojan camp.   The camp will accommodate thirty men.
The claims are very largely covered by overburden, and outcrops are extremely
scarce. Prospecting consisted of a magnetometer survey on thirty-seven claims and
geochemical soil sampling on eleven claims. In addition, 148,000 lineal feet of line was
cut for surveying and geological mapping, and 424 feet of diamond drilling and 3,100
feet of bulldozer trenching were done.
The magnetometer survey showed an area of low magnetic flux about 4,000 feet
long and 2,300 feet wide in the northwest part of the group. This anomaly underlies
an area of drift cover too deep to be trenched by bulldozer, and exploration by drilling
is planned. The work was done under the direction of W. M. Sirola, chief geologist, and
G. E. Apps, engineer.
The Beaver (50° 121° N.E.), Outrider (50° 120° S.W.), and
Beaver (5),        D.W. groups are jointly owned by Farwest Tungsten Copper Mines
Outrider (7),       Limited and Beaver Lodge Uranium Mines Limited.   These claims
and D.W. had no previously known showings on them and are very largely
covered by overburden. A magnetometer survey of eighteen claims
was made, and 230,000 feet of line was cut for geological mapping and geochemical soil
sampling.
Four hundred feet of diamond drilling was done on the D.W. group.
The exploration work was done by Farwest Tungsten Copper Mines Limited under
the direction of W. M. Sirola, chief geologist, and G. E. Apps, engineer. LODE METALS 45
(50°  120°  S.W.)    Company office, 402,  1111  West Georgia
Bethlehem Copper Street, Vancouver.   H. H. Huestis, president.   The company holds
Corporation Ltd.    112 claims to the northeast of Quiltanton (Divide) Lake.   Explo-
(6) ration of the claims is being financed and directed by American
Smelting and Refining Co. Ltd. by agreement and contract with
the company. Engineer in charge of the Bethlehem Copper project is C. J. Coveney.
Exploration work done during 1956 included 33,975 lineal feet of bulldozer trenching and 22,928 feet of diamond drilling (predominantly NX core). The drilling was done
by Boyles Bros. Drilling Company Ltd., using four diesel-powered drills. During the
latter part of the year 1,000-foot vertical holes were being drilled, and the use of drilling
mud had increased the core recovery to over 90 per cent.
The drilling was very largely concentrated on the Jersey zone near Jersey Lake.
The greater depth of the vertical holes has materially increased the ore tonnage from the
amount previously indicated by inclined holes which reached a vertical depth of about
400 feet. The company in December released the information that the estimated tonnage
to date was:  Iona zone, 25,000,000 tons; Jersey zone, 56,000,000 tons.
(50° 121 ° S.E.)    Company office, 206, 1178 West Pender Street,
Bethsaida Copper   Vancouver.    D. F. Farris, president;  W. M. Sirola, chief geolo-
Mines Limited (9) gist; G. E. Apps, engineer.   The company holds sixty-four claims
on the west side of Quiltanton (Divide) Lake.   The located claims
surround the old Tamarac and Osprey groups, where surface and underground work
had been done before 1915.
During the summer fifty-one claims were prospected by means of magnetometer
and geochemical soil surveys. This necessitated the cutting of 141,300 feet of line to
enable soil samples to be taken at 200-foot intervals along lines 200 feet apart. The
soil survey revealed a high copper anomaly in an area completely devoid of outcrop.
A trench bulldozed to a depth of 5 feet and more for a length of 1,200 feet disclosed
copper mineralization in the bedrock but of too low grade to warrant further exploration.
A total of 14,675 lineal feet of bulldozer trenching was done. Part of it was to
explore a westerly striking zone of sheeting 15 to 20 feet wide in which narrow quartz
stringers are mineralized with chalcopyrite and molybdenite. About 1,500 feet of
surface diamond drilling was done on this zone before work was abandoned because of
the generally low copper content.
Trenching on the eastern side of the claims revealed a small inclusion or pendant
of quartzite within the Bethsaida quartz diorite. This is the sole inclusion of old rocks
known in the area, and despite the fact that it is only 5 feet wide its intense mineralization
with disseminated chalcopyrite should serve to direct attention to this type of occurrence.
Additional work included 1,000 feet of percussion drilling, 1,120 feet of trenching
for bulk sampling of mineralized areas, channel sampling of veins exposed in trenches,
and geological mapping of trenches and outcrops.
(50°  121° S.E.)    Company office,  1116, 85 Richmond Street
Graham Bousquet   West, Toronto.   T. J. Day, president.   The company holds a very
Gold Mines large number of claims in the Highland Valley area.    During the
Limited (10)       summer, work under the direction of H. Darling was concentrated
on holdings south and east of the Bethsaida ground.   The claims
were prospected and surveyed, and a geochemical soil survey was made.
(50° 121° S.E.)    Company office, 602, 199 Bay Street, Toronto.
Laco Mines Limited   J. C. L. Allen, president.    The company holds sixteen claims
(13) south of Calling Lake.   The old road between the O.K. mine and
Calling Lake was made passable for cars, and a tent camp was
established at the west end of the lake.    From it three men prospected the claims.
In late August a few hundred feet of bulldozer trench was dug on copper showings
near the west boundary of the Empire claim. 46 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
(50° 121 ° S.E.)    Company office, 411, 850 West Hastings Street,
Victor (Skeena      Vancouver 1.    S. S. Parker, president; C. Rutherford, consulting
Silver Mines Ltd.)   engineer;   George Burdett, mine foreman.    The company holds
(14) by record twenty-one claims and fractions, 2 miles southeast of
Quiltanton (Divide)  Lake on the old forestry trail to Gnawed
Mountain, which lies to the southeast of Highland Valley.   The property is a relocation
of ground formerly covered by the Victor group.
Underground work at the Victor adit consisted of 420 feet of drifting and cross-
cutting and 800 feet of diamond drilling. Surface exploration included 1,306 feet of
diamond drilling and 3,075 feet of bulldozer trenching. A geochemical soil survey was
made of the property. The camp consists of bunk-house accommodation for twelve
men, a cook-house, and a dry-house.    Eleven men were employed.
(50° 120° S.W.)    Company office, Suite 204, 717 West Pender
Jericho Mines      Street, Vancouver 1.    R. Franklin Stibbard, president.   The com-
Ltd. (16) pany holds forty claims and fractions straddling Witches Brook,
about 8 miles east of Quiltanton (Divide) Lake, and about 5 miles
west of the Mamit Lake-Savona road. Exploratory work included 1,100 feet of surface
diamond drilling. Topographical, geological, and geophysical surveys were made.
The geophysical work was completed late in November, and a bunk-house and cookhouse, sufficient to accommodate twenty men, were erected.
MEADOW CREEK*
Copper
(50° 120° S. W.)    Company office, Suite 401, 640 West Hastings
Dunmore Mines    Street, Vancouver.   Thomas Moore, president.   This property of
Ltd. seventeen claims is in the Meadow Creek area 35 miles from Kam
loops, 45 miles from Merritt, and ?>Vi miles south of the Mamit
Lake-Kamloops road. It includes ground formerly covered in part by the Bertha and
Molly claims. Bulldozer exploration work consisted of three open-cuts totalling 5,428
cubic yards and stripping of overburden in areas totalling approximately 3 acres. Two
miles of tractor-road and 2 miles of truck-road were constructed. Surface diamond
drilling amounting to 2,000 feet was done in seventeen holes. At the camp-site is one
30- by 20-foot cabin. Two or three men were employed from April to November.
GUICHON CREEK*
Copper
(50° 120° S.W.)    Company office, 402 West Pender Street, Van-
Northwestern      couver.   J. S. Scott, manager, Vancouver; P. E. Hirst, superin-
Explorations,       tendent, Merritt.   This company is a subsidiary of Kennecott
Limited Copper Corporation.   In 1956 the company held by purchase and
option 150 located and nine Crown-granted claims. The property
straddles Guichon Creek 4 miles south of Mamit Lake, and includes the old Vimy and
Aberdeen mines. Exploratory work started in May included surface diamond drilling,
stripping of overburden, and soil sampling. Some magnetometer surveying was done.
Three miles of road was built and a bridge was constructed across Guichon Creek. Two
diamond drills were continuously employed from May to December, and a total of
10,428 feet of drilling was done in twenty-four holes. Low-grade disseminated copper
is present in altered granitic rocks of the Guichon Creek batholith. Twenty men were
employed, including the diamond-drill crew.
* By E. R. Hughes. LODE METALS 47
NICOLA*
Copper
(50° 120° S.W.)    Head office, Room 608, 1255 Phillips Square,
Copperado (Western Montreal; mine office, Merritt.  D. W. Heller, president, Montreal;
Copperada Mining R. E. Parkes, general superintendent, Merritt.    This mine is 5
Corporation)        miles by road northeast of Nicola.    It was closed on November
23rd, 1951, and remained closed until reopened by Guichon Mine
Limited in May, 1956, when the shaft was unwatered to the 250 level, and a raise was
driven 50 feet in ore from the 100-foot level.   Approximately 95 tons of ore was produced, and of this, 45 tons was shipped to the Tacoma smelter for test purposes.
The property was taken over on December 1st by Western Copperada Mining
Corporation on a 99-year lease.   The 450-foot shaft was unwatered and the underground
workings were surveyed.   At the end of the year eighteen men were employed.
[Reference:  Minister of Mines, B.C., Ann. Rept., 1949, pp. 115-120.]
KAMLOOPSf
Copper
Deposits Associated with the Eastern Part of the Iron Mask
Batholith near Kamloops
Introduction
The Iron Mask batholith is 3 miles southwest of Kamloops and extends for a distance of 18 miles in a northwesterly direction. It is partly overlain by Tertiary rocks.
Associated with the batholith are numerous copper deposits, some of which carry appreciable values in gold and silver. Deposits of magnetite also occur. Despite a long history
of exploration, only one important copper producer has been found, the Iron Mask mine.
Ten weeks were spent between June and September, 1956, examining the known
mineral occurrences from the Iron Mask mine eastward. The area covered is about
40 square miles. Most of the workings, prospects, and showings are indicated on Figure
3, those of greater interest being identified by numbers as follows: 1, Python and
Copper Head; 2, Orphan Boy; 3, Noonday; 4, Lost Chord; 5, O.K.; 6, Evening Star;
7, Lucky Strike; 8, Windsor; 9, Iron Mask and Erin; 10, Night Hawk (Larsen); 11,
Ajax; 12, Wheal Tamar; 13, Monte Carlo; 14, Joker; 15, Amakua (Grey Mask);
16, Iron Cap;  17, Kimberley;  18, Kingpin;  19, Utopia; 20, Dewey.
No part of the area is more than 10 miles by motor-road from Kamloops. Precipitation is low and much of the mapped area is open grazing country, but Coal Hill, Sugar-
loaf Hill, and the southwestern margin of the batholith are well timbered. Vertical relief
is moderate, with elevations lying between 2,000 and 3,600 feet. The only streams with
all-year flow are Anderson Creek, Peterson Creek, and a tributary of the latter, Humphrey Creek. Consequently the only bodies of fresh water are Jacko and Edith Lakes,
which are on Peterson and Humphrey Creeks. Many saline ponds occur, and in spring
and early summer these may provide water for diamond drilling at most localities within
the area. For mill operation the Iron Mask mine pumped water a vertical distance of
1,600 feet from Kamloops Lake.
The grain of the country trends northwest and has been emphasized by glacial scour.
Outcrops are abundant on Coal Hill, Sugarloaf Hill, and the higher ground east of Jacko
Lake.   Outcrops are rare at the outer contacts of the batholith.
History
In 1896, the first year in which activity is recorded, over 200 claims were located.
By 1900 underground work had been done at the Python, Noonday, Lucky Strike, Iron
* By E. R. Hughes,
t By J. M. Carr. 48 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
Mask, Wheal Tamar, Iron Cap, and Kimberley properties. Most of these properties
have produced a few tons of selected ore. Exclusive of that from the Iron Mask and
associated orebodies, the total production recorded from the area up to 1940 is 419 tons
of copper-bearing material, mostly with low gold and silver content. West of the area
the Copper King mine at Cherry Bluff produced 7,460 tons of material containing about
3 per cent copper and 0.14 ounce of gold per ton. The Glen mine, in the same area,
from 1891 to 1904 shipped 16,000 tons of magnetite as flux to the Nelson and Tacoma
smelters.
The Iron Mask and Erin are the largest known orebodies. The approximate average
grade of 182,494 tons milled and shipped from both bodies was 1.47 per cent copper,
0.02 ounce per ton of gold, and 0.08 ounce per ton of silver. Production lasted with
some breaks from 1904 until 1928, and was from the Iron Mask and partly from the
Erin and smaller orebodies in the vicinity.
In 1916 the Granby Mining and Smelting Company optioned the Python, Evening
Star, and Wheal Tamar groups and carried out diamond drilling, but the results of this
work are not recorded.
Recent exploration has included geophysical surveys followed by diamond drilling.
In 1951 and 1952 Berens River Mines Limited held 113 mineral claims and drilled
twenty-two holes totalling 5,497 feet. Also in 1951 and 1952 Kennco Explorations
(Canada) Limited made an electromagnetic survey of fifty-eight claims in the Pothook
area, 3 miles west of the Iron Mask mine, and put down fourteen diamond-drill holes
of a total length of 4,555 feet. This work indicated a large tonnage of submarginal
material. In 1956 a geophysical survey was carried out on behalf of Graham Bousquet
Gold Mines Limited over 118 claims which include the area surveyed by Kennco and
which extend west of Sugarloaf Hill.
Mineral claims covered most of the area in 1956. The Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company of Canada, Limited has been active in the area since 1954. Including work done in 1929, this company has diamond drilled a total length of over 16,000
feet on the Ajax-Monte Carlo group. Other companies have extended old workings on
the Night Hawk, Python, Copper Head, and Evening Star claims. Closely spaced diamond drilling has been done in 1955 and 1956 at two adjacent prospects in the extreme
southeast part of the exposed batholithic area.
Rock Types
Four principal types of rock have been recognized within the batholith (Geol. Surv.,
Canada, Mem. 249, pp. 17-18, and unpublished thesis by W. H. Mathews); namely,
an intermediate type (diorite, gabbro), a more acid type (syenite and monzonite), a
basic type (pyroxenite), and a hydrothermally altered type. Only pyroxenite was mapped
separately. Peridotite noted southeast of Jacko Lake was thought to be part of the
batholith.
In this report, only two divisions are made of the batholithic rocks. They are made
on the basis of field appearance and fabric rather than of composition. The rocks of
one division are sufficiently different from those of the other that they may be considered
to have distinct modes of origin. Altered rocks fall within either division and are
described separately. The coarser-grained batholithic rocks are typically plutonic and
possess a mean grain size greater than 1 Vz mm. Among them diorite and gabbro show
rapid variation to much coarser grain sizes. The finer-grained batholithic rocks possess
a mean grain size less than lVi mm. and are more uniform in appearance. Some were
previously mapped as Kamloops volcanics.
Cache Creek Rocks.—Grey glassy andesite and black, laminated, tuffaceous argil-
lites that outcrop on the Merritt highway are assumed to belong to the Cache Creek
group, of pre-Triassic age. 120*25'
50*40'
120° 20'
Figure 3
EASTERN   PART
OF THE
IRON   MASK   BATHOLITH
LEGEND
KAMLOOPS  GROUP
Andesite, basalt
'.'•','.'[ Tranquille beds
RON  MASK BATHOLITH
'\ ~- ~l Microdiorite, micromonzonite
i- -r\ Gabbro, diorite, pyroxenite, monzonite, syenite
POST-NICOLA   INTRUSIONS
Picrite-basalt and serpentine
NICOLA   GROUP
+   + lAndesite and basalt lava, tuff and agglomerate
CACHE CREEK GROUP
r.v.'.'.'-.l Andesite and tuffaceous argillite
2000
______
:...'•■    Outcrop boundary
 Geological contact
^^ Dip of volcanic rocks
(VAAA/WW  pQU |
H      Shaft
>-     Adit
1 '  Open-cut
•       Diamond-drill hole
O      Abandoned coal mine
X      Mineralized showing or prospect
(2)    Localities described in text
4000
__________!
6000_
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a.     4-     -_?•*?,_«-     _i_\ x^±\ ♦. ♦ * *** ♦ •
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q\ + + + +•;.+ +
+   +  +  +  +  +  +$5?+
+   +   +   +   +  +  +J-«
+   +   +   +  +  +  +   +
+    +    +    J-^TTts.+    +    +    +
+   +   + ,-r:•,•'•'•••:•'.• '••^;">n.+   +
±^ <■■'■::■■■■ ■■■■■■ '■:■'.'■'■'■ .>■<  +
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120*25'
50°35'
120*20' LODE METALS 49
Nicola Rocks.—Rocks of the Triassic Nicola group are all volcanic. Limestone is
recorded 1 mile southwest of Sugarloaf Hill (Kamloops map-sheet, 1896), but no sedimentary material of Nicola age is known in the present area.
The Nicola rocks differ in character from place to place around the batholith. The
northern outcrops are of strongly altered andesite, red, green, or grey in colour. Some
are porphyritic. Epidote disseminations and veinlets are usual, and in places the rocks
are sparsely mineralized.
Near Knutsford the principal representative is a grey feldspathic andesite showing
vesicularity and a mild alteration involving epidote. Pyroclastic types, predominantly
of basaltic composition, are usual in the southern part of the area. Bedded and massive
tuffs occur between Jacko and Edith Lakes. Mottled dull-green agglomeratic tuff is
widespread parallel to the contact with Cache Creek rocks, where it is much sheared
and broken. The same rock also outcrops west of the Monte Carlo workings. It is
exposed underground in the Star workings, in association with grey volcanic rocks.
In places a distinction between Nicola and Kamloops volcanic rocks has to be based
upon the degree of hydrothermal alteration shown and is hard to achieve in the field.
Picrite-Basalt.—Although occurring as intrusions within the batholith, this rock is
not batholithic. The unaltered rock is known only at two places; namely, in an adit at
2,519 feet elevation on the Copper Head mineral claim, and southeast of Jacko Lake.
Although it has been called peridotite, the unaltered rock possesses a glassy matrix and
is similar to picrite-basalt north of Kamloops Lake. It is a greenish-black dense rock
of conspicuously porphyritic appearance. Closely spaced crystals of serpentinized olivine
range in size to as much as one-fifth of an inch. Both when fresh and when altered, the
rock is for the most part appreciably magnetic.
Coarser-grained Batholithic Rocks.—Pyroxenite is known only in the Jacko and
Edith Lakes area. It is a heavy grey-green rock of crystalline appearance and is strongly
magnetic. It consists almost wholly of pyroxene, hornblende, and magnetite. Dioritic
or gabbroic rocks rich in pyroxene occur in the same region, and will be termed pyrox-
enic diorite.
Gabbro and diorite are not separately recognizable except under the microscope,
and diorite will be used as a general term. The rock has a variable appearance because
of common changes in grain size and in the proportion of light- to dark-coloured components. In slightly weathered outcrop it is dark brown to light grey. On the broken
surface the rock is uniformly dark grey-green or is white and dark speckled, according
to whether the feldspar is somewhat altered or is fresh. Biotite is a usual component
and shows as glistening flakes that may be light coloured by alteration. The rock is
commonly magnetic. An inconstant banding is developed in places, and inclusions of
dark fine-grained rock are quite usual.
Monzonite principally underlies an area along the northeast margin of the batholith, eastward from the Lost Chord working. It occurs locally in several other places,
notably at the Iron Cap mine. The rock is more uniform than diorite, from which it is
distinguished by the pink colour of much of the feldspar, which includes orthoclase. In
part at least, monzonite is an alteration product of diorite. It may be relatively nonmagnetic, as at the Iron Cap mine.
Finer-grained Batholithic Rocks.—These rocks may be termed microdiorite and
micromonzonite, to distinguish each from its coarser-grained counterpart of similar composition. Microgranodiorite also occurs. These varieties probably do not form separate
bodies, but instead grade into each other. Processes of alteration and recrystallization
appear to be responsible for some of the existing differences.
All the rocks are grey, white, or pinkish in colour. The mean grain size is 1 mm.,
but a porphyritic tendency is usual. There is commonly a perceptible foliation, marked
by bladed crystals of pyroxene and hornblende and by flaky ones of biotite where this 50 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
mineral is sufficiently abundant. Sparse chloritic inclusions of some other rock type do
not exceed 1 inch in length. At one locality, 3,000 feet southeast of Coal Hill, somewhat
larger inclusions of altered diorite were observed.
Microgranodiorite is a whiter rock than microdiorite and in places contains visible
quartz. It mainly occurs south and east of the Lucky Strike workings, but is also present
in the vicinity of the Ajax workings.
Microdiorite is light grey and speckled on the weathered surface, and a uniform
darker grey on the fresh surface. Like the associated rocks, it is commonly cut by epidote
veinlets. In general it is a rather even-grained rock, but it may grade into a conspicuously
porphyritic type.
Micromonzonite is distinguished from microdiorite by its prevalent pinkish coloration, which is due to orthoclase or microcline. The rock may contain a small amount of
quartz. Micromonzonite and monzonite may locally converge in character so that the
one is difficult to tell from the other, probably because both are altered varieties of dioritic
rocks.
Porphyritic microdiorite is a distinctive rock, yet is not easy to separate from microdiorite in the field because of complex intergradation. It contains abundant elongate
hornblende crystals, set more or less parallel to one another in a dark-grey crystalline
matrix. The rock is thus commonly foliated. Porphyritic microdiorite occupies most of
Sugarloaf Hill, occurs in the Ajax-Monte Carlo vicinity, and outcrops in the southeastern-
most part of the batholith. In all of these places it is slightly mineralized. Rather similar
rock is seen a short distance south of the Python shaft in unknown relationship to the
surrounding diorite. Certain dykes cutting diorite, Nicola volcanics, and picrite-basalt
resemble porphyritic microdiorite.
Kamloops Volcanic and Sedimentary Rocks.—The Tranquille beds are very poorly
exposed. At the filled-in shaft of an abandoned coal mine on Guerin Creek, debris of
altered lava with copper stain confirms that here the beds rest directly on Nicola rocks,
as mapped in 1895 (Kamloops map-sheet). The beds are reported to be 50 feet thick at
this locality, with several coal seams totalling 30 inches. They are much broken up (Ann.
Rept., 1924).
The volcanic rocks have been dated as Miocene or earlier (Mem. 249, p. 39).
Agglomerate occurs in the extreme north of the area. Elsewhere comparatively fresh
andesite and basalt lavas give indications of low dips. Direct evidence of basalt lava
resting on the batholithic rocks exists north of Edith Lake.
Agate of poor quality weathers out of the volcanic rock, west of the Merritt highway
and three-quarters of a mile from its junction with the Trans-Canada Highway.
Dykes.—Excepting those cutting Tertiary volcanics near the Trans-Canada Highway, no post-mineral dykes are identified. Dykes are scarce or absent in the heart of
the batholith. Andesite dykes, some of which resemble porphyritic microdiorite, occur
within diorite in the Iron Mask and Python vicinities. They were intruded prior to alteration of the diorite.
Rock Alteration
The batholithic rocks are strongly altered near zones of structural weakness. White
rocks and pink rocks are produced, each representing a distinct kind of alteration. Distribution of the two kinds is overlapping, and since there is no evidence as to which was
first, they may be related in origin. The alteration occurred subsequently to dyke intrusion and prior to mineralization.   It was presumably effected at fairly high temperatures.
White alteration, which has been named albitization (Geol. Surv., Canada, Mem.
249, pp. 104-105), causes progressive elimination of dark minerals and results in
speckled rocks which are whiter the more intense the alteration they represent. Any
previous coarseness of grain is preserved as seen under the microscope, but in the field
a rather fine-grained appearance is universal.   Calcite and epidote are commonly dis- LODE METALS 51
seminated and in veinlets, and may be accompanied by minor amounts of pyrite. Magnetite content is low, the iron having been absorbed into new chlorite, epidote, and pyrite.
White rocks produced by alteration of diorite and gabbro are partly albitites, and
partly rocks that are otherwise identical but contain feldspar more calcic than albite. The
difference seems, from the present study, to bear no relation to proximity of mineralization and cannot be recognized in the field. The bodies of altered rock are unsymmetrical
but dyke-like, with relatively sharp outlines against less-altered diorite. The trend is
irregular and the size ranges from a few feet to many tens of feet in least dimension.
Most of the altered diorite shows no copper mineralization. The principal areas in which
these altered diorite bodies occur are between the Iron Mask mine area and the summit
of Coal Hill, and north of the Monte Carlo workings. Near the boundary of the strongly
altered areas, diorite is altered to white rock in a net pattern along intersecting sealed
fractures.
The white alteration of the finer-grained batholithic rocks is less noticeable because
of the light colour and fine grain of the unaltered rock. In the Ajax-Monte Carlo area at
least, the white altered rocks are albitites. The alteration commonly affects numerous
narrow sections of the rock rather than the whole mass. However, in the vicinity of the
Ajax tunnel, where mineralization is strong, large masses of microdiorite are fairly uniformly albitized. Veinlets of analcite and albite traverse the altered sections, but in some
instances similar veinlets are of a more calcic feldspar. The strongly albitized rock is
generally non-magnetic; it rarely contains lenses of solid magnetite up to 6 inches wide.
Pink alteration is most obvious between the Iron Mask mine and the Noonday shaft,
where replacement veins of pink orthoclase feldspar are very abundant. The pink veins
occur sparsely in diorite and monzonite elsewhere along the margin. They have not been
observed in the interior of the area, nor are they well developed in the finer-grained rocks.
The veins vary from massive and persistent to narrow and diffuse. In the immediate
vicinity of the Python mineralized zone the pink veins form a replacement breccia (that
is, a breccia bonded by replacement veins). Adjacent to the veins, diorite is changed to
monzonite. Individual veins frequently contain one or more of the following minerals:
Calcite, epidote, albite, biotite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. Calcite and epidote are the
most common, and at least a trace of chalcopyrite usually accompanies them. Biotite
may be somewhat earlier than the other minerals, whose crystallization partly occurred
after the veins were fractured. All the above minerals may occur within the adjacent
altered diorite rather than in a vein.
Monzonite at the Iron Cap mine and east of the Lost Chord claim almost certainly
represents altered diorite; it contains slender pink veins and the mineral assemblage just
noted. Magnetite is abundant as lenses and veins, but the rock itself is impoverished in
magnetite.
Although well-defined pink veins do not occur in the finer-grained rocks, orthoclase
and microcline have undoubtedly been introduced within some of the rocks classed as
micromonzonites.
Overlapping of the pink and white alterations is evident at several localities. On the
Ajax claim, both unaltered and albitized microdiorites contain vague stringers and patches
of pink feldspar. In the Python and Iron Mask areas, similarly vague pink veins occur
in whitened diorite. Near the Lucky Strike shaft, albitized diorite contains much introduced quartz and orthoclase.
Picrite-basalt in structurally weak zones is mostly altered to a hard uniformly dark-
green rock in which the altered porphyritic crystals appear as vague rounded black
shapes. Where the rock is fractured, the fracture planes are smooth and pass with equal
facility through altered crystals and matrix. Microscopic examination shows that the
original, partly serpentinized olivine crystals are reduced to talc, serpentine, and magnetite, and that the glassy matrix and small pyroxene crystals are replaced by a fine dense 52 REPORT OF THE MINISTER OF MINES,  1956
aggregate of tremolite, chlorite, and magnetite. The altered rock corresponds very closely
to the third Carabine Creek specimen described in Memoir 249 (p. 24).
Picrite-basalt is altered in this manner at its contact with diorite on the Copper Head
claim, but has suffered only talcose alteration of the porphyritic crystals at its contact with
altered Nicola volcanics. The more fully altered rock may break down to a slippery green
sand, from which reddish hematized pellets can be picked by hand. This later alteration
was probably effected during faulting, for the disintegrated rock appears along the strike
of the Copper Head shear zone.
At the Larsen workings and near the Iron Mask shaft, picrite-basalt is converted to
a black rock glistening with abundant finely disseminated biotite and traversed by talcose
slips. The outlines of the altered olivine crystals cannot be distinguished, and the rock
consists largely of pyroxene, hornblende, and biotite. Under the microscope, narrow
veinlets of these minerals with brown garnet are seen. This alteration is a high-
temperature kind and probably involved addition of material.
Basaltic tuff at the Star shaft and olivine-basalt at the Monte Carlo workings are
altered to talc-chlorite rocks.
Structure
Evidence concerning the structure of this part of the batholith is insufficient to allow
firm conclusions to be drawn. The following is, therefore, a discussion of the structural
setting in which mineralization has occurred.
Two or three intrusive episodes preceded consolidation of the batholith; two if the
coarser- and finer-grained rocks be considered contemporaneous, three if they be considered distinct. The picrite-basalt bodies are structurally a part of the batholith, and
imply a phase of intrusion after emplacement of the coarser-grained rocks, because lenses
of diorite are enclosed by picrite-basalt in the Larsen crosscut. There is no direct evidence
of the age of picrite-basalt relative to the finer-grained batholithic rocks, but the following
relationships appear significant.
Sections of micromonzonite occur well inside picrite-basalt in drill-hole No. 23 south
of the Mars tunnel, and resemble dykes rather than inclusions. Porphyritic microdiorite
occurs as dykes cutting picrite-basalt and diorite. Picrite-basalt at the Larsen workings
has apparently been altered at high temperatures and with addition of magnetic components, presumably from near-by later micromonzonite. These indirect lines of evidence
suggest that the finer-grained rocks are later than picrite-basalt.
The finer-grained rocks should therefore be later than the coarser-grained rocks, but
no firm evidence has been found. Alteration has obscured the original relationships, and
on surface no precise contact between large masses of the two rocks has been seen. In
the Ajax drill cores the contact is interfingering, with diorite retaining its coarseness of
grain at all of the many individual contacts with the finer rock. The relationship is certainly not gradational, and the finer-grained rocks seem to have intimately penetrated the
previously consolidated diorite.
The sequence of intrusion may be: (a) Coarser-grained rocks, (_.) picrite-basalt,
and (c) finer-grained rocks.
A probable pre-Cretaceous age has been assigned to the batholith, and rocks at
Carabine and Watching Creeks that correspond closely with picrite-basalt of the present
area have been dated as post-Cretaceous (Mem. 249, pp. 18, 29). A cursory examination made by the writer in the Carabine Creek area failed to indicate that the picrite-basalt
was part of the bedded tuff succession, to which a post-Cretaceous age applies. Consequently the picrite-basalt may not be post-Cretaceous, and the earlier age of the Iron
Mask batholith can be accepted.
Zones of recurring fracture were active early in the history of the batholith. Portions
of the zones are recognized where picrite-basalt or Nicola tuffs are in contact with batholithic rocks. Three early zones are partly identified—one at each batholithic margin and LODE METALS 53
the third within the batholith between the Evening Star and Iron Mask localities. Unlike
the marginally situated zones, the third zone is apparently strongly arcuate. The zones
may have partly determined the early batholithic contacts, which date from the first
intrusive episode. In a second episode the zones were invaded by individual bodies of
picrite-basalt. In a third episode, intrusion of the finer-grained batholithic rocks tended
to follow the fracture zones and to obliterate them. These successive events have determined the dominant northwesterly trend of the intrusive contacts.
No through-going faults have been identified within the batholith. Faulting is chiefly
observed at and near the contacts of batholithic rocks with picrite-basalt or altered tuffs.
In the Python, Iron Mask, and Ajax areas, alteration of the batholithic rocks was preceded by intensive brecciation within 600 feet of picrite-basalt contacts. Coincidence of
the later zones of dislocation with parts of the early fracture zones does not necessarily
imply reactivation of the early zones throughout their whole original length; on the contrary, movement was probably restricted to the immediate vicinity of the altered incompetent picrite-basalt and basaltic tuffs.
Post-mineral faulting is probably widespread but may involve no large displacements.
It is evident in the Python mineralized zone and is reported at the Iron Cap mine. Southeast of the Monte Carlo workings, Tertiary lava is probably faulted against Nicola rocks.
Discussion of the Mineralization
The copper deposits are veins, stockworks, and disseminations of replacement origin
and mesothermal type. Chalcopyrite is the principal copper-bearing mineral and is
accompanied by pyrite in widely varying proportion. Partial oxidation of sulphide minerals may extend to 150 feet depth but is unpredictable in occurrence. Gold and silver
values are generally low and, if anything, decrease with increasing proportion of pyrite.
Native copper and chalcocite occur at two localities and are probably of primary origin.
Other native copper disseminations lie west of the area. Bornite is important at the
Copper King mine at Cherry Bluff.
Altered wallrock is the chief gangue. In the northern deposits it contains much
pink orthoclase feldspar. Magnetite is associated with this pink material as veins, lenses,
and strong disseminations. One small magnetite vein, intersected by a diamond-drill
hole east of the Lost Chord claim, contains apatite, and in that respect resembles iron
deposits to the west of the present area. In this and other cases the magnetite is earlier
than the chalcopyrite. Calcite and epidote are invariably closely associated with the
sulphides. Gangue minerals of more restricted distribution include gypsum, ankerite,
specular hematite, and quartz. Fluorite, prehnite, and zeolites occur in the northern
part of the area.
Rock alteration and mineralization in batholithic rocks are as a rule adjacent to
structurally weak masses of picrite-basalt and altered tuffs. Mineralization occurs at
some of these contacts and as much as 1,000 feet from them. Stockworks such as that
of the Python locality are mineralized zones of brecciation. Veins, on the other hand,
are mineralized faults and locally exhibit a uniformity of attitude, such as that shown
by the Iron Mask mine plans and as may exist in the Ajax area.
Intense rock alteration is a general guide to the likelihood of strong or widespread
mineralization. In the coarse-grained rocks, pink replacement breccia represents structural conditions