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Royal Jubilee Hospital, Victoria, B.C., 1858-1958 Murphy, Herbert H. [1958?]

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This is the story of the first one
hundred years in the development of
The Royal Jubilee Hospital in Vic
toria, British Columbia.
In its beginnings in 1858 as The
Royal Hospital it was a pioneer effort.
Today it has taken its place with the
foremost    institutions    in < Canada.
Located   on   what   was,   in   1858,
merely   an   isolated   island   in   the
distant, vast Pacific Ocean, as far as
eastern   Canada   was  concerned,   the
traditions were British as Vancouver
Island was then a Crown Colony, but
the   geographical   associations   were
those of the Pacific slope.
At this particular period in world
history,   with   its   tensions   and   in
sistence on scientific development, it
is interesting to note how quickly the
great scientific advances in medicine
in the last one hundred years, were
appraised   and   incorporated   in   the
day-to-day   routines   of  the  Jubilee
'■&^0Lit j
     Royal Jubilee Hospital
The Royal Hospital 1858-1890
The Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital   -    1890-1938
The Royal Jubilee Hospital     -   -   -   -    1938-1958
Herbert H. Murphy
B.A., M.D., CM., F.A.C.S.
When requested by the Board of Directors of the Royal
Jubilee Hospital to write this brief story of the hospital's
development, Mr. George Masters, Administrator, and his staff
arranged for me to have full access to the existing records, not
only of the present hospital from its construction, but of the
original Royal Hospital also. I deeply appreciate their assistance and advice.
I am indebted to many other individual members of the
hospital staff: to Dr. J. L. Murray Anderson, Medical Administrator; to Mr. Michael A. M. Fraser, the Assistant Administrator; to Mrs. Robert Pethick for accurate clerical assistance and
help, cheerfully given in confirming certain data; Miss Mary L.
Richmond, the Director of Nursing in the Training School, and
her Assistant, Miss Florence Ferguson, have given invaluable
assistance in securing data on the School of Nursing.
The Provincial Archives, a Department of the Provincial
Library, and the Provincial Board of Health have also assisted
me.    The errors and omissions are mine alone.
H. H. M.
Victoria, British Columbia
December, 1957.
Chapter I—The Development of the Royal Jubilee Hospital 1
Chapter II—The Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital—
Construction  7
Chapter   III—The   Provincial   Royal   Jubilee   Hospital,
1890-1956   15
Chapter IV—The Board of Directors and Management  31
Chapter V—Nursing Staff and School  37
Chapter VI—The Medical Staff  44
Chapter VII—The Department of Radiology  55
Chapter VIII—The Pathological Laboratory  59
Chapter IX—Maintenance and Housekeeping  62
Chapter X—Pharmacy  66
Chapter XI—Department of Anaesthesia   68
Chapter XII—Department of Dietetics  70
Chapter XIII—Women's Organizations and Service Clubs 72
Chapter XIV—Social Service  75
Chapter XV—Dr. J. S. Helmcken  77
Chronological History „ -.  82
Royal Jubilee Hospital — Veterans' Hospital in Background.
Victoria, 1858. Horse Carts Used to Distribute Water to
The Right Reverend Edward Cridge — Bishop of British Columbia.
Christ Church Cathedral and Parsonage.
Royal Hospital, 1859-1869 — Marine Hospital (centre);
S.S. Beaver (foreground).
Victoria Female Infirmary, 1864-1869 — Later the Royal
Hospital, 1869-1890.
Joshua Davies, First President of the Board of Directors.
Invitation to the Laying of the Corner Stone,  1889.
Trowel Presented to Mrs. Nelson at the Laying of the Corner
Stone, 1889.
H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught and Party at Opening Ceremony, May 21st, 1890.
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital, 1890,
Pemberton Memorial Operating Room— 1896.
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital with Strathcona Addition.
Interior, Surgical Ward, Male, Approximately 1910.
Original Residence for Nurses— 1909-1930.
Present Residence for Nurses — Opened 1930.
Pemberton Memorial Chapel, 1909.
Pemberton Memorial Chapel, Interior.
Pavilion for Tuberculosis.
Children's Ward.
Psychiatric Block, 1956.
Graph of Income and Expenditure, 1956.
East Wing and Flag Pole (left); Annex (right).
Capping Ceremony.
Graduation Ceremony.
Maternity Block.
Present Operating Room Number 1.
Dr. John S. Helmcken.
Present Royal Jubilee Hospital.
The Development of the Royal Jubilee Hospital
Victoria, British Columbia
"The knowledge of past times is naturally growing less in
all cases not of publick record, and the past time of Scotland is
so unlike the present, that it is already difficult for a Scotchman
to imagine the economy of his grandfather.**
Samuel Johnson to James Boswell
October 27th, 1779.
When we attempt to look backwards over a period of one
hundred years we must not assume an attitude of superiority.
The men and women of that earlier day helped to build the
civilization which we know today. We are often inclined to
term this "our civilization" as if we, and we alone, were
entitled to the credit, leaving to our ancestors the responsibility
for any errors or omissions. We must also remember the
change in the purchasing power of our currency, and the revolution in living conditions and habits of thought which have
occurred in that century. So marked have these changes been
that had Elizabeth the First of England visited New Caledonia
in 1858, for such was the name of the mainland of British
Columbia at that time, she would easily have understood the
problems of daily living. She would not have understood
how the famous "Beaver" of the Hudson's Bay Company was
driven when using steam power and paddle wheels but crossing
the Atlantic and rounding the Horn as this ship did, under sail,
would have seemed quite reasonable to Good Queen Bess.
In 1858, on November 19th, New Caledonia passed into
history and the Crown Colony of British Columbia was proclaimed. It was associated with the Crown Colony of Vancouver Island, which had been formed in 1850. Both were
under the direction of Governor Douglas.    The two Crown
 Colonies joined in 1866 with Victoria as the united capital.
Not until 1871 did British Columbia become a Province of
the Dominion of Canada.
The discovery of gold on the Fraser River added much to
the importance of 1858 in the history of British Columbia and
Victoria. The latter changed in a few weeks from a small
sleepy village around a Hudson's Bay Fort to the commercial
outfitting centre for the gold rush.
What this influx of miners must have meant to Victoria
will be realized when we recall that at that time the water
supply of Victoria came from the springs on Spring Ridge and
was distributed by carts. George Hunter Cary, described as
"an able lawyer, but of irascible disposition," was Attorney-
General. Realizing the commercial possibilities he purchased
the lots on which the springs were located and fenced them in,
planning to sell the water at a shilling a barrel. However,
there was such an outcry that the deal was cancelled. It is
interesting to note in passing that he built the first house on the
site of the present Government House. Later this house served
as Government House and was known as "Cary Castle." Even
today, the old term is occasionally applied to the present Government House. A picture of the original "Cary Castle" hangs
in the Provincial Archives.
Under these circumstances it did not seem too unusual in
that year when a sick man was found on a mattress inside the
gate of the garden of the Anglican Clergyman, the Reverend
Edward Cridge, later to be the much-beloved Bishop Cridge.
The patient admitted that he had been brought there by friends.
As Mr. Cridge told the story—"I asked him why they had
brought him to my house, and clandestinely, too." 'Oh,' he
said, 'they thought you were the proper man,' "and I suppose
I was under the circumstances. I appealed to His Excellency,
the Governor, who took the matter up and nominated a Provisional Committee as follows; Mr. Dallas, a Director of the
Hudson's Bay Company; Mr. A. F. Pemberton, Magistrate and
Commissioner of Police, and myself, District Minister of
Victoria. So the Parsonage became the first Home Hospital in
the Colony. We used temporarily a cottage kindly loaned
rent free, by Mr. Blinkhorn on the corner of Yates and Broad
Streets."—(From "Pioneer Days" by Patience Day—Colonist
Press, 1924).
 The need for such accommodation was soon demonstrated
as the small cottage was kept full and the necessity for larger
quarters became urgent. The Committee finally "took possession of a piece of land on the Songhees Indian Reserve and erected
a wooden building on the site later to be occupied by the Marine
Hospital. The Government, be it noted, "though not consulted, offered no objection." The first medical officer in
charge was Dr. Trimble and the first item in the sundry account
book is "6 bars of soap 1/6." Evidently this supply was not
maintained, as on February 1st, 1861, the report of the Grand
Jury, following an inspection of the hospital, reads as follows;
"The Committee also visited the hospital and found 13 patients,
including one Indian, who all appeared to be doing well. We
found that a water closet was much needed for the sick ward,
also sundrie small repairs were needed to the building. We
would also urge that more bedding, cots, etc., be furnished so
that the inmates be made as comfortable as possible, as we
noticed that the present blankets are much soiled owing to not
having a change of bedding. A new stove is much needed, or
the old one should be repaired and would also urge that a brick
chimney be built in the kitchen." This report was evidently
not a popular one and Chief Justice Cameron held that the
Grand Jury had "exceeded its powers." However, in May of
the following year, the Department of Lands and Works reported to the Colonial Secretary that "additional accommodation and equipment could be secured for $625.00 and that
construction could be completed in a fortnight."
According to the Diary of Bishop Cridge, on February
13th, 1859, collections were taken up at morning and afternoon
services at Christ Church for The Royal Hospital and amounted
to $149.00. This is referred to in other records as "Hospital
Sunday." As we know it today "Hospital Sunday" is a
national observance in the United States and Canada. The
idea was sponsored by the American College of Surgeons soon
after its founding in 1913, but is considered generally to have
been based on a "Hospital Sunday" started by St. Luke's
Hospital in New York in 1874. In Victoria "Hospital Sunday" antedated St. Luke's by fifteen years, but here it was
observed only sporadically, but it is still of historical significance.
In 1860 the French hospital was opened by the French
Benevolent and Mutual Society to "care" for its members who
 paid one dollar monthly. It was merged in the Provincial Royal
Jubilee Hospital later and only within the last few years was
the "cave'* given by the Jubilee to the last surviving member.
In 1868, Mrs. Cridge seems to have been the moving spirit
in establishing The Female Aid Association to "provide hospital
care for females in need and sickness along lines similar to
those in force at The Royal Hospital." It was in 1862 that
the first "bride ship," the "Tynemouth," arrived in Victoria,
followed shortly by the second and last, the "Robert Lowe."
Two of the girls on the second ship were ill on arrival and later
died. This undoubtedly focused attention on the need for
such accommodation.
The Directors of The Royal Hospital secured a grant of
150 pounds from the Government for the purpose of building
"a female ward." Under the patronage of Mrs. Douglas,
"The Women's Association" was formed. This small group
of women was untiring in their efforts and their reward came
on November 24th, 1864, when the cornerstone of the Female
Infirmary at the head of Pandora Street was laid by Mrs. Harris,
the wife of the Mayor of Victoria. The Colonist gave an
exceptionally full report and described the building and the
site as follows: "The building, which is a commodious one
storey frame, is situated on a commanding site at the head of
Pandora Street, overlooking the city and harbour, Royal Bay
and the Straits, from Dungeness to Point Ringgold—the view
taking in for a long distance the American and Metchosin shores,
Race Rocks, etc.: the whole presenting a scene of unexampled
beauty and loveliness to which the pencil of an artist could
scarce do justice." The medical attendants were Drs. Ash,
Davie, Dickson, Haggin, Powell and Trimble. A woman "of
very superior character" was appointed Matron at a salary of
$25.00 per month. In this connection the following minute
appeared in the record: "It was unanimously agreed that when
there is no patient in the Infirmary no salary shall be paid to
the Matron but the usual allowances for board, lights and firing
be continued." When compared with conditions of employment today we are apt to smile and be very critical but we must
recall that even in Upper and Lower Canada the Labour movement was negligible before 1850, although certain ill defined
unions were formed as early as 1827 in Toronto, Montreal
and  Quebec.     The  first  Canadian  Congress  of Labour was
 held in 1873 and that distinguished statesman and clever politician, Sir John A. Macdonald, promised "respectful and
prompt" attention to whatever suggestions for Labour legislation the Trades Assemblies might wish to make. In a private
letter to his old friend Alexander Campbell he wrote: "The
workingmen are at a white heat in my favour just now," but
this meant little in British Columbia, which had become a
Province of the Dominion of Canada only two years earlier.
It is probably a safe assumption that conditions of employment
in Victoria at the time of the founding of The Royal Hospital
were no better than those prevailing in the large centres of the
Atlantic seaboard. The following rules for guidance of employees hung in the store of John Wanamaker in Philadelphia
in 1854:
"Store must be open at 6:30 a.m. and remain open until
9 p.m. the year round.
"The store must be swept, counters, base shelves and show
cases dusted, lamps trimmed, filled and chimneys cleaned; pens
made; doors and windows opened; a pail of water and a scuttle
of coal must be brought in by each clerk before breakfast, if
there is time to do so, and attend to the customers who call.
"The store must not be open on the Sabbath day, unless
absolutely necessary, and then only for a few minutes. Any
employee who is in the habit of smoking Spanish cigars, getting
shaved at the barber shop, going to dances and other places of
amusement will most surely give his employer reason to be
suspicious of his integrity and all-around honesty.
"Each employee must pay not less than $5.00 per year to
the church and must attend Sabbath school each Sabbath.
"Men employees are given an evening a week for courting
purposes and two if they go to prayer meeting regularly.
"After fourteen hours' work in the store, the leisure time
must be spent in reading good literature."
The Royal Jubilee Hospital Employees* Association, with full
bargaining rights, was not to come until 1949.
In 1869, the Female Infirmary and The Royal Hospital
were amalgamated under the name of The Royal Hospital
and all patients were accommodated in the institution on Pandora Avenue. The old Royal Hospital Building on the Indian
Reserve served to house the mentally ill from 1872-1878 and
 was known as the Lunatic Asylum. Thus Victoria solved its
most urgent hospital problem—the care of illness amongst the
indigent. However, the growth of the city combined with the
steady advance in medical science, during the next two decades
not only made this accommodation inadequate but also made
clear the need for hospital care for those who were not indigent.
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital
"He builded better than he knew." (Emerson, The Problem.)
"Chiefs—Oar road is not built to last a thousand years,
yet in a sense it is. When a road is once built, it is a strange
thing how it collects traffic, how every year as it goes on, more
and more people are found to walk thereon, and others are
raised up to repair and perpetuate it and keep it alive.**
Robert Louis Stevenson, 1850-1894
Vailima Letters. Address to the Chiefs
on the Opening of the Road of Gratitude,
October, 1894.
It was very natural and fitting that in 1887 when the
whole British Empire was planning how best to honour Queen
Victoria on the occasion of her approaching Jubilee in 1888,
the City of Victoria should give careful thought and consideration to her plans for this great event. Thoughtful citizens
knew that the Royal Hospital was no longer adequate for
rapidly growing Victoria and the idea of marking the Jubilee
year by building a new and modern hospital made a general
appeal when Dr. Davie first made it. As usual The Victoria
Daily Colonist presented the argument clearly and emphatically
in an editorial on February 20th, 1887.
"What more acceptable and more in keeping with the Jubilee
Year than the erection of a general hospital. . . . The Royal
Hospital is utterly inadequate for the relief which it is supposed
to afford. It has been in its day and is yet a most worthy institution but its accommodations are entirely too limited to fill the want
which it is now supposed to fill. With the increasing importance
of this port some institution such as is found in the leading cities
of the Dominion must be established here. . . . The hospital should
be a stately structure, an ornament to the city, built on the most
modern plans, with wards for men and women and surrounded
by spacious grounds for recreation and pleasure. . . . Nothing but
a first class hospital should be built, and the promoters of the idea
will demand nothing less."
 The plan had evidently been well thought out, as the
following day The Daily Times announced that at a meeting
of the subscribers to the Royal Hospital held that morning in
the rooms of the Board of Trade "it was decided to erect a
building with all the improvements and accommodations
required at a cost of about $40,000. . . . Mr. Alex McLean was
appointed Chairman, Mr. W. Chudley, Secretary and Mr. W. C.
Ward, Treasurer. A sub-committee was appointed to confer
with the government." The names of those attending that
first organization meeting are still of interest to us either because
of the stature of these men themselves or the success and achievements of their descendants. They were Hon. Mr. Justice
Crease, Hon. J. W. Trutch, Hon. Eli Harrison, Jr., Hon. H.
Nelson, Lieutenant-Governor; Senator J. MacDonald, Hon. P.
O'Reilly, Messrs. Alex. McLean, John S. Yates, A. J. Langley,
Joshua Davies, Roderick Finlayson, T. R. Smith (H.B.C.),
H. F. Heisterman, M. Strouss, M. F. Woods, C. E. Redfern,
J. D. Warren, George Byrnes, J. H. Todd, William Dalby,
E. Crow Baker, M.P.; Noah Shakespeare, M.P.; W. C. Ward,
William Whyte, W. H. Ellis (Colonist), Mayor Fell, William
Chudley, Carlo Bossi, J. H. Turner, R. Dunsmuir, F. Bullen,
John Grant, Dennis Harris, B. W. Pearse, M. W. T. Drake,
R. E. Jackson, D. W. Higgins, Walter Shears, C. E. Pooley,
Edwin Johnson, E. A. McQuade, E. G. Prior, A. A. Green,
D. R. Munro (C.P.R.), John Nicholles, Thomas Earle, J. K.
Hett, Henry Brown, Alex Wilson, R. T. Williams, T. Cubbe.
These men constituted a General Committee, with Alex Mac-
Lean as President, William Chudley, Secretary, and W. C.
Ward, Treasurer.
The Provincial Government was then consulted and
promised a grant of $20,000, provided that an equal sum was
raised by private subscription but with the reservation that the
grant would not exceed the amount so donated. Few communities are free from sectionalism and a contemporary newspaper clipping reported as follows:
"When a vote of $20,000 for the Jubilee Hospital came to
be read a second time Mr. Bole asked for a division of the house
on it. He objected to $20,000 being spent in this way in Victoria.
Mr. Thompson said he had been to the Royal Hospital that morning and had found that there were 17 patients there from the mainland. Mr. Higgins—"Yes, of the 35 patients 17 are from the
mainland." Mr. Bole—"I am here to look after mainland money
not mainland invalids."
     The division stood as follows:
Ayes—Robson,    Martin,    Croft,    Thompson,    Dunsmuir,
Higgins, Davie, Allen, Vernon, Turner, Prior, Beaven, T. Davie,
John, Mason, Stenhouse, Anderson, Cowan—18.
Noes—Bole, Ladner, Orr—3.
This substantial support, personal and financial, did much
for the morale of the Committee and the following appeal was
made to the clergy of the city:
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital
Victoria, B.C., April 2nd, 1887.
Reverend and Dear Sir:
At a meeting of the General Citizens' Committee held
yesterday it was moved, "That a circular be sent the Ministers
of all denominations asking for their co-operation in this project
and if they would devote the proceeds of all services to be held
on Sunday, the 19th of June next, to the funds of the Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital, and thus inaugurate a Hospital
This date, you will observe, has been chosen as the nearest
the day on which the Jubilee of Her Most Gracious Majesty
occurs, and will, I trust, meet with your convenience and
The weather will then, in all probability, be more settled
and a number of visitors in our city will no doubt add
to the contributions of those resident here.
I shall be glad of your reply consenting to the above
resolution or otherwise at as early a date as may be convenient
to yourself.
I am, Rev'd and Dear Sir,
Yours Faithfully,
For the General Committee,
William M. Chudley,
Hon'y Secretary.
Victoria was already "tourist conscious."
The Royal Jubilee Hospital through its beginning as the
Royal Hospital naturally initiated many hospital procedures in
British Columbia and was one of the leaders in Canada in
many instances. Finding this reference to "Hospital Sunday"
in 1887 in addition to that already mentioned in 1859, sug-
 gested that this might have been first in Canada, if not on the
continent. However, the Library and Literary Research Department of the American College of Surgeons through its efficient
and helpful Director, Miss Marguerite Prime, advises as follows:
"In 1874, the Board of Managers of St. Luke's Hospital
issued an appeal to various Episcopal hospitals of New York for a
collection. The last Sunday of every year was designated as
'Hospital Sunday.' The appeal was endorsed by Bishop Potter,
head of the Episcopal Church of New York in a circular letter to
his clergy. It was so favourably received that the annual collection
was initiated and maintained from 1874 onward. Other denominations followed suit and in 1878 these independent campaigns were consolidated into a common and co-ordinated one."
(Joseph Hirsch—Saturday, Sunday and Everyday; History of
United Hospital Fund, New York.)
If the Jubilee did not initiate this custom in Canada, it
was certainly in the vanguard.
The response was evidently satisfactory and on July 18th,
1887, the following trustees were appointed:
Hon. J. W. Trutch, T. R. Smith, Hon. John Robson, Mr.
Justice Crease, Robert Dunsmuir, Alex MacLean and James Fell.
The following were named as a "Building Committee":
Alex. Maclean, Hon. J. W. Trutch, Mayor Fell, Alex Wilson,
J. S. Yates, William Chudley and T. R. Smith.
A new site of just under twenty acres was then purchased
on the corner of Cadboro Bay Road and Mount Tolmie Road,
or Richmond Avenue as it is known today. The price was
$6,702.50. The newspaper report refers to it as "a desirable
site and the price reasonable." At this time a question with
controversial possibilities was raised by the Knights of Labour.
This organization asked if Chinese would be admitted to the
new hospital. The question was referred to the future when
the Board of Management would be appointed.
By August, the Committee had decided on the main details
of the proposed building. It was to be of brick and rubble
masonry foundation at a cost not to exceed $35,000. Accommodation was to be provided for 100 non-paying patients.
Architects' plans were called, a "premium" of $800 to be paid
for the plan selected. These plans were to be unsigned but'
accompanied  by  a   "motto"   for  identification.     In  January,
1888, three sets of plans were selected from those submitted, as
worthy of further consideration. These were accompanied by
the following mottoes, "Fresh Air," "Work and Win," and
'"Theory and Practice."
 Consulting architects primarily interested in hospital construction and experienced in that work were not available in
1888 and we have no historical data on the professional qualifications of the architects who submitted these plans. However,
tradition has supplied one account which may well be true.
Before the work of Pasteur and Lord Lister, the scourge of
institutional surgery was hospital gangrene and one theory of
the spread of this dire disease was that it spread upwards
through a building from one floor to that above. In accordance
with this idea, when the Widal Clinic in Paris was built, it was
of one storey. It was hailed as a great advance and widely
publicized. Soon afterwards the epoch marking work of Louis
Pasteur, the French chemist, and of Lord Lister, the British
Surgeon, established the part played by microbic life in most
surgical infections and the architectural explanation of hospital
gangrene was discarded. However, when a new hospital was to be
built in San Francisco the fame of the Widal Clinic had reached
the Pacific Coast and bungalow construction was repeated here,
oblivious to the fact that microbic infection had been proven.
With a brand new hospital in California, what more natural
than that the "most modern" ideas in hospital architecture
should have been adopted for the new Royal Provincial Jubilee
Hospital as commercial and social ties between British Columbia
and the Golden State were then as now, close and understanding.
So today, we still at the Royal Jubilee have several units of
bungalow type construction. Whether true in its entirety this
bit of tradition reminds us again of that lag between the findings
in pure science and their incorporation into daily life. Another
example of this is the work done on congenital heart disease by
Dr. Maude Abbott at McGill about the turn of the century,
which laid the foundation for the modern surgical treatment of
the "Blue Babies" of today.
"Work and Win" and "Theory and Practice" plans were
finallv selected, but when tenders were called the quotations
varied from $55,000 to $80,000 and as there was no water
supply to this part of Victoria at that time the cost of extending
city mains or depending on a supply from wells had also to be
considered. After many alterations and much thought and
discussion, a modified version of "Work and Win" was accepted
and tenders again were called.
 These plans called for "a hospital which contains three
wards of 16 beds in each, one for male surgical cases, one for
medical cases, and a female ward of equal dimensions and similar
construction to these, and with day rooms attached to all; an
administrative block with the necessary apartments for a resident medical officer, matron, laboratory, accident ward, committee room, kitchen, storerooms and in addition two separate
buildings for infectious diseases. There are also 12 separate
smaller wards for paying patients.
They recommend heating to be by hot water with
separate furnace for each ward . . . ventilation is provided.
Water supply is supposed to be brought from the city mains.
Drainage is to be by means of drains running to a cesspool at a
suitable distance from the building. . . . that the administrative
block be of brick or stone and the wards of wood on a brick or
stone foundation." These modifications were outlined in a
report from a sub-committee of the medical profession and
signed by W. Macnaughton Jones, J. Davie, J. S. Helmcken
and G. L. Milne.
A small group of citizens became very active and asked
that another site be provided closer to the centre of the city.
Some of the clergy, and some physicians perhaps, to quote from
one petition, "those without horse and carriage" (and this
may have applied to the clergy also) supported this idea, but
the General Committee stood firmly by their earlier decisions
and when the plans were accepted the Colonist commented in a
long editorial—"As everyone knows the situation is a lovely
one with the view taking in the green fields and wood to the
east, the archipelago and the grand mountains beyond, including
the lordly Mount Baker."
Messrs. Drake, Jackson and Helmcken were appointed
solicitors and on December 4th, 1888, the tender of John P.
Elford for $50,558 was accepted. The date for completion
of the work was set for December 31st, 1889, with a penalty
clause calling for forfeit of $100.00 per week or portion thereof
for delay beyond that date. A separate tender was alsd
accepted for extension of city water mains a distance of 3,920
lineal feet at a further cost of $790.00. Ground was broken
on January 6th, 1889, and J. Kinsman was appointed Clerk
of the Works at $6.00 per working day. The provisional
Directors chosen for incorporation were:
 Joshua Davies, E. A. McQuade, Alexander Wilson, Stuart
Yates, James Fell, W. M. Chudley, Hon. R. Dunsmuir, A. A.
Green, Mr. Justice Crease, C. E.  Redfern and Charles Hayward.
The Hon. Robert Dunsmuir did not live to see the completion of his Craigdarroch home, neither did he see the completion of the Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital, as he died
on May 2nd.
Arrangements were made for the laying of the cornerstone
on Easter Monday, but on account of "inclemency of the
weather" this was postponed until the following day, April
23rd, 1890. The ceremony was carried out then in perfect
Victoria weather. A special silver trowel was purchased with
which Mrs. Nelson, the wife of the Lieutenant-Governor,
officiated. A copper case was placed under the cornerstone and
in this case were placed:
A block plan of the building.
Canadian  silver  currency—50,   25,   10  and  5   cent  pieces
One English sovereign.
A copy of the address of the President of the General Committee.
A list of the names of those serving on the General Committee,
detailing the circumstances of the day on parchment.
The silver trowel was presented to Mrs. Nelson. This
trowel is now in the Provincial Archives and bears the following inscription:
"Presented to Mrs. Nelson, wife of the Honourable Hugh
Nelson, Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia,
by the Committee at the Royal Provincial Jubilee Hospital on the
occasion of the laying of the corner-stone of that Institution,
Victoria, British Columbia, 22nd April, 1889."
On the reverse of the blade is a monogram of the letters
A flag staff was erected at a cost of $50 and the building
was taken over from the contractors on April 2nd, 1890. The
city agreed to donate 30,000 gallons of water monthly, but no
connection to the city sewers was yet available and as the cost
of providing discharge into the sea directly was too expensive
to be considered, a properly designed cesspool was built.
On April 2nd permission was given to Dr. Davie to use
the accommodation provided for infectious diseases, should this
prove necessary, and on May 20th, 1890, the official opening
by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught made the Provincial Royal
Jubilee Hospital of Victoria available to the citizens of Victoria
and of the Province of British Columbia.
 On May 31st, 1890, the Colonist reported the final meeting of the Building Committee. Mr. Fell remarked that "it
was said of churches that they did not seem to prosper without a
debt of some kind" and implied that this might also be true of
hospitals. If this was true in those days, the Jubilee Hospital
was fully equipped in this manner also, as there was a debt of
$15,000.00. Lighting was still to be arranged for, lamps
or gas or electricity. Oil lamps sufficed for the time being.
Each individual unit had its own heating plant and there were
seventeen fireplaces. But it must be stressed that these buildings are, with the exception of the isolation units, still in daily
hospital use.   The contract was completed without "extras."
The Colonist reported further that:
"Mr. Chudley, the Honorary Secretary, is just now besieged
with applications. There are 50 or more ladies, including trained
nurses from the hospitals of London and New York, who solicit
employment as nurses. Strange to say a great majority of the
applicants make special mention of the fact that they are Presbyterians. Four or five applications have been received for the
position of matron and about as many for the post of medical
"It was assented to that permission be asked from the proper
authorities to fly the Royal Standard presented to the institution
by Mr. R. D. Welch of Liverpool."
The Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital was born.
For list of Directors see Appendix XX.
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital
1890- 1956
Turn, turn my wheel—*Tis nature's plan
The child should grow into the man.
The second chapter dealt with the birth of The Royal
Provincial Jubilee Hospital. The period of adolescence was
to last about thirty years—until after World War I. The
fledgling institution was far from being set soundly on its feet.
It carried quite a heavy debt, construction had of necessity been
limited to the absolute essentials and as has been the case in
almost all older hospitals, modification of the initial structure
began almost immediately. This process of adaptation of
exisiting structures to new needs still continues as every one of
the original buildings and all additions are still functioning.
All this is a tribute to the care and foresight shown by the
various Boards of Directors in that basic construction was
sound and so could be remodelled as occasion arose. The problems facing operation of the new hospital were of many kinds.
Perhaps the first one was geographical as the new institution
was well outside the city limits and so beyond city sewerage.
Several years and the enlargement of the city limits were necessary for satisfactory solution. Many of the problems were only
too often due to a steadily increasing demand for modern
hospital services beyond the immediate reach of the institution—
owing to lack of funds, equipment and adequately trained
personnel—not at that time available. Many of these problems
were solved then as they still are today by one or more of the
many friends of the hospital as when Mrs. H. Dallas Helmcken
gave a microscope, or by one of the unfailing women's organizations to whom the Directors never turn in vain.    Sometimes
 the problem arose through the actual gift of a well-meaning
friend as when Major Dupont presented the new hospital with
a horse-drawn ambulance costing $500.00. However, it was
not endowed and horses, then as now, must be purchased and
cared for. Mr. Frank, later Sir Frank Barnard, and the officers
of the transfer company, solved this problem for the hospital
by housing the ambulance in their buildings. There was, however, a second difficulty as some people, as their successors would
today, saw only one more free service by the hospital. For
this reason the Directors ruled that all ambulance calls must be
paid in advance, but a real emergency arose when no one would
guarantee the charge. The hospital was criticized and the ruling
was rescinded. Later the ambulance was placed on a purely
commercial basis—quite distinct from the hospital.
Just how the custom arose, under which the hospital paid
for the burial of all city indigents is not clear, but this was
done for a time. Not only this but as late as 1894 there is an
item of cemetery fees $75.00. Funds were so carefully guarded
that there must have been some explanation acceptable at that
time. Actually it was not easy for an indigent to gain admission to the hospital. Not only had he to have the approval
of a practicing physician but he had then to secure the approval
of two Directors of the hospital recommending him as a
suitable recipient of charity.
It was a time of small things and people still understood
the difference between thrift and meanness—a distinction often
forgotten today in the world whose adjectives are huge, super
and colossal. A strict account was kept of the returns from the
kitchen garden—later referred to in hospital records as "the
Farm" and the last entry was in 1925. Pigs and chickens were
also part of the farm but the Directors did not act on the suggestion made to keep cows on the grounds that "it was undesirable and could not be done without loss." The chickens were
later a cause of complaint from nearby residents as the district
became settled and the building of a "sanitary pig sty" would
suggest that here, too, some difficulties were encountered. Expenditures were just as carefully supervised and we find the purchase of "six hot water food warmers of copper at one dollar
each" came up three times before it was finally passed. But the
vision of what the "Royal Provincial Jubilee Hospital" would
become was  never  forgotten.     At  the  opening,  Mr.  Joshua
First President Board of Directors Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital.
    Davies referred to the time when there would be a medical school
on the hospital grounds. That prophecy has not yet been fulfilled but it is perhaps significant that today the majority of our
Medical Internes come from the Medical Faculty of the University of British Columbia.
In July of 1893, Victoria was visited by a severe small pox
epidemic. There were no facilities at all for the handling of
such a calamity and the citizens were terrified as the community
quickly became almost completely isolated from intercourse with
the mainland.
The city officials acted at once and selected a site for a
quarantine hospital but an injunction was served blocking this
move. The hospital acted promptly with courage and decision,
recognizing its responsibilities as the city hospital. The
record reads: "On Saturday, July 9th, the Board of Directors
through its President offered the Mayor the use of a portion of
the hospital grounds whereon to erect buildings for the purpose,
which offer was gladly accepted. Within twenty-four hours
the quarantine hospital was built, the patients removed thereto"
(from a miserable pest house on the waterfront where conditions were intolerable) "and a proper staff of female nurses
from our hospital was in attendance. Within one week four
cottages, each containing two sick wards, nurses' rooms and
kitchen, and a general ward 100x20 feet were also built, giving
accommodation for over fifty patients. The quarantine was
furnished completely from the stock of the Jubilee Hospital.
While the hospital had sole charge of the Quarantine Station,
the Corporation (of the City of Victoria) defrayed all expenses.
The whole of the hospital grounds was guarded and placed
under strict quarantine regulations. Our action, while relieving
the city of its great danger, had the effect of seriously reducing
our income from pay patients to such an extent that it became a
question with us whether we would have to close one of the
wards for want of funds; fortunately a favourable change took
place towards the close of the year which rendered this step
unnecessary. The Board, however, find themselves to be considerably more in debt at the end of the fiscal year than they had
anticipated, but they feel confident the public, taking into consideration the valuable services rendered by this Institution
during the late outbreak, will again come forward and contribute
in the same liberal and hearty manner they have hitherto done."
 So wrote Mr. Joshua Davies, the President, in his annual report
June 1st, 1893. No one who has experienced a severe epidemic
of any contagious disease in a community actually unprepared
to meet the disaster can fail to be moved by this simple direct
statement of determination and courage. The epidemic was
over by autumn. The Jubilee had met its first major community
responsibility and had not failed. Victoria did not fail to express
its appreciation and the following year approved a by-law for
$35,000.00 for the Jubilee and the mortgage on the property
was paid and the property was clear.
In 1875 at the laying of the cornerstone of St. Joseph's
Hospital, Dr. J. S. Helmcken in his address foretold the establishment of a training school for nurses. The Jubilee through
its association with the Royal Hospital is historically the first
hospital in the province, so it was reasonable that very soon
after opening, the Directors of the Jubilee should show real
interest in the establishment of such a school. They were not
only making history in this western outpost of the Empire,
they were conscious of the timing in the stream of world events.
To fully understand how intimately the isolated island community of Victoria kept in touch with world thinking a short
historical review is necessary.
The Crimean War, with England, France, Austria,
Sardinia and Turkey on one side, and Russia on the other,
began in 1853 and ended in 1856 with the peace of Paris.
Florence Nightingale was born in 1820 and was 33 at the outbreak of the war. From the age of twenty she had interested
herself in nursing and sanitation and in spite of the opposition
of her family had taken a course in nursing in a Deaconess training institution at Kaiserwerth in Germany. She was appointed
superintendent of a private hospital in London in 1853 and
was considering accepting the position of superintendent of
nurses at King's College Hospital when she was asked by the
government to go to Crimea with a group of nurses to try to
correct the awful situation which had developed in connection
with the care of the sick and wounded in the campaign. Russia
and France had religious Sisters with their armies but England
had only untrained men and the conditions were nothing short
of a national disgrace. This is all difficult to understand when
one recalls that the French surgeon Larrey had organized a
reasonably good surgical service for Napoleon.    When Florence
 Nightingale and her 38 nurses (Roman Catholic and Anglican
Sisters, lay nurses and others) established order out of chaos
and reduced the death rate to 2 per cent the opportunity came
to Miss Nightingale to establish the Nightingale School of
Nurses at St. Thomas' Hospital in London in 1860. Here she
demonstrated her philosophy of Nursing which stipulated that:
1. Nursing requires a special "call."
2. There must be an underlying basis of religious ardour.
3. It is an art and therefore must continually
4. Good nursing always has a definite moral
She demanded two essentials for a training school:
1. That nurses should be technically trained in
hospitals organized for that purpose.
2. That they should live in homes fit to form
their moral lives and discipline.
This was the gospel of modern scientific nursing that was
to sweep throughout the civilized world with a lengthening
of life and a lessening of suffering beyond computation.
It is generally accepted that The New England Hospital
for Women and Children in Boston, Massachusetts, was the
first institution in the United States to establish a true Training
School for Nurses.    This was done in 1872.
Writing of the Development of nursing in Canada, Miss
Minnie Goodnow, R.N., states in her "Nursing History":
"Doubtless the first attempt to train nurses was that made
by the Ursuline Sisters of Quebec, Canada, who about 1640 taught
the Indian women to care for their sick."
Miss Goodnow gives the following summary of the establishment of the early training schools in Canada.
1864    General and Marine Hospital, St. Catharines, Ontario.
(This school failed and was restarted in 1874.)
1884    The General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.
1886 The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario.
1887 The General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The General Hospital, Fredericton, N.B.
1888 The General Hospital, St. John's, N.B.
The General Hospital, Kingston, Ontario.
1890    The Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital.
The General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec.
St. Boniface General Hospital, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
 There is a slight error here, as the records of the Provincial
Royal Jubilee Hospital give the date of the opening of the
Training School as December 16, 1891.
This record is indeed impressive of vision and foresight
on the part of the Board of Directors, the Administrative Staff
and the Attending Medical Staff. In the latter group, Dr. J. S.
Helmcken was the moving spirit. He was at that time the
oldest physician in the Province and much beloved. Elsewhere
in this volume a short biography of this able man will be found.
He gave the official address at the opening of the Training
School. He was trained in Philosophy as well as in Medicine
and his address repays careful reading today. Perhaps a few
short quotations from it will be of interest, although it is
never quite fair to a speaker to pluck extracts from the text of
an address:
"What 'matter may really be: whether or how it originated
is unknown, perhaps unknowable. Much, however, is known
about its properties; that it undergoes various and numerous
changes in form and combination, nothing, however, being lost.
It is to these changes that the terms 'beginning' and 'end' 'life and
death' are in ordinary language applied. Yet the beginning of
one change has been, or is, the end of the preceding one, and that
end of the new change will result in another, so that in this respect
there is neither beginning or end; but a ring of changes, a circle
without a beginning and without a termination. Examining into
the causes of these changes in the form of matter, it will be found
that they all ensue from, and are governed by so-called natural
law. It seems indeed as though every particle of matter, whether
organic or inorganic, has, under certain conditions, special and
inperative functions or duties to perform, these, as it were, being
stamped on them by law. . . . Knowledge of these laws is
of the utmost importance to medical science and nursing. What
the nature or the source of the law may be, how or whether it
had a beginning, is the problem, the mystery which mankind has
from the earliest to the present day been endeavouring to discover
and solve: thus far the solution has eluded their grasp. Of conceptions and theories there have been a superabundance, those of
one period being supplanted by those of a later time, as though one
generation lived to correct the errors of its predecessors, and these
to make others for successors to examine and quarrel about with a
similar result. . . . Good nurses are a blessing to the community
generally, in fact, in some cases, they are superior to the professional
man, but ordinarily his valuable, cherished and respected handmaids . . . the education of nurses (thus) becomes a question of
national importance. . . . Let no one enter this calling from whim
or some temporary emotional cause: think well over the matter
for it is a very laborious and very responsible occupation, one that
will try the strength and temper to the utmost degree. The nurse
has no eight hours for work, eight hours for sleep and eight hours
for amusement. . . ."
 In 1894 a generous gift came from the Hon. J. D. Pemberton to build a Maternity section and this was at a slightly
later date supplemented by further gifts from Mrs. Pemberton
and it seemed for a time that this much-needed accommodation
would be secured. However, after much careful thought and
deliberation the Directors decided that the amount of money
available was not sufficient for this purpose and with the
approval of Mrs. Pemberton the money was used to build The
Pemberton Memorial Operating Room which continued in
daily use until the East Wing was built in 1925 and the present
suite of operating rooms became available. The original Pemberton unit is still sound and in regular use as offices in connection with the Radiation Therapy Department and the Victoria
Cancer Clinic. Unfortunately, Dr. J. S. Helmcken, who had
for years advocated the establishment of a Maternity Department for the needs of the community as well as to complement
the training of nurses in the new school, could not agree with
the decision to postpone work on this project and resigned from
the Medical Staff in protest, much to the regret of the Directors
and Medical Staff.   Later this difficulty was overcome.
The cornerstone of the new Operating Room was laid by
Mrs. Pemberton on May 15th, 1896.   She was presented with
a  specially constructed  trowel  described  as  follows by Mr.
Joshua Davies,  the President of the Hospital Board,  in his
"The blade was made from a silver brick presented by Mr.
Andrew B. Hendrix, the ore having been taken from the celebrated
Blue Bell Mine and smelted at Pilot Bay and its purity was stamped
999 fine. The base of the handle was made from matte, the
product of the Silver King Mine and was presented by the Hall
Mining and Smelting Co. of Nelson. The gold ferrule was made
from matte, smelted at Trail and smelted from ore from Le Roi
Mine, one of the largest and best known mines in the world, so
that the trowel is made from metals obtained exclusively from the
three largest and best known mines in the Kootenay and smelted
by trie only three smelters in the Province. I am indebted to Mr.
Joseph W. McFarland for the wood from which the handle was
made. It is a piece of oak timber from the steamer "Beaver,"
the first steamer to turn a paddle in the Pacific. The inscription
on the silver blade read: 'Presented to Mrs. T. J. D. Pemberton,
as a momento of the laying of the corner-stone of the Pemberton
Memorial Operating Room, Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital,
May 15th,  1895/ "
Efforts to locate this trowel, made through the Pemberton
family and the Provincial Archives have so far been unsuccessful.
Further in the hospital records we read:
"Mr. John Teague placed in a receptacle under the stone a
copper box, containing the Hospital Reports for 1894-5; Daily
and Weekly Colonist, and the special Colonist of April 5 th:
Daily and Weekly Times, The Province, the Queen's Birthday
Celebration Programme, copies of letters and proceedings relating
to the Pemberton Memorial, the President's address, the reply on
behalf of Mrs. T. J. D. Pemberton, and a fifty, twenty-five, ten
and five cent piece. The stone was then lowered into place and
plumbed by the contractor for the building, Mr. Thomas Catterall,
and Mrs. Pemberton tapped it with her trowel and pronounced
the stone well and truly laid. Mr. W. C. Ward, on behalf of
Mrs. Pemberton, acknowledged the gift in the following words
written by Mrs. Pemberton:
" 'I must thank you, Mr. President, and your Co-Directors,
for this interesting and beautiful memento of the occasion of our
assemblage here today, and sincerely trust that God's blessing may
attend the work that will in future be done in this place.' "
In 1898 when the rush was started for the Klondyke the
Directors ruled that to be eligible for free treatment as an
indigent, an applicant must be a British subject and resident
in the Province for at least one month.
The Architect for the Empress Hotel and for the Parliament Buildings, Mr. F. M. Rattenbury, was resident in Victoria
and prepared plans for a residence on the hospital grounds for
the Resident Medical Officer, Dr. Hasell. The house was built
in 1900 at a cost of $2,500.00 and the Architect donated his
services, estimated at $127.57. He was made a Life Member
of the hospital society. The Ladies* Auxiliary furnished this
house at a cost of $484.79 and it was the residence of the
Medical Superintendent or Resident Medical Officer until 1934,
when it was demolished.
A good hospital must grow, not only as an institution for
the care of the sick, but as a teaching centre and noting the
major developments in buildings, extensions and alterations
is a convenient series of pegs on which to hang the progress of
the years. However, we must never forget that the real growth,
the basic progress, is also in a very large degree a measure of the
calibre of the men and women, who, in good times and in bad,
in periods of construction and in those periods when construction is necessary but impossible and makeshift alterations the
only compromise, have never lost their sense of vision and of
"J am not witling that this discussion should
close without mention of the value of a true teacher.
Give me a log hut, with only a simple bench, Mark
 Hopkins on one end and I on the other, and you may
have all the buildings, apparatus and libraries without
James Abram Garfield (1831-1881) in
his address to Williams College Alumni, New
York, December 28th,  1871.
In 1904, a further addition, to accommodate paying
patients was completed and named Strathcona Ward because of
the generous donation of $5,000.00 from Lord Strathcona,
who was then at the apogee of his spectacular career in Canada.
This addition provided eleven private rooms with accessory
service rooms and a sunroom. It functions today as the Children's Ward and because of its exceptionally sound construction
is expected to serve for many years to come. Its total cost was
The rooms were furnished by:
Colfax Lodge No. 1 of Rebekah I.O.O.F.
The Daughters of Pity.
King's Daughters of Vancouver Island.
Organized Labour in Victoria.
Women's Auxiliary.
Mrs. J. A. Douglas.
Mrs. A. Dunsmuir.
Mrs. R. Dunsmuir.
Mrs. H. Dallas Helmcken.
Alexis Martin.
Col. the Hon. J. Lepoer Trench.
The next item of construction mentioned in the records
is that of a "Sanitary Pig Sty" in 1905—an expenditure of
$200.00 easily justified when in 1902 the "Piggery" had
cleared $495.10.
In 1906, the first Children's Ward was built to accommodate twelve patients with the usual service rooms. The contract price was $5,900.00, with heating a separate contract at
$1,000.00. As usual the Ladies' Auxiliary had $5,150.14 on
hand to help finance this long-wanted addition. However, this
new ward was not to be opened until 1908, as more nurses
were required to staff it and there was no accommodation for
them. Already a house near the hospital had been rented to
tide over this emergency until a Nurses' Home could be built.
Plans for this Home (now occupied by Clinic and Lecture
Rooms, Executive Offices and Staff Rooms) were drawn up,
calling for 30 bedrooms, six bathrooms, one large sitting-room,
one sitting-room for the Head Nurse, one study room, one small
reception room, one trunk room and a small kitchen. The
contract was awarded to Messrs. Parfitt Brothers for $18,750.58
and an addition added in 1912 cost $15,539.70. It was
formally opened on January 5th, 1909, by the then Premier
of the Province, Sir Richard McBride. In the same year one
of the distinctive features of the Jubilee was added—the Pemberton Chapel—donated by Mrs. J. D. Pemberton and opened
on December 29th. This Chapel is non-denominational and
regular services are held by various clergymen. Many of the
graduates in Nursing of the Jubilee have been married here.
In 1910, special accommodation was provided for the
care of patients suffering from Tuberculosis. This was enlarged
from time to time as the need developed and in 1928, Mr.
William Spencer provided excellent additional space for the
outdoor clinic. In 1935, the care of Tuberculosis was assumed
by the Provincial Government and the space previously occupied was adapted to other hospital services. The Spencer Clinic
was later occupied by a Branch of the Provincial Health Service.
On June 1st, 1899, the first X-ray equipment was presented to the hospital. This unit was built locally by Mr.
Robert Hutchison and is further mentioned in Chapter 7, and has
been described by Mr. Frank H. Kelley in one of his delightful
articles on the Victoria of by-gone days. This was replaced in
1909 with new equipment purchased in England through the
generosity of the late Mr. Charles F. Todd. Further replacements were made in 1919 and a full-time Radiologist was
appointed in 1919. A further generous donation from Mr.
Todd in 1938, came at a most opportune time, as several far
reaching improvements in radiological equipment, for both
diagnosis and treatment were now available. As equipped and
enlarged the department at last ranked among the best in
Canada. It was named "The Louisa Todd Memorial" in
memory of Mrs. Todd. The dedication service was conducted
by Venerable A. E. deL Nunns, M.A., Archdeacon of Victoria.
In the initial construction of the hospital it is stated that
provision was made for a laboratory on the third floor of the
  Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital with Strathcona Addition, 1904.
Interior Surgical Ward (Male) — Approximately 1910.
 Original Residence for Nurses, 1909 -1930.
Present Residence for Nurses, Opened  1930.
  Central Block. In 1925, new accommodation for this most
essential service was provided in the new East Wing and
in 1951 the present Laboratory designed on basic plans drawn
by the present Pathologist was built through the generosity of
the late J. Keith Wilson. More complete details are given of
the development of these special departments in their respective
The story of the development of a Maternity division in
the Jubilee is an interesting one. As early as 1898 Dr. J. S.
Helmcken was advocating the opening of a maternity unit as a
necessary part of a general hospital and to provide practical
training in this subject for the Training School. The following year an anonymous donation to the maternity fund (sent
in under the name "Bachelor") was received and what became
known in records as the "Bachelor Fund" received a further
donation of $25.00 in 1907. The records would suggest that
this came from the same source as the original. In 1900, an
influential group of women joined Dr. Helmcken in advocating
definite action. In 1903, Lord Strathcona, who had already
given $5,000.00 to the hospital for new construction, agreed
that this money should be used for maternity purposes but for
various reasons the Directors felt that the time was not yet
opportune and as had happened eight years earlier with the
Pemberton donation, this money was used for other construction. By 1909 there was interest in governmental circles in
the project and we find that the Hon. Dr. H. E. Young, Provincial Secretary, promised that a sum of $5,000.00 would be
placed in the estimates for the following year. Apparently
nothing further happened until 1913 when the Women's
Auxiliary gave $4,000.00 to the fund and the Victoria Branch
of the Council of Women lent their support. By 1915 the first
Great War was well started and Victoria was filled with enlisted
men and their families so that the need for a maternity must
have been great and once again the Women's Auxiliary stepped
into the breach and offered to convert a convalescent ward for
maternity purposes and defray all the costs. On May 26th,
19fr6, this ward was ready and the first birth was recorded the
following morning. The Jubilee had a maternity at last. In
1920, the demand was so great that three additional beds were
crowded into this area, which today is part of general stores.
This served until   1925  when the East Wing was opened
 with the fourth floor and 32 beds as a maternity unit. This was
to serve for twenty-one years. In 1946, the new Maternity with
90 beds was opened by the Deputy Minister of Health of the
Provincial Government, Dr. P. N. Walker. Completed at a
cost of $380,000.00, this is a modern, fully equipped and
staffed maternity unit. Again we find the Senior Women's
Auxiliary active with a donation of $8,500.00 for furnishings.
In 1916, the employees of the Civil Service collected a
fund of $1,612.85, which was originally intended to purchase
a gift of gold plate to present to Sir Richard McBride, then at
the pinnacle of his career. When the Premier learned of this
he requested that this money be given to the Jubilee to furnish
a ward in the proposed new wing. However, when this was
postponed on account of the war, with his approval it was
used to renovate and re-furnish the Men's Surgical Ward in the
original building and this was known as the Sir Richard
McBride Ward. This was later converted to an isolation ward
for contagious diseases.
In 1920 the former Men's Medical Ward was refurnished
in memory of Private C. H. Fleming, whose mother had been
very active in the Red Cross. The old name was dropped and
this became "The Fleming Ward." It is today the rehabilitation centre.
In 1913, the need for further general accommodation was
recognized and a hospital expert from San Francisco, Miss
McCalmant, was consulted. The Directors felt that she gave
very valuable advice and John Atchison of Winnipeg was
selected as Architect. The Women's Auxiliary put on a drive
for funds and collected $110,000.00 The Directors' campaign for funds raised another $100,563.00. The City of
Victoria then passed a By-law to give the hospital $225,000.00
and the Provincial Government contributed $150,000.00.
Oak Bay Municipality gave $10,000. It seemed that the new
wing was assured. However, storm clouds were already beginning to form over Europe and what the diplomats call
"incidents" were already occurring and with the outbreak
of hostilities in 1914 all building on such a major scale Was
postponed. The plans had called for a fully equipped hospital
of 400 beds, of which 220 in all were the immediate consideration with accommodation for the long-planned-for maternity
and space for laboratory and pharmacy.    In 1919, when these
 plans were re-opened, the Kinsmen and Kiwanis clubs gave
valuable support, as they adopted this hospital extension as
one of their objectives.
In 1925 this unit was finally completed. This five storey
building cost approximately $500,000.00 and added a total of
175 beds, including 34 private wards, and a maternity section
of 32 beds. Included also was an operating room suite of six
operating rooms with 12 service, lecture and utility rooms
donated by the Dunsmuir family in memory of the Hon. Robert
Dunsmuir, President of the Council in the A. E. B. Davie
Administration (1887-1889) and as already stated, one of the
original directors of the hospital. Accommodation was also
provided for the Pharmacy, Clinical Laboratory and Admitting
Offices. At a public ceremony the building was dedicated by
the Right Reverend Charles De Veber Schofield, Bishop of the
diocese of British Columbia.
This increase in size of the hospital with increased nursing
staff called for a new Nurses' Home. This was undertaken in
1929 and opened on February 14th, 1930, by Mrs. S. F.
Tolmie, her husband, the Premier, being unable to be present.
The total cost was $176,825.70, and accommodates 209 nurses
in 57 single rooms and 76 double rooms. The classrooms and
laboratories comprise two lecture rooms each seating 55, one
science laboratory, one dietetic laboratory, one demonstration
and practice room, one conference room seating 20 around tables
and a reference library seating 25 - 30. Recreation rooms have
not been overlooked. The main reception room is of generous
proportions (67'x3T) and serves various functions such as
graduation receptions, the capping service, student dances and
amateur plays and concerts. On each floor is a small sitting-
room for reading and small gatherings. In the annex there is
provision for table tennis and TV. In addition there is a
hobby room, which is understandably popular, and a small
fiction library. The whole building was planned with vision
and courage—fortunately it was completed before the worst
of the depression years came to Victoria.
Naturally during the great depression of the thirties no
major construction was undertaken, although the depression
itself brought need for increased accommodation and made that
need much more apparent. As further accommodation was
urgently needed, 40 beds were set up in the former Nurses'
 Home (erected in 1909) and in 1937 this was changed to an
active treatment unit, but this change was never thought of as
other than emergency accommodation.
However, by 1940 the Directors approved of the construction of the Central Block at a cost of $116,168.50. This
unit was opened on November 27th, 1941, by the Honourable
E. W. Hamber, the then Lieutenant-Governor of the Province.
The dedication was performed by the Right Reverend Harold
E. Sexton, now Archbishop of Columbia. His dedication
prayer was as follows:
"O God our Father, we give Thee hearty thanks that Thou
hast enabled the Directors of this Hospital to erect new buildings
for the relief of the suffering of our fellow-men, and we dedicate
them to the glory of Thy Name, praying that Thy blessing may
ever abide upon this place. Receive our prayers, and the prayers
of all Thy servants who, entering these walls, shall call to Thee for
help. Prosper all the works of tenderness and skill that shall be
done in Thy spirit, and bless this Hospital to the assuaging of
pain, and the solace of helplessness and weariness, through Jesus
Christ our Lord."     Amen.
"Bestow Thy Benediction, we beseech Thee O Lord on our
undertaking this day. Direct us in this and in all our doings
with Thy most gracious favour, and further us with Thy continual help, that being ever mindful of the needs of our fellow-men,
we may be enabled by our deeds and gifts to alleviate and heal
sickness and suffering, and to forward Thy purpose of love, for
the sake of Him Who gave Himself in the service of men, even
Jesus Christ our Saviour."    Amen.
"In the Faith of Jesus Christ, we dedicate these Buildings. May
peace, lowliness, kindness, gentleness, and brotherly love ever abide
herein. In the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit."
"The Peace of God and His Blessing rest upon this place, and
upon all who dwell within its walls. May God Almighty bless
and prosper all who serve in the Ministry of Healing, and all our
good works done in His Name. May He give us light to guide us.
courage to support us, and love to unite us, now and always."
This four storey building added 59 beds (ward and semi-
private) , with business offices on the first floor. As noted above,
the new maternity was opened in 1946.
Under the regulations of the Hospital Insurance Service
only one hospital in the Province (the Vancouver General)
maintains a fully developed outdoor department.    However,
 the Jubilee has developed, within the scope allowed, a well-
staffed and efficiently managed Emergency.
In 1949 the Employees' Association was granted full
bargaining rights. This important development is more fully
discussed in Chapter 9 on Maintenance and the opening of the
new J. Keith Wilson Laboratory Building in 1952 is included
in Chapter 8 on the Clinical Laboratory.
The year 1954 was marked by a vitally significant advance
in that an addition containing eight more beds was made to the
Psychiatric Unit, built in 1946, and an Electroencephalograph
installed with the establishment of a Sub-Department of Neurosurgery and a Sub-Department of Neurology under the Department of Medicine. In other words, this was a recognition by
the hospital management of the great advances which have
marked recent years in the field of Neurology.
It is well within the memory of those still active in medical
practice that the general reaction to mental diseases was almost
the same as in the days of Shakespeare—a desperately hopeless
Doctor: Not so sick my lord,
As she is troubled with thick-coming fancies
That keep her from her rest.
Cure her of that:
Canst thou not minister to a mind diseas'd
Pluck from the memory a rooted sorrow
Raze out the written troubles of the brain,
And with some sweet oblivious antidote
Cleanse the stuff'd bosom of that perilous stuff
Which weighs upon the heart?
Doctor:  Therein the patient must minister to himself.
WM.   SHAPESPEARE    (1564-1616)
Macbeth Act 5, Sec. 3, Line 37.
Today while psychiatry and neurology have by no means
found final solutions of these many problems much has been
accomplished and the medical approach to those still unsolved
conditions is that a solution will yet be found. A further addition to this psychiatric unit was completed in 1956, bringing
the bed capacity to 24. This year also saw the new Central
Supply Room in operation and the start of the *'Poison Centre."
 The latter is more fully described in Chapter 6, dealing with the
Medical Staff.
This brings us to the end of the first century of life and
service of the Jubilee. In the history and tradition of the past
the present organization finds pride and inspiration for the
"Our deeds still travel with us from afar
And what we have been makes us what we are."
GEORGE ELIOT  (1819-1880)  Middlemarch Ch.
Lxx-head lines.
The Board of Directors and Management
"Be there a will and wisdom finds a way."
"The Birth of Flattery"
GEORGE CRABBE  (1754-1832)
For all practical purposes the General Committee elected
in 1887 to supervise the construction of the original buildings
of the present Royal Jubilee Hospital became the first Board of
Directors of the new Institution. To be a member of that
Board was a high honour and the citizens of Victoria have
never allowed the position to lose its prestige or its duties to be
lightly undertaken. As a result, although the position carries
no salary or emoluments of any kind, a study of the membership over the years shows the personnel to have been drawn
from outstanding representatives of commercial and professional
life and the record of achievement has shown the Board to have
been over the years one characterized by a high sense of responsibility as trustees of the city's general hospital and so
guardians of the community health.
The Royal Jubilee Hospital which absorbed the Royal
Hospital of Victoria founded in 1858 operates under a special
Provincial Government Act and is controlled by a Board of
Directors. This Board in 1956 consisted of Representatives
appointed annually by the Provincial Government—Mr. J. C.
Haddock and Mr. Ian M. Home; by the City of Victoria—
Mr. F. G. Mulliner and Mr. Lloyd G. McKenzie; by the
Municipality of Saanich—Reeve Arthur A. Ash; by the
Municipality of Oak Bay—Mr. P. A. Moir; by the Municipality of Esquimalt—Reeve A. C. Wurtele; and Dr. L. L. Ptak
by virtue of his position as Chief of the Medical Staff. Four
members are elected annually by the subscribers—Mrs. W. G.
Thorpe, Mr. J. L. Hobbs, Mr. J. C. Thow and Mr. G. H.
Stevens.    Mr. F. G. Mulliner is the President, Reeve A. C.
 Wurtele is Vice-President, and Mr. J. C Thow is Honorary
Treasurer. The Administrator of the Hospital, Mr. George
Masters, is the Secretary.
The revenue of the hospital in 1956 was derived as
B.C. Hospital Insurance Service  76.2%
Self-Pay Patients    14    %
Outpatients and Miscellaneous Sources      9.8%
The total income for 1956 was $2,596,351.88 and total
operating expenditure was $2,678,141.55, leaving an operating
deficit for the year of $81,789.67. A graphic illustration of
these figures copied from the Annual Report is included.
Operating the Jubilee Hospital with a deficit each year
is no new experience for the Directors, but then it is no new
experience for any general hospital in Canada. So true has this
been over the years that before the days of hospital insurance
legislation there was an aphorism to the effect that "a general
hospital not showing a deficit was failing to give adequate
hospital care to its community." The British Columbia
Hospital Insurance Service was started in 1949 and while it
did not introduce the affliction of deficits it has not yet succeeded in eliminating them. However, in dealing with a
recurring evil of so many years duration, to expect that a complete solution could occur in a matter of seven years is perhaps
one more example of the triumph of hope over experience. The
following extract is from the report of the President in 1949;
"It appears much educational work is necessary for the general
public to realize any insurance plan, government sponsored or
not, can only be successful if expenses are kept within available
revenue." In the report of the Medical Superintendent we
read; "I must point out that the successful operation of the
Hospital Insurance Plan depends on the complete co-operation
of doctor, patient, and hospital in limiting stay, so that services
may be readily available to all who require admission."
Some at least of the present day problems faced the
Directors of 1895, as we find considerable attention given to that
perennial question of the per diem rate. This rate was $1.55
for pay patients and $1.33 y2 for ward cases—an average of
$1.47. Some guardian of the public purse had found at least
one Eastern hospital where the per diem cost was but 91c.
 Pavilion for Tuberculosis.
Children's Ward.
 Psychiatric Block, 1956.
J. Keith Wilson Memorial Laboratory.
 ^rrow  Ulour ^rroApltai ^Dollar  id C+arned , . .
Self Pay Inpatients 14.00
Outpatients and O Qg*
Miscellaneous Sources       *    ^*
.C.H.I.S. 76.2c?
J^row l/Jour ^hrodpitai oDoiiar id ^penl
Drugs and Medical JL O^i
Supplies mmmmmCmm
Purchased Services  4.5C»
and Sundries       ■ ■
Other Supplies
 East Wing, 1925.
East Wing (left).   Annex (right).
 This resulted in a careful study of the costs at the Jubilee and
the following breakdown of that $1.47 was reported:
Salaries  53    cents
Drugs and Dressings 1414   "
Food  28V£   "    (including staff and patients)
The  further  breakdown  analysis  of  food  showed  the
Groceries   9 x/z cents
Bread     \XA
Meat   SlA
Milk  --.. 5
Poultry, Game and Fish 1
Vegetables and Fruit  3
A superficial and hasty survey of the hospital problem in
British Columbia today might suggest that the workings of the
legislation under which the Hospital Insurance Service operates
leaves little scope for initiative and leadership on the part of the
Directors of the hospitals of the Province. Such a conclusion
would be grossly in error. Guidance and direction such as one
Board of Directors after another throughout the years has given
to the Royal Jubilee can never be surrendered, without great loss
to an absentee bureaucratic group however competent in their
own field. Such a governmental committee can and should
play the part of the comptroller of a large company, but broad
lines of policy for the individual institution are of necessity
mapped out by the Directors on the advice of their permanent
executive personnel. Hospitals have personality and their own
traditions direct their development to a considerable extent. It
would be an unhappy day for the Royal Jubilee should it ever
forget that through its absorption of the Royal Hospital it was
the first hospital in British Columbia. That tradition includes
several other firsts—the first Training School of Nurses, the
first hospital in the Province to install modern deep therapy
equipment and adequate radium for the modern treatment of
cancer, the first in British Columbia and probably the first in
Canada to establish a radiographic study of the chest on all
ambulatory patients admitted and the first to establish a
"poison centre" in the province. As noted elsewhere it is
probable that the Jubilee established the first Hospital Sunday
in Canada, if not on the Continent. In 1898 the Agenorian
Society built two rooms at the back of the recently opened
Pemberton Operating Room to be used as "recovery rooms.*'
These rooms were later used for other purposes, but this was
 probably the earliest use of a "recovery room" in connection
with surgery in Canada. This work was revived in the Royal
Jubilee on June 17, 1949. Since that date all operative cases
(excepting only those which have been done under local
anaesthesia) go routinely to the recovery room for supervision
and treatment until consciousness returns, when they are returned to the surgical floors. Between June, 1949, and
December, 1956, 24,573 cases have been cared for in this
Since the building of the Queen Alexandra Solarium for
Children at Cobble Hill, the Directors of the Jubilee have
assisted that project in every possible way and as several of the
hospital Directors serve the Solarium in a like capacity, development of the two institutions has been happily correlated.
In like manner the Jubilee has identified itself with the
modern care of Tuberculosis from the early days of the Anti-
Tuberculosis Society through varying degrees of assistance by
the Provincial Government until full governmental support
and control was developed with Dr. Frederick Kincaid in charge
of the Jubilee unit in 1935. On his retirement, Dr. Aubrey
Jones headed up this department until his untimely death in
1945. He was succeeded by Dr. R. O. R. Garner and he in
turn by Dr. R. M. Lane.
The hospital gave similar support to the establishment of
the Department of Venereal Diseases Control under the Provincial Health Department in 1937 under Dr. Allan Fraser,
and today with Dr. R. M. Lane as head.
In 1954, the B.C. Forest Products presented the hospital
with a flagpole on a brick base as shown in the accompanying
illustration—a useful gift and very gratefully accepted. It
recalls mention in the records of the early nineties of "The
Memorial Gate" which as far as the student of today can
determine was never a memorial. On July 14, 1890, the
following minute appears in the record of the meeting of the
Board of Directors:
"Moved by Mr. C Hay ward and seconded by Mr. J. Davies
and carried that the main entrance gates to the hospital grounds
be placed at the Southwest corner of the property and that the
corner fence be renewed to suit and that the design be acceptable to
Messrs. Smith and Hay ward."
The gates were built, probably a private donation from
James P.   Fell,  but  the road  was  never built.    They were
 unused and were torn down some years later when they had
fallen into disrepair.
From the historical point of view there was a definite loss
to the Royal Jubilee when the word "Provincial" was dropped
from the title in 1938. This was done as there seemed to be some
confusion in the public mind as to the significance of the word
in the title and some thought that it signified a governmental
hospital where treatment was free. Of course with the advent
of the British Columbia Hospital Insurance Service there is no
longer any reason for such an inference and it is to be hoped
that the original title of the institution will be revived at an
early date.
On May 31, 1890, at the last meeting of the General
Committee in charge of the original construction of the Jubilee,
there is a minute to the effect that steps should be taken to
secure authorization to fly the Royal Standard on the hospital
in view of the fact that Mr. Welch of Liverpool, the founder
of Rithet Consolidated Ltd., had donated the flag. This is still
to be classed as "unfinished business." Perhaps it can be completed in the Centennial Year of 1958, especially as the original
building was opened by H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught
in 1890.
If the Directors of past years could have foreseen the
present grounds with the original building still functioning and
surrounded by the new additions—the Strathcona Ward, the
East and Central Blocks, the new Maternity Building and
Nurses' Home, as well as the fine Veterans' Hospital built on
seven acres of land donated by the Royal Jubilee in 1944, they
would feel that their efforts had been well rewarded. Furthermore,
could they look over the present plans for a further new wing
to provide new executive offices, X-ray Department, Library
and accommodation for the Victoria Cancer Clinic, as well as an
additional 100 beds, they would feel that the future of the
Jubilee was in competent hands today. Under existing legislation new hospital construction is financed by contributions by
the Federal Government, the Provincial Government and the
individual hospital. The only sources of revenue available to
the general hospital to meet its share of the cost of new construction are fees from patients—a portion of the fees from
private wards over and above the Hospital Insurance daily
allowance and an allowance of ten cents per patient day.   These
 would be quite insufficient to meet today's costs. It follows
then that much dependence must be placed on donations and
bequests both large and small. In this respect the citizens of
Victoria have been generous to the Royal Jubilee and the new
construction now planned is made possible by these donations
such as the recent one from the estate of the late David Doig.
When we recall that St. Bartholomew's Hospital in London was
founded by Rehere, a courtier though a cleric, in 1123, we
realize that there is an aura of immortality about a great hospital.
The Royal Jubilee Hospital of Victoria is about to enter its
second century.
With the advent of the Hospital Insurance Service in 1949
a change was made in hospital management and Mr. George E.
Masters was appointed Administrator and Secretary to the
Board of Directors of the Royal Jubilee in 1950.
A list of the members of the Board of Directors for past
years is included (Appendix I), as well as a list of staff members
who have earned Long Service Awards by the Board of Directors, and a list of those employees who had served 15 to 25 years
or more but had retired before the institution of the Long
Service Medals.
Nursing Staff and School
O Woman — in our hours of ease
Uncertain, coy and hard to please
And variable as the shade
By the light quivering aspen made:
When pain and anguish wring the brow,
A ministering angel thou.
Matmion—Canto VI Stanza 30, SIR WALTER SCOTT
In the 1956 Annual Report of the hospital, the Nursing
section begins an unusually interesting report as follows:
"The high level of activities within all departments of our
hospital, the changing practices in medical care, an expanding
concept of what constitutes 'good nursing* and an increased
awareness of our educational responsibilities, not only to student
nurses, but also to our graduate nurses and our auxiliary personnel, all have made this a busy and stimulating year.
"The completion of the Central Supply Room and its
developing operation has relieved the individual nursing areas
of many routine and time-consuming tasks, but has also necessitated much co-operative planning between all areas in order to
maintain an adequate supply of materials at the time the
changes were being made, and to establish standardized procedures acceptable to all areas. The Supply Room has been a
very tangible evidence of the team work of not only the Nursing
Service and the School of Nursing, but of the Pharmacy, Maintenance, Purchasing and other departments in our organization.
"Nursing has welcomed also the completion of the dining-
room, not only as a pleasant place for employees to eat, but as a
real asset to patients and their visitors. We accept this and the
extended visiting hours, as in harmony with the creation of an
atmosphere in which the patient feels that he is of primary
 concern in the provision of facilities and the establishment of
Contrast this with the Annual Report of 1893, in which
there is a reference in the President's report to the new Training
School for Nurses.
"The Training School for Nurses is in active operation
and is fully dealt with by Dr. Richardson in his appended
The full report is as follows:
"The Training School for Nurses is in a flourishing condition. During the past year three nurses have graduated, and the
eagerness with which their professional services are sought and
retained is evidence of their ability."
The first graduation was in 1892 and occasioned the
following interesting note in the records:
"On December 30th Nurses J. Grady, H. E. Graves and
B. L. Routledge graduated and received their diplomas. The
former received 90j^%, winning the gold medal and, considering the high standing of Nurses Graves and Routledge the
Directors presented them with silver medals, similar in design
to the gold one."
The hospital was still lighted with coal oil and as late as
1894. Dr. Hasell, the then Resident Medical Officer, in asking
for extra nurses reported in 1897:
"Frequently the Matron and Head Nurse have sat up all
night because there were no nurses available to put in charge
of special cases."
At this time the salary of the Matron was $50.00 per
month and the cost per patient day was $1.29. In 1956 it
was $15.80.
In 1912 the Nursing Staff consisted of the Matron still
employed at $50.00 per month, a Head Nurse and a Night
Supervisor at $30.00 per month each and in this same year we
find two male nurses employed but no salary is mentioned.
The first male nurse was employed in 1900 at $25.00 per
month, so presumably there had been no significant change.
Such contrasts are inherent throughout the economic
history of the period and certainly no one would wish to see
any return to the early years under consideration. The profession of Nursing, as mentioned elsewhere in this study, started
as a long overdue crusade and the spirit of that beginning still
 animates the whole organization. The able women who
worked so hard, such long hours and with such devotion must
look back with a real sense of achievement as they appraise the
standing of their profession today. Even the prophetic forecast made by Florence Nightingale in her "Notes on Nursing,"
written in 1859, have been far surpassed.    She wrote:
"The word 'Nursing' has been limited to signify little
more than the administration of medicines and the application
of poultices. It ought to signify the proper use of fresh air,
light, warmth, cleanliness, quiet and the proper choosing and
giving of diet, all at the least expense of vital power to the
patient." She stressed the need for nursing the well—"domestic
hygiene," "psychic aspects of the sick," . . . flowers, colours,
variety, windows, change of posture, obstetrical care, infant
welfare, social service.
In 1898 the Directors of the Jubilee approved a vote of
$100.00 for additional expenses for Miss MacMillan, the then
Matron, to attend "an Educational Exhibition of the American
Nurses' Association to be held shortly in New York, conditional
upon free transportation being furnished by the C.P.R." and
the directors knew what they were doing, as the Railway and
Navigation Company supplied the needed transportation. As
late as 1921 ten more nurses were requisitioned to comply with
the eight-hour day and "three extra maids to relieve the nurses
of some work as nurses were washing bandages which, if sent
to the laundry, were not returned."
It was somewhat earlier than this that a minute appears
in the minutes of the Directors' meetings to the effect that a
notice be placed on the fire escape of the Nurses' Home as
"This fire escape to be used for emergency only and all
persons are warned against using it at any other time." There
is no mention of just why this notice was necessary, but looking
back from the vantage point of time it would seem that some
one had found the said fire escape useful in some "emergency"
other than that in the minds of the Directors.
Another type of "emergency" was reported to the Directors.
Peter and Paul, identical twins, were admitted August 6th
at 7:20 p.m. and immediately put into beds that were named,
but, as we found out the next afternoon they changed beds
during the night.
In the morning, August 7th, 1944, Peter was in Paul's
bed and was sent to the Operating Room as Paul and had his
tonsils and adenoids removed.
Peter, who was in Paul's bed, went to the Operating
Room as Paul, but because of coryza and slight temperature,
was returned without having a tonsillectomy and adenoid-
In the afternoon the mother visited and said the boy with
the coryza was Peter and Paul was the boy who had had the
operation.    The bed tags were changed immediately.
Yesterday, August 8th, they were out of bed without permission and tore the tie-downs when restrained.
Last night, August 8th, after 7:00 p.m., Peter was checked
by Dr. J., the usual pre-operative procedure, white patches were
noted on his tonsils so he was evidently in the correct bed.
Todav, August 9 th at noon, before sending Peter to the
Operating Room, we tried to examine his throat, as a check to
make certain we had the right child, but he was unco-operative,
so we were not successful. When asked their names they did
not answer.
At lunch, Peter, whom we thought was Paul, had been
given some jelly—a little later we found that he had given it
to his brother. This was reported to the Operating Room as
well as the fact that we had had trouble telling them apart.
When the child was under anaesthetic August 9th in the Operating Room it was discovered that he had had his tonsils removed.
so his name was not Peter but Paul. Evidently they had
changed their beds during the night.
Paul had been discharged August 8th, but at the request
of his mother and since we had the cot to spare, he was left in
mainly because she wished the twins to have company.
In future twins must be admitted to private rooms.
Signed "L.F."
Supervisor of Children*s Floor.
    Present Operating Room Number One.
 The reference library and study rooms of today had their
origin in 1910, when the Directors approved of an expenditure
of $37.50 for three years' subscriptions to magazines for the
nurses. About the period of the First Great War, Sir Henry
May, the Governor of Hong Kong, seems to have been quite
interested in the Royal Jubilee. He presented the oil portrait
of Dr. E. S. Hasell, now in possession of the hospital, and in
1918 gave $250.00 to form a nucleus for a reference library
for the Training School. In the same year the first definite
"teacher for nurses" was added to the staff. In 1923 the term
"Matron" was changed to "Director of Nursing" and in 1925
the Training School was approved by the Regents of the University of Albany, N.Y., which permitted the graduates from
the hospital to practice in the United States. This arrangement
was cancelled in 1927 and has, of course, beeen superseded
by the qualifying examination of the Registered Nurses' Association of British Columbia, which is recognized in. most of the
NATO countries today.
In an attempt to assist the smaller hospitals on Vancouver
Island the Directors of the Jubilee in 1928 approved of accepting four nurses from Up-Island hospitals each year to complete
their training. In 1930, when the King's Daughters' Hospital
in Duncan gave up its training school this arrangement enabled
six nurses from that hospital to complete their training in the
Jubilee and graduate as fully qualified pupils of the school.
The fact that smaller hospitals have found it inexpedient to
continue training of nurses, although the records show that such
schools all over Canada have graduated some of our best and
most successful nurses, brings up the question of the cost to the
hospital of training a nurse—an aspect of the nursing problem
not generally fully appreciated. In 1946 the total cost of
training each nurse in the Royal Jubilee through to graduation
was $2,600.00. Yet as late as August 21st, 1921, we find a
memo in the records to the effect that "a graduate nurse be in
charge of the telephone." This would seem to indicate either
that well qualified telephone operators were not then available
or that for some reason or other there were unemployed nurses.
Today the telephone service under Miss Ethel J. Croghan has a
staff of nine besides the necessary relief operators.
In the Royal Jubilee School of Nursing extra-curricular
activities are stressed today, as evidenced by the various pupil
 nurses' organizations, such as the Drama Club and the Glee Club,
and special training is given in public speaking. Emphasis is
also placed on post-graduate education, enabling graduate
nurses to complete University programs in Nursing. In 1956
four members of the staff undertook such post-graduate work—
two at the University of British Columbia, one at Columbia
University and one at the Manhattan Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Hospital, with part time at Columbia.
Since 1950 the "block" system of teaching pupil nurses
has been adopted and "has been found to work satisfactorily."
"Under this method students attend lectures for one month
without the extra burden of ward duties and then take their
practical training in the wards."
A comparatively recent addition to the evolving tradition
of nursing is the so-called "Capping Ceremony." This is, in
fact, a dedication service for the young pupil nurse. One might
in a sense use the phraseology of religious orders and describe
this ceremony as marking the passage from "Postulant" to
"Novice." At this time the young nurse wins her "Cap" and
carries a Florence Nightingale lamp at this candlelight semi-
religious service. She is presented with a white copy of the
"New Testament" by the Gideon Society and the traditions,
the ethics and the opportunities of her chosen profession are
stressed as factors to be built into her individual life and identified with her own ideals. For the pupil and for her family and
friends who are present it is a moving appeal to materialize their
own ideals in the work-a-day world of daily living. It is
essentially a development which would have appealed strongly
to Florence Nightingale herself as it recalls the three-fold
Origin of the profession—religion, war and science—to mention
these components chronologically.
In 1956 the School of Nursing was affiliated with the
Willow Street (Vancouver) Unit of Tuberculosis Control under
the Provincial Health Department, with the Health Department
of Victoria and Saanich and with the Crease Clinic for Psychological Medicine at Essondale. The latter present day associa^
tion recalls that in 1928 the nurses had ten hours of lectures
in Psychology by Mrs. E. C. MacKenzie of London University.
In the 1954 Annual Report of the hospital the purpose of
the School of Nurses was stated as follows: "To select young
women with aptitudes for nursing and guide them in a pro-
 gram designed to help the student acquire the knowledge, skills
and aptitude necessary to give complete nursing care to patients
of all ages; and to help the student to become a happy, well
adjusted individual and a good citizen." This was quoted
in the hospital report from the Calendar of the School and a
survey of the work today indicated that these objectives are
being achieved.
The present Executive Staff of the school with as complete
a list of the graduates as is obtainable are tabulated. Also the
names of the Matrons and the Directors of Nursing of the past
with their assistants and the honour roll from the first Great
War. It has not been possible to secure an honour roll for the
second Great War.    (See Appendix II.)
The present Director of Nursing is Mary L. Richmond,
B.N., M.A., R.N.
The Medical Staff
Honour a physician according to thy need of him with
the honours due unto him:   for verily the Lord hath created
him.    For from the Most High cometh healing; and from the
king he shall receive a gift.    The skill of a physician shall lift
up his head: and in the sight of the great he shall be admired.
The Lord created medicines out of the earth: and a prudent man
will have no disgust at them. . . . And he gave men skill that
they might be glorified in his marvellous works.    With them
doth he heal a man, and taketh away his pain.   With these will
the apothecary make a confection and his works shall not be
brought to an end; and from him is peace upon the face of the
earth.   My son, in thy sickness be not negligent: but pray unto
the Lord and he shall heal thee. . . . Then give place to the
physician for verily the Lord hath created him: and let him not
go from thee for thou hast need of him.   There is a time when
in their hands is the issue for good.   For they shall also beseech
the Lord, that he may prosper them in giving relief and in
healing for the maintenance of life.    He that sinneth before
his Maker, let him fall into the hands of the physician.'*
(The Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach—otherwise
known as Ecclesiasticus — Book III-XIII — The
Modern Reader's Bible edited by Richard G. Moulton,
M.A.  (Cantab) Ph.D.  (Penn.).
When the hospital opened on May 20th, 1890, Dr. W. A.
Richardson was appointed Resident Medical Officer. He had
living quarters and maintenance in the institution and a salary
of $108.00 monthly. He filled this position with distinction
until 1898. He did what laboratory work was done and gave
all the anaesthetics so that by May 31st, 1892, he had given
1,000 anaesthetics "without any accident" and the attending
surgeons in the same period did such major operations for cancer
as excision of the upper maxilla: amputation of breast; excision
of rectum; sarcoma of anterior mediastinum and excision of
 tongue. Also mentioned is an aneurysm of the external iliac
artery treated by abdominal section and ligature of the artery
with recovery. One case of "typhlitis" was admitted. This
was the name under which appendicitis masqueraded at this time.
In January, 1893, there is the first note regarding "specialization" in medical practice. The record reads "the Board
established a department for the free treatment of diseases of the
eye. Drs. O. M. Jones and M. S. Wade were unanimously
appointed Ophthalmic Surgeons to attend free patients on
Thursdays and Fridays of each week." Dr. Jones was later to
become known throughout the Pacific Coast for his able and
successful work as a general surgeon and Dr. Wade was to
become known in later years as an historian of British Columbia
(his "MacKenzie of Canada" is a textbook for students of
Canadian history) and as editor of the Kamloops Sentinel
newspaper, which is the Standard-Sentinel of today. A further
evidence of the changes occurring in medical practice was the
appointment in 1895 of Dr. Mckechnie as Pathologist. However, his duties must have been light, as in the Annual Report of
1896 we find that he had made only two visits to the hospital
in the capacity of Pathologist. No initials are given but it is
probable that this was Dr. R. E. Mckechnie, later to be so well
known'and so much beloved in Vancouver.
In the same year a special committee was appointed to
examine all aspects of hospital management. This committee
consisted of Messrs. C. Hayward, J. S. Yates, F. B. Pemberton
and G. H. Brown, under the chairmanship of H. Dallas
Helmcken. The following extract is taken from their lengthy
"Your committee note that the hospital was built according to most approved modern principles, and is a properly,
scientifically conducted hospital, and has to be kept so. Its
present high state of efficiency and surgical reputation is, in a
great measure, due to the skill and attention of Dr. Davie.
Should the hospital be deprived of the hearty pecuniary support
of all classes your committee beg to point out with alarm and
regret the hospital may be compelled to close its doors."
Your committee would state that the following complaints
are made:
1. That a free patient sent to the hospital is lost to the
 The same thing applies when the patient is able to pay
$10 per week in the ward.
That in both cases no invitation is extended to the
practitioner sending such patient to be present when an
operation will be performed, nor is he invited to visit
the patient.
That it is unfair to the profession generally that the
staff should be limited:   as 1—It enables the medical
men in charge to enjoy an advantage over their fellow
practitioners; and 2—such a system deprives them of
hospital practice.
Your committee are of opinion that the first three heads of
complaint can be answered, that as the professional gentlemen
in charge are responsible to the Board for the proper treatment
of that class of cases, and for the wholesome condition of the
hospital, it is only right and proper that the medical men of the
hospital should have sole control.    And, secondly, that if the
medical gentleman who sends a patient to the hospital should
desire to visit the patient, the professional gentleman in charge
of the particular ward would be only too happy to allow him
to  accompany him  on his  rounds  or  by permission of the
Resident Medical Officer to see the patient.    If the professional
gentleman sending the patient would make a request in writing
to be notified when such a patient is to be dealt with his request
would be cheerfully acceded to.
The fourth complaint is one to which your committee has
paid special attention, and has requested each medical man to
present such a scheme, as would in his opinion, satisfy the profession and thus popularize themselves, and, as they say, through
them, the hospital, as it is contended that in consequence of the
present system some of the medical profession will not and do
not send their pay patients to the Jubilee Hospital—and this
they assert seriously interferes with the revenue. . . .
Your committee would report that as there exists such a
serious difference of opinion in the profession itself with reference to a system which would meet with the general approval
of the patients and commend itself to the profession and to the
sick in the hospital, your committee believes that it will be
judicious to place before you the various suggestions to show
the difficult nature of the task entrusted to your committee.
A. Some, without admitting the necessity for change, submit
that if an assistant or associate to the surgeon and physician
 were added, that would be all that is necessary, to be elected
B. Others again submit that as no distinction is made in the
profession in active practice the visiting staff should consist
of six medical men, who should hold office for periods of
two months, without keeping the surgical and medical
professions separate, to be elected annually.
C. Others submit that there should be three physicians and
three surgeons (twelve in all) holding office half yearly in
alternate quarters to be elected annually, keeping the professions separate.
D. Others again maintained that twelve medical men should
be appointed, each one attending the work of the hospital
for one month.
E. Others again:
1. That the staff consist of:
a. a Consulting Staff.
b. two senior and two junior surgeons, two senior and
two junior physicians, oculist and aurist.
c. Resident Medical Officer.
2. That no appointments be permanent.
3. That the senior men should be appointed tri-annually;
and that they be always eligible for re-election.
4. That the junior men be appointed annually, and that
they be eligible for only two successive years.
5. Oculist and aurist under the same conditions as senior
6. Senior to be consulted on the appointment of juniors.
7. Posts to be advertised when vacant.
8. Surgical and medical visits to be paid at fixed hours,
as far as possible.
9. Practitioners having pay patients in public ward may
be attended by private physician.
10. Junior men to act as registrars.
11. Chloroformist.
F. Another suggestion would be to add a department of
gynaecology, but to make no other changes in the staff.
G. Another suggestion was made to add an associate and
registrar to each department.
The profession endorse the appointment of a pathologist
through whose services it is confidently expected a pathological
laboratory will be created which will be of great value to the
Your committee is of the opinion that it is in the best
interests of the hospital that should any alterations take place
in the visiting staff it should be in the same direction as has
hitherto been the rule, and that instead of the hospital being
thrown open to the whole of the profession for hospital practice
(with general lack of responsibility) the branches of the profession be kept separate as at present and strongly recommend
the following scheme for acceptance, viz.—by the appointment
forthwith of:
One surgeon, one associate surgeon, one registrar for the
surgical department.
One physician, one associate physician, one registrar for
medical department.
One oculist and aurist, one pathologist.
The present Resident Medical Officer.
The consultant staff to consist of senior or experienced
practitioners not to exceed six in number."
This excellent report has been quoted rather fully because
it clearly summarizes the difficulties inherent in establishing
an organized medical staff in an open hospital. Actually, as
will be shown later, many years and much careful thought were
necessary before the problem was satisfactorily solved.
In 1897 new regulations came into force permitting all
medical practitioners to attend their own cases in the public
ward and in the same year we find, for the first time the name
of a woman on the visiting medical staff—Mary McNeill.
The members of this committee who were still living in
1912 must have wondered just why they had given so much
time and thought to this problem when they read the list of
members of the staff of the Royal Provincial Jubilee and found
there the name of every man practicing medicine in Victoria
and at the bottom of the list "and all doctors of the Province."
The Jubilee was certainly then as widely "open" as any
extremist could desire. Robert Southwell (1561-1595) was
indeed correct when he wrote:
 Dr. John S. Helmcken.
  "Times go by turns, and chances change by course
From foul to fair, from better hap to worse.**
In the autumn of 1912 an interesting ruling was established as follows:
"That all indigent city patients admitted (to the
hospital) be reported to the City Health Officer by the
doctor admitting him and any patient not so reported,
the cost of such patient be charged to the doctor upon
whose order he  was  admitted."
In 1915 a resolution was adopted to "employ two internes at $25.00 per month." Later in the same year the
Directors found it necessary to raise this amount to $100.00 if
the hospital was to secure any internes. This was the early
period of the First Great War and a short item records that
Dr. Hasell had resigned "to accept an important military post."
In 1916 Dr. O. Coodley was appointed Assistant Resident
Medical Officer—and Dr. C. W. Duck in 1917—evidently
temporary appointments until Dr. Herbert Rogers came to the
full post in 1917.
In 1918 a most important forward step was taken in
organization of the staff as we know the term today when a
representative of The American College of Surgeons visited the
hospital for the first time in the interests of standardization and
the following decision recorded:
"A staff of ten practitioners nominated by the
medical  society  to  be  appointed  for  one  year  to
function by giving free consultative service to any
public ward patient desiring it and to assist the
hospital authorities in seeing that the work is done."
In 1920 Dr. Rogers, R.M.O., reported to the Directors
that a stenographer was necessary to secure the writing of the
necessary histories.    Miss B. Ferguson was appointed to this
post and today has a staff of eleven competent assistants with
adequate  equipment  to keep  the  records  of  the patients in
hospital up to modern standards,  in order to maintain the
approval of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of
Canada as well as that of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals functioning in both United States and Canada
which recently took over this task of hospital standardization
from the American College of Surgeons.
During this post-war period there were other evidences of
the ripening and maturing of modern medical thought and
 practice. In 1930 the Misses Angus of the great multitude of
friends of the Provincial Royal Jubilee (there were 700 on the
list before the original building was opened) presented a modern
electro-cardiograph to the hospital. The interpretation of the
tracings were made by Dr. D. M. Baillie and later by Dr. P. A. C.
Cousland and this was the beginning of the Sub Department of
Cardiology (under the section of Medicine) as we know it today.
As already noted, extensive major surgery for malignancy
was undertaken at the Royal Provincial Jubilee Hospital soon
after its erection. It is readily understood that when the possibilities of cure and palliation of this much feared disease by
various forms of radiation therapy became known, that friends
of the institution made certain that modern equipment for this
most important work, was provided in 1919. The formation
of a Tumour Clinic was approved by the Medical Staff in 19 44
and in 1946 this became the Victoria Cancer Clinic—the first
branch of the British Columbia Cancer Clinic of Vancouver.
Initially the work was limited to diagnosis and in 1951 treatment was officially approved. New accommodation is planned
which will be designed to house a cobalt bomb, already on order.
The Cancer Clinic serves all of Victoria and the southern end of
Vancouver Island. Members of the medical Staff of St. Joseph's
Hospital share in the Clinics, consultations and planning.
Gradually as time and experience worked out one problem
after another, the organization of the Medical Staff has adjusted
itself to deal with the ever-changing problems of providing
modern hospital care. The Medical Staff is now appointed
annually by the Board of Directors. For Active Medical Staff
in 1956 see Appendix VIII. *
In 1937 certain gifts were given to the department of
Radiology by Mr. J. H. Frank of Victoria and other anonymous
donors, in memory of Mr. R. J. Jamieson, who was at that
time a member of the Board of Directors. Mr. Jamieson had
been especially interested in the Radiological department and
as he was an expert amateur photographer, he realized the need
for clinical photography in the hospital. These donations were
used to start a photographic section which has grown into the
efficient valuable unit of today and has supplied many of the
illustrations in this history. It is now under the direction of
Mr. Daniel Thompson.
For some time now the work of the hospital is controlled
by the staff through its various committees and this plan has
 been found to function satisfactorily from all points of view.
The list of Staff Committees is as follows:
Standing Committees:
The Executive Committee.
Records Committee.
Credentials Committee.
Tissue Committee.
Interne Committee.
Programme Committee.
Therapeutics Committee.
Nurses' Lecture Committee.
Special Committees:
Operating Room Committee.
Polio Committee.
Poison Control Committee.
Committee on Sterilization.
Committee on Infections.
In 1920 the hospital was approved by the American College
of Surgeons and this facilitated correlation of hospital work in
Victoria with that of other centres in Canada and the United
States. In 1934 in tune with the developments in other
hospitals, weekly conferences were started to review the more
important phases of the work in the Pathological and Radiological Departments. These have been continued up to the
present. In addition weekly conferences in the following subjects are held at regular intervals for the Medical Staff, Internes
and practitioners of the surrounding district:
Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Cancer.
Alternate weeks there is a Clinical and Pathological Conference
and a Heart Clinic alternate months.
In accordance with the rulings of the British Columbia
Hospital Insurance Service a well-equipped and competently
staffed Emergency Department is maintained and with the
co-operation of the Pharmacy a "Poison Centre" was started in
1956—the first in British Columbia and possibly in Canada.
Such centres have been recently established in many cities in the
United States and it has been found that such a service is of
great value to the community as well as to the Medical Profession. It functions in this manner: The "Centre" in cooperation with other such units, maintains a record of the
poisfonous element in most of the commercial products in use
around the kitchen or garden, in private homes and in industry
 as well as data on industrial hazards from the newer chemicals,
and can advise the physician in charge or assume active treatment should this be requested. As this information is stated
on the label of only a few such products the value of this service
will be readily appreciated. •
Research work which has the approval of the University of
British Columbia is being done by certain members of the staff
under Federal Grants. In 1951 the Royal College of Physicians
and Surgeons of Canada approved the hospital for one year's
training in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, General Surgery,
Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Diagnostic Radiology. In the
following year approval was also given for training in Radiation
Therapy. In each instance the year is to be the last year of
supervised practice for certification.
In 1940 the Plasma Bank was started and in 1946 the
Blood Bank under the auspices of the Red Cross of Canada and
now in the closing months of 1956 plans are well matured to
open early in the New Year a well-equipped Rehabilitation
Centre to aid in the later treatment of those who have suffered
injury, poliomyelitis or chronic muscular and nervous diseases.
This is a development from the section of Physiotherapy which
was first opened in 1930, and has grown into the Department
of Physical Medicine under the direction of Mrs. Kathleen M.
Thomson, M.C.P.A. During the coming year it is planned to
develop the present ward for alcoholics into a treatment unit
along the lines of an experiment now being conducted in the
Vancouver General Hospital, where the treatment of alcoholics
is being placed under a team of Psychiatrists and Social Service
Reviewing the story of the Royal Jubilee, both yesterday
and today, must give us enthusiasm, hope and courage for the
future. Starting as a two-bed charity hospital the Royal Jubilee
has in its first hundred years, become one of the important
forward-looking hospitals of Canada. It is zealously fulfilling
its original purpose—the proper care of the sick of the community whether rich or poor. Furthermore, it has in recent
years started to assume its proper role as a centre of health
education for the public and for the medical profession. How
far this later development will proceed remains the secret of
time but it requires no gift of prophecy to state that this
function will grow with benefit to all. The early prophecy in
1891 by Mr. Joshua Davies, the President of the Board, that
 the Jubilee would be part of a medical teaching faculty has been
partially fulfilled in that our medical internes are today drawn
almost completely from the Medical Faculty of the University
of British Columbia. A closer association is probable—perhaps
along the lines of the affiliation of the Ottawa Civic Hospital
with the Medical of Queen's University in Kingston, where
certain physicians of Ottawa are on the Medical Teaching
Faculty of Queen's and undergraduate medical students of
Queen's act as student internes in the Ottawa hospital.
An article in the New York Times of May 12th, 1957,
by Dr. H. A. Rusk directs public attention to the career opportunities in hospital work for students completing their studies
in high schools. The great hospital career is of course in nursing but there are many others such as hospital administration,
hospital accounting, housekeeping and laundry management,
medical and psychiatric social work, medical records librarian,
physical and occupational therapy, and as technicians in hospital
laboratories and radiological departments and in hospital
dietetics. Increasing opportunities in all these fields can be
safely predicted.
In the final analysis the hospitals of British Columbia are
on a much more secure financial foundation than at any time
in the past. The future is indeed bright, where this is combined, as it is, with a Medical Staff that is still guided by the
spirit of Hippocrates:
"Sometimes give your service for nothing, calling to mind a
previous benefaction or present satisfaction. And if there is an
opportunity to serve one who is a stranger, in financial straits,
give full assistance to all such. For where there is love of man,
there is love of the art. For some patients, though conscious that
their condition is perilous, recover their health simply through
their content with the goodness of the physician, and it is well to
superintend the sick to make them well, to care for the health to
keep them well but also to care for one's own self, so as to
observe what is seemly."
Hippocrates (460-377 B.C.)
Precepts—Chapter 6.
Translated by Henry RICH JlNES   (1817-1885).
The same appraisal of medical practice was made by Sir
William Osier in the language of today:
"The practice of medicine is an art, not a trade, a calling in
which your heart will be exercised equally with ypur head. Often
the best part of your work will have nothing to do with potions
and powders, but with the exercise of the influence of the strong
upon the weak, the righteous upon the wicked, the wise upon the
 So "in Today already walks tomorrow.*'
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834)
From 1890 until 1920 the Resident Medical Officer was
the accepted title for the Medical Director. From 1920 up to
the present the post has carried the title of Medical Superintendent or Medical Administrator. A list of those who have
occupied this position, with a list of those physicians who over
the years have served the hospital as Internes will be found in
Appendix VII.
Department of Radiology
"Life's but a walking shadow"
Macbeth—William Shakespeare
Act. 5, Scene 5, Line 16 (1564-1616)
"But like a shadow proves the substance true"
Essay on criticism Part II, Line 231
Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
In November, 1895, Wilhelm Konrad von Rontgen, Professor of Physics at Wurzburg University, Germany, discovered
the rays which perpetuate his name. These were called "X-rays"
because "X" is the usual symbol for any unknown factor.
These rays have the power of passing through various media
which are opaque to ordinary light and effect a photographic
plate casting shadows of varying density, depending on the
density of the structure through which they have passed. So
the radiologist can say with the Hindu King in his Reply to
the  Missionary:
"And I see but shadows around me"
Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall (1835-1911)
In the International Medical Annual for 1896 the following interesting report is given in part. It was written by E.
Hurry Fenwick, F.R.C.S., with additions by J. W. Gifford:
"No record of the progress of the year (1895) could be considered complete that omitted reference to the remarkable development in photography or shadowgraphy, or perhaps still more
correctly speaking "electrography" made by Professor Rontgen of
Wurzburg. His discovery is so recent that it would be rash to
prophecy what results may ultimately be expected from its use.
Nor would it be wise to predict how far it will aid the physician
and surgeon in the clearing up of doubtful diagnosis, and in the
avoidance of dangerous exploratory  operations.
"It seems to have been assumed that the medical profession
was the one which would of all others benefit most from this
discovery, and undoubtedly it may be of great use in a restricted
field. In the first place the apparatus which will give results with
an exposure of four minutes is complicated, expensive and would
require special technical skill in its manipulation.   (The apparatus
 used by Mr. Gifford, as given below, entails a cost of between 50
and 60 pounds.)
"Even with induction coils giving a six-inch spark results
appear to be very uncertain, and yet if it were proposed to introduce even so feeble a light as this into one of the cavities of the
body it would be necessary to insulate the wires going to the
Crookes' tube in a very effectual manner.
"Nor must it be forgotten that the result is not a photograph, with clear outline and detail, but a shadowgram, whose
edges will be blurred and ill defined, in proportion as the photographic plate is removed from the object throwing the shadow. . . .
As bone is opaque to the X-rays, the use of this discovery will not
be at present available just where we most need it, in the thoracic
and cranial cavities . . . yet it has already been proved that this
method can indicate the position of such bodies as bullets, needles,
and sequestra in a limb, and thus greatly assist in their removal. . . .
Already a calculus has been revealed in the bladder, but here the
sound, the cystoscope, and the finger leave but little room for
improvement. . . . We must therefore necessarily conclude that the
time has not yet come to say how great will be the utility to the
medical profession of what is distinctly a new field in physical
science. . . ."
How shrewd the appraisal was, to have been written
within a few months of the original discovery, in view of
existing knowledge—and how far from a true vision of what
the future of today held for this remarkable discovery in pure
It is historically interesting that on October 28th, 1898
(just about three years after the initial discovery) the Board of
Directors of the Provincial Royal Jubilee received a letter from
Mrs. H. D. Helmcken, enclosing the sum of $100.00, earned at
an entertainment, to be placed in a special account to purchase
X-ray equipment and in May of the following year a further sum
of $250.00 was received from the same source to be added to the
earlier donation. Action soon followed. On July 12th, 1899,
X-ray apparatus "not excelled by any other hospital on the
Pacific Coast" was made in Victoria for the hospital.
It was Robert Hutchison who was responsible for the
construction. He was an electrician associated with the late
E. Crow-Baker in the first commercial production of electricity
in Victoria at the corner of Fort and Langley. The story was
told by Frank H. Kelley in the Colonist of January 20th, 1957.
In the late thirties Mr. Hutchison was a member of the Board
of Directors of the hospital.
In September of 1899 we read that Dr. Hasell, the Resident Medical Officer, demonstrated this X-ray unit to the
members of the Natural History Society. In this connection
it might be mentioned that one large hospital in one of the
 largest cities in the United States had no X-ray equipment of
any kind until 1911 and in two other large hospitals, one in
Canada and one in the United States, the interpretation of all
radiographs was entrusted to a photographer until after the
First Great War. In the year 1910 Dr. Hasell had taken 73
"X-ray Photographs." New X-ray equipment was purchased
in England, in 1910, but when it arrived there was no place
to set it up. However, with help from The Daughters of Pity
and very extensive help from the Women's Auxiliary a new
X-ray room was built the following year off the corridor leading
to the Pemberton Memorial Operating Room.
Evidently the demand for such examinations showed
prompt growth, as in 1912 a ruling was adopted as follows:
"That all X-ray patients first call at the office to obtain a
voucher before seeing the radiographer."
A full time Radiologist, Dr. Stannier, was appointed in
1916 when Dr. Hasell had resigned. Dr. Stannier's contract
had some interesting terms; prophetic of many of the agreements
of today between radiologists and hospitals in both Canada and
the United States.   The basis terms of payment were as follows:
„ "The radiologist to receive 60% of all work done on the
hospital machine and 90% if the work should be taken to the
radiologist's PRIVATE OFFICE.    Free patients not to be charged."
In 1918 an addition 19' x 20' was built and new equipment costing $2,700.00 was added. In 1 918 Dr. L. K. Poyntz
was appointed Radiologist and continued until 1923. He was
succeeded for a few months by Dr. Warren and in the same year
Dr. W. M. Carr took over the work and carried it on until
1931, when Dr. H. H. Murphy was appointed. He was
followed in 1951 by Dr. H. M. Edmison, who had been
appointed Associate Radiologist in 1946.
Through the generosity of the late Mr. Charles F. Todd
new equipment was added in 1919 and again in 1938, and
since that date has been maintained at a high standard.
As previously mentioned, Radium, for the treatment of
malignant conditions, was available at the hospital, comparatively soon after its discovery by Pierre and Marie Curie. The
first donation, for this purpose, was made by Mr. Joseph
Graves of The Douglas Lake Cattle Co. of Nicola, shortly
before the first Great War. Soon after the cessation of hostilities, a generous gift from Mr. Joseph Sayward, of Victoria,
 brought the supply up to the demands of current standards of
treatment. Realizing how much had been accomplished by her
father's gift, a further donation, in his memory, was made by
his daughter, Mrs. M. L. Sayward-Wilson. This gift again
made the supply sufficient for the demands of the period.
The department is now approved by the Royal College
of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada for residencies in connection with the approved course of training in Radiology—
both diagnostic and therapeutic.
Training in Radiological technique began early and the
first pupil completed training in 1922. A list of graduates
is included in Appendix X.
The post of Assistant Radiologist was established in 1938
and was filled by Dr. J. B. Roberts and later by Dr. H. M.
Edmison, the present Director. For a chronological list of
Radiologists see Appendix IX.
The Pathological Laboratory
"Medical instruction does not exist to provide individuals
with an opportunity of learning how to make a living
but in order to make possible the protection of the health
of the public.**
RUDOLF VlRCHOW (1821-1902) in an address to
a class of medical students at the Pathological
Institute, Berlin. Quoted by Erwin H. Ackernecht
in his biography of Professor Virchow.
The origin of the study of Radiology can be accurately
placed in the history of medical progress—the year, the day of
the month and almost the exact hour of the great discovery are
known. No such exact placement in time can be given for the
great science of Pathology. Its beginnings may date from the
days of the astrologers—almost certainly from the peak period
of Arabian medicine.
Many valuable discoveries were made in the early part of
the last century, as for example the detection of acetone in the
blood and urine of diabetic persons which occurred in 1857.
However, as we understand the word today and as the science
is practiced we can well think of the great German Pathologist
Rudolf Virchow as the founder. His book on cellular Pathology
was published in Berlin in 1858. Here he described what Lord
Lister termed "the true and fertile doctrine that every morbid
structure consists of cells which have been derived from preexisting cells as a progeny." On account of his liberal political
beliefs he was banished from Berlin by Bismarck and the
University of Wurzburg profited enormously by having him
for many years as a member of the Faculty. Then followed the
discoveries in Bacteriology by Koch of the bacillus of Tuberculosis in 1882 and by Friedrich Loftier of the organism causing
diphtheria in 1884 and the reaction in the blood discovered by
the French physician Fernand Widal which makes possible a
positive diagnosis of Typhoid.
 Then came Ehrlich with his simple equipment and his
enquiring mind. "It was his conviction that there is nothing
so practical as a theory that works and that practical applications always follow sound theoretical work. ... In the end he
taught physicians to look upon the blood in a new way, to
learn how tumours should be classified, to diagnose tuberculosis
scientifically, to consider infection as a chemical process, to study
immunology as a branch of chemistry."
Gradually all the multitude of chemical, bio-chemical and
hormonal examinations were developed which have contributed
so greatly to making medicine what it is today.
As has been noted, a room was provided in the original
central building of the Royal Jubilee for a laboratory on the
third floor. It would appear that the few examinations
made were done by the Resident Medical Officer and in 1911
Dr. Hasell asked for an additional room. However, Dr. Horn,
who had been appointed Pathologist at $75.00 per month
reported in 1913 that "work has continued in the Laboratory
with the same accommodation as before, one sink, one water
tap and no room for more." However, in spite of these difficulties he was able to report also an average of 140 examinations
per month "blood counts, Wassermann tests and examinations
of sputum, of which 25% showed the tubercle bacillus." However, the first Great War terminated Dr. Horn's appointment, as
he received some appointment from the War Office in London
in 1916 and was succeeded by Dr. Long, and he in turn by
Dr. W. P. Walker in 1917, a position which he held until 1931.
In 1919 the new Provincial regulations regarding venereal
disease became active and a special governmental grant was made
to the Provincial Royal Jubilee to cover the costs of the necessary
tests and examinations for the area of Vancouver Island. This
really established the Laboratory as a branch of the Provincial
Health Service. This work in public health has naturally grown
tremendously over the years up to the present and in 1931 all
Public Health work on Vancouver Island was centred here. The
average number of examinations performed in the Laboratory
today is 16,000 per month.
When the new east wing was opened in 1925 new quarters
considered ample at the time, were assigned to the Laboratory
on the first floor. However, these were outgrown by 1951
when through the generosity of the late J. Keith Wilson of
Victoria   the   present   laboratory   building   was   constructed.
 As is mentioned elsewhere the basic plan was developed by
the present pathologist and has proven very satisfactory, both
as regards the use of space and light.
In 1936 studies in Basal Matabolism were commenced,
the Plasma Bank in 1940 and in 1945 the Red Cross established
the Blood Bank. Quite naturally it was placed under the aegis
of the laboratory. This meant much more than just the undertaking of more work of the same kind. It was a break with
tradition, and a wise one, as the laboratory had up to this time
been concerned primarily and almost completely with diagnosis
in one form or another. Now the staff was definitely identified
with treatment. Present plans are well matured to establish in
connection with the laboratory in the coming year, facilities for
the use of radioactive isotopes both in diagnosis and treatment,
thus further identifying this department with actual treatment.
In 1952 this department was approved by the Royal
College of Physicians and Surgeons for post-graduate training.
The present Director is Dr. R. G. D. McNeely. The Directors
of the Laboratory are listed in Appendix XII.
Maintenance and Housekeeping
"The lyf so short, the craft so long to lerne."
The Parlement of Foules
Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400).
The Housekeeping division started when the first nurse
swept or dusted a patients' ward and the Maintenance Department when the first handyman was appointed in June, 1902.
It is probable that much of this man's time was filled with the
care of the four furnaces and the 17 fireplaces. At any rate, an
item appears in the Annual Report of 1896 of $182.00 collected
from patients for extra fires. One can imagine the convalescent
patient really enjoying his private ward with a good fire in the
grate—but if you were not prepared to pay for "extra fires,"
convalescence and even the acute period of any illness in bed in
an unheated room must have seemed quite reminiscent of Victorian England.
This man was also busy with the kitchen garden, the
chickens and the pigs or, as it was referred to in the reports,
"the Farm." As early as 1892 the Directors appealed for
shrubs and plants for the grounds and anyone who knew anything of old Victoria, to say nothing of modern Victoria, knows
that such an appeal was never unanswered. The gardens and
grounds represent the thoughtfulness of those who love and
have loved the hospital. In 1908 we read that "Patients
were disturbed by dogs barking, the cow bellowing and the
noise from the chicken yard." This resulted in a ruling by the
Directors that "the chicken yard be abolished and that no
member of the staff will be allowed to keep animals on the
premises." In 1907 changes were beginning, as the furnaces
which had grown in number to six, were now replaced by a
steam plant. While no definite department of housekeeping
was yet recognized there were ward maids in 1900 as there was
an   official   ruling   regarding   holidays.      "Ward   maids   must
 arrange work to be covered when any are on holidays as a
Chinaman cannot be secured under $1.00 per day."
The laundry was at first all done by Chinese help but in
1921 machinery had been installed and there is a note that "a
man from the laundry be sent for two weeks' training
at the Victoria Steam Laundry and later to fill the post in the
laundry at the Jubilee." In other words, the day of the
"handy man" was drawing to a close; specialization was beginning and the need for special training was gaining recognition.
These notes from the past are interesting, as they contrast
so definitely with present conditions. Today the maintenance
of a large hospital is as completely organized, equipped with
power tools and trained competent personnel as complete as
the much advertised perfection of maintenance of a large first-
class modern hotel—with the difference that all the "guests"
in the hospital are ill or injured and all cleaning, servicing,
renewal and much new construction must be carried through
without undue disturbance of patients or hospital equipment
which must be available to function at any time day or night.
All this requires constant competent supervision and planning
with prompt efficient completion of all work in the minimum
of time.
In the last twenty-five years much of the routine work was
systematized, as for example, the complete servicing of a private
ward when vacated with replacement of any furniture which
needed refinishing. Such refinishing was carried to a high point
of efficiency and much new construction was carried out, some
of which would be classified as major in character. By this
time the electrical equipment in the Department of Radiology,
in the elevators and throughout the hospital generally had
become so complicated that skilled mechanics were necessary to
keep it all functioning satisfactorily. The Housekeeping section was organized as a separate department in 1947. Perhaps
the most outstanding major construction undertaken on the
advice and carried out under the supervision of the Maintenance
Department was the installation in 1936 of two high pressure
steam boilers at a total cost of slightly over $12,000. After
twenty-one years of satisfactory service these boilers are carried
in the inventory at $30,000.    The story is an interesting one.
In 1935 the whole country was still in the grip of the
Great Depression and it seemed like the irony of fate that
 replacement of the power plant should be required just at that
time. However, there was no room for argument in view of
obsolescence and increased load due to growth. Mr. Maurice
J. Madeley, Chief Engineer, reported to the Directors that two
suitable boilers, owned by the Granby Consolidated Mining,
Smelting and Power Co. could be purchased for $2,000 "as
is and where is" and located near Cassidy on Vancouver Island.
The hazards inherent in the purchase of such used equipment
were obvious, but the units were purchased on Mr. Madeley's
assurance that they were in sound condition and could be safely
moved and re-installed at a reasonable cost.
The complete equipment weighed over 40 tons and had to
be dismantled and each piece carefully labelled for re-assembling.
The actual transportation was by railway flat car to Chemainus;
by sea barge to H.M.C. Dockyard at Esquimalt, where cranes
were available to transfer it all to trucks and so to the hospital.
Installation was uneventful with an interruption of steam
service for only three hours. I am indebted to Mr. J. A. Syme
of the Purchasing Department for this exact data.
In 1949 the Employees' Association was granted bargaining rights for those employees not covered by some other labour
organization. Through the efforts of this organization the
employees' monthly paper, "The Harmonizer" was started and
has contributed much towards unification of the staff. The
other professional and craft organizations with hospital representation are:
The Registered Nurses' Association of British Columbia.
The International Union of Operating Engineers.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers.
The Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paper
Hangers of America.
In conclusion it is worthy of note that providing 24-hour
care seven days a week at the Royal Jubilee in 1950 called for
the following staff:
210 Student Nurses.
164 Graduate Nurses.
56 Ward Aides.
69 Clerical Workers.
32 Technicians.
16 Physicians, including Internes.
34 Laundry Employees.
 41 on Dietary Staff.
30 in the Maintenance Department.
78 Household Staff.
28 Orderlies.
14 Technical Students.
D. W. Hughes is presently in charge of the Power Plant
and Maintenance Department. The Housekeeping Department
also comes under his jurisdiction. See Appendix XIV for
chronological list of earlier members.
"Better use medicines at the outset than at the last moment."
Maxim 866—PUBLILIUS SYRUS about 42 B.C.
The Lord created medicines out of the earth and a prudent
man will have no disgust at them. And He gave men skill that
they might be glorified in His marvellous works. With these
He doth heal a man, and taketh away his pain. With these will
the apothecary make a confection, and His works shall not be
brought to an end. . . .
The wisdom  of Jesus,  the Son of Sirach,  otherwise
known as Eccleasticus.    Book III—xiii—The Modern
Readers' Bible edited by RICHARD G. MOULTON, M.A.
(Cantab Ph.D.   (Penn.)
It is always interesting and disappointing as one visits a
hospital—especially if it is not brand new, to find the Pharmacy
hidden away in some remote dark corner—and when on enquiry
you usually find that this space was originally designed for some
other purpose. Such indeed was the case in the Provincial Royal
Jubilee when the East Wing was opened in 1925. Space planned
by the architect for a clothes cupboard was pressed into service as
the Pharmacy and continued to be so used until the new J. Keith
Wilson Laboratory was built in 1951, when the space formerly
used by the Laboratory was renovated and is today the
Pharmacy. It is a bright, well ventilated department and the
renovation was carefully and thoughtfully done so that the
accommodation for this important department of the hospital
is no longer a reproach reminiscent of an old oversight.
Originally a Pharmacy is not mentioned in the report of
the plans as accepted, so it is probable that if any special provision was made that it was on the third floor of the administration central block, and it is quite definite that the Resident
Medical Officer (the Medical Superintendent of today) did the
dispensing as late as 1907. In the days of the Royal Hospital
an indigent patient had to be approved for admission not only
 by his physician, but also in writing by two members of the
Board of Directors. With this background it is a little easier
to understand the ruling, operative as late as 1922 to the effect
that all prescriptions for ward cases required approval by the
Resident Medical Officer and by the matron before being compounded.
For a time during the closing years of the First Great War
and for a short time afterwards prescriptions were filled by the
Hall Drug Store in Victoria. The first full time dispenser was
appointed in 1922 and the first Assistant Pharmacist in 1930.
In 1944 the Pharmacy had a vividly impressive exhibit on
display in the hospital, showing the extent to which manufacturing for hospital use had developed. This occasioned much
favourable comment on the part of the Directors and members
of the Medical Staff. In that year the total manufactured products were:
Tablets    46,500
Hand-filled capsules   35,000
Ointments         300 lbs.
Suppositories      2,500
Syrups, tinctures and other
liquid preparations        200 gallons
as well as special narcotic solutions and parenteral solutions.
In view of the rabbit-like production of new drugs in
recent years the Therapeutics Committee of the Medical Staff
prepared a special bulletin "giving unbiased information on
drugs and therapeutic techniques." The special knowledge and
co-operation of the staff of the Pharmacy was much in evidence
in this effort and was deeply appreciated.
The present Pharmacist is E. Smith.
For a list of Pharmacists and Assistants see Appendix XV.
Department of Anaesthesia
'The thick sweet mystery of chloroform
The drunken dark, the little death-inr-life"
And face to face with chance, I shrink a little
My hopes are strong, my will is something weak.'*
"In Hospital" by W. E. HENLEY (1849-1903).
The use of Chloroform for anaesthesia was discovered by
Sir James Young Simpson in Edinburgh in 1847 and one most
important factor in popularizing the use of anaesthesia, especially
in Obstetrics was the fact that "in April, 1853, he (Sir James)
received a letter from Sir James Clark, physician in ordinary to
Her Majesty, informing him that the Queen (Victoria) had
been brought under the influence of chloroform, and had expressed herself as greatly pleased with the result. It was at the
birth of the late Prince Leopold that Her Majesty set her subjects
this judicious example." (Sir James Young Simpson by H.
Laing Gordon, page 129.) The use of ether as an anaesthetic
was discovered and used by Dr. Crawford Williamson Long,
a surgeon in Georgia, U.S.A., in 1842, but he did not report
it for some time. It was quite understandable that for many
years chloroform was used more frequently than ether in
Obstetrics, especially throughout the British Empire, and this
accords with the report by Dr. Richardson, the first Resident
Medical Officer of the Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital, that
up to May 31, 1892, he had given 1,000 anaesthetics without
any accident. It is probable that many if not most of these
were done with chloroform—so much so that in the records we
find the anaesthetist occasionally referred to as the "chloro-
formist." The many new developments of today were of
course unknown—the use of local anaesthesia either by infiltration or by nerve block—spinal and intravenous anaesthetics—
these were all still secrets in the lap of Time.
 As the Resident Medical Officer officiated also as Pharmacist
so in the beginning he acted as anaesthetist. Some abuses evidently crept in under this system, as we find a resolution in the
Board Minutes to the effect that while the R.M.O. was responsible for all anaesthetics given to in-patients he was not to be
expected to give anaesthetics for small operations done on outpatients.
In 1916 Dr. A. B. Hudson was appointed Anaesthetist,
followed by Dr. C. W. Duck in 1918. As the department grew,
Dr. Duck became Head—a position he occupied until 1956.
More recent appointments to the Anaesthetic Staff were
Dr. George Bigelow in 1940 and Dr. Irene Clearihue in 1941.
The Anaesthetic Staff in 1956 were:
Dr. J. L. Andrews—Chief of Department.
Dr. R. A. Fortye.
Dr. J. R. Stone.
Dr. M. Yates.
Dr. C. W. Duck.
Department of Dietetics
"We may live without poetry, music and art:
We may live without conscience and live without heart.
We may live without friends; we may live without books:
But civilized man cannot live without cooks.**
(Owen Meredith)   (1831-1891).
The science of dietetics as practiced today involves an
accurate and detailed knowledge of the various foods as required
by the human body if physical and mental health and strength
are to be maintained. Meals must be provided which contain
the proper portion of the basic elements—proteins, fats and
carbohydrates with vitamins and minerals and in certain diseases
special alteration is required. The dietitian must have commercial training so that purchasing may be properly supervised
and the storage of food must be constantly supervised as must
its distribution. It is easy to make a brief summary of such
essential items as these but the far-reaching implications call for
national organization and supervision. This is supplied in
Canada by the Canadian Dietetic Association formed in 1935.
This Association approved the Royal Jubilee Hospital in 1952
for training in this essential science and art. Approval is given
annually. Applicants must have "a bachelor's degree with a
major in foods and nutrition from a college or university of
recognized rank. The prospective student must also furnish a
certificate of health and fitness and have a recommendation from
the Dean of the School." Prior to 1935 some pupils were
taken at the hospital for training in this department but a
university degree was not required.
This short summary tells much about the dietetic department and it is indeed a far cry from the opening days of the
present hospital when two white cooks and two Chinese were
employed.   The white ones received $22.50 per month and the
 Chinese $27.50. It is interesting to follow in the scanty notes
in the records the gradual development of the modern department from this small beginning. In 1899 a Miss Livingstone
from the London University gave a short course of lectures to
the nurses on invalid cooking and the Directors expressed ' 'their
hopes" of establishing a diet kitchen.
In 1917 this hope was partially realized as two rooms
were set aside in the Administration Block to be made into a
small kitchen "complete with gas stove cooking, where nurses
will receive instruction in invalid cooking." In 1921 a dietitian
was placed in charge of the main kitchen.
A list of those who have taken courses in Dietetics will be
found in Appendix XVI.
Prior to 1935 the records show that persons could come to
the hospital on a short course but were not necessarily university
While taking their course these graduates were known as
student dietitians until the year 1947, when they became known
as dietetic internes.
The following list of the students taking the short course
prior to 1945 will be found in Appendix XVI.
Women's Organizations and Service Clubs
"The Honorary Treasurer would respectfully
suggest that a committee of ladies could materially
assist the Directors in the matter of obtaining annual
subscribers, and the Directors would hail with satisfaction such a valuable volunteer body, and there is
no doubt that their labours would have a large
amount of success."
WILLIAM CHUDLEY, the Honorary Treasurer,
in the first Annual Report of the Provincial
Royal Jubilee Hospital on May 31st,  1891.
"Ours would be a dreary task were it not for the
inspiration and assistance we receive from our
Women's organizations."
From the Report of the Board of Directors
and the Executive Staff, 1951.
In his second Annual Report, June 1st, 1892, Mr. Chudley
wrote as follows:
"The lists of donations and subscriptions have
assumed a much more healthy aspect, more especially
the subscribers' list of $2,580.35. The result is entirely due to the arduous labours of the Ladies'
Auxiliary Committee, whose term of office expires on
the 30th inst., co-equal with the retiring Directors.
The Honorary Treasurer hardly expected such substantial results when he suggested last year the formation of a Ladies' Committee, and trust they will continue to act with future Boards/'
Thus the first of the many women's organizations which
have over the years so generously and enthusiastically supported
the Jubilee was called "The Ladies' Auxiliary Committee." In
1864 the "Female Infirmary" was built by a group of women,
probably largely the same membership as in that later original
Ladies' Auxiliary. The first meeting of the Senior Women's
Auxiliary was held in 1898 and the Junior W.A. founded by
 Mrs. Herman Robertson commenced in 1924. Mrs. E. S.
Hasell in 1898 formed the Daughters of Pity "for younger
women interested in public hospital work." It is now the
Children's Ward Auxiliary. In the closing years of the last
century "The Agenorian Society" was very active and made
history by installing electric light throughout the hospital in
the year 1897-8, and about the same time pioneered in building
two recovery rooms at the rear of the new Pemberton Operating
Room. Its members were probably absorbed into other organizations as the name ceased to figure in hospital records, but not
until much had been accomplished. This also applies to several
other organizations which functioned creditably in the past,
such as The Fellowship Club, The Starlets, The Sugar Plum
Girls, the King's Daughters and The Little King's Daughters.
The women's organizations which are now active in the
work of the Jubilee are listed with their respective presidents
and secretaries* From sewing and providing linen to assisting
in building and securing new equipment, from supplying books
to the patients to scholarships for the School of Nursing, from
providing transportation for patients to supplying surgical
supports, glasses and dentures, there is no need at the Jubilee
that these organizations do not quickly learn about and proceed
to solve.
The present Provincial Government paid a very high compliment to the women's organizations connected with the
various hospitals of the Province when present rules and regulations were established. The first intention was to disband all
women's organizations but when on more mature consideration
and study the authorities began to realize just how much these
women accomplished, first in terms of money and secondarily in
building hospital morale, this order was cancelled and the
women of the Province were given governmental approval in
their hospital activities.
During the last Great War between June, 1940, and
October, 1945, another group of able devoted women known
as "The Blue Veils" or "the Ladies in Blue," worked as aides
throughout the hospital. This group was organized by Mrs.
W. P. D. Pemberton, R.N., under the auspices of St. John
Ambulance, and took their name from the attractive uniform
which was so distinctive. It has been described by Mrs. E. P.
Gillespie, who assumed leadership during Mrs. Pemberton's
long and fatal illness, as follows:
 "A blue cotton dress with white collar and cuffs,
over which we wore a white apron, very similar to
the Student Nurses' (Jubilee Training School) apron.
We wore square blue veils, the same shade as our
dresses, white shoes and stockings and in consequence
we became known as "the Ladies in Blue."
Mrs. Gillespie also reports on the great volume of work
done as follows:
"The total of our nursing hours on duty at the
Royal Jubilee Hospital, as far as can be ascertained at
this date, was between 60,000 and 65,000 hours.
Approximately 16,000 hours were on paid Staff duty,
all the rest were entirely voluntary."
This cheery, efficient group of volunteer workers quickly
settled into harmonious relations with the whole permanent
hospital staff and there was general regret when October, 1945,
terminated their hospital connection.
The Service Clubs of Victoria and surrounding municipalities have also recognized the Jubilee as meriting their loyal
support and assistance.    See Appendix XVII.
For list of Members of "Ladies in Blue" see Appendix
Officers of Women's Organizations see Appendix XXI.
Social Service
"Then gently scan your brother-man,
Still gentler sister-woman."
Robert burns (1759-1796).
Address to the Unco Guid—Stanza.7
Social Service, as we understand the term today is a comparatively recent development in our civilization. Social work
gradually developed from early philanthropic work by the
churches and small groups of sympathetic and interested groups
of private citizens. These efforts were largely to be classed
under the heading of charity—emphasis being placed on worthiness, while in social service work of today rehabilitation of the
individual is approached not only from the point of view of
the individual recipient but also from the community viewpoint.
The first really scientific attempt to solve this problem was
made by P. G. F. Le Play, who made a careful study of certain
families in France in 1850. In 1890 a study by Charles Booth
into wages, prices, working conditions, housing and health
standards of living, etc., in London, England, threw new light
and emphasis on the whole situation. In 1874 the National
Conference of Social Work (originally named The National
Conference of Charities and Correction) was formed in the
United States. In 1930 the American Federal Government
became very active in the field. Chronologically it is interesting
to note that the first organized Social Service Work in the Provincial Royal Jubilee was started in 1934 and the credit must go
to the Junior Women's Auxiliary who financed the venture
with a half-time social worker, Miss J. Hallet. She was
succeeded by Miss McBride on a full time basis in 1935. The
Canadian Association of Social Workers was formed in 1926.
In the 1945 Annual Report of the hospital Social Service
was defined as "an attempt to seek out and treat those nonmedical factors which aggravate a patient's illness and necessarily
 prolongs hospitalization" and the work as carried out at that
time in the Royal Jubilee was described as "referring patients to
social agencies for nursing or boarding care: care of illegitimate
cases; housekeepers in case of illness of mother of family; discharges to Essondale; admissions to St. Joseph's Oriental
Hospital; helping patients with adjustment of accounts and
reporting on living conditions."
The present Director is Miss M. E. Bradley, S.R.N., S.C.M.,
For a list of Directors, past and present, see Appendix XIX.
Dr. J. S. Helmcken
"Whose distant footsteps echo
Through the corridors of time."
Longfellow (1807-1882)
Before closing this short survey of the first hundred years
of the Royal Jubilee Hospital it might be worth while to try to
sketch in general outline one of those men active in the early days
as perhaps more or less characteristic of his generation. Dr.
John Sebastian Helmcken, who was later to be known as "The
Grand Old Man of British Columbia" would seem to be representative.
Vancouver Island at that time was several months distant
from England, as the sea trip via Cape Horn was the only
practical route. The Canadian Pacific Railway was not to
reach Vancouver until 1886 and there were no railway lines
west of the Mississippi in the United States. The first telegraph company in the United States was formed in 1844 and
the Trans-Atlantic cable was not to come until 1878. Old
age pensions, baby bonuses, disability insurance, Workman's
Compensation—in fact, anything approaching the welfare state
were still dreams—but dreams that were all realized in the lifetime of Dr. Helmcken. It was a hard life even for the strong
and confident. An old Presbyterian worthy in Ontario about
this time was accustomed to pray daily for "special grace in that
last dread day when every tub must stand upon its own
bottom." Vancouver Island in 1858 certainly shared this
distinction with the Judgment Day.
It is easy to summarize the main events in Dr. Helmcken's
life but not so simple to appraise his impact on this province
and on Canada. He was of German descent but born in London
on June 5 th, 1825. He first took up Pharmacy and later
Medicine, graduating from Guy's Hospital in 1848 when he
took a post as ship's surgeon on the "Mallacca" (a ship which
 had been built by the same firm which built the "Beaver"),
where he spent about a year and a half. At this time he received
an appointment in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company—
or to use the proper designation—"The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay."
His appointment was a double one, combining the duties of
clerk and physician. In company with about 80 others, almost
all in the service of the Company, he arrived in Victoria on the
"Norman Morrision," under the command of Captain Wishart,
in the month of March, 1850. The Company was already
interested in the mining of coal at the upper part of Vancouver
Island and the young clerk and physician was at once assigned
to this area at what was then known as Fort Rupert. He travelled north on the "Beaver" and when Governor Blanshard
made his first visit to this community on board H.M.S. Daedalus
he appointed Dr. Helmcken a Justice of the Peace—a post which
carried considerable authority as the judicial system was just
beginning to be developed. Dr. Helmcken found himself faced
with what was practically a rebellion on the part of the local
Indians (the Newittees) during which three company employees
were killed. The Indians at this point were especially savage
and were said at one time to have been cannibalistic. Quite a
lengthy account of this affair is copied from the Biographical
Dictionary of well-known British Columbians in Vol. XXI
of Canada and its Provinces, page 94. The conclusion is that
Dr. Helmcken and Mr. Blenkinsop, who was associated with
him, had conducted the whole affair with judgment combined
with decision.
"When the mining operations ceased at that point, Dr.
Helmcken went to Victoria and practised his profession. He
was elected Speaker of the Legislature of 1856 and remained a
member of the assembly, representing the people of Victoria
until the year 1871, occupying as well the position of first commoner. A son-in-law of Governor Douglas, he was also guide,
philosopher and friend to him and to the assembly in matters
political and parliamentary. Although opposed to Confederation as premature and to some extent unsuitable to the needs of
the colony, he assisted in preparing the terms when agreed upon
by the legislature, and was a delegate to Ottawa to discuss them
with the Federal authorities. At that time he could have had
any position, either Federal or Provincial, in the gift of the
 people of British Columbia, but he refused all posts or honours
and retired permanently from public life."
Canada and Its Provinces—
Vol. XXI, page 118, by R. E. GOSNELL.
As has been noted elsewhere, Dr. Helmcken was very active
in the original campaign for a maternity at the Provincial Royal
Jubilee and when the Pemberton bequest was, with the approval
of the family, used for an operating room instead of a maternity,
Dr. Helmcken resigned from the Consulting Staff in 1896. The
Directors requested him to re-consider his action but he did not
do so. When the diplomas and medals were presented to the
graduating class, the President, Mr. Joshua Davies, referred to
this incident in these words:
"The Directors had asked Dr. Helmcken to present the medals
and the diplomas, but he declined on the ground that there 'existed
strained and estranged relations' between him and I must assume
the Board of Directors and perhaps one or more of our medical
men. ... I have reason to know that neither the Board of Directors
nor any of the medical men have any other feeling than that of the
loftiest respect for the good Dr. Helmcken has done and is still
doing in the city and all of us regret if we have to differ with him
upon the question of conducting a maternity ward in conjunction
with our hospital—a subject he had set his heart upon. ... I
can assure him that as far as the Directors are concerned they cannot
recognize that there exists between them and him any strained
relations. ..."
When we recall that Dr. Helmcken was elected Speaker
of the Legislature in 1856 we must not picture him as presiding
in anything like the surroundings of the present legislative
assembly in our Parliament Buildings (not to be started until
1893), but let Dr. Helmcken tell us this story in his own words.
The following quotation is from an article which appeared
in the Vancouver Province on January 14th, 1956. It was
written by the well-known historian of British Columbia, Mr.
B. A. McKelvie. It describes some aspects of the first election
for the colony of Vancouver Island:
"Dr. J. S. Helmcken, who was elected for Esquimalt, and was
named as the first Speaker, has fortunately left some notes about
the first election. It was a spirited—at least according to the good
doctor, it was a spiritous affair:
"Sooke and Nanaimo were mere' nomination boroughs. The
Victoria campaign . . . was carried on in the usual manner, that is
to say, everyone was button-holed and asked to promise his vote;
. drinks of course were common, but I don't remember any public
meetings being held, save perhaps the assemblage of a few persons
behind the counters.
"The bewildering fact was that when sober the voters would
promise one way; when ebrius et ebriolus, another. How many times
 the candidates visited every freeholder in the district; how many
bottles of whiskey were drunk; how many songs were sung,
deponent sayeth not. It was a good time for some of the voters
and a break in monotony.     A small  game of fisticuffs did no
"The votes were so few that two or three made all the
difference between success and failure. At the polls there was no
sneaking behind a fathom of grey cotton to sign a ballot paper
and lie secretly but every man had to vote openly like a man—*nd
lie if he chose like a man."
The first location of the democratic assembly was in
"Bachelor's Hall" in Fort Victoria, where the Canadian Bank
of Commerce now stands on Government Street at Fort. "The
House of Assembly," explained Dr. Helmcken, "was a room
about 20 feet in length and about a dozen in breadth, lined
with upright planks, unpainted, unadorned, save perhaps with
a few cedar mats to cover fissures. On each side were two doors
leading to as many dormitories. In the centre stood a large
dilapidated rectangular stove, its sides made of sheet iron,
beautifully and picturesquely bulging.
"At the end was a wooden home-manufactured table upon
which stood a hundred page ledger, but without a mace, penknife or postage stamps, although the latter at that time existed
for foreign purposes. (The use of postage stamps commenced in
England in 1840 and in the United States in 1847.) Around
the Speaker's table stood half-a-dozen ordinary chairs for the
use of the members and at a respectable distance a couple of
benches without backs for the audience. . . .
"At the end of the year the accounts indicated that this
august body had cost about twenty-five dollars, which occasioned some ironical remarks from the London Times.
These details are all of interest to us in this study as the
events described occurred just two years before the opening of
the Royal Hospital in Victoria.
Helmcken House is one of the "Historic sites" of Victoria
and will well repay a visit. The house, built in 1852, is still
sound and attractive, with its fittings and furniture of a day
gone by. How far away 1852 is in house construction will be
brought home to any one when it is realized that all the lumber
used was "whipsawn" by Chinese labour—in other words, the
logs were sawn into usable lumber by hand. This interesting
old house with so much to recall that era so completely different
to today is under the efficient and enthusiastic management of
 the curator, Mrs. Webster, who is never too busy to talk about
Dr. Helmcken. An interesting account by Rachel Large
appeared in the Daily Colonist of July 28th, 1957.
Such was the man Dr. J. S. Helmcken—well trained in
his own profession, wise in counsel, conscious of his responsibility as a citizen, with a will of his own and a clear conception
and philosophy of life—what it could give and what it should
be made to give—a leader of men and a philosopher.
Based almost completely on a similar summary prepared earlier
by Mr. MICHAEL A. M. FRASER, B.A., Assistant Administrator
1858—Royal Hospital opened—small house loaned by Mr.
1859—New Royal Hospital built on Indian Reserve.
1860—French Benevolent & Mutual Aid Society care for
members paying one dollar monthly.
1864—Female Infirmary built at head of Pandora Street.
1869—Female Infirmary taken over by Royal Hospital. Male
cases transferred from Indian reserve building to Infirmary.
1890—Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital opened by H.R.H.
the Duke of Connaught.
1891—The School of Nursing established at Jubilee.
1893—Small pox and the Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital
takes charge.
1896—Pemberton Memorial Operating Room.
All medical practitioners in the city permitted to attend
charity cases.
Limited semi-private accommodation provided.
1897—Electricity   installed   throughout  the  hospital  by  the
Agenorian Society.
1899—First X-ray machine installed.
1902—Trial  of Recovery Rooms connected with Operating
Room—successful but shortage of space necessitated use
of this space for storage and sterilizing.
1904—Strathcona Ward.
1907—First Children's Ward.
1909—First Nurses' Home.
Pemberton Memorial Chapel.
1912—Pathologist appointed.
1916—First Maternity Ward with six beds.
Men's Surgical Ward refurnished and named for Sir
Richard McBride.
 1917-—Pavilion opened for tuberculosis,
1919—Radiologist appointed.
1925—East Wing opened.
1930—New Nurses' Home opened.
1935—Provincial Government of British Columbia takes over
care of Tuberculosis.
1940—McBride Ward becomes an Isolation Ward.
1941—-Central Block opened.
1946—-Psychiatric unit with eight beds opened.
Tumour Clinic started.
Red Cross Blood Bank.
Maternity Wing opened.
1947—Temporary use of army huts for extra accommodation
at Nurses* Home.
1949—Employees' Association given bargaining rights. "Har-
monizer," the employees paper, established.
1952—J. Keith Wilson Laboratory opened.
1954—Further extension  to  Psychiatric  unit  to bring  bed
capacity to 24.
Hospital approved for use of radio-active isotopes.
Date of Erection and Cost of Main Buildings
1890—Original Building—Contract price $ 50,558.00
1896—Pemberton Operating Room—Approx       3,500.00
19 04—Strathcona Ward      12,812.10
1909—Pemberton Chapel	
1925—East Wing   500,000.00
1930—Nurses'  Home   176,825.70
1941—Central Block    120,000.00
1946—Maternity   380,000.00
Incorporated 26th April, 1890
Hon. Robert Dunsmuir James Fell, Esq.
Sir Joseph W. Trutch W. Curtis Ward, Esq.
Hon. Mr. Justice Crease Thomas R. Smith, Esq.
President Thomas R. Smith
Hon. Treasurer W. Curtis Ward
1890                              18 members
1894 .   15 members
1914                                -  18 members
1916  21 members
1951.                         12 members
Capt. A. M. Aitken 1937-1938
Lt.-Col. Hugh R. Allan.__.1932-1941
D. J. Angus.™ 1918-1931
Arthur A. Ash 1956-Continuing
Dr. D. M. Baillie 1933-1934, 1943-1945
E. Crow Baker 1892-1894
C F. Banfield 1922-1924
Dr. W. Bapty 1919-1929
F. S. Barnard 1905-1907
H. K. Bate 1953-1955
Charles Baxter   1910-1912
R. K. Beairsto - 1948-1950
 W. Blakemore 1913-1917
Dr. E. W. Boak 1915-1920, 1932-1935
J. W. Bolden 1905-1915, 1917-1922, 1923-1924
John Braden 1890-1899
I. Braverman 1890-1905
R. E. Brett 1902-1908
George H. Browni 1890-1930
P. R. Brown 1925-1929, 1930-1935
Dr. T. M. Bryant 1937-1941
Dr. G.'B. B. Buffam 1943-1945
Miss B. Bullock-Webster__1948-1950
George Byrnes . 1891-1899
Henry Callow 1912-1914
D. E. Campbell 1905-1913, 1922-1938
J. W. Casey 1951-1956
Dr. Gavin Chisholm 1953-1956
Wm. M. Chudley 1890-1898
Dr. N. C. Cook 1938-1939
L. U. Conyers 1917-1929
Hon. Mr. Justice Crease.__l890-1891
J. L. Crimp 1894-1902
Wm. Crouch 1931-1939
Joshua Davies 1890-1903
R. S. Day 1899-1920
H. M. Diggon 1945-1952
S. J. Drake 1920-1941
A. L. Drury 1899-1903
Hon. Robert Dunsmuir 1890
W. J. Dwyer 1895-1899
D. M. Eberts 1890-1894
Dr. E. H. W. Elkington___.1950-1953
W. H. Ellis 1894-1895
James Fell, Esq 1890
A. C. Flumerfelt 1890-1900, 1909-1910, 1915-1917
James Forman  1899-1909, 1917-1937
Dr. Allan Fraser 1935-1937
A. C. Fraser l.1914-1918
Dr. R. L. Fraser 1915-1919
 Ben Gordon  „1892-1893, 1900-1902
M. P. Gordon 1915-1922
M. W. Graham 1920-1929
H. M. Grahame  1899-1902
John Grant 1891-1892
Dr. T. W. A. Gray __1942-1944
A. A. Green __. 1890-1891
Mrs. R. F. Green 1917-1920
F. B. Gregory, . .1893-1894
J. C. Haddock 1953-Continuing
T. Hadfield ,•_._._:___.__-__ 1932-1936, 1945-1948
Denis Hagar 1946-1948
Dr. E. Hall 1920-1922
W. J. Hanna -.- 1 1898-1899
Capt. M. D. Harbord _11920-1922
John Harvey ,1924-1929
R. D. Harvey, K.C. ________ 1950-1951
Dr. E. C. Hart 1924-1925
T. W. C. Hawkins 1931-1932
Charles Hayward _____.,„____ 1890-1899
H. G. S. Heisterman 11929-1934, 1935-1937, 1939-1946
H. D. Helmcken J892-1907, 1908-1912
E. E. Henderson 1941-1946
Charles S. Henley 1938-1948
J. H. Hill 1923-1925
J. L. Hobbs J942-Continuing
H. P. Hodges'„„„.., 1945-1951, 1952-1953
C. A. Holland 1900-1908
Major H. C. Holmes 1929-1930
Ian M. Home __„______195 5 -Continuing
William Humphrey 1902-1905
Dr. J. D. Hunter J 934-1938
Dr. R. A. Hunter __:_.________i 945-1946
Robert Hutchison  1937-1939
P. T. James 1903-1905
R. J. Jameson 11934-1937
R. V. Jenkin _I948-1952
W. H. Johnston 1937-1945
A. W. Jones _:_.__„£_____:____. 1890-1894
Dr. T. M. Jones 1945-1947
 Dr. G. C. Kenning 1930-1931
Dr. S. G. Kenning 1935-1938
W. H. Kinsman 1932-1937
A. I. Kirkpatrick 1912-1914, 1915-1917
A. G. Lambrick 1939-1941
Dr. Forrest Leeder 1914-1915, 1916-1919, 1924-1929
Simon Leiser 1910-1917
Dr. J. W. Lennox 1930-1932, 1940-1941, 1942-1943
E. A. Lewis 1899-1910
A. C. Abb Lindsay 1946-1948
A. Lockley 1931-1932, 1936-1944
Dr. O. C. Lucas 1941-1942
Dr. J. S. McCallum 1920-1931, 1944-1945
D. A. MacDonald 1929-1931
George McGregor  1915-1934
Lloyd G. McKenzie 1956-Continuing
Dr. A. E. McMicking 1929-1930
E. W. McMullen 1939-1953
Dr. T. McPherson 1923-1924, 1927-1932, 1939-1940
E. A. McQuade 1890-1894
William Mable 1905-1938
J. A. Mara 1909-1920
J. B. Martin 1908-1909
Dr. R. L. Miller 1934-1935
Dr. Thomas Miller 1922-1923, 1931-1933
Dr. W. E. M. Mitchell. 1934-1938, 1947-1949
P. A. Moir 1943-1957
Dr. J. H. Moore 1942-1943, 1944-1947
F. G. Mulliner. 1951-Continuing
E. Musgrave 1903-1905
Dr. A. B. Nash 1939-1942,   1946-1951
H. E. Newton 1907-1912
W. E. Oliver 1914-1915
James Parfitt 1917-1923
L. H. Passmore 1941-1942
B. W. Pearse 1891-1892
F. B. Pemberton 1894-1897, 1900-1909
W. P. D. Pemberton 1945-1949
 Mrs. J. Phethean 1933-1936
E. C. Pollock 1944-1946
R. H. Powell 1929-1932
Capt. D. J. Proudfoot 1948-1951
Dr. L. L. Ptak 1948-1951, 1956-Continuing
C. E. Redfern 1890-1892
C. E. Renouf 1897-1899
Mrs. C W. Rhodes 1907-1933
Dr. H. E. Ridewood 1925-1927
H. Rivers  1904-1905
J. Vaughan Roberts 1922-1943
H. B. Robertson 1909-1912
Dr. H. M. Robertson 1929-1930, 1932-1933
Dr. R. B. Robertson 1941-1942
Dr. H. B. Rogers 1914-1916, 1919-1922
J. R. Scoby 1941-1942
Dr. R. Scott-Moncrieff 1947-1950
Judge H. H. Shandley. 1924-1947
Mrs. E. Sheppard 1936-1956
Thomas Shotbolt 1890-1922
Dr. A. C. Sinclair 1933-1934
C. Sivertz _„1917-1920, 1922-1923, 1925-1929
Thomas R. Smith 1890-1891
Chris Spencer 1905-1909
G. Herbert Stevens 1941-1948, 1949-1951, 1952-Con-
Alex Stewart ~ 1918-1925 tinuing
L. Tait „1912-1917
Dr. M. W. Thomas 1922-1924
Mrs. W. G. Thorpe -.1956-Continuing
J. C. Thow 1950-Continuing
G F. Todd 1902-1903
Edwin Tomlin 1929-1934, 1935-1944
Dr. W. A. Trenholme. 1949-1951
Sir Joseph Trutch 1890
T. H. Twigg I __1903-1904
F. W. Vincent - 1909-1917
John Wallace 1918-1927
W. Curtis Ward, Esq 1890-1894
Dr. H. J. Wasson ~ 1914-1920
 Dr. G A. Watson ,-1938-1939
Mrs. Weiler  .1914-1918
Charles Williams —1920-1944
Alex Wilson 1890-1914
R. B. Wilson __— 1957-1958
F. E. Winslow 1934-1951
R. A. Wootton 1946-1952
J .A. Worthington ___1927-1945, 1952-1956
Andrew Wright  1912-1918
Cmdr. A. G Wurtele 1948-1958
J. Stuart Yates 1890-1900
#   ft   it
Presented with 25-Year Service Pins—
MISS BERYL FERGUSON  . 36 years in May, 1956
MR.  ROBERT PATRICK  . ...Would have been 35 years
in April, 1956 .   •*
MISS MARGARET PATERSON   ___32 years in July, 1956
MR. PERCY G. HAWKINS  __31 years in January, 1956
MRS.  ANNIE P.  CLEMENTS   ______30 years in June, 1956
MISS ETHEL J. CROGHAN 27 years in February, 1956
MISS LUCY BENNALLACK  27 years in July, 1956
MR. CHARLES W. WARD    27 years in July, 1956
MR.  J.  EDWIN SMITH  26 years in January, 1956
MR. WILLIAM HASLAM 26 years in April, 1956
Presented with 15-Year Service Pins—
i in June, 1956
5 in September, 1956
! in September, 1956
! in January, 1956.
i in February, 1956
jin April, 1956
i in January, 1956
! in May, 1956       *
; in July, 1956
i in May, 1956
i in June, 1956
MR.  CHARLES WALKER    24 years
MR.  JOHN W. GILLIS    .21 years
MR. FRANK TIDBURY . E 20 years
MR. JOHN STOBART  20 years
in September, 1956
MRS. MARJORIE GUNN  19 years i
MR.  JOHN A.  SYME  .....18 years in January, 1956
MR. WILLIAM DONALD   _- 16 years in January, 1956
 MISS IRENE WILCOX  16 years in April, 1956
MRS. LENA IRVING  16 years in April, 1956
MR. WILLIAM PEPPER    16 years in May, 1956
MR. HENRY T. ZALA    16 years in July, 1956
MISS MARY CRAIG    16 years in October, 1956
MR.  GUILFORD ASKEY  16 years in December, 1956
DIRECTOR:   Miss Mary L. Richmond
Mrs. A. T. Ault
Miss £. Donaldson
Miss M. Doyle
Mrs. G Duffus
Miss G Gibson
Mrs. J. Harper
Miss M. Irving
Mrs. E. Michael
Miss E. Moir
Miss M. Moncrieff
Miss N. Wright
#   &   it
Miss Summerfield  1890 (for six months)
Miss Mowat   1890- 1892
Miss McMillan  1892- 1899
Miss J. Grady  1899 - 1901
Miss E. E. P. Alcorn - _ 1901-1903
Miss M. G MacDonald .  1903-1913
Miss Tombie  1913-1914
Miss J. F. MacKenzie  1914-1927
Miss A. F. Mitchell (Mrs. Weir)  1927 - 1947
Miss Lucie P. Woodrow  1947 - 1956
Miss Mary L. Richmond  1956 -
The following prizes and scholarships are offered annually
in the Training School:
AWARDS —1957
Proficiency in Bedside Nursing—
Awarded by the Florence Nightingale Chapter of the I.O.D.E.
Awarded in memory of Dr. Marion Lindeburgh.
Highest Aggregate Standing in Examinations—
Awarded by the British Columbia Cement Company.
Greatest Promise of Professional Development—
Awarded by the R.N.A.B.G   (Victoria Chapter)   and the
Canadian Nurse.
Proficiency in Clinical Specialities—
medical nursing—
Awarded   by  the  Active  Staff  of  the  Department   of
Awarded by the Liberal Women's Forum.
Awarded   by   the  Active  Staff  of  the  Department  of
Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
Awarded  by  the  Active   Staff  of  the  Department  of
Awarded   by  the  Active  Staff  of  the  Department  of
Awarded   by  the  Active  Staff  of  the  Department  of
Highest Rating in Tuberculosis Nursing—
Awarded by the British Columbia Tuberculosis Society.
 Highest Standing in R.N. Examinations of the Past
Awarded by the Board of Directors.
Graduates of the Royal Jubilee Hospital
School of Nursing
Marie De Bou (Mrs. W. H. Bullock-Webster)
(dec'd '55)
Mabel Hardie
Agnes Crickmay (Mrs. Curtis)
Rose Anderson
Isabelle Atkinson (Mrs. Taschereau)
Nellie Woodrow
Edna Stewart (Mrs. Agassiz)
Laura Purvis (Mrs. Billingshurst)
Ethel Ferris (Mrs. Gillis)
Jessie Grady (Mrs. J. B. Leu)
H. E. Graves (Mrs. F. J. Nicholson)
Mrs. M. Routledge (Mrs. Pike)
Ida Halliday (Mrs. C. F. Moss)
E. Stoddart
C. Campbell
B. Allison
L. Goward (Mrs. C. W. Thornton)
Marion Hardie
W. Dockrill
A. Parson (Mrs. Graham)
E. DesBrisay
B. Coppock (Mrs. J. P. Wall)
R.Gordon (Mrs. Llewellyn Jones)
F. W. Johnson
Mary McKeen (Mrs. A. M. Johnson)
G. Hadwen (Mrs. Palmer)
C. Fraser (Mrs. R. B. Boucher)
Sarah Budden
Mrs. O. H. Morley
Mrs. M. Swainson
Sarah McDonald (Mrs. P. Glazier)
Miss Aplin (Mrs. J. A. MacLoud)  (dec'd)
H. Manley
M. C. McDonald
Ada McRae
G. M. Perry (Mrs. McQuiggs)
Mary Beale (Mrs. B. G. Goward)
Etta Fraser (dec'd)
L. A. Brownrigg (Mrs. R. Cheshrop Janioii)
J. Tolmie (dec'd)
Mamie Curtis
Sarah Heany
A. Lund (Mrs. Baker)
M. M. Black (Mrs. A. C. Janion)
Mary Notter (Mrs. J. Robertson)
G. H. Newton
M. Langford
U. Dickinson (Mrs. Chas. Bunting)
M. L. Rankin (dec'd)
A. Toland (Mrs. W. D. Gordon)
Mrs. Rice
Annie M. Smith (dec'd)
Elizabeth Cameron
Margaret McQuarrie (Mrs. Wilson)
A. B. Calhoun (Mrs. J. H. Fletcher)  (dec'd)
Annie Hamilton
Laura Miller
Miss C. Whillans
Mary Dennehy (dec'd)
Jessie Melhuish
Gertrude Richards (Mrs. Leon Ladner)
(Mrs. T. E. Gardner)
Winifred Child (Mrs. Wylie Johnson)
Constance Jones
Harriet Jukes
Maud Schwengers (Mrs. H. A. Youdall)
C. M. Powell
Gladys Rant (Mrs. Marriott)
Susie Strickland
Beatrice Cassidy (Mrs. R. Barbour)
Jean Orr (Mrs. W. T. Williams)
Elizabeth Martin (Mrs. G. Lancaster)
v Miss Pattinson
Lillian Lucas (Mrs. Owen)
E. J. S. Herbert
C. A. Baker
Jessie Goldsmith
Janet Charman (Mrs. J. H. Toynbee)
Jessie McQuarrie (Mrs. D. C. Fraser)
Alice Carter (dec'd)
Maude Charman (Mrs. J. Kent)
1908— fT^
Kate Smith
Ethel John (Mrs. David Boyd)
E. Vantreight
Isa Rankin (Mrs. H. D. Bowler)
Ada Cookson
 Effie Alexander
H. H. Thompton
Eva Allen (Mrs. David Power)
Constance Davie (Mrs. Babington)
Martha Milligan
Martha Marsden
Nora Burkitt (Mrs. D. A. Rose)
M. Patton (Mrs. J. E. Sears)
Laura Percy
Elizabeth Pierce
Hilda Strongren (Mrs. S. A. Murray)
Jean Campbell
Laura Lehrman (Mrs. Wallace)
Muriel Vaughan (Mrs. Paul)
Mary Dempster (Mrs. Geo. Cook)
BertaLee (Mrs. L. S. V. York)
Mary Heggie (Mrs. H. Carter)
Madeline Lloyd (Mrs. F. H. Bowerbank)
Ethel Gardiner (Mrs. Wallace)
Miss M. A. Carter (Mrs. T. Miller)
Dorothy Collis (Mrs. H. A. Hunt)
Mary Archibald
Mamie McDougall (Mrs. Jack Johnston) (dec'd)
H. J. Mcintosh
Lena Boyd
C. L. Talbot
Minnie Gordon
Miss M. McLean (Mrs. E. D. Todd)
Maude Walker (Mrs. J. P. Bilodreau)
Charlotte Young (Mrs. F. W. Clayton)  (dec'd)
Effie Beatty (Mrs. J. B. Anderson)
Winona Orr (Mrs. A. L. Carruthers)
Marion Osborne (Mrs. F. Harris)
Hattie Whitfield (Mrs. W. A. Chambers)
G. Wake (dec'd)
Ethel Cook (Mrs. Cameron)
Mrs. Langford
C. Young Husband (Mrs. C. Clayton)
Katherine Little (Mrs. B. D. Gillespie)
Lena Bone (Mrs. A. George) (dec'd)
Eva Shaw
Christina Mowbray (Mrs. H. S. Wood)
Margaret Nimmo
Victoria Richards (Mrs. T. E. Ladner)
Marion McKenzie (Mrs. Muirhead)
Phyllis Ashton (Mrs. Guilbride)
Lucy Dewar (Mrs. A. W. Thomas)
Eva Snow
Penelope Mellon (Mrs. G. Chown)
Margaret Marsden (Mrs. Wm. Ivel) (dec'd)
Mina Hurst
Gladys Carvolth (Mrs. Dr. G. M. Stewart)
Kathleen Wallen (Mrs. G. Burnett)
Minnie Hopper
Evelyn Edwards
Myf anwy Williams
Nora Von Follot (Mrs. Rev. H. Bolton)
Jane Megarry
Zeta Clarke
Alice Thompson
Hazel McDonald (Mrs. Robert Wheeler)
Constance Drury (Mrs. M. W. Thomas)
Francis Frampton
Joy Croxford
Nancy Bradshaw (Mrs. J. T. Wall)
Mary Mellon (Mrs. Carver)
Margaret Dennan (Mrs. W. T. Wawley)
Francis Paget
Adene Sutton
Susan Adams (Mrs. R. Taylor)
Elsie Collison
Jessie King (dec'd)
Marie Shaw (Mrs. Dr. McFarlane)
Eleanor Thompson
Amy Worsy
Edith Bailey
Ruth Clinton
Kathleen Cockrill
Jean Denevon (Mrs. T. G. Norris)
Eleanor Dak
Edith Dowsett (Mrs. R. J. Balcolm)
Edna Graves
Ellen Holdcroft (Mrs. Lambert)
Pearl Hughes (Mrs. Dr. Pollock)
Ethel Hall
Ella May McKenney (dec'd)
Clover Walker (Mrs. T. Chutter)
Beatrice Bradshaw
Muriel Anderson (Mrs. Alf Rowbury)
Maryon Arnold
Lydia Anderson
Thelma Burrows
Louise Buckley (Mrs. H. C. Jones)
Rosina Comer (Mrs. R. V. Collins)
(Mrs. R. Fulton)
Evelyn Gurd
Jean Harrison
Bernice Johnson (Mrs. B. Walls)
Maude Nason (Mrs. L. M. Dains)
Sybil Parke
Jane Surrey (Mrs. Lancaster)
Juanita Sears
E. Bray
Amy M. Boyce
Winnifred Ehlers (Mrs. H. Keighley)
Clara Gothard (Mrs. Lowe)
Georgina Hume (Mrs. Charles L. Sandes)
Emily Hobbs (Mrs. E. Harwood)
Ida Merson
Margaret Miller (Mrs. A. B. Fraser)
Amecia Wilson
V. Bengston
Margaret Bowman (Mrs. E. L. Olson)  (dec'd)
Maude Christie
Kathleen Flood (Mrs. A. A. Watt)
Margaret Griffin
Mildred Gibson (Mrs. E. H. Crawford)
Marjorie Hambly
Muriel Harman
Miss Mary R. Henderson
Imogen Warren (Mrs. Harold Hummell)
Kathleen Jones (Mrs. Forrest)  (Mrs. D. M. Walls)
Marion Wismer (Mrs. M. Mclver)
Blanche Killan (Mrs. Chase)
Barbara Pollard (Mrs. G. W. Duncan)
Isabel Smith (Mrs. David Hill)
Dora Trill
May Wood
Christine Allan (dec'd)
Winnifred Bellhouse (Mrs. Spalding)
Madge Cruise (dec'd)
Caroline Fowler (Mrs. E. R. Cooley)
Gertrude James (Mrs. E.Symms)
Maude Mirfield
Aline K. Mackay
Ethel Newman
Rose C. Nye
Charlotte Ringrose
Aimie Ryan
Rose Tranfield (dec'd)
Ethel Rhodes (Mrs. Dovey)
Patterson (Mrs. Baynes)
 Mary Miller (Mrs. Howard Willis)
Flora Rothnie (Mrs. Rochfort)  (dec'd)
Mary Stirling
Kathleen Wright (Mrs. James Mullard)
Mary Ehlers
Phyllis Bellamy (Mrs. I. Brake)
Bertha Bailey (Mrs. B. Sweat)
Nona Ferneau (Mrs. H. Payne)
Florence Fullerton (Mrs. A. Dowell)  (dec'd)
Kathleen Holland (Mrs. James Strang)
Rose Jones (Mrs. W. W. Hobby)
Olive Le Marquand (Mrs. J. Shearer)
Rosamund Mundy (Mrs. M. Shepherd)
Ann M. Wright (Mrs. L. B. Eastman)
Sue Wright (Mrs. A. Henderson)
Ivy Graham
Victoria M. Kelly (Mrs. A. V. Clarke)
Hazel Cook (Mrs. John Russell)
Laura Cummins
Jessie Penzer
Dorothy Frampton
Dorothy Blythe (Mrs. E. Lamb)
Anne Clothier (Mrs. Andrew)
Doris Coulter (Mrs. Alf. Jones)
Grace Curran (Mrs. A. Campbell)
Florence Dunnett (Mrs. M. Cereghino)
Mildred Edwards (Mrs. M. McKay)
Olga Garrioch (Mrs. T. Simpson)
Mabel Head (Mrs. M. Pearson)
Agnes Kingham (Mrs. F. Logan)
Phoebe McCrea
Velma Miller (Mrs. Charles Burr)
Hilda Murray (Mrs. A. H. Jebb)
Osborne-Jones (Mrs. J. Coles)
Zetta Potter (Mrs. Lockwood)
Mary Purdy (Mrs. C. Hay)
Gladys M. Ridley (Mrs. M. Trerise)
Rosemary Smith
Jean Torrance (Mrs. J. Jarvie)
Margaret Aikenhead (Mrs. Irvena)
Henrietta Blachford
Catherine Ferrier (Mrs. Litchfield)
Elizabeth Joyce (Mrs. John G. Hay)
Helen Legge-Willis
Eleanor Looseley (Mrs. Turpel)
Elizabeth Maxwell (dec'd)
Helen McQueen
Madeline Parke (Mrs. Knight)
Hilda Restall (Mrs. E. H. Emery)
Gertrude Rowsall (Mrs. George Johnson)
Mabel Rhodes (Mrs. Sterry)  (dec'd)
Frances Sheepwash (Mrs. Martin)
Jean Shenfield (Mrs. Atkinson)
Irene Smith (Mrs. DeJong)
Kathleen Snowden (Mrs. C. R. Adams)
Dorothy Taylor
Elizabeth Brown
Doris Burrows
Margaret Bunbury (Mrs. Linkins)
Maureen Carley (Mrs. H. C. Hartshorne)
Lilian Darke (Mrs. G. E. Pedder)
Kathleen Dickinson (Mrs. Charles Jansson
Edith Gilman (Mrs. Ray Blashfield)  (dec'd)
Eileen Gray (Mrs. Hooper) (dec'd)
Margaret Henderson (Mrs. R. Savery)
Edna Knowles (Mrs. G. E. Graham)
Florence McNolty (Mrs. F. McLeod)
Alma B. Mathews (Mrs. F. Ivings)
Annie L. Mobley (Mrs. Stanton)  (dec'd)
Ella Morrison (Mrs. W. O. Ellis)  (dec'd)
Kathleen Morrison (Mrs. R. E. Jensen)
Selma Peterson (Mrs. W. Hodgson)
Lilly E. Pinder (Mrs. Drake)
Vera H. Ross
Amy Smith (Mrs. J. Cooper)
Nora O. Spencer
Lucy J. Whiteside (Mrs. Austin Reece)
Blanche Cooley
Lillian Dicken (Mrs. Hogan)  (dec'd)
Fern Donaldson (Mrs. Smith)
Nora Drought (Mrs. Featherstonaugh)
Sarah Ellis (Mrs. D. MacLoud)
Edmee Erickson
Agnes Fraser (Mrs. Rogers)
Margaret Glover (Mrs. Mathews)
Edith Green (Mrs. Bergaw)
Edith HinchclifFe
Jennie Hocking
Elizabeth Innes
Bessie M. Jones
Hazel Jones (Mrs. J. W. Love)
Elizabeth Kent (Mrs. Stanley)
Irma Knowlton (Mrs. G. Henderson)
Margaret Liebscher
Margaret Mitchell (Mrs. Maclean)
Laurie McCall (Mrs. H. Pattinson)
Catherine McKenzie (Mrs. E. Showers)
MayMcLeod (dec'd)
Viola NerT (Mrs. V. M. Vert)
Maudie Parker (Mrs. M. E. Pearmain)
Jean Patterson (Mrs. P. R. M. Wallis)
Ethel Phinney (Mrs. Vernon Ridgway)
Mabel Plumb (Mrs. E. Cullum)
Novaart Saunders (Mrs. J. McCormick)
Hazel Shumway (Mrs. E. Anderson)
Florence Slade
Grace Temple (Mrs. W. R. Lane)
Frances Thompson (Mrs. D. Leach)
Nora Thompson
Violet Towgood (Mrs. Sturgeon)
Mina Walbaum (Mrs. H. White)
Eunice Whiteside (Mrs. E. Albers)
Joan Wilson (Mrs. C. P. Chaston)
Kathleen Yates (Mrs. Boulton)
Gertrude Arkell (Mrs. W. Sheepwash)
Thelma Attewell
Muriel Banfield (Mrs. H. Reid)
Margaret P. Barbour
Hilda Butterfield
Gladys Carthew (Mrs. H. Mooney)
Bessie Chell (Mrs. McGinnis)
Lorna M. Coburn (Mrs. N. Collison)
Emma Collett (Mrs. Parkington)
Diana Crystal
Grace Elford (Mrs. W. A. Welland)
Edith L. Glen (Mrs. Linn)
Marjorie Grant (Mrs. J. Macdonald)
Mildred Garner (Mrs. Cecil Gregory)
Mary Hardy (Mrs. C. W. Gregory)
Dora Heap
Elizabeth Higgs (Mrs. R. M. Jones)
Mabelle Hopkins (Mrs. V. Johnson)
Doris E. Jerome
Elsie I. Kenny (Mrs. Smith)
Mayford Kerr (Mrs. D. Cavave)
Catherine Lang
Iris Lee (Mrs. A. H. Stokes)
Bertha Montague (Mrs. T. Little)
Marjorie Morrison (Mrs. Currie)
Christine Murray (Mrs. Wyley Grant)
M. L. McComb (Mrs. W. Gutteridge)
Elsie McDonald (Mrs. R. E. Owen)
Evelyn McFarlane (Mrs. G. R. Newell)
R. Kathleen Neild (Mrs. D. L. Sanborn)
Kathleen E. Oliver (Mrs. A. W. Aylard)
Audrey Payne (Mrs. Pollard)
Netta Parfitt (Mrs. N. Harwood)
Hilda Pelly (Mrs. F. Robertson)
Audrey L. Price
Constance Ross (Mrs. Onit)
Evelyn R. Ross (Mrs. R. McFarlane)
N. Ross (Mrs. Heron)
Winnifred Sheepwash (Mrs. Martin)
Iris K. Stewart
Catherine E. Albutt (Mrs. J. S. Adam)
Selina Dorothy Andrew
Eva M. Ballard (Mrs. H. Roy)
Florence V. Bell (Mrs. E. R. Penty)
M. I. Blakeman (Mrs. Booth)
J. M. Blewett (Mrs. Watson)
N. Bonar (Mrs. Ralph Garland)
D. M. Brown (Mrs. J. C. Sharp)
Vera Brown (Mrs. V. E. Fisk)
H. R. Burton (Mrs. C. W. Cole)
L. Carmichael (Mrs. L. Ballard)
M. Carmichael
E. M. Carruthers (Mrs. C. Rendle)
A. Clarkson (Mrs. Lowe)
V. B. Curran (Mrs. C. F. Ramsay)
Ann Davies (Mrs. A. Prieswerk)
lima Davies (Mrs. H. L. Jorgensen)
E. R. Densham (Mrs. Hellyer)
W. F. G. Ede (Mrs. Walter Fletcher)
D. L. Elford (Mrs. Travers Custance)
M. E. Gavin (Mrs. J. Connell)
L. J. Halliday (Mrs. L. Duggan)
E. M. Hambleton (Mrs. Lockwood)
Frances M. Johnson (Mrs. Wrinch)
Eva Johnson (Mrs. Doumont)
F. Johnson
M. Pelly (Mrs. J. Donovan)
H. M. Rendall (Mrs. Bennie)
E. C. Sewell (Mrs. Hurst)
Margaret Thompson (Mrs. F. A. Bell)
K. Tingle (Mrs. William S. Ellis)
K. Watson
Helen Whiteley (Mrs. H. Timson)
Frances E. Winter (Mrs. F. Penman)
R. A. Wrinch (Mrs. J. Dunlop)
King, M. K.
Frances L. Lamb (Mrs. C. Connorton)
D. P. Langdon (Mrs. Harte)
M. M. Marlatt (dec'd)
J. Marshall (Mrs. H. Jones)
E. Phyllis Mason (Mrs. T. E. Watkins)
 G. MacDonald (Mrs. R. E. Owen)
Myrtle McDougall (Mrs. W. Nicholson)
M. L. Mcintosh (Mrs. Naylor)
M. J. McKay
L. McLachlan (Mrs. C. Bleasdale)
H. F. Paull (Mrs. G. R. Guillemaude)
Vera Anderson (Mrs. R. C. Sparks)
Kathleen Boyd (Mrs. J. Crawshaw)
Grace Bremner (Mrs. G. Messer)
Betty Bryden (Mrs. Clelland)
Gwen Clements
Edna Fairhurst (Mrs. R. P. Hawkes)
Doe Freethy (Mrs. A. D. McPhillips)
Kathleen Giles (Mrs. D. McNaughton)
Jessie Grant (Mrs. R. Stokes)
Madeline Gregson (Mrs. W. E. Burnett)
Maisie Hartley (Mrs. D. Harrison)  (dec'd)
Rosamund Laidman
Grace McDonald (Mrs. C. Belcher)
Joy Pearse (Mrs. H. W. Riggs)
Jean Randall
Ethel Shaw (dec'd)
Dorothy Todd (Mrs. F. H. Partridge)
Helen Warren (Mrs. Carter)
Alice Webster (Mrs. W. Jordan)
Helen Archer (dec'd)
Sybil Archibald (Mrs. G. Bennett)
Iris Beck (Mrs. E. Jappe)
Thelma Birthey (Mrs. A. F. Rose)
Nellie Bowman (Mrs. Newton Ash)
Connie Boyd (Mrs. J. Stewart)
Esme Chennels (Mrs. Cole)
Alice Dyke (Mrs. Mitchell)
Evelyn Eller (Mrs. Matson)
Bertha Ford (Mrs. J. Rosewarn)
Elsie Gregson (Mrs. R. Torrance)
Grace Grossman (Mrs. W. Hawkes)
Mary Hallas (Mrs. J. Stobart)
Dorothy Head (Mrs. E. Burgess)
Lilian Johnson (Mrs. C. Smith)
 Sybil Keeler (Mrs. L. Gustafson)
Molly McDiarmid (Mrs. M. McLaren)
Agnes Mclnnes (Mrs. C. N. Good)
Frances Moore (Mrs. A. Thompson)
Jean Moore (Mrs. G. Bothwell)
Elsie Rose
Ella Siteman (Mrs. J. Brown)
Eileen Snowden (Mrs. D. Ramsey)
Violet Stewart
Rose Townsend (Mrs. W. Dron)
Myrtle Walden (Mrs. Nesbitt)
Isabelle Walton (Mrs. J. Younge)
M. N. Whitehouse (Mrs. D. M. McPherson)
Etta Young (Mrs. H. J. Thorburn)
E. Crichton (Mrs. N. King)
Margaret Green
Dorothy Hargreaves (Mrs. A. K. Hughes)
Ella Harman (Mrs. A. Stewart)
Irene Helgeson (Mrs. Storch)
Rae Kirkendale (Mrs. L. Heseltine)
Thelma Lawrence (Mrs. Plant)
Madeline Main
Kathleen Oatway (Mrs. Darters)
Ada Parker
Lilian Parker (Mrs. R. W. Scott)
Maud Parker (Mrs. D. Pearmain)
Ruth Price (Mrs. G. Prowse)
Ethel Steeves (Mrs. E. Hall)
Dora Boyd-Wallis
Mabel Brown (Mrs. G. A. S. Townesend)
Dorothy Cuff
Mary Cartwright (Mrs. Clark)
M. Louise Crandlemire (Mrs. Halksworth)
Zella Dawson (Mrs. H. P. Hall)
Verena DeBlaquiere (Mrs. R. W. Bailey)
Margaret Dickson
Enid P. Donnelly (Mrs. G. Mead^-Robins)
Vera Freeman
Kathleen Haynes
Marion Head (Mrs. F. Ramsey)  (dec'd)
 Dorothy Hicks (Mrs. Ogburn)
Evelyn Jones (Mrs. P. Miller)
Georgina Paterson (Mrs. MacQueen)
Beatrice Robson
Gladys Ray
Doris Ross
Margaret Sanderson (Mrs. T. Messenger)
Florence Scott
Nina Schrieber (Mrs. J. Ferguson)
Margaret Scroggie (Mrs. McDonald)
Eva Stender (Mrs. H. F. Fyles)
Dorothy Stewart
Kathleen Strang
Margaret Wilson (Mrs. T. F. Dore)
Linea Blomberg (Mrs. H. Duke)
Margaret Burtch (Mrs. P. N. A. Smith)
Mary Clements (Mrs. L. Conyers)
Joyce Collett (Mrs. J. Brooke)
Mary Summings (Mrs. Wood)
Edith Cunningham (Mrs. H. Down)
Eleanor Dempsey (Mrs. H. Morey)
Inez Facey
Margaret Field (Mrs. W. Nevin)
Eva Moody
Kathleen Moore (Mrs. W. Tucker)
Evangeline Pease (Mrs. P. Bowen-Colthurst)
Gwen Smith (Mrs. H. W. Sparks)
Elizabeth Taylor (Mrs. E. V. Bushkirk)
Winnifred Travis (Mrs. W. Hahn)
Jessie Stelmock (Mrs. Parker-Fenton)
Mildred Wilson (Mrs. J. Eckersley)
Maude Ault (Mrs. Flinton)
Grace Beech (Mrs. G. Dennis)
Jean Blake (Mrs. J. McKenzie)
Elizabeth Braund
Marie Lenore Chase (Mrs. A. Leger)
Mary Clarke
Florence Ferguson
 Isobel Goward (Mrs. Winter)
Barbara Grant (Mrs. J. Calnan)
Dorothy Green (Mrs. P. Turgoose)
Mildred Laidlaw (Mrs. E. Tait)
Maude Laity (Mrs. Ryall)
Doris Lee
Violet Porter (Mrs. W. Mitchell)
Jean Richardson (Mrs. C. Reid)
Edna Rossiter
Eleanor Schroeder (Mrs. L. Smith)
Jean Stewart (Mrs. F. Bonnell)
Constance Todd (Mrs. J. W. Stephen)
Naeta Waind (Mrs. Cockburn)
Anna Williams
Ruth Young (Mrs. Naylen)
Evelyn Armstrong (Mrs. W. Lambert)
Helen Baillies (Mrs. J. Mitchell)
Esabel Blythe (Mrs. Ross Tapp)
Mae Cather (Mrs. P. E. Girling)
Margaret Dale (Mrs. A. Scholes)
Winnifred Fairweather (Mrs. W. Price)
Lydia Feikert (Mrs. C. Farrant)  (dec'd)
Mary James (Mrs. L. Lemm)
Marjorie Knight (Mrs. B. McMillan)
Patricia Lewis (dec'd)
Freida Lowe (Mrs. Wilson)
Dorothy Lucas (Mrs. G. McCann)
Marjorie Marshall (Mrs. C. Allen)
Kathleen Muckle (Mrs. F. Oliver)
Vera Oatway (Mrs. C. F. M. Guernsey)
Joyce Plant (Mrs. G. J. Dubuc)
Mary Port way (Mrs. Broderick)
Agnes Robertson
Jessie Rothnie
Joan Russell
Lillian Starke (Mrs. Ken McKenzie)
Anna K. Williams
Jane Wilson (Mrs. G. Wilmot)
Gladys Beech
Cecily Cox
Cecily Dack (Mrs. C. Tannock)
Mary Downing (dec'd)
Marjorie Fraser (Mrs. Pimm)
Clare Hay den (Mrs. Wilkinson)
Marie Hemmingson (Mrs. G. Tomlin)
Dorothy Hornibrooke
Gertrude Little
Sybil McQuinn (Mrs. C. L. Sutton)
Ida MofFatt (Mrs. W. H. Greany)
Margaret Morrison (Mrs. H. Rankin)
Frances Robertson
Flora Thompson (Mrs. F. Hedley)
Evelyn Toynbee (Mrs. J. Lamb)
Harriet Iris Turpel (Mrs. H. Draper)
Beatrice Weller
Maud Ault
Harriet Brawn
Carol Cockell (Mrs. C. J. Robertson)
Lois Cockell (Mrs. R. Ryves)
Barbara Cornwall (Mrs. J. M. Arnold)
Isabel Donald (Mrs. J. Watson)
Noreen Donnelly (Mrs. F. Christensen)
Violet Helgeson (Mrs. R. S. L. Good)
Virginia Hembury (Mrs. C. Gates)
Loris Hibberson (Mrs. E. Haywood-Farmer)
Edith Hood (Mrs. W. G. Brown)
Etta Hood (Mrs. D. J. Butler)
Margaret Johnston (Mrs. Earle)
Lucille Malkin (Mrs. T. W. S. Parsons)
Frances Mollett
Mary Nelson (Mrs. R. J. Weir)
Mary Gwen Rooke (Mrs. J. Currie)
Florence Dowker Smith (Mrs. A. F. H. Gordon)
Mary Thompson (Mrs. W. Cuzner)
Julia Tymich (Mrs. W. C. Jones)
Dorothy Watson (Mrs. D. MacLeavy)
Annie Welch (Mrs. R. Sewell)
Evelyn Williamson (Mrs. D. Tobitt)
Grace Baker (Mrs. Murgatroyd)
Elizabeth Blanchet (Mrs. Gilzean)
Evelyn Bland (Mrs. R. O. Wilson)
Pearl Gray (Mrs. F. Hall)
Margaret Hope Hewett (Mrs. W. Parker)
Elizabeth Hickman (Mrs. Thornet)
Reta Jenkins (Mrs. B. English)
Gretchen Johnson (Mrs. R. Angus)
Violet A. Johnstone (Mrs. J. Valentine)
Effie Mitchell
Tilda Noble (Mrs. E. McDonald)
Lillian Porter
Ann Stratton (Mrs. B. T. H. Marteinsson)
Marjorie Thomas
Margaret Wallbank (Mrs. Morrison)
Eileen Welch (Mrs. W. Bowman)
Ruth Bailey (Mrs. R. Laird)
Hughie Bowden (Mrs. T. C. Harold)
Mary Campbell (Mrs. R. Fears)
Marion Cochrane
Mary Davis (Mrs. B. Humphries)
Edith Edwards (Mrs. Tweedy)
Helen Gould (Mrs. F. H. Gregory)
Hazel Knight
Madeline Matson
Jean Murray (Mrs. R. Hilton)
Margaret Plunkett
Margaret Shaw
Inez Simmons (Mrs. V. E. Munson)
Margaret Smith (Mrs. B. B. BufTam)
Eva Alexander
Johanna M. Coutts (Mrs. J. M. Dawlings)
Margaret J. Coutts
Constance Hellier (Mrs. R. Knechtel)
Dorothy Ingram (Mrs. D. Carey)
Hallet Norris (Mrs. F. Sparks)
Eleanor Roos (Mrs. W. Huxtable)
Dorothy Saunders
 1936—January ;^|?
Louisa A. Cochrane (Mrs. W. Tompkinson)
Eileen R. Conway (Mrs. L. Bassett)
Elizabeth Copeland (Mrs. E. Merrick)
Bessie Harris
Sylvia Hulton-Harrop (Mrs. D. A. Neale)
Honora S. Porritt
Charlotte McClusky (Mrs. D. Smith)
Jean May (Mrs. F. Stokes)
Madeline Megaw
Mary M. Reid (Mrs. R. Godtel)
Miriam Ryall (Mrs. W. Oliver)
Doreen Shute (Mrs. R. Gravlin)
Dorothea Baker (Mrs. K. Savory)
Margaret Bawden (Mrs. A. Allan)
Eleanor Bradley
Alvera Bruhn (Mrs. A. Patterson)
Doris Carter
Kathleen Duncan (Mrs. E. Jacques)
Phyllis Edwards (Mrs. T. Milliken)
Una Fawcett (Mrs. A. Meynell)
Catherine Ferguson (Mrs. B. T. Dunham)
Mary Gamon (Mrs. B. Burke)
Catherine MacArthur (Mrs. C. G. Daniel)
Margaret MacKenzie (Mrs. M. Blake)
Eloise Manuel (Mrs. H. LeRoy)
Kathleen Morrison (Mrs. T. C. Anderson)
Barbara Player (Mrs. D. Scott)
Ida Sharpies
Barbara Strickland (Mrs. W. Hesson)
Grace Walton (Mrs. I. MacDonald)
Eileen West (Mrs. C. McLean)
Vivienne Wood (Mrs. N. P. McConnell)
Margaret Both (Mrs. A. D. McMillin)
Dorothy Boughton (Mrs. O. Lodge)
Margaret Brindle (Mrs. Ostiguy)
Mary Campbell (Mrs. O. Weiler)
Myrtle Collingwood
Florence Edwards (Mrs. Robinson)
Myra Edwards (Mrs. R. B. Van Home)
 Noel Fenton (Mrs. I. Donaldson)
Margaret Fletcher
Alice Heron
Nora Keeler (Mrs. W. Ords)
Helen Latornell (Mrs. O. H. Wood)
Marjorie M. McDougall (Mrs. L. Topley)  (dec'd)
Helene McLeod (Mrs. A. Hopfe)
Dorothy McNaughton (Mrs. B. G. Howland)
Mary McRae (Mrs. R. Morley)
Eileen Morton
Muriel Smith (Mrs. J. Crooks)
Olive Wilson
Edna Anderson (Mrs. D. Pite)
Dorothy Bird (Mrs. R. Thorstenson)
Marjorie Jean Boyes
Jean Brown (Mrs. B. Nellis)
Helen Bruels (Mrs. R. Schuster)
Flora Fairweather (Mrs. C. Tingley)
Marion Ferry (Mrs. J. Farewell)
Katherine Goward (Mrs. R. Eyles)
Elizabeth Grimes (Mrs. F. Benton)
Jeanne Groos (Mrs. T. W. Walker)
Ethel J. Hooper (dec'd)
Muriel Jeffers (Mrs. D. A. Webster)
Margaret Kerr (Mrs. H. Duncan)
Bertha Krull
Rose Lee (Mrs. W. Blackett)
Bertha M. Lind (Mrs. J. B. Roberts)
Inez Milne
Norma Plante (Mrs. M. Lunn)
Elizabeth Putnam (Mrs. A. S. Yelland)
Noreen Robbins
Jean Rosevear (Mrs. V. Sudlow)
Effie Smallwood
Velma Anderson (Mrs. A. E. Acres)
Gladys Abbott (Mrs. Emil Dey)
Mary E. Burton (Mrs. M. E. Stephens)
Annie Daniels (dec'd)
Dorothy Doumont
Leila P. Downing (Mrs. Ross Craig)
 Catherine Hay ward
Hazel I. Johnson (Mrs. F. S. Taylor)
Florence Kenmuir (Mrs. J. A. Roberts)
Nina M. Martin (Mrs. C. Ames)
Kathleen E. Mohr (Mrs. W, Ross)  (dec'd)
Mae J. Montague (Mrs. G. Hood)
Edna M. Murphy (Mrs. A. Langill)
Kathleen Oakley (Mrs. J. Earle)
Rosemary L. Stone (Mrs. H. Harrison)
Joyce M. Taylor (Mrs. H. L. McManus)
Pauline Wunsch (Mrs. P. Henderson)
Elizabeth Branch
Jeanne E. Collard (Mrs. J. McAllister)
Margaret Egerton
Mildred Egg (Mrs. R. Wilson)
Louise R. Ferrero (Mrs. W. D. Evans)
Mary Irving
Verena A. J. James (Mrs. G. Ford)
Mary Jellis (Mrs. J. A. McCague)
Withelmina Lantinga
Dr. Mary P. Leith
Gertrude J. Montague (Mrs. R. Butler)
Jean D. Morrison (Mrs. C. Passmore)
Beatrice Staples (Mrs. E. MacGrath)
Kathleen Stevens (Mrs. W. Davenport)
Evelyn G. Teir
Dorothy Van (Mrs. H. Gonder)
Van Steinberg (Mrs. A. Broadley)
Frances Wheeler (Mrs. M. A. Martin)
Doris Williams (Mrs. B. Rebagliatti)
Irene E. Wyatt (Mrs. E. Lalonde)
Freda Arsens
Violet Bradley (Mrs. F. K. Martindale)
Mary Carter
Ruth Coleman
Frances Dick (Mrs. B. Hendricks)
Margaret Dobson
Joan Evans (Mrs. Clarke)
Ethel Ellis (Mrs. R. M. James)
Doreen Douglas Hamilton (Mrs. A. O. Davidson)
 Zoe Harmon
Hazel Jack (Mrs. K. Semple)
Mabel MacKenzie (Mrs. T. M. Hyslop)  (dec'd)
Gladys Mercer (Mrs. R. Sutton)
Nadine More (Mrs. W. Auld)
Mary Reynolds (Mrs. E. G. Barton)
Edna Scoble (Mrs. Avendon)
Joan Stroud (Mrs. G. Murtagh)
Pearl Taylor (Mrs. F. R. Moore)
Margaret Toynbee (Mrs. J. L. Greig)
Grace Uhrich
Annie Waites
Margaret Yager
Patricia Adams (Mrs. R. W. Draney)
Mary Alexander (Mrs. J. S. Boorman)
Marshie Alexander (Mrs. G. McCall)
Wendy Benson
Margaret Campbell
Patricia Campbell (Mrs. C. Van Home)
Lorna M. Colwell (Mrs. E. Allen)
Louise Colwell (Mrs. V. V. Marnell)
Lena Fraser (Mrs. J. Buckham)
Marion Fraser (Mrs. G. McNaught)
Gwen Gardiner (Mrs. R. O. Shaw)
Margaret Hewson (Mrs. J. K. McKenzie)
Helen Keyworth (dec'd)
Joyce Laurie (Mrs. B. G. Harvey)
Madeline Lord (Mrs. Davies)  (dec'd)
Margaret Lowe (Mrs. M. Hoffmeister)
Grace Mayhew (Mrs. T. W. Cotton)
Margaret Miller (Mrs. Home)
Christine Molberg (Mrs. A. E. Storey)
Dorothy J. McKay (Mrs. H. Jones)
Florence McKay (Mrs. Haggstrom)
Alice Pidcock (Mrs. G. Dunlop)
Kathleen Powell (Mrs. W. J. Rumple)
Lois Patterson (Mrs. A. Phillips)
Eva Smith (Mrs. A. McAllister)
Phyllis Wood (Mrs. D. J. Hunter)
Mary Bryden
Dorothy Chambers (Mrs. W. Gussa)
Marjorie Crane (Mrs. K. Ross)
Ella Fast (Mrs. W. Yardley)
Helen Frame (Mrs. D. Hall)
Joyce Goggin (Mrs. O. Nicholls)
Mary Hamilton
Margaret Hunter (Mrs. Cuche)
Phyllis Jones (Mrs. L. Beamish)
Muriel E. Kipp (Mrs. G. Thompson)
Doris Latornell
Bertha Maher (Mrs. M. Gow)
Phyllis Mercer (Mrs. P. G. Roberts)
Sheila Murray (Mrs. H. Cleland)
Anne Smallwood (Mrs. J. Alsop)
Kathleen Skidmore (Mrs. H. K. Ward)
Marie Walker (Mrs. M. Ryan)
Virginia Walker (Mrs. E. S. L. Jones)
Mary Atkinson (Mrs. E. Rice)
Mary E. Adamson (Mrs. Johnson)
Gladys Berndt
Bella E. Black (Mrs. G. Allester)
Violet Cantwell
Eileen Cornwall (Mrs. G. Harris)
Evelyn Christopherson (Mrs. A. Holloway)
Dorothy Chappell (Mrs. D. C. Cameron)
Margaret K. Clark (Mrs. H. J. Williams)
Muriel Fowler (Mrs. R. Thorne)
Phyllis Gray
Vernice Hall (Mrs. J. A. Rockwell)
Margith Johnson (Mrs. Fishley)
Catherine Junget (Mrs. T. O. McLaren)
Beth Ludditt (Mrs. R. Fosker)
Hazel Leeson (Mrs. D. Gazeley)
Ethelwyn Mackie (Mrs. J. Lee)
Gertrude Martin (Mrs. C. Stoll)
Bernice Miller (Mrs. F. Hatcher)
Isobel McLean
Ellen Northcott (Mrs. P. Lund)
Muriel Oatway (Mrs. Sewell)
 Margaret Stevens (Mrs. J. Mitchell)
Ada Williamson (Mrs. M. Peeke-Vout)
Joan I. Anderson
Lilian Castley
Mildred Farrow (Mrs. J. Wilson)
Doreen Gifford (Mrs. A. Park)
Irene Grodski
Faith Hodgson
Kathleen Houston (Mrs. R. Sangster)
Ruth Kennedy (Mrs. J. Rowlatt)
Marion Livland (Mrs. A. Hohlt)
Margarette Martin
Helen Miller
Catherine Meiklejohn (Mrs. C. Sutton)
Mona McMahon
Mary McMillin
Rowena McNeely
Hilda Pearson (Mrs. H. Jensen)
Jessie Reynolds (Mrs. Black)
Jean Saunderson
Helen Stewart (Mrs. T. M. Cummings)
Carole Strankman (Mrs. A. Alexander)
Lucille Witsch (Mrs. P. Karpan)
Violet Berry (Mrs. S. Hiscock)
Margaret Bolton (Mrs. N. MacGregor)
Marion Bray (Mrs. Gar well)
Barbara Bryson
Gladys Foster (Mrs. P. Kime)
Anne Frijouf
Stella Johnson (Mrs. B. C. Ludditt)
Nell Koester (Mrs. D. H. Slimmon)
Ethel Laing
Lois Lord (Mrs. P. Gottseleig)
Doris Manning (Mrs. E. Barton)
Thelma Meiss (Mrs. J. Randall)
Jean MacKay
Phyllis M. Parkes (Mrs. J. Piddington)
Marion Plumb (Mrs. C. P. Comerford)
June Plummer (Mrs. N. Newton)
Betty Rae (Mrs. J. Hewison)
 Mary Rutherford (Mrs. W. Myrfield)
Lorraine Smith (Mrs. E. Gargett)
Marion E. Thompson (Mrs. J. Davies)
Rosamund Turner (Mrs. W. Watson)
Violet Waterworth (Mrs. T. Tarns)
Roxie Wilson
Marcia J. Aitkens
Mary Empey (Mrs. Kerr)
Elizabeth Esau
Lorraine Ferguson
Elizabeth M. Greig (Mrs. Harrison)
Pearl Hamilton
Helen Henderson (Mrs. R. J. Cotter)
Florence Johnson (Mrs. Hughes)
Mary Keller
Irene Knight (Mrs. Logan)
Christine Lahmer (Mrs. Taran)
Margaret Leighton
Shirley Main
Jean Miller (Mrs. M. L. Shore)
Margueritte McNevan (Mrs. J. B. Price)
Hazel O'Rourke (Mrs. H. Miller)
Doreen Pendray
Hilda Richardson (Mrs. H. Ryttersgaard)
Margaret Sansum (Mrs. Booth)
Constance Stephens (Mrs. Sherwood)
Sybil A. Stuart
Diana M. Phillip (Mrs. R. Hayes)
Wilma Ambrose (Mrs. Morrison)
Rosemary Bradley-Dyne (Mrs. G. M. Owen)
Isabel Finlayson (Mrs. E. Trudgett)
Pauline Gibbs
Shirley Gooding
Janet Grimes (Mrs, J. Laidlaw)
Lenore Lamb
Maxine Llewellyn
Elizabeth Mackie
Nina Mossman (Mrs. R. F. Kump)
Audrey Morrison)
Marion McLeod (Mrs. D. Shepherd)
 Barbara Logan
Beatrice E. Nivin
Irene O'Brien (Mrs. G. Jackson)
Helen Putnam (Mrs. D. S. Serl)
Margaret Roberts (Mrs. G. Davies)
Ruth Umbrite (Mrs. M. A. Bird)
Jessie E. Watt
Muriel Wright (Mrs. D. McLean)
Doreen O. Wymen (Mrs. F. Gebhard)
Ella Yates (Mrs. E. McDonald)
Marjorie Allen (Mrs. M. Allen)
Ida Bates
Nancy Brookes (Mrs. L. McKay)
Alice Copeland
Anna-Britt Christianson (Mrs. W. E. McKechnie)
Edna Donaldson
Margaret Fuller (Mrs. G. Smith)
Vivian Gott (Mrs. Burket)
Helen M. Harrigan (Mrs. K. Peters)
Effiie Hughes
Gladys Jones (Mrs. Brimhall)
Marjorie Lantinga (Mrs. D. A. Mulcahy)
Margaret J. Mathews
Madeline Murdoch (Mrs. G. Arsens)
Irma Lamb
Elizabeth Lehmann (Mrs. J. Toran)
Ruth Parham (Mrs. Sibbald)
Elizabeth Peters (Mrs. E. Smith)
Marion Putnam (Mrs. D. H. Bray)
Barbara Rintoul
Joan Sansum (Mrs. Richards)
Pauline Wright
Thelma J. Alexander
Margaret Agnew
Gertrude Boorman (Mrs. J. Ritz)
Vivian G. Denham (Mrs. Allen)
Barbara Hardman (Mrs. C. A. Flower)
Margaret Henderson
Jean E. Hooper
Mary M. Hutcheson (Mrs. W. Clarke)
 Catherine King (Mrs. W. F. Walker)
Winnifred Kummer (Mrs. Clarke)
Phoebe Moll
Marion MacDonald (Mrs. Hincks)
Muriel McNeil (Mrs. J. Nunn)
Thelma Neimei
Evelyn Ortt (Mrs. Tomashewsky)
Frances P'eake (Mrs. F. A. Sansbury)
Verna Pomfret
Peggy Prisk
Mary K. Worsley (Mrs. J. H. F. Mara)
Evelyn Wigmore (Mrs. E. Morrison)
Mildred Williams (Mrs. H. E. Bell)
Margaret Whitecross
Winnifred Yockney (Mrs. H. J. Mayzes)
Irene M. Banks (Mrs. W. R. Bullis)
Wilma M. Both (Mrs. W. Barlow)
Louise Coles (Mrs. Coleman)
Muriel E. Comber (Mrs. J. A. Shaw)
Athene Cross
Norma Dady
Margaret Grant (Mrs. MacDonald)
•  Dorothea Greenwood (Mrs. D. M. Cameron)
Gladys Kirwen
Diana Langford (Mrs. Kyle)
Hanna Lehmann
Ruby Leshure
Kathryrn McDonald
Jean McDougall
Hazel McDowell (Mrs. Denton)
Elizabeth Muir
Olive Parker (Mrs. A. Ferrero)
Jean Pearson
Eileen Rae (Mrs. E. Mitchell)
Jean Robertson (Mrs. J. Woodbury)
Pamela Scott (Mrs. G. G. Robbins)
Mabel Shortreid (Mrs. H. Preistley)
Elberta Sorensen
Alpine Wagenius
Mary F. Burton (Mrs. Black)
Lorraine Carruthers (Mrs. N. Haughton)
Marion Conibear
Audrey Gass (Mrs. Masur)
Mary Hammond
Phyllis Harwood (Mrs. E. S. Smith)
Jean Hughes
Mildred Irwin
Norma Kenney
Nellie Kosiec
Frances Lang
Margaret C. Linn (Mrs. L. C. Everson)
Annie MacKenzie
Martha W. Martens
Alison J. Neilans
Ellen Pocock
Maureen M. Seymour
Audrey Smith
Brenda Smith (Mrs. C. G. MacDonald)
Rita Straughan (Mrs. J. Lott)
Mary Thornton
Mary Work
Thelma Botting
Velma K. Bell
Jean Guthrie (Mrs. Greig)
Jessie Layton
Margaret McEwen
Iris Bothamley
Barbara Burrows (Mrs. B. McNeish)
Agnes Clarke (Mrs. S. McPherson)
Margaret Frame (Mrs. Shaw)
Dorothy Holmberg
Jessie Layton (Mrs. E. Bodden)
Jean MacKillop
Thelma MacKinnon
Betty Morris
Vivian Osborne (Mrs. F. A. H. Carberry)
Dorothy Ponsford (Mrs. Belsham)
Marjorie Treen (Mrs. B. C. Bishop)
Helen Turner (Mrs. Lamb)
Mildred Waites
Kathleen Armishaw (Mrs. H. Schemler)
Dorothy Brown (Mrs. D. C. Wiley)
Dorothy Carroll (Mrs. D. J. Robinson)
Irene Cooper (Mrs. A. Crowson)
Mary Cox (Mrs. D. McKenzie)
Marguerite Crawford
Nora Gladstone (Mrs. E. Baldwin)
Enid Greer (Mrs. D. Sutherland)
Susan Greig (Mrs. W. I. Mouat)
Pearl Haugen (Mrs. G. Wahlberg)
June Johnson (Mrs. J. Tarves)
Eileen Kent
Eleanor Lawson
Willa McClement (Mrs. K. Wakefield)
Ruth McDonald (Mrs. F. Wade)
Marion Morrison (Mrs. P. Aitken)
Frances Nickerson (Mrs. D. D. Wilson)
Joyce Read (Mrs. J. P. Ryall)
Bernice Reid (Mrs. N. Rasmussen)
Alice Shelling (Mrs. R. F. Biscoe)
Helen Street (Mrs. B. Gillespie)
Evelyn Thordarsen
Dorothy Todd (Mrs. F. Thompson)
Irene F. Carter
Kathryn Smyth
Margaret Warren (Mrs. A. J. Kroha)
Lorraine Waters (Mrs. L. Tadey)
Barbara Bird
Eileen Cathcart
Lois Charlton (Mrs. Taylor)
Norma Cook
Rose Drewry (Mrs. A. E. Evans)
Florence M. Ferguson
Alice Hollman
Lorraine Holmes (Mrs. Gough)
Frances McKenzie
Elizabeth Meadows (Mrs. W. R. Johnson)
Elizabeth E. Mermod
Margaret Moncrieff
Marie Nixon
 Joan Piddington (Mrs. J. Cartwright)
Muriel Raymond
Joan Walker (Mrs. A. McLean)
Margaret Wilson
Mabel Zimmerman
Pamela Allan
Shirlee Anderson
Catherine Angus (Mrs. B. Cupples)
Isabel Atkinson (Mrs. Jensen)
Maxine Bolton
Margaret Calvert (Mrs. J. D. Rutledge)
Irene F. Carter
Alice Cockshott (Mrs. J. W. Johnson)
Norma Currie
Vivienne Fox (Mrs. C. F. Rose)
Roberta Grieg
Sheila Hampson (Mrs. D. Booth)
Joan Harris
Margaret Hynds
Nona Jamieson
Marnie Johns (Mrs. D. H. Leggett)
Patricia Johnson (Mrs. W. Lowe)
Marjorie Kembel
Marjorie N. Lang (Mrs. Simpson)
Arline McCullock
Edith Newcombe (Mrs. Humphries)
Irene Ortt
Margaret Osselton (Mrs. Leacock)
Ruth Patterson (Mrs. F. E. Schroeder)
Marion Patterson (Mrs. C. Denham)
Sheila Peasland (Mrs. MacPhail)
Margaret Powell
Winnifred Pritchard (Mrs. D. Porritt)
Isobel Proud (Mrs. D. A. Hughes)
Hilda Russell (Mrs. Manning)
Patricia M. Salmon (Mrs. F. C. Boyd)
Adina Schmidt (Mrs. G. Chapman)
Sheena Smith (Mrs. J. Chedzoy)
Katheryn Smythe
Prudence Stephenson (Mrs. J. F. Rowe)
Ruth Tomlinson
 Enid Wallace
Helen Wilson (Mrs. Tribe)
Mildred Becker (Mrs. W. J. Hoskyns)
Betty Black
Mona Bolton (Mrs. Steele)
Darken Bradford (Mrs. G. Ryman)
Jean Cann
Raphael Catalono (Mrs. G. F. Christie)
Shirley Eastman
Anne S. Damery (Mrs. H. Raymond)
Carol Hooper (Mrs. A. Pearson)
Frederica Lyon
Annie Phillips (Mrs. A. Vivian)
Patricia McClymont
Shirley Rennie
Mildred Staverman
Myrtle Thorpe
Enid Twidale (Mrs. L. Amundson)
Yvonne Yates
Victoria Zabolotny
Viola Anderton (Mrs. Leahy)
Phyllis Anthony (Mrs. J. W. Logan)
Gladys Barnes
Verna Blackwell (Mrs. D. Sprinkling)
Marjorie J. Broadhurst (Mrs. E. Travers)
Jean Brydon (Mrs. H. Sedgman)
Doreen Burnett (Mrs. Payton)
Catherine Campbell (Mrs. R. Lunde)
Marjorie Braithwaite (Mrs. G. McKenzie)
Beryl Calbick (Mrs. M. F. Brundridge)
Jean Chisholm
Shirley Clark
Vivian Clark (Mrs. Price)
Joyce Crombie (Mrs. Chasson)
Daphne Dean (Mrs. L. F. Trueman)
Jean E. Dempsey (Mrs. D. Grant)
Joan Denison (Mrs. R. A. Wilson)
Thelma Duthrie (Mrs. H. Bendon)
Doris Firth (Mrs. G. O'Farrell)
Yrsa Fredin (Mrs. Q. Bye)
 Betty Garrison (Mrs. K. Findlaw)
Ruby Hall (Mrs. R. Fleming)
Elva K. Hughes
Elizabeth Hutton (Mrs. Whitlock)
Laura McDonald (Mrs. Hunt)
Georgina Moore (Mrs. Watt)
Maxine Murray (Mrs. T. Watt)
Carol Perdue
Olga Sather
Noreen Tait
Olive M. Windh (Mrs. B. Dean)
Patricia Bell-Irving
Virginia Bigold (Mrs. W. McPhee)
Geraldine Caldwell (Mrs. R. McKeown)
Dilys Edwards (Mrs. G. R. Fleming)
Jean Harcourt (Mrs. R. Bruce)
Joan Henderson
Irene McKee
Noram MacGregor
Frances Marshall (Mrs. Husband)
Shirley Normand (Mrs. Bishop)
Elizabeth Nutter (Mrs. G. E. Bunce)
Netta Owen (Mrs. Davidson)
Ivy Powell
Joyce Robinson (Mrs. W. R. Hindle)
Mavis Ryall
Pamela Sankey
Kathleen Sutherland (Mrs. A. Balfour)
Helen Turk (Mrs. Johnston)
Nancy Wright
Merle Aikenhead (Mrs. R. M. Brockway)
Anna Marie Alder (Mrs. J. L. Davis)
Catherine Bartleman
Joyce Calhoun (Mrs. B. Latramuile)
Jean Cardiff (Mrs. J. Johnston)
Marjorie Cook (Mrs. J. W. Gillis)
Mary Cooke
Dorothy Davidson (Mrs. M. Mackay)
Joyce V. Denby
Donalda Devine (Mrs. C. Adams)
 Doris V. Edwards (Mrs. H. Wilson)
Jean Erskine (Mrs. Emery)
Patricia Hamblin (Mrs. J. B. Martin)
Barbara Haycroft (Mrs. J. Bauman)
Rosalie Hayduk (Mrs. R. Jarvis)
Mary Kenneday (Mrs. W. W. Melville)
Ida Lang (Mrs. W. Gerber)
Isobel McKay (Mrs. Stadnicki)
Mary I. McKay
Mary Maximenko (Mrs. M. A. Hundleby)
Norma Melville (Mrs. D. M. Fligg)
Lois Morley
Helen M. Palmer (Mrs. D. Gaede)
Peggy Prisk
Helen Reimer (Mrs. J. R. Parris)
Rosa Stone (Mrs. L. Kahler)
June Wales (Mrs. P. Fehr)
Phyllis Weber (Mrs. D. A. Guthrie)
Christie Bean (Mrs. D. A. Stewart)
Noreen Beaton
Patricia Blades (Mrs. F. E. Richardson)
Bernice Bruneski (Mrs. H. Young)
Joyce Campbell (Mrs. R. Hough)
Dolly Damery (Mrs. R. O. Landry)
Jean Galbraith
Edith Gregory
Eleanor M. Hall (Mrs. E. Woodyard)
Helen Harritt (Mrs. F. Lefrancois)
Catherine Jamieson (Mrs. W. R. Hamilton)
Ethel Keeping (Mrs. J. Denniston)
Catherine Leask
Ada Leopald (Mrs. J. Stevenson)
Isobel McKinnon (Mrs. L. Eldridge)
Elizabeth Moore
Mary E. Murphy
Lorna Rutherford (Mrs. C. Lewis)
Irene Watkins
Mildred Wahlstrom (dec'd)
Jennie Wilson
Ruth Wood
Lois Wren (Mrs. W. V. Kilpatrick)
Phyllis Young (Mrs. W. R. Milburn)
Charlotte Anderson
Shirley Blanchard (Mrs. R. Gorham)
Olive Campbell (Mrs. J. McFee)
Judith Enerhaug (Mrs. G. Meyers)
Maria Ewanowich (Mrs. R. Montgomery)
Elizabeth Ferrie
Lela Haacke (Mrs. A. F. McMillan)
Constance Hammond (Mrs. A. Wiens)
Bernice Hampton (Mrs. K. Wright)
Olive Holmberg (Mrs. H. Boorman)
Pauline Jenkins (Mrs. P. Smith)
Violet Joe (Mrs. J. Chung)
Elizabeth Lahmer (Mrs. T. Witwicki)
Eileen Lanigan (Mrs. R. G. Eldridge)
Betty Lassen (Mrs. D. Minckler)
Joyce Leachman (Mrs. E. Schuberg)
Ophelia Lesiuk (Mrs. C. Miller)
Eleanor Luetkehoelter (Mrs. D. Gould)
Jean McCuaig (Mrs. J. Peterson)
Mary McDougall
Roberta McRae (Mrs. N. Land)
Margaret Martinuson (Mrs. R. S. Mason)
Sheila O'Neill (Mrs. L. Swanson)
Anna Peden
Bertha Roberts
Jean Roylande (Mrs. Ji. Ruck)
Constance Smith
May G. Smith (Mrs. J. Murray)
Jane H. Stokes (Mrs. G. R. Hooper)
Mary Straith (Mrs. D. Laurie)
Thais Thomas (Mrs. W. Faunch)
Lois Wheeler (Mrs. W. Anderson)
Vivian Wylie (Mrs. R. Menzies)
Patricia Blake (Mrs. K. W. Walker)
Gladys Bool (Mrs. A. Skrecky)
Laura Davison
Vera Krawece
Natalie MacKenzie
Florence Nixon (Mrs. J. Cummings)
Lorraine Northey (Mrs. Hooke)
 Eleanor F. Patterson (Mrs. H. T. Walker)
June Phillips (Mrs. K. Hansen)
Ruby Saunders
Caroline Skillings (Mrs. J. O. Mothersill)
Betty M. Spiller (Mrs. G. Chater)
Ljubica V. Starcevic
Dolly E. White (dec'd)
Phyllis M. Worsley
Gertrude Ballard
Mary Burchett (Mrs. R. Hemeon)
Joyce Burkholder
Laura Chugg (Mrs. S. Magill)
Patricia Codville (Mrs. R. Fahrig)
Gwen Clarke (Mrs. R. Barber)
Gloria Davies (Mrs. R. Gelpke)
Mathilda Fleming (Mrs. L. Toews)
Ella Gustafson (Mrs. H. Zabel)
Elizabeth Laubach (Mrs. R. Greiner)
Mary Lewis
Marion Matcham
Marilyn Mitchell (Mrs. L. Pritchett)
Marion B. Marr
Elaine Pendray (Mrs. K. Berkenshaw)
Elizabeth Spain (Mrs. F. Garnett)
Jacqueline Stephens (Mrs. J. Simpson)
Ruby Stinson (Mrs. J. Carrier)
Eileen Watkins (Mrs. B. H. Warrender)
Evelyn Wilms (Mrs. G. Hartley)
Elizabeth Friesen
Elizabeth Carter (Mrs. I. Brettell)
Daisy Chung
Mary Church (Mrs. M. White)
Mae Conn
Evelyn Davidson
Olga Golik (Mrs. Miller)
Barbara Guy
Barbara Lester (Mrs. T. McCall)
Jessie Lim
Ellen Manring (Mrs. Eric Siems)
 Ruth Martin (Mrs. J. Sake)
Shirley Mawdsley (Mrs. H. Sutherland)
Margaret Robertz
Ruth Rogers (Mrs. W. Kirkman)
Myrtle Sather
Lavina Stilwell (Mrs. T. Knight)
Alma M. Sawyer
Mary A. Smith
Sheila Wilton (Mrs. A. Mourant)
E.Winonah Worsley (Mrs. J. D. Pite)
Norah Adamson
Shirley Anderson
Alma Angus
Mae Bell (Mrs. M. Baker)
Margaret Blakemore (Mrs. N. Walker)
Vera Boyd (Mrs. W. M. Bittner)
Athlyn Bruce
Joan Challoner (Mrs. R. Greaves)
Rhoda E. Clarke (Mrs. R. Yeates)
Joan Corbould (Mrs. F. L, Sanderson)
Thurley Duck
Wilma Dyson
Edith French (Mrs. B. Grainger)
Bessie Freeman (Mrs. F. Ayres)
Evelyn Gilchrist
Patricia Glover
Rosemarie Hartwig
Fay Ingram (Mrs. J. Hennekes)
Mary Lou Johns
Jean Kent
Kay Keeble (Mrs. K. Cameron)
Pat Meneley
Shirley Mason
Solveig Mork
Donna Munro (Mrs. D. Chadderton)
Marion Munro
Joan Northcott
Doreen Richmond
Ann Roberts
Joan Shaver (Mrs. F. R. Hooper)
Myrtle Adsett (Mrs. W. C. Sanders)
Ruth Balisky (Mrs. G. Foxall)
Peggy Blake
Joyce Booth (Mrs. E. Fredin)
Eva Brown
Leola Carr
Joyce Davies
Dorothy Freeman
June Grier
Audry Hicks
Anita Larsen
Dawn Mawdsley (Mrs. I. Ostrom)
Marjorie Morrison
Audrey Proctor (Mrs. B. L. Aylard)
Mabel Richards (Mrs. P. Hill)
Helen Robertson (Mrs. S. C. Seedhouse)
Mary Robertson
Joyce Watts
June Wood (Mrs. Sobkowiez)
Roberta Ballantyne (Mrs. G. Birtwistle)
Audrey Beaumont (Mrs. T. Davie)
Janet Bompas (Mrs. G. Harper)
Nan Campbell (Mrs. C. E. Woods)
Betty Cardiff (dec'd)
Elizabeth Carr (Mrs. A. S. Wagstaff)
Norma Dickie (Mrs. W. D. McDougall)
Corinne Fatt (Mrs. R. Walker)
Anne Gill (Mrs. J. Graham)
Dorothy M. Gray (Mrs. N. Vik)
Norma Hagen
Gwen Hall (Mrs. J. Campbell)
Clara Hannah (Mrs. E. Anastasiou)
Joanne Harper (Mrs. B. Ripley)
Eva Hayman (Mrs. R. Bolt)
June Hedblom (Mrs. A. M. Yeats)
Nancy Idiens (Mrs. C. Kaplan)
Joan Ketcheson
Gail Key worth (Mrs. B. K. Hicklenton)
Susie Knutson (Mrs. K. Clements)
Ruby Lacy
 Joanne Langridge (Mrs. J. Clee)
Grace Litster
Isabel Millner (Mrs. Perry)
May Moore (Mrs. A. Rawcliffe)
Kit Morris (Mrs. G. Hobson)
Margaret Parfitt (Mrs. G. Martinovict)
Dianne Parsons (Mrs. V. Wilson)
Shirley Pauline (Mrs. Cormack)
Lyn Pick
Shirley Reed (Mrs. W. Pickering)
Ann Richardson (Mrs. R. Lees)
Merle Richardson
Nancy Roberts (Mrs. L. Seton)
Idina Scott (Mrs. K. Williams)
Barbara Sinclair (Mrs. J. Owen)
Mildred Smith (Mrs. Schindler)
June Stratton (Mrs. G. D. Litster)
Lucy Straw (Mrs. W. P. Hay ward)
Dawn Spencer (Mrs. R. Goddard)
Frances Truit (Mrs. R. Walker)
Olga Voth
Gerry Wallace (Mrs. G. Watson)
Helen Warwick (Mrs. G. Joslin)
Ora Whittles (Mrs. J. Hoglo)
Dorothy Woodward (Mrs. J. Peirson)
Marjorie Young
Shirley J. Anderson
Sheila Atkinson (Mrs. P. S. Burgenham)
Beverley Bates (Mrs. E. F. Fallon)
Shirley Cameron (Mrs. H. J. Powell)
Patricia Dickson (Mrs. W. Blanshard)
Cora J. Hansen (Mrs. R. D. Reid)
Norma Harris (Mrs. K. Dick)
Sheila M. Hicks (Mrs. J. Foster)
Colleen Karst (Mrs. C. Whitfill)
Joan H. Kelly (Mrs. W. Abbott)
Anne King (Mrs. J. H. Edgington)
Patricia O'Meara (Mrs. T. Thompson)
Irma Neetz (Mrs. Burgoyne)
Ardis Nelson (Mrs. R. E. Maupin)
Lois Pack (Mrs. C. Naylor)
 Margaret Pullen
Irene Schmuland
Ellen Stroud
Eileen A. Thompson (Mrs. H. M. Shore)
Doreen Weismiller
Bernice Williams (Mrs. P. Pool)
Anne Wilson (Mrs. J. A. McDonald)
Beverley Berkenstock (Mrs. B. C. More)
Eva Billett (Mrs. L. R. Hargreaves)
Betty Bird (Mrs. M. Soule)
Margaret Broadhurst (Mrs. B. Curtis)
Doris Cadwallader (Mrs. J. C. Turner)
Barbara Cuthbert
Mary Esau
Joyce Fry
Catriona Gillespie (Mrs. J. Graham)
Lily Golik (Mrs. N. A. Negrey)
Cynthia Graham (Mrs. J. F. N. Paget)
Patricia Hemingson (Mrs. W. E. Mower)
Yvonne Hunden (Mrs. D. Bond)
Ann Husband (Mrs. D. Pearson)
Berna F. Ingram (Mrs. R. O. Dennison)
Lorna Johnston (Mrs. R. Aldred)
Shirley R. Loring (Mrs. W. J. Stewart)
"Gertrude Luetkehoelter
Mona McLean (Mrs. W. Stewart)
Evelyn McNeil
Harriet Macleod (Mrs. G. F. Denton)
Norma Macfarlane (Mrs. E. Jorgenson)
Jessie Mantle
Beverley Martin
Elaine Mercer (Mrs. A. Inglis)
Edith Moir
Beulah Neish (Mrs. W. Rusk)
Fanny Odell
Christina M. Peate
Norma Plumb (Mrs. Byrington)
Alice Renshaw (Mrs. G. Arnold)
Evelyn Richardson
Robin Saare (Mrs. H. Mede)
Grace Sheppard (Mrs. M. Hall)
 Dolly Smith
Beverley Thomas (Mrs. W. Hogg)
Gladys Trembley
June Walker (Mrs. W. Howie)
Lois M. Watley (Mrs. B. MacFarlane)
Donna Weppler (Mrs. D. A. Holly)
Loreen Weiss (Mrs. Sproule)
Delia Wilkinson
Myrtle Work (Mrs. L. Nelson)
Bernice Arnet (Mrs. D. Lee)
Joyce Bouch (Mrs. R. IIlings)
Bernice H. Bray
Elizabeth Brasher
Joan Capling (Mrs. J. Krayenhoff)
Beverley Carter (Mrs. K. Lapham)
Rosemary Condin (Mrs. H. Grant)
Betty Crowder
Jeanette E. Crowther (Mrs. D. Kinney)
Eva Domke
Wendy Dwyer (Mrs. E. Bourdages)
Edith Edler (Mrs. J. Roberts)
Elsie Gildner
Thelma Hanington
Lois Hunter
Maureen Innes (Mrs. M. Meier)
Dianne Johnson
Marguerite Y. Lloyd
Mrs. Ruby May
Ruth Mar del (Mrs. MacKenzie)
Mary Magerowski
Marilyn MacLoud (Mrs. S. Jameson)
Patricia MacNicol
Shirley McKeown (Mrs. J. McAdam)
Jessie McEachern
Joan Naysmith
Maxine Penson (Mrs. R. Martelli)
Vita Rasmussen
Mariln R. Robertson (Mrs. J. Newman)
Patricia Rowling
Mary Strachan (Mrs. D. Hyde-Law)
Barbara Taylor
 Joan Tinkess
Lorraine Waters (Mrs. L. Tadey)
Audrey K. Wright (Mrs. A. Almquist)
Jackie Aitken (Mrs. R. Prenevost)
Mary I. Atkin
Elsie Blakely (Mrs. R. Mikitka)
Wilma Cain (Mrs. T. Wickham)
Frances Carpentier (Mrs. R. Payne)
M. Dando (Mrs. R. Taylor)
M. Durnin (Mrs. P. F. Taylor)
Iris East (Mrs. D. Parker)
Lois R. Falk (Mrs. C. Baughman)
Marjorie Fatt (Mrs. J. Todd)
Donna Getty
Marilyn Gowan
Phyllis R. Hall (Mrs. R. E. Barbin)
Ida E. Hayward
Joan D. Heighes (Mrs. H. Wallace)
Eugenia Hird (Mrs. W. Hook)
Brahma Hooper
S. Husband (Mrs. L. Ramsey)
Patty Joe (Mrs. C. Mah)
Connie Jones (Mrs. P. Clothier)
Shirley A. King (Mrs. T. Shorter)
Margaret Lewis (Mrs. T. Martin)
Carole Lipsack (Mrs. G. Simpson)
Susan Lutener (Mrs. G. Webster)
D. McCormack (Mrs. V. Gadsby)
Jeannie McDonell (Mrs. G. Pearmain)
Elizabeth K. Neal (Mrs. C. Arnold)
Edith Oldham (Mrs. R. N. Noel)
B. Parr (Mrs. P. Hamilton)
June Rothe (Mrs. P. Lapointe)
Joan Randall (Mrs. N. Christensen)
Margarethe Sheppy
Joyce E. Slang
J. Templeton
Joan Watson (Mrs. K. Wilson)
Joan Whitten
L. Balcom (Mrs. D. Cove)
Irene M. Bell
Rosemary Cheeseman (Mrs. T. J. Gower)
Eunice Cook (Mrs. Bradbury)
Edith Christie
Barbara Chung (Mrs. Wong)
Diane M. Earle (Mrs. D. Dunsmore)
Rosemary E. Farmer (Mrs. J. H. Winther)
Ruth Foort
M. Fairful (Mrs. P. Townshend)
L. Irvine (Mrs. M. Victor)
M. Kilgour (Mrs. L. Prevost)
J. Kemp (Mrs. J. McKone)
Margaret A. Linn (Mrs. E. Estlin)
A. MacLean
Margaret MacKenzie (Mrs. R. M. Wallbank)
G. O'Meara (Mrs. J. E. Gatehouse)
O. Rebagliati
Beverly Rivet-Carnac (Mrs. K. Griffin)
Josephine Sanders (Mrs. J. P. Dixon)
Jean E. Smith
Sydney I. Barlow (Mrs. D. Baird)
Joan Bayliss
Gail Champion
Jean M. Cheser
Carol J. Clarke (Mrs. Duffis)
Katherine E. Clayton (Mrs. B. Baird)
Bertha D. Cox (Mrs. K. Robertson)
Mary H. Dewar (Mrs. R. Williams)
Evelyn S. Donelly
Ann Drew
Catherine S. Gibson
Robin A. Grant (Mrs. R. Larkin)
Marjory M. Gregg (Mrs. R. Deacon)
Muriel L. Hollett
Edna A. Honstain (Mrs. G. E. Galbraith)
Sylvia A. Hooper (Mrs. J. Higgins)
Elvira R. Janz (Mrs. D. Murdoch)
H. Klemens (Mrs. B. Mullen)
Margaret I. Laubach
 Willine Loadman
Louise A. McPherson (Mrs. L. Johnson)
Ann Marling (Mrs. F. G. Montfort)
Helen P. Morrison
Elizabeth K. Pillinger
Doreen M. Robbie
Juanita V. Roberts (Mrs. D. Stewart)
Barbara A. Shoemaker (Mrs. T. James)
Jorun Skeg
Erans E. Smith
Joyce E. Turner
Doris E. Walker
Beatrice L. Wastell (Mrs. J. Robson)
Marion F. Wright (Mrs. G. Luney)
Marie Christensen (Mrs. P. Thompson)
Marina Fatt
Alice A. Gallie (Mrs. W. Fergie)
Rachel Johnson
Arlene Knowles (Mrs. G. Ay lard)
Patricia Leitch
Betty L. McNiven (Mrs. W. R. Sturrock)
Patricia A. Martin (Mrs. P. Morez)
Anne Murphy
Carolyn I. Pearson (Mrs. N. Blamire)
Sheila D. Petrie
Marilyn H. Phillips
Barbara J. Price
Margaret C. Ritchie (Mrs. M. R. Malcolm)
Vivian Roberts
Margaret S. Strachan
Barbara A. Walton (Mrs. T. Cottrell)
Eva Webb
Valerie D. Wilson (Mrs. K. Barnes)
Heather Adam
Doris Barker
Joyce Blackstock (Mrs. K. Richardson)
Marie Clarke
Violet M. Dawson (Mrs. E. A. Powell)
Diana Deans
 Dierdre DeBeck (Mrs. D. B. Smith)
Gloria Glock
Audrey Jahn
Patricia Jones
Lois M. McCartney (Mrs. S. Child)
Sheila Mackie (Mrs. J. Clements)
Norma A. McPherson
Audrey Mathew (Mrs. H. Burga)
Lois Mellors (Mrs. Carter)
Margaret Montague (Mrs. Johnson)
Ann Munday
Edith Nixon (Mrs. C. C. Barman)
Shirley Orr (Mrs. A. Johnson)
Jean Renshaw
Geraldine Sammon
Margaret Savory (Mrs. Dady)
Mary Sheppy
Margaret Stewart
Phyllis Stordahl
Marjorie Ure
Eugenie Wong
Sylvia M. Zaferis
Graduate Nurses of the
Provincial Royal Jubilee Hospital
Who were on Active Service with the Expeditionary Forces
of 1914-1918
Date of
Name Graduation
♦Christina Campbell  .  1897
fSarah Heaney  1901
Elizabeth Cameron  1904
Harriet Jukes   1905
Constance Jones   1905
fElizabeth Martin  1906
Effie Alexander  1908
Ada Cookson   1908
Nora Birkett  1909
Molly Milligan  1909
 Date of
Name Graduation
fElizabeth Pierce    1909
Lena Boyd    1911
Madeline Lloyd    1910
Dorothy Collis   1911
Louise Talbot   1911
Maud Walker   1912
Elsie M. Collison    1916
Marion Osbourne    1912
Clover Walker    1917
Beatrice Bradshaw  1917
Kathleen Cockrell   1917
Ethel Hall   1917
Maude Nason  1918
Emma Black   1912
♦Gladys Wake    1912
fCharlotte Younghusband    1912
fKatherine Little    1913
fChristina Mowbray    1913
Gladys Carvolth   1914
Penelope Mellen   1914
Nancy Bradshaw   1914
Ethel Cook   1912
Phyllis Ashton   1913
Joy Croxford    1915
Mary Mellen   1915
Hazel McDonald  1915
Zeta Clarke   1915
Amy Worsey    1916
Frances Paget    1915
tHelen Mcintosh   1911
♦Jessie Nelson King _, .  1916
Jean Denovan  1917
Ruth Clinton    1917
Elanor Dale  1917
Ella May McKenney   1917
Evelyn Edwards  1914
* Supreme Sacrifice. f Royal Red Cross.
February 1st, 1951, to May 18th, 1951
KING, Faith—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital  1949.
GREINER,  ELIZABETH   (Laubach)—Graduate  Royal  Jubilee
Hospital 1950.
Staff:  Sept. 15, 1950 to Jan. 31, 1951.
Course: Feb.  1,  1951  to May  18,  1952.
Staff:  June 1, 1951 to Sept. 7, 1951:   To Sick Children's Hospital,
Staff:  Sept.  15, 1952 to March 31, 1953:   To go to England.
Staff:  Feb.  1, 1954 to Feb. 28,  1955:   Marriage.
LEASK, CATHERINE—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1949.
Staff:  Feb.   16,   1949  to Jan.  31,   1951.
Course:  Feb.  1,  1951 to May 18,  1951.
Staff:  June 1,  1951 to July 15,  1952: Supervisory position, Penticton.
UPHAM, MARGARET—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital
October 1st, 1951, to January 31st, 1952
CHISHOLM, MARY R.—Graduate Saskatoon General Hospital
DESLANDES,  EDITH J.—Graduate Calgary General Hospital
KERSHAW, MARY—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital 1948.
Course:  Oct.  1,  1951  to Jan. 31,  1952.
Staff:  Feb. 1, 1952 to Aug. 22, 1952.
MOORES, MAE E.—Graduate Calgary General Hospital 1931.
Staff:  Nov.  25,   1946 to Feb.   15,  1947.
Course:  Oct.  1,  1951 to Jan. 31, 1952.
REIMAN,  SHIRLEY E.—Graduate Yorkton General Hospital
Course: Oct. 1, 1951 to Jan. 31, 1952.
Staff: Feb. 5,  1952, to May 31, 1952.
March 3rd, 1952, to July 3rd, 1952
STEWART, Barbara (Ayliffe)—Graduate St. Joseph's Hospital
Course:  March 3,  1952 to July 3,  1952.
Staff:  July 7,   1952 to Aug.  3,   1952.
Staff:  Aug. 4, 1952 to Aug. 31, 1952.
Staff:  Feb. 16,  1953 to Dec. 31. 1953.
 Freeman, Bessie—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1951.
Staff:  Sept.  17  ,1951  to March 1,  1952.
Course:  March 2,  1952 to July 3, 1952.
Staff:  July 4,  1952 to Aug.  13  ,1952.
Now:  R.C.N.. stationed at H.M.C.S. Naden, Esquimalt.
KORNELSON, BERTHA—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital
Went to Korea as a Missionary, where she was drowned.
MCCULLOCH, ELIZABETH—Graduate Vancouver General
Hospital 1943.
Post-Graduate:     Neurosurgical   Institute,   Montreal,    1945.       Now
RICHMOND, DOREEN—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1951.
Staff:  Sept.  13,  1951 to March 1,  1952.
Course:  March 2,  1952 to July 3, 1952.
Staff:  July 4,  1952 to May 15,  1954.
Staff:  Nov. 1, 1954.     Still on staff.
SPENCER, JOY—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital 1948.
Staff:  Feb. 11, 1952 to March 1,  1952.
Course:  March 2,  1952 to July 3,  1952.
Staff:  July 4, 1952.     Still on staff.
September 3rd, 1952, to January 3rd, 1953
NESTING, EILEEN—Graduate Royal Alexandra Hospital,
Edmonton, 1949.
Shimbashi, HELEN—Graduate Medicine Hat General Hospital
February 9th, 1953, to June 5th, 1953
HARTWIG, Rose—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1951.
KlNNlS, CLAIRE—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital 1948.
Staff:   Jan. 15, 1951 to Feb. 8, 1953.
Course:  Feb.   9,   1953  to June  5,   1953.
Staff:  June 8, 1953 to Sept. 2, 1956:  To U.S.A.
Kitchen, Dorothy—Graduate Vancouver General Hospital
KLASSEN, Joyce—Graduate Saskatoon General Hospital 1949.
Sutherland, Eleanor—Graduate Royal Columbian
Hospital 1937.
Course: Feb. 9, 1953 to June 5, 1953.
Staff: June 29, 1953.    Still on staff.
WATTS, ORA—Graduate Brandon General Hospital 1949.
Course: Feb. 9, 1953 to June 5, 1953.
Staff:  June 8, 1953 to June 26, 1953.
 January 11th, 1954, to May 28th, 1954
BEIER, ALMA—Graduate General Hospital, Steyr, Austria.
CUTHBERT, BARBARA—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1953.
Staff:  Oct.  1, 1953 to Jan.  10,  1954.
Course:  Jan.  11,  1954 to May 17, 1954.
Staff: May 18, 1954 to Oct. 31, 1954.
HREHERCHEK, Pearl—Graduate Archer Memorial Hospital,
Lamont, Alberta, 1950.
NORDIN,  LAURA M.—Graduate Saskatoon General Hospital
PEEL, SHIRLEY M.—Graduate Calgary General Hospital 1952.
SMITH, DOLINA—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1953.
Staff:  Sept. 21, 1953 to Jan. 11, 1954.
Course:  Jan. 11, 1954 to May 14, 1954.
Staff:  May 17,  1954 to Oct. 31,  1954.
October 4th, 1954, to February 18th, 1955
Brunsden, Marjorie—Graduate Medicine Hat General
Hospital 1954.
COONES, LILLIAN—Graduate Peterborough General Hospital
HOPPS, SHIRLEY  (Haywood)—Graduate St. Paul's Hospital
Course:  Oct. 4,  1954 to Feb.  18,  1955.
Staff:  Feb.  28,   1955  to May 31,  1955.
MATOVICH, Mary—Graduate St. Paul's Hospital 1954.
MACFARLANE,   NORMA—Graduate   Royal   Jubilee   Hospital
Staff:  Sept. 6, 1953 to Dec. 20, 1953.
Course:  Oct. 4, 1954 to Feb. 18, 1955.
RICHARDSON, MERLE—Graduate Royal Jubilee Hospital 1952.
Course:  Oct. 4, 1954 to Feb. 18, 1955.
Staff:  Feb. 24, 1955 to June 30, 1955.  To Vernon Jubilee Hospital.
1890-1897—Dr. W. A. Richardson.
1897-1916—Dr. E. Hasell.
1916 Pro-tern—Dr. O. Coodley.
1917 Pro-tern—Dr. C. W. Duck.
1917-1920—Dr. Herbert Rogers.
P. H. Patterson.
E. M. Pearse.
—Dr. T. W. Walker.
Morley B. Beckett
(for a few weeks only)
1946 Pro-tern—Dr. R. G. D. McNeely.
1948 to present time—Dr. J. L. Murray Anderson.
Since 1950 Dr. Anderson has also acted as Assistant Administrator.
Dr. A. H. Wallace.
Dr. McDonald.
Dr. Norman J. Paul.
Dr. Emerson.
Dr. A. R. Wilson.
Dr. W. H. Moore.
Dr. Thomas Miller.
Or. A. P. Miller.
Dr. Wainwright.
Dr. A. P. Miller.
Dr. Briggs.
Dr. W. J. Endicott.
Dr. McCullough.
Dr. E. C. McFarlane.
Dr. O. C. Lucas, Sr.
Dr. R. J. Nodwell.
Dr. L. Jones
Dr. L. K. Kennedy.
(for four months)
Dr. F. P. Sparks.
Dr. Finch.
Dr. O. C. Lucas, Sr.
Dr. Arnott.
Dr. F. P. Sparks.
Dr. M. J. Keys.
Dr. L. K. Kennedy.
(for two months).
Dr. B. Bonar Buffam.
Dr. T. C. Harold.
Dr. Pollock.
D. J. M. MacKinnon.
Dr. R. C. Newby.
Dr. McCullough.
Dr. Lozier.
Dr. R. C. Newby, Sr.
Dr. N. D. C. MacKinnon.
Dr. R. V. Markkanen.
Dr. C. C. McLean.
Dr. J. L. Murray Anderson.      Dr. H. T. Hogan.
Dr. C. W. Watson.
Dr. L. W. Bassett.
Dr. V. M. Markkanen, Sr.
Dr. C. C. McLean, Sr.
Dr. N. D. C. MacKinnon.
Dr. J. S. McCannel.
Dr. D. C. Vroman.
Dr. Gordon Patton.
Dr. C. Pitts.
Dr. J. A. Addison.
Dr. T. R. Harmon.
Dr. D. Vroman, Sr.
Dr. W. T. Maquire, Sr.
Dr. L. L. Ptak.
Dr. D. Smith.
Dr. G. H. Worsley.
Dr. L. L. Ptak, Sr.
Dr. D. Smith, Sr.
Dr. E. W. Black.
Dr. W. W. Stewart.
Dr. R. C. V. Gray.
Dr. J. E. Gilmore.
(three and half months).
Dr. J. R. Ireland.
1940-41 —
Dr. W. W. Stewart, Sr.
Dr. L. W. Cromwell, Sr.
Dr. A. N. Barr.
Dr. T. R. Blades.
Dr. P. C. Lund.
Dr. B. L. Newton.
Dr. B. L. Newton, Sr.
Dr. J. E. Barnard, Sr.
Dr. H. L. Dobson.
Dr. C. G. McNeill.
Dr. M. M. Hutton.
Dr. P. E. Pemberton.
(four months).
Dr. J. R. Fowler.
Dr. E. M. Thorp.
Dr. W. J. Dunn.
Dr. J. F. Tysoe.
Dr. R. M. Jameson.
Dr. M. L. Edgar,
(nine months).
Dr. D. M. Boyd.
Dr. I. B. Cameron.
Dr. H. W. Verville.
Dr. L. Ellison.
Dr. R. P. Bellamy.
Dr. R. M. Jackson.
Dr. L. T. Maxwell.
Dr. S. G. Ruskin.
(six months).
Dr. M. W. Calvert.
Dr. L. G. Sheps.
(six months).
Dr. L. Ellison.
Dr. J. M. Wasserman.
Dr. R. N. Foxgord.
Dr. L. Friesen.
Dr. L. B. Gendron.
Dr. R. M. Jackson,
(six months).
Dr. D. M. Whitley.
Dr. E. C. Mahaffy.
Dr. K. N. Wilson.
Dr. G. M. Paul.
(six months).
Dr. B. B. Robinson.
Dr. J. R. Angus.
Dr. John Hay.
Dr. A. B. Peachey.
Dr. W. N. Earle.
(6 months).
 Dr. J. C. M. Felterly.
Dr. Jack Zimmerman.
(two months).
Dr. B. M. McLeod.
Dr. H. S. Ford-
(Sr. in Med., six months) .
(six months).
Dr. S. S. Avren.
Dr. A. J. Venables.
Dr. J. H. Whiteside.
(Resident in Pathology).
(Resident in Pathology).
Dr. D. M. Boyd, Sr.
Dr. John B. Anderson.
(Resident in Obst.).
Dr. Q. W. Cochran, Sr.
Dr. Keith N. Bryant.
Dr. Archie F. Bull.
Dr. E. R. Hall.
Dr. Donald J. McLean.
Dr. N. E. O'Hara.
Dr. John A. Roe.
Dr. A. W. Perry.
Dr. D. G. Ulrich.
Dr. Joseph H. Trealeaveh
Dr. P. M. Wolfe.
Dr. F. L. Wilson.
Dr. T. A. Dobson.
(Resident in Pathology).
(Resident in Pathology).
Dr. E. A. Dunton.
Dr. M. P. Armstrong.
(Resident in Obs. and Gyn.) .
Dr. R. A. Gale.
Dr. R. R. Bonnell.
Dr. G. McKenzie.
Dr. J. B. Cupples.
(Sr. in Paed).
Dr. D. A. Holley.
Dr. N. B. Reilly.
Dr. D. R. Horton.
Dr. A. G. Vey.
Dr. C. J. C. Mackenzie.
Dr. R. D. Sargent.
Dr. A. W. Perry.
Dr. F. J. Stojan.
(Resident in Pathology).
Dr. A. E. Gillespie.
Dr. G. McKenzie.
(Sr. in Paed).
Dr. W. C. Stewart.
Dr. K. E. Stouffer.
Dr. M. E. Thornhill.
Dr. Raymond Duncan.
(Resident in Pathology).
Dr. D. G. Adams.
Dr. D. C. Coleman.
Dr. P. F. d'Estrube.
Dr. R. S. Dolman.
Dr. A. J. M. Johnston.
Dr. A. W. Perry.
Dr. N. E. Streight.
(Resident in Pathology).
Dr. R. J. Stirling.
Dr. Benson Auld.
Dr. W. E. Warwick.
Dr. A. M. Beach.
Dr. R. A. Waterman.
Dr. A. C. Cairns.
Dr. M. E. Marritt.
Dr. F. L. Wilson.
Dr. Mary P. Leith.
Dr. Garth Walther.
(Resident in Pathology).
 Dr. R. W. Allin.
Dr. A. R. Cameron.
Dr. G. G. Lott.
Dr. W. J. McCall.
Dr. William McCulloch.
Dr. J. E. Miles.
Dr. J. M. W. Penn.
Dr. Robert Watters.
Dr. C. F. Ballam.
Dr. Use Destrube.
Dr. J. M. Graham.
Dr. W. H. Levis.
Dr. V. A. McPherson.
Dr. Andre Nyhof.
Dr. J. S. Wilson.
(Resident in Radiology).
Dr. F. L. Appleyard.
Dr. G. E. Cox.
Dr. J. F. Higgins.
Dr. J. D. Hobson.
Dr. J. R. C. LeHuquet.
Dr. R. S. Slinger.
Dr. W. Y. Smith.
Dr. K. Straube.
L. L. Ptak, B.Sc, M.D., F.R.C.S. [E], Chief of Staff
P. A. C. Cousland, M.B. [Tor.], Secretary
D. M. Bailey, ch.B., M.D., D.P.H.
A. N. Beattie, M.D., D.P.H.
F. M. Bryant, M.D., F.A.C.S.
J. I. Durand, M.D.
W. A. Fraser, M.D., F.A.C.S.
E. C. Hart, M.D., CM.
G. C. Kenning, M.D., CM.
R. M. Lane, M.D., CM., D.P.H.
J. W. Lennox, M.B. [Tor.]
T. Miller, M.D.
J. H. Moore, M.D., CM.
H. H. Murphy, B.A., M.D., CM., F.A.C.S.
T. McPherson, B.A., M.D., CM., L.R.C.P., F.R.C.S.  [C]
R. B. Robertson, M.D., CM.
J. W. Stewart, M.D.
C. W. Duck, M.D., CM.
R. A. Hunter, M.D., M.R.C.P., F.R.C.P. [C]
W. E. M. Mitchell, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S. [E], F.R.C.S., [C], D.P.H.
A. B. Nash, M.D., CM., F.A.C.S., F.R.C.O.G., F.R.C.S. [C]
*T. F. Rose, M.A., M.D., CM.
M. P. Leith, M.D. A. W. Perry, M.D., CM., F.R.C.P. [c]
L. N. Roberts, M.D., F.R.C.P. [c]
Sub-Department Cardiology
P. A. C. Cousland, M.B. [Tor.]
Sub-Department Dermatology
K. Greenwood, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P. [E]
Sub-Department Neurology
R. M. Peet, B.A., M.D., B.Ch., M.R.C.P.  [I], F.R.C.P. [C]
Sub-Department Psychiatry
D. E. Alcorn, M.D., CM., F.A.P.A.
*Gavin Chisholm, M.D., CM.
N. C. Cook, M.D.
R. Scott-Moricrieff, B.A., M.D., CM., D.A.B.Ot.
*H. M. Edmison, M.D.
D. H. Taylor Lee, B.A., M.D., D.M.R.
N. S. Lockyer, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.M.R.T.
*R. G. D. McNeely, M.D.
F, L. Wilson, M.D.
*J. L. Andrews, M.D.
R. A. Fortye, M.D., CM. J. R. Stone, M.D.
M. Yates, B.A., M.D., F.A.C.A.
* Head of Department
*R C. Newby, M.D.
G. B. Bigelow, M.D., ch.B.
G. B. M. Buffam, M.D., CM.
G. E. Cox, M.D.
W. A. Falk, M.D.
R. A. Gale, B.A., M.D., CM.
G. F. Houston, M.B., B.S.,
M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.,
D.T.M., 8 H.  [L].
W. H. Moore, M.B., Ch.B.
O. C. Lucas, B.Sc, M.D.
N. B. Reilly, B.A., M.D., CM.
J. A. Roe, B.S.A., M.D., CM.
W. A. Trenholme, M.D.
J. F. Tysoe, M.D.
P. M. Wolfe, M.D., CM.
Resident in Radiology
Resident in Pathology
Dr. E. B. Stephens
Dr. Robert N. Young
Dr. John Wong
Dr. Hans K. Waldmann
Dr. James H. Duxbury
Dr. Dennis M. Clark
Dr. Lloyd L. Miller
Dr. Rodney T. H. Nixon
*G. H. Grant, M.D., B.Sc, F.R.C.S. [C]
J. W. Anderson, M.B., ch.B, F.R.C.S. [E]
E. W. Boak, B.A., M.D., CM., F.I.C.S.
H. S. Ford, M.D., F.R.C.S. [C]
A. G. Gray, M.D., F.R.C.S. [E]
D. M. N. Longridge, M.A., B.ch., F.R.C.S. [E]
W. A. McElmoyle, M.D., F.R.C.S. [E], F.R.C.S. [C]
S. Marinker, M.B., F.R.C.S. [E], F.R.C.S. [C]
L. L. Ptak, B.Sc, M.D., F.R.C.S. [E]
D. M. Whitley, M.D., F.R.C.S. [E]
R. J. Wride, M.D.
H. M. Young, M.D., CM.
W. C. Whiteside, M.D.C.M., F.R.C.S. [C], F.A.C.S.,
d.a.b.t.s., f.i.c.s.
Sub-Department Neurosurgery
J. E. Harvey, B.A., M.A., M.D., Ph.D.
Sub-Department Orthopaedics
A. E. Trottier, B.A., M.D., F.R.C.S. [Ed.], F.A.C.S., F.R.C.S. [C]
E. C. Hoodless, M.D., CM.
* Head of Department
*A. B. Sinclair, M.D., F.R.C.S. [C]
W. J. McMahen, M.D.
*G. W. Robson, M.D., M.R.CO.G.
L. E. Home, M.D.
W. D. Marshall, M.D., M.R.CO.G., F.R.C.S. [C]
G. M. Mair, B.Sc, M.D., M.R.CO.G., F.A.C.S., F.A.A.O.G.
W. C. Stewart, M.D.
*Glen Simpson, M.D., F.A.A.P.
D. M. BOYD, M.D. G. J. McKenzie, B.A., M.D., CM.
*E. H. W. Elkington, M.D., CM., D.O.M.S.
J. T. Cruise, M.D.
H. G. Grieve, M.D., D.O.M.S., D.L.O., F.R.C.S. [C],
F.A.C.S., F.A.A.O.O.
C. H. Moore, M.D., M.S. G. H. Thompson, M.D., CM.
* Head of Department.
RADIOLOGISTS — 1899 -1956
1899-1916 . Dr. E. S. Hasell, Director
1916-1918 _ Dr. Stanier, Director
1918-1923 Dr. L. K. Poyntz, Director
1923 (for a few months) Dr. Warren, Director
1923-1931   I Dr. W. M. Carr, Director
1931-1951 JDr. H. H. Murphy, Director
1938-1947  Dr. J. B. Roberts, Assistant
1947-1951   Dr. H. M. Edmison, Assistant
1950-1951   Dr. W. M. Gilmore, Assistant
1951-1953 Dr. Colin Ibbotson, Assistant
1951 to present Dr. N. S. Lockyer
(Radiation Therapist)
1951 to present Dr. H. M. Edmison, Director
1955 to present Dr. D. H. Taylor-Lee, Assistant
Dr. Taylor-Lee took his final year of training in this department.
1955 Dr. John S. Wilson, Senior Resident
1956 Dr. Hans K. Waldmann, Senior Resident
Name Year Completed Training
Miss B. Brooks, R.N.  1922
Miss Marsha Farrar    1924
Mrs. Amie Mathers, R.N.      1926
Miss Carol Strankman, R.N.    1942
Miss Doreen Pendray, R.N.    1943
Miss Ida Bates, R.N.    1944
Mrs. Helen Serl, R.N.    1944
Miss Helen Whitley, R.N.    1940
Miss Ileen Kerr    1948
Miss Eleanor Marsh    -   1948
Miss Joan Hodge      1953
Miss L. Rimmer  	
Miss Margo King     1953
Miss Molly Love      1953
Mrs. Mary Jessop    1953
Miss Winnifred Westmacott     1954
Miss Elsie Houchuk      1954
Miss Rosemary Von Pentz   1954
Miss Audrey Bool    1954
Miss Vanetia Tait   1954
Miss Darken Marshall     1955
Miss Maxine Norcross   1955
Miss Joy Russell    1955
Miss Beverley Koski     1955
Miss Marion Turigan    1956
Miss Jillian Neesham      1956
1952-53 || Dr. W. R. Duncan
1953-1954  Dr. Patricia Leith
1956-  Dr. James H. Duxbury
 Dr. W. A. Richardson
 Dr. E. Hasell
 Dr.  Horn
 Dr. Long
 Dr. W. P. Walker
(half time) 	
 Dr. J. H. Moore
 Dr. J. D. Balfour
 Dr. Gordon McCurdy
(pro-tern appointment)
 Dr. J. Hoogstraten
to nresent	
. Dr. R. G. D. McNeely
Assistant Pathologist	
 Dr. Lucille Wilson
Miss P. Tingle
Miss A. Ells
Miss G. Kerwin
Miss B. Burgess
Miss Ruth McAndrew
Mrs. Jean McKenzie
Miss Ruth Sherman
Miss Val McAllister
Miss Mary Stevenson
Miss C. Jefferson
Miss W. Ross
Miss B. McConnachie
Miss Pan Woodward
Miss B. Parker
Miss Nella Kirkham
Miss S. Griffin
Miss Pat Bowyer
Miss Elaine Galliford
Miss Shiel Fleming
Miss Mary Stevenson
Miss Christine Bailey
Miss S. Mortimer
Miss Sylvia Poole
Miss S. Johnston
Miss Evelyn Pender
Miss B. Harvey
Miss Marie Weins
Miss M. Wells
Mrs. Irene Muir
Miss J. Sear
Mrs. Diana Knowles
Miss Flo Erwin
Miss Nona Butts
Miss Sarah Smith
Miss E. Stokes
Miss E. Heal
Miss S. Vigar
Miss Marion Stevenson
Miss K. L. Bailey
Miss Roberta Crombie
Miss L. Sibel
Miss Sally Hughes
Miss F. Burdick
Miss Eileen Higgins
Miss D. Wade
1902 Handyman employed—beginning of
Maintenance Department.
Jan. 27, 1908-Jan. 31, 1926 Harry George King
Nov. 1, 1923-Nov. 7, 1930 George Hunter
March 2, 1925-May 31, 1927) m&M± f%kM
March 1, 1928-Aug 31, 1949) MaunCC X Maddcy
July 16, 1949-Oct. 1, 1950 J. A. Syme
Oct. 1, 1950, to present D. W. Hughes
1947 Mrs. Rose Hallas
1947 (5 months only) Mrs. H. Chicoine
1947-1957  Mrs. Olive Slade
1957 to present Mrs. L. Bailey
President Mrs. J. Callan
Vice-President J. Gillingham
Secretary Miss A. Meneley
Treasurer Miss M. K. Barraclough
Miss Shiel Fleming
(Miss Barraclough resigned and
was replaced by Miss Fleming).
Mrs. Laura Agar
C. Trembley
John Hutchinson
Shiel Fleming
*Samuel Boorman
*Mrs. Constance Trueman
*Mrs. M. McLaren
* These three members resigned and were replaced by the
J. Strzelecki
Fred Newman
Miss A. Innes
Feb. 26, 1922-Sept. 30, 1926 Lome D. Fulton
Sept. 16, 1926-Oct. 31, 1930 Harold Davenport
Nov. 30, 1930-March 31, 1932 Alexander J. Campbell
Jan. 22, 1930-1932 E. Smith (Assistant)
hi April,  1932, Mr. Smith was appointed Chief Pharmacist and is
still employed in this capacity.
Assistant Pharmacists:
1930-1932  E. Smith
1940-1941  G. A. Aaronson
1943 to present . C. Burr
Miss Betty Thompson, Vancouver, B.C., September 14, 1927.
Miss Jean Reche Morrison, Yellow Grass, Sask., September 3, 1929.
Miss Adelaide Henry, Victoria, B.C., September 2, 1929.
Miss Jean Mary Wishart Keith, March 31, 1930.
Miss Mildred Hazel Bell,  University of Alberta, June  1-Sept.   30,   1926.
Miss Claudia M. E. Gardiner, Victoria, B.C., May 4-Aug. 4, 1931.
Miss Mary Elizabeth Christie, Victoria, B.C., Jan. 16, 1932.
Miss Olive Florence Grant, University of Alberta, Sept. 5,  1934-May 31,
1935.    (Married to J. E. Smith, Pharmacist, Sept., 1935.)
Miss Ethel L. Stibbards, University of Alberta, June 1, 1933-Oct. 21, 1933.
Miss Myrtle Kathleen McKenzie, University of Sask., June 1, 1935-Dec. 1,
Miss May Akhurst, University of Alberta, Dec. 1, 1934-March 31, 1935.
Miss Doris R. Johnstone, University of Alberta, Sept.   1,   1935-March  1,
Miss Reta Moore, University of Alberta, March 1, 1936, to September 1, 1936.
Miss Margaret McDonald, University of Alberta, June 1, 1936-Dec. 15, 1936.
Miss Anna J. Watercott, University of Saskatchewan, Sept.  1,  1936-April
14, 1936.
'Miss Fanny Lyons, University of Manitoba, Dec. 1, 1935-May 31, 1936.
Miss Beatrice Winnifred Miller, University of Alberta, Dec. 1, 1936-July 31,
Miss Mary Edith Hewitt, University of Alberta, Dec. 1, 1937-May 31, 1938.
Miss Vera Richards, University of Alberta, May 28, 1937-Dec. 1, 1937.
Miss Dorothy Vera Boucher, University of Alberta, Aug.  1,  1937-Jan. 31,
 Miss Riva Secter, University of Manitoba, March 1, 1938-Aug. 31, 1938.
Miss Margaret L. Parsons, University of Alberta, June 1, 193 8-Dec. 1, 1938.
Miss Evelyn Vikse, University of Alberta, Sept. 1, 1938-May 31, 1939.
Miss Christina M. Robertson, University of Alberta, Dec. 12, 1938-Sept. 11,
Miss Kathleen O'Callaghan, University of Alberta, June  1,   1939-Feb.  29,
Miss Edith Jeanne Crawford, University of Toronto, Feb. 1, 1939-Oct. 31,
Miss Barbara Bundy, Acadia University, Sept. 1, 1939-July 6, 1940.
Miss Eileen May Price, University of Saskatchewan, Oct.  8,   1939-July 8,
Miss Ardyce Reynolds, University of Alberta, July 2,  1940-April 2,  1941.
(Mrs. J. A. Syme.)
Miss Isobel Chalmers, University of Manitoba. May 18, 1942-May 18, 1943.
Miss Lavone Nerby, University of Saskatchewan, first to complete the one
year post-graduate course, May, 1942.
Miss Dorothy Seaman, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 4,  1941-Aug. 3,
Miss Maxine Ellis, University of Saskatchewan, Nov. 3, 1941-Nov. 3, 1942.
Miss Margaret H. MacLean, University of Saskatchewan, April 1, 1940-Jan.
1, 1941.
Miss Jean M. Hamilton, University of Alberta, March  1,   1940-Nov.  30,
Miss Margaret H. Lawrence, University of Saskatchewan, Nov. 25,  1940-
Aug. 25, 1941.
Miss Marjorie Eleanor Marter, University of Manitoba, Jan. 6, 1941-Oct. 6,
Miss Jean Oddie, University of Saskatchewan, Sept. 29, 1941-Sept. 29, 1942.
Miss Audrey Eleanor Broatch, University of Saskatchewan, Sept.  14, 1942-
July 19, 1943.
Miss Grace Pierce, University of Saskatchewan, Oct. 9, 1942-Oct. 9, 1943.
Miss Jean R. Black, University of Alberta, Sept., 1942-1943.
Miss Margaret E. Brown, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 7, 1943-1944.
Miss Mary F. Weir, University of Alberta, June 7, 1942-1943.
Miss Jean Edwards Mayhew, University of Toronto, March 31, 1944-April
1, 1945.
Miss Gladys Collicutt, University of Manitoba, Aug. 16, 1943-1944.
Miss Myra Inkster, University of Manitoba, Oct. 20,  1943-1944.
Miss Isabel Caswell, University of Manitoba, June 7, 1943-1944.
Miss Patricia Helen Cochlan, University of Alberta,  1944-1945.
Miss Bernice Butteris, University of Alberta, June 1, 1944-1945.
Miss Isabel Ferguson, University of Manitoba, June 1, 1944-1945.
Miss Eileen Marjorie Winters, University of Manitoba, Jan. 1945-1946.
Miss  Florence  Euphemia  Mae McQueen,   University  of Washington,   Sept.
Miss Agnes Lorna Akister, University of Saskatchewan, June 1945-1946.
Miss Marvel Margaret Jacobs, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 1945-1946.
Miss E. Isabel Cooper, University of Alberta, April 5, 1935,-Sept. 21, 1935.
Miss Muriel Macdonald, University of Alberta, July 1,  1945-1946.
Miss  Bernice  Thordis  Norma  Dahl,   University  of  Saskatchewan,  July   1,
Miss Lydia Marie Fahlman, University of Saskatchewan, Sept.  1946-1947.
Miss Dorinne Shirley Berryhill, University of Manitoba, Aug. 1, 1946-1947.
Miss Jakobina Margaret Bjarnarson, University of Manitoba, June 15, 1946-
Miss Ruth Janet Ruste, University of Alberta, June 1, 1946-1947.
Miss Marion Constance Might, University of Alberta, Oct. 1, 1945-1946.
 Miss Katherine A. Yuill, Macdonald College, Sept. 1946-1947.
Miss Margaret Ellen Eley, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 22, 1947-1948.
Miss Julia Titof, University of Manitoba, Aug. 8, 1947-1948.
Miss Lorraine Theresa Cantin, St. Francis Xavier University, Aug. 8, 1947-
Miss Ethel May Abrams, University of Saskatchewan, June 1, 1947-1948.
Miss Georgia Kortes, University of Saskatchewan, Aug.  1,  1947-1948.
Miss Mildred Doreen McRae, University of B.C., June 15,  1947-1948.
Miss June McCutcheon. University of Alberta, Sept.  15,  1948-1949.
Miss Vera Rose Pawlitza, University of Manitoba, June 15,  1948-1949.
Miss Pierrette Forcier, University of Montreal, Aug. 8, 1948-1949.
Miss Maria Castelli, University of Alberta, June 1, 1948-1949.
Miss Doris Mary Bishop, University of B.C., July 15, 1948-1949.
Miss Marjorie Mabel Sinclair, University of Alberta, July 1, 1948-1949.
Miss Mona Jean Richie, University of Alberta, June 1, 1948-1949.
Miss Marion Charlotte Dewar, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 16, 1948-
Miss Evelyn Morrison, University of Saskatchewan, June 20, 1949-1950.
Miss Laura Pearl Murray, University of Manitoba, Aug. 15;, 1949-1950.
Miss Margaret Selena Spencer, University of Manitoba, June 2, 1949-1950.
Miss Lorna Beryl Bell, University of Manitoba, June 15, 1949-1950.
Miss Dorothy Jean MidkifF, University of Saskatchewan, May 31, 1949-1950.
Miss Patricia Mary Lloyd, University of B.C.. Sept. 1, 1950-1951.
Miss June Elizabeth Fraser, University of Alberta, June 1, 1950-1951.
Miss Eleanor Joyce Blackhurst, University of Manitoba, July 1, 1950-1951.
Miss Frances Wannamaker, University of Alberta, Sept. 15, 1950-1951.
Miss Joyce Norma McCutcheon, University of Alberta, June 1, 1950-1951.
Miss Shirley Maxine Alguire, University of Manitoba, Sept.  1,  1950-1951.
Miss Elizabeth Rosemary Holmes, University of Toronto, Sept.  15,  1948-
Miss Gwenyth Julia Butt, Macdonald College, Sept. 1, 1951-1952.
Miss Winnifred Ethel Wolstencroft, University of Manitoba, July 1,  1951-
Miss Louise Marie Beauchemin, University of Montreal, Sept. 1, 1951-1952.
Miss Elizabeth Patricia Evenett, Macdonald College, July 1, 1951-1952.
Miss Eleanor Ruth Bowes, University of B.C., June 15, 1951-1952.
Miss Noreen Alice McCarthy, University of B.C., June 1, 1951-1952.
Miss Monique Tessier, Laval University, September 1, 1952-1953.
Miss Erica Brough Pepler, University of B.C., June 15, 1952-1953.
Miss Wineva Sanderson, University of Manitoba, June 15, 1952-1953.
Miss Jocelyn Somers, University of Manitoba, July 1,  1952-1953.
Miss Mary Amelia Stephanie Notzel, University of B.C., Sept. 1, 1953-1954.
Miss Margaret Joan Constable, University of B.C., Sept. 1, 1953-1954.
Miss Joan Lillian Rogal, University of Saskatchewan, Aug. 1, 1953-1954.
Miss Elizabeth May Mitchell, University of Alberta, July 1, 1953-1954.
Miss Isabell Lillian Fairgrieve, University of Manitoba, June 1, 1952-1953.
Miss Doreen A. Warren, University of B.C., Sept. 1, 1954-1955.
Miss Catherine A. Munro, University of B.C., July 1,  1954-1955.
Miss Vivian G. Chu, University of B.C., June 1, 1954-1955.
Miss Doris M. Chin, Macdonald College, May 3, 1954-1955.
Miss Gladys C. Krukowski, University of Alberta, Sept. 1, 1955-1956.
Miss Shirley Ann Penosky, University of Alberta, June 1, 1956-1957.
Miss Phyllis M. Wensink, University of B.C., June 1, 1956-1957.
Miss Grace Loreen Bazley, University of Alberta, Sept. 1, 1956-1957.
Miss Irene Matzen, University of B.C., Sept. 15, 1956-1957.
Miss Baker.
Miss Alberta SchaefFer.
Miss Sally Getty.
Miss Ethel L. Stibbards, Aug. 1934-Sept. 1938.
Miss Elizabeth M. Lawson, Sept. 1938-May 31, 1951.
Miss Christina M. Robertson, June I, 1951-.
The Ladies' Auxiliary Committee, 1892.
The Senior Women's Auxiliary.
The Junior Women's Auxiliary.
The Children's Ward Auxiliary
(formerly the Daughters of Pity (founded 1898).
Victoria Graduate Nurses' Association.
The Royal Jubilee Hospital Alumnae.
Gonzales Chapter I.O.D.E.
Florence Nightingale Chapter I.O.D.E.
Victoria Women's Institute.
Esquimalt Women's Institute.
Women's Canadian Club.
Fellowship Club.
Victoria Women's Club.
Esquimalt Women's Club.
Agenorian Club.
The Sugar Plum Girls.
Service Clubs—
Canadian Club.
Unit No. 1 Women's Auxiliary to St. John Ambulance
Jubilee Hospital Division No. 199 St. John Ambulance
Brigade— 1940 - 1945
Mrs. J. W. Anderson.
Mrs. Archbold.
Mrs. P. G. Barr.
Mrs. G. B. Barnes.
Mrs. Ballantyne.
Miss Burnett.
Mrs. Lawrence Boyd.
Miss Bette Bailey.
Miss R. Bridgman (now Mrs. Michael Penn).
Mrs. P. E. Corby.
Mrs. Ashley Cooper.
Mrs. Dola Cavendish.
Mrs. Clyde Cousland.
Mrs. Davies.
Mrs. J. Dickson.
Mrs. F. E. Dowdall.
Mrs. Drage.
Miss Roma Dorman (now Mrs. Baiss).
Mrs. J. V. Fisher.
Mrs. R. C. Farrow.
Mrs. J. Gray.
Mrs. A. Gillespie.
Mrs. E. P. Gillespie.
Miss Rosanna Gillespie (now Mrs. H. Hammond).
Miss Heather Gillespie (now Mrs. A. Pearn).
Mrs. Marjorie Hanson.
Mrs. W. B. Holms.
Miss Moyra Hacklett.
Mrs. Basil Hood.
Miss Jane Hutchings.
Miss Margaret Izard.
Miss Mildred Jones (now Mrs. M. G. Gillespie).
Miss Peggy Jones (now Mrs. Poaps).
Miss Joan King.
 Mrs. J. Impett. SI
Mrs. J. Laurie.
Mrs. W. B. Leach.
Mrs. C. E. Lewis.
Miss Sage Ley (now Mrs. German).
Mrs. A. K. Love.
Miss Moira May (now Mrs. Alan Statham).
Mrs. Morley.
Miss Diana MacDowell (now Mrs. Currie Carmichael).
Mrs. J. R. Mclllree.
Mrs. McKenzie.
Mrs. Logan Mayhew.
Mrs. Matson (now Mrs. Rhys-Jones).
Miss Elizabeth Martin (now Mrs. Barclay).
Miss Joan Mills (now Mrs. Webber).
Mrs. John Moore, R.N. (Divisional Nursing Officer).
Mrs. H. M. Morton (now Mrs. Ely).
Miss Barbara Muttlebury.
Mrs. Parizeau.
Mrs. Pfender (now Mrs. Meharey).
Miss Patricia Pitts (now Mrs. J. Heald).
Mrs. Pritchard.
Mrs. Elizabeth Robertson.
Miss Ann Ridewood (now Mrs. J. Lang).
Miss Patricia Sprot.
Miss Lola Smith.
Mrs. Smythies.
Miss Kathleen Sheret.
Mrs. Diana Stokes.
Miss Terise Todd.
Mrs. G. Tyson.
Mrs. Zillah Wood.
Mrs. A. H. Wyllie.
Miss Elizabeth Woodward.
Miss Rene Watson.
Mrs. Norman Yarrow.
Miss Cynthia Yarrow (now Mrs. W. Pinckard).
Miss Veryan Yarrow (now Mrs. H. Clarke).
Mrs. M. Wood.
Miss Kathleen Scott.
Miss Mary Young (now Mrs. W. C. Higgins).
1934-1935 Miss J. Hallet
1935-1951 Miss Martha McBride, R.N.
1945-1951 Miss Barbara Adams
First qualified Social
Worker on staff of R.J.H.
Feb., 1951-June, 1952 Miss Hattie Staghall
1952-1954 Mr. J. Thompson
1954-1955  Mr. A. G. Gilmore
1955 Miss Margaret E. Bradley, s.R.N., S.C.M., P.S.W.
Dr. N. S. Lockyer  Director
Dr. W. E. M. Mitchell President
Dr. S. Marinker  Secretary
Advisory Committee to The Victoria Cancer Clinic
Dr. H. M. Edmison Chairman
George Masters  Secretary
Dr. R. G. L. McNeely  Member
Dr. N. S. Lockyer Member
Dr. J. L. M. Anderson Member
Mrs. P. E. Corby Member
K. W. L. Scace Member
Women's Auxiliary
President Mrs. W. G. Thorpe
Secretary Mrs. W. E. Speed
Junior Women's Auxiliary
President Miss Barbara Bullock-Webster
Secretary Mrs. K. W. L. Scace
Children's Ward Auxiliary
President Mrs. J. A. Church
Secretary Mrs. V. Edward
Abbott, Dr. Maude   11
Active Medical  Staff,   1956—Appendix VIII 144ff
American College of Surgeons 49—51
Angus, The Misses    50
Ash, Dr     4
Atchison, John  26
Baillie, Dr. D. M   50
Baker, E. Crow, M.P.    8, 56
Barnard, Sir Frank   16
British Columbia Cancer Clinic  5 0
B.C. Forest Products  34
British  Columbia  Hospital  Insurance Service  33,  35, 51
Bismarck, Prince Karl  59
Bossi, Carlo  8
Booth, Charles  75
Brown, G. H.   45
Brown, Henry  8
Bullen, F.  8
Burns, Robert, quoted  75
Byrnes, George  8
Cameron, Chief Justice 3
Campbell, Alexander 5
Canadian Association of Social
Workers 75
Canadian Dietetic Association  70
Canadian Pacific Railway 39,  77
Cary, George Hunter     2
Catterall, Thomas 22
Chaucer, Geoffrey, quoted   62
Chudley, W.  8,   10,   13,   14
Clark, Sir James, quoted 68
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, quoted 54
Coodley, Dr. O. 49
Cousland, Dr. P. A. C.   50
Crabbe, George, quoted  3 1
Crease, Hon. Mr. Justice  8,   10,   13
Cridge, Mrs. Edward     4
Cridge, Rt. Reverend Edward     2
Croghan, Miss Ethel J   41
Cubbe,  T.        8
Curie-Pierre and Marie   57
Dalby,   William        8
Dallas  (H.B. Co.)      2
Davie, Dr. J.   7,   13, 45
Davies, Joshua ____8,   13,   18,  21,  79
Day, Patience, quoted      2
Department  of  Dietetics — Directors—Appendix XVI  154
Dickson, Dr.     4
Directors,   1890-1956 — See Appendix No. 1  85ff
Doig, David   36
Douglas, Mrs. James .
Drake, M. W. T	
Duck, Dr. C. W.
   8, 12
Dunsmuir, Hon. Robert 8,  10,  13, 27
Dunsmuir Family   27
Dupont, Major  16
Earle, Thomas   8
Ecclesiasticus, quoted  44, 66
Ehrlich, Paul   60
Elford, John P.  12
Eliot, George, quoted   30
Ellis, W. H.  (Colonist)  8
Emerson, R. W., quoted  7
Employees' Association — Appendix XIV  150
"The Farm"    16
Fell, James  8, 10,  13, 14, 34
Fenwick, E. Hurry, F.R.C.S.,
quoted    55
Finlayson, Roderick  8
Frank, J. H  50
Fraser, Dr. Allan   34
French Hospital .„ 3
Garfield, James Abram, quoted  22
Garner, Dr. R. O. R  34
Gideon Society  42
Gifford, J. W., quoted  55
Government Federal ___.  35
Government, Provincial
 8, 27, 34, 35, 60, 151
Graduates and Students in Dietetics
Appendix XVI 15Iff
Grant, John  8
Graves, Joseph   57
Green, A. A.   8, 13
Haggin, Dr. 	
Hamber, Hon. E. W	
Harris, Dennis	
Harrison, Hon. Eli, Jr 	
Hasell, Dr. E  38, 49, 56, 57,
Hayward, Charles  13, 34,
Helmcken, Dr. J. S.
  12, 18, 20, 21, 25,
Helmcken,  Harry 	
Helmcken, Mrs. H. Dallas ._._  15,"
Helmcken, H., Dallas 	
Helmcken House 	
Heisterman, H. F. 	
Hendrix, Andrew B. 	
Henley, W. E., quotation
Hett, J. K.
Douglas, Sir James .
1,  78
H.R.H.  The Duke of Connaught
Higgins, D. W	
Hippocrates,  quoted 	
 Honour Roll, Graduates in Nursing
World War I—Appendix V 136ff
House of Assembly    80
Horn, Dr  60
St. Bartholomew's London    36
Civic, Ottawa   53
General, St. John's, N.B.     19
General and Marine, St. Catharines ... -  19
Kingston __.
General, Fredericton, N.B.   19
General, Montreal   19
General, Toronto   19
General,  Winnipeg   19
Guy's, London   77
King's College   18
St. Luke's, New York  3
New England, Boston  19
Provincial Royal Jubilee—
Origin as Royal   2
Construction   3
Development    15 ff
The Royal Jubilee—
Recent Advances, Blood Bank  52
Psychiatric Unit   29
Central Supply   29
Louisa Todd Memorial  24
Emergency Department  24
Plasma Bank  52
Rehabilitation Centre   52
Poison Centre  51
Annual Reports, quoted 72, 75
For Sick Children—
Toronto  19
St. Boniface, Winnipeg  19
St. Joseph's, Victoria  18
St. Thomas'. London  19
Vancouver General  28
Hospital Employees* Association 5, 64
Hospital Sunday   3, 9, 10, 33
Hotel Empress  22
Hudson's Bay Company  78
Hutchison, Robert  24, 56
VII 14 Iff
Jackson, R. E. 8, 12
Jameson, R. J.  50
Johnson, Edwin  8
Johnson, Samuel, quoted  1
Jones, Dr. Aubrey  34
Jones, Dr. O. M.   45
Jones, Dr. W. Macnaughton  12
Kelley, Frank H. ___  24, 56
Kincaid, Dr. Frederick  34
Kinsman, J.  12
Koch, Robert   59
Labour, Canadian Congress   4
Labour, Knights of    10, 23
Laboratory Technology — Graduates—Appendix XIII  149
Laing, Gordon H., quoted  68
Lane, Dr. R. M.   34
Langley, A. J.   8
Large, Rachel   81
Larrey, French Surgeon  18
Leopold,   Prince    68
LePlay, P. G. E.   75
Lister, Joseph Lord  11
Livingstone, Miss   71
Loffler, Friedrich   59
Long,  Dr.    60
Long, Dr. Crawford Williamson-  68
Longfellow, H. W., quoted  15
Long Service Awards, see Appendix
No.  1    90, 91
Lyall, Sir Alfred Comyn, quoted  55
Lytton,   Edward   Bulyer    (Owen
meredith) , quoted  70
Madeley, M. J  64
Maintenance Department—Appendix XIV  150
Martin, Alexis   23
Masters, George E.  36
May, Sir Henry  41
Milne, Dr. G. L.  12
Mines,  Blue Bell,  Silver King,
Le Roi   21
Munro. D. R.  (C.P.R.)  8
Municipality of Oak Bay _  26
McBride, Sir Richard   24, 26
McCalmant, Miss  26
Macdonald, Sir John A.  5
Mackenzie, Mrs. E. C.  42
McFarland, Joseph W       ■ 21
McKechnie, Dr. R. E.  45
McKelvie, B. A., quoted  79
McLean, Alex  _ 8, 10
McNeill, Dr. Mary   48
McQuade, E. A. 8, 13
Napoleon I  18
National Conference of Social
Work (U.S.)  75
Nelson, Hon. H.  8
Nelson. Mrs. H.   13
New Caledonia .__  1
New York Times, quoted  53
Nicholles, John  8
Nightingale, Florence   18, 39
Nunns, Ven. A. E. deL.  24
Nursing—Directors, 1890-1956—
Appendix II  91
Osier, Sir William, quoted  53
 Pathological Department Directors,
1890-1956—Appendix XII ____149
Pathology—Post Graduate Students
—Appendix XI    148
Parfitt Brothers   24
Pasteur,  Louis     11
Pearse, B. W.       8
Pemberton, A. F.       2
Pemberton, Hon. J. D.    21
Pemberton, Mrs. T. J. D.    21,  24
Pemberton, F. B   45
Pharmacists  and  Assistants,
1926-1956—Appendix XV 151
Pooley, C. E.      8
Pope, Alexander, quoted    55
Post Graduate O.R. Technique,
1951-1956—Appendix   VL.__138ff
Powell.  Dr.       4
Prime, Miss Marguerite   10
Prior, E. G.       8
Prizes and Scholarships—Appendix
III    92
Publilius Syrus, quoted  66
Queen Alexandria Solarium  34
Queens University  53
Queen Victoria  68
Radiologists,  1899-195 6—
Appendix IX  147ff
Radium   33,  57
Rattenbury, F. M. 22
Redfern, C. F.    8,   13
Red Cross of Canada      52
Registered  Nurses'   Association  of
British Columbia   41
Resident Medical Officers and Medical Superintendents — Appendix
VII      14 Off
Richardson, Dr. W. A. ..._38, 44,  68
Roentgenological Technique—
Graduates—Appendix X  148
Royal College of Physicians and
Surgeons  (Canada)    49,  61
Robson, Hon. John    10
Rogers, Dr.  Herbert   49
Rontgen, William Konrad von  55
Rusk, Dr. H. A., quoted  53
Say ward, Joseph   57
Savward-Wilson, Mrs. M. L   58
S.S.  Beaver     1,  78
Schofield,  Right  Reverend Charles
de Veber  27
Scott, Sir Walter, quoted   37
Service Clubs—
Kinsmen    27
Kiwanis     27
Sexton, Most Reverend Harold E.   28
Shakespeare,  Noah        8
Shakespeare, William, quoted___-29,   55
Shears,  Walter   8
Simpson, Sir James Young   68
Small Pox Epedemic, Victoria  17
Smelters—Pilot Bay, Hall Mining
and Smelting, Trail        _ _ 21
Smith, T. R.   (H.B. Co.)_   10, 34
Social  Service—Directors,   1934-
195 6—Appendix XIX  157
Southwell, Robert, quoted  48
Spencer,  William    24
Stevenson, R. L., quoted  7
Strathcona, Lord    23, 25
Strouss, M.   8
Syme, J. A.   64
Teague, John   22
The Harmonizer   64
The Vancouver Province, quoted__ 79
Thompson, Daniel    50
Thompson, Mrs. Kathleen M.    52
Tolmie, Mrs. S. F.   27
Todd, Charles F.   24,  57
Todd, J. H.       8
Training School for Nurses   18ff
Training School for Nurses—
Graduates,  1892-1956—
Appendix IV    93ff
Trimble, Dr.   3,  4
Trench, Hon. J., Lepoer  23
Trutch, Hon. J. W   8,   10
Turner, J. H.       8
Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators, etc., of America   64
International Operating Engineers 64
International Brotherhood of
Electrical  Workers     64
University of Albany, New York _ 41
University of British .Columbia   17,  42
Victoria Cancer Clinic  35
Appendix XX 157
Victoria, City of     18,   26
Victoria Daily Colonist,
quoted     7,   14
Victoria Daily Times, quoted      8
Virchow, Rudolf, quoted    59
Women's Volunteer Organizations—
Appendix XVII  I54ff
Appendix XXI  __-157
Agenorian Society   33
Daughters of Pity   (now Children's Ward Auxiliary) 23,  57
Women's Auxiliary 22, 23, 25, 26
Jr. Women's Auxiliary 26, 57, 75
Blue  Veils    73ff
"      "    —Appendix XVIII I55ff
Yates, John S 8,   10,   13,  45
Young, Hon. Dr. H. E —-  25
The Author—
Dr. H. H. Murphy was born in Ontario of Scottish-Irish
parents. A graduate of McGill University in Arts (1902) and
in Medicine (1904) he practised in Ontario for some years
before undertaking post-graduate training in his profession in
Philadelphia, London and Edinburgh. He is a Fellow of The
American College of Surgeons and has been active in a number
of Radiological and other medical organizations.
He came to British Columbia in 1912 and practised in
Kamloops before coming to Victoria as Director of the Department of Radiology of The Royal Jubilee Hospital in 1931.
He continued in this position until his retirement in  1951.


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