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Historic forts and trading posts of the French régime and of the English fur trading companies Voorhis, Ernest, 1859-1933 1930

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       Historic Forts and Trading Posts
of the French regime
ana of the
English Fur Trading Companies.
compiled  "by
Ernest Voorhis,  A.M., Ph.D.
1930
department  of the Interior
Ot tawa
Honourable
Charles  Stewart
Minister
v»r. Cory, C. m G.
Deputy Minister
Natural  Resources  Intelligence Service
F.  C.  C.  Lynch,  Director.
  Attempt is made in this brochure to
group in alphabetical order the numerous military
and trading forts erected -under the French regime
and fey the English Fur-.trading companies..
A few of these establishments were
located on what is now territory of the United
States, but the list is primarily concerned with
the posts in Canada.
Historical notes on each fort are given
as far as accessible sourees permit apd lists are
. of authorities and maps consulted.
  Page
French forts and tracing posts  1
Main portage and canoe routes  7 & 20
Chain of French forts  14
French trading companies  15
Free traders after eession of Canada  18
The North West Company  23
The Hudson's Bay Company  25
Alphabetical list of forts and posts  28 to 181
List of chief authorities consulted  182
List of Maps showing forts.. <•  185
Errata
2,line 16,
27, " 17,
32, No.22,
40, No.55,
43, No.70,
52, No.106
«L 54, No. 115
53,No.138,
64,NO.154,
66,No.162,
87,No.247,
109,No.338
110,No.343
135,No.418
169,No.554
176,No.587
for distinct read distant.
for Government read Governor.
for village of Hartney read
Souris.
for 185 7 read 1757.
for latitude read longitude.
, for Chileotin lake read right
hank of Chilcotin river at
mouth of Chilko river. n  <
,line 1, read on Columbia river 10 ^
at Kettle Falls.
add See No. 239.
for Manitoba  read  Saskatchewan.
for Bedford  read  Bedfont.
for 20 miles read  50 miles,
,  for at  junction read near junction.
,  for 14 miles read  60.
omit Alberta,
for Liard  read Dease.
for Winnipegosis read waterhen.
Additional posts:
Athabaska  Landing, No.   613.
Cross Lake House,  No.  614.
Forts duplicated   in the list:
Au Chat-Falls No.  31 and  Lac Des  Chats No.   270.
Fort Bull No.   77 and DeBull No.  134.
Old  White Mud  No.  4*6 and  White Earth River No.594.
Paubna  No.  418 and Pembina No,   421.
  The French forts and trading posts.
Two main objects called for the erection of forts and
garrisoned posts by the Government of France in North America.
First, there was the need of strongly built military forts for
establishing the claims of Kew France, This required defence
against the English colonies of Kew England and against the
hostile Iroquois, their allies. Second, fortified posts were
needed for protection of trade routes against incursions of the
Iroquois, who from the days of Champlain were bitter enemies of
the French.
During the struggle for possession of North America
between France and England, which lasted for more than a
century until 1763, the French Government constructed many strong
forts and fortified outposts at strategic points where now exist
thriving cities,
Rivalry in the fur trade, with its enormous profits,
induced both French and English to solicit alliance with the
Indians and this fostered wars of extermination between the
Indians, On the one hand, the Algonquins and Hurons, staunch
friends of the French, controlled the Nipissing and Ottawa trade
route to Montreal and endeaVbured to keep open the St.- Lawrence
route. On the other hand, the Iroquois barred the gateway of
the St. Lawrence and tried to divert the fur trade from the French
in Montreal to the English in Albany and Now Amsterdam. For a
time the Iroquois succeeded in preventing the Indians of the
upper country from bringing their furs to Montreal.
Success in the fur trade thus depended upon control of
the trade routes and for this purpose the French constructed
fortified places at strategic points, beginning their erection
early in tho seventeenth century.
These forts were built in some cases solely for
defence and military purposes; in other cases they were intended
primarily for trading purposes, for the protection of the licensed
fur-traders, and as establishing France's sovereignty. In some
instances, though built for strategic and military defence they
became the hoadquarters of fur-trading merchants.
The location of the French forts was chosen with much
foresight and military skill. A definite plan was followed with
the design of restricting the English settlements to the territory
east of tho Alleghany mountains. The St. Lawrence valley, lakes
Ontario and Erie, tho Ohio valley and the Mississippi were to
constitute the natural bounilary botween Nov/ France and tho English
settlements. All the rest of North America, excepting the region
held by Spain west of tho Mississippi river, was claimed by
France under tho name of New Franco.
A complete chain of military forts was built by the
French Government extending from Quebec along the St.Lawrence
westward to the Great Lakes, including the Champlain valley.
From the eastern end of lake Ontario these forts continued on the
south of lake Ontario, and at Niagara Falls, to Presqu'Isle on the
south shore of lake Erie, whence they followed down the Alleghany
river and the Ohio to the Mississippi, and then south to the
mouth of that river.
  \
Other forts were constructed on  the Great Lakes,
between the Mississippi and the Great Lakes, from lake
Superior to Winnipeg, and thence westward to the foothills of
the Rocky Mountains.
"The forest posts of France \vere not exclusively of
a military character. Adjacent to most of them one would have
found a little cluster of Canadian dwellings, whose tenants
lived under the protection of the garrison and obeyed the
arbitrary will of the commandant, an authority which, however,
was seldom exerted in a despotic spirit. Agriculture was
neglected for the more congenial pursuits of the fur trade, and
the restless, roving Canadians, scattered abroad on their wild
vocation, allied themselves to Indian women and filled the
woods with a mongrel race of bush-rangers.
French influence diffused itself through a thousand
channels among distinct tribes. Forts, mission houses and
armed trading stations secured the principal passes. Traders
and coureur-des-bois pushed their adventurous traffic into the
wildest deserts, and French guns and hatchets, French beads
and' cloth, French tobacco and brandy, were to be found among
the Indians everywhere and showed the vast extent of French
interior commerce. The French amalgamated with the Indians thus
winning their friendship and alliance,"
French forts at the time of the Conquest.
The following note is printed on a map entitled
"Canada, Territory of the Indians and Hudson Bay," "by Thomas
Devine L.S., and found in Appendix to Report of Minister of
Grown Lands 1857: "Jeffreys, an English Geographer, writing
1760, just after the taking of Quebec and before the final
conquest and cession of the country, at page 19 says:
At the mouth of Les Trois Rivieres, or the Three
Rivers, is a little French fort called Camenistagmiia, and
twenty-five leagues to the west of the said fort, the land
begins to slope and the river to run towards the west. (The
French league was S|- English statute miles w)
At ni&oty-five leagues from this greatest height
lies the second establishment of the French that way, called
Fort St.Pierre, in the Lake des Pluies. The third is fort St.
Charles eighty leagues farther on the Lake des Bois. The
fourth is Fort Maurepas, a hundred leagues distant from, the
last, near the head of the lake of Ouinipigon. Fort La Reino,
which is the fifth, lies a hundred laagues farther on the river
of the Assiniboels (i.e. Assiniboine}. Another fort had been
built on the river Rouge, but was deserted on account of its
vicinity to the two last. The sixth, Fort Dauphin, stands on
the west side of Lac des Prairies or of the Meadows (lake
Manitobo), and the seventh, which is called Fort Bourbon,
stands on the shore of tho Great Lake Bourbon (i.e. the northern part of lake Winnipeg). She chain ends with fort Pascoyac
at tho bottom of a river of that name, which falls into lake
Bourbon. The river Pascoyac is made by Delisle and Buache to
rise within twenty-five leagues of their west sea which, thoy
say, communicates with the Pacific Ocean.:i
J
  A mistake was made by Jeffreys in saying abtfve
that "the chain ends with fort Pascoyac," for three forts' lay
still farther to the west, though their garrison had probably
been withdrawn before 1760. These forts were, Fort Nippaween
(variously spelled) on the Saskatchewan, Fort i la Corne just
below the forks of the North and South Saskatchewan, and fort
La Jonqui&re on the Bow river about where the city of Calgary
now stands.
These ten western forts extending from fort St.
Pierre on Rainy lake to fort La Jonquiere at the foot of the
Rocky Mountains were all grouped under the general name "La
Mer de 1'Ouest."    The Chevalier de la Corne was the last French
officer to have charge of these western forts.
In addition to the forts of "La Mer de 1'Ouest" the
French had constructed at an oarly date forts or fortified posts
controlling the routes by tho St.Lawrenes, the Ohio, and the
Mississippi  rivers, and along the north shore of the lower St.
Lawrence, also in the interior at various places south of
James and Hudson bays.    That section of lower St.Lawrence known
as the Domalne du Roy was plentifully garrisoned with fortified
posts known as the King's posts.
Louis Antoine, Comte de Bougainville,  came to Canada
in 1756 as Montcalm's aide-de-camp.    He kept a careful journal
of the campaign ending with the surrender of Quebec and he also
prepared a memoir on the state of New France now among the French
archives in Paris.-   Pierre Margry,  for many years Keeper of the
Archives in the Department of Marine and the Colonies at Paris,
published Bougainville's memoir in his Relations et Memoires inl-
dits pour servir a l'histoire de la France &c 1867.    Bougainville's memoire dated i757 is found on pp. 39 to 84 of Margry's
Relations and contains a list of the French forts garrisoned at
that time (1757) with short descriptions.
Bougainville
list of Forts.
Cap Charles
Baye-des-iOhat eaux
St.MOdet
Baye Rouge
1'Ans e-au-Loup
La Porteau
■
Baye Phelipeaux
Chichat eka
Riviere St.Augustin
Mechatina
Hontagnaniou
• Maingan
Le3 Sept Isles
Les Islets de Je'remie
Tadoussac
Chueretimi
Quebec
Lorette
Les Trois Rivieres
-Bekancourt
St. Franqois
Chambly
St.J ean
St.Frede'ric
Carillon
Grosbourg
Fort de Chart res
PImitooui
Kanses
Mont-real
St.Pierre
Lac des Deux Montagnes
St. Charles
Le Long Sault
Bourbon
Themiscamingue
La Reine
Abitibis
Dauphin
Michipicotton
Paskoia
Nepigon
Des Prairies
Chagouamigon
La Baye-des-Illinois
Kamanistigouia
Les Ouyatonons
J
  Les Miamis
Le Detroit
(Pontchartrain)
La Riviere-au-Boeuf
Le fort Duquesne
Rouille (Toronto)
La Presentation
Sault St. Louis
Vincennes
Kaskaskia
Sault Ste.Marie
La Riviere St. Joseph
La Fresqu'Isle
Le fort Machault
Niagara
Catarrakoui
St* Regis
E i chi1imakinac
Cahokia
Baye-de s-Puan t s
Ste. Therese
French forts on Hudson and James Bays.
With the exception of Fort Bourbon, which the
French built in 1682 near the mouth of the Hayes river, there
were no forts originally built by the French on the shores of
Hudson or James Bays, but from 1684 to 1713 the French captured
and held for various periods forts erected by the Hudson's Bay
Company on the bay6. These forts during this term of years
changed hands several times and some were rebuilt by bpth
French and English. Forts on Hudson bay were not of much
advantage to the French for the expense of transporting the
furs overland to Montreal was almost prohibitive and the outlet by sea through Hudson Strait was always in the hands of the
English. The Indians of the Hudson Bay region were suspicious
of the French and preferred to trade with the Hudson's Bay Co,
The following
in ownership of
chronological outline shows the
these forts between 1668 and 171$:
1668 - Groseilliers built the first fort on the shores
of Hudson Bay. It was constructed of stone on
the site of Henry Hudson's house of 1610 at the
mouth Qf the Rupert river and was protected by
a stockade. The name given to it was Fort
Charles.
1670 -   Radisson and Groseilliers with Governor Bayly (the
first of the Hudson's Bay Co. governors) arrived at
Fort Charles. Radisson crossed the Bay and built a
rude fort at Port Nelson.
1673 ■
Radisson and Gro
illiers desert thi
Hudson's Bs
; Co.
The H.B. Co. have four forts on Bay, namely,
Fort Charles on the Rupert river, also called Fort
Rupert, Fort York (Fort Nelson) at mouth of Nelson
river, Fort Mooso at mouth of Moose river, and Fort
Albany at mouth of Albany river.
Radisson and Groseilliers, acting at that time
in the interests of the French, arrived at Hayes
river and built Fort Bourbon aboitt 15 milos up the
Hayes river.
J
  Two other ships arrived soon after at Port
Nelson bringing Ben. Gillam (Jr.) from Boston and
Za'chary Gillam (Sr.) with Governoi Bridgar of the H.
B. Co.  Gillam Sr. wa3 drowned and Gillam Jr. and
Bridgar were taken prisoners by the French and sent
with their men to Fort Moose.
1684 -       Radisson deserted the French and rejoined the H.
B. Co. He returned to Hudson Bay and compelled
Groseilliers (who had remained at Fort Bourbon after
it was built in 16S£) to surrender to the English.
The fort was then looted.
1685 -       A new French trading company, the Company of the
North, was established. The H.B. Co. ship Perpetuana
was captured and looted by the French and the captain
sent prisoner to Quebec.
1686 -        The main struggle for possession of the forts on
Hudson and James bays began with an expedition overland from Montreal by way of the Ottawa river and lake
Temiscamingue to the.Moose river, in command of De
Troyes and d1Iberville. Fort Moose surrendered to
d'Iberville and its name was changed to fort St.Louis.
This fort was also known by several different names,
viz., Fort Hayes Island, Fort Monsippi, Fort Monsonis,
and Fort Bourbon. Fort Charles also surrendered to
the French and was dismantled, and than Fort Albany
was captured and the name changed to Fort bte.Anne...
This was a strongly built fort with four bastions and
43 guns. These captures were all effected while
England and France were at peace.
1687 -        d'Iberville captured the H.B. Co. ship Churchill.
1688 --      ' Kelsey established a trading post at mouth of the
Churchill river for the H.B. Co,
1689 -        d'Iberville captured Fort Sevsra. Thenreturned
to Fort Ste,Anne (formerly Fort Albany) and captured
the H. B. Co. ship, which had been sent to the Albany
river to recapture the fort, and in her he sailed to
Quebec. Fort Nelson now alone remained to the English
1691 -       Kelsey for H.B. Co, explores northwest to the
Rocky Mountains. A French frigate arrived off Fort
Nelson and Governor Phipps set fire to the fort with
its contents to save them from the French.
1692 -        The H.B, Co. rebuilt Fort Nelson and Governor
Bayly was placed in charge.  (This fort was also
called Fort Bourbon, Fort York, and York Factory).
Fort Albany was recaptured by the English also fort
1694 -        d'Iberville with two ships of war recaptured
after a seige Fort Nelson which had been rebuilt by
the English. The name was now changed to Fort Bourboi.
again and the.Hayes river -;)as  called ;^te.Therese river
.
  Fort Severn recaptured by French. Fort Albany now
alone remained to the English.
1696 -      The Hudson's Bay Company recaptured Fort Nelson.
1697 -      d'Iberville with five ships of war destroyed in
a fierce naval battle the three English ships and
captured Fort Nelson. The H.B. Co, now held only
Fort Albany. Treaty of Ryswick.
1713 -      Treaty of Utrecht. The French withdrew from
Hudson bay and the entire region of the bay was
handed over to the English.
1714 -      Fort Nelson delivered to the English.
1718 -      Wooden fort built by H.L, Co. short distance
from mouth Churchill river.
1719 -      East Main and Slude river forts built.
1720 -      Fort Henley built 150 miles up the Albany river,
1733 -      Erection of Fort Prince of tales begun,
1782 -      Fort Prince of wales surrendered by Hearne to
French and destroyed. Fort York captured and burned
and rebuilt (1783) by H.3. Co.
1788 - Fort York moved half mile upstream to present
location on account of floods, requiring five years
to move.
Held by Sngli
Held by French
Fort Charles
1668
1695
to
1686
1697
1686
1697
to 1693
- 1713
Fort Moose
1671
1693
«^
1686
1686
1694
- 1693
- 1713
Fort Albany
1689
.1695
~
1686
1692
1713
1686
1692
- 1669
- 1693
Fort Severn
1685
1693
ii
1689
1694
1689
1694
- 1693
- 1713
Fort Nelson
1670
1696
f
1694
1697
1694
1697
- 1696
- 1713
The only fort on Hudson Bay
: 1697 and 1713 was Fort Albany.
by the English
  1..      The route to James Bay from the St. Lawrence, to
Fort Charles (St.Jacques, or old Fort Rupert at the mouth of the
Rupert river) was by the Saguenay river, lake St. John,
Ashuapmouchouan river, lake Mistassini, and the Rupert river.
This route which was first traversed by Father Albanel S.J. in
1672 was continuously used by the French for seventy-five years
before the cession of Canada. The route was guarded by seven
forts or fortified stations from Fort Tadoussac at the month of
the Saguenay to Fort Charles.
2. Three routes led to Fort Moose (called by the French
Fort St. Louis, Monsippi, or Monsonis) at the mouth of the Moose
river. One route was from.Montreal by the Ottawa river, lake
Abitibi, Abitibi river, and Moose river. This route was
guarded by at least eight forts between Montreal and Fort Moose.
The second route was by the Ottawa river to Mattawa,
to lake Nipissing, Georgian Bay, lake Superior to Michipicoten,
Michipicoten river, Missinaibi river, Moose river. The fort at
Michipicoten protected this route.
A third route was from Three Rivex-s on the St.
Lawrence, ascended the St. Maurice river to height of land,
thence by lake Mattagami and the Nottaway river to James Bay.
This route was first used by the Algonqiiin Indians and their
allies to avoid the Iroquois Indians on the St. Lawrence.
3. To Fort Albany (at mouth of Albany river), renamed by
French Fort Ste.Anne, also Fort Ohichitouan, or Quichichouanne,
the route led from Fort Nipigon at the outlet of Nipigon river,
through lake Nipigon, the Ombabjka river to the Ogoki river, a
branch, of the Albany river. Between Fort Nipigon oh lake
Superior and Fort Ste. Anne, four forts controlled the.route.
Another route was .by Long Lake and the Kenogami river to Albany
river.
4. The route from lake Superior to the far west-began at
Fort Kaministiquia at the mouth of the Kaministiquia river,
followed the Kaministiquia route (see below) to Rainy Lake and
Lake of the Woods, thence by the Winnipeg river to lake Winnipeg,
Two routes from lake Winnipeg led to the Saskatchewan river: one
traversed lake Winnipeg, the northern part of which was called
by the French lake Bourbon, to the northern terminus of the lake,
ascended the Grand Rapids to Cedar lake and thfinee to the forks
of the Saskatchewan river. The second route ascended the Red
river from lake Winnipeg to its junction with the Assiniboine,
passing up the latter river to the x->ertage leading to lake
Manitoba at Fort la Reine, through lakes Manitoba and
Y/innipegosis to Cedar lake and thence westward by the Saskatchewan. The farthest west of all the French forts was Fort La
Jonquiere built in 1751 by de Eiverville near the Rocky Mountains
and generally thought to have been on the sits of Calgary-.  It
was never more than an outpost and was deserted before 1759.
Fort a la Corne near the forks of the Saskatchewan was the
principal Prench depot of the far west.
J
  5. Five chief routes led from the Great Lakes to the
Mississippi river. The first was from the south shore of lake
Erie, at Presqu'Isle, on the site of the present city of Erie,
to the headwaters of the Alleghany river v/hich joined the Ohio
and thence to the Mississippi. Seven forts protected this route
from Fort Presqu'Isle to Fort Duquesne (now Pittsburg), and a
chain of forts guarded the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.  A
second route led from the western end of lake Erie, where Toledo
now stands, by the Mauraeo river to the head waters of the '..abash,
which falls into the Ohio* This was a favourite route guarded by
four forts. A third route was from the southern end of lake
Michigan at the site of Chicago, by the Des Plaiues river to the
Illinois river and thence to the Ohio. This was the route
followed by La dalle in 1682 to the Mississippi. At St. Joseph
situated on the southeast shore of lake Michigan a fourth route
led by the St. Joseph river to the Illinois river and by the
Ohio to the Mississippi. The fifth routs led froo the southern
end of Green bay, on the west side of- lake Michigan, by the Fox
river and portage to the Wisconsin. By this route in 1673 Loiiis
Jolliet and Father Marquette reacned the Mississippi river.
6. The Kaministiquia route was first discovered by-
Jacques de Noyon in 1668,. a trader from Trois Rivieres, Quebec,
who spent the winter of 1688 with the Indians on Lake of the
Woods. The Kaministiquia river was first called Riviere des
Assiniboines, then Trois Rivieres. This was the old French route
up to the time of the cession of Canada. After that time it was
entirely forgotten for nearly 50 years until it was rediscovered
by Roderick McKenzie in 1798. After the conquest, the free
traders and then the North West Company followed the-Grande Portage route (see below) until after the recognition of the
independence of the United States when the fact of its being on
foreign territory led to the substitution of the original route
by the Kaministiquia river. The N.W, Co. used the Grande Portage route from 1783 to 1802.
An account of De Noyonrs route is found in a
memorandum attached to a letter from De Vaudreuil and Begon to
the Duke of Orleans 13th February 1717, The memorandum is dated
November 12, 1716 and is as follows: -'In coming out we enter the
Kaministiquia river. We go up that river for 30 miles after
which there is a portage of about 10 acres where we shoulder the
canoes. After the portage there is a rapid about 30 miles long
and from the said rapid there is a portage of 1 acre. Nine miles
from saici portage there is another one of 3 miles in length,
called Dog portage, after which we enter a lake about 9 miles
long to reach the same river Kaministiquia, which we follow for
45 miles. After which there is a portage of 5 miles and there is
a lake without any outlet being in the middle of a swamp (i.e.
the present C„P, Ry. station at Savanne). This lake is about 30
acres wide and is at height of land. At the end  of this lake we
have to portage through swamp for about- 3 miles. Then we enter
a river that is about 30 miles long and which goes down into
Canoe lake. Je  cross this lake for some 10 miles to the right
and enter a bay "where we portage over- a poplar point for about 3
acres. Thence \;e come upon a little river filled with wild oats
and along which we travel for 2 days in canoes, .making 30 miles a
day. After that we come to a fall where there is about 1 acre of
portage. At the end of this portage there is a rocky strait
about 1 acre long which extends to the foot of Christinaux lake.
  (i.e. Rainy lake or lake Takimamiwen (Cree) 300 miles from
Kaministiquia). This lake is about 1500 miles around. We
coast along the left bank for a distance of 24 miles, at the
end of which the lake empties into and forms the river Takimamiwen, otherwise called Ouichichick by the Crees. For 8 days
we go down that river for a distance of 240 miles without
meeting any rapids (Rainy river). Six miles from the entrance
of this river a little portage of about 1 acre must be made.
On coming out of this river we enter the Lac des Isles, otherwise called by the Blackstone people Lake of the Assiniboines
(Lake of the Woods), This lake on the south side is lined with
barren expanses, while on the north side it is covered With all
kinds of wood and fringed with islands. ' At the end of this lake
is a river that flows into the Yestern ssa according to Indian
reports."
The following extract is from Roderick McKenzie's
Reminiscences in Masson vol.5,p.46:~ '1798. On my trip from
Grande Portage to Lac La Pluie, I met a family of Indians at
the height of land and accidentally learned of a water route
from lake Superior to lake La Pluie navigable for large canoes
and would avoid the Grande Portage. Being acquainted with
entrance of route I proceeded, reached a post of the Company and
procured a guide to accompany me to Caministiquia, being the
first to reach Grande Portage from Lac la Pluie by water route.
It was used by the French formerly. After Peace of 1733 the
Commissioners decided that the Grande Portage was on American
Territory. In 1704 the Directors sent Umfreville to find a
route through Nipigon to Winnipeg river which was reported
impracticable. The French forts were destroyed by fire. A few
vestiges were seen in 1798. In 1801 Caministiquia became Headquarters of North est Company and the Grande Portage was
abandoned." Kaministiquia means river of difficult entrance.
This route is shown on map in Hind's Expedition 1858
and described in vol.11, Appendix I, where a table is given
showing' lengths of all portages between Fort William and lake
Winnipeg by Kaministiquia route. This route is also shown on
Map of 1857 Report of Crown Lands, Toronto, as follows: Lake
Superior, Kaministiquia river, Kakabeka Falls, Dog lake, Dog-
river, Prairie portage 3/4 mile, Height of Land lake, Shallow
streams and swamps, Savanne river, Lac das Mille Lacs (Canoe
lake). From Mille Lacs the route divides, (1) Baril lake,
Cannibal lake, Dech, Brule, French, Sturgeon lakes, Sturgeon
(or Maligne) river, lake La Croix, Nequaugon or pine lake, to
Narrows (Vermilion river) or portage to Sand Point lake, Rainy
lake, Rainy river, Lake of the Y/oods, Rat Carrying Place to near
Bonnet lake (avoiding rapids in Winnipeg river), fort Maurepas;
(2) by portage around falls and rapids of river La Seine and
many portages to Rainy Lake, At Mountain portage the North
Y'est Co. had a store house provisioned from Now Fort (Fort
William) as the river from this to Kaministiquia is shallow and
full of rapids.
7.       Grande Portago or Pigeon River route was first
mentioned in a Memoir dated 1722 by an officer named Pachot who
wrote that "the route thought most favourable to West was by way
of a small river Nantokouagane about 7 leagues from Kaministi-
goya": This was the Pigeon river. Although the French did not
follow this route regularly, they had evidently traversed it.
J
  - 10 -
It was the regular route of the North est Co. until 1302. The
Grande Portage was quite hilly and was divided by the voyageurs
into 16 posts or stops, 3 leagues from one navigation to the
other. Fifteen days were required to cross the portage from
lake Superior. This route is shown on map of 1857 Report of
Crown Lands, Toronto, and a list of portages is given in Hind's
Expedition vol.11, Appendix XII page 427. The distance from
Grande Portage to Lake of the Yoods by Pigeon river route is
325 miles; by the Kaministiquia route 381 miles. The route
was as follows: Grande Portage, Pigeon river, Partridge
portage, Fowl portage, Fowl lake, Moose lake, Mountain lake,
'.Vatak lake, Rose lake, South lake, Gun Flint lake, Portages,
Birch lake, Saganaga lake, Cypress lake, Knife lake, Carp lake,
Basswood portage, Basswood lake, Portages, Crocked lake, Iron
lake, Battle portage, La Croix lake, P'aaakan river (or Vermilion
river and portage), Eamakan lake, Portage, Rainy lake, Rainy
river 50 miles to Lake of the Woods.
Alexander Henry (Senior) gives following data:  "The
Groseilles river {called also Grosseiliers, aux Groseilles, aux
Tourtres, au Tourt river), portage du Perdrix at Falls, portage
au Outarde, small lakes on height of land: Outarde, Moose,
Mountain, \,atab, Rose, Perche, Sagunac, Maligns or Jturgeon
river, lake La Pluio."
The Pigeon river on Jeffery's Map 1752 is called the
Natouagan or Grosillers river. By the Grande Portage it is 60
miles to height of land and the distance across the Grande Portage itself is 9 miles.
Bay
0.      The Toronto Trail from lake Ontario to Georgian'via
lakes Simcoe and Couchiching and Sturgeon river was an old
Indian trail to avoid the long passage round by lakesHuron and
Ontario. It was first crossed by Jean Fere in 1669 although
Brule may have crossed it earlier: La Salle returning from.
Montreal to Michilimackinac in 1680 followed this route,
Alexander Henry (Senior) crossed it in company of Indians 1764.
The North West Company used this route to some extent as shorter
than the Ottawa - Nipissing route to the west about 1800,
employing sailing vessels on lake Ontario, and it was much
travelled before the introduction of steam vessels on the lakes.
Yonge Street was extended from Toronto (York) to lake Simcoe in
17S4 by Governor Simcoe. The old Indian trail was followed and
troops were employed in constructing the road.
9.       Montreal to Fort Kaministiquia by Ottawa river.. The
following portages are given by McKenzie in his "General History
of the Fur Trade- in Mackenzie's Journal 1U01, p. LSv", This
was the regular route to the west followed for nearly tao
centuries by the French and their successors in the fur trade.
It was controlled in tho 17th century by the Algonquin Indians,
excepting the Iroquois inroads from time to time. "Leave La
Chine - St. Anne's 2 miles from western extremity of island
Montreal - Portage to lake Two Mountains - Ottawa river 15 miles
to rapids - Port do Chaudiere 643 paeos - second poit do ,
Chaudiere 700 paces - Ottawa river 6 miles - Port, des Chcnes
740 paces - Lac des Chaudicros 30 miles - port.des Chats 274
pacos - Lac dos Chats 18 miles to Grand Calumet - Port, du Fort
245 paces - Decharge dos Sables 135 paces (dechargo where goods
only arc carried) - Port. Mountain 385 paces - Dechargo Dcrigc
250 pacos - Grand Calumot longest por-tago on route 2035 paces -
Ottawa river 6 leagues to lake Coulonge - Allvuuottos dechargo
  1
342 paces - ^ort. des Allumettes 25 paces - Ottawa river 7
leagues to Deep river which is 36 miles long - Port, des
Joachims first £26 paces, second 720 paces - Ottawa river S
miles to river du Moine - 4 leagues to decharge - port. Roche
Capitaine 797 paces - 6 leagues to - Port. Two Rivers 820 paces - 3 leagues to - Decharge de Trou 300 paces - Rapids
Leveillier and Mattawan - 36 miles to mouth Mattawa river (or
Petite Riviere), 400 miles from Montreal,
Mattawa river to lake Nipissing.
Port. Plein Champ 319 paces - Decharge de Rose 145 paces -
Decharge de Campion 134 paces - Port. Grosse Roche 150 paces -
Port. Paresseux 402 paces - Port, de Prairie 237 paces - Port.
la Cave 100 paces - Port, de Talon 275 paces - Port, Pin de
Musique 456 paces - Port. Mauvais de Musique (where many canOe-
men were killed) - Port, Turtle 83 paces •- lake Turtle - port*
Height of Land 1513 paces - 1 mile to next vase (muddy creek) -
Portage 725 paces - riviere de la Vase to lake Nipissing -
Swamp 2 miles to next vase (the last) 124 paces - 6 miles to
lake Nipissing (12 leagues long).
Nipissing to Grande Portage
Lake Nipissing 12 leagues - riviere des Franqais 25 leagues to
lake Huron - Port, des Pins 52 paces - Port de Feusille 36 paces
Portage Parisienne 100 paces - Portage Eecolet 45 paces -
Portage Petite Feusille 25 paces - lake Huron - 50 leagues to
river Tessalon - 10 leagues to Detour - 6 leagues to end
island St. Joseph (40 miles to Michilimackinac) 50 miles to
Falls Stejlarie - 160 leagues from Sault Ste.Marie to fort
Kaministiquia by way of north shore of lake Superior.
10.      From Acadia to Quebec the ancient route followed
the St. John river from the Bay of Fundy to mouth of the
Madawaska river, ascending that river to lake Temiscouata and
then by portage trail to the St. Lawrence following the present .
Old Lake Road to Notro Dame du Portage, then along- the south
shore to Quebec. This was the old Indian trail and was the
customary lino of communication in after years between Halifax
and Quebec.
Forts on the St. Lawrence River.-
Along- tho north shore of tho St. Lawrence from tho
Strait of Belle Isle to the vicinity of Montreal no fewer than
twOnty-six forts load been constructed by the French and several
on the south shore. They were generally located at the mouths
of rivers where trode was carried on with the Indians who
descended from the interior of Labrador, Those posts were also
depots for seal and whale fisheries, gouc dating back to the
early sixteenth century. They afforded protection also against
the Esquimaux who inhabited the shores of tho St. Lawrence and
Labrador as far west as the Saguqnay river up to the beginning
of the eighteenth century and were very troublesome.
The names of these fort3 and aimed posts from the
dtrait of Belle Isle to Three Rivers were, Baie Chateau::, Bale
Rouge, Anse~au-Loup, Baie Forteau, et. Augustin, Baie Phely-
peaux, Pontchartrain: Brest, Baie-de-Shecatica, Mechatina, I-Ia!
Hal Baie, Musquarro, Naslcapis, Hatashquan, Nepiochibou, Mingau,
J
  Sept Isles, Godbout, Manicouagan, Isle Jeremie, Bondesir,
Tadoussac, Malbaye, Lorette, Quebec, Trois Rivieres. Many
of these posts were located in the King's Domain and one or
two in the seigniory of Mingan.
The King's Domain (Domaine du Roy), known also as
Postes du Roi, and Traite de Tadoussac, was the ancient Indian
kingdom of Saguenay extending eastward from the Saguenay river
to the Cormorant Islands near Anticosti, being bounded on the
east by the seigniory of Mingan and on the north and northwest by the height of land and lake Mistassini. Ho exact
bounds were given to the Domaine du Roy until 1733. The
Indians considered their kingdom Saguenay to extend from the
Saguonay river to the lakes emptied by the Hamilton river and
from the St. Lawrence to lake Mistassini and adjoining lakes.
The posts established in the King's Domain wore maintained at
the King's cost and all profits were credited to the king, but
Bougainville makes the statement that many of the King's posts
v/ere not profitable and were maintained at a loss to the king
only "for preserving tho regard of the Indians."
In 1630 the coast for four leagues on each side of
the post at Brest on the Strait of Belle Isle was granted to
the Sieur de Courtemanche who had married a daughter of King-
Henry IV. In *1702 the grant to de Courtemanche was extended
to his heirs to include all the territory between Hamilton
Inlet and the town of Brest.
In 1658 a lease of exclusive privileges was granted
by the King of France to Sieur Demaure. This was known as the
Traite de Tadoussac (trade of Tadoussac) and the word Traite
occurs in this grant for the first time.  (Note: The word
traite unaccented signifies trade. The accented word means
treaty. These two words have been much confused by writers on
the King's Domain. Traite occurs in Grant to Demaure 1658,
Grant to Courtemanche 1630, and in numerous later acts and
grants. Thus, "Arret du Conseil d'Stat du Roi qui accorde a
la Compagnie des Indos Occidentales le quart des Castors, le
dixiemo des Orignaux, et la traite de Tadoussac." 8 April
1666. Vid : Edits et'Ordonnanees &c. vol.1 pg.43 (published
1803) also Act 1733 vol.11 pg.87.)
Tho territory granted in lease to Demaure 1658 \vas
known as the Kings Domain and oxtendod from the lie aux Coudres at Les Eboulcments to Capo Cormorans bolow tho Seven
Isles and near the mouth of the Moisy river and north to tho
headwaters of the rivers draining into tho St. Lawrence. This
includes lakes St. John and 2Jistassini. Tho trading posts
established in this Domain were known as Postes du Roi, Tho
lease to Demaure of 1658 passed to tho Compagnie des Postes du
Roi about 1700 and was renewed every twenty-one years.
The seigniory of Mingan,was granted to Francois
Bissot, Sieur de la Riviere, in 1661. It extended from cape
Cormorant (the eastern limit of the King's Domain) ninety
leagues to the Goynish river.
In 1733 an .Ordinance on the boundaries of the King's
Domain issued at Quebec by the Intendant Hocquart (Edits et Ordonnanees &c vol.11 pg. 87) gives the boundaries of the King's
Domain as above and includes the territory "behind lake
  Mistassini as far as Hudsonrs  Bay "and mentions several posts
in the interior showing that the traders were well established.
These posts as given in the Ordinance were: Tadoussac,
Checoutimy,Lac St. Jean, Nekoubau, Mistassinoc, Papinachois,
Naskapis, Riviere Moisy, Sept Isles, Malbaye, Bondesir, Islet
de Jeremie, Bersiamites and Choumonthouane. The ordinance also
mentions "the ancient establishments ■where trade was formerly
carried on and of which there remain some vestiges." Some of
these old posts had been constructed half a century earlier.
Until the Iroquois had been subdued and transportation to the
Great Lakes became safe, the fur trade of the French was chiefly confined to the Labrador peninsula and to the country north
of the St. Lawrence.  After the cession of Canada, the lease
of the King's Domain was continued in the same manner by the
English Government, Murray Bay, which was originally part Of
the King's Domain, was in 1762 granted by General Murray to
Major Nairn and Lieutenant Fraser, but they were restricted
from trading with the Indians.
In 1765 the British Government granted to Dunn & Co.
a monopoly of the Indian trade at the King's posts. "These
King's posts, chief of which was Tadoussac, at the mouth of the
Saguenay, were the trading posts that had been held by the
French monarch as monopolies of the Crown. Tho revenue from
them, either as the result of direct trade by the Kings agents,
or more commonly from farming them to the highest bidders, had
always gone into the colonial treasury. The British Government,,
in this respect, merely followed the example of the French and
endeavoured to collect most of the taxes and feudal dues which
had been levied under the old regime."  (Canada" and Its provinces
vol. IV, p. 524).
About tho year 1788, the Horth ' est Company acquired
from the British Government a lease of the King's Domain and the
King's posts at £1000 par annum. Upon the union of this Company
with the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, the lease passed to the
latter Company. It was renewed in 1842 and finally expired by-
limitation in 1859. Under tho control of these companies many
trading posts were established in the interior and although tho
records of these oarly adventurers are lost, thoy undoubtedly
explored all tho chief river routes between Hamilton Inlet and
A description of the King's posts in the King's
Domain is given by James McKenzie who visited them in 1808,
will be found in Masson's Les Bourgeois de la Cie. N.W. vol.1
There were man;/ other forts rated as King's posts
and situated in the lake region and the Mississippi valley.
These are noted in the numerical list of forts below.
  1 the Chain of Forts
Between Quebec
Quebec
Trois'. Rivieres
Becancourt
St. Franqois
lichelieu
De 1'Assomption
Lac des Deux Montagnes
Les Cedres
De la Presentation
The Qhamnlain valley
Crevier
La Prairie
Chambly
St. Frederic
St. Jean
Lake Ontario to Ohio river
Cataraqui (Frontenac)
Rouille (Toronto)
Niagara
Venango
Necessite
Ohio river t;o mouth Mississippi
Duquesne
Ste.Anne
Prudhomme
De Longueuil
Maisonneuve
La Chine
Petite Nation
Carillon
Sault St. Louis
Long Sault
3t, Regis
Isle-aux-Eoix
Missisquoi
La Motte
Ticonderoga
Ste.. Therese
Denonville
Presqu'Isle
Rivi ere-au-B oeuf
I5achaul t
Ligonier
Arkansas
Rosalie
Pointe Coupe
La.Boulaye
New Orleans
Biloxi
Mobile
Mississippi mot
th.
Mississippi valley north -of
Ohio river
Miami
VIncsnnes
St. Jose^
>h ■
Cahokia
Creveeoeur
Chartres
Ouatanon
St. Philip
Ste. Genevieve
Xaskaskia
St. Nicholas
Ba i e-de s-Puant s
Kansas
C hagouam igon
St.Croix
Pepin
Le Sueur
Bonsecour
Beauharnois
L'Hui It least, Louis
Detroit to the Y<est
Grosbourg
Michilimackinac
Detroit
L'Ar-bre Croche
tiauvage
Sault Ste. Marie
Michipicoten
Camanis tigoyan
la Maune
Ka&inistiquia
St. Pierre
lp Charles
Afeurepar;
Rouge
  Bourbon
Lower Neepawi
La Jonquiere
;tawa River and North Country
Du Lievre
Coulonge
Piscoutagany
Monsoni
Des Franqais
Ste. Therese
St. Charles
Ashuapmuehouan
Nichicun
Dumoine
'i imi scamingue
Abitibi
Ste.Anne
St.  Germain
Bourbon
Nemiscan
Mistassini
Rigolette
Anticosti
Beaubassin
Louisbourg
St. Lawrence below Quebec
Miramichi
Beausejour
St. Joseph
Baie Chateaux
Baie Rouge
Anse-au-Loup
Baie Eorteau
Baie Phelypeaux
St. Augustin
Kaskapis
Nepiochibou
Sept Isles
Manicouagan
Bondesir
Malbaye
Riviere Moisy
Brest
Baie-de-Shecatica
Pontchartrain
Mechatina
Ha! Ha, Baie
• Musquarro
Natashquan
Mingan
Godbout
Isle Jeremie
Tadoussac
Lorette
Betsiamites.
It is not to be
enumerated above were all (
been destroyed before the c
intended to include all th=
structed at any time as fa2
understood tha*t the forts and posts
iXistent at one period, for many had
;ession of Canada. The list is
■ French forts which had been con-
■ as ascertained by the writer.
ading -Companies.
3 Canada and Its Provinces vol.2}
Freedom of trade and boldnoss of enterprise
Canadg
b
igan
with t
±e fisher
-non    of Fra
nee.
Jherever
op-
jortunity
ofi
"ere
d
bhey
traded
with the
Indians fo
r furs
,  at that time
st,
adily
riS3
ng in
>riee.    T
no fur trad
e soon
proved
exe
sptional-
iy
profi
tabic
and a
/tracted
independent
adven
turers.
Tac
loussac.
tht
rath
of the
Saguenay
,  comraandtjc
the i
or trade
of
the
noi
'th
m
and
westeri
i regions
and beca-i.
the c
hief pos
t and
ltrc
)   0
"   tl'£
de with the Ind
ians.     In i
ime tl
e centre-
of
W}
tvc
mo
•ed »
/est to
Trois Ri
viores and
LaChin
1
  From the time of Cartier the port of St, Malo kept
up a constant trade with Tadoussac,  Several of Cartier's
relatives were among the chief traders. Court favourites were
constantly intriguing to obtain special monopolies of trade.
The first monopoly of trade was given to Roberval January 1540,
In 1598 this monopoly passed to the Marquis de la Roche,
The monopoly of the colonial trade was passed rapidly from one hand to another until it came Into the possession
of Pierre du Guast, Sieur de Monts, in 1599. In 1604 under
privilege of the monopoly he seized a number of free vessels
engaged in trade, thus producing a great outcry among the Norman
and Breton merchants.
De Monts' monopoly was rescinded in 1607 and afterwards renewed to 1609. From 1609 to 1612 trade of the St.
Lawrence was free to people of France and of the colony.
In 1612 the Company of Rouen and St. Malo, commonly
known as Champlain's Company, was established. Under its
provileges the colonists were not allowed to trade with the
Indians. In 1620 this Company's charter was cancelled and a new
company organized by Guillaume de Caen and his nephew Emery de
Caen, merchants of Rouen, succeeded to the trading privileges in
1621. This Company was known as the Company of Montmorency.
Their trading monopoly was cancelled in 1622 and suppressed.
The Company of New France, otherwise known as tne
Company of One Hundred Associates (Compagnie des Cent Associas)
was established April 29,1627, under Richelieu. All trade was
forbidden except through the Company and all furs obtained by
colonists from the Indians had to be handed over to the Company.
In 1640 the Company of Notre Dame de Montreal
obtained from the Company of New France the northeastern portion
of the island of Montreal and founded the city of Montreal in
1642. From that time the control of a portion of the fur trade
passed to Montreal, which became the base for outfitting and
departure of exploring expeditions.
The Company of Hew France in 1645 agreed to transfer
its trade monopoly to the inhabitants of the colony and the
Compagnie des Habitanfcswas then formed. It was this company
which first employed brandy as an article of trade with tha
Indians.
In 1663 the powers and privileges of the old Company
of New France passed to the king and Canada became a Royal
Province under the Sovereign Council.
Under Calbert the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales
(West India Company) was established May 28, 1664, and was
granted for forty years a complete monopoly of all commerce in
the colony. This company did not prosper and became bankrupt in
eight years. Its powers were revoked by the King, December 1674,
and trade was thrown open to all colonists and people of France.
The tax on furs and the monopoly of the trade at
Tadoussac was then farmed to Nicholas Oudiette &  Cie. Special
licenses were issued to certain persons to trade with the Indians
but in 1676 these licenses wore revoked. In 1602 licenses were
again adopted.
  In 1676 the Compagnie du Nord (Company of the North)
was founded, six years after the Hudson's Bay Co. Their trade
with the Hudson Bay Indians was not lucrative owing to the
difficulty and expense of overland traffic and they were unable to transport their furs by vessel through Hudson Strait
to Montreal owing to English opposition. In 1713 the Treaty
of Utrecht was signed and the Hudson bay territory passed under
British control.
For some time bekver and moose taxes were farmed out
to individuals and corporations, in 1700 this system was
abolished but soon after resumed and a La Rochello Company,
the chief partners in which were Sieurs Aubert, Neret and Gayot,
obtained in 1701 and held for twelve years a complete monopoly
of the trade in beaver skins until the Treaty of Utrecht 1713.
In 1717 this Company was'merged in a new corporation
known as tho Company of the West (Compagnie d'Occident). In
1719 all tho colonial companies of France were merged in this
company and the name was changed to Company of the Indies.
This Company carried on the beaver monopoly of Canada until
after the time of the conquest. • ,
Approximate list of Charters
1540 Roberval
1598 De la Roche
1599 de Monts, rescinded 1607,renewed to 1609
1609 to 1612 trade was free
1612 Champlain's Company
1621 Compagnie de Montmorency
1627 Compagnie de la Nouvelle France
(One hundred Associates)
1645 Compagnie des Habitants
1663 Company's privileges revoked
1664 Compagnie des Indes Occidentales to 1674
1676 Compagnie du Nord
1701 La Rochelle Company
1717 Compagnie d'Occident to cession of Canada
The fur trade of the French was carried on for
more than a century in the face of strenuous opposition by the
Iroquois and other tribes forming the Confederation in New
York state who endeavoured to secure the monopoly of trade
north of the St ..Lawrence in favour of the English at Albany
and New York. It was not until 1701, when peace was effected
between the French and Iroquois, that tho St.Lawrence trade
route could be followed by the French in comparative safety.
It was this rivalry in the fur trade that instigated the
Iroquois to exterminate the Hurons, the Neutrals, Tobacco
Nation, and other northern tribes. Y/ith relentless fury the
Iroquois in 1660 penetrated as far north as the sources of the
Ottawa river and in 1661 the Mohawks raided north of lake St.
John.
  The Free Traders after the Cession of Canada and before the
formation of North V?est Company.
The War of the Boundary Lines, the final struggle
between France and England for the possession of New France,
began in 1755 and ended in 1760 with the surrender of Montreal
(Treaty of 1763).
During this war all the French officers and soldiers
were withdrawn from the forts in the far west for the defense
of Canada and were used to increase the garrisons in the front
lines. The western forts were practically deserted in 1756
excepting for a few traders, voyageurs and coureurs-dos-bois who
continued for a time to live with the Indians. Many of the
garrisons in the smaller forts in the Mississippi valley and
adjoining country to tho north were concentrated in fewer forts.
In some instances these forts were destroyed by their garrisons
when vacatod.
The following forts wore surrendered to tho British in
1760-1761:-
Detroit.
Miami on the Maumcc.
Ouatanon on the Vabash.
Schlossor, near Niagara Falls.
Presqu'Isle, south shore lake Erie,
Lc Boouf south of Presqu'Isle.
Venango.
Duquosnc (afterwards called Fort Pitt).
Sault Sto. Marie.
Michilimackinac.
L'Arbrc Crochc, oast shore lake Michigan.
St.Josoph, near south-oast shore lake Michigan.
Chartros, on Mississippi near mouth Missouri river.
This fort was not surrendered until 1765.
In the confusion immediately following the cession of
Canada and the change of Govornmonts, the vast region west of
lake Superior, partly oxplorcd by the French, was neglected for
a timo. This was duo in large measure.to the revolt of tho
Indians under Pontiac who in 1763 seized the western posts and
wore not subdued for noarly a yoar. A period of three or four
years elapsed boforo any Englishman ventured among thu Indians,
. and it was during Pontiac's war and the noxt succeeding year or
two that many of tho westom forts and posts were destroyed by
the Indians. Not till 1771 could British traders safoly traffic
as far west as the Saskatchewan river, the Indians bringing thoir
furs meanwhile to the Hudson's Bay Company forts on Hudson and
Jamos bays. The following forts wore captured by Pontiac and
their garrisons in many instancos massacred:
Sandusky captured I5ay 16, 1763.
St. Joseph  "   May 25,  "
  II
Ouatanon captured June 1, 1763.
Michilimackinac captured June 4, 1763.
Presqu'Isle captured    June 15, "
Le Boeuf    "        June 18,  "
Venango     "        j-une 20, "
L'Arbre Croche abandoned by English June 21, 1763.
Sault Ste .Marie was partly burned.
Ligonier and
Pitt repulsed the Indians in June and July.
Detroit held out until relieved.
For twenty years after the cession of Canada the inland
trade was in the hands of private adventurers who in 1783, tired
of rivalry, united to form the North-Yv'est Fur Trading Company with
headquarters at Montreal.
The trade began in 1766 from Michilimackinac to the
Kaministiquia river and in 1767 to the Grande Portage\    The post
of Michilimackinac was the central point of commerce of the
different merchants of Canada who were not attached t-j the North-
West Company, both before and after its formation.
Thomas Curry and James Finlay were the first Englishmen
who entered the west after the conquest of Canada, The former
with guides and interpreters reached Fort Bourbon at tho west end
of Gedar lake in 1766. Finlay in 1767 ascended the Saskatchewan
and built a trading post at tho sito of Lower Fort Nipawee, one of
the farthest west of the French establishments on the Saskatchewan,
which probably had been destroyed about 1763 by tho Indians in
Pontiac's rebellion.  Other traders were reported to have penetrated in 1767 as far as Fort La Rcino on the Assiniboine.
These meagre details are all that may be gathered as to
the first trading expeditions west of lake Superior after tho
cession of Canada.
Alexander Henry, a native of Hew Jersey and known as the
"Elder" to distinguish him from his nephew, was one of the first
English traders to vonturo into tho west. Ho left Montreal in 1761
on a trading expedition to Michilimackinac whore he barely escaped
death in tho Indian massacre at that fort on Jun~ "4th, 1763, under
Pontiac. In 1775 he travelled by way of the Grande Portage to tho
west. At lake Winnipeg ho met Potor Pond, who had gone into the
west in 1768, and the two Frobishers. The combined party of
traders pursued their way westward to The Pas and Cumberland House,
built in tho previous year by Samuel Hoarno for the Hudson's Ba#
Company,
Henry and tho Frobishers built a substantial S'^M  on
Beaver lake and wintered there 1775-1775. Henry then proceeded
to Fort dos Prairios (a la Como) whore he mot James Finlay,
passing on tho vary Finlay 'a house built on sito of the old French
fort Sipawi (i.e. Lower Eipawi). Ho proceeded further west in tho
company of Assiniboine Indians and thon returned to his fort on
Boavor lake.
In April 1776 Thomas Frobisher erected a fort on the
Churchill, called Fort du Traite from tho trade made with tho
Indians at that place. He reached tho Churchill by way of Prog
portago. The winter of 1776-1777 ho passed os the west short; of
J
  Ilo-a~la-Crosse lake where Ilo-a-la-Crossc House was afterward
built.
Peter Pond in 1778, after some of the Free leaders had
pooled their resources, acted as their agent and built a post,
known as The Old Establishment, about 30 miles above the mouth of
the Athabaska river.
The route to the west from Montreal which the Free
Traders followed was the old French route by the Ottawa, river,
lake Nipissing and lake Huron to Michilimackinac. Thence they
proceeded by the south shore of lake Superior to the Grande Portage via the Pigeon river to Rainy lake and the West. 'The Free
Traders never travelled by the old French Kaministiquia route.
The route from the Lake of the Woods followed the
Winnipeg river from Rat Portage for about 100 miles when it
turned sharply to the right; followed the main branch known as
the Pinawa, until it rejoined the main stream at Bonnet lake, thus
avoiding the portages on this portion of the Winnipeg river.
The route from Thunder Bay to Fort Garry (Dawson Route)
is given in Grant's Sandford Fleming's Expedition 1872 "Ocean to
Ocean" as follows:
from 15 Mile Shanty.
Port Arthur's Landing 4 miles from Kaininistiqu:
To lake Shebandowan.
Fifteen mile Shanty.
Kaministiquia river crossed 6
Matawan Creek.
Matawan to Shebandowan 20 miles. •
Canoes for 380 miles (by tow line from launch.)
Portage 3/4 mile to lake Kashaboine.
Lake Kashaboine 10 miles.
Portage.
Lac des Mille Lacs (height of land) 22 miles long.
Portage.
Lake Baril 8 miles.
Portage.
River to lake Y/indegoostigwan 15 miles.
Portage 2 miles.
Lake Kaogassikok 16 miles.
Two portages, Pine and Deux Rivieres, 2 miles betwe*
Maligne river, 7 rapids and portage.
Island portage after 32 mile paddlo.
Lake Eequaquon 24 miles.
Loon portage.
5 mile paddle.
Mud portage.
American portage.
Creek to lake Nameukan.
18 miles and 2 portages to Rainy lake.
Fort Frances, west ond Rainy lake, 45 miles.
Fifteen Mile House (from fort Francos.)
Fort Frances 2 milos down Rainy river from lake.
Rainy river 80 miles.
Manitou rapids 25 miles from Fort Frances.
Sault rapids 30   "   "   "    "
Hungry Hall,
Lake of tho Woods, traverse 10 miles.
  Horth West Anglo, whence road to Fort Garry.
80 miles North West Anglo to Oak Point by road.
Whito Birch river, 30 miles from North Y/ost Anglo.
Whito Mud river 17 miles.
Oak Point 33 miles and 30 miles oast of Fort Garry.
Rod rivor to Fort Garry.
Total 530 miles. 45 miles by land at beginning &
110 at end and 350 miles by lakes.
The Dawson Route.
Tho route west from Montreal by the Great lakes was not
followed before 1785. After the introduction of sailing vessels
on the Great Lakes, cargoes were brought up from Montreal by
canoes and large skiffs to Fort Frontenac (Kingston), then loaded
on sailing vessels for York or Niagara. From York the cargoes were
transported north by the old Indian trail via lake Simcoe to Georgian Bay. From Niagara portage on lake JSrie cargoes were reshipped
in sailing vessels for Detroit.
In  1787 it was estimated that three-fifths of the western
trade was conducted by the Ottawa river and two-fifths by tho Groat
Lakes. The Indian trade to the west was by way of the Ottawa river
and heavier freight service by the lake route after-tho American
revolution.
The canoe journey from Montreal to Grande Portage required
six weeks.
Under the Free Traders, followed tby tho North-Wost Company
and K. Y. Company, the trade in furs rapidly expanded. There was
no international competition such as had existed between the French
in Montreal and the English in Now York. The American revolution
caused the dispersion of the Five Nations' Confederacy in New York
state and tho fur trade in the United States was confined to their
own territory. The only competition in the fur trade in Canada was.
between tho old Hudson's Bay Company and the Free Traders and their
successors. Tho following extract is from Winterbotham's "Historical View of the United States and of European settlements in America",
published in 1795: -
"About the year 1773 th-j Canadian traders from Montreal...
had become so numerous and indefatigable at the head of tho rivers
which led to the Hudson's Bay Company settlomonts that trade of tho
latter was in a groat measure cut off. The Indians being suppliod
with everything at thoir own doors had no occasion to paddle several
hundred miles tc the Company's.forts."
After tho cession oi' Canada, free trade with the Indians
led to the universal employment of liquor and this Tjraetico in turn
caused tho demoralization of the Indians and produced lawlessness,
fraud said conflict among tho numerous traders who wont out in
search of tho Indians.
The groat scourge of smallpox which ragod throughout *il°
west and north from 1780.to 1762 practically ruined tho fur trad<P
during that period and was a disaster which changed tho whole
history of tho western Indians.
  Summary of the Free Traders Companies.
1778, Alexander Henry Sr., Thomas Frobisher and others created a
community of interests and conducted business on a co-operative
basis, Peter Pond acted as their agent in the northwest and
established himself at lake Athabaska.
1783. The North Yfest Company was established by merchants of
Montreal. Henry and tho Frobishers were partners.
1734. Pangman, Gregory, McLeod and McKenzie formed a separate
company known as the Pangman Co,  This resulted in intense
rivalry and conflict and increased demoralization of tho
Indians through liquor supplied by the traders.
1787. Both companies united under tho name North-West Company.
1795. The X.Y. Co. was formed known also as the New North-West
Company.
1803-4.The X.Y. Co. united with the North-West Company.
Partial List of early Free'Srader's Torts.
1767. Finlay built a trading post at the sito of Lower Fort Kipawee,
1772. Frobisher built a trading post on Cumberland lake.
1773. Finlay House built by Finlay on Saskatchewan river on site  ■
of old French fort Nipawi, , plJSfj??
1774, Frobisher Fort built by Frobisher on the Red Rivor two or
three leagues above Riviere aux Morts, before 1774.
1775, Pond's fort built by Pond at the northwest corner of lak£.
Dauphin - Pond wintered there 1775-6,
1775. Henry and Frobisher built substantial fort on Beavcr
lake (lake Aux Castors) - There were 43 mon in tho
fort, It was a commodious fort with buildings round a
quadrangle,
1776. Frobisher built a fort on the.Churchill river (which he
called tho English river, about 190 miles from Cumberland
Houso and 750 miles from Hudson Bay. Galled Fort du Traite.
1776-7.Frobisher built trading post on west shore of Islo-a-la-
Crosso lake.
1778, Pond built the "Old Establishment" on the Athabaska rivor
about 30 miles from lake Athabaska.
1811. Henry House built by Alexander Henry Jr. on Athabaska river
at junction of tho Miottc and Athabaska facing Ycllowhoad
Pass.. This was destroyed after two or throe years.
1793-7.Blondish's Fort.
?   Adhomar's Fort, 6 miles cast of Portago-la-Prairie,
  The* North West Company
The combination of free-traders on  a cooperative basis, in 1775-1778 resulted in  the formation of
the North West Company in 1783 with headquarters at
Montroal, in which, Alexander Henry tira older, and Joseph
and Thomas Frobisher became partner3.
The phenomenal success of the company was due
in large measure to overcoming competitive rival companies
and to destroying opportunities for profit in competition.
The Pangman Company, established in 1784, was
absorbed by the North Wast Co. in 1787. The- X. Y. Company
was founded in 1795 by several partners of the Korth West
Co. led by Alexander Mackenzie. After some years of intense
rivalry, this company was likewise absorbed by the North
West Co. in 1804.
The Astoria Company, called also the Pacific
Fur Company, was Sounded by -John Jacob Aster, June 23, 1810,
and sold out to the North West Co. in 1813. Fort Astoria,
built by this Company in 1811, was sold to the North West
Co. October 1813 and renamed Fort George.
The American Fur Company was organized by John
Jacob Astor 1809,  In 1811 he bought out the Michilimackinac
Company and merged it and the American Fur Co. into the
Southwest Company, This company he suspended in 1812 and it
was dissolved in 1816.
The chief fur trading companies after the French
.regime, exclusive of the Hudson's Bay Co., wore the North
West Co., Pacific Fur Co., American Fur Co,, Missouri Fur
Co., R-ussian-American Co., and Alaska Commercial Co.
Intense rivalry and conflict between these companies had exerted the most disastrous influence upon the
Indians who became demoralized through the use of cheap
great rivalry continuously existed between the
North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company from the
year 1773 to 1821, when coalition was effected between tho-
companies (L'arch 26, 1821.)
The North West Company's methods wore always ox-
object in view was the procuring of furs by any moans
possible. It is said that "for secrecy of action, hard,
shrewd efficiency, and complete unity of purpose, the North
West Company was perhaps the most effective commercial
  organization that had ever arisen in the new world".
For some years the chief trade of Canada consisted in* furs and in 1803 it was said that "every person
of eminence in Canada was then engaged in the fur trade".
The North West Company extended its trading
operations not only over Canada from Labrador to the Pacific
and far north to the Arctic regions, bttt it also carried on
operations as far south'as the mouth of the Ohio river. It
maintained several establishments south of the 49tix parallel
of north latitude, in the lower Columbia and Snake river
valleys and in the Red river and upper Mississippi valleys.
Trade was also carried on with tho Missouri Indians, Mandans
&c, but the North West Company abandoned this trade in 1807.
To the pursuit of furs the North West Company
added extensive explorations. The French were explorers
first and traders almost incidentally, but the jJIGntreal
merchants were fur-seekers always and explorers secondly.
The French explorers were followed by the fur-traders, but
the North West Company men were both traders and explorers.
In their trading ventures they explored the Red and
Assiniboine rivers to their headwaters; they traced the.
entire course of the Saskatchewan; • they" discovered the Frog
and Methye portages, which brought them to the northwest and
the Arctic; they followed the Churchill, Athabaska and
Peace rivers to their sources and the Fraser and Columbia
to the Pacific; they discovered passes through the Rockies
and followed the Slave and Mackenzie rivers to the Arctic.
Four men of the North West Company are especially
noted for explorations, namely, Alexander Mackenzie the first
white man to cross the mountains and to reaoh the Pacific
1792-3, adding later to his fame by following the Mackenzie
. river to the Arctic; Simon Fraser, first to explore the
Fraser river to the ooean 1806-7; David Thompson, who
traversed tho Columbia to its mouth; and Duncan McGillivray
who discovered Howes Pass.
The route of the "Northwesters" from Montreal to
the West at first was by the Ottawa river route, but after,
about 1800, Yonge street having been constructed in 1794,
they diverted their cargoes from the Ottawa to the St.
Lawrence, proceeding to lake Ontario and thence by Yonge
street to lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay. Six weeks were required for the trip from Montreal to Grand Portage. Tho
canoes travelled in brigades of eight or ten with nine mon in
each canoe.
Names of the portages, between Montreal and lake
Winnipeg are given in the list following.
The severity of the voyageurs' lives has been
frequently noted. The continual exposure was detrimental to
health. There was little shelter from storms and the men
  generally slept  in tha open.    They were in constant debt to
the Company and often unable to discharge the debt,  resulting
in a system of virtual slavery.    In 1791 it is said that 900
employees of the Company owed it more than the wages of ten or
fifteen years'   engagement;
Lord Selkirk's endeavour to found a colony in th»
Red river valley (1608-1811)  encountered strenuous opposition
from the North West Company who organized an armed campaign
against the settlers and Lord Selkirk.    This opposition was one
of the factors which brought about ansa}gamation with the
Hudson's Bay Company in 1821.
In a report of the North West Company in 1802,
statistics were given of twenty departments in Canada, containing 105 trading posts.    In addition to these the Company had
twelve posts in the United States and also the King's posts on
the lower St.Lawrence, numbering probably a dozen or more,
which th« Company leased in 1802 at One thousand pounds per
annum.
A description of the King's posts in the Domaine
du Roy was given in James Mckenzie's journal of his trip from
Quebec to these posts in 1806.    It is found in R.L, Masson's
Les Bourgeois de la Csmpagnie Nord-Ouest, vol.1,  pp.66.
.Several of th*..smaller King's posts were discontinued by the
North West Company.    A list of the King's posts, is given in De
Bougainville's memoir in Pierre Mergry's Relations 1867.
.- In "|S15 the North West Company withdrew its posts in
the Mackenzie river district and reduced the number of posts
in Athabaska from fifteen to  eight.
The headquarters of ths North West Company -were
losafceKk"iat Montreal.    Fort Willianij after the abandonment of the
Grand Portage route in 1801-2, and the rediscovery of the old
French Kaministiquia routs,  became the headquarters of the
entire trade of tne North West Company from lake Superior west
to the Pacific.    Trade in the territory west of the Rocky
Mountains was virtually in complete control of the North West
Company, as the Hudson's Bay Company did not seriously enter
the country antil after amalgamation in 1821.
CHAPTER IV
Hudson's Bay Company
The original charter of the Hudson's 3ay Company
was granted by King Charles II in 1670 to "The Governor and
Company of Adventurers of England, trading into Hudson's Bay",
This was the corporate title of the Company until coalition with
the North West Company in 1821, when the present title,"The
Hudson's Bay Company" was adopted.    The Company had been generally known by. the latter title from tha? time of the French regime.
The struggle between the Frauch end English for
possession of the fur trade of tho north and west, terminating
by the Treaty cf Utrecht 1713 and by tne cession of Canada 1753,
has been treated in Chapter I.
  After the French regime ceased,  1760,  the Hudson's
Bay Company encountered a fierce and growing competition with
free traders and organized fur companies, until in 1821 the
chief rival,  the North West Company, was absorbed by the
Hudson's Bay Company.    Competition still survived with individual traders and gradually other fur companies were
organized, but the trade was almost  exclusively in the hands of
the Hudson's Bay Company until the surrender of its territorial
rights in 1869.
The Company did not seriously enter the field of
trade west of the Rocky Mountains while the North West Company
existed as.a separate body.    In 1821 the Hudson Bay Company
obtained a license granting exclusive privilege of trading in
such parts of North America as were not part of the territories
granted in the original charter.    This covered the Pacific
slope (known as New Caledonia) and also the North West
Territories under the general name of the Indian Country.
This license expired in 1842, but on appeal from the
Company in 1837 for renewal, an extension was granted in 1838
for a further term of twenty-one years,  terminating in 1859.
Vancouver Island was granted to the Company in 1849
for the purpose of trade and colonization. In 1859 this grant
expired and Vancouver Island became a Crown Colony. The presence of the Hudson's Bay Company in New Caledonia, a portion
of the Oregon Territory, and its practical administration of
government and economic affairs, contributed in large measure ,-■
to saving that part of Canada for the British Crown.
After the coalition of the North West Company and the
Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, many of the fur-trading posts
which had been duplicated by both companies during the period
of commercial rivalry, were nov? discontinued and several unnecessary posts were closed.
After the settlement of the International Boundary
dispute, the Hudson's Bay Company submitted claims for the value
of their forts and posts located south of the international
boundary line.
In 1869 the Company surrendered to the Crown its
territorial rights under the charter, reserving certain blocks
and parcels of land adjoining Its posts and certain blocks in
future townships.    The surrendered territory, known as Rupert's
Land and the North West Territory, was acquired by the Dominion
of Canada upon payment of £300,000, to the Company.
The first of the Company's interior forts was built in
1741, about  150 miles up the river Albany, and was called Henley
House.    It was erected to prevent  encroachments of the French.
Two other posts were built between 1740 and 1760, Split Lake
House on Split lake, an enlargement of the Nelson river about
140 miles from Fort Nelson, and Nelson House on Footprint lake
a tributary of the Churchill river.
The fourth of the interior forts was built by Heame
on Sturgeon lake in 1774 and was called Cumberland House.    After
  the erection of Cumberland House the Company built no interior
forts until after the North West Company was formed in 1783.
Many forts were erected at strategic placed between 1784 and
1810, both rival Companies building establishments often contiguous.
List of the early (Governors at Hudson Bay
Governor Charles Bailey, resided at Fort Charles; established a post at Nelson river 1670.
Governor William Lyddal at Fort Albany 1674.
Governor John Nixon of Rupert's river.
Governor John Bridger at Fort Nelson 1682.
Governor Captain Abraham .1684,
Governor John Nixon recalled from Ft. Albany 1683 and
Henry Sergeant (Seargent) appointed. He removed the
chief factory from Ruperts river to Albany river.
Governor Geyer at Ft. Nelson 1690.
Government Forrest at Ft. Nelson 1694.
  Alphabetical List of
Abitibi
On east  shore of lake Abitibi   ,\t mouth of Abitibi
river.    Originally  built by De Troyes in 1686, who built a small
stockaded fort of logs near entrance to lake, on direct route
of Iberville in his  expedition from Montreal 1666 against the
Hudson's Bay Company forts on James Bay by way of the Ottawa
river.    This fort was regularly operated by the French from
1686 to  1763 and all their trade with James 3ay to the Treaty
of Utrecht  1714, and, after that Treaty,  their local trade,
passed through this fort for a period of 77 years.    Memoire
de Begon,  October 20,  1725,"qui  expliquo les anciennes llmltes
du poste de Temiscamingue",  states that Oibitibl was the most
advanced station of the French towards Hudson Bay.    Bougainville In his list of forts 1757 says,  "A post dependent on Temiscaming, 120 leagues from that post, towards Hudson Bay.
There are 100 men In the two posts.    They  (the natives)  live
by fishing and hunting - they never sow anything and hav^ no
village.    All the country is mountainous and little fertile."
Was situated on a long flat point projecting into lake at  extreme eastern end.    Shown on all the early and late maps,  such
as Bellin's map 1755  (i!o.93)  and De l'Isle 1700   (No.94).
A second fort was located on the 3../.  shore of the Narrows at
the end of a long peninsula commanding entrance to Lower lake
Abitibi,  about  30 miles distant from the first fort.    It was
built by the French before 1688 and Is snown as Malson Francalse
onJ'alllot's map 1695 No.117,  Franquelln's 1688,  and De l'Isle's
1703  (No.18).
After the recall of the French troops about 1760,
both the Abitibi  forts were occupied for short periods by freetraders,  but  tr±e Hudson's Bay Company was  established in the
first of the forts at  the east  end before 1774, and it became an
important outpost  of Moose Factory after 1783.    At first all
supplies  for this post were brought  from Moose Factory up thp
Abitibi  river, but  for some years before 1890 they were taken
up the Ottawa.    Both forts were operated by the Compagnie du
Nord In 1695.    The free traders In the second fort at the Narrows
were succeeded by the North West Company about  1783 which
operated the fort until the union of toe two companies In 1821,
when the Hudson's Bay Co. took over this  fort.    In 1783 the
Hudson's Bay Co. built the first Frederick House at  the confluence of the Abitibi and Frederick House rivers to compete
with the free traders  established in the old French fort at the
narrows.    In 1794-96 the Hudson's Bay Co.  built a "good house
at Abitibi",  and rebuilt tne old De Troyes fort.
This post has been in continuous operation for more
than 200 years,    After cdnst ruction of the Transcontinental
railway in 1914, Abitibi post was discontinued and superseded by
La Sarre, a small  station on the railway nearby, the  furs being
shirjped by rail to Montreal and not sent  by canoe to Moose
Factory as formerly.
Both :
1901  "Lake --.bitlb:
  The Hudson Bay Co. house adjoining- the North West
Oo. house called Rocky Mountains House, on North Saskatchewan
river near mouth of Clearwater river. Name Acton House was
given to distinguish it from the North '.'/est Co. house, but it
was generally called Bocky Mt. House. Shown on Devine Map of
North West Canada 1857 Ho.12,
Adhemar's Fort
A North West Co. fort located 6 miles east *f
Portage la Prairie, south of present High Bluff Station of
C.P.R'y.    It was upstream from Blondish's  fort.
Aillik House
The Hudson's Ba^ Co.  In 1340 operated a small post
at Allllk on the Labrador coast,  about 150 miles from Rigolet,
This post seems to have been operated until 1877 and reopened
in 1891.    Shown on White's map 1926 Forts on Labrador peninsula.
No.24.
Fort Aklavik
Hudson's Bay Co. post  in delta of Mackenzie river at
junction of Peel and West channels.    A recent post.  Shown on
Map Mackenzie river Dept. Interior 1924,   (No.25).
Fort Alabama
See fort Toulouse.
Fort A la Corne
Old historic French fort on Saskatchewan river,
about 12 miles air line below the Forks,   on south side of river,
close to mouth PayOenan Creek,  -about  centre of Tp.48,R»xx, W.
of 2d Meridian.    Originally built by La Verendrye 1743, who
named it  Fort St.Leuis.    It was rebuilt by his successor in the
old French company Legardeur de St.Pierre in 1753 who renamed
it Fort a la Corne.    Tyrrell gives its location as "about the
north-east  corner of the Hudson's Bay Co.  reserve!*, and he
noted that traces of the old trails and stockades were still
visible in 1896.    In 1755 Hendry of the Hudson's Bay Co.
stopped there, snd it was then occupied by six men for the French
company.    It was deserted for some time after the cession of
Canada, although in operation in 1763.    Cocking of the Hudson's
Bay Co.  found it deserted in 1772 except  for an Indian camp.
James Finlay in 1776 occupied it.    A. Henry Sr.  in 1776 also
stopped there and speaks of "a considerable  establishment,  about
an acre of ground,  enclosed by.stockade and having 50 to 30 men
attached"  (under James Finlay).    The old fort was occupied by
tJie North West Co. and rebuilt by them La 1797 and called Fort.
St-.Lo.ula.    It wos also known as Upper Neepawa. Des Prairie3,
and Des Trembles.    It was abandoned by th.   NorthWest Co.   in 1805
(reason unknown).    The site was unoccupied till 1846-8 whan tho
Hudson's Bay Co.   rebuilt  on the 3 it-; of the old  fort and renamed
it Fort a la Corne.     In 1887  it was moved three miles upstream
to present location.    This fort was one of the oldest and most
continuously occupied of the  establishments  in the west.     It  is
J
  mentioned in Bougainville's List and there named "Des Prairies".
Alex. Henry Sr. passing In 1808 speaks of remains of the old
French fort St.Louis in a low bottom on the south side "where
some years ago were still to be seen remains of agricultural
. implements and carriage-wheels."
8  Fort Albany
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on 30uth shore of Albany
Island at mouth Albany river. (Map Northern Ontario, Y/ilson)
No.52. Built by Governor Sergeant 1783-4. It was a large fort
with four bastions. Captured by French 1686 and renamed by
them Fort St9.Anne, (Mop No.93) or Fort Chechouan (Chlchltouan,
Chechewan, Qulchechouanne) Map No.18. Retaken by the English
1689; by the French again In 1692; by the English in 1693;
by the French 1695; and was finally surrendered to the English
on 2nd August 1696. The French again attacked in 1704 but were
. repulsed. This was the only fort held by the Hudson's Bay Co.
after the Treaty of Ryswick (May 1697) to Treaty of Utrecht
1713. It has been continuously operated by the Hudson's Bay
Co. from 1696 to date. Shown on Bellln's map 1755, No.93.
9. Albany House
Small Hudson's Bay Co. house, outpost of Berens
River fo»t. Built before 1850 (about 1830). It was not included among the forts named in the Company list 1869nnor on
later lists. This outpost has been shown in various localities.
Arrowsraith map 1854 place3 it on a branch of Berens river. A
map of 1851 shows it on Family lake. Map in Hind's Expedition
1858 shows it- at north end of a small lake about 50 miles S.E.
of Family lake. Sho\/n on Arrowsmith 1832 (No, 10$).
10 Fort Albert
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river'
about 42 miles from Carlton House, site of the present town
Prince Albert. It was built about 1865 and was included in the
Company's list 1869. Closed about 1885. Pierre de la vfrendrye
is said to have established a post at Prince Albert on one of
the islands. The Indians had chosen this spot as one of their
rallying points. In 1866 Rev. James Nesbit founded here the
mission of Prince Albert for Indians. Fort Albert was the
second name given to Fort Victoria (q..y.) on Vancouver Island.
11 Fort Alexander (1)
H.  B.  Co.  fort on Winnipeg river about three miles
from mouth on left banifc.    Built  1792,  near site of old French
fort Maurepas.    In 1800 the Hudson's Bay Co. and the North
West Co. had forts only.a few rods apart.    The present  fort
Alexander was built on site of the North West Co.  fort.    After
the coalition of the two companies In 1821, the majority of
shipments of the Hudson's Bay Co. passed through Norway House
to York Factory and the route through Fort Alexander to Fort
William was scarcely used.    The trade at Fort Alexander rapidly declined.    The North West Co.  fort was built in 1792 by
Toussaint Lesleur (Le Sieurs)  a few miles below and opposite the
old French fort Maurepas, which had been abandoned about  1745.
The North Yi/est Co.   fort was known as  "Bas de la rivibre"<q.v,)
_
  and "Sieur's fort,"  The Hudson Bay Co. fort was also called
Winnipeg Lake fort and the North West Co. fort was called
Winnipeg River fort.
12 Fort Alexander (2)
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on Fraser river B.C. near
mouth of Quesnel river.    Built 1821, not far from the North
'West Co. Alexandria, which it superseded.    It was an important
depot for northern posts.    The first  fort stood on left side of
Fraser river.    In 1836 this fort was moved to west side.  Shown
on H.B.C. map 1857,   (No.8) also on 1832  (No.101) & 1850  (No.
100).      Appears on 1872 list last, and was probably closed
about  1880.
13 Fort Alexandria
North West Co. fort on west side of Assiraboine
river near source of Swan river, in Section 27, Tp.32, R. 3,
West of 2nd Meridian, about 5 miles upstream from Fort Pelly.
It was 256 feet leng and 196 feet wide.  Built in 1780.
Attacked by Indians 1782. Was strengthened in 1801 and
abandoned 1805. Harmon was there in 1800 and makes note of the
fort as being well built and plastered. It is shown on David
Thompson's map 1812 (No.7) and Map of Harmon's Journal (No.2).
It was originally called Fort Tremblant and Poplar Fort but the
name was changed in honour of Sir Alexander Mackenzie.
14 Fo rt Alexandrla
North West Co.  fort on Fraser river,  B.C.,  about
20 miles above Soda Creek.    Built  1800-5.    It was located at the
farthest point on Fraser river reached by Mackenzie before turning back to  continue west to Pacific ocean.    It is shown on
Rinfret map (No.3).    This fort was abandoned at the time of the
coalition 1821, and was not taken over by the    Hudson's Bay Co.
"HJI5    Fort Anderson
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on Anderson river,  about'150
miles east of Mackenzie delta and 100 miles from mouth of
Anderson river.    Built  1857.    'Was abandoned 1866-7 after
scarlet fever plague had decimated the Indians of that  region.
Shown on map of Northern Canada  (No,35) marked "abandoned".
16   iinse-au-Loup
An old French trading post on lower St.Layrence
north shore,   established before 1710, on strait  of Belle Isle.
A King's post.    Was in territory granted to Courtemanche 1630-
and extended 1702.    In 1748 Galissoniere and Bigot granted the
Anse-au-Loup concession to Joseph Deschenaux for 9 years.    This
concession was ratified by the King to  run from 1749 to 1756.
After the cession of Canada this post was leased by the North
West Co. 1788.    It was net long operated by the Company and was
not acquired by the Hudson's Bay Co. Shown on Rinfret map Gulf
St.Lawrence (No.67)  and White's map of Labrador posts  (No,24).
French fishing post  on lower St.Lawrence
Wm. Grant 1804 and again sold 1806 by Sheriff of Queb
  18 Anse-Ste.Claire
- French trading post on lower 3t.Lawrence near
Blanc Sablon post. Built about 1752. In 1750 Jonquiere and
Bigot granted the concession to Tache for 9 years. In 1751 It
was granted to Michel Fortier for 6 years. In 1752 Brouague
claimed Anse bte.Claire as included within the limits of his
concession. In 1754 it was declared to be within the limits
cf Baye Phelypeaux concession. In 1761 Governor Murray
granted the seal fishery concession from 2 leagues west of
3elsamont to 2 leagues east of Anse Ste.Claire for 3 years.
In 1804 it was sold to Grant. (Map No.24).
19 Fort Anticostl
Old French fort at western end of Anticostl; probably at present port Menler. Shown on La Hontan map 1703
(No, 20) as "Magazln Fortlflet", also on Carver Map Quebec
1763 (Ho.70). Anticostl was granted to Sieur de Jollette in
1697.
20 Arctic Red River post
Hudson's Bay Co. post on left bank of Mackenzie
river at mouth of Arctic Red river (right bank) at Lower
Ramparts. It is a recent post established about 1900. Shown
on Map Mackenzie river (No. 25).
21 Fort Arkansas
French military fort on Arkansas river, 3 leagues
from mouth. On south side Arkansas river and west bank
Mississippi river, at the junction. Built 1685. A mission
and fort for Arkansas Indians. Shown on maps No«93-96-100.
22 Ash House
North West Co.  fort  on left bank Souris river near
mouth Plum Creek,  a tributary of Souris river.    Was located
16-g-miles south and 39 miles west of McDonnell's House, probably near or opposite the present village of Hartney, Manitoba.
It was an outpost of Assiniboine House about 45 miles distant.
3ullt  1795 and abandoned 1796.    Thompson Journal December 1797
says,  "had to be given up from its being too open to incursions
of Sioux Indians".    In July 1806 Alexander Henry Jr. visited
the site of Ash House on his journey to the Mandan Indians.
Was on the direct  route to the Mandan villages.    It was known
also as Fort de la Frenier (Ash tree).
Fort Ashuapmuchouan
Originally <i King's post in Domaine du Roy,   on
river .«.shuapiauchouan, about 90 miles above the mouth,  on the
shore of lake Chigobiche an enlargement of river.    3ullt  1690.
Was on route from lake St .John to James Bay as travelled X>y
Father Albanel 1672.    Was operated by French up to time of
cession 1760.    Leased by North    West Co. with other Ring's  poc;ts
1788,    James McKenzie of North West Co. visited the King'a
posts 1308 and says in his description of this post:   "It   is  60
leagues from lake St.John.    On a small lake of same name,    &
poor shabby post.      There is a  route from henco to  river St.Mau-
1
■
  rice by small lakes and rivers".    It  la shown on Laure's map
1732 and Bowen and Gibson's map 1772 (White).    In 1825 it was
operated by the King's Posts Co.    In 1831 the Hudson's Bay Co.
acquired lease of this and other King's posts.    It is shown
on Arrowsmlth nap 1848.    Was closed before 1371.    The name
means "Watch Moose Deer" and is variously spelled, Assuapmou-
3oln, Chamuchuan, and Chamouthouane.    Shown on White's Map of
Labrador posts (No.24) and Le Rouge 1755 (No.112 & Berlin 1744
(No.95).
24 Aspin House
North West Co. small post on east bank of Assiniboine river about 51.030'N. & 1020W., few miles above "Aspin
riYulet".    Shown on D, Thompson's map 1812,   (No.7) Aspin river
shown on map of Assiniboia 1611 (Ho»38).    The same as Grant's
House q.v.
25 Fort Assiniboine
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Athabaska river at confluence of Freeman creek on north bank, about 114°45*W. Shown
on map northwest Territories 1894 (No.37) as "in rains", also
on map northern Canada 1907 (No.34), also Devine map Crown
Lands 1857 (No.12). Jt la noted on the Hudson's Bay Oo. map
1857 (No.8) and appears on the 1857, 1869, and 1872 lists of
forts.   Probably closed about 1880.
26 Fort Assiniboine
North West Co. fort on north side Assiniboine river
2 miles above mouth of Souris river, in N.E. quarter of Sect.
19, Tp.8, B. 16 W. of principal meridian, 3 miles north of
Banting on southwest branch of C.P.R'y.    It was first built on
north side of river before 1794 to compete with Hudson's Bay
Co. post Brandon House.   At this time there were 5 opposing
trading posts at this place. . John McDonnell in 1795 moved the
fort to the south aide of Assiniboine river at mouth of Souris
river.    It was about 50 miles from Montagne ft- la Bosse.    This
post declined after 1805 and was not continued after the
coalition 1021.   A. Henry Jr. was there in 1806 and describes
the starving condition of the occupants, "no trade, no furs,no
buffalo"•    Was an important post at first, from which all the
North West Co. trade with the Mandans was carried on.    Thompson
was there In 1798.    Remains of fort were seen by Tyrrell in
1890.    Shown on Thompson's map 1812 (No.7) and the British
Museum map 1617  (No.9), also Map Mackenzie track Arrowsmlth
1801  (No.4).    Various names have been given to this fort,
Assibiboine House, Stone Indian River House, McDonnell's House,
I;,ort Souris, Assiniboine River House, and Mouse River Fort.
Fort Assiniboine River
1. See H.B.  Co. fort Portage la Prairie.
2. See X.Y.Co.  fort Hibemla.
3. See H.B.Co.  fort Pelly.
4. See N.W. Co. Assiniboine House (McDonnell's.)
  Or
mout
1 of
Oo
.um
ams
3d bj
r Nort
Fort i
finally built by Pacific Fur Co.  in 1811 at
ia river,  site of present Astoria,    Was pur-
West Co.  in'October 1813 from Pacific Fur Co
and the name changed to Fort George.    It was restored to the
United States by Treaty of Ghent 1818.    Was one of the forts
for which the Hudson's Bay Co. claimed Indemnity In 1865.
Shown on Devine Map of Crown Lands 1857  (No.12) and 31ackle
map North America 1845  (No.22) also Arrowsmlth No,  100 and 101.
The site was changed o^ McLoughlin in 1824 to north side of
Columbia river,  7 miles above mouth of Willamette rlv-s-r, where
a fort was erected 1825 and called Fort Vancouver,    Five years
later, 1830, another site was selected one mile west of the
first e|©rt and nearer the river.    This was McLoughlin's headquarters.    By the convention between the United States and
Great  Britain, Oct.  2,  1818, the Oregon Country was to be free
and -open to all for ten years joint occupancy.    In 1827 the
occupancy was made indefinite,   but was terminated by the Treaty
1846 which defined the boundary as 49th parallel.    During the
time of joint occupancy,  the Hudson's Bay Co.  established a
new site for fort Astoria as above,  acquired from the North
West Co,    Officers of U.S. army took possession of the fort in
1849-1850.    It was sometimes called fort CLatsap (Map No.  101).
28 Fort Athabaska River
Built by Peter Pond in 1778 on west bank of Athabaska river,  about 30 miles from lake Athabaska.    It was known
as the "Old Establishment" or "Old Pond Fort" for years.    It
was the first and only fort  in that region until 1785, wnen
fort Chipewyan was first built.    For many years it was an important establishment of the North West Co.    Thompson visited
the post in 1804.    It  is shown on Rinfret map (No.3)  and
Turner's map 1790  (No.106)  shows it on the east bank of the
river.
29 Attawapi3cat House
Hudson's Bay Co, post at mouth of Attavapiscat
river, James Bay, north bank. Established about 1900.
30 Lake Attawapisoat Post
An old Hudson's Bay Co. post on lake Attawapisoat,
headwaters of Attawapiskat  river,  about 50 miles north of Fort
Hope.    Was established about 1850 as an outpost of Fort Hope.
Name has now been changed to Lansdowne House and new log
buildings are being erected (1929)  in Hudson's Bay Co.  style.
It  is 3hown on Mclnnes' map of Keewatin 1903  (No.54)  as an old
post.
31 au Chat  Falls post
Small North Y/est Co. post on Ottawa river at Chat
Falls, mentioned by Harmon 18C0,    It was probably a repair
station on the canoe route between Montreal and lake Nipissing,
Six forts to
Alta,       (1)  The
1
J
  North West Co., known as Fort Augustus, sometimes called Upper
Fort Des Prairies, on Saskatchewan river, north bank, a little
more than one mile above mouth of Sturgeon Creek, and about 20
miles air line east from present city Edmonton. Built by Shaw
and McGillivray 1794. Shown on Thompson map 1810. Thompson
was there in 1808 and A. Henry Jr. passed in 1809. Was destroyed 1807 by Blackfeet Indians.  (2) The second fort was built in
1795 by the Hudson's Bay Co. close beside Fort Augustus and
was named Fort Edmonton in compliment to John Pruden, clerk, a
native of Edmonton, near London. It was built lay  George
Sutherland. Was sometimes called Fort Des Prairies. This fort
was destroyed by Blackfeet Indians at same time as Fort
Augustus.
Both these forts were the most western stations
until 1799 when Rocky Mountains House was built 200 miles
farther upstream.
(3)In 1808 New Fort Augustus was built by Hughes of the North
West Co. on the site of the present city of Edmonton, 20 miles
in straight line upstream from old Fort Augustus. This fort
was abandoned 1810 and destroyed by Blackfeet Indians.
(4) The same year, 1808, Rowand of Hudson's Bay Co built New-
Fort Edmonton close by New Fort Augustus.
Both these forts were abandoned in 1810 and were
re-established several miles further upstream at mouth of White
Mud Creek and went by the name of Old Port Whltemud and Upper
Terre Blanche Fort (q.v.) In May 1811 A. Hemy Jr. camped for
the night at the nearly demolished Fort Augustus which had been
abandoned 1810: "We pitched our tent inside the old House for
the night".
(5) Fort Edmonton was again reoccupied and repaired by the
Hudson Bay Co. some time before 1819. At first It was built
on the river flats but later was moved to the top of the bluff
and strongly re-enforced. Its defences were maintained till
recent times because of hostile Indians. It was hexagonal in
form with high pickets and bastions and battlemented gateways,
on the perpendicular height commanding the river. "It was
painted inside and out with Indian devices, gaudy colours and
queer sculptures. The buildings were painted red and smeared
with red earth which, when mixed with oil, produces a durable
brown" (Sir George Simpson 1843). In 3583B the fort was removed'*'
to allow construction of Parliament buildings. See maps No. 8,
100 & 101.
(6) An X.Y. Co. fort was also built in the neighbourhood in 1798
and 1810.
The site of old Fort Augustus was marfcfed by Historic
Sites Board August 8, 1927. Inscription on the cairn reads:
"On the river flat below stood Fort Augustus, established by the
North West Co. in 1794; Fort Edmonton, established by the
Hudson's Bay Co. 1795. Abandoned 1807",
Fort Augustus was in Sect. 15, Tp.55, R.22, W. of
4th Meridian. See Map Early Alberta forts (3o.ll) and Tyrrell's
Northern Alberta (No.36).
1
  33 Fort &ux Trembles
North West Co.  fort on Assiniboine river near present Brandon,  on South side.    It was attacked by the Indians
1780 and surrendered.    A. Henry says that this fort was known
In his time as Fort Des Prairies.    Its location is shown on
Map of Northwest Territories  (Ho.l) and Rinfret's North Y/est
Territories  (No.  3).
Fort aux Trembles.    Alex. Henry Sr.  says "this was the former
name given to the French fort Des Prairies or Nepoin".
34 Fort Babine
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort at north end of lake Babine,
B.C.    Built  1822 and In continuous operation even since.    It
was famous for its salmon, but poor as a fur trading station.
It was sometimes called Kilmar's Fort.    Vfes first built at
base of the two arms at the north end.    In 1836 it was moved
35 miles to the north end.    Shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832
(No.101) & 1850   (No.100)  1857   (No.8) and both locations  on
Map of Northern Canada (No. 35).
35 Fort Baie-Chateau
Old French trading post on Chateau Bay,  Strait of
Belle Isle,  in the territory granted to Courtemanche 1630 and
extended 1702.    Built about 1740.    Chateau Bay is shown on
Harleyan map 1543.    Jacques Cartier anchored there in 1534.    In
1736 the concession wa3 granted to Bazil for 9 years to 1745.
In 1749 it was regranted to Sieur Gaultier for 9 uyears.    Bougainville gives Baye-des-Chateaux in his list of forts 1757.
Sir Hugh Palliser ordered a fort to be constructed in 1767,
plan of Which is given in Gosling's Labrador p. 190.    Thl3 fort
was called Fort York and Chateau Bay was renamed York Bay.
Cartwright In his journal 1770 says that the Government about
1765 erected a block house and small fort garrisoned by an
officer and 20 men.    In 1776 the garrison was withdrawn as un-
•    necessary.    uLease of Chateau Bay was acquired by the North
West  Co.  In 1788.    The Hudson's Bay Co. does not seem to have
leased this post.    Captain Wemyss reported Septr. 1794:  "At
Temple Bay there are 4 forts, Fort Carlton, Fort Wallace at
entrance,  Fort Sheffield fronting Temple Bay, and Fort Charlotte,    lo . e.    There are no fortifications on the coast of
Labrador but at Temple Bay".    These were all small wood blockhouses.    Temple Bay was contiguous to Chateau Bay, practically
one bay.    Shown on Low's map of Labrador S.E.   (No.61).
The original name of the Strait of Belle Isle was
Strait of Baie Chateau.    It was so called from a huge mass of ,
basalt which caps an island in the bay, perpendicular cliffs
like a Norman keep.
36 Bale-de-Shecatlca
Early French trading post on north shore o'f lower
St. Lawrence about 58°10' W. at port Jacques Cartier. This
post is named in Bougainville list 1757 "Chichateka" and is
generally known as Chicataka or Apetepy. It was a fishing and
whaling station, about 25 miles east of St. Augustin. The
concession was granted in 1738 for 10 years. In 1750 it was
J
  granted to Lafontaine de Belcour for 15 years. In 1761
Governor Murray granted the concession to Y/hale Fishing Co.
for 3 years. It was sold by the Sheriff in 1808. Shown on
map Gulf St.Lawrence (No.67) and 'White's map Labrador posts
(No.24).
Fort 3aie-des-Puans
French military fort at southern extremity of
Green Bay Wisconsin, on left bank of Fo:r river at the mouth.
Built 1670. The Chevalier de Tonti was in command 1680 and
Sieur Du L'Hut in 1684. A Jesuit mission was maintained under
Pere Allowez St. Xavier in 1668, called Mission de St.Francois
Xavier, whence the fort Was sometimes named Fort St.Xavier, as
on Jeffrey's map of 1762. The fort was reconstructed about
1718. Bougainville names it Fort Baye des Puants in his list
of 1757 and says it was a King's post in command of M. de
Rigaud. It was apparently abandoned when the French garrisons
were concentrated about 1757 and is not included among the
French forts surrendered to English 1761-63, -There was a
settlement of French on the Fox river nearby. This fort was
always the centre of an extensive trade and commanded the route
from Great Lakes by the Fox river to the Mississippi, A
garrison was always maintained until the cession of Canada,
Shown on Bellin's map 1744 Lakes of Canada (No.15) and 1755
(No.93) and map showing French possessions 1756 (No.10). On
Palairet's map 1763 it Is named Fort Sakisdac (No.94) and Ft.
St.Xavier on No.96.
Baie Forteau
Old French post on Forteau Bay, Strait of Belle
Isle. Fort built 1710. It marked the eastern limit of the
grant to Courtemanche 1630. Before 1630 the Basques had
maintained there an establishment for whale fishery but were
driven away by the Esquimaux. In 1716 the post was plundered
by the Esquimaux. In 1748 the concession was granted for 9
years. The North West Co. acquired a lease of the post in
1788. Shown on Rinfret map of St. Lawrence (No.67) and-Low's
map Labrador peninsula (No.61). Does not appear to have been
occupied by the Hudson's Bay Co.
Fort Baie-Rouge
Old French trading post and fort on Bay Rouge,
Strait of Belle Isle, in territory granted to Courtemanche
1630 as extended 1702. Built before 1715. In 1719 a new fort
was erected by Lessee Constantin. This was destroyed by
Eskimo and again rebuilt by Constant In In 1721. Post was not
occupied In 1735 temporarily, but in 1748 Constantin again
operated the post. It was noted for seal fishery. North 'West
Co. acquired the post by lease about 1788.
40 Fort Balisle
French fort on an island at mouth Mississippi
river built 1699.  (Another 18 miles distant built in 1700).
Shown on Bowen's map No.97 ^1763) & Palairet 1755 (No.93) &
Le Rouge 1755 (No.Ill) & Mitchell 1755 No.110.
  North West Co,   fort near mouth of Winnipeg river,
on the south side, a short distance below and Opposite the old
French fort Maurepas which stood on the north.side.    Built by
Tdussaint Lesieur for the North West Co;  in 1792.    McDonnell
River House.     Before fort  3as de ia'Riviere was built  th?
North West Co. had a storehouse for provisions at Otter Point
Rock across  from the site of old Port Maurepas, about 4 miles
above mouth of river.    3as de la Riviere was built a mils or
two further down the river.     (A. Henry and D. Thompson Journal*),
Until the time of the coalition 1821 both the Hudson's Bay Co.
and the North West Co, maintained forts at this place only a
few rods apart.    The present Hudson's Bay Co.  establishment
was built on the site of Fort Bas de la Riviere..    This was
probably one of tho first posts built by the North V/est Co.
west of Fort William and was an. important  station on the main
canoe route.     (See Fort Alexander.)
42 Batchawana Bay post
A small North West Co. post named in the coalition
list 1820.    It stood on the north shore of lake Superior near
the entrance of the lake from Sault Ste .Marie, about 25 miles
north of Sault  Ste.Marie.    It Is not included among the Hudson's
Bay Co. posts.  Was on main canoe route from Montreal, to Fort .
William.    Shown on Map of N.W. Co. i;osts 1317  (No.5)
43 Fort  Battle River
The present  Battleford,Sask.,  on the North
Saskatchewan river.    About 1805 the North West Co.  established
a small post,  called also Fort War Road;    near mouth of Battlo
rlver.    The Hudson's Bay Co. had also  established a post near
by, on the north or left bank of the Saskatchewan abovj the
mouth of the Battle river.    The main Hudson's Bay Co.  fort was
probably built soon after the coalition 1821.    It lny in the
centre of disaffection in the rebellion of 1885, Poundmaker
residing in tho region.    The settlem-mf? was sacked and invested
by the Indians until the arrival  of troops.    The fort -was
attacked and stores plundered.    Afto-r the rebellion this fcrt
was not re-established.    It appears on tne Hudson's 3ay Co,
lists of 1869 and 1872.    The North West Co. post  is shown on
Thompson's map 1812  (No.7)  on the right bank of the Saskatchewan, north of the Battle river,  and Hudson's Bay Co.  reserve
on map of Northwest Territories 1894  (No.37)
3attle River post
Name sometimes given to Horse-shoe House,  q.v.
Fo rt 3 eauba s sIn
French fortified settlement made in 1672 at head of
Cumberland Bay on neck N.S. by Jacquest Bourgeois and four aft.$F
other families from Port Royal. Tbe French settlers on approach
of English forces in 1750 all moved to Beausejour. The English
then erected Fort Lawrence on east side of Misseguash river,
under Major Chas. Lawrence, on or near site of French settle-
  ment Beaubassin. It was evacuated and dismantled in 1756.
Fo rt B eauha rno i s
French military fort on lake Pepin, an enlargement
of Mississippi river. Built 1727. It was maintained for some
years ag a missionary and trading post. It was deserted or
destroyed before the cession-of Canada.
Fort Beausejour
French military fort on neck of Acadian peninsula
on north bank Misslquash river.  Built about 1750. 'Was
captured by British 1755 under Col. Moncton and name changed
to Fort Cumberland. Situated at head of Cumberland Bay.
Shown on Carver Map 1778 (No.19). & No. 97. Named after an
early settler Laurent Chatillon 3-eause'jour. The fort was
strengthened by Col. Moncton and a plan of it made by Col,
Morse in 1784. In 1812 further repairs were made. Garrison
was withdrawn after war of 1312 and the fort declined. It is
now a National Park.
47 Fort Beaver Lake
Fortified trading post built by Henry and Frobisher
on Beaver lake (lac aux castors) in 1775 before formation of
North West Co. north of Cumberland or Pine lake, on route to
Churchill river. It was said to be a substantial and commodious
fort, with buildings round a quadrangle and garrisoned by 43
men. Fort was soon abandoned for Cumberland lake.
48 Beaver Lake House
Both North West Co. and Hudson's Bay Co. had
established posts on Beaver lake before 1850.    A small lake   ■
lying near source of Weenisk river, Ontario.      Shown on Arrow-
smith map 1857  (No.3).    An outpost of Fort Wapikopa,
49 Fort Becancour
French fort at moutb Becancour river on right bank
of St. Lawrence nearly opposite Three Rivers.    Here there was
a settlement of Abenakis Indians numbering 500 to 600.    Named
in 3ougainvllle's list  1857.
50 Bedfont House
Hudson's Bay Go. fort on northwest shore of Reindeer
lake, built in 1796 by Thompson-.    It also went by the names
DeerLake House, Reindeer Lake House, or Caribou House.    Here
Thompson left the service of the Hudson's Bay Co. to  enlist with
the North Y/est Co. 23d May, 1797.    This fort was destroyed by
the Horth West Co.   in 1317,    The Hudson's Bay Co.  later built a
fort on the north shore at the mouth of Cochrane river which
was named Lac du Broehet House and is still operated by the
Company.    The date of building not ascertained.    Bedfont-Kouse
ic  shown ori Arrowsmith maps  1832  (No,100),  1850  (No. 101)   1357a
(No.8)  at northwest corner of Reindeer lake. •
Fort Bell
Another name for Fort McPherson,
  51 3elleau'3 Fort
Free trader's establishment near present Fort Pelly,
between Swan and Assiniboine rivers,  about 53°N.    Mentioned by
D. Thompson.
52 Fort 3ellinghaia
Hudson's Bay Co.  post,  site of present  town Belling-. '"■
ham,  state of Washington,  at outlet lake Whatcom,  tributary of
Strait of Georgia,  about  34 miles south of New Westminster,
Shown on map "The Company's Territory" No, 6.    Small post.
53 Berens House
Old trading house on right bank Athabaska river
near Old Red River House (present  Fort Mackay) at  or near mouth
Muskeg river - probably an independent trader's house.    Shown
on Wallace map Early Alberto Forts  (No.11  )..
54.-    Beren'3 River House
Hudson's Bay Co. poet  on east  shore of lake Winnipeg
at mouth of Berens river.    Built before 1825 and operated to
date.    In 1825 the post was In charge of John Robertson.    McLean
In "Twenty-five years service" mentions it as a small post in
183S.    Appears on Arrowsmith maps 1832  (No.101),1850  (No.100)
1857  (No.8).    Named after Joseph Berens,.Governor of Hudson's
Bay Co.  1812 to 1822.
55 Betsiamites or Berslmls post
Old French trading post at mouth of Betsiamites river,
north shore of lower St. Lawrence about  6 miles from Isle Jeremie.
The present village and river are named Bersimis In White's
Place names of Quebec, but are called Betsiamites on Government
map of 1913.    This post was distinct from l3le Jeremie.    Both
Betsiamites and Islet de Jeremie are given In list of King's
Posts In Ordinance 1733 of Intendant Hocquart.    It is not  included in Bougainville's list 1857, but is shown on Del'Isle map
1703  (No.18).    It was probably an outpost of Isle Jeremie,""the
main post.    In 1825 La Rocque enumerated Betsiamites as one of
the King's Posts operated by the Hudson's Bay Co's. opponents.
Isle Jeremie was operated by the Hudson's Bay Co.    In 1858
Governor Simpson closed Isle Jeremie but maintained Bersimis.
It has remained In operation to date.    Shown on Rinfret map of
Gulf of St.Lawrence (No.67) and White's map of Labrador posts
(No.24).
56 Big Island House
Hudson's Bay Co. post on large Island at outlet of
Great Slave lake.    Built by the Hudson's Bay Co. about  1830.
The trade of this post was afterwards removed to Fort Providence,
40 miles down the Mackenzie river,  about 1850.
  ig Island post
south end Lake of the 'Woods*
and was Included in the Deed i
included in the 1372 list. W.
wa3 established about 1865
urrender List 1869. It is
lbsed about 1880.
3i.fr j
Lake, now Evan's lake, v^uebec,  scarce of Broadback river.
Shown Arrowsmlth map 1804,  on Arrowsmlth 1357  (No.8), and
White's map of Labrador Posts  (No.24).    It was not  Included
in the Company's list cf 1621.    Shovni also on Arrowsmith map
.1832  (No.101).
Fort Biloxi
French military fort built by Iberville In March
1699 on bay at mouth of Pascagoula rivor, about 50 miles west
of Mobile Bay.    It was called Fort Maurepas by Iberville,
was abandoned soon after the building of Mobile, about 1705
Shown on De Lisle's map 1713  (No.32)  also Bellin's map 175S
(rio.93)  and Bowon's map 1763  (No.96)
Birch Point House
It
Neoskwesjjan.
Bird Mountain Fort
See Some:
Fort Birdstail
Hudson's 3ay Co. fort on left bank Assiniboine
river at mouth of Birdstail Creek, about 12 miles below. Port
Ellice. Established before 1350. Appears on Arrowsmlth map
1857 (No.8) but is not included in the Company list of 1869.
Probably discontinued about 1865. Shown on Devine map 1857
(No.12)  and Willson map  (No.6) & Arrowsmlth "1832 (No.101).
Blackfoot Ppst
See Rocky Mountain House.) (1)
Black River post
A small North 'West Co. post on Black (or Turnagain)
river, branch of the Liard river. It is named in the North
West Co. list of 1820. Probably of short duration and does
not appear on lists after '. ~ ~ ~
62    31ondin's Fort
A North stea* Co.  post built  t
of Lesser Slave Lake,    Thompson vlsit-d t
fort was probably known as the Lesser 31;*
63    Blondish's Fort
A free-trader's  fort built in
Assiniboine river below Portage la Frairl
ilt by 31ondin at W
post 1803-4
Lake fort.
  64 Boat Encampment
North West Co. establishment at the Great 3end in
Columbia river, at mouth of Canoe river on east side of river.
Built by Thompson January 1811. It was tne rendez-vous for
travel across the mountains by Athabaska Pass. It was maintained
up to time of building railway. It is shown on Arrowsmith map
1857 (No.8) & on Johnston map of North West Territory 1877.
65 Boggy Hall
A North West Co. post on North Saskatchewan river,
above Blue Rapids, on west bank, about 10 miles below confluence
of Brazeau river. Thompson visited the site of this abandoned
post in 1810, where the North West Co. had been located for two
years. It Is shown on Tyrrell's map of Northern Alberta 1887,
marked "site of",(No.36) also on Wallace map of early Alberta
forts (No.11).
66 Fort Bol3e
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort on Snake river a few miles
below Boise' river.    It was built 1835 and was stockaded.    The
Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from United States in 1865
for loss of this fort.    See Oregon Territory,    Shown on Arrow-
smith map 1857  (No.8)        Its walls and bastions were of adobe   -
brick & enclosed a number of houses &c.    Three miles square
around the fort was under cultivation by H.B.Co.    Hostilities
between U.S. and.Indians 1855 caused abandonment of fort.
67 Fort Bondesir
Fortified King's post in the Domain du Roi,  located
at mouth of Escumains river, probably Identified by present
named Cape Bondesir.        It Is given In decree of Intendant
Hocquart 1733.    The name was probably discontinued after the
cession of Canada and Portneuf or Mille Vaches used instead.    It
was built before 1732.    Apparently was not operated by Hudson's
Bay Co.    Laure's map 1732 shows a post at Bonde'slr.    Shown    on
White's map of Labrador peninsula  (No.24)  and Low's map 1896
(No.63).    It was known as one of the King's posts In 1786.    See
Mill Vaches and Portneuf.
68 Fort Bonseoour
French fort built before 1700, on right bank of
Mississippi  river near southern terminus of lake Pepin and near
mouth of Chippewa river.    Shown on DeLisle's map 1700  (No.94)
and 1703 (No.18).    Danville's map 1755  (No.97) names it Fort
Perrot.
Bougainville
List of French forts given in "Memoire de Bougainville sur l'Etat de la Nouvelle France 1757",  in Pierre Margry's
Relations et Memoires  inedlts pour servlr a    l'hlstolre de la
France,   etc.,1867 Paris,  one vol., pages 39 to 84.
69 Fort Bourbon
French fort on a small Island dividing Cedar lake
from Mud lake, now called Fort Island, at or near mouth
  Saskatchewan river.    Built by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes,
one of sons of Sieur de la Verendrye,  In 1741,    It was
destroyed before 1775,    Is Included in Bougainville's List
1757 and he locates  it as being "150 leagues from St.Charles
at the entrance of lake Ouimpeg".    The northern helf of    lak
Winnipeg and Cedar lake was called lake Bourbon by Verendrye
and Saskatchewan river he called the Pascoyac,  and sometimes
Riviere aux Biches  (Deer).    The Hudson's 3a.y Co.  early had e
fort en this lake,  succeeding the French fort, called Cedar
Lake House (q.v.),  also a later post called Grand Rapids
House (q.v.).    The North West Co. operated a small post on
this lake, which was abandoned 1802.    If. Bourbon is shown on
Bellin's map 1755 (No.93) & Rocques 1763  (No.86).
iJOrt Bourbon
Name given by French to Port Nelson after capture.
See Fort Nelson.
Fort Bourbon
70 Bow Raver fort
North West Co.  fort on north bank of Bow river at
mouth of Old Fort  creek,  1150W latitude,  east of present Banff
and about 50 miles west of site of old Fort Lajonquiere,    It
was built about  1802 and closed about 1823 after the coalition
of 1821.    Shown on Rinfret's map of Korth West Territories
(No.3);    and Wallace's map Early Alberta forts {No. 11), and
Macoun's map of 1882,   (No. 13).
71 3randon House
North W«st Co. post near present" city of Brandon.
3uilt 1794.    Operated to time of coalition 1821.    There were
five different  trading posts in this locality 1794-5.    Shown
on Rinfret's map  (No.5), and Thompson's map 1812  (No.7).
72 Brandon House
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on south side of Assiniboine
river,  2 miles above mouth of Souris  river,  and about 17 miles
below present  city Brandon.    Built 1794.    It was burned 1814
and rebuilt.    This was the chief Hudson's Bay Co.  fort in that
region for 20 years.    It does not sppear on the Company's
lists later than 1856 and was probably closed about 1860
through failure of trade.    Shown on Arrowsmith map 1857  (No.8j
Ancient  French fort and settlement  on Old Fort Bay,
(Baie du Vieux Fort), north shore, at western entrance Strait
3"elle Isle.    It is called the "ancient  harbour of Brest".
Founded 1504.     Frequented by Bretons 1500.    Visited by Cartier
1534.    Appears on a Portugese map of 1550 and on Desbien's map
1546  (No.74).    Was In the original grant  to Courtemanche 1630.
Shown also  on Molyneux q&o 1598 (Ho.75).
  Fortified post of H
river. 3uilt 1744. This pos
• Brunswick House was substitut
Brunswick lake. The latter w
Location of both forts shown
Arrowsmlth 1357  (No.8) and 1832 No. 10
Brunswick House was situated on north
nsar outlet of Opasatika rr
100 miles further upstream.
ulson's Bay Go. on Missinaibi
was abandoned in 1730 and N<
>d, built 1788, at north end c
is operated until about 1900.
m Devine. map 1857  (No.12),  ai
White's map (No.24).
. bank Missinaibi river
Brunswick Houoe was nearly
Fort
rule'
75 Buck Lake House
Hudson's Bay    Co.  trading post on north Ssskatch
river, on north bank opposite mouth of Buck Lake creek,
114°42'W., about  20 miles upstream fsem Old White Mud fort
It  is shown on Wallace map of early Alberta posts (Ho.11).
small post not named on the Company lists.
76 Buckingham House
Hudson's Bay Co. post on North Saskatchewan river
350 miles above Cumberland House and  equal distance above th«
Forks {Tyrrell) and near the North West Co.  fort George.
Built  1780 by Mitchell Oman.    Abandoned 1801 in favour of
Island Fort,  18 miles farther up the ri*?er.    'Was in Section
19, Tp.56, R. 5 Y/est of 4th Meridian and 110°45*W.    Thompson
visited this post 1793-4.
Buffalo Lake House
See Lac-des~3oeufs.
Fort Buffalo River
See Lac-des-3oeufs. .
Fort Bull
English military fort on line between Albany and
Oswego.    Destroyed by the Franca in March 1756.    Its
location is shown on map of French claims  (Ho.10).
BurntiTOOd Lake House
Hudson's Bay Co, post at head of Burntwood river,  a
. tributary of Nelson river.    Built before 1830.    It  is shown
•on Arrowsmlth map 1052  (No.100) t? 1850  (No.99)  1857   (No.3)
and on the Devine map 1857  (No.12).
  79    Port 3urwell Post
Hudson's Bay Oo.  established th* post at Por'
Shown on White's map 1926  (No.24).
adptte'
North Y/est Co. poet on south bank of Red Lake river,
at mouth of Clearwater river, right bank of latter. Built by
J.B, Cadotte for North West Co. 1797. Was visited by Thompson
1798. Situated opposite present town of Red Lake Falls, When
A, Henry Jr. visited the place October 1800, only the remains .
were left. Location shown on Thompson map 1812 (No.7).
81 Fort Cahokia
■ French military fort on left bank of Mississippi
river near confluence of Missouri  river.    It was one of the
chain of French forts from Montreal to Gulf of Mexico.    Shown on
map of French claims 1756    (No.10) & Danville 1755 (No.97),    At
mouth of "Petite riviere des Cahokias" nearly opposite present
St.Louis-also map 120.
82 Fort Camanistigoyan
  . I
.One of the earliest French trading forts west of |
Montreal,    At  the mouth of the Nipigon river,  left bank, at j
entrance, to lake Nipigon from lake Superior.    Built by Charles,
Sieur de la Tourette,  brother of Dulhut,  in 1678 and named by
him Camanistlgoyan.    This fort was entrepot for the country
between lake Superior and Jtpies Bay and for nearly a century was
the head-quarters of the French trade in that section,  occupying':
for the- French the same position of importance that Fort Y/illiam
was for the -Hjorth West Co.      It  is shown on La Hontan map 1690
(No.,20)  as Fort KamanlstIgoyan at the mouth of Lemipissaki  river.
Lake Nipigon is variously named on early maps.    On Danville's
map it  is called Alempissaki;    on Jalllot map 1685, Alemenlpigon,
meaning "deep water"; Del'tale's map 1703, Alemenlpigon,  also on
Carver map 1778;    and ©n La Hontan map 1690, Nemlplgon,    The
next name given was lake St .Anne, shown on map of French claims
1756  (No.10),  on map'1817,  on Arrowsmlth 1854.    The fort vkis
under command of Verendrye in 1728 and a few outposts were
maintained in the Nipigon country to the north.    It is included
in Bougainville's list 1756.    After the cession of Canada the.
North West Co. took over this post and named it Fort Nipigon,
but its Importance was eclipsed by Fort William and at first,
contrary to the French route, the fur traders followed the south
shore of lake Superior going to and from Fort William.    The
Hudson's Bay Co. succeeded to the post after the coalition 1821
and maintained it until about 1875.    Grant in "Ocean to Ocean"
1872 speaks of the eld Hudson's Bay Oo. post at the mouth of
Nipigon river$t&£jtito.'pf>  confused with Fort Kaministiquia.)
See Nipigon Housfe:.    ab Record is found of the destwaction of the
original FrenchIfort.    .
Fort Camosun
See fort Victoria  (2).
  63 Fort Cap Charles
An old Frenc3i trading and fishing post at the eastern
entrance Strait of Belle Isle. Built about 1735,: and included •
in Bougainville's list 1756. The concession was granted by
3eauharnois and Hocquart in 1735 to Marsal for 9 years and extended for 6 years to 1750. In 1750 it was granted to Captain
Bonne for *9 years by Jonquiere and Bigot. In 1753 it was re-'
granted to'Marsal for 5 years, 1754 to 1763, by Duquesne and
Bigot. In 1763, after the cession of Canada, Governor Murray
granted it to William 3iymer for 4 years. The location is
shown on White's map 1926 (No.24).
Cap-Fort $.
See Lac-du-Bonnet House
84 Fort Cape Disappointment
A small establishment of the Hudson's Bay. Co. on the
cape at mouth of Columbia river for Which the Company claimed
indemnity from the United States in 1865.
85 Capot River Fort
Hudson's Bay Co. post shown Arrowsmith maps 1832 No.
100,   1850 No.J01,  1854 and 1857  (Nos.  8 &  77), oh southeast
shore of Nut lake, near source of Red Deer-river,  tributary
to lake 'Winnipegoos.    This was probably one of the early Swan
River District  forts.    It was afterward moved to the small
stream between Nut lake and Little Nut lake (Range XII & XI,
Tp.34).    It  is included In 1894 list of Hudson's Bay Co,  forts
and was mentioned In 1892 Annual Report of Department of the
Interior.    It is sometimes called Nut lake House and i3 shown'
on Johnston map 1894 (No.37)   (Capot is Copeau?)
86 Fort Caribou
North West Co.  fort on west shore of Reindeer lake,
probably on Vermilion Point,  in the vicinity of the Hudson's
Bay Co.  Bedfont House.    Built before 1790.    It was the first
fort on Reindeer lake.    The second fort built was the Hudson's
Bay Co. Bedfont House, built 1796.    Bedfont House was destroyed
by the North West Co.  in 1817.    About 1800 the Hudson's Bay Co.
built another.fort at the outlet probably located on Sucker
Point opposite Deep Bay,mwhich is marked "Old Post" on map.-
The present South Reindeer Lake House was built  some time after
the 1800 house and is located about 10 miles farther south on
Big Island.    It  i3 variously called Fort Deer Lake,- or South
Reindeer Lake House, or Fort Carribeau,  or Caribou.    The
location of Old Fort Caribou is  shown on Rinfret map (No.3)*-
After the coalition of 1821 the Hudson's Bay Co.  reopened
3edfont House and it  is shown on Johnston map 1877' (No.16), •
The'North Wpst Co. also maintained a post at  the outlet shown
on the 1817 map  (No.5).    See Tyrrell's map 1897  (No.41)  and-
Mclnnes 1914  (No.42) and Arrowsmlth 1354 and 1657  (No.77 & 6),
also 1832  (No.lQO) and 1850  (No.101).
87-   Fort Carillon
•    French fort on north bank of Ottawa or Grand river at
  foot of Long Sault rapids, opposite Fort Le Long Sault .on
south bank, about 6 leagues (15 miles') from lake of Two '■ ■ t
Mountains. It was established for trade 7,1th passing Indians,;
'•• Niplsslngs, Algonquins and Iroquois. ' Was in command of M.
d'Aillebout de Cuisy and is included in Bougainville List 1756.-
Fort Carillon
The original name of Fort Ticonderoga, q.v.
88 Fort Carlton (1)
.-;»■•     Hudson's Bay Co. fort on North Saskatchewan river
about 106°35'W. (In Tp.45,R.IV,West of 3rd Meridian). ■ It
was considered half-way to Edmonton. Built 1787 on south side
river. It was a substantial fort, surrounded by high palisade;;
with a gallery armed with wall pieces surrounding the whole
square and having square towers at each corner. The pali33des
were still standing in 1862, but It -./as in ruined condition by
1875. It was included in the Company list of 1872. During
the rebellion of 1885 it was raided and apparently was discontinued soon after. It was principally a provision station
supplying 300 bags of pemmican per annum. It was ana-important transportation centre in the days of the Red River
cart. Goods for the north were brought here from 'Winnipeg
and forwarded to Green lake and thence by water route north
and west. A. Henry Jr. visited the fort 1808. It was also
known as She Crossing Place add Fort 'du Monte'. The North
Y/est Co. fort was known as Fort La Monte'e (which see,) and
was one of their principal meat depots. Monte means mounting-:
place, i.e. place where horse3 were taken to go overland.
• See maps No. 8,3, and 13, 101 & 100. Sometimes called Carlton
House.
Fort Carlton (2)      '
Small fort at Temple Bay. See Fort Bale-Chateau,
89 Carlton House
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on upper waters of Assiniboine
river,  near confluence of Whitesand river (51°47'N.) west of
headwaters of Swan river.    Built 1790 and was the first
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on the Assiniboine.    Known as Carlton.
House and sometimes Fort Assiniboine.    It  is shown on map sf
Assinlbola 1811 (No.38) also on map of Harmon's Jouinal  (No.2)  .
and Arrowsmlth 1801  (Ne.4).    A North West Co.  fort,  called
Marlboro Hause was In the immediate neighborhood.    In 1856-7
a new fort was built by Hon. Y/.J. Christie of Hudson's Bay Co,
a short distance below Fort Carlton and the name was permanently changed from Fort Carlton to Fort Polly.    The old
fort had stood on lower land about  500 yards distant where a
mm sandy ridge rises 6 feet above the general level "of the
valley bottom.    Fert Pelly was situated on rising sandy
ground on th© east side of the river.    It was a large well-  •
built  fort protected by a high fence or wall of sawn planks.
Over the heavy gate in front was a steut bastion from the top
■ of which a magnificent view *f surrounding Country was. seen.
It was a compact, well-ordered post,  on route from Fort Garry
to Port Carlton on the Saskatchewan.    Sheltered on north by
  woods, with the Assiniboine river in front.    For many years
after 1806, Fort Felly was one of the main trading posts of
the Hudson's Bay Co;-    Boats  from 3 to 4 toas burden annually
descended the Swan river carrying furs to York Factory,the
proximity of which enabled the Company to trade goods among
the Indians a month earlier than the North West Co. whose
goods were transported frcm Montreal tc  fort William and
thence distributed*    A short portage led from Fort Polly to
the Swan river.    This fort was operated by the Hudson's Bay
Co.  for over 100 y-^ars, until about 1900.    Location shown .on
• Johnston map 1894  (No.37) & Arrowsmlth 1832  (No.101).
90 Fort Cartwright
Hudson's Bay Co, post at 4
Labrador* on east shore. Originally
Cartwright in spring of 1775. Is no
Simpson's list 1857 but app..ars on t
the Hudson's 3ay Co. purchased this
Round Island, Gready Harbour, and Sa:
91 Fort Castor
trance to Sandwich 3a;
built by Capt. George
included in Sir Geor
.e 1925 list. In 1873
nd adjacent po3ts of
North West Co.  fort on left bank of Mackenzie rivei
at Old Fort Point about 60°40'N. half-way between Gravel rive
and Great Bear river.    Built about 1810 or earlier.    It  is
shown in Rinfret map (No.3}  and Mackenzie river maps 1924
(No.25) & Laut i
92    Fort Cataraqui
i No.
French military fort  on site of present Kingston,
lake Ontario, built by Frontenac 1673 at mouth of Cataraqui
river and called by him Fort Cataraqui,    It was granted to La
Salle 1675 for a fortified outpost and seigniory.    It was
originally a King's post and was erected for defence against
the Iroquois and to intercept the Indians from trading with
the English at Albany.    The fort was dismantled and abandoned
by Denonville 1689.    In 1694 Frontenac re-established the fort
and garrisoned it with 700 men,   rebuilding it of stone with
four bastions.    Bougainville (1757)  says that goods were
brought  from Montreal in canoes to Fort Cataraqui and wer° thei
loaded on sailing boats  for Niagara.    The second fort built by
Frontenac in 1694 is generally known a3 Fcrt Frontenac.    It
was captured from the French in 1758  by Gen. Bradstreet and
destroyed at that time.    It  is shewn on La Hontan's- map 1703'
(No.20)  and on Del'Isl«'s map 1703  (No.16)  and Carver's map
1778.
93    Cat Lake House
The first post on
Y/est Co. house near.\.est em
3., in 1885 passed the site
miles west of the Hudson's .
shore near the eastern end,
about 1820 and appears, en ti
1832  (Ho.101),
ce s
to ha'
e
been
a Nor
? Isl
Thomas
1
"awcel
t,  D.
3 pot
t      V
hieh,  Y
e
says
•.:as
pos'
si
tuated
i the
south
Co.
post \
•as est.
iblish
> of
18C
7.  and
1'.
25 &
mar
  94 Cedar Lake' House
The North West Co. post was built on or near the 3ite
of the old French fort Bourbon in 1790 and was abandoned in
1802.    The old French fort was destroyed in 1775,  or a little
earlier, and the Hudson's Bay Co. was almost  immediately
established in the locality.    Their first post seems to have
been built at  the mouth of the Saskatchewan river below Grand
Rapids and was called Grand Rapids House.    In 1856 the Company
built a fort, known as Cedar Lake HoUse about half a mile below
the main Cedar lake on the right or west bank of the river.
This fort is shown on the Johnston map 1877  (No.16}  and is included iii all lists of the Hudson's 'Bay Co. posts to 1925*    It
was built to compete oath free-traders from the Red river
region, A description of these posts is given in Kind's Canadian Expedition. The Hudson's Bay Co. had also another post
at the entrance of Cedar lake, -.vest end, shown on Johnston map
of 1894  (No.37).
95 Fort Chagouamigon
French fort at southwestern extremity of lake Superior,
called also Fort La Pointe, or Grand Pointe,  from the long projecting point.    Settlements were made here by Huron and Ottawa
Indians after war with Iroquois about 1650.    The first mission
was established by Menard 1660 and called Mission du Saint
Esprit.    The first fort was built by Radisson and Groseilliers
1661 on the shore of "Cheguamegon" bay.    It was a palisaded" fort
situated not far from the present town Ashland, Wisconsin.
Marquette was in command of this fort in 1663.    It was probably
destroyed by fire within a'few years,  for in 1692 Frontenac sent
Sieur La Seneur to La Pointe to build a fort and garrison It.
La Gardeur de St.Pierre was In command,  followed by Linctot  In
1726,    This fort was built on the south end of Magdalen  (Madeleine)  island.    Thirty soldiers formed the garrison.    It was included in Bougainville's list 1757 as "Pointe de Chagoamigon"
under the command of M. de Beaubassin.    This fort  seems to have
been destroyed at the conquest of Canada.    For I -number of years
the fur-traders followed the south shore of lake Superior in
going west and La Pointe became an important  stopping-place.
Alexander Henry Sr.  was one of the first traders to venture west
after the French had deserted the forts.    In 1765-6 he built  a
house on the mainland sheltered by Madeleine island.    He remarks
that "on the island there had been a French trading post,  called
La Pointe du St.Esprit".    The North West Co.  soon acquired
possession of Grand Pointe,  erecting a fort which appears on
their list of 1821.    It was not operated by the Hudson's .Bay Co.
after coalition,  being on American territory.    It  is shown on
Del'Isle's map 1745, on map of French claims  (No. 10),  ">n Bellin's
1744 map (No.15),  on La Ronton 1703  (No.20)  also on Del'Isle
1703  (No.16J.
96 Fort Chambly
French military fort,    8 i
on a promontory in river Richelieu.
palisades 15 feet high, by Jacques '
officer in the Carignan regiment,
against the Iroquois to the south,
stone, having been burned by Indian
les so
itheast
of Montr
oal
Built
\t first
of wood
vi
; Chamb
_y,  in 2
665, an
was d
eaign^d
as a def
ar.3
n 1709
-11 It I
a3 rebul
it
1702.
At firs
t  it was
  called Fort Pontchartrain d*. Chambly and sometimes Fort St.Louis
de Chambly. It was situated in the seigniory first granted to
Pierre de Chambly 1672.. It was surrendered to English forces
1760. Captured by Americans 1775. Retaken by British 1776. It s
stood at foot of large rapid in Bichelieu river on left bank. It
Is now under supervision of National Parks Branch. Shown on
map of French claims 1756 (No.10) &  'No.97.
97 Fort Champoeg
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort near present  city of Sal*m,
.   Oregon.    It was a small establishment of one house.    Was one
of the posts for which Hudson's Bay Co. claimed indemnity from
the United States.    See Oregon Territory Forts.
Fort Chamuchuan
See Ashuapmouchouan.
98 Fort Charlotte (1)
Small  fort on Temple Bay, Labrador.
See Fort Baie-Chateau.
99 Fort Charlotte (2)
North V/est Co.  fort,  9 miles west of Grand Portage Bay,
at tha western end of the grand portage.    Built 1799.    Visited
by Harmon 1800.    It was established owing to difficulties of the
long portage.    Taken over by the Hudson's Bay Co. after coalition
. 1821.    Shown on Arrowsmlth map 1857.
100    Charlton Depot
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Charlton island, James bay, a
warehouse fortified.    In 1631 Captain James wintered here and
built a house.    In 1680 the'first depot was built," a good,
large,  dry,  substantial warehouse".    It was constructed on the
site of James'  house, and was a supply depot  for posts on.James
Bay.    In 1684 a fort was ordered built.    In 1586 the establishment was seized by the French and the Company abandoned the
island.    In 1808 agents of North West Co.  established a post on
Charlton island which they soon abandoned.    By the Treaty of
Utrecht 1713 the Hudson's Bay Co. regained possession of their
forts and reopened Charlton Depst;    since which time it has been
regularly operated by the Company.
Fort
Charnisay
Port
La
See
Tour.
Fort
Chart res
Also
cal
led
Fort
on 1
eft bank M
issi
ssi;
>pi ri
s Chartres.    French military fort
sr,  about 25 miles above the mouth
of Kaskaskia river.    Built 1717.    It was the seat of government
of the Illinois.    In 1756 it was jjebuilt,  an Irregular quadrangle with four bastions,  of stone plastered.    Walls were from
2 ~feet to 3 feet thick and 15 feet high, with loop-holes and
^
  port-holes,  surrounding several enclosed buildings,    Bougainville in his memoire says that this fort was dependent on New
Orleans.    It wa3 generally believed to be the best built of
the interior French forts.    It was the last of the old French
forts to be surrendered to the British after the conquest,
being surrendered in 1765.    In 1772 the Mississippi river had
■undermined the west side and the wall fell.    This fort
together with Cahbkia, Kaskaakla saad St. Genevieve in the immediate neighborhood commanded the approach to th<* Illinois
country by the Mississippi.    It is shown on map of French
claims 1756  (No.lO)j on Bellin's 1755 (No.93) & Danville 1755
(No.97).
102 Chatham House
A small Hudson's Bay Co. post on Wintering lake,
Nelson river and Grass river, on canoe route from Siplwesk lake
to Grass rivor.    Was situated on long peninsula extending north
into lake.    David Thompson mentions the post 1792.
103 Chesterfield Ho us 9 •'•
Originally a North West Co. post on South Branch of
Saskatchewan river at mouth of Red Deer river, on north- bank.-. *
Built 1791.    It was abandoned 1804 and rebuilt in 1805 by      - *
John McDonald of the North West Co. and then called New
Chesterfield House.    In 1822, after coalition of the two com-.
panieSj the Hudson's Bay Co. took over the North Y/est Co,
- establishment and opened Chesterfield House under Donald
McKenzie.    It was abandoned after a few years on account  of
.Indian troubles.    It i3 shown on Arrowsmlth maps 1832  (No.100),
1850  (No.101),  1854  (Ho.77) and 1857  (No.8) and is included in
Company list of 1857, but not later.    The X.Y. Co. also had a
small post in the immediate neighborhood.
104 Fort Chioagou
French fort shown on Bellin's map 1755 No. 93,  site
ef present  city Chicago,
105    Fort Chicoutlml
A French fortified post near the head of the Saguenay
river,  at the junction of the Saguenay and Chicoutimi rivers.
It was one of the earliest of the King's posts, built 1650 or
earlier.    A Jesuit chapel was erected 1670 at the post  for the
Indians.    Later a second chapel was built  1707.    The post  is
named in Bougainville's list  1757 as "Chueretiml".    Oudlette,
lessee of the Domaine du Roy, had built a post at "Chigoutimy"
before 1683.    Chicoutlml was included in lease of the Traite
. de Tadoussac 1701. Mckenzie, who visited the King^s posts in
interests of the North West Co. in 1808, states that a "store"
had been built  in 1707.    It was included in a list of the
' King's posts 1720.    An inventory of the goods was taken in
1750.    Immediately after the cession of Canada, Dunn,  Gray and
Murray'operated this post 1764.    It v/as leased,  together with
other King's posts, to the North Y/est Co*  1788 and was operated
by that Company to the coalition of 1821, when the Hudson's
Say Co.  took over the post and maintained it until about 1870.
It is possible that the great fire of 1870 destroyed the post
  and buildings. It is givtn in the Crmpany list of 1857 and
shown on Arrowsmlth map 1857 (No.3). .-ocds for the Interior
were brought here by schooners and boats and thenc» distributed
106 Fort Chilcotin
Hudson's Bay Co. post en ChiIcetin lake  (Chilkn)
branch cf the Fraser river B.C.    3uilt about 1823.    It was a
small outpost shown on Arrowsmlth maps 1832  (No.lOC),  1050  (No.
101).  1857  (Nc.8)  and appears on the Company list of 1672. but
not later.
107 Fort Chimo
Hudson's Bay Co. post  on right bank Kcksoaic river near
Its outlet  (about  25 miles)  in Ungava bay.    In 1828 Hendry explored the lower Kakcsoak and selected a site.    In 1830 the fort
was built by Finlayson and Erlandson for the Hudson's Bay Co.
In 1842 it was abandoned through lack ef trade, but was reopened
in 1866.    It is included in the Company list at Deed of Surrender Rupert's Land 1869, and is still in operation.    Shown on
White's map Labrador (No.24)  and Low's map 1896  (Hr.64)
108 Chinook Hcuse
A small establishment ef the Hudson's Bay Co, near
mouth Columbia river.    It was a station for salmon.    Calle.}. also
Pillar Rock.    The Hudson's Bay Co.  claimed indemnity from the
United States fcr this post 1665.     (See Oregon Territory).   .
109 Fo rt Chi pewyan
North Y/est Co.  fort on lake Athabaska,    The first  fort
in this  region was built by Peter pond on Athabaska riverabout 30
miles above the eutlet, on west  side.    Athabaska river and lake
were called Elk river and Lake of the Hills..    This  fort was
built in 1778 and was known as The Old Establishment and
Athabaska House and Pond's Reuse.    Athabaska means "Meeting place
of manj>- waters."    In 1788 Pond's fort was abandoned and a new
fort built on south shore of lake Athabaska, about  6 miles frcm
mouth of Athabaska river,  38 miles frcm the old fort, at Wk
south-western end of the lake,  on a rocky point projecting into
the lake.    This  fort was built by Roderick Mackenzie of the
North West C»-.    Fort Chipewyan was, styled the "Emporium rf the
Krrth" and "Little Athens cf the Hyperborean regions".     In 18C4
tnis site was abandoned and a new fort   (the third) was  erected
by the North West  Co.  on a rocky point  en the north shore rf the
lak», the present  site.    The old fort on the south shore continued to be of use/some years,  but  in 1815 it was rapidly decaying and was finally abandoned in 1320,    i'he new frrt en ii.e
north shore was "surrounded by rocks and swamps".    It was the
most   important North West Co.  fort  in the far north.    After the
coalition of 1821,  the Hudson's Bay Co.  operated this  fort to
the present date.    Dr. Maceun describnd the fort in 167F as
follows:     "All the buildings are ef most  substantial character,
all shingled and whitewashed,  and of imposing appearand*.     Two
large stores with glass windews,   each ("•":.  ins.  by 31 ins.  by 17
ins. high,   stand next  the landing.     Eight hous'*s are cc.curi»d by
employees of the Cempany.     In the- rear is the clerk's house,
  ■±0 x 30 x :
stor* and i
'002 and Fort
^r-od- and ware
rt Chipewyan
ral
Topographical Survey macs cf
1P32 (No«100), 1850 (No.101)
.  Go. constructed a fcrt
n near sit<=> of the present
ilt Nottingham house in
its Athabaska, Nottingham,
abaska 1897   (So.41)' also
river (Nc.25) & Arrowsmith
Anctner name for xovt Lac des Boeufs, wmen s<»*.
110 Fort Chipewyan Lake
Hudson'? Bay Co, pest on Chipewyan lake, Athabaska
district.    Established 1670.    Shown on the Company map of posts
1924  (No.39).   113'30'W - 56°57'N.
111 Fort Churehili
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at mouth of Churchill river.    The
first fort was built I6S8 five miles up the riv^r.    Whal» fish-   ■
ing was notable at that time.    This fcrt was captured by the
French 1689.    In 1716 a second fcrt was built at meuth of river/
made of wood.    A third fort,  the great  fcrt known as Fcrt Princfc
of Wales, was constructed in 1734j  on the point at  entrance to
Churchill Harbour.    The walls w^re 37 to 42 feet thick at base
and 6 feet  3 inches at top.    The north and south sides of the
fort were ever 100 yards long.    -Walls were of cut  stone and    it
was  erected by Seetijh masons brought  ever from Scetland for the
purpose.    This  fort w
as capt
ared
and i
.estroy
?d by the French
under Admiral La P»ro
use in 1782,
and
the r»mains are-now a
Historic Memorial Sit
e in ch<
irg6'
cf ti
ie Dominion Government.
Some of the guns^of
vhich' tl
lere
were
forty,
arr-lying en the
ground.    In 1784 an |
stablishment
was
censtr
acted on the. present
site, a few miles ups
tream f
rem t
he ol
d fort
and on sit*- of th*
first original fort o
f 1688.
It
is s
tuat^d
in the midst of a
barren rocky region w
itliout \
rcod.
Lcc
aition
jt these forts shown
on map of Churchill H
arbtur
No.7
8). C
n Rocq
;e's map 1763 (Ke.*6).fc
Del'lsle 1700   (No.94)
Fort Clatsop
"*
See Fort As
toria.
112    Cl°ar Water Lake Hous
e
Small Hudso
n's Bay
Co.
post
en Clear 'Water lake  (now
called T^ggau lake)   f
ew mil^s wes
t  of
aagle
Lake District  of
Kenora,     It was noted
on the
1869
and
1872 lists of posts.    Map
Northwest c-.rn Ontario
(No.79)
sho*
s loc
,ation
^f lake.   •
113    Coacoacho post
Small Hudso
n's Bay
Co.
post
on Coac
;oacho bay,  l*wer St,
Lawrence,  about leng.
60° 15'",
his r
xst was built  before 1546,
and abandoned about  1
657.     1
lown
on 'Whit e' s z
".ap Nabrador pests
  114 Cold Lake House
Small Hudson's Bay Co. outpost of Nelson House, on
Cold Lake (now called Kissias'lng Lakl;) about -75 miles southwest
of Nelson Ho'use, tributary to the Chnrchill river. It appears
on lists of 1869 and 1672. Location 'of lake on Mclnnes map (No.42
Fort Columbia
ir
115 Fort Colville h\sT
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on Cclvillo river about on#-mile
from junction with Columbia river,  State of Washingtcn.    It was
a wooden fort of large- size,  pnclcsed with stockades and bastions.
Thp buildings, were made of cedar logs.    Cultivated fields surrounded the fort.    It was  established in 182c,  and of the Oregon
country forts it was next in importance to Fort Vancouver,    fie
Hudson's Bay Co.  claimed indemnity frcm the United States for this
fort.    See "Oregon Territory".    It  is shown on Devine map 1857
(No.12), Arrowsmith's maps 1857  (No.8) and 1854  (No.77)  and■
Rinfret's  (No.3).    Also on Map State of Washington (No.80) &
Arrowsmlth 1832   (Ho.101).
Fcrt Conde'
See Fort Mobile.
Fort Concord
See Fort Wapikcpa.
116 Fort Connolly
Hudson's Bay Cc.  fort at north end of Bear lake, uB.C.
near head ef Skeena river.    3ullt 1826 by Douglas..    It was clesed-
about 1900 and appears last  on 1894 list.    Originally built on'}
an island.    Shown on Rinfret's map (No.3),  on Devine map 1357      ?
(Nc.12)  and Arrowsmlth 1P57   (No.8)  and 1854  (No.77)   1832  (Nc.lCl/.,
Sometimes spelt Connelly.      Skeena river was called Simpson's \
river at  first.    See also" map Northern Canada  (No.35).
117 Fort Confidence.
Sxplrr-rs  fort built by Simpson and Lease for Franklin
on Lease Bay at northeast  end cf Great Boar lake in IS37.    It
was a simple log hcuse 40  feet long by 14 feet wide.    This
building was burned.    It was  rfbuilt by Bell and Riohardscn IS**5.
The buildings were still in fair condition in 1398. ' Nc rails
wer# -used in the structure,  but  drve-taiilng and wooden pegs.
It was situated in a sheltered place prrt^ct»d by a large island.
Its location is  shown on Arrrwsmith 1657   (Nc.3)   1854   (N».77j  ?in<}
map pf Northern Canada  (No,35).    On right  tank at  outlet  cf Iras"
French trading pest built  1715  on Strait  cf  B^l
st of 3aie Rougo.     Built ty Constantin who obtained the
  "1
cession 31 March 1716 from the King. In 1732 Constantin leased
his posts at Riviere des Francais (this po3t), Baie Rouge, and
Ste.Marie. In 1737 Constantin occupied this post and was protected from poaciiers in 1748. The post was not maintain?d
aft^r the cession of Canada. Rivier'- des Francais is now
called Plnware river and Ste.Marie is now Ste.Modeste. Shown "
on White's map Labrador posts  (No.24).
119 Copper Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort  on Atna or Copper river Alaska
at mouth of Chitlyna river (Chitlna).    Probably site of present
town Chltina.    On American territory.    Shown Arrowsmith map
1857   (No.13)  and 1854  (No.77).
120 Cormoran post
Ancient French post at  the western extremity of
Mingan Seigniory, probably established 1661 wh*n the seigniory
was granted.     (See Mingan).    In 1803 this jjost was leased by
Grant,  Stuart and Dunn to McTavish Frobisher & Co.   (the North
West  Co.).     On the expiration of the 1803 lease it was leased
tc  the Hudson's Bay Co.    The last  reported operations known
were in 1831.    It was not included in Simpson's 1857 lease.
121 Fort Coulcnge
French fort on left bank of Ottawa river (north side)
-""at mouth of Coulenge rivor, between Grand Calumet and Allumettes Islands - stockaded fort erected about 1680 or earlier.
The family of Louis d'Ailleboust, Sieur dp Coulonge, traded
with the Indians on the Ottawa river from 1670 to 1760 and
erected several trading pests of which fort Coulonge was one.
After the cession of Canada this post was deserted by the
French. Alexander Henry Sr., one of the first free-traders,
passed this fort 1761 and states that it was deserted at that
time,' "a trading fort surrounded by stockade, built by th*
French". Harmon was there 1800 and mentions the fort. It was
soon operated by the North West Cc, who rehabilitated'many 'of
the vacant French forts which had not been destroyed. The
Hudson's. Bay Co.'after the coalition 1821 took over this fort
and operated it until about 1865. It appears on-the'Arrewsmith
map 1832 (No.101), 1857 (No.8) and 1854 UTo.77) but is net included among the Company lists later than 1869. It was visited
by Governor Simpson in 1841 when on his famous trip. McLean
In his "Twenty five years Service" speaks of being there in
'1622-23.
122 Fort  Cowlitz
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort en loft bank ef Cowlitz river
about 25 miles upstream and about  35 miles  from Fort Vancouver.
3uilt by Douglas 1837.    It was a small  establishment  of one
house.    Was cne of the posts  for which the Hudson's Bay Cc.
claimed Indemnity from the United States,   1665,    Shown on
Arrowsmith map. 1857   (No.8).
123 Fort Crevecoeur
French fort built by La Salie in 1680 on'left "bank
Illinois river about 6C miles from its junction with the
  Mississippi river. Means "broken hearted" and was so named by De
La Salle. It was demolished in 1681. Rebuilt 1683 and tl;<=r_ called Fort St.Louis,  It was u 1-ague below Des Miamis and about 60
miles from mouth of river. Its location was site of Starved Rock,
near Utica, Illinois. It is included in Bougainville's list 1756
under the name of Fort Pimiteoui. It is shown'en map of French
claims 1756 (No.10) and on D=l'Isle's maps 1700 (No.94) and 1703
(No.18). Henri de Tonty took command of Fort St.Louis 1683 and
the post was granted to him and La Forest as a seigniory. Lake
Pimiteoui is shown on Del'Isle's map 1700 as an enlargement of
the Illinois river a few miles north of Fort St.Louis. Starved
Rock was so named in memory of a band of Illinois who took refuge
there and were starved to death while besieged by their enemies
the Pottawattomies. AI30 en map No. 96.
Fort Cre-vler
French military fort at mouth of St. Francis river, on
the shore of lake St.Peter, at Netre Lame do Pierrevllle. It
was erected 1687.  It was the scene of battles 1689 and 1693.
It guarded approach to -Srois Bivieres from the south.
Fort Grown Point
The original French fort was called Fort St. Frederic
and was built under Marquis de Beauharnois 1725-26, on west bank
near southern extremity of lake Champlain. It was one of the
chain of forts extending from Montreal tc mouth of the
Mississippi river by the Great Lakes, Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
3uilt to prevent Intercourse and trade between Montreal and
Albany and New York, it was destroyed by the French occupants
under Bourlamaque about August 1st 1759 before the advance of
Amherst. It was then rebuilt by the, English and called FcvFt
Crown Point. Crown Point Itself was called by the.French '.'Pointe
a la Chevelure", or Scalp Point. During the American revolution,
Crown Point was captured by Seth Warner May 1775. It is shown
on map of French claims 1756 (No.10) i No.97'
Fort Cumberland(l)
See Fort Beausejour
Fort Cumberland (2)
English fort on north branch of headwaters of Potomac
river on boundary between Maryland and Virginia - Shown maps 96
& 95.
Cumberland House
The first trading pos'
Joseph Frobisher 1772 free-trad'
was., then known as Pine Island 1;
was built for the purpose of in
Fort Nelson. It was built clos<
far from the site formerly occupied by
It was. a temporary structure am
The second fort on Cut
n Cumb
erla
nd lake,, was
bu
il't
b
at the
tim
e.    Cumberla
nd
la
, and
Stur
sceon lake.
lb
,s  i
ceptir
g th
i= Indians gc
In
2 to
o port
age
to  Gull  lake
,ct
not
d by t
r«nch fort r
as
coy:
1C
as soo
n re
placed.
rland
lake
was built t
i
Sami
  Hearne for the Hudson's Bay Cc,  in 1774.    It was called
Cumberland House,  situated at  east end of the lake,  near
portage.to Gull lake, where it l»aves Cumberland lake. The name
was givnn by Hearne in honour of Prince Rupert,Duke of
Cumberland,  first Governor of Hudson's  3ay Co.    This  fort has
always been maintained since 1774.    It is the eldest post of
Hudson's Bay Co.  in the interior,  for although Henley House,
Split Lake House,  and Nelson House, were built between 1740 and
1760,  these posts are near the Bay and only nominally inland.
It  is a strategic point as two routes open thence to the interio:
west and south by Saskatchewan river,  northwest and north to the
upper Churchill country.    The Hudson's  3ay Co. post was located
about  500 yards from Frobisher's house of 1772,  on the south
shore,  "on thp Saskatchewan river at a spot where it is touched
by Cumberland lake".    It was built on an island at the southeast  end cf Pine Island lake, about 4 miles north of the
Saskatchewan river,  into which are three outlets from the lake,
namely,  Big Stone river immediately in the rear and west  of/fort
Tearing river 4 miles to  east, and Fishing Weir creek farther
east.    Pine island is made by the lake on the north,  Saskatchewan river on south,  Big Stone river on the west, and Tearing
river on the east.
In 1780 the North West Oo. constructed their new fort
(also called Cumberland House or Station) about 100 .yards from
Hudson's Bay Co. and about 1^- miles west  of the first house
built by Frobisher 1772.    Henry Jr. was thare in 1305 and
describes it as being at the north *M cf this little river
called Little Englisii river',  I.e.    the -Tearing river.    This
fort was sometimes called Fort Sturgeon Lake, but  in general
both Companies used the same name Cumberland House.    This was
the first permanent post of the North West Co. on Cumberland
lake and was maintained by them to the coalition 1821.    In 17?.%
when Alexander Henry Sr. passed, there was only the Hudson*^
3ay Co. post,  Frobisher's post cf 1772 having disappeared.
There was also an X.Y.  Co. pest near by.
128    Cust's House
A free-trader's  establishment  at west  end of Reeky
Mountain Portage, Hudson's Kojje or.Reeky Mountain Portage Fort
being at  east  end.    Harmon was there in 1810,and does net  speak
of Cust's House,  simply "the. northwest  end of Rocky Mountain
Portage".    It was on the l»ft bank of Peac river in the caSSou.
56°N - 122°'W.    It is shown on map of Canada -35 miles to  1 inch,
and Dawson map 1879  (No.81).    An old Hudson's Bay Co. post was
located at west  end cf portage.
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort on Red river near Pembina.
Built by Governor Macdonn-ill,  o<=pt.  1812.    Some say was built
the Selkirk settler3 1612.     It was named after Lord Selkirk,
who was also Baron Daer.    The North We-st Cc. had a pest near b
which was called Porabina House.    The Hudson's Bay Co.  fort was
on west bank of Red river at mouth of Pomibna rlvr en north
side,   on the site of present  town of Pembina.    The Hudson's Ba,
Cc.   first appeared on the Red river in 1793 when McKay built
alongside the N.W. Co.   (Grant's House),    a
  North West Co.  fort Is shown on Thompson's map (No.7)  on south
side of Pembina river.
130 Fort Dauphin
Old French fort on northwest shore of lake Manitoba,
called by the French Lac des Prairies.    Built by the sons of
Verendrye 1741 at the portage to lake Vyinipegosis,  at the
mouth of a small river now called Mossy river,  and by the
French "riviere des  Biches",   flowing from the west.    The first
fort was destroyed by the Indians, but the French rebuilt it in
1743.    The last  fort was probably destroyed when abandoned by
the French at the cession of Canada.    The site has been built
upon several times.    It was one of the eldest trading posts in
the west.    The site of Fort Dauphin was known to the Canadian
traders who traversed this part of the country immediately after
the cession of Canada.    It was evidently no longer In existence
when Pond and Henry travelled west  in 1774.    Its location Is
shown on map of French claims  1756  (No.10)  and Devine map 1857
(No.12)  also Bellin's map 1755  (No.93).
Bougainville 1757  says  "Fort Dauphin is 80 leagues
from La Reine,  situated on the river Minanghenachequeke or
"De 1'eau Trouble".
131 Dauphin Lake House
Sometimes called Fort Dauphin.    The first fort on
Dauphin lake was built by Pond on the north shore 1775, where
- Pond spent the winter.    Its location is shown on Pond's map 1785
(No.82), marked "Pond Fort 1779",  a more permanent  structure
than that of 1775.    This  fort was afterwards moved to  south shore
and to Ochre river a few miles  south of the lake, under the
operations of the- North Y/est Co.,  and the location is shown on
Thompson's map  (No.7).    After the coalition of 1821 the Hudson's'
Bay Co. took over this  establishment and it is shown on their
maps 1832 & 1857  (Arrowsmith No.8 & No. 106) marked Dauphin Lake
House.    It was probably discontinued about 1870 and does not
appear on the 1872 list of posts.    The first Hudson Bay Co.. fort
was situated one mile up the west side of Mossy river.    This
fort was abandoned in 1821 when the Hudson's Bay Co. moved tc  th*
North West Co.  fort, which was built  on Valley river west of
Dauphin lake.    The Hudson's Bay Co.  also had a trading pest about
midway on the west  shore of lake Dauphin shown on Tyrrell's map
1891  (No.83) as abandoned.    Several different posts were built
in the immediate vicinity at various times.    Thompson obtained
supplies  from the North West Co.   fort   in 1797.    Tyrrell in his
Report on north-western Manitoba 1887-90,   speaks of seeing the
remains of old Hudson Bay Co. trading posts on west sido lake
Dauphin,  8 miles south of mouth of Valley river,  and other ruins
of the Company's fort on °ast bank of Mossy river, x mile above
its mouth, on a narrow strip of grassy land between the forest
and the river.
132 Davis Inlet post
Hudson's Bay Co. post on an island off the Labrador
coast about 56° N. near Zoar.    This post was sold to Hudson's
Bay Co. by a.  3. Hunt & Co. in 1869, and has since been maintained by them.     Shown on -./hite's map Labrador Posts   (No.24).
  Dease Lake Fort
Hudson's 3ay Co. post at south end  (head)  of Dease
lake B.C.,   source ef Dease river.    Built  by Robert Campbell  1336.
This fort was seon burned by Indians, but was rebuilt after the
fire.    Does not appear on th° Company lists of forts later than
1856 until 1925,  and appears  to have been closed from about  1870
to 1910.    Shown on map of Alaska &c,  1897   (No.84)  and Arrowsmith
1857 (No.8).
Albany and Oswego.
Shown on man French
134    Fort  de Bull
British fort on line betw
Captured and destroyed by French 17
claims 1756  (No.10).
Fort Deer Lake
See Fort Caribou.
Fort De la Prenior
See Ash House
Fort D-e la Presentation
French fort on right bank of St .Lawrence-,  site of present  town Ogdensburg.    Established about 1718.    The fort was rebuilt or strengthened in 1748.    Bougainville in 1757 described
it as,!a poor fort of wood palisades with a small garrison".    A
mission for Indians of Five Nations was  established there by
Abbe' Piquet  cf the Sulpicians.    About  100 Indians of the five
natiens assembled there for trade.    It was a King's pest and one
of the very few from which no  "eau-de-vie" was given out to the
Indians.    The mission had been only re-rently established in 1757.
The fort was also known as "La Galette" and location is shown on
map of French claims 1756  (No.10)  alsc No.  97.
Fcrt De l'Asscmptien (1)
French fort on left bank Mississippi river below mouth
of Marget river . Probably on site ef Memphis. Fort built 1698.
Shown on Benin's map 1755  (No.93)  and on Rccqu*-'s map 1763  (No.
137 Fort De 1'Assomption (2)
French fort on Richelieu river,  about 10 miles below
fort Chambly,  on left bank.     Shown on map of French claims  (No.10)
138 Fcrt  De l'Isle  (l)
Twc small trading posts of North Y/est Co. and Hudson's
Bay Cc.  on North Saskatchewan river,   in vicinity of Manchester
House.. Mentioned by McDonald of Garth in his Autobiographical
Notes 1792  (Masson II pg.16), also by Alexander Henry Jr.  1809
Sept.  11, who says "this was old fort Brule abandoned some years
ago."    It was built  on north side river, Thompson, 1800., names
it Island House and in 1808 calls  it   "Burnt  Fort de l'Isle".    It
was abandoned before 1800.    The Fall Indians plundered and burnt
the Hudson's Bay Co. pest at  this place  in 1793 but were repulsed
from the North West Co.
  60
139 Fort  Be I'Isle   (2)
A IJorth West Co.  fort  on Saskatchewan
river about  20 miles above  Fort  George,  built by
Decoigne   1801.
140 Fort de  Longueuil
Military fort in seigniory granted to
Charles  le Moyne  1657 at  Longueuil.     It was  built
1689-90 for  protection against  Iroquois   to the  south.
Was  demolished 1810.     The  seigniory  of Longueuil comprised 150  square miles.     Charles  Le Moyne   (son of
the  first  Seigneur)   became Baron in 170O and  the
title  hereditary.     The   seigniory was noted for  its
famous baronial chateau  of solid masonry and flanked by  four towers,   reminder  of  castles   in feudal
France.
Fort Denonville
See  Fort  Niagara.
Fort Pes Prairies
This name  was  given to several  different
forts.   See under the   following:
Fort a la Corne; Portage-la-prairie l\.
Y<". Co.; Fort la JonquiSre; Fort "Edmonton (see Fort
Augustus); Fort Aux Trenlbles on Assiniboine river;
Franch fort Nepoin on Saskatchewan river. Lower
Fort Des Prairies was Fort Vermilion on Saskatchewan
river at mouth of Vermilion river. Upper Fort Des
Prairies was  Fort Augustus.    *'
Fort"pes Trembles
See Fort a  la  Corns   .
Fort  Da Tremble
141    Fort Detroit
River Fort.
The   first  trading post between lakes
Huron and Urie  was  built by Diilhut,  at- Denonville 1s
request,   in 1686,   or a little  earlier, at the  pro-
sent city   of port Huron,  not  far from the   site  of
fort Gratiot.     It was  called Fort  St.Joseph,   On
Bellin's map 1755  it is  called Fort  du Luth,     Fort
Gratiot and Ft.   St.   Clai r were   on  the  American side
of St.Clair river,   between lake   St.   Clair and  lake
Huron.     Fort  St.  Joseph was soon abandoned and  la
so marked  by symbol  on La Hontan 'a map 1703*     In
1686 Farquis  de   Denonville  urged  the  French Government  to strengthen the fort at  Detroit.     Nothing
was dme  until   1701 when Cadillac  founded  the new
fort and called  it Fort pontchartrain,  at  the   sa.m'5
  time establishing a settlement at Detroit, which was
the first French  colony in that region.     The  fort
was also called Fort Ticksarondis.    Bougainville
1757  states  that   it was an  important  entrepot  for
the  southern posts,  also a settlement  of Huron
Indians.    He  calls it  "Pontchartrain des Deux Lacs",
established by Antoine  de   la Kotte-Cadillae,   de
Toulouse.     He says  there were 200 habitations including the  environs,  well stocked,  which furnished
grain to the  different posts   in the north.    He  recommended establishing there  the  Feudal system for
soldiers,   the  officers  to be  seigneurs.    This • |
government, he says, would be able  to furnish the
posts   of Niagara,   Frontenac,  La presentation, and
others  on the   shore  of the  St.Lawrence.     (This
system had been established in the  Richelieu valley
for  the   officers and disbanded soldiers   of the
Carignan regiment).    After the  cession of Canada,
Detroit  surrendered  to the  British, November,   1760.
Buring Pontiac's war, which broke out soon after the
English forces garrisoned the western forts,   Detroit
sustained a seige  of 15 months  1763-64 without
surrender.     The  fort was located  on the  west side  of
Detroit river,  stookaded with bastions at each
corner,   palisades 25  feet high,  the  whole surrounded
by a moat.     Over  each gate  there  was a  blockhouse.
It was armed with a  few light guns.     Shown on map
of French  claims 1756   (No.10);"   on Bellin's map 1744,
(No.15);     on La Hontan's map 1703   (No.20);   on
Jeffe»ys map 1762   (See No.   12).     On Danville  1755
(No.97)   is called   ?.t.pontchartrain.    Also   on maps
96 and 120 & 111.     Both names  ^iven  on P.ownall's
map 17 76 No.  108.
Fort  drIsle
See Island House.
142 Fort Douglas
Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort,  Winnipeg,   on site
of present Robert and George avenues,  about one mile
downstream from Fort Gibraltar,  near the bank of the
Red river.     It was built by John McLeod for Governor
McDonnell in 1812.    Was  captured by Cuthbert Grant,
July,  1816, after the killing of Governor Semple at
Seven Oaks and partly demolished.     It was  recaptured
by Lord Selkirk in 1817.     For several  years Fort
Douglas was  the  headquarters  of the Governor of
Assiniboia.    When the  Hudson's Bay Co.  repurchased
Lord  Selkirk's  rights,   in  1835,   Fort Douglas was
sold to Robert Logan who  occupied some  of the  buildings until 1854.     See Winnipeg Forts and maps  in
"Old Forts   of Winnipeg."    Built on site   of Fort
Selkirk.
143 Fort Drew
Hudson's Bay Co.  post in British Columbia
about 130°W.   It was  situated west  of Fort Halkett
  and is shown on map in Willson's  "Great Company".
On Dease  river at mouth   of Carribeau  (French creek)
river.     It appears  on Arrowsmith map 1850   (No. 100)
but not on later maps -  Also  on No.6.
144 Duck  Bay House
A small Hudson's Bay Co.   post at mouth
of  Duck  river,  west  shore   of lake  Winnipegosi3.     It
was established 1859.     Stood at  bottom of the  bay,
70 yards  back from the lake.    Abandoned during the
autumn of 1887,  a  new store  being opened at Pine
River  on west bank about 1% miles from the mouth.
This was always a small  outpost,  not  included in
lists  of forts.     Shown on mat) Forest Distribution
Tyrrell   (No.   43).
145 Ft.   Ba Lievre
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at mouth Du Lievre
river,  15 miles below  Hull,  shown on Arrowsmith map
1857   (No.8),  and became   the   basis  for town of
Buckingham.     There  was an old French fort  or trading
post  on this  site which was  deserted in 1761 when
Alexander Henry Sr.  passed up the   Ottawa.     Possibly
this fort was  operated by  the North West Co. and
after the  coalition 1821,   by the Hudson's Bay Co.
146 Fort Du Milieu
North West Co.  fort  on North Saskatchewan  river,  known as Middle Fort or-  Half-way House.
Alexander Henry Jr.   passed  it Sept.   5,   1808,  and
observed  that  "it had been abandoned many years ago".
Thompson also  passed the   3ite  in 1808.     It was 2*
hours down from Carlton  (Crossing place)  and 1 hour
before Yellow Banka,  and 2-4  hours abo-ve   the site   of
old Hudson's House.     It was about half-way between
Carlton and prince Albert.
147 Fort  Dumoine
An old French fortifitd trading post at
mouth of Dumoine  river, about  9 miles above  Allumet-
te  Island  in Ottawa  river.     It ?jas  deserted in 1761
when Alexander Henry Sr.  passed  on his  journey west,
ft was deserted at  the   cession  of Canada when all
the  Ottawa  river posts  were abandoned.
148    Fort Duncan
North West Co.  fort at north end of lake
Nipigon.    Probably built  by Duncan Cameron for the
North West  Co.  about 1795.     He  was clerk at Nipigon
1797 and in charge   of Nipigon district 1799.     The
site  is uncertain but was  probably located  on
Wabino3h Bay at the  northwest angle, where   the
Hudson's Bay Co.   located at first,   or on Windigo Bay.
See also  "Nipigon House".
  149 Fort Dunvegan
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort  on north bank  of
Peace  river at mouth of Muddy Creek   (118°40'  W & 56°
N.)   built  about 1800.    Was  closed  temporarily  in 1825
to punish  the  Indians  for the massacre at Fort St.
John in 1823.     This fort was maintained by the Company until  about 1900.     Shown  on maps No.   8,  101 &
100.
The North West Co.  also built  opposite   «he
the  Hudson's Bay Co.   on the  south bank, about  1800.
This  fort was  soon moved  to   the north  bank,  near the
Hudson's Bay Co.     It was named after McLeod's castle
of Skye   Is.     Harmon visited   the  fort  in  1809.   Shown
on Map of "^arly Fur Trading Posts  in Alberta   (No.11).
150 Fort Duquesne
French fort at the confluence  of   the
Alleghaney and Ohio  rivers.     It was  first  built by
Governor Dinwiddie   of Virginia in 1753 and Washington with  150 men was sent to garrison it.     Before
the arrival  of Washington,   Contrecoeur had captured
the   fort, which was  then  strengthened by  the French
and the  building completed  (1753).     General Braddock
was  defeated in  1755 when attempting  to  recapture
the  fort.     It is given in Bougainville's list who
says  that  it was made  "of wood,   small,   of little
account,  controlled by  two approaches within gunshot;     in a 'Tword,  indefensible,   if attacked.     It
is necessary  to prevent the  "English from seizing
these parts.     It ought  to be a more  respeetable  fort
whioh in time  of war oould hold 500  or 600 men as.
garrison". Under the French regime it was rated
as  one of the Zing's posts for trade.
In 1758 it was  captured by  the ''English
after being abandoned and blown up by the French.
The name was changed to Fort Pitt and the  settlement was called Pittsbourg.     It was rebuilt by the
"English after 1761.     It was attacked by Pontiac  in
1763  and  the attack  repulsed.  Map  (97).
Fort Durham
See Fort Highfield.
Fort Du Traite
See Fort La Traite.
Fort Du Tremble
See Eeg River Fort,
^abamet Lake House
A North West Co. post is shown at the
outlet of lake Habamet (tributary to Albany river,
88° W.) on map by Wm. Molnnes 1903 "part of District
of Keewatin" marked "Old Post". (No.54).  It is also
  shown on map of North Western Ontario 1922   (No.79)
and  on map  of Albany,   Severn and Winisk  rivers  1910
(No.57)  marked  "N.W.  Co.   Old Post".     It was located
near Fort Hope   of Hudson's  Bay Co.
Eagle  Hill Fort
See Montague   d'Aigie.
152 Eagle 's Nest House
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on ^gle  lake,
about  75 miles  east  of Rat Portage.  ' It was  established about  1860,  appears   on the  1872  list  of posts, and
was  closed  about  1880.
153 East Main Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at mouth of East
Main river   (called also Hudson,  Canuse,  and Slude
river).     Built  1685..   It  was  rebuilt in 1719 and
again  in 1730,  a   small square  fort.     In 1732  it was
made  headquarters  of  the  east  coast,  until after
1821.     As  the   only fort on Hudson Bay held by the
English between 1697 and 1713 was Fort Albany,   it
is  probable   that  the  first East Main  fort was  rebuilt  in 1719 when the  sloop  "Diligence" wintered
at East Main 1718-1719.     The   first  journal  of East
Main begins  in 1736.     In 1739 a new Factory  house
wa3 built nearer  the  coast at George's point,   completed  1739-40.     In 1749   it was  listed as   one   of the
Hudson's Bay Co's.  six forts  on Hudson Bay.     In
176 4 it appears  to  have   been again  rebuilt.     In
1821 it   ceased  to  be headquarters  of east  coast.     In
1830  it was  in a  dilapidated oondition.     It  does not
appear on  the  list   of 1857 and was probably  closed
for a time.     It wa3 named as  one  of the  Hudson's Bay
Co.   posts on the  Deed of  Surrender 1869.     Is  being
operated 1928,     It was sometimes called  "Slude River
Post".     The first East Main fort was  on Fishing
Creek  on  the north side   of mouth East Main river.
The new  fort was built  on a point on the  south side
of mouth  of  river about ||  miles  southwest  of the
old site.     Appears  on White's   :map of  Labrador
Peninsula   (No.24)  and Carvers map 1778   (No.19)  &o.
Fort Edmonton
See  Fort Augustus.
154 Egg Lake House
Small Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  on Egg Lake
about 10 miles west  of Nut  lake, Manitoba.    Mentioned in Annual Report  Department  of  Interior 1892
(part   II  p.   56)   as  "remains ,of old trading post
which had been burnt".    Map .showing location in
same  report.    Was  on the list of Hudson's Bay Co.
posts 1894.
Elbow Fort
See   Somerset House.
  155 Fort Ellice
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort on Assiniboine
river about 5 miles  below mouth of Qu'Appelle  river.
Built  soon after the  coalition   of  1821.     In 1862  it
had deelined  to a "lone  habitation",  trade having
disappeared.     Its  only purpose for some   time had
been to  supply pemmican and dried meat for brigades
and northern posts.     It was   included  in  the  1869
list  of forts  but was discontinued  soon after.     It
was some times called the   "Beaver Creek post".     Shown
Map Macoun 1882 and  its site on Sectional  Sheet
No.  1§1.
156 "Encampment   Island Fort
North West Co.   fort on left bank Peace
river above Fort Vermilion.    Built before 1808 for
trade  with Beaver Indians.    Visited by Harmon 1808.
Shown on map No.   2 for Harmon's  journal.     It was
probably near or  opposite  £eg  river Fort   or Fort
Du Tremble  built later  (Map No,86)  and was named
"Old Fort"  on Hudson's Bay Co.  map 1857   (No.8).  See
also maps No.   5 and 11.
English River House
See Fort Mamattawa.
157 Fort Enterprise
Explorer's  fort built by Sir John
Franklin in 1820  on Yellowknife  river near source   of
Coppermine  river, at Winter lake.     It was not used
by fur traders.    'Map.  8 &c.
158 Erlandson Post
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at  outlet  Indian
House  lake,  an enlargement  of George  river,  about
100 miles  from George  River post  at mouth  of  river
in Ungava Bay.     Built  1838-39.     Called  later Fort
Trial.    Was probably abandoned in 1842 for some
time,  but was  included in the  Company list  of 1857.
Its site is  shown on Low's map 1896 marked "abandoned".
159 Fort Esperance
North West  Co.  fort   on Qu'Appelle river
near mouth  of Cut-Arm Creek.     It was two  days'
journey up the Qu'Appelle river  from its  junction
with the Assiniboine  river,   on right bank.     It was
situated not far above  fort Ellice   of later date.
It  is  shown  on Rinfret map No.  3  marked "Old Fort
Esperanee".     Said  to  have  been first built  by
Robert Grant about  1783.     John McDonnell wrote  in
his   journal   fron Fort  Esperanee undei/date  October
1793.     This was  the  first North-West  Co.  fort  in
the  Assiniboine  country.     It was rebuilt  in  1806
  by McDonald for the North West Co.     This post
became later the  chief provision depot   of  the  Company
and large  quantities  of dried meat  and pemmican were
kept there  for  the   other posts.     It was called by
Thompson "Thorburn's House",  who visited the  fort  in
1797.
The  X.Y.Co, also had a  small post nearby.
160 Fort Esquimault
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on Vancouver Island
built  about 1850 and  shown on Watkin map No.   21.     It
appears on the  Company lists   of 1869 and 1872,   but
was soon superseded by the Esquimault Naval Station.
Esquimaux Bay Post
See  Fort Rigolette.
Esquimau River Post
See  Fort St.   Paul.
161 Fort Essington
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on pacific coast
between Fort Simpson and Fort McLoughlin, near mouth
of Naas river B.C.,   site of present Bella Coola.
Founded  1835 to serve as an intermediate station.
Shown  on map No.   6  & No. 101.    Was  of  short  duration.
162 Fairford House   (1)
A small Hudson's Bay Co.   trading post  on
Churchill  river,   one  mile   below   the mouth  of Reindeer river.     It was built  in 1795 and apparently was
abandoned in 1796 when Bedford House was built on
west  shore  of Reindeer lake.     Thompson was there   in
June  1796.
163 Fairford House   (2)
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post at   outlet   of
Manitoba lake  on Portage Bay.     It was established
about 1856 and  is  included  in the   Company's  lists  to
1894 inclusive.    Was visited by the  Hind's Expedition
of 1858.     Shown  on H.B.Co.  map   of  1857   (No.8)  and
Macoun map 1882   (No.13).
164 False River Post
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post near mouth  of
Koksoak   river,  Ungava Bay,   established about  1833.
This  post was  included   in the   Lis'-   of 1869  on the
Deed  of Surrender.     It appears   in  the   List  of 1894
but was discontinued soon,  not  being  in the  List  of
1925.
165     Filler's  Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at Winnipeg,  built
  by Fidler for the  Company in 1818.     It was a
palisaded structure  located at  the  present McDermot
Avenue and Notre  Dame   Street,   east  of site   of Fort.
Gibraltar.     It was known as  "The  Company's- Fort",
or Fidler's Fort;     Until  the  Hudsonrs Bay Co^, rebuilt  Fort  Gibraltar as the   first  Fort Garry in 1822,.
this was  the  Company's establishment at the  Forks as
distinct   from Fort  Douglas which was  distant about
one mile.     It was  said  to have  been destroyed by the
flood of 1826. See also  "Winnipeg Forts".
166 Finlay's House   (1)
Free trader's post on North Saskatchewan
river  on north side,  at Nipawin Rapids   (Nepowewin),
about 35 miles  east of Fort a la  Corne   (104020' West).
It was x.built by James  Finlay,  pioneer free-trader in
1767.     It is  shown  on Hudson's Bay Co.  map 1832
(No.101),1850   (No.100)   & 1857   (No.13);   see  also map3
37 & 42 for position  of rapids.     Journal  of Matthew
Cocking of Hudson's Bay Co.  1772 says  that Finlay
occupied the post in 1767.     Alexander Henry passed
the  site   of Finlay's  fort  in  1776.     The   original
fort was  probably  destroyed by  Indians   (?)   and was
rebuilt and used promiscuously by traders  for many
years.     Sir Alexander Mackenzie  in  his "Account  of
the  Rise   of   the  Fur Trade" names  Jame3 Finlay and
Thomas  Curry as the  first traders who entered  the
west after the  French  retired.     This was probably
the  first post built in this region after the  Cession
of Canada.
167 Finlay House   (2)
Trading post  of free-traders  shown on
map No.11 of early Alberta  posts  on right  bank of
Peace  river about  116° 34' W.  and 58°  14'  N.   opposite
some  islands,  and about 30 miles upstream from the
"Old Establishment" at mouth  of the Boyer river
(Ft.  Vermilion).     It  is named  "Old Fort"  on the
Hudson's Bay  Co   .  map 1857   (No.8).
Fort Fitzgerald
Later name  of Salt River House,  which see.
168 Flamborough Factory
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Hayes river,
about 40 leagues from mouth,   on Hayes  island,
opposite  Flamborough Head.     It was built   in  1750
to prevent "interlopers   intercepting Indians before
they  could reach our Factory at York  Fort".   In 1752
it was   stated that this post was not independent  of
York Fort.     It  is  shown  onHhe   Carver map of 1778   (No.
19)  and on Condor's map  1750   (page  38,   "Old Forts  of
Winnipeg" by Dr.  Napier Bell.)
169 Flat Heads House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   outpost  of Fort  Colville.
  It was established by Thompson  in 1809,   on  the  right
bank  of Flat Heads or Clarke's  river,  115°W.     The
Company  claimed indemnity for this post  from the
United  States  in 1865.     (Vid.   Oregon Territory).     It
is shown  on the  Hudson's Bay Co. map 1657   (Arrowsmith)'
No.8,  and Map of  Devine 1857  No.   12,  also Arrowsmith
1832   (No.101)  and 1850   (No.100).
170 Flying Post
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Ground Hog lake
near the   head  of Ground Hog   (or Kakozhisk)   river,   a
branch  of the Mattagami  river,   Ontario.     It was  formerly called  Fort Kuekatoo3h,   (probably  from
Kakozhisk) ,  and was listed under  that name   in the
Company's list of 185 7 and in the  list accompanying
the   Deed  of Surrender 1869.     It appears   on list  of
1894 but was  probably  closed about  1900.     Originally
this was a North West Company post and was  taken  over
by the  Hudson's Bay Co.  at   the  time   of  the  union
1821.     It is  shown on Geological  Survey map with report 1880-2   (No.96);   on  the 'Watkin map 1872   (No.21)
and  on map Labrador posts White  1926.
171 Fort Fond-du-Lac   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.   fortified  post at  east
end of lake Athabaska,   situated  on a low point of
sand and rock on north shore  where the'lake  is  only
2 miles wide.     It consists   of a  number  of well-built
log houses  surrounded by palisades   of stout posts.
This post is on the principal line   of travel  of the
Barren Ground caribou  in  their  regular migrations
north and south.     It was  built  by Jose Mercredi ,  a
French half-breed,   in  1845,   who  in   1892 was  75 years
old and had been in charge   of the post  for 47 years.
In early part   of the   century,  about 1820,   the Hudson's Bay Co.   had  their  post   on a  point  of  the   south
shore.     The  three  inhabitants were killed  by
Chippewyan Indians and the  post looted.     At the same
time  the North West  Co.  had a post on a  point  of the
north shore a  short  distance   farther east,   but after
the murder  of the Hudson's Bay Co. men,  they moved
across to1  the point  of   south  shore.     The  post was
abandoned by both companies until  rebuilt by the
Hudson's Bay Co.   in 1845.     Since then,  the  post has
been in constant operation.     Location of post  is
shown on Tyrrell's map   of lake  Athabaska  1895   (No.41).
Both posts are  shown on north shore on Rinfret map of
Henry  Thompson Travels   (No.3).     See also H.B.Co. map
1832   (No.101)   & 1857   (No.13);     & Johnston map 1877
(No.16).    Map No.   21 Watkin 1872 shows the  two
locations   of Fond-du-Lac  on the  north shore   (1)   near
the  centre and   (2)  at  east  end.     lake  Athabaska was
also  called  Lake   of the   Hills and Lac des Buttes.
172 Fort Fond-du-Lac   (2)
North We3t Co.   post at mouth of  St.Louis
river,   west  end  of lake   Superior,     There was a
portage  route  thence to Red lake  and  other posts
  terminating at   the  Red   river, which was   travelled  by
Thompson 179 8 and had been long used  by the   Indians.
These posts  were surrendered  to  the  United  States  in
1796.     Fond-du-Lac was also known as  St.Louis River
Post.     Shown on map   for Harmon's  Journal  1820   (No.2)
and Rinfret map  (No.3),   on Arrowsmith 1801   (No,4),
and 1857  (No.13)   Devine  map 1857   (No.12).     Thompson's
route   from  the  Red river to Fond-du-Lac 1798  is  traced
on map No.   88.
173 Fort of the  Forks   (1)
Small North West Co.  fort  on north side
of Peace Siver,   5  miles above  the mouth  of  Smoky
river,  near  the   forks.     It was  built   in 1792 by
Alexander Mackenzie.     Thompson visited the post   in
1802,  and  John Stuart   in 1803  & 1804.     After  the
union  of 1821  this post wa3  continued by the.Hudson's
Bay  Co.   for some  years.     The  present  Peace River
Landing   is a  short  distance  below the   old Fort   of the
Forks.     Site   is  117° 23'  W.     It  is  shown on the
Arrowsmith map  1857   (No. 13)  and Map  of Early posts  in
Alberta  /No.11) ,  also No.   35,   On Arrowsmith map 1832,
1850 and  1857   it   i3 named  "Fort"   only.
Fort of the  Forks   (2)
See  Fort McMurray   ,  also Fort George.
174 Fort  of the  Forks,   "La Fourehe"   (3)
Old French  fort at mouth Ohio river north
side  and east  side  of Mississippi river,    probably
one  of earliest French forts    in the Mississippi and
Ohio valleys.     No other name  found for  it.    Was not
included in Bougainville's list  1757 and probably
destroyed before 1750.    Marked as  site   of "ancient
fort"   on D'iSnvxlle's map 1755   (No.97)   Shown also on
Rocques  nap 1763   (No.96)  and on No.93 and  98.
175 Fort Frances   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort at   outlet   of Rainy
Lake,   built uin 1820  near site   of old French fort
St.  Pierre   (whioh see).     It was   located.two miles
down  the  Rainy  river  from  the  lake  and was named
Fort Frances after  the  wife   of Sir  George  Simpson.
It was  surrounded  by stockades  10 feet  high.     A
description is   given   in Grants  "Ocean  to  Ocean"  1872.
This post was   operated by  the  Company until about
1900 and was   finally  listed  in 1894.     Shown on
Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8).
176    Fort  Frances   (2)
Hudson's Bay Co..fort at  south end   of
Frances  lake  near source   of Frances  river,  a  branch
of the  Dea3e  river,  Yukon.     Situated  on a  peninsula
between the  east and west arms   of  the   lake.     It was
built'in 1841  by Campbell's men and  first called
  Glenlyon House,   then Frances Lake House,   then Fort
Frances.     It was abandoned in 1851.     The   site   is  shown
on map of Canada 35 m.   to 1  in. and  on map Upper
Yukon  (Dawson)   in Report  Interior Dep't.   1887   (No.89),
also Map of Alaska &c  1897   (No.84).     It was reopened
about  1880.
177 Fort Franklin
At the  outlet   of Great Bear lake.     It
was built for Sir John Franklin by the  Hudson's 3ay;
Co.   in 1825.    its site  is shown on Map Mackenzie
River   (Topographical Survey)   1923   (No.25) .
178 Fort Eraser
North West Co.   fort at east end of Fraser
lake,  B.C.,  built  by  Simon Fraser 1806.     It was burned,
October 4,   1817 and afterwards  rebuilt.     It was  taken
over by the  Hudson's Bay  Co.  after the union of 1821
and was   operated by  the   Company until  about 1900.     It
appears  on all the Lists  of forts  to 1894.    This  fort
is  said to be   "the first settlement made  in the  so-
called  Oregon Territory  by  civilized man".     It  is
shown  on map of Henry-Thompson travels   (Coues)  No.  3
& on Arrowsmith's maps  1832   (No.101),   1850   (No.100),
1857  (No.8).
Fort Frederick
See Fort La Tour.
179 Frederick House
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at confluence of
Abitibi and Frederick House  rivers,   Ontario.    The
Hudson's Bay Co.  built  their first  fort at this site
in 1783,   on the site  of an  old French post built
before  1696.     In 1785 Frederick House was moved from
its  first  location to the   site   of  the   old French fort
called St,Germain or Piscoutagamy at the   outlet  of
Night-hawk lake  built in   1pJ$.-    In 1794 Frederick
House was  ordered  closed but in 1798  it had been reopened on Frederick House lake at the  outlet   (then
called Waratowaha lake).     This post seems  to have
been closed about 1820,   but  in 1822 it waa again    a
operation.     In 1887  the  Hudson's Bay  Co. maintained
a  post on Night-hawk lake.     Its  location is shown on
Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8) and on White's map of
Labrador 1926   (No.24).     See  also Old Post   (Frsnoh
fort).
180 Frobisher's Fort
Free   trader's  fort  on Red River,   {.i.-'—'*"
(Manitoba),   two or three  leagues above  the  Riviere
aux Morts and about 3  leagues below St.  Andrews
rapids.     R.  aux Morts is now  called Netley's Creek*
Location was near site  of present  Selkirk.     It was an
old cleared spot forming an ancient camping ground of
  the Assiniboines.     Fort was  built by Joseph Frobisher,.
brother of  Thomas  Frobisher,   in 1774  or earlier,  and
was   the- first English fort  or post  on the  Red   river
after the French.     It was   only a  temporary structure..
Sometimes  called Red River Fort.     The present Red
river was known as  Lower Red  river  by the  North West
Co. and  the Assiniboine as  the Upper Red  river. After
the name Assiniboine was given to  that river,  the
Red River was known as Upper  or Lower Red  river
according  to location north or south of Pembina   (See
map  of Harmon's  Journal No.   2).     The Assiniboine was
also known as  the  Red  river   or Stone   Indian river
(Map 4) .
181 Frog Lake  House
Small Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Frog lake
about  30 miles  from Fort  Pitt,  north   of North
Saskatchewan river,  about 110° 15' W.     In the  rebellion of 1885 this post was raided by Indians and
destroyed by  fire,   the   garrison occupants being
massacred,    pate  of establishment not ascertained.
Frog Portage
One  of the  chief portages  traversed by
the   fur-traders.     It crosses  the  height  of land
separating the  drainage  basins   of the Nelson and
Saskatchewan rivers   from  theChurchill   drainage and
was the  gateway from eastern Canada to the west and
northwest.     Fur-traders from the  east after reaching
Cumberland lake, passed through Heron,  pelican,  and
Lake,  of the  Wood3,   to Frog portage  which brought
them to the  Churchill river,   thence westerly by Lac
la  Ronge,  lie & la Crosse, Buffalo lake,  Lac la Loche,
to the Methye  Portage and the  Clearwater  river to  the
Athabaska river and lake .     It was  first crossed to
the  Churehill   river  by the  Canadian  fur traders   from
Montreal in 1774,   Joseph and Thomas  Frobisher and
Alexander Henry,  who afterwards formed  the North West
Company.    A fort was  constructed nearby known as
Fort La Traite,   or Frog portage  Fort.
Fort Frontenac
^ A later name  given to Fort  Cataraqui after
the  o^d fort was  rebuilt by Frontenac.     See Cataraqui.
182 Fort Garry
The  chief Hudson's Bay Co.  fort at
Winnipeg.    Was built on site   of N.W.C.  fort Gibraltar
in 1822 after  the union of both  companies  in  1821.
It waa a rough* affair with wooden palisades, known
at  first as  The  Company's Fort,   or Fort Gibraltar  (so
called because  it was  built on site   of N.W.  Co.  fort
Gibraltar.)      It was named fort  Garry by Governor
Simpson in 1823 after a Hudson's Bay Co.  councillor.
The  fort  consisted  of the  buildings erected by the
North West Co.   after   the  destruction of Fort
Gibraltar and some additions and palisade.     This fort
  was known as   the   first  fort  Garry,    Was  situated near
the banks of the Assiniboine and Red rivers.    Much of
the  land was washed into  the Assiniboine   river,
especially by the  flood   of 1826,   and in 1852 what was
left  of the  fort  was  pulled down.
The second Fort Garry was  begun in 1835,
a little  removed from the   site  of the  first  fort
Garry.     It was known as Upper Fort  Garry.     Built'by
Governor Alexander Christie.     It was  substantially
built,   covered a  space  240 x 280 feet enclosed by a
solid  stone  wall and four large  round bastions  of
solid masonry at  tho   corners.     It was sold  to the
city  of Winnipeg in 1882,     Only the  north    gate now
remains as  an Mstorical  site.    A picture   of  the
second  fort  Garry  is  given  in Hind's Expedition vol.
II,   p.   82,   1858.
Fort Gaspereau
French fort built by Governor De  la Jon-
quiSre  1751 at  head  of Baie   Verte  near mouth  of
Gaspe reau river,   Chignecto Neck,  N.S.  A road connected  it with Fort Beausejour  in 1754.     Captured by
Col. Moncton 1755 after capture   of Fr.  Beausejour.
Name  then changed to Fort Moncton.  Finally abandoned
and burnt  together with Ft.   Lawrence   (Beaubasain)   in
September,   1756.
184    Fort George   (1)     (At  le
known as  ft.
ast 9
3-eorg?
different places were
A North West Co.  fort on North Saskatchewan   river about  25 miles above  Old Fort Vermilion,
about   110°45'  W.,   on the  north bank,   4|  miles above
mouth-of Moose  Creek.     Built by Angus  Shaw  1792.     It
was abandoned in 1801  in favour  of  Island fort 18
miles up the  river.     It was the most westerly  house
in 1798.     Its  erection was  noted by McDonald  in his
autobiography, Masson II,  page  17.     it was visited by
Thompson in 1808  and  is shown on the  Thompson map.
(On north side   of river,   Section 19,   Tp.56,   R.   5
W.   of 4th Meridian).     In  1809 was  in ruins,   only the
chimneys  being  visible,  as noted by A.   Henry  Jr.
This fort was afterward rebuilt  and taken  over by
the  Hudson's Bay  Co.,   as  it appears  on their 1832
(No.101),   1854  (No.100)  and 1857 map  (No.8).     It was
probably maintained by the  Co. until about 1865.
Was  in the   immediate  vicinity  of Buckingham House.    ••
It  is shown on Tyrrell map Northern Alberta   (No.36)
and Hume map part   of Alberta   (No.40).
185    Fort George   (2)
One   of the  three British forts at mouth
of Oswego river,   half-mile   from fort  Oswego.     It
was a small fort,   captured by the  French 1756.
Fort  George   (3)
Hudson'
George  river (Big  c
Bay  Co.  fort at mouth   of Fort
• Gilpin river)   on James Bay.
  Established before  1805.     Was  called Big River
Factory in 1807.     Was  removed  to  Great  Whale   river
in 1808,  but soon after was  re-opened at Big  river
mouth.     Was  in  operation 1820,  a provision base  in
1832,   included  in lists   of Company forts  in 1857 and
1869,   and still maintained   (1928).     It was  sometimes
called Great River and Big River fort.     It  is  shown
on White's map Labrador   (No.24)   and Arrowsmith  of
Hudson's Bay Co.   forts  1857   (No.8).
187 Fort George River  (4)
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort near mouth  of
George     river,   Labrador.     Established  by McLean for
the  Company 1838 and was  also known as  Fort  Siveright.
In 1842 it was  probably abandoned  when Fort  Chimo was
closed.     It  is  included  in list  of forts   on £>eed of
Surrender 1869.     In  1876  it was  re-opened,   the  remains  of the  old buildings  being used  in constructing
two new houses.     Is in operation to day.    Shown on
White's  map Labrador  (24)  and on map of posts  1872
by Watkin '(No.2) .
188 Fort  George   (5)
A North West Co.   fort   on the   strait at
outlet   of Great  Slave   lake,  south  of Big Island,  west
of Point  Desmarais.     It-was abandoned  before  1840.
It was noted  in Richardson's  Journal  of a Boat Voyage
vol.   1,   p.  160.   (1851).
189 Fort  George   (6)
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on Hay   river  (Great
Slave   lake) mentioned  by Bryce  History  H.B.Co.  p.392.
Several forts were built  on the  Hay   river from time
to time.     Probably  the   site   of this Fort George  is
now occupied by Hay River post.   .
190 Fort George   (7)
A North West  Co.   fort  on Fraser  river,
B.C.,  at  mouth of Nechaco river.     Built  1807.     Was
taken  over by Hudson's Bay Co.   1821 and is named on
their 1ist   of 1894.     Shown  on Map No.   1 & Rinfret Map
Nn.   3r _-^.llArl    T?ni-r,   nr    H-m-l-p;    nn   Arrow a mi T.h   TrH:p    I H/i'y. \
101)   and  is placed  on east side   of'the   rii^r at)
' nlnP.WriTTT
1 st.na.rt'a   r-iv^r   fp,  branch  of the.
is called  Fort George   on Arrows
and shown in present location.
ruth 1857   (No.*8)
Name applied  to Fort Astoria  by.North        >
"West  Co.   after purchase. Soe Ft.JLstoria.
Name   sometimes  given  to Fort G~ahd
P'ortage ,   lake   Superior.     Shown  on Map  of North Americ;
1845 No.22.
y
  191    Fort Gibraltar
North West Co.   fort  built by John ..
McDonald of Garth for  the  Company  in 1805.    McDonald
in his autobiography under date  1807  (Masson's  vol.
2.)   says  "I  established a  fort at  the   junction of
the  Red and Assiniboine  rivers,   and called it
"Gibraltar,"     though there was  not a rock  or stone
within three  miles".       It was  erected on the north
side   of the Assiniboine   river at its   junction with
the Red river and extended along  the   bank   of tho
Red river.     Was   one  year in building,   was  surrounded by a  stockade   of  oak  12  to  15  feet high,  enclosing
eight houses within.    It stood on or near the  site  o±
old Fort Rouge,  also   of Bruce and Boyer's  fort  1780,
of Alex.   Henry's 1803  fort,   and  of St.Pierre's  1751
fort.    Was quite near the bank  ef the Assiniboine
river,   and near the  present  bridge.     It was   the   chief
North West Co.   fort in the  interior.     Was  in charge
of Duncan Cameron when captured  by Governor  Semple
April  1816,   by whom it  -was   completely demolished
(1316)  and its material  used  in strengthening Fort
Douglas.     After  the   capture   of Fort  Gibraltar,  the
North West  Company proceeded   to  build houses and
stores   to   replace the   old  fort  and,   after the union
of 1821,   the  Hudson's Bay  Co.   built  the  first  Fort
Garry  on the  site  of Fort Gibraltar and for this
reason  this Fort  Garry was sometimes known as Fort
Gibraltar.      (See  Fort Garry and Winnipeg forts).
192 Gillam Post
Hudson's Bay Co. post at mile 3 27 Hudson
Bay Railway 3 miles 30uth of Kettle Rapids on Nelson
river.   .Established 1927.
Fort Glefrlyon
See Fort Frances.
Glenora  House
See Fort Mumford.
193 Gloucester House
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  constructed   on
Upasheway lake   (Washisagaigan lake) ,   tributary  of
the Albany  river,  between Osnaburgh House   and Martin
Falls House.    About 35  miles upstream from Martin
Falls.     In 1774  the Master   of Henley House  was
instructed  to choose a  suitable  place  farther inland
and in  season 1777  to  1778 Gloucester House was
.constructed.     This was  the   first   of the   Company
posts  built inland after Henley House   (1741) .     In
1774  the   "pedlars"  had built a  post  about  70 milesf?)
from Henley House and to compete  with this,
Gloucester House  was  built.     The  pedlar's house; may
have  been the  old Forth West  Co.   house   on  lake
Eabamet at  the  outlet.     This,  however, was  about  175
miles upstream from Henley House,  not 70 miles.
(See Maps No.   79 and 54).     Gloucester House was  in
operation in  1798 and   in 1814,  as  shown on lists   of
  those  dates,  but was probably discontinued before
1821 as  it is not  included   in List at  date cf Union.
It was probably soon  re-opened as  it appears  on the
Hudson's Bay  Co.  map  of  1857  by Arrowsmith,   but  not
on later lists.     On T. Zitchin map 1794 Gloucester
House is  shown  on a large lake  called St.Ann's lake
near source   of Albany river.    Washisagaigan lake
(abbreviated to washi  lake on maps  79 and 54)  means
"Lake  of  the Narrows",   or  "Turning-off-place",   there
being a double   route  going west  to Makokebatan lake.
It was  formerly  called Gloucester lake  from the
Hudson's Bay Co.  post,  situated at the narrows.
Gloucester House   is shown on map No.   2   (from Harmon's
Journal),   on Map No.   4 Arrowsmith 1801, and on Map
Ho,5 Arrowsmith 1857
194 Godbout Post
One  of the  early French  trading posts  on
the lower St.   Lawrence  at mouth  of Godbout   river,
about   67°,30'W.     It was within  the Zing's  Domain and
was reckoned as a Zing's  post.    Established before
1670.    Mitchell's map  1755 shows location of a
"French House" and Bouchette's  map 1846 marks  it as
a Hudson's Bay Co.  post.     It was   leased to the  North
West  Co.   1788 and after  the  union 1821  to the
Hudson's  Bay Co.    Mackenzie,   1808,   in his' survey of
the Zing's posts  says,   "The buildings are poorly
placed, without  order,   on a low  sandy point  on east
side   of Godbout  river.     It  is  one  of  the  best posts
for  furs and seal oil and salmon are plentiful."  It
was  included in the  Hudson's Bay Co.   list  of 1856
but was   closed  in 1859  on recommendation of Governor
Simpsen.     See Map No.   67.
195 God's Lake  House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on north shore  of
God's  lake,   Ontario,  about 30 miles  by portage   route
north to Hayes  river.     It was probably built about
1830 and has  been in continuous  operation to 1925
(or date).     It was  shown on the   Hudson's Bay Co.
map  1854   (No.77)   and 1857 by Arrowsmith  (No.8).     Its
location is  shown on map of Zeewatin 1911   (Na68).
It appears  on all  the   Company Lists   of posts  from
time   of union 1821 &  on Arrowsmith map  of 1832
(No.101).
196 Fort Good Hope
North West  Co.   fort  erected  1804  on left
bank  of Mackenzie   river,   131°W,  and 67027'  N.     After
union  of 1821,   it  was moved by the  Hudson's  Bay Co.
about 100 miles further upstream to the south to
Manitou Island near the Ramparts, about 1825.    Good
Hope  was  the most northerly post   of the  North West
Co.     The   fort  on Manitou   island being destroyed  by
ice  in 1836,   the   Hudson's Bay Co.   rebuilt   (18o6-39)
on the mainland,  the   present location  on rie-ht  bank.
It  is   shown on Arrowsmith  map  1857   (No.8)   and  1854
(No.77)  marked 1839.   Also map  of Mackenzie   river
IT o. 25.
  197 Fort Grahame
Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort  on left   or east
bank  of Finlay  river,  about  124°  45' W.  and  56°
35'N.     It was  established  about 1890.     Shown map
No.  35..
198 Grand Forks  House
North West Co.   fort  on the upper Red
river at mouth   of Red  Lake  river,   later known as
Grand Forks,   Dakota.     Built  1807  by Alex.  Henry
Junior's men  from Pembina.     "Grandes Fourches" was
the name  given  by  the  traders.     The  first Hudson's
Bay  Co.   fort  on  the upper Red river was  built by
McLeod in November  1812,   in   opposition  to the  North
West Co,  at Grand Forks, and was  located about  18
miles north   of Grand Forks  at   the mouth of Turtle
river.   (See  Turtle  River  fort.)     After delineation
of   the  international boundary,   forts  'on the  American
side were abandoned.
199 Fort Grand Lake  Victoria
Situated near  source   of Ottawa  river.
Originally a North  West Co.   post  built before  1820
and  included  in list  of their posts at union  of  1821.
The  post was maintained  by the  Hudson's  Bay  Co.   from
1821 to date  and is  included  in their list  of 1857
and  shown on Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8).     See also
"White's Map  of  forts  and trading posts  1926   (No.24)
Fort Grand Marais :-  See  Red River Fort.
200   Fort Grand Portage 4
North West  Co.  fort at  the  east end of
the   Grand Portage   route   from lake   Superior to  Lake
of the  Woods.     The  grand portage   or first portage
from lake   Superior-to Pigeon river near partridge
Falls  portage  was  nine miles long and   terminated at
Fort  Charlotte.     Grand portage  fort was  first begun
in 1778,  although there was some  sort   of a   fort
there  in 17 75 when Alexander Henry passed  on his way
west,  and  the  building was completed  in 1784.     It
was a   substantial  fort   surrounded by palisades   18
inches  in  diameter,   enclosing sixteen buildings,   of
which six were  storehouses,   the  stockade  being 24 by
30 rods,  about  400  by 500 feet.     The   fort was
situated at  the   bottom of a   shallow bay,   3 miles
deep and 4|- miles  wide   at  the  mouth,  called  Grand
Portage  bay,   between pointe  aux  Chapeaux and pointe
a  la Framboise,   the   palisade   being about 15  to 20
paces  from  the water's  edge.     A small  island  lay
just   opposite   the  fort,  and  immediately back  of the
fort was  a  lofty  round sugar loaf mountain on the
northwest now   called Mt.   Josephine.
Grand portage  fort was  sometimes  called
Fort  George.     After the   international boundary was
  defined,   the   fort being  on American  territory was
abandoned 1800-1801 when the   "New Fort"   (   i.e.Fort
William)   was  built  on  the   site  of the   old French
fort Zaministiquia.
The  X.Y.   Co.  also   had a trading post
erected 1797  about 200  rods  distant  from  the  North
West Co.     In 1802 the  X.Y.Co. also moved  to
Kaministiquia where  they  established their base   of
supplies  on lake   Superior.
201 Grand Rapids  House
Hudson's Bay Co.   post at mouth   of
Saskatchewan   river lake  Winnipeg,  at  foot  of  the
rapids.     This fort was  built  by the Hudson's Bay Co.
soon after  the  old French  fort Bourbon was   destroyed,
before   1*775.     Cedar Lake  House was  built by  the
Hudson's  Bay Co.  very near the   site   of  old Fort
Bourbon   (q.v.)     The  Report   of the   Department  of the
Interior 1875   (page XEXII)   says,   "The   original post
of the Hudson's Bay Co. at the mouth  of the  river,
has been abandoned and a new   one   established  on
their Reserve,  some   six miles higher up the  river,
at head of the portage, whioh the  river steamer
descends  to."     The  Company about 1875  constructed a
tramway four miles long parallel  to  the   rapids,  at
both ends   of which the   Company maintained a house.
A description of the   Grand Rapids  and  of the  forts
is given In Hind's  Canadian Expedition vol,!,   p.460.
202 Grant's House   on Assiniboine   river
North West Co.   post  built by Cuthbert
Grant  before  the end   of 1793.     Znown also as Aspin
House.     Situated   on east bank Assiniboine  river
(Section 14,   Township 28,  Range 31)  a little  below
Little  Boggy  Creek.     Was in the   bottom  of a  valley
500 paces  east   of  river and 50 paces  from  foot, of
wooded  bank,  at  the mouth  of a   deep  ravine,  and 35
feet above   the  river.     For many years   it  did a
large business in beaver and  otter.   (Masson vol.1,
p.275-285.)       It  is named Aspin House  on Thompson's
map 1812 No.7,  and Grant's House  on Arrowsmith map
1801  of Mackenzie's   track No.4,  and   its location is
shown on Map  of  Indian Territories about 1817  No.9.
Grant's House  on Red  river
Fortified post built  by Cuthbert Grant
on  the  Red river about  10t>  miles  above  Pembina.
North Wes t Co.
204    Grant's  House   on Red  river
The   first trading post   on the upper Red
river,   built  by peter Grant about 1793   on east  side
of Red river   opposite mouth of Pembina  river and
opposite  Chaboillez'   House   (q.v.)   built later 1797-
98  for North West  Co.  Alexander Henry 1801 mentions
  "the  place where Grant's fort  had stood" and which
was  destroyed.
Fort Gratiot
Fort erected  by U.S.  Government   in 1814
at Port Huron at head   of St.   Clair  river  outlet  of
lake  Huron.     Port Huron is   the   site   of old Fort  St.
Joseph built by Dulhut in  1686  not  far  from  the  site
of Fort Gratiot.    Fort St.   Joseph was soon abandoned
and is so marked  on La Hontan map 1690.    First
French settlement at Port Huron was made  in 1790.
See Fort  Detroit.     Fort  Gratiot   is  shown   on map  of
British America  1839 Ho.   17,  also Map  of Upper
Canada  1821 No.  120.
206 Great Whale  River House
Hudson's Bay  Co.  post  built in  1756 at
mouth Great Whale   river to  take  plaoe   of Fort Richmond  on Richmond gulf which was  demolished at  that
time.     Great Whale River House was abandoned in 1780
and  rebuilt  in 1793.   i It was  in  operation in 1820
and listed  1821.       Hendry's  Journal says  that  it was
not   occupied  in  1828.     In 1837 a small  post was
again, erected at Whale  river.     It was included  in
the Hudson's Bay Co.   schedules  1857 and 1869 and is
in operation today.     Shown on Map No.   24.
207 Fort Green Lake
Green lake   tributary  of Beaver  river,
107° 40'W -  540  15'N.     Hudson's  Bay Co.   seems  to
have  established the   first   f or b  on Green lake.     It
was built   before 1795 at north end   of lake..     This
post was  seized  by. the  North West  Co.   on December
21st,   1816  and again   on March 17,   1817,  and plundered.     It  was   raided  by  Indians  in the   rebellion  of       v
1885.     The   Company has  maintained  this post to   date.
About  1820  another Hudson's  Bay Co.   post  was  built
at  south end  of lake.
The North West Co.   erected   their fort
at   the north end   of  the   lake   on the   east   shore   of
the  bay,  near the  Hudson's  Bay Co.   fort.     It was
built  before  1798 and probably   immediately after  the
Hudson's Bay  Co.  had erected their  fort.     David
Thompson met  Fidler at   the   Green lake fort  1799
and was   there in  1798.
The  N.W.   Co.   fort  is  shown  on D.
Thompson's map 1812  No.7 and the  H.B.Co.   fort  on
Arrowsmith map   1857  No.8,   1832 No.101,   1850  No.100.
208 Green Lake  House
Smal
^8
■forth W
3St   C
o.   p
ost
on Green
lake,
source
of
Sable
ri
ver flo,
ving
into
the
Spanish
river
opp
osite l
anitoulin
isla
nd.
This post was
taken
ove
c by  tr
iuds on'
3  Ba;s*
Co.
in
1821.
 -J
 209 Fort Grosbourg
A small  French fort  on the   Detroit  river
about  6 miles  south   of Detroit,  probably 'opposite
north end  of  Grosse  Isle,  near present  Sibley.     Was
included in'Bougainville's  list  1757.     Frobably
destroyed  in Pontiac 's War 1763.
210 Gros Mecatina  Post
A French seal  and  fishery station  on
lower  St.  Lawrence about  590  on north shore.     It
was  built  before  1738 and  in   that year was   leased  to
Pcmmerau  for  10 years.     In 1749  his  grant  was  extended to 1754.     In 1754 it was   granted to  Hooquart
and ratified ty  the  King of France  in  176C.
Hooquart leased it  to  Tache  in 1754 for 5 years.
In 1761  Governor Murray granted a  permit  to
Laf ontaine  to  operate   the   post and In 1762 Murray
granted  Gros  Mecatina   to Gray  for seven years' 1762
to 1769.     in 1804'it was  sold,  to William Grant and
in 1808 the   Sheriff  of Quebec  sold  the  post.     This
post was  included  in Bougainville's  list  but was
we'ver operated by the Hudson's Bay  Co.     Its
location  is shown  on map No.   24.     It was  situated
about  5 miles  north,   of Bay  des  Troutons   opposite
Isle  Gros  Mecatina and about   5 miles  south  of Hal.
Ha i  Bay.     This   bay was  visited  by Cartier.     The
post  is inarked Vieux Poste   on Map No. 67.     It
appears   on fiel'isle ?rap  1703.
Fort  Grouard
Later name   of  Lesser Slave  Lake   fort
■ Lake  House
Small  Hudson's Bay Co.   post at   the
nd  of Gwillim lake  r.ear portage   over height
nd  to Cree  lake  and about   75 miles  north of
1 la   Crosse   lake,   about  57° N.   and 107° 30'   W.
s marked  abandoned   on Tyrell's  map 1895,   i;o.
port   of Geol,   Survey vol.   VIII  p.   36  p.)
south
of lai
It wai
41.   (
II
212    Fort Halkett
Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort   on Liard  river,
left  bank,  about  126°3$'W.  at mouth  of Smith  river
on west side.     It was  built  soon after the union  of
1821.     It was abandoned about   1875 and a small  post
called  Toad River post  "was  built  near  the mouth of
Toad river on loft bank of Liard  river  (See Map
No.9C).     This  latter  post was abandoned about   1890
and a   post built   on left  bank Liard just  above
mouth of  Dease   river  called Dense  Post   or  Sylvesters
Lower Post   (See rap 9'C   and  91)   afterwards   called
Lower post.
 J
 Fort Hall
The  southernmost fort  of Hudson's Bay
Co.   in Oregon  Territory about   112020'W.& 43°N.     In
present  Fort  Hall  Indian Reserve   of  Idaho, Map.No.92.
It was  built  in  1834 by the  American Fur Co.  and
sold  by them  to Hudson's  Bay  Co.   in  1836.     Is shown
on  the  H.B.Co.   jmap  of  1857   by Arrowsmith No.8.     The
Hudson's Bay Co.   claimed indemnity   for  loss  of  this
fort   from United  States   in 1865.     See  Oregon Territory.
Hamilton Inlet
214 Hannah Bay House
Hudson's Bay  Co.   fort   on James  bay at
mouth  of Harricanaw  river,  Hannah bay,   60 miles east
of Fort Moose.   _ It   is  shown  on Arrowsmith map  of
1796.     As it  is not  included  in the  list  of Hudson's
Bay Co.   posts  at   the   date   of union 1821,   it was  probably not in  operation at  that time.     It must have
been re-opened  soon after for in 1832  the   officer
in  charge,  his  family and   several natives were
murdered by  Indians.     It   is   included in  the  Hudsonfs
Bay Oo.   lists   of 1857,   1869 and  1872.     It was   closed
before   1894.     Shown maps  No.   3,   8,   17,  and 24.
215 Harrison,, Port,   post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post   on  east  shore   of
Hudson's  bay, at  Cape   Dufferin,   Portland promontory,
established  1920.  Map No.24.
216 Hay River post
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post   on  Great   Slave
lake  at mouth  of Hay  river  right  bank.     This  post
was   opened about   1870 and appears  on  the  Company
list  of 1872  for the   first  time.     It   is now abandoned.     Tke   original  Kay river post was located at   the
junction  of  the  two  branches   of Hay river.     It was
abandoned before  1845.     ReviiIon Pre res   operate a
post at  the   junction of the   Hay and Meander rivers,
called Hay River post.    Maps   21 &  25.
217 Henley House
Historic  Hudson's Bay  Co.   fortified
post  and the   first  of the   interior  forts  built  by
the   Company..     It was   erected  to prevent  encroachments   of the  French  traders   in 1741,   on the  north
shore   of  the  Albany  river about   8 miles  belov;   the
forks  of  the  Zenogami and Albany rivers at the mouth
of   the  Henley  river,  and about  15C miles  up   tho
Albany river.     The  French had erected a  fort within
120 miles  of Fort  Albany,  which  later they had
  abandoned and  the  Hudson's Bay  Co.   erected a blockhouse   near that  place  which commands   the   two branches
of  the  river.     It was   in operation  in 1759.     Henry
says that  the  French plundered Henley House   in  1760-
It was probably destroyed at  that  time,   the French
leaving  for the  seat  of war in the   east.     It was   rebuilt  in 1764.     Was   in  operation  in  17 74 and  was
listed among   the   Company posts at  date   of union 1821.
It  was  probably  closed  so 3n after 1857 as   it  does  not
appear on the   1857  or later lists.     Nothing was  left
of  the   old  fort  in 1680.     Shown   on maps Nos .1,3, 8,12 ,
19,24,79,  also 96 Rocque   1753   "an English Factory"
&  on No.8   (1857)
218    Henry's  House   (1)
Post  built by William Henry  1812   on upper
Athabaska  river near  confluence   of  Snaring  river,
about  8 miles   below  Jasper House  village   of  today and
about  20  miles  above   the   last  site  of Jasper House,
about   8 miles  below confluence   of Miette   river.     it
was  used as  an  outpost   of  Jasper House and was
deserted about  1861.     It   is   shown  on map  of  early
Alberta   forts   (No.11)  and  on Arrowsmith's  Hudson's
Bay  Co.   map  of 1832   (No.   101).
219 Henry's  Hou3e   (2)
Alexander Henry  Jr.   built a Henry House
in 1811   on the  upper Athabaska  river at   the   confluence  of  the Miette   river,   facing Yellowhead pass.
It was  destroyed after two or three  years.
220 Henry's House   (3)
Fortified post built  by Alexander Henry
Jr.   September 1800  on west  bank  of the  Red  river
about   one-fourth  of a mile   from  the   confluence   of the
Park  river   (Little  Salt  river)   I-or.   Dakota about  48°
30'N.     It stood 30  feet above  the   river,   and was
enclosed  by  stockades  15  feet  high.     The  building,
Henry  says,   required 3,114  logs.
221    Herschel  Island P03t
Recent post of the Hudson's Bay Co. at
eastern extremity of Herschel island, shown on map
No.   25.     Established  about  1920.
Fort Hibernia
Fort  on   the  Assiniboine   river,   on  east
side,  about  12 miles  upstream  from Fort Pelly and
about   5 miles above   the  liorth West Oo.   fort  Alexandria.      It was   originally built  by   the   X.Y.Co.   in
1803 and was  taken over and   operated   by  the  North
West Co.  after their union  in 1803.     The  Hudson's
Bay  Co. after  the union  of 1821,   continued  to  operate
Fort Hibernia   for some years as  it appears   in
operation  on  the  Arrowsmith maps   of 1832   (No.101),
and 1850   (No.100)   and  1857   (No.8).     It was   closed
  before  1869  as  it  was  not included   in  the  Hudson's
Bay Co.     list   of  1869.     The   proximity   of Fort Pelly
(built  1857)   probably   rendered  Fort Hibernia unnecessary.
223 Fort Highfield
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   fort at north end  of
Wrangell   Is.   (Alaska)   opposite mouth of stiokeen
river B.C.     Built  by  James  Douglas  for McLaughlin
1839-1840 and  called  fort Durham by Douglas.     It
wa3 afterwards known as  Fort Highfield and is  so
named on Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8).     This name was
changed  to Fort Wrangell and its  site waa at  the
present  settlement  on Wrangell  Island.     Fort
Wrangell   is   shown on Heubaoh's  map  of Alaska   189 7
(No.84)  and  on  Johnston's Map  of Upper Yukon  river
1887   (No.122)
224 Fort  Hope   (1)
■b Small Hudson's Bay  Co.   p03t  on west
shore   of Eabamet  lake.(Albany river,   Ontario),88° W
& 51°30'  N.     It appears  first   on 1894 list  of posts
and  of present  date.     Located a  few Miles north of
the   old North West Co.   post   on Eabamet  lake,  whioh
post  it probably  succeeded.    .Shown maps No.   79,57
and  54.
225 Fort  Hope   (2)
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on Fraser river at
confluence  of Coquihalla   river,  B.C.     It marked  the
beginning of road from Fort  Langley  to Zamloops.'
Built  about  1830.     It  constituted headquarters- of
mainland until Langley was selected.     Appears   on
1872. list  of  forts,  but  was almost  deserted  in 1862.
Shown on map No.  3.
226 Fort  Hope   (5)
Hudson's Bay Co.  post near head  of
Repulse Bay en south  point near entrance  to bay,
north of Southampton island,  Hudson Bay.     It was
established before   1850 and has  teen maintained to
date.     It appears   on Arrowsmith map  1857   (No.8)   and
1850   (No. 100)   and  is  called  Fort  Hope   on both maps,
also  on map No.6.     In the  list  of posts  of 1925
this post  is named Repulse  Bay.
Fort Howe
See  Fort  La  Tour.
22 7     Fort Hudson's  Hope
.    .       ■- Originally  this  was a North West  Co.
fort   on  the north  bank  of Peace  river  at  the  mouth
of Middle  river.     Built by Simon Fraser 1605 as a
  base  for his British  Columbia   explorations.     It was
known as   "Rocky Mountain House,   or Fort",  also as
"Old Hudson's  Hope",  and  "Rocky Mountain portage
Fort".     This  post was   operated  by  the   Hudson's Bay
Co.  after the  coalition  of  1821.     It was abandoned
for a  time  in 1825 to punish  the   Indians  for the
massacre  at  St.   John in 1823.     New  Hudson's Hope
was  built  about  1875  on  the   south  bank about  12
miles further upstream from Old Hudson's Hope, at the
east end of the  portage,  near east  end of Ca"rion at
its  foot.     Sometime after 1880 this   post was again
moved to its  present  location  on  the north side.
Harmon in his   journal  1810,October 15th,   calls
Hudson's  Hope  the   "Rocky Mountain portage  Fort".
Cust's  House  and an  old  Hudson's Bay Co.  post are
shown on Arrowsmith map 1832   (No.100) at  the  west
end. of the portage  from Rocky Mountain House.     The
location  of the   original   fort  is   shown   on  the Dawson
map  1879   (No.81)  and marked  "abandoned".     It  is
shown  on Arrowsmith maps   1850   (No.100)  and 1857   (17
(So.8) .
228 Hudson's  House   (1)
A small Hudson's Bay Co..#.post built  by
Turner,   surveyor  for the   Company,   in 1776 and  shown
on his map   of  1790   (No. 106)   on left bank  of North
Saskatchewan  river about   80 miles above   the  Forks,
in Section 32  Township 46  Range  3 west  of 3rd
Meridian,  about  4 miles north   of Silver Grove.     It
was   located  280 miles  above   Cumberland House   of which
it constituted an  outpost  and was  then the  uppermost
settlement  on the  Saskatchewan  river.     Thompson was
there   in 1786,   1788 and 1794 and Henry  Jr..   in 1808.
This  house  was   occupied  for  some  years.
229 Hudson's  House   (2)
Was  built  by Tomison 15 miles  farther
down the   river about   1788-1789 and named after
George  Hudson an employee  of the  Hudson's Bay Co.
This  was  called   "Lower Hudson House".     It stood a
short  distance  above   the   present prince  Albert and
3' or 4 miles  below a   place  known as Yellow  Banks.
230 Horse-Shoe  House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post   on left bank   of
Peace River at mouth   of  the  Nitikewin   (or Battle)
river,  about   75 miles  below Peaoe River P.O.     Its
location is   shown on Wallace map  of  early posts  in
Alberta   (No.11)  and  on Map  of Dept.   Interior 1898
(No.35) .     It  was  one  of  the  very early  posts,   probably erected  by North West Co.  and taken  over by
Hudson's  Bay  Co.  at union.     In their List   of 1869
it   is  called Battle  River House.     David  Thompson was
there  in March,   1804.
231 Hungry Hall House   (1)
House   of free-traders  Ross and  Thoburn
  built  1792-1793   on Saskatchewan  river at  Tobin or
Grand Rapids about 14 miles  above  Sturgeon  river..
Alex.   Henry Jr.   in 1808 passed this   "old  establishment abandoned many years ago".     It-was  in Tp.54,
R.10, West   of 2nd Meridian.
232 Hungry Hall House   (2)
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post on right   (E)   bank
of Rainy  river about 3  miles  from its   outlet  into
Lake  of the Woods,    near pointe  aux Pins.     It was
established about  1850 and was   included  in  the   1869
List   of posts  accompanying the  Deed   of Surrender,
also in  the  1872 List.     It  is  shown on Map   of N.W.
Territory Dept.   Interior 1878   (No.16) .
233 Fort Hunter
English  military fort   on the   right  bank
of Mohawk  river New York  state at  mouth  of Shoxey
river now  called Schoharie  Creek.     Shown  on map
D'Anville  1755   (No.97)   and Rooque's   map  1763   (98).
234 Hunter's  Lodge
Small Hudson's Bay  Co.   post   on Hunter's
Narrows  lake Zeepaway,   Quebec,   on  the   bay at
entrance   of Hunter lake ,  a  tributary  of Zeepawa
lake.-   It was  an   outpost  in the  Temiscamingue
district.    Abandoned  1890.   Shown  on H.B .Co.  map 1857
(No.8)   and marked  "abandoned"   on Geological map
1908   (No.123) .
235 Fort  Ile-a-la-Crosse
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on lake Ile-a-la-
Crosse, Saskatchewan. At the bottom of a little
bay opening eastward near south end of lake at end
of long tongue of land and on west shore of lake at
the mouth of Deep river or' channel connecting with
Clear lake. A little farther north is the site of
former H.B.Co.   fort.
Numerous  trading posts  or forts were
built on  the  shores   of lie -a-la-Crosse   lake  by free
traders, North West Co., and Hudson's Bay Co.     The
first fort was  built  by Thomas  Frobisher  on a
peninsula   on the  west side   of lake   in 1776,  where
the  H'.B.Co.   fort was  afterward  built.     In  1791  the
North West  Co.   built  on west  shore  and in 1790  the
Hudson's Bay Co.  also  constructed a  fort,   shown  on
Turner's map 1790   (No.106) .     This fort  was  seized
and burned  by the   "Canadians" about  1808.     It was
rebuilt  by Fidler for the  Hudson's Bay Co.   in 1809.
It  was again seized  by the North  a'est  Co.   in 1817
and  the  occupants were   imprisoned.     Harmon was  at
the   fort  in August  1808 and  desoribed  it ./as well-
built.     David  Thompson was   there in 1804.-    The
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   have maintained  their  fort  since
1790.
Surrounding  the   lake  the   country
  ^n
and swampy.     To  the   north,  at  the   portage  La  Loche,
the  hills   rise   to 1000  feet.   The  name   of the  lake
is  derived  from an island  opposite   the  post  where
the  Indians   played lacrosse.
The   location  of the   fort  is  shown  on map
of   the   Dept.   of  the   Interior  1908-9   (No. 124)  and  on
Geological map of Tyrrell 1895   (No.41)  also on
Arrowsmith maps  1832   (No.101)   1850   (No.100),1857
(No.8) .
236    Fort  Ile-aux-Noix
French fort  on Ile-aux-Noix in Richelieu
river   (so named  by Champlain   in  1609   on  his   discovery
of lake  Champlain)   12 miles   below  outlet. of  lake
Champlain.  First   fort was built  in 1759 by General
Bourlamaque after  the   surrender  of Fort  Carillon(5Pi-
oonderoga)  and  St.Frederic   (Crown point).   It was
surrendered  to  the  English 25 August 1759  and afterwards  rebuilt   by them and named Fort Lennox   (q.v.).
This  fort was  captured by  the  Americans  in  1775.
23 7     lie  Jeremie
One   of  the Zing's posts   in Domain  du Roy,
about  6 miles   west  of mouth of river Betsiamites
(Bersemis)   on.north  shore   of  St.Lawrence  river,about
68°30'W.   It was  named after Noe"l  Jeremie  an  early
trader and  first  settler in  the  district.     It appears
on Laure map 1733   (No.55).  Was  established about
1650.   It was   included  in Bougainville's list  of
forts  1757.   After cession  of  Canada,  Dunn Gray  &
Murray operated the post.   It was  leased to the Northwest Co.   in  1788 and  to the Hudson's Bay Co.   in 1821.
In 1859  Governor Sigpson.  closed  the  post at  lie  je-
reraie  but  continued to   operate  Bersiais.   It  is
shown  on Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8)  and was   included   in H.B.Co.   lists  up to  189 4 list when M
Bersimis  appears and  lie  Jeremie  is   ojuitted.   It has
been in constant operation since  1650. MoZenzie  1808
says   in his  Journal  that it  was  considered the   best
of  the Zing's  posts  for  furs.   Shown on White's map
of Labrador posts   (No.24).
Indian Cap Fort
See  Lac-du-Donnet  Fort.
Indian Villages '!^Vi||P
List   of  Indian Villages   or Settlements
around   fortified posts  under protection  of  the
French as  given by Bougainville 1757:-
At  Lorette  - The Hurons
"    Bekancourt - Abenakis  500  or 600 nten
"    Mississquoy - Abenakis  100 to  150 men
"     St.   Francois  -  Abenakis
"     Sault  St.  Louis   -   Iroquois
"     Lac  des   Deux-Montagnes -   Iroquois
"   '..La -presentation,   the  Five  Nations
" ' Detroit  - Hurons
"    Miramiohi   - JJicmacs .
  2.3 8    Isaac's  House
Thompson
me
»n t i ens  a
free-tre
ider's he
use
under name   1
saac's  I
0U5
se   on
the
Sa
3katchewan
ri-<
er
east  of
the
Forks so
vhere
in
Ram
&  17
West
of
''eridian in
1794.
Island 1
ouse
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on North Saskatchewan  river near Englishman  river and about 3  miles
below Manchester House.     It was attacked by Fall
Indians in 1793,   plundered and burnt.     Indians were
repulsed from North West Co.  fort nearby..   Later
another Island House  was  built  farther up Saskatchewan river above  Fort George.     Called also Fort
Brule,  Fort  d'Isle, and Burnt Fort d'Isle.     Thompson.
was there   in 1800.
240    Island Lake  Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at   the   outlet   of
Island lake, Manitoba,.west'end  of lake.     Location
shown  on  map No.   68.     It appears   on all   the  Company
lists from 186S.     It  was  originally  located at  Saga--
wechewan at  east  end of  lake and was built before
1824.     After a  few years   it was  abandoned  owing to
scarcity  of furs.     About  1840  it was   re-established
half a mile south of present   location.     It was  again
abandoned until 1864 when    Cuthbert  Sinclair built
on  the  present site.     Island lake   is   75 miles  long
and  50 miles wide at widest  part.     There  are' 3400
islands.
241 Isonglass River post
A small Hudson Bay Co.   post at mouth of
Isonglass   or   Old Factory  river,   James' Bay,   about  30
miles north of East Main river.     Built   before  1685,
probably abandoned  in  1686  temporarily when Forts
Rupert,  Moose and Albany were  captured  by  the  French.
A mioa mine  was   discovered  on the   river bank and  was
worked by  the  Company for  some  time,  but unprofit-
ably.     The  river, which  empties   into Moar's Bay, was
called. Mica,   Isonglass,   or Old Factory  river.   Shown
on map No.   24 and the   river on map No.   63.
242 Itamamiou
French trading post   on  lower St.Lawrence,
c.60°W.,     built about   1733.     Concession was  granted
to Lafontaine   de Beloour by Beauharnois  and Hoc-
quart  in 1733.     In 1764  de Belcour sold  to FcZenzie
& Lymburner who sold  it   to Wm.   Grant   in 1804. ■  In
1808 it was   sold by  the   Sheriff,     probably used by-
North West Co.     Was  rated as a  Hudson's Bay Co... post
in 1847.     Does "not  appear  on the  Arrowsmith map- 1857.
  Location  shown on map Nc<   24.    Was   in Seigniory  of
. T$©Hecourt.
243     Jack River House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at mouth of Jaok
river now called Gunisao river, Manitoba,   on left
bank.     Built  before  1819.     Shown  on maps   of Arrow-
smith 1832   (No.   101)  and  1857   (No.8).     After the
first Norway  House was   burned  in 1825,   the present
Norway House was  erected  on  the   site   of,   or contiguous  to,   old Jack  River House.    See  Norway House.
244 Jackson's Bay House
A small Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Jackson
Bay,   southeast   shore   of Oxford lake,   Ontario, York
District.     It was an outpost  of  oxford House and was
included   in  the  Co.   lists  of 1869  and 1872.     Shown"-
on map No.   126.
245 Jasper House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on upper Athabaska
river,   Alta.       Built   1799 at  outlet   of Brule  lake  and
called Rooky Mountain House.       In 1801  Jasper Hawes
took charge  and moved   the  fort  to  left bank Athabaska
river and about  16 miles  farther upstream  to present
location at  the   outlet  of  Jasper lake.     The  second
house  was named after Jasper Hawes.    At  one  time an
important post.     Practically abandoned by the  Company
in 1875.     It was  described by Milton & Cheadle   in
"Northwest Passage  by  land"  1862, as  "a neat white
building  surrounded  by  low  palisades  standing in a
perfect garden  of wild  flowers,   backed by  dark  green
pines".     Shown  on maps  No.   101,   100,   98,   8,  & 127.
It appears   on H.B.  Co.    Arrowsmith map 1857 under
both names.
246 Fort  Jemseg
Built  by Governor  Charles   Temple  1659 at
Jemseg  on river St.   John,  N.B.,  near mouth  of  Jemseg
river.     Captured by Dutch  force  1674.     Rebuilt   1690
by Villebon  but   finally abandoned  1692.
247 Fort  Joachim
A small  Hudson's Bay  Co.   outpost   on the
Ottawa   river at Les   Joaohims  rapids about   20 miles
below Mattawa   on the  north  bank.     This was  probably
a   relief station  on the  canoe  route   between Montreal
and Fort William providing  rest  on the   journey after
the  36 miles paddle up  the   "Deep River",   as  that
portion of  the  Ottawa  was  called,   from Alumettes.     It
was originally an old  French trading post  to which
the North West  Co.  succeeded  and,  after 1821,   the
Hudson's Bay.Co.
  248 Kaipokok
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on the  shore   of
Labrador near Hopedale.     It was  built before   1790
by  the  French  or other  "Europeans".   In 1836,  D.  R.
Stewart  of Quebec had the post.     In 1837,  the
Hudson's Bay Co,  bought out- Stewart.     It was included in the  H.B.  Co.   list  of 1857 and was maintained by the Cbmpany until 1879 when it was  closed.
249 Fort Zakababeagino
Hudson's Bay Co.  post on lake Zakabonga,
Temiscamingue  district,  about 40 miles east  of
Grand Lake  Victoria.     It was  built  before  1856 and
was  operated until about  1880 as  an  outpost of Ft.
Temiscamingue.     Superseded by Barriere post  on lake
Barriere  tributary to lake Zakabonga.    Was   included
in H.B.   Co.   lists   of 1857,   1869 and  1872.   Location
of Barriere  is  shown on Gatineau sheet  of Standard
map.
250 Fort Zaministiquia
Old French fort  on site  of present 'town
Fort William,   Ontario.     Called also Fort  Lea  Trois
Rivieres and-spelled "Caministagouia".    The first
fort was  built  by  Dulhut  1678.     It was  built of  logs
and was Dulhut's main trading post.     Situated about
half a mile  from mouth  of Zaministiquia  river  on the
south shore  of river.     This  fort  did not  last after
about   1700.     A second  fort was   built by Robutel  de
la Noue*  in 1717.     This  fort was abandoned for some
time after the   oession  of Canada.     It was  rebuilt  by
the  North West Co.   in  1800  on site   of  the   old French-
fort   of La Noue* and was called   "New Fort".     On iinion
of  the North West Co.  and X.Y.   Co.   in  1804 it was   -
•     again rebuilt as  a very  substantial  fort and called
Fort William   (which see).     The  X.Y.  Co.  had a  trading
post and base   of supplies  in 1802 near New Fort.
Fort Zaministiquin was   included  in Bougainville's
List   of  Forts who says  that   it  was  "leased to M,
Reperitigny and  the  lease  expires  in 1758".    At  that
time   the  French withdrew to Montreal and Quebec and
the post was  deserted,  and  soon destroyed by fire.
251 Fort Kamloops
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on south bank  of
the  South Thompson river  opposite  the   confluence   of
the  North  Thompson river,  B.C.     Alexander Ross in
1812 first traded at   the   junction  of  the  South
Branch with  the  North Branch Thompson river.     In tho
autumn of 1812 David Stuart built  the   first fort at
Zamloops  for  the  Pacific  Fur Co.     It was  situated
on practically the  same  site as  the  present  fort  and
was known at first as  the   "Shewaps Fort",  being
named after a  local  tribe.     The Northwest  Co.   on
absorbing the  Pacific Fur Co.   (called the  Astoria
Co.)   in 1813  took  over fort   Shewaps and named  it
«@m
  fort Thompson after David Thompson,   constructing a
new  fort   (the   second)   on the  east  shore   of the North
Branch at  the  confluence.     This  fort was attacked by
the Indians   on several  occasions.     The Hudson's Bay
Co.  acquired this  fort   on the   union  of 1821.
McLeod was  the   factor  from 1822  to 1826.     The  fort
was well stockaded and included arj. enclosure  for
300 horses.     John Todd, who was   the  factor from 1842
to  1850,   constructed a new  fort   (the   third)   opposite
McLeod's  fort,   on the west  side   of the North j
Thompson river and  the name  was now  changed to Fort
Zamloops   (meaning  "Meeting of Waters").     It was a
large  fort with several dwellings and a store and
other buildings.     The  palisades were  15  feet high
and were  strengthened by  two bastions.     A fourth
fort,   the present  one, was  built  by Donald McLeod
1861-1862   (Factor from 1854 to 1862)   on the  south
of  the   South Branch  opposite   the   confluence.     It was
triple  gabled with overhanging eaves.     It is still
in good condition.    This was always an important
post.     It  is  shown   on Arrow3mith's map  of 1832
(No.   101),   on that   of 1850   (No.   100)  where   both
names are given,  and  on that  of 1857   (No.   8).     It
is mentioned  in all the  Company lists up to 1872.
252 Fort Zanaaupscow
Hudson's Bay Co.  post   on the  Fort George
(or Big)   river about  76°W.,  Quebec.    Established
19 21 and  in operation to date.
253 Fort Zaniapiakau
Hudson's Bay Co.  post established in
1834 as an  outpost   of Nichikun  on  lake  Zaniapiskau,
Quebec,   about  54°N.  and  7QOW.     It was  given in  the
Company lists   of 1857 and 1869.     Low reported it  in   '
1895 as  having been abandoned for 25 years.     It was.
probably  operated   only as an outpost.     Its  location
is shown on maps No.   24 and 63.
254 Fort Zansas
French fort   on right  bank   of Missouri
river at mouth  of Little Kansas  river.     It is named
in Bougainville's  list   of   1757 as   "having a  garrison
■ with commander dependent  on New  Orleans".     It was
probably an outpost   of fort  Orleans a  few miles
further  down the Missouri  river.     It  is  shown   on
Rocque's  map  of 1763   (No.96),  and Bellin's 1755
(No.93)  and D'Anvi'lle's   1755   (No.97).
255 Kapiskatt post
Hudson's Bay Co.  post on James Bay at
mouth  of Kapiskau river,   shown  on map No.   52  of
Northern Ontario 1903 and  on  the   Company map  of
1924 posts No.  39.     Established about 1900.
  256 Fort Kaskaskia
French fort   on right bank   of Kaskaskia
river about   five  miles from its   confluence with the
Mississippi   river.     It was  built   of square  logs.
Burned  in 1766.     Zaskaskia,   Illinois, was   the   first
permanent white  settlement   in the Mississippi
valley.     Mission established by Marquette   in 1675
for the Zaskaskia  Indians  near  the  present TJtica,
Ills.,  was   removed  in 1700   to  site   of Fort Zaskaskia.     It was  situated nearly   opposite  Fort  Genevieve and a   few miles below  Fort  Chartres   (1720).     Was
surrendered to English in 1763 and was capital  of
that  region  for  some   time.     Is  named  in Bougainville's list 1756 as  dependent   on New Orleans.
Shown  on Bellin's map  1755 No.   93,   on d'Anville's
1755   (No.97),   and  on map French Possessions   (No.10).
257 Keg River  post
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on east bank Peace
River,   60 miles  above  Fort Vermilion,  near mouth of
Keg river.     It was  sometimes   called Fort  du Tremble.
Shown on H.B.   Co.  map  1857   (No.8)  and Map   of North
Wesi^ Territory 1877   (No.   16).     This  fort was   Originally built  by  the North West Co.  about   1800  or
earlier,  and is called by D.  Thompson in 1804.  "Old
Fort  du Tremble".     Sometimes  called  De  Tremble   or .
Des  trembles.
258 Fort Zenamu
Old French post at west  end lake Melville ,   Labrador,   opposite  the   outlet  of  Grand  lake.
Probably  located  on Carter Basin at .the  mouth of
Zenemioh  river.     It was  built before  1799.  Purchased
by Hudson's Bay Co.  1836 and closed soon after.
Location 3hown on White's map Labrador posts   (No.24)
and Low's map  1896   (No.61).
259 Fort  Kenogamissi
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at north end of
lake Kenogamissi  near source   of Mattagami river,
Ontario,  about  30 miles   southwest   of Frederick
House.     It was   built before  1798,   one   of the   {   r
earliest inland posts  dependent  on Moose Factory.
It was  closed about  1850.and had been abandoned
for many years  before  1880.     Location shown  on map
No.   24.
260 Fort Zikendatch
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on lake  Zikendatch,
enlargement   of St. Maurice  river,   about 9  miles
above  Gouin dam.     Was   originally an  old French post
in  the  King's  Domain.     It came   to  the  Hudson's  Bay
Co.   in  the"'lease   of  the  King's  posts  183.2.     It  is
named  in  the  list   of 1857 and  1894.     Was  closed
shortly before   1900.     It   is   shown on Arrowsmith
maps   of  1832   (No.101)  and  1857   (No.8)  also   on White's
map   (No.   24).
  Zilmar's  Fort
See   Fort Babine.
The Zing's Domain and Zing's Posts
Extent   of the  Domain du Roy was   76
leagues   on north shore  of St.  Lawrence from Black
river  (i.e.   5 leagues  below Murray Bay)   to river
Cormorant   (9  leagues below Sept  Isles)  and up the
Saguenay river 200 leagues  to lake Mistassini  -
Pointe-aux-Cormorants marked north-east  extremity
of .the Zing's  Domain and  the   beginning  of Mingan
Seigniory.    Murray Bay parish was   originally a  part
of the Zing's  Domain until  1762,  when Gen.  Murray
granted  it   to Major Nairn and  Lieutenant  Fraser but
restricted  them from trade   with  the  Indians,
Labrador  coast  from Mingan Seigniory was  then  free
for trade to all.    An account   of  the Zing's posts
in the Zing's  Domain was written by James Mckenzie
1808 and found  in. Masson,   Les  Bourgeois  &o,   Series
II page  405  et  seq.
List  of Zing's Posts   in Domain du Roy
Sept  Isles  before   1710.
Godbout  before  1670.
Manioouagan  on lake Manicouagan before  1749.
Manicouagan,mouth Manicouagan river before   1800.
Bersimis  before  1703.
Mille Vaches   (Portneuf)   before  1800.
lie  Jeremie  before  1730.
Tadoussac  o.   1600.
Chicoutimi  be#£re   1650.
Lake   St.John  (Metabetohouan)   c.   1650.
Ashuapmuchouan   (Chamuehuan)   1690.
Mistassini  c.   1673.
Nekoubau   (Nemiscau)   1685.
St.   Charles  1686   (St.Jacques).
Nichigun   (Nichikun before   1725.
Papinachois before  1703.
Moisy before   1694.
Naskapis  before  1733.
Malbaye   before  1733.
Bondesir before  1730.
Musquarro c.   1710.
Zing's Posts   outside  the  Domain
Rouille   (Toronto!   1749. Frontenac  1673.
Niagara  1678. Little Portage  1753.
Presqu'Isle   1753. R.   au Boeuf 1753.
Machault  1753. Duquesne  1753.
Baye   des  Puants  1670.    ; La Chine   1671.
De  la Presentation 1718.
Map  of Domaine du Roy  by Pere  Laure   S.J.   1731(No,109)
  261 Klttigaruit
Hudson's  Bay Co.  post at  outlet   of East
Channel,   delta   of Mackenzie  river,   recently   opened.
262 Zootenay House
Fortified post erected by Thompson for
North West  Co.   in 1807   on  the west side  of Columbia
river B.C.   one  mile   down stream from the north end
of lake.    Windermere,  about one mile  northwest  of
Athalmer and  just north  of Toby Creek.     It was  the
first post erected in that  region.     Sometimes called
Fort Zootanae.    After the union  of 1821 was  operated
by the   Hudson's Bay Co.   for some  time and was  included  in the  1856 list   of forts.     Shown on map No.6.
263 Zootenay Falls  House
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort at Zootenai  Falls,
Montana,   on east  bank.    Built by North ?»'est Co.1808.
An  outpost   of Fort Colville.     The  H.B.   Co.   claimed
indemnity  from  the  U.S.  for this  fort.     Shown  on
maps No.   12 Crown Lands  1857,  Arrowsmith  1832   (No.
101),   1850   (No.100)   and   1857   (No.8).     Sometimes
called Kootanie or Zootanais Fort.     (Not   to  be   confused with Kootenay  House   on  the  Columbia  river
B.C.).
Fort Kuokatoosh
The   original name   of Flying post.   q.v.
264 Zullyspell House   .
North West Co.   post in basin of  Columbia
river,   on east side  of Zullyspell lake   (lake lend
d'Oreille),   f% miles  from mouth   of   river,   48°11'
30"N. .  Built   by Thompson 1809 and named by him.     It
stood on a point  extending  into lake  Pend  d'Oreille
between Hope  and Clarks Fort stations   on Northern
Pacific  Railway.     'Was  maintained  for  only a  few
years.
265 Fort  La Boulaye
French fort  built  by d'Iberville  1700,
on poverty Point, Mississippi  river,   38 miles
below New  Orleans.     It  was   the   first fort  built near
mouth  of Mississippi  river  on the   river and marked
the  first settlement.     Location shown  on L't.  Ross
map 1765,   rage  174 in "First  Great Canadian"  by
C.  B.  Reed.
266 Lac a   la Mart re
Small North West Co.   post  on lake a  la
Martre about  15  days   travel north  of  Great Slave
lake.     Built  by Leroux  in 1789.     Probably  only a
temporary post.     On some   old maps   this   lake  is  called Martin's  lake.
  1
26 7    Fort  Lac-au-Serpent.   (Snake  Lake)
A small  trading post   of North West Co.
& H.B.  Co.  after 1821 on lac  des  Serpents  near lac
lie  a  la Crosse,   built  by Roderio McKenzie  1786-87.
Mentioned  in Masson  I pg.17 Reminiscences  of R.
McKenzie.     At east  end  of  Snake   lake,   Churchill
river,  map No.   41   (1895).     In charge   of McGillivray
1786.
268 Lac Barriere  Post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post at  south end  of
lac Barriere..  Named   on 1925  list  of posts.     Probably  opened about  1900.     A tributary  lake  to Grand
Lake  Victoria.     Shown White's map 1926   (No.   24),
also Nos.130  and 131,  and Standard Map Gatineau
Sheet.
Fort  Lac  des  Allumettes
Another name   for Fort  William.on Ottawa
river.
269 Fort Lao-des-Boeufs
The   first fort   on lac  des Boeufs   (now
called Buffalo  lake   or Peter pond  lake) ,  near
Methye  Portage, was  built by  the   North West  Co.   in
1790.     This  post   is   shown  on Arrowsmith maps  1832
(No.101),   1850   (No.100)   and 1857   (No.8)  and marked
"N.  W.   House",    Macoun  1875  says"Buffalo House, at
the  jnorth end of the  lake opposite mouth   of
PembMa  river,  was   deserted".     This post was
opera oed by  the   Hudson's  Bay Co.   after union  1*21."•
The second post  on Buffalo  lake was
built by the  Hudson's Bay Co.   in  1791 at the   south
end  on the  point  projecting  south  between Buffalo
lake  and Clear lake   (now called  Churchill lake).
The  present  name  of  this  post  is Buffalo Lake  House
or Buffalo River post.     T'acoun 1875  says "at
eastern end  of  the  narrows and at the  head  of Clearwater lake   is  situated Chipewyan House".     This post
is  still   operated  by H.B.  Co.
Both posts  shown  on Tyrell's map  1895
'     (No.   41).
270 Lao   des   Chats post
McLean in  his   "Notes   of Twenty-five
years  Service"  says  182R  that  the  North West Co.
and Hudson's Bay  Co.  had  built adjoining, posts   on
the   Ottawa  river at   Chats  Falls,   probably about  16CC.
These  posts were   discontinued after the union  of
1821.
271 Lao   dea Deux Montagnes
An  old French fort at  Lake   of the Two
Mountains is  named   in Bougainville's list  1757.   The
  ^
Sulpicians   obtained the seigniory   of Montreal
island in  1663. and established a mission at  the
fort,   12  leagues  from Montreal.     About 250  Indians.,
Nipissings.,  Algonquins,  and Iroquois,   traded at  the
post.     The   commerce  was  for the  benefit   of the
priests  and there was no French  commander nor
garrison at   the   fort in 1757.     The   site  is now Oka
on the  north  side   of the   lake.     The  fort was   probably built about   1660.
The  Hudson's Bay  Co.   established a  post
on the  Lake  of Two Mountains  in  the   spring  of 1819
and  the  North West  Co.   also  operated a  post until
the   date  of coalition 1821.
272.   Fort Lac Pes Roseaux
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at  outlet  lake
Des Roseaux  on right bank  of  river Aux Roseaux,
96°W.  and just  south  of 49°N.     Trail led from here
to Pembina  and Fort  Garry.     This  was  the  old  Indian
trail  from Lake  of  the  Woods  to  Red  river.     It  is
show*  on Dawson map 1869   (No.  134).
273 Fort  Lao  des  Sables
A small Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  on lac   des
Sables,   Du Lidvre   river,   Quebec.    McLean-("Twenty-
five  years  service  &c")   speaks   of this  fort   in 1826
and  gives  the   location  "fright miles above  the last
rapid and portage"."  Rapide   du Fort is at  the   outlet
(south end)   of the   lake.     It   is   shown on map No.17.
of 1839.
274 Fort lac  d'Orignal   (1)
Moose Lake fort. A North West Co. fort
on southeast end of Moose lake .(Alberta) upper
waters of the Beaver river, 54° 15' N. & 110° 50'W.
Built by Angus Shaw in 1789 and hence sometimes
called "Shaw House". Shown on'map of early Alberta
forts No. 11. Does not seem'to have been continued
after 1821.
275 Fort Lao  d'Orignal   (2)
A small North West Co. post west of
Yellowhead pass on present Moose lake near T§te
Jaune Cache, enlargement of Fraser river, 53° N.
& 119° W.
276 Lac   d'Orignal  House   (3)
Moose   Lake House   on Moose  lake,  north
of Cedar lake, about  50 miles  east   of The pas.   The
North West  Cc.   located  on  the north shore   of lake
about  1800.     This  post was   included  in their list
of 1820.     The Hudson's  Bay Co.   located   on  the  west
shore.     It   is  included  in their  1856  list and shown
on Arrowsmith maps   1832   (No.Ill)   and 1857   (No.8).
  277    Lao-du-Bonnet House
Originally a North West Co.  post  on  lac-
du-Bonnet,   enlargement of 'Winnipeg river,  about 25
miles above   fort Alexander.    Built about 1800.     Included  in list  of posts  1821.    After coalition of
1821,   this post was  operated  by  the Hudson's  Bay Co.
and was named  on their lists   of 1856 and 1872.    Name
of Hudson's Bay Co.   post was generally  "Indian Cap
Fort" and the lake  was variously called,   Cap lake,
Cat lake ,   or Indian Cap lake .     It  is  shown on maps
No.   2,  No.7,  No.8,   No.   21,  and No.   86.    Was   on route
from Lake  of the Woods to lake Winnipeg.
Fort  Iac~du-Brochet   (Pike Fish)
See Bedfont  House,  and Fort  Caribou.
27 8    Fort  Lac-la-Biche
Originally a North West  Co.   fort at  east
end   of lake  La Biche ,  tributary  to Athabaska river.
The   outlet,   La Biche   river,   flews  into  the  Athabaska
river a few miles  below Athabaska  Landing,   54°,   45'
N.  & 112° W.    Built by Thompson in  1798 who wintered
there   1798-99.     The  lake was  called by him Red Deer.
The  Hudson's  Bay Co.  succeeded  to  this fort in 1821
after the   coalition.     It was  raided by  the  Indians
in the   rebellion  of 1885.     Appears   to have  been discontinued after 1912.     It  is  shown   on maps  Nos',35,
37 and  69.     Lake   La Biche  is  called Red Deers  Lake
on Arrowsmith maps  183 2,   1850 & 1857 and  the
Athabaska river  is given alternative names Elk  or
La Biche  river..
279 Lac  La Nonne. House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on lake  La Nonne
(La Nun)   tributary to Pembina  river about   75 miles
from  its  junction with  the  Athabaska   river.     Established about   1870 and closed  before  1894.     Shown a
on map No. 35.
Fort Lac  la  pluie
See fort Rainy Lake.
280 Fort Lao  la Ronge
The   first fort  on lac  La Ronge was built
by Peter Pond for the North West  Co.   in 1781   on the
west shore   of the lake as  shown on Pond's map  of
1785   (No. 82)   ,   Simon Fraser wintered there  1795-6
and  Thompson was  there   in 17 38.
The  Hudson's  Bay  Co.. fort was  built
about 1790   or 1800 at  the  north end   of the  lake.
Shown  on Arrowsmith maps  1832   (No.101),   1850   (No.100)
an«t 1857   (No.8).     This  fort was   superseded by Rapid
River  fort before  1860,  about  15   to 20 miles  distant.
  The  H.B.  Co. also  operate a post on Big Stone  lake
about  5 miles  beyond the   outlet of Lac  La Ronge known
as  Lac  La Ronge  post,   shown  on map   of 1895   (No.41).
281 Fort  Lac  Seul
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on north shore  of
Lac   Seul,   Ontario,   at White  pine  Narrows which are
about   three  miles  west  of mouth   of Canoe   river.     A
long point projecting from the  south shore  here contracts   the   lake   to about  half a mile  wide.     The   extremity  of the point is conspicuous  by a clump  of
white pines and  the name,   Obyikoka,   (or"lake   of White
Pine Narrows"), which the   Indians gave   to Lao Seul,
has  reference  to this  locality.     The   lake  was variously called Lac  Sal,   Sel,   Saul," Salt, and lonely.     The
Hudson's Bay Co.  recommended building the  post in
1815 and  it was  established soon after that date and
was   included  in the  1856 list  of posts.     It  is
described as a  "fine group of buildings on a  sandy
shore".     In operation to present date.     Located  on
route  from Fort  Alexander to  Osnaburgh House  and
James Bay.     Shown  on map No.   132.    Nov/ known as Pine
Ridge Post.     See Fort Mattawa.
282 Lao Traverse post
Small  Hudson's  Bay Co.  post   on lake
Traverse   (between Minnesota and  South Dakota)   two   -
miles   from-head  of lake,  near source  of Red  river.
Thi-s post being on American territory was abandoned.
283 Fort  La  Chine
French fort  built   1671 at head  of Lachine
rapids nine miles above Montreal.     In the   seigniory
of La Salle.    Mentioned in Bougainville's  List 175 7
who says that houses  and stores   of the  King were
located there.    A King's post.    The  settlement was
begun by La  Salle in 1666 and the name  La Chine  refers
to hia  belief  that the  Ottawa  river led  to  the  "Mer
de 1'Ouest" and thence  to  China.     The  fort was later
named Fort Remy until 1760.     In 1689   the  settlement
suffered from an incursion  of the  Iroquois when 20C
inhabitants  of the   settlement were  massacred and the
village  burned.     Lachine  became   the   centre   of the  fur
trade  before  the cession  of Canada and, afterwards,
especially so under the  North West Co.     The Hudson's
Bay  Co.  after union with  the North West  Co.   in 1821,
continued  the   trading post,   called Lachine House,  a3
centre   of the   fur trade  via  the   St.   Lawrence  river,
although the   outlet for western furs was York Factory.
The  St-Lawrence-Ottawa River route was  continued by
the  Hudson's  Bay Co.   for  some   time after the
amalgamation in 18 21 for local needs,  and later the
Lakes' route and Yonge street portage   (Toronto) .     But
this route   gradually declined  in  favour   of James  Bay.
In 1851   Sir George   Simpson's  house was at Lachine
and  it was  then  the  headquarters  for the   fur  trade.
  Canoes   for  the  Grand Portage  started from
La  Chine.     These  large  canoe3,  called "Mattre Canots",
were  of four tons  burden and were manned by 8 to 10
men.     They left La  Chine  in fay,  via   Ottawa  river,   to
Machilimackinac  for additional  supplies and provisions
and arrived at Grand Portage early in July.
Fort  La  Cloche
Both the  Hudson's Bay Co.  and the  North
Wrest Co.   had establishments at  La Cloche.     Situated  on
the north shore   of  the  North  Channel,   Georgian Bay,
about   ten miles  east   of mouth  of Spanish river.     It
was   on the  route  from Montreal to  the  west via  the
Ottawa  river.     A.   Henry Sr.  says   that the, name  vjas
derived  "from a  rock standing on a plain which being
struck  rings  like  a  bell".     No  fort  was  there   in 1761
when A.  Henry  passed,   nor in 1789 when Roderick
McKenzie   passed.     The  North West Co.   probably built  the
first post about 1790.     The  post was mentioned  by
MoLean ih 1833 and was   visited  by Sir George  Simpson
1841.     It  is  included   in  the Hudson Bay Co.   lists   from
1820 to 1872 and is  shown on Arrowsmith maps 1832
(No.101)  and 1857   (No.8)  and on map  133.     Located at
mouth  of  outlet of lake   La Cloche.
Fort La  Galette
See  fort De  La presentation.
285 Fort La  Jonqui&re
French fort built by ten voyageurs sent
ahead by de Niverville in 1751, on the Saskatchewan
river near site of present city of Calgary. Named
after the Governor, of New France. St. Pierre in his
Memoirs (Masscm) says that it was a stockaded fort.
It was not maintained after the French withdrew in
1?59.
On  its site   in  1873  Capt.  Brisebois  of the
Royal North West Mounted Police  founded a  post called.
Fort Brisebois which grew   to  he   the   city Calgary.
Capt.  Brisebois  stated   that  he had found  traces  of
old fort  La  Jonquiere   on  the   spot.
The  North West  Co.   erected a  fort about  50
miles west  of old La  Jonquiere  in 1802  to which the
name  Bow River  fort was   given.     This fort was  closed
about  1823.
Shown on map No.   3  of North West Territories  from Dr.   Coue's  Henry-Thompson Travels.
286 Fort Lake  of the Woods
Small post  built by Hudson's Bay  Co.   on
west  shore   of Lake   of the  Woods  on  or near the   site   of
the   old French  fort St.Charles   (q.v.).   It was named in
the   list   of posts   in the  Deed  of Surrender 1869   but
  does not appear on later lists. The North West Co.
had a post of like name on the left (west) bank of
Rainy river near entrance  to Lake of Woods.
287 Fort  Lake  St.   John
An early French post  established about
1650 at mouth  of Metabetchouan river,   east bank,
near the   shore   of lake   St*   John;     Sometimes called
fort Metabetchouan;     It is shown on pere  Laure's
map 1731  (No.109)  as Metabetchouan and marked "An-
oien Etablissement et Mission".     The post was  on the
site  of the   first Jesuit Mission to  lake  St.  John,
and was  probably founded a  little  later  than Chicou-
timi.     It was   one   of the posts   in Traite  de  Tadoussac
and was  listed by B^gon in  1720 as a King's post.     In
1766 it was  spoken  of as  dependent post on Chicoutimi.
It was   leased  by  the North West  Co.   in 1788 with the
other posts  in the King's  Domain, and was  included in
their  list  1821 at  the   time   of union.    McKenzie 1808
visited the post and  says "'lake   St.   John post  is   on
the   south shore,   4 leagues  from the   entrance at  the
mouth   of a  beautiful  river where   the   Jesuit3 formerly
were located".
The  Hudson's Bay Co.  acquired  this post
at the union of 1821.     It is  shown on their map of
1846 and  included   in the list  1857.     Soon after 1864
this post was  removed to Pointe  Bleue  on the west
shore   of  the  lake and is  now called Pointe Bleue post.
The  old French fort may have  been destroyed  in the
great  fire  of 1870.
Shown  on Maps Nos.   17,24,95.
288 Fort La Maggie
Called also La Tourette  or Latourette.
Built  by  Charles  Dulhut,   Sieur de  la  Tourette,   in
1684, at mouth  of Ombabika   river,   on northeast shore
of lake Nipigon.     Dulhut  in 1684 wrote  to M,  de  la
Barre,  Governor of New France,  mentioning  the  fort
which he had built  on  the  river A la Manne at  the
head  of lake Alempigon  (Nepigon).     It  is shown on
Jaillot's map  of 1685 and 1696 marked  "poste  du Sr.
Duluth pour empe'cher les Assiniboels et autres sauvages   de   descendre a  la  Baye de  Hudson".     (Map No.
117).     It  is  also shown on La Hontan map  of 1703.
The  route  to Hudson Bay  from lake  Nipigon by the
Ombabika,   Ogoki,  and Albany  rivers,   was  first  discovered  by a  Canadian named perre  and old maps  show
a  river de  Perre  from lake Nepigon to Hudson Bay.
See maps  No.   19 and 18,   67  and  68.
Verendrye was  in charge   of fort La Maune
in 1726.     The   fort was  maintained by  the   French until
the  cession  of Canada,   lake  Nepigon being the  headquarters   of the  French fur traders  in that region.
The   fort was probably  destroyed at  the   time   of,   or
soon after,  the  departure  of the French garrison.
Neither the North West  Co.  nor  the  Hudson's Bay Co.
included  thi3 fort   in  their various  lists.   (See
Nipigon House).     A map    of 1737 shows a  fort at  the
north  end  of lake Nipigon,   probably meant  for fort La
Maune.
  Fcrts  cf La Mer  de.1'Ouest
Seven forts  are naned  by Bougainville
(1757)   as  comprising  the   department  of  the  west
called  "La Mer de  P' Ouest".     "These  seven farts,   he
says,  were  stockaded and  ordinarily  have a  garrison
of  one   or two   officers,   with 7   or  8 soldiers,  and 80
Canadian engages.     They merit attention principally
for two reasons,   first,   because  they are next  to the
establishments  of the  English on Hudson Bay, ind,
second,  because  from  these posts it will be possible
to  discover  the Mer  de  1'^uest,   but'   for  this   discovery it will be necessary  for the  voyageurs  to forsake   their  commercial  interests''.
These  forts were:
St.Pierre   on left  bank Rainy  river   (at  outlet- .
St.   Charles   on peninsula  extending  into  Lake   of 'Woods.
3ourbon at entrance   to  lake  7finnipeg   (from Saskatchewan  river) .
De  Ia Reine  on right  bank Assiniboels   river  (junction
of Red and Assiniboine rivers).
Dauphin  on river Eau Trouble   (northwest  shore  of lake
Manitoba).
Paskoia   on river  of  that  name  180 leagues  from
Uauphin   (mouth  of pasquia  river).
Des  Prairies,80 leagues   from paskoia   (Ft.a  la  Corne).
(See under each name.)
289    Fort La Montee
North West  Co.  fort   en North Saskatchewan
river about  3 miles upstream from Carlton House  on
north  side   of  river.     Built  about  1797.     Was used
chiefly as a  provision  station and was  one  of their
principal meat  depots,  supplying 300 bags of pemmican yearly.    Mcntee means  Ascending  or Crossing
place,   referring to  the   faot   that  here  canoes  were
exchanged for horses,   if going north to Green lake
and Beaver river or south to   south Saskatchewan river
at Batoche.     "A mounting plaoe  for horses".
Fort  La Motte
French  fort  on  Isle  La Motte,   lake
Champlain.     Shown De Lisle map 1703,  No.   18.
Lane's Post
Snail tradine- post about 18 miles east
Portage la prairie on Assiniboine river. Shown on
Hind's jsap  of expedition 1858.
Fort  Langley
Hudson's Bay Co. fort near the mouth of
the Fraser river, B.C. 'Built in 1827. Destroyed b;
fire and  rebuilt  1840.     The  first  fort  on  the main-
  -   100   -
land of lower British Columbia.     Erection  of this
fort secured the  British occupation of B.C.     It wis
used as a  depot  for  the north and  included i» lists
cf posts   in operation until about   1885.     Shotin on  the
H.B.   Co.   maps  No.   8,   1C1 & ICC.
Lansdowne  House
See Attawapiskat.
293
La Pierre's  House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post   on  right  bank   of
Bell  river,   tributary  of  the  porcupine  river,   Yukon.
Situated a   few miles  upstream from fort Mcpherson.
It was built  by  the Hudson's Bay Co.   in  1847 and
abandoned  in 1890.     Shown  or. Arrowsmith map 1657
(No.8).
Fort  ~L& Pointe
See Chagouamigon.
294
Fort  Let Prairie
Small French fort   of  legs,  palisaded,
situated $ear  or at   the present   La Prairi e,Que. ,
b^low Lachine rapids.     It  protested   the   route  from
Montreal,  Richelieu river and  lake  Champlain to
Fort  Oasilloip.   ^Ticonderoea) ,  and  was  probably built
about  1650 for defence against   ths  Iroquois.     It was
mentioned  in Bougainville's   list  1767 as abandoned.
Fort  L'Arbre Croche
Frennh  fort   ta south  shore Strait  of
Mackinac,   entrance  to  lake Miahigan.     An Indian
village,   fort,  and settlement,  and a   Jesuit roission
called  St.   Ig^iaoe.     It was  surrendered to  the British
1760  and  visited  by Alex.   Henry  17fl.     At  the  outbreak   of Pontiac's  rebellion me   garrison was withdrawn on June  21,   1763,   to Ft.  Michllircackinac,  "and
the   fort w-s  seized by pontiao and burnei..     The*
first   fort  was  built  by La  Salle   in  1579.     Named  o»,
sorae Raps as  Ft.   St.   Igxa.ce.     Shown on Bellin's map
1744 No.   15,   on palairet 1755 No.   119,   on P'Anville
1755 No.   97,   on Le Rc-uge   1755 No.   112.
296     Fort   La Reine
French fort  rn north tank  of Assiniboine
river at  Portage  la  Prairie,' portage   of   12 mile3   to
lake  Manitoba.    -Fuilt   by Verendrye   in  173 8.     It was
first   called l£}.urepas,   then  changed   to  La Reine.     The
Assixvihcine river was   then called  St.   Charles and
riviere des  Assinitoels.     The  first   fort  was burned
by  the  Indians  about  1750.     It was   rebuilt  >y  St.
Pierre  1752.     Again  burned  by   Indians 1752,   and  St.
lierra  retired   ta   old fort  Rouge   for  the winter  of
1752-53.     St.   T?ierre  describes   this   second fort as
  having bastions  and  several  adjoining buildings,   one
a uagazine.     It was  again rebuilt   (the   third; fort)
ftbout  1753-54,   but  was abandoned   in  1756 when the
French garrisons were  drawn east.     After the  cession
of Canada  it 7/as   still  standing in  1767 and was
visited  by British   traders   in that  year.    Bougainville  1757 mentions  fort La'Heine as  being 70* leagues
from fort Bourbon,   in- the   midst   of vast  prairies,  and
the  route  to  the Missouri  from the  north.
The Northwest Co. had a fort at portage .
la Prairie Mentioned in McDonnell's journal 1794 and
the  Hudson's Bay  Co.   were  located near by.
I* Reine is shown-on Bellin's rrap 1755
No. 93, on Rocque's 1761 No.. 96 where it is called
Queen's Fort, on pond's map 1785.No. 82. Fort La
Reine was probably occupied.by the Hudson's Bay Co.
until they built on its site in 1796. See portage
la Prairie.
Fort  La Ronde
North West Co.   fort at mouth   of La Vase
river,, lake Nipissine,   south-east  bay,  at  the
terir.inus of  the  portage.     Originally at   the mouth   of
the  Vase   river and afterwards moved   to an island  in
the   lake.     The Hudson's  Bay Co.   post was  called
Nipissing House   (q.v.).
Fort  La.Ronge
La Sarre post
Hudson's Bay»Co.   post  on .Canadian National R'y.  y.ear  river La  Sarre which  flows   from lake
Macamic  to 'Jake  Abitibi,   about 9  raiies  from  old  fort
Abitibi,  which  fort  was   superseded  by La  Sarre   en
the  railway  about 1914.     See Abitibi.
Fort
French ffrt
Built.by  Claude  de M  Tc
east  side  of  St.John hai
1643 and again i& 1645,
Charaisay  1645 and the. ?
at «,outh St.   John river,   N*~,
ar 1631,   on Portland Point,
hour.    Attacked  by Chamisay
and   finally captured by
arrison rr.assaored and fort
destroyed.     Charnisay then T»u.lit
the   opposite  side   of harbour.     F
also known as.fort  La  Tour.     The
changed to  fort Martignon- 1572 w
retained  the  grant of  St.   John,
named Fort St.Jean.     Abooit  1750
French and  called fort Menagouec
abandoned.     In 1758  General Mono
and named it   Fort   Frederick  and
called Fort  Mono ton.     In 17 75 th
by the Americana.     In 1778 .Fort
hill above. Portland point.-   Fina
ort  Charni say
ort  Charni say was
name was ,again  *
hen Sieur .Martignon
In 1700  it was '
it was  rebuilt by
t#n  rebuilt   the  fort
it was   some^imys
ft   fort was  destroyed
Kowe was  built   on  th^
lly abandoned 1821.
  Fort La Tour  is   shown oh  D'Anville's
of 1755   (No.97)  also Vieux Fort & Htablishments
^ais  a  few miles  further upstream.
Fort La Tourette
300    Fort La- Traite
First fort was   built by free-trader
Frobisher 177g.,   on Churchill  river   (called also
English river)   near mouth   of  'jeer river,   outlet  of
Keindeer lake,  near Frog- portage   (q.v.)   on north side
of Churchill  river.     Shown  on map No.  3.     Another
fort was  built by Henry  in  June 1776 at   "Portage  de
Traite".     The North West Co.   succeeded  to   these  forts
which   they maintained  to  time  of Union 1821.     Hudson's
Bay  Co.   post  was  near-by & was  called Rapid River
fort,  which see.
La Traite  was  also  called Frog portage
fort and fort  Du Traite.
Fort  Lawrence
Beaubassin.
501    Leaf River post
Hudson's Bay Co. p
mouth of Leaf river, Ungava Ba
1905.and operated to date.
on Leaf Bay,
Established \
Leech
fort
North West  Co.  fort at   the  west  end   cf
Leech lake   (called also  Lac A la  Tortue,.. .& Turtle
lake),   Minnesota.     It was  visited by  Thompson 1798.
Shown on maps  No.  3,   2,   4,  and 8.
Fort  Lennox
English wilitary fort  built   1812-1818  on
site   of  old French  fort   (1759)  named  Fort   Isle-aux-
Noix,  Richelieu  river   (q.v.).     French fort was
captured by the  English  25 August  1759.     New  fort
built  1812-18 was  na^ed  Lennox  from family name   of
Charles,   Duke  of Riohmon-1,   the Governor General 1618-
19.     Fort  Lennox was   captured  by  the Americans  1775.
After Treaty   of Paris   1782  fort  was  maintained by
English garrison until  1869 when it  was  finally
abandoned.
304    Le Roy'^s House •*-
Free-trader's post
45-| miles above Perr.bina, 48° 23
south   of   Salt   river.   *■
See Red River Forts
n Red river about
54"N, and b\  Miles
  Oedres
b ank ,  a t
river.
Luquesne
Lesser  Slave  Lake  forts
Old French fort on ?(t. Lawrence, left
dars rapids, near opnfluenoe of Ottawa
was on the route from Montreal to Fort
Was   included  in Bougainville's  List  16-57.
North West  Co.   erected first  fort,  at
west end of  lake,   before  1802.     It was   visited by
Thompson 180 2.     This  was  probably  the fort known as
Blondin's  fort   (q.v.).
Hudson's Bay  Co.  also  tuilt at   .7est end
of lak^  before  1817.     This fort was  seized by the
North West  Co.   in 1817.     Both forts were  oombined
after union  of 1821.     The  present  name  is  Fort
Grouard dating  from about  1900.     Maps,   No.   5,5,8,
100  &  1C1.
307 Fort  Le  Sueur
French fcrt  on  right bank Mississippi
river above  the mouth  of Wood river  (r.Des  Bois),
about   18 »iles   down stream  from fort  L'Huiltier.     It
is  marked  "destroyed"   on Bowen map  1763   (Mo.98) .
De  Lisle map  of 1703   (No.18),   B'Anville's   1794,
Jeffery's   1762,  Bellin  1755   (No.93)   D'Anville  1755
(No.97),   Rocque  1763   (No.96),  palairet  1755   (No.119)
all  show Fort  Le  Sueur,   but varying in  location.
Fort Les  Trois  Rivieres
See Kaministiquia.
308 Fort   Levis
French fort   on  south side   of  St.Lawrence
river nearly  opposite Fort  Frontenac.     Erected by
the  French 1759   on  Isle  Royale   (5 miles   east  of present  town Prescctt).     Surrendered to  the English
August  176* who   renamed  it  Fort William Augustus.
Shown   on map No.   10.
309 Fort  L'Huiltier
French fort   on right bank  St.Peter's  rive
(now  called Minnesota   river) ,   44 leagues up the St.
Peter's  river,   at-junction of  the Verte river   (now
Green river),   built 1700.     This  fort was  destroyed
and  on  its  site  in  1739  was built fort Verde   (Vert),
which  was  destroyed  before  1763   (either by  tho
garrison on leaving,   or by   indians unde
iac. ]
It   is market  "destroyed"  on Bowen map  1753   (No.#98) .
Shown on Del'Isle  map  1703   (No.18)   and  on maps  No.96
97,   119,  and 111.     Sometimes  spelled  L'Hlllier,  and
L'Huillier.
Fort   Liard
Rivifere-au-Liard.
  310    Fort  Ligonie
English
vania. originally a
site. Shown map No.
Was   included  in' Boug
xrt  in Bedford Count;/,   pe
:ench fort  near Fort  %%  1
.0  and  Rocque's  map 1765
.nville's  list  1757.     It
attacked during pontiao's   rebellion  but the  Indians
were  repulsed  June   21,   1763.     During   the American
revolution  this   fort was   occupied  by Washington as
headquarters  for a.   time.
311 Little Current House
A North West  Co.   repair  station   on the
northeast promontory   of Manitoulin Island,   opposite
Grand Cloche   Island.     Boats  and  canoes were made and
repaired here.     It was  situated about  half way
between Montreal and Fort William and all  canoes
travelling  on  the  route  passed  through  the  narrow
strait   called  Little  Current.
312 Little  Grand Rapids  House
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  in Norway House
district at north'end  of  Family lake,  Manitoba,  about
12 miles  from eastern boundary  of Manitoba.     Name&p..-.-. .
after Little Grand  rapids   in Berens   river.     Established about   1848 by Wm.  McKay  then   in charge   of Beren's
river post.     It has  been operated to  date.     Supplies
were formerly  sent  to  this  post  from York Factory by
York boats  via lake Winnipeg  and  Berens  river.     The
last York  boat   was used  in  1871.
Little
River Fort
See  Red  River  fort..
313    Little Whale  River post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post at mouth  of  Little
Whale  river,   eastern shore   of Hudson's Bay.     Established between'1813  and-1820.     Mentioned  on  the  1857
and  1869   lists.     Operated to  date.     Maps No.   8 & 24.
314    Livingston
Fort
North West  Co.   fort   on  right  bank  of
Mackenzie  river,   80 miles north   of Great Slave lake
and  about   16 niles downstream from month  of  Trout,
river,   61°  27'   N.     &uilt by  Duncan Livings ton ..for  the
Co.   in  1796.    was   the  first  fort built   on the Mackenzie
river north  of  Great  Slave  lake.     Livingston and his
men were  murdered by Esquimaux.     This  fort  is  mentioned in Wentzel's  Letters   (Masson  vol.il).     It  is  marked
"Old Fort"   on Arrowsmith map  1832   (No.   101)   also., on
map  of Topographical  Survey   1923   (No.   25).
Long Lake fort
Originally a North 'vest  Co.  fort at   the
outlet   of  Long Lake   source   of Kenog.ami river,   a  branch
**"the Albany river.     On  the  northwest  side,,  opposite
mouth of Ground river,  about   1-i   miles  from the   outlet
 I ;
 as described by Dr.   Bell,   Geological  Survey,   1870.
It was  built about   1800 and probably  on  the  site  of
an old French post.     Portage route  from south  end  of
the  lake  by Blaok   river to lake Superior and  from the
north end by Ground river,  McKay  lake,   Steel  lake and
Mountain  lake to Jackfish bay.     The North West  Co.
fort was   taken   over by  the  Hudson's  Bay  Co.   1821 and
has  been regularly operated to  date.     Shown map 1832
(No.101),   1857   (No.8)   and  No.   3.
316 Long Point. House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post   on a  long point  extending  from  the  north shore,  near the  centre,   of
lac  Des  Quinze   (Ottawa   river).     It was  in  operation
in 1897 and on the  1894 list,  but not  on earlier or
later lists.     An outpost from Temiscamingue  probably
"built  about  1872 and closed about  1900.     Shown  on
map No.   135.
317 Fort Longue  Sault
French fort   on  the Ottawa river,   six
miles  from lake  of Two Mountaihs.     location is  shown
on map No.   2.     Bougainville  says   of this   fort:     "It
is  situated  on the south bank   of Grand  or Ottawa
river,  as  Carillon is   on  the  north bank,  at  foot   of
rapids,  about  six  leagues   from lake   of Two Mountains.
These   two  little posts  have  been  established for
trading with passing  Indians, Nipissihgs,  Algonquins
and  Iroquois".     The Marquis  de Vaudreuil was  commandant  of Longue  Sault in 175 7.     Situated at present
Point Fortune.
318 Fort  Lorette
French fortified  post and village  of
Huron Indians  to which  they were  removed in 1697
Jtfter  destruction of  Jesuit missions in Huronia  by
the   Iroquois.     It was located near Quebec.on a branch
ef the  St.   Charles  river -  the present  Lorette.
319    Fort  Louisbourg
0n.Cape  Breton Island.     Built in 1713.
It was  oaptured by New Englanders  under Pepperell  in
1745 and returned  to  France 1748 by Treaty  of Aix-
la-Cb^pell e.     Captured by English under Amherst,   July
26,   1758.
Lower Fort Des   Prairies
See   fort Vermilion   (2).
320     Lower Fort  Garry
Hudson's  Bay  Co.  fort   on Red river,   19
miles   from Upper Fort  Garry,   at  St.   Andrews.     Built
1831-33.     Strengthened'with loop holes  and bastions
  11  with bastions,
forts,  next to
the  residence
1841.     Surrounded by massive  stone
It was   the  strongest   of   the-Company
Fort Prince  of Wales.     In 1843  it wl,«
of  the  Governor   of Rupert's  Land and seat   of govern
ment.     It was  often called  the  Stone Fort and  is so
named  on Arrowsmith map 1850   (No.lOO).
Lower Hudson House
See Hudson's House.
321    Fort  Lower Nipawi
Known !
N ep ow ew
.lso as Nipawi,
n,  and Fort  De
Nepiwa,  Neepoin,
s prairies   or Aux
Nippewean,
Trembles.
Old French fort  on  south side  of
Saskatchewan  river,  about  100 miles  above The pas,
just  below  the Nipawin rapids  and  about 3 miles below
the  Cadotte rapids.     Built about  1748.     This  fort   is
mentioned by Sir A.  MoKenzie who  calls  it Nepawi
House.     It was   regularly   operated  by  the Frenoh until
the  cession  of Canada and was abandoned about 1763.
After the French,   the  first English  trader to  reach
the  locality was  James  Finlay who  in 1767  either
occupied the  old Frenoh fort  or constructed Finlay's
House   (q.v.)   nearly  opposite  on the  north bank.
Finlay wintered  there  in 1771-72,   also  17 75-76,  and
Cadotte  of the Hudson's Bay Co.  and A.  Henry Sr.  were
there   in 1776,  and  Thompson in 1808.     After the
formation   of the North West Co.   in 1783,   the  old
French fort was   occupied by  that Company and it was
called  "Nepoin"   fort.     Porter and McLeod of the  North
West Co.   were   in charge   in 1794.     About   1808 the
Company abandoned the  old  fort.     A.  Henry   Jr.   passed
"the   old  establishment  at  the Nepawee"   on  August 30,
1808,  apparently deserted.     The old Frenoh fort is
shown on Franklin's map and the-North West  Co.
"Nepoin"   on Thompson's  map 1812   (No.7).     Fort a  la.
Corne  fst.Louis)  was known as Upper Nipawi  and Nepoin
as  Lower Nipawi.     Location of Nipawin rapids  is
shown on maps No.  37  & 42,  and  the  old fort  on naps
No,   3,   10,12.
322     Lower Post
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post at  confluence  of
Dease and Frances   rivers  forming  the  Liard.     It was
a small  outpost attached to Ft.   Frances, upstream
about  60 miles*     Shown on modern maps also   en Map
Upper Yukon 1887   (No.   122).
McDonnell's  House
See Fort Assiniboine.
Fort McKay
See   Old Red River House
  323 Fort McKenzie
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on Kaniapiskau
river.     Built  1915 - on site   of  old South River House
(q.v.).     Included in 1925  list  of  posts  and  shown on
map No.   24.
324 Fort McLaughlin
The third Hudson's Bay Co. fort establish^
ed in lower British Columbia, on Millbank .Sound. Built
by Finlayson, Manson and McNeill in 1833.  It was
strongly fortified.  Shown on maps No. 6,8 and 100.
325 Fort McLeod
North West Co.   fort at north end   of  lake
McLeod,.British  Columbia,   built  by  Simon  Fraser for
the  Company  in 1806.     This  is  sail to  have been the
first post erected in B.C.    After the  union  of 1821
this post   was   operated by  the Hudson's Bay  Co.   to
date.     Maps  No.   8,   IOC & 101.
326 McLeod's Fort
NfNorth West Co.  fort   on left bank   of peace
river  just below mouth  of  Smokyriver,  a   few miles
below Fort  of the  Forks.    Was well-built  with a
stockade and 5  bastions.     After the'union of 1821  the
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   operated  this   fort  for some  time.   It
appears   on their  1857  map No.8 also  map No.3.     Built
in 1791.
An X.Y.Co.   fort  was  built   nearby.
327 Fort McMurray
Originally  built  by North West  Co.   en the
west bank   of Athabaska   river,   opposite mouth of
Clearwater river,   in 1790,   and named Fort   of the Forks
The Hudson's Bay  Co.   took  over this fort   in  1821  and
about  1875  rebuilt on  site  of the  old fort and name
was  then changed  to  Fort McMurray,     It appears  on
their  1869   list as  Fort  of the  Forks.    Maps No.   3,   5
and  16.
328 Fort McPherson
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post  in Mackenzie  district  on right bank  of Peel  river about  24 miles  from
the   outlet,'67°  25'   N.     Built  by  trader John -JsBell  in
1840.     Sometimes  called  Fort peel  River,   or peel River
House,   or Fort Bell.     Shown on maps No.   8 and  25.
329    Fort Machault   (Machaud)
French fort  near  confluence   of river Au
Boeuf and the  Alleghany.     It was  included in Bougainville's  list  1757.     A palisaded  log fort;   the  last
entrepot for Fort Duquesne,   built by Marin for
Governor  Duquesne in 1753.     A King's post.     With  other
  forts  it  commanded  the   route  from presqu'Ile,   lake
Erie,   to the Ohio  river.     It was  probably destroyed
by the French when  the garrison withdrew  to Detroit
in 1759.     Riviere au Boeuf is now called French
Creek.     Shown on map No.   10.
330 ii/iackenzie River post
An  "old  fort"  is  shown  on Rinfret  map  of
North West Territories  in Dr.  Coue's Henry-Thompson
travels   (No.  3)   on right bank  of J/iaokenzie river
opposite mouth  of Dahadinni   river,  about  64°N.     No.
trace  of this  fort now remains.
331 Fort Maisonneuve
French fort  built by Paul de Chomedy,
Sieur de Maisonneuve,  at point  Calliere,  site   of
present Customs  House,  Montreal.    Built in 1642  of
wood and palisaded.     Maisonneuve was  Governor for
22 years.     This  fort  for   over  quarter  of a  century
was  continually attacked and  harassed by the   Iroquois»
It  bore  the  brunt of the   Indian attacks and  protected the settlements   farther down the  river.     Because
of the natural advantages   of its   situation,   control
of large part   of the  fur trade was soon  transferred
to  it,  and  it  became the  base for  outfitting and
departure  of exploring expeditions  to  the V/est.
332 Fort Malbaye j   .
French  fortified King's  Post in  the
Domain du Roy included in list   of Zing's  posts  in
the Decree of  Intendant Hooquart 1733.    Now known
as Murray  Bay named after General  Murray of Seigniory
of Malbaye   (sp called from the  poor anchorage)-
Malbaye parish was  originally part  of the Zing's
Domain until  1762 when General  Murray granted  it  to
Major Bairn and  Lieut.  Fraser but restricting them
from  trading with the   Indians.     In 1760 Bigot  ordered an  inventory  taken at Malbaye.     pere  Laure's
maps   of 1730 and 1*231   (No.109  & 110)   of the Zing's
Domain show  this post.
333 Fort Mamattawa
Hudson's Bay Co.  post,   originally  called
South River fort,  at  junction  of Zenogami and
Zabinakagami  rivers,   Ontario,  about   75 miles south
of Henley House.     It was   established before  1832 as
South River House and  is  so named  on Arrowsmith map
1832   (No.101)   also   on Arrowsmith  1848 and  1857   (No.8)s.
This  post was  included  in the 1857  list.     About 1860
it was closed and  re-established about 30 miles  further down the  river and named New post at  mouth of
Wabashi   river  on right t side.     About  1880 New' post
was moved baok to the  old site  (Mamattawa) and then
named English River House.     Under  this  latter name
it  appears on the 1894 list and  1925.    Mamattawa
  (sometimes writtenlKsonawiPattawa)   is the  contraction
of an  Indian word signifying "the  coming together  of
many 'branches".     Two large tributaries here  join the
river from the  east and both  of these receive * -
branches near their mouths.     See maps No.  52 & 78.
334 Manchester House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post on north bank  of
North Saskatchewan  river,  42 miles above Battleford
and 425 miles above Cumberland House.     It was
located above the Forks  and about 3i  miles above  the
mouth  of "Horse Creek"- (now Englishman river) .     It
was built by D.   Thompson in 1786 who  resided  there
that year and again in 1793.     A trail from South
Branch House  led to Manchester House.    Fort pitt was
erected in 1831 a  few miles  distant and Manchester
House was closed about 1860.     It was plundered by
the   Indians  in tha autumn  of  1793.     The.North Branch
of the Saskatchewan was known as Rivibre du Pas.
Shown on Turner's map 1790   (No.   106)  also  on Arrow-
smith maps No.   8,   100,  101.
335 Fort Manicouagan(1)
A Zing's post  on lake Manicouagan- near
source  of Manicouagan river,   Quebec,   69°W.   51° 50'N.
Built before  1749.   Map No.   24.
336       Fort Maicouagan   (2)
Small French post at mouth  of Manicouagan
river.    A King's post.    Mentioned by Mackenzie 1808.
33 7    Manitoba House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   establishment   on lake
Manitoba,  near the Narrows,   on west  shore south  cf
entrance to Ebb and Flow lake.     Built before 1850.
Was  in poor  condition in 1858 and the  old buildings,
whioh had been a-R. 0 . Mission sold to the Company,
were burnt   in  1859.     It was  rebuilt very soon.
Appears  on the Company lists  to 1894.     Shown on Map
No.   43,8,100 &  101.
338 Marlboro House
North West  Co.   post at junction  of
?/hitesand & Assiniboine rivers.     Opposite Carlton
House.     On Arrowsmith map   of Alexander Mackenzie
Route 1801   (No.4) .
339 Martin Falls House
ab-
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post   on Albany riv
about  115 jailes upstream  from Henley House.     Es'
lished in  1794.     This post was   operated by  the
Company until  1928-23 when  it was closed.     It is
included in lists  of posts  1857,   1859,   1894 and shown
on maps No.   8 and 79.
  340 Manuan Lake post
Small Hudson's Bay  Co.   outpost  of Whale  '
River post,   probably at north .end  of lake Manuan,
upper waters  of Whale River flowing into  south  end
of Ungava Bay.     Built before  1844.     Shown on map No.
24.     Called also Manewan post.
341 Fort Matachewan
Hudson's  Bay Co.   fort  on lake Matachewan,
enlargement  cf   Montreal  river,   Ontario,  near the
height   of land and the Great Northern bend  of
Montreal  river.     Built  before 1850..     Shown  on maps
No.71,   24 and Standard map,  Gowganda sheet No. 135.
342    Fort Mattagarni
Situated near  the centre  of lake
Mattagami ,   Ontario,  as shown  on maps No.   24 & 137.
It was shown  on Jeffrey1^ map   of 1762  and was  probably an old French fort  and  outpost   of Fort  St.
Germain.     After the cession  of Canada   it  became   one
of the North West  Co.   forts and was  taken over by
the Hudson's Bay Co.   in 1821 at  the union.     It was
included in  their lists   of  1857,   1869,   1872 and  189
Closed about 1900.
Called also :
Matawa gamingne
343 Fort Mattawa
Hudson's Bay Co. post originally built
about 1872 at junction of Mattawa and English rivers,
Ontario, (outlet of Pakwash or Shallow lake) on
north bank, see maps No. 79 and 57.  A small Indian
village was located nearby.  About 1923 this post
was moved about 14 miles.to the east near the east
end of Lac Seul at pine Ridge on the north shore" and
the name was changed to Pine Ridge Post (Maps No.138
& 79).  See Fort Lac Seul.  Fort Mattawa was
apparently on outpost of Fort Lac Seul and later was
combined with it, Lac Seul having been established
1815.
344 Mattawa House
North West Co. post at junction of
Mattawa and Ottawa rivers.  It was first built by
the North West Co. about 1784, probably on the site
of an old French fort.  It was an important station
on the canoe route from Montreal to Fort William,
the route here leaving the Ottawa river.  Another
route proceeded north by lake Timiscamingue to Fort
Abitibi and James Bay.  The North West Co. followed
the Mattawa route to the west (the. old French route)
•until about 1800 when the lake route via Yonge Street
was adopted, 'although the Mattawa roxite was in ~
constant use for a century.  Mattawa House was maintained by the North West Co. as an outpost of Fort
!'.
  Timiscamingue and after the union of 1821  the Hudson'
Bay  Co.   continued to  operate  the post.     After the
opening of the Canadian pacific Railway,  M&ttawa
became  the headquarters  of posts in that   region for
a  decade.     Gradually declining in  importance it was
finally  closed about 1915.
345    Fort Maurepas   (1)
Old French fort at mouth  of Winnipeg
river on the north side,  some distance above the
mouth and near the present fort Alexander.     It was.
built by Verendrye's  eldest son  in  1733-34.     It was
burnt  by the   Indians  about 1747 and rebuilt by Verendrye 's  son in  1748.     It was again  destroyed at
some time before 1763.     It ig not mentioned in Bougainville's list  of 1757.    When Alexander Henry  .
passed in 1775,   there was no  trace  of  it left  except
the clearing.     John McDonnell  of the North West Co.
passed the mouth of the Winnipeg river in 1793 and
speaks   of the  old Frenoh  fort  that  stood  on the
northeast  side  of the  river  on a  high knoll.     This
fort   is shown  on maps  No.   12,19,95,92.     On Jeffrey's
map  1762  the Winnipeg river is  called the  ©nessipi
or Maurepas.     The  fort was'namedafter Count Maurepas,   Minister  of Colonies.     In 1792 Toussaint Le-
Sieur  of  the North West  Co.   built a  fort a  few miles
distant  from the site of Fort Maurepas on the  south
side of the river.    This was called  "Bas-de-la-Rivi(e-
re"  fort,  and  sometimes Le Sieur's  fort.     The Hud- ;
son's Bay  Co.  also built  nearby and their fort was '
called Fort Alexander.     The present   fort  Alexander
was built   on the  site  of the  old North West  Co.   fort.
Fort Maure
(2)
gA second small  fort Maurepas  was  built
in the  autumn of 173 4 by Verendrye's son Pierre  en
the Red river,   5   leagues upstream from the mouth,   on
a  point   commanding a   distant  view.     It  stood  on the
left bank  of the river,  about 6  miles below the present  Selkirk,  where tha  shores are steep and high.
This fort was soon destroyed.
Fort Maurepas   (3'
See Fort Biloxi .
Fort Mechatina
See (Jro3 Mechatina  and Petit Mechatina.
Fort Menagoueche
See Fort La Tour.
Fort Metabetchouan
See Lake  St.   John.
csd
  347  Fort Methye Lake
Old Hudson's Bay Co. fort probably
established about 1790 at the north end of the lake
shown on map No. 41, at the beginning of Methe
portage.  Methye lake was also known"as La Loche
lake. Arrowsmith map of 1857 (No.8) places the
at the south end of the lake.  The old fort was
called "Portage La Loche" fort.  Maps 100 & 101
fort
also
Fort Methye Portage
Portage La Loche.
348    Fort Miami   (1)
Frenoh fort,   first  built by La Salle in
1678,   on the   Illinois  river,   called also  fort   Des
Miamis.     It was  on  the  right bank  of the river,   built
of logs and palisaded.     It was  included  in Bougainville's list  1757.     Surrendered to British 1761.
Captured by Pontiac May  27,   1763.     Destroyed before
1794.     Shown  on maps No.   97,98,119,   111.
Fort Miami   (2)
A second French fort Miami was built soon
after  1670   on the Miami   (now the  Maumee)   river,
Indiana,  upon the site  of which fort Wayne was
constructed about   1790,     Thia  fort was  included  in
Bougainville's  list  1757 and marked  the commencement
of the portage  to rivers  flowing southwest.     It was
surrendered  to  the British  in  1761 and captured by
Pontiac  1763.     Its  location was  the  centre  of  the
powerful   Indian nation  of Miamis.     Shown  on maps No.
Ill,   96,   119,   10,   98,   97,93.
350 Fort. Michikamau
Hudson's Bay Co.   outpost   of Fort
Nascopie,  at  outlet   of lake  Michikamau,  about   50
miles above Grand Falls  in Hamilton river,   Labrador.
Established about 1840,  was  included in the Company
list  1869,  and following  the  re-establishment   of Fort
Chimo in 1880,   it was  abandoned.   Shown  on Low's map
No.   61.
351 Fort Michilimaokinac
priginally established by pere Marquette
as a mission  station in 1668 at point St.   Ignace near
the mouth  of St.  Mary's   river at the  entrance  to  lake
Michigan  on the north side  of the straits.     The  first
fort and settlement  was  established by La Salle  in
1679   on the  south shore  of  the  strait.     The Marquette
post was   deserted  in  1706.     In 1712 Vaudreuil,
Governor General,   sent   De Louvigny to re-establish
the  fort,   which he did,   building  it  on the  south side
of the  strait,  at  a place now known as  "Old Mackinaw"...
It was almost   entirely  destroyed, by fire December 22,   j? ■■   <|
1762,   and was   largely  rebuilt when in 1763   the
  garrison was massacred by Ind:
British again took possession
in occupation until 1781. A *
erected on Michilimackinac,is!
distant. After the American :
passed  to  the United  States   ii
Miohilimaok ina c ira
shape nf the island. The old Frenc
an area, of 2 acres enclosed with pa
water's edge. Cn the bastions were
canon which had been captured by d'
forts Albany and Hayes in 1^86. Th
houses and a ohuroh within the stool
was the place of deposit and departi
upper and lower countries. Here ou
prepared by the traders and returns
and embarked for Montreal. It was
the Mississippi and Missouri valley
French regime and also to the west
was a considoraole centre for weste
the French regime this was the poi
oojjmerce of the different merchants
wgte-y not in the North West Cc. In .
of traders, termed a "General Store
Miohilimaokinao, and a union of the
ed in 1765 by pooling stocks. This
Miohilimaokinao  Company.
The   old French  fort  is
gainville's  list  1757.     See Forts  S
L'Arbre Croohe.
ider Pontiac
tion th
1
Turtle  from
h fort  in 1761  had
lisadea  nea r the
2  small brass
Iberville  frort
ere were 50
f.ads.     This   fort
are  between the
tfits were
in furs  collected
the  entrepot to
n  during the
and northwest  and
rn trade.     After
t  of union and
of  Canada  who
17 79 a  partnership
", was formed at
traders  was  form-
was kno;jn as  the
included in Bo'u-
Ignace and
Fort Miohipiooten
French  fort   on
Superior,  at  the mouth   of Mag
side. . It was   one   of  the  old
have been built long bafore  .'
and spoken of as  an  old  fort
the  chief Frenoh .forts  on  lak
mentioned by Bougainvilla
responding  to Fort  "Zamanisti
limit   of lake. Superior.      It   o
of Missinaibi  lake and  river
bay.     During the  French  regii
shore  of lake Superior  const:
fur  supply  from tho   vest  and
Beauharnois   granted  to Marin
traite at   the post   of  Michip
After the   cessi©)
West Gompany took   over   this  :
there   in 17?7.     At  the   date   c:
North West  Co.   and  the  Hudson
posts at  Michipicoten.     In 1-8
took  over the   old fort ■-
1900 when it -was  closed.     For
was the principal   Hudson's  Ba-
shore  of lake  Superior,   from
er posts   in  the  interior were
James  bay  occupied about 16   d
post with many and large Vail
south   side  of  the river  about
chipiooten bay, lake
\ver, on the so
i forts said to
750 (possibly about
in^ 1765. It was one
e  Superior and   is
"s list of 1757 as <
gwia" at the northwei
ommanded the route b;
to Moose river and J*
.e the posts on the n
tuted the main source
northwest. In 1739
and Douville a conge
coten.
.  of Canada,   the Norti
'art.     A.   Henry winte
union 1821   »oth  th
Bay Co.   operated
21   the Hudson's Bay'i
intained  it until ah
many  years   this   fac
Co. post on the no.
hich a number of se:
supplied. The rout
ys.     It wa.s  a  super:
.ings situated   en th'
half a mile   from  th
v,th
170t)
  mouth.     Its location  is shewn  on Arrowsmith mar.  of
1796 and  1832   (No.   101*1 .
Fort Migiakan
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post  on  the  east shore
of lake Paskagaraa, about  3C  miles north   of the
C.N.R.  Menet  station,   Quebec,   in the Abitibi  district.
Established before 1830 and shown  ofi. the Arrowsmith
nap  of 1632   -No.101).     In 1625,"Canadians",   (Zing's
Posts  Co.)   also maintained a post.     This post is  included  in the  1857  list  and  shown, on the Arrowsmith
map  rf 1857   (No.8).     it was named in the lists  cf
1869 and 1872 and was  probably closed about  1890.
Shown  on maps No.   24 and 63.     Sometimes  called
Mechiskan and Michiskun.
Migiskan River Post
An  old Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post   on Migiskaa
river,  about 40 miles  below Fort Migiskan,  and  10
miles   below   Shabogama  lake,  Quebec.     It was  clos.ed
abeut 1880 and had been used as an  outpost   of Fort
Migiskan.     Shown on maps No.   24 and  63.
Mille  Lacs  House ■
A small relay  station and  store house for
provisions maintained by the North West  Co.  at Mill 3
Laos   (Canoe lake)   on  the Kaministiquia  route   (q.v.).
It was  situated  to  the  right  of  two  islands at
Mountain Portage.
356    Mille Vaches
A fortified French post   on  the  lower St.
Lawrence 15 leagues  below Tadoussac,  and  2  leagues
east   of Mille Vaohes  bay.     Identical  with portneuf.
It was sc  called fro*, la-rge  stones  in the  bay  re-   '
sambling at  low  tide a herd  of cattle.     It  was   one
of the   early Frenoh  establishments  below Tadoussac.
After 'the  cession   of Canada,   the North West  Cc.
obtained  this post and the Hudson's Bay Co.   succeeded  in  1821.     It was  closed about  1857.     James    .
McKenzie,   visiting the King's posts  in 1808,   says,
the post was  built on a high sand bank with the river
"before  it  flowing  into  the  St.   Lawrence.     Though  in
the  centre  of the Hingis  Domain  it  belonged to  private  individuals,   having  been given by the  French to
some petty noblesse.     There was also a King's post
at:Tortneuf,     The post was noted for  seal "fisheries.
In November  17 75,   it was  related  that  quantities   of
seals were  13-ft  by the  receding  tide and two  or three
thousand were killod   in a  few  hours,     From 500  to
1200 wero killed  every  year  in Nov amber and  Deo ember.
Shown en maps No.  67/63,  and  on Bouchette 's map of
1846.
357    Mingan
Fortified
Lawrence.     0
ost   of Mingan  Seigniory,   on
e of the  oldest  trading posts
  in  Canada being  in cont
260  years.     The Seignio
the  lower  end  of Anticcsti.
claimed about 5C0C  square mil
Cormorants  to Blanc   Sablon ar.
The Privy Council  of England
mious  operation for more  than
f  extended  from the Cor-
e Vermilion river opposite
ti.     The  seignueurs  of Minoan
s   of  trie  coast  from the
to  a  depth  of 1C  wiles
1892  defined the
limits   of the seigneury at  150  miles  frontage and  6
miles  depth  from Cape Cormorants  to  the river
Aquanish,  a  surface   of  800,OCC arpents,   or about  1056
square miles.
The  territory was  closed  to  traders under
the seigniory.     In 1733 Francois  Bissot asserted  that
Mingan seigniory had  been  established in  1661 and
that   it'had been continuously  operated either by his
father Francois Bissot  de  la*R&iere   (the first  seigneur)   or by himself and hia brother-in-law Jolliet
from 1651  to  1733 when it  was  leased  to Lafontaine and
was. called Terre Ferme   de Mingan and   Isles  de Mingan.
In 1735  the  seigniory was leased  to  Sieur Volant  for-" :
21 ttyears.     In 1761  Lafontaine and  Tache  leased
Mingan and  its  subsidiary posts   to   Isbester.     In 176 4
Cugnet and Taohe   leased Mingan,  Antioosti,  and  Isles
de Mingan  to  John Lymburner.     In 1803   the  seigniory
and  post were leased  to McTavish,   Frobisher & Go.
(the North West  Co.)   who  operated  the post until  in
1825,   on expiration of the 1003 lease,   the  seigniory
was  leased   to'the Hudson's  Bay Co.     In 1866   on termination of the  lease.     Mingan post and a  small area
were again leased to  the Hudson's  Bay Co,   who have
operated  the  post  to  present  date.     It appears  on the
Company lists   of  1856  and  on other lists  to  date.
Mingan was  the  headquarters  of the  first
seigneur,     £*"kl*osti and Mingan Islands  were granted
in 1680  and  1697  to Sieur  de'jcliette.     The post  at
Jfingan is  included  in Bougainville's list  1757-and
is   described by  Jas.   MoZenzie  in 1808 as  fellows:
"Mingan was  the head post  of  the  Seigniory.     It was-
"Beautifully situated at »outh  of Mingan river,  with
a  good harbour;     The  buildings and  chapel  W9re as
good as aay on the  coast.     Salmon and trout are
plentiful and  seal 3 are  shot  before the hcnj.se.   '
Mingan   island  is  one mile in circumference,  3  leagues
above the  post.     The old French post was located  on
Jfingan  island  and was  fortified.     Remains   of the
stone work are still   visible."     The North West  Co's.
post was located   on  the. isainland at  the mouth  of
Mingan  river.     L$- 1690  the post was destroyed by the
English fleet.     It was   rebuilt and  again destroyed,
by""the  English  in  1711.     Rebuilt  by Bissot,   it  was
again destroyed  in 1759   »y the   English fleet.
358    Fort Miramichi
A Frer
Indians on the no:
Brunswick.
ch  fortified  settler
th shore  of Mirai^icl
ent   of Micmac
Hudson's Bay
at   outlet  of  lake
  Missinaibi,   Ontario,  built  1779.     Burned   in 1780 and
immediately  rebuilt.     It is  shown  on Arrowsmith map
1824.     Has  been in constant  operation to date.     This
post   is now  called New Brunswick  House and Old-
Brunswick House on various maps,   the name having been
transferred when these posts were closed.   (See
Brunswick House and New Brunswick House).     The locations  of all  three posts  are shown on map No.   24.
The North West Co.  also built a post  on Missinaibi
lake  in 1800.     Missinaibi means   "Pictures on water"
referring to   Indian pictographs  on a  cliff.
Old Brunswick House,  built  in 1744  on
Missinaibi  river wajs  closed 1790.
New Brunswick House,   built 1788 at   outlet
Brunswick  lake closed about 1880.
Missinaibi  fort 1779 to 1929.
Maps No.   137,24,12,8,139,79.
••i
Mission Stations
Many of the Missions  of the Re collets,
Sulpicians,  and Jesuits were fortified and  included
trading posts.     Partial  list with dates   of  founding
follows:
R^collets:
Port Royal 1611.
Cape Breton 1634.
Trois Riviferes 1615-1628.
Sault au Recollet 1625. Jesuits following:
Quebec 1615.
Notre Dame des Anges 1615-1625.
Ursuline Convent 1639 .
Jesuifr* •;
Quebec  Seigniory  1626.
Notre Dame  des Ange3 1625.
Notre Dame de  "^oye   (Hurons)   1636.
Tadoussac   (Montagnais)   1640.
Trois  Rivieres  1625.   (Hurons-great  fur centre).
Sillery 1637   (Hurons)• .
Montreal 1641.   Sulpicians  following:
St.Francis  de  Sales   (Chaudiere  river)   1685.
Sault au Recollet  1628.
Beoancourt near Three Rivers.
Chicoutiwi   1693.
S.   Francis Xavier   (Iroquois)   opposite Montreal  1669,
removed to present Caughnawaga.
Lorette 1697.
Sept   Isles.
Lake St.John  0.1700.
Ste.Marie,   near Wye  river Cntario   (Hurons)   1639.
Ihonatiria  -   1634.
Huronia missions five 1645;   Destroyed by  Iroquois
1648-9.
St.   |«seph   (Hurons)   1650.
La Pointe   (Chequamegon Bay)   1665.
  St.Ignace   (Machilimaokinac)   1670.
St.Francis Xavier   (Green Bay)   1668;
Detroit  1701.
Machilimaokinac   (1686).
Sault  Ste.Marie  1640.
Jesuits suppressed at cession of Canada,  also the
Recollets'.
Sulpicians,   Seigneurs  of Montreal  Island.
Montreal after 1650.
Lake of Two Mountains 1625 - Oldest Mission extant
in Canada.
Zente   (Bay   of Quinte)   1669.
Port  Dover 1669.
360 Fort Mississagi
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on mainland of
North Channel,  lake Huron, at the mouth  of Mississagi
river,  about   45 miles  west   of La Cloche.     It was
established before 1850 and was probably  the  old
North West  Co.  post at this place which had existed
from about  1800.     It is  shown on the Arrowsmith F,ap
1857^(110.8)   and  on the  Standard Sheet  Sault  Ste.
Marie.     It does not appear on the Company's lists
after 1894.    The. name is  variously spelled, Mitsissgflft..
Mississaugie.
361 Fort Missisquoi
A freneh fortified Indian settlement at
the north end of lake Champlain on Missisquoi bay.
Bougainville 1757 mentions a settlement of Abenakis
Indians of 100 to 15T men.
."".362 Fort Mistassini
An old French fortified trading post, ar"
King's Post, on lake Mistassini, Quebec, built about
1673.  It was located on the point called Eliquabit
about 4 miles from head of Abatagusk bay, at the
south end of lake Mistassini.  It commanded the
route to Fort Rupert.  It was continuously operated
by the different fur Companies under the French regime,.  The North West Co. acquired this post by
rental in 1802 and continued its maintenance until
the union of 1821.  It is called Maison Frangaise on
the Del'Isle map of 1703 (No.18) and Maison des
Dorvals on the Jesuit map 1730 (No.110).  It is
shown on maps No. 10,17,18,97,96 and 112.  On
Mitchell's map 1755 (No.Ill) there is a post called
"Chebmonkoue" at mouth of Temiscamie river.  Arrow-
smith map 1821 shows a "Canadian House" on the site
of the old French fort on Eliquabit point.
Another Frenoh forti.fi ed post built about
1674 wag located at or near the mouth of the outlet
from lake Albanel, shown on the Joliet map 1679
(No.85) on the long point near the northeast end of
lake Mistassini.  It is shown on the Franquelin map
of 1688 and Del'Isle's 1703 (No.18).  This post was
  called Chabanonkoue  on some maps and  Chebmonkoue  on
Mitchell-map 1755   ('No.111)..
The first  of the Hudson's Bay Co.   inland  posts   on  the  east mainland   of Hudson Bay was
built about  1787  on  the East  ?,5ain  river at  Birch
Point about  300 miles above   its  mouth,  where a
portage  trail  leads  to the Rupert   river and  to  lake
Mistassini.     About  1800  this'p'3t  was moved  to the
outlet   of lake Mistassini and  in 1835  to its present'
location  on southwest baa  about  10 miles north  of
the   old French  or-North West Co..post.     This establishment has  been regularly maintained by the  Company  to present  date.     It appears   oo have been the
only inland  post   of  the Hudson's Bay  Co.   established
in Labrador prior to amalgamation with the North
West Co,   except Nichicun.     The  location  of Birch
Point  is  shown  on {cap No.   63-  • James MoKenzie 1808
stated that the old post  of the Hudson's Bay Co.   on
Birch Point was  built   of red spruce and grey pine
and that- it. was known as Fort aux Anglais.     It was
outfitted  from. East Main Factory.     Mistassini means
"Large Stone".
See Birch Point and Neoskweskau.
363 Fort  MoPil&e vj&i J|
Pregch fort   on west  bank  of Mobile  bay,"
south  of mouth  of Mobile river aha  below  the city.
Built  in 1702  cf bricks with four bastions and
j?,oats .     It'was known also as   fort  Conde and is named
fort Louis   on D'el'Lsle's map 1718.    Shown  on maps
No.   93,98 and  96.
364 Fort Moisle
French fortified post named  in list  of
Zing's  posts  in  the  Ordlnanee  1733   of  Intendant
Hooquert.     Situated at mouth  of Moisy  river,   just
below  Sept  Isle's,   lower St.   Lawrence.     It was  leased
to De la-Chesnaye before 1694 and was  continously
operated until  the  cession  of  Canada.     It  is not;
mentioned  in Bougainville's  list  1757 nor by  Jamjes
McZenzie  in 1806.
Fort Ee&cton
Fort Monsippi & Monsoni
See Fort Moose.
and   fort  La Tour.
365    Montagamiou
French  trading post   on  the  lower St.
Lawrence,   built  about   1733,   fifteen miles  above
Mecatina.     Concession  of Montagamiou was  granted by
Hooquart  in  1733   to  Lafontaine  fie Belcour  for nine
years,     In 1761 Governor Murray granted  to Lafontaine permission to  operate thia pest and   outposts.
  In 1764 Jacques  De la  Fontaine sold   the post  to
Alexander McKenzie and  John Lymburner.     It is
mentioned   on Bougainville's  list  1757.
366 Fort Montagne a  la Bosse
North West  Co.  fort  on the  south bank  of
the Assiniboine river,   east   of mouth   of  Gopher Creek
and about 2 miles south  of present Routledge on the
C.P.Rd.     It was built before  1794 and about  50 miles
above McDonnel's House   (Fort Souris)  at  the mouth of
the  Souris river.     McDonnell was  there  in 1794 and
Harmon  in 1804-5 who wrote that "the fort is well
built and beautifully situated  on the high bank  of
the Red river  (Assiniboine),   overlooking  the country - a perfect plain and  great buffalo country".
It was  the nearest point   to the North West Co.  post
on the Souris  river.     The fort was enclosed by a
stockade 200 x 250 feet and  enclosed a number of
houses.
A Hudson's Bay Co.   post was built  by
McLeod  for the Company im 1812  in immediate vicinity.
This post was not operated later than 1865.     It was
known also as  Turtle Mountain House.    Map No.8.
367 Fort Montagne d'Aigle
A North .West Co.   fort  on north  side of
tchewan. river,   9  miles  below mouth  of Battle
r,   in a  low bottom of  the  valley.     It was  built
ole,  a Canadian trader,   in 1779-80.     Cole was
by the Indians  in 1780.    Alex.  Henry Jr.
ed  the  site  of  this   fort  in 18Q8 and   reported
that it was then "a heap of ruins".
The Hudson's Bay Co.   constructed an
adjoining fortified post.    Known also as Eagle Hill
fort.     One' of  first  posts  on Upper Saskatchewan
river.
by
kill
Montagne Oiseau Fort
See Somerset Hous
See Maisonneuve.
368 Fort Moose
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at mouth of Moose
river, built by Radison & Groseliers in 1671, on or
near the site of present Moose Factory, on an
island 6 or 7 miles above the open bay or mouth of
river.  The original fort was surrounded by a square
of palisades 100 feet long on eaoh side and 18 feet
high with four bastions.  It was known as the Hayes
Island post.  It was the residence of the first
Governor of the Company in America, Charles Bayley.
On June 11, 1686, it was captured by the French and
called by them variously Fort Sc.Louis, Bourbon,
  Monsippi,  and Mdnsoni.     It was  recaptured by  the
English in 1693 and  again retaken by  the French
1693 and   called Fort St.Louis.     In 1696 two English
men-of-war retook  Fort Moose and   other posts   in
James Bay.     About  this  time the  Company was again
dispossessed and  they  demolished  the   original  fort.
The site remained unoccupied  till 1730.     In 1728
Bevan  "discovered  the   island  and  place where  the
fort  stood  formerly".     In 1730  the Company  rebuilt
Fort Moose,   the foundations being laid   in September
1730,   on the  same island  about fa  mile higher up
the  river Moose.     The name  then given  "Moose
Factory"  has  been used  ever sinoe.     The Company
list   of 1749  names Moose  fort and   it  i s named Mouse
Fort  on Rocque's map '1763   (No.96).     The Factory has
been  in  continuous operation since  1730.
In 180 5 the North West  Co.   erected a
fcrt  on the  island at  the mouth  of the  Moose  river
adjoining Moose Factory,   but  this  post was  soon
abandoned.     }&ips  No„   94,   18,   10,   19,   52  & 93.
se Lake fort
"See Lac  d'Orignal.
Mouse River Fort
See Assiniboine Hous
369■   Mud  Lak e pos t
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post  established 1906
at west  end  of lake Melville, on Goose Bay,  mouth of
Hamilton  river,   Labrador.     In operation 1929.     Maps
No.' 24 and  61.
370    Fort Mumford
Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort   on  Stikine river,
B.C.,   on left bank near mouth  of Shakes Creek or
First  South Fork,  near present  town at  Telegraph
Creek,   sometimes   called  Glenora House.     Established
before  1800.     Maps  3,   6 and   84.
Old  French fortified  trading post   on
lower  St.   Lawrence at  mouth  of .Musquarro   (Muskwaro')
river.     The most  eastern post in Mingan Seigniory,
20 leagues  from Nepioshibou.     It was   established
about 1710.     Was  in  the  territory leased  to the
Labrador Company  of Quebec  in 1780.     Acquired by
North West  Co.   1803 by lease and by Hudson's Bay Co.
1821.     James  MoKenzie  in 1808 says,   "The  position
of  the post was  well  concealed.     In 1775 was not
discovered  by the American pirates.     The  fort  included a  chapel and  a few houses  and  was a noted
post  for quantities   of beaver and martens".    Under
the Hudson's Bay  Co.   the name was  changed  to Ro-
maine   (which see).     It was  reported  on the  Company
  - lists of 1831-1857.  Apparently closed for a time
in 1859.  In operation 1925.  Map 105 & 8.
372 Nachvak  post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on Nachvak bay
about  100 miles  south  of P ort" Burwell,  Ungava,' built
in 1868 and  closed  1905.
373 Nagagarni post
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post at   outlet
Nagagami  lake,   Ontario,   tributary  of  the Albany
river,  about  80 miles  south  of Mamattawa post.
Shown  on map No.   137 as  a winter post.     Also  on map
No. -24.
Fort Nakasley
374 Fort Nanaimo
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on east coast   of
Vancouver  Island,   built   1850  to protest  the  coal
interests   of'local mines.     The bastion of the
•   original  fort  is  still  preserved.
375 Fort Nasoopi
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on the north bay
of lake petitisikapau,   Labrador,  about  12C  miles
above .Grand Falls.     It was  established in 1838 and
closed  1880..   It  is   shown on  the  Company lists   of
1857  and  1869,  and   on maps  No.   8 and  61.     Erected
for trade with the Nascopi Indians'.    When fort
Chimo was  re-opened  in 1866  the  Indians   traded
there and  also  to the  south coast with Mingan and
Sept Isles and  trade  deserted  this post, .
376 Fort Nashwaak
Frenoh fort  on north bank of Nashwaak    ;
river at  its   junction with   the  St.John river,
opposite  present  Frederioton,  N.B.     Built by
Governor Villebon 1692 after abandonment   of Fort
Jemseg.     It  was   200  feet  square,   having a  bastion..
at  each corner with mounted  guns,  and  surrounded
by palisades and  a  ditch  or moat.     It was abandoned
in  1698.
377    Fort Naskapis
French  fortified  post  on lake Naskapis
(Ashuanipi)   Quebec,   at  the  outlet.     Built before
1731 and probably about  1700.     Joliet and Bissot
traded   on lake Naskapis  in 1696 which they had
discovered in 1695.     This  was   one   of the posts  in
the Traite  de Tadoussac  1749  and  was a King's  post.
It  is  shown as   "Maison Franyaise" on palairet's  map
1755   (No.119)   also  on No.   24.
  378 Fort Natashguan
Old French trading  post   on lower St;
Lawrence at mouth   of Natashquan river,   on the pointe
du Vieux Forte.     It was built before 1710.     In 1734
the  Bissots.   (seigneurs  of Mingan)   controlled  this
post.     It was  probably   operated  by the North West Go.
under lease  1788.     Mackenzie   (1808)   mentions  the
post as being  "half way  between Nepioshibou and
Masquaro."     The  river was  noted   for  quantities   of
salmon caught   in nets.     The Hudson's Bay Co.
acquired  this post  from the North West  Co.     They
were   in  control  in  1831 and  included   this  post  in
their list  of 1856,     It was  finally abandoned  by  the
Company about  1914*     On Bougainville's  list  of 1757
it  is  called Nontagnaniou and  is named   on Del'Isle's
map  of 1703   (No.18)   as Natagamiou.     Map No.   2,4.
379 Fort Necessity
In 1753 Washington was  sent by Governor
DInwiddie  of Virginia   to garrison  the  British fort
being built at  the  forks  of  the  Ohio  river.     He
found   that Contrecoeur had  captured   the  fort and
renamed  it  from Fort Pitt*to Fort Duquesne  1754.
Washington  then  intrenched at Great Meadows about
50^iiiles  from Fort Duquesne and  oalled  the  place
Fort Necessity,     attacked  by  the Frenoh under de
• Villiers,   -Washington capitulated.   The French then
erected Fort  de la Necessite   on the  spot.     It was"
probably  destroyed  by  the  Frenoh  in 1759 and   the
garrison retired  to Detroit.     Shown on maps No.   16
and   97.
300    Fort Nelson   (1)
aalled  also  Fort York, nb\r- York Factory,
and under the French Fort Bourbon  (lap 18).    Hudson's Bay Co.   fort about  5" or 6 miles  from Beacon
Point  at  the   outlet  of Hayes  river,   on the north
bank, Manitoba..     1612-13.     Sir Thomas Button wintered at port Nelson.
1576     Hudson's Bay Co.   erected a   small  establiohment
at Hart's  Creek,   mouth  of Nelson  river.     This  fort
soon disappeared.
1673  The H.B,Co.   traded  at Button's wintering place.
1682 Governor Bridgar  of H.B.Co.   erected a  fort at
Woodchuck  Creek up the Nelson river,   the fourth  of
the Company  forts   on Hudson bay.     This  fort was
seized  by Radisson   (at  that  time in the interests
of  the French)   in the  spring  of  1683.     The  fort was
destroyed a&d  Governor Bridgar carried prisoner  to
Fort Bourbo^..
1682 Radisson after  destruction  ef  the H.B.   Co.fort,
built a  fort about  15 miles up Hayes   river,  above
the present York Factory and   on the  right bank  of
the river,  which he  oalled Fort Bourbon.     This  fort
Bourbon, was  on the  site  of  the  later York Factory
and above the present York Factory and   on the ^aa
  opposite side of the river. Radisson was then acting
in the interests of the Compagnie du Nord. ...Nelson
river was then called Bourbon river by the French
and the Hayes river Ste.Therese.
1684 Radisson (now in the employ of the H.B. Co.)
returned and seized Fort Bourbon for the H.B.Co. and
it was renamed Fort Nelson, and also called Fort
York, and York Factory...
1686    de Troyes  captured all  the H.B.Co.   forts   on
Hudson and  James  bays   except Fort Nelson,   the name
of which was now  charged  to York Fort.
1690 Governor phipps  dostroyed  the  fort  to save  it
from the French.
1691 York  fort was  rebuilt by  the H,_B.Co.   larger
and stronger.     It was  located about  4 miles  from the
mouth of Nelson river on the   south side  of  the  triangular  tongue   of land   bounded by  the  two  river
channels  converging.     It was a  stockaded  fort with
bastions at  the  four  corners.     The  river front was
protected by  earthworks and. cannon.     The  fort  had
32 eannon,  & 14 swivel  guns  outside and  53  swivel
guns inside.     This- fort stood  for nearly 100 years
until finally burned  by French in 1782.
1694    Attacked  by  Iberville and  surrendered  to the
French October 14,   1694.     It was   renamed  Fort
Bourbon and   the Hayes   river called  Ste.Therese,the
fort  having been  captured  on Ste.Therese day  October
14.     The"Nelson river was  renamed Bourbon river.
See map3 No. 117 and 18.
1696 Surrendered  to the English 31 August 1696.
1697 Attacked  by   Iberville and.   surrendered  to  the
French  September 1697 and  held by them until  1714
when  it  was handed  back   to H.B.   Co.   by terms   of the
Treaty  of Utrecht.     See map No.   93.
1782     Captured  by French and finally destroyed.
17*53     Rebuilt by the  H.B.   Co.
1788-1793    Moved half a mile upstream to avoid   floods
to  its present  location,   the work  of removing and
rebuilding  occupying  5 years.     Remains  of the  old
fort  destroyed  in 1782 are  still visible.     It had
.been built   in  the midst  of swampy land,   covered
with low stunted .spruce almost  impenetrable.     The
land  never thaws more  than  from 12  to 18  inches  in
the hottest weather.     The work was  carried   on under
Joseph Colen and   several   of the  present buildings
were constructed  by him 1789.     York  Factory  consists
of several  buildings arranged around  a  quadrangle;
so^e being large warehouses,   others are  residences.
Thb present  location  is  about half a  mile above  the
old   fort.     York  Factory  is   the  great warehouse depot .
of the Hudson's  Bay  Co.  where a  supply  of goods   etc.
is kept   on hand to meet  the  demand   of trade  for two
years.     For 'oyer two  centuries York Factory has been
the central  supply house for all   the H.B.   Co.   posts
of the western country,  a  great centre of dis.&ri-
tribution until  the  building  of the Canadian pacific
Railway   in 1885.     See maps No.   18,117,94,140 & 96.
381    Nelson House   (2)
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  en Footprint  Lake,
  66 miles northwest of Wabowden, mile 136, Hudson Bay '
Railway. Known also as Nelson River House. Established between 1740 and 1760.  The location has
been changed several times during the past century
and a half.  it was erected on the present site in
1878.  It is one of the earliest posts.  Has one
outpost on South Indian lake 120 miles north of
Nelson House.  Footprint lake drains into Burntwoid
river and. thence to Nelson river.  Shown on maps
No- 3, 8, 12, 16,68,101 and IOC.  Thompson 'was at
this post in 1804.
382 Fort Nelson   (3)
Hudson's Bay Co,  fort on the Nelson
river,   a  tributary  of the  Liard  river,   on the right
bank,   100 miles above  the  mouth.     Built about   1800.
'In 1825,   the   occupants  of the fort,   including
Alexander Henry Jr.  and   4 men and   some women and
children,  were massacred by  Indians and   the post
was deserted  for  many years.     It was  rebuilt   in 1865.
It appears  on the  1869 and  1872  lists,   but not  later.
Shown  on maps No.   90 & 35,
383 Fort Nemiscau
Old  French fortified post  on Rupert
river,   lake Nemiscow   enlargement  of Rupert  river,
about   85 miles above  its mouth.     Built  in  1695 and
rated  as a King's Post.     It  was a half-way station
between Mistassini  and Rupert House.     In 1672 P&re
Albanel  discovered  the  lake.     In 1684 Jolliet was
ordered by De  la  Barre   to  build a  fort  on"Nemisko"
river.     The Nemiscau post was granted  to the  Compagnie du Nord  in 1695 who continued.to operate the
post until  the  cession  of Canada.     Traders   from
Montreal  and  Quebec were  established  in  the old   fort
in 1774.     In 1794  the Hudson's  Bay Co.   erected their
fort Nemiscau.     It  is  called Nepiseaw House   on
Arrowsmith.map 1848 &  1832   (No.101).     It was not  In-
eluded  in the  1869  list,  but  after being closed  for
some ti$e  it  was  re-opened  before 1923.
384    Fort Neoskweskau
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort  on East Main river
about  300 miles  above its-|jouth and  about 65 niles
distant from iake Mistassini.     It was  the  first   of
the  Company's  posts   erected  in the  interior of
Labrador,   built about 1787.     This  was   85 years after
the  French had  built the King's  post  on lake Mistassini.     A portage  route  led  from this  post to Rupert
river.     About  1800  this  post was  closed and  one
opened  at  the  outlet   of lake Mistassini.     James
Mackenzie  reported Neoskweskajj, as  in operation  in
1808.     It  is  included  in  the  Company list   of 1821
under name Neisquisear.     It was  closed  in  1823 and
omitted  from list  of 1869  but is  shown  on Arrowsmith
map 1832   (No.101)   in  operation but   omitted  from 1857
§ap.     Was  reported  in  operation  1925.   Shown map No.
63.     This post  was also known as Birch point and
Fort Aux Anglais.     See Fort  Mistassini.
  385    Nepiochibou
Old  French trading post  on  the lower St.
Lawrence described by Mackenzie 1808 as being  "30
leagues  from Mingan  on  the Man  river".     This was  the
Nabesipi   or the  Piashti   river near Pashashibu bay,
about  62° W.   longitude.     The  post was  in  the Mingan
seigniory.     It  had no  harbour  but was   on the  river.
An inferior post  for furs  but  noted   for quantities
of  salmon.     Established  before 1710.     Leased  by  the
North West Co.   1808 &    acquired  by  the Hudson's Bay
Co.  about  1825,   who operated it until about  1860.
Shown Bouchette's  map 1846.     Map.  No,   24.
Fort Nepiscow
See Nemiscau
Fort Nepoin
See  Lower Nip
Fort Neuve
See Fort  Severn
386 New Brunswick House
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  built in 1788  on  the
west bank  of Brunswick  lake,   Ontario,  near the   outlet.     At  the  date  of union  both  the North West  Co.
and the Hudson's Bay Co.   operated posts  on Brunswick
lake.     It was  named  in the   schedule annexed  to deed
of surrender Rupert's  Land   1869.     It appears   on  the
1894  list and was   closed  soon after.     See Brunswick
House and  Fort Missinaibi.     Brunswick  lake was  originally called Mica banish  lake.     Shown on maps No.  24,
13 7,   & 101.
New Fort
See Fort Kaministiquia and Fort William.
Fort New Caledonia
See Fort St. James.
387 Fort New Orleans
French fort  built 1717 near  outlet
Mississippi  river.     Two forts  on opposite banka   of
river are shown on  the Ross map  1765,   St.   Leon and
Ste.  TjSarie.
3.88    New Post   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.   post   on right   bank  of
Abitibi  river,  near mouth  of New  Post  Brook,  about
50° N.   It was   established   before 1880 and   in  operation
to date.     Ivfaps No.   137  & 52.
  389    New  Post   (2)
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on Kenogami  river,
Ont.,  about 30 miles north   (downstream)   from Mamattawa,  at mouth  of Wakashi  river, and  about  30 miles
south   of  the Albany river.     Fort  Mamattawa  ;;as   removed
to   this  site  in  1860 and   the name  changed   to New  post.
IS matt awa was moved  back  again  to   its   old   site in 1880
and  New  Post  was   then  discontinued.     Shown   on maps
No.   52 and   79.
Fort Nez Perces
See   fort Walla Walla.
390 Fort Niagara
French fort at  the  mouth   of Niagara  river
on the  right  bank.     The  first   fort was built  of logs
and  a  palisade  by La Motte  for La  Salle   in 1678  for
control   of  the   fur  trade.     This  fort was   rebuilt by
Denonville  in 1686  and  abandoned  in 1688.     It was
again rebuilt under Vaudreuil   in 1721 and a  larger
fort erected  in 1755S56  of stone.     In September 1759
this   fort  surrendered  to  Sir Wm.   Johnson.     In Bougainville's  list  1757  Fort Niagara   is   described as
"the key   of the upper country and  a King's Post,   - an
earth fort which  ought to  be faced with stone.     The
present  fort was   constructed   in 1755-56  by French
troops under direction   of M.  Pouchot,   Captain  of the
regiment  of Beam".     Bougainville speaks   of another
fort  "a little   fort Niagara for   entrepot" which was
probably  "The Little  Portage  fort",   a King's  post,
on the   left  bank  opposite Fort Niagara.     It was -
always  considered a  strong fort.     The   original name
appears   in  the  Jesuit Relations as  Onguiachra and the
place was at   first a  village   of the Neutral   Indians.
A long trail   extended  from Niagara  to Detroit a  part.
of which '.Tas afterwards used  for  the  Talbot road.     It
is   called Fort Denonville  on Del'Isle's  map  1703 No.
18,  Bowan's   1763 No.   98,  and   on Palairet's  1755 No.
119.     Shown also  on map No,10 & 15.
391 Fort Nichioun
A Fronch  fortified  post   established  before
1725 at   the  north   end   of lake  Nichicun near  the  outlet,   Labrador.     The Hudson's  Bay  Co.  succeeded  to
this   fort,  which they rebuilt,  before 1800.     It was
operated  by the Company until  after 1894 and  probably
closed about 1910.     The Arrowsmith map  of 1821 shows
the post   on an  island.     In 1822 Governor Simpson
stated  that   the post was  closed.      In 1834 it  was   reestablished.     It   is   shown  on maps  No.   8,  and   101,  and
was   included  in  the Company lists   of 1857,   1869, and
1872.     The name occurs also as Nitchequon.
392    Fort Nikabau
Old  French post  built before 1700   on
Nikabau  lake,  head   of Ashuapmouchouan river,   Quebec.
  L&ke   is  shown  on map No.   63.     Del'Isle'a .map of 1700
shows   the post  also on Del'Isle's  map 1703,   No.   18.
It was  listed  by Begon   in  1720 as   one  of the King's
Post  in Traite du  Tadoussac.     In 1731  it was  re-"
established as a  winter post and   in 1733  it  was  given
as  one  of  the King's  Posts  and  Jean Baptiste Borval
des  Groseliers was  in charge  of the  post.     On Danville's map  of  1755   (No.97)   it   is  shown   on  the   east
shore  of lake"Chamonchouan" at  the   outlet  of  river
Nekouba,u as   "liaison Franchise".     The name is   variously written,  Nikabau,  Necouba,  Nekouban.,  Nekoubau.
Fort Nipawee
Also spelled,   Nipawi,  Nepoin,  Nippeween,
Nepowewin,  and Upper Neepawa.     See Fort k la Corne.
Fort Nipigon
ee fort Camanistigoyan and  Nipigon House.
393    Nipigon House
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post   on northwest shore
of lake Nipigon.     The   first   of this Company's   forts
on lake Nipigon was  built at   the north  end   of the
lake about 1775   or  1785 and was named fort Nipigon.
It is   shown  on the Arrowsmith mars   of  1832   (No.101),
1850   (No.100),.and  1857   (No.8).   'Their second fort
was  constructed   on Wabinosh bay in the  northwest
angle  of   the   lake and was  called Wabinosh House.   This
post was  probably built about  1821  or soon after the
union and   superseded  the   first fort Nipigon and   the
North West Company's   fort Duncan which stood  nearby.
About  1850 Wabinosh House was  removed  10 miles   to  the
south and   re-established as Nipigon House  on  its  present  site.     The original Wabinosh House is  shown  on
the Bartholomew irap accompanying Burpee's  "Search for
the Western Sea".     A canoe route  leads   from this  bay
to  Osnaburgh House   on lake  St.   Joseph and  thence by
the Albany river to York  Factory, whence  the Hudson's
Bay  Co.   furs were shipped  to England, and  not via
Montreal.     Nipigon House  is shown  on Richardson's
map of 1851,   and   on map  of Hind's  Expedition  1858 and
Arrowsmith 1857  (No.8).
Other posts   established  by the Hudson's
bay Co.   on lake Nipigon were,   (1)  poplar Lodge about
1825  on  the  east   shore  of  the lake at   the mouth  of
tho Namewinikan  river,   shown  on the Bartholomew map
referred  to above also  on map accompanying the first
report   of  the  geological   survey   of lake Nipigon mad a
in 1869;      (2nd)  a  small post  called  Red Rock House
at  the  mouth   of  the Nipigon   river on the   right side,
head   of Nipigon harbour.     Grant  in  "Ocean to Ocean",
1872,   speaks   of the  old Hudson's Bay  Co.   station at
the mouth  of Nipigon  river.     Red Rock House was
established  soon after the union  of 1821  on  the  site
of,   or near by,   the  old  French  fort Nipigon.
The North  West   Co.   about   1785   established
themselves at  the  old French fort Nipigon at the
».outh  of the Nipigon river and  endeavoured  to  secure
  a  monopoly  of  the   fur trade  in the interior north  of
lake  Superior,     Outposts   on the  shores   of  lake Nipigon
were built,   (1)   one  on the   southwest shore  of the  laket
name unknown,   shown  on map   of 1817   in Davidson's
History  of  the North West Co.,   and   (2)  Fort Duncan,
built by Duncan Cameron about 1795 at  the north  end   of
lake Nipigon  on Windigo  or wabinosh  bay.     Cameron
was  clerk at Nipigon in 1797 and was  in  charge  of the
Nipigon  district 1799.
Summary of  forts and posts   on lake Nipigon
Name
Location
Company
Date
Camanistigoyan
mouth Nipigon river
French
1678
La Maune
"     Ombabika       "
JM^,
1684
Outoulabis
n.end   of lake
^'ifMii
1685
Nipigon
mouth Nipigon       "
N.W.Co.
1785
Nipigon
north  end   of lake
H.B.   Co.
1775
Duncan
"            "                "
N.W.   Co.
1795
Unknown
S.W.shore  of lake
■ , ,f A*
a
.1817
Nipigon House
N.W.     "              "
H.B.   Co.
c
.1820
Wabinosh House
"         "              "
c
.1821
Red Rock House
mouth Nipigon river
' v|ip"*'
c
.1820
Poplar Lodge
East  shore  of  lake
eiffpyf
c
.1825
See  forts  La Maune,   La Tourette,   Camanistigoyan,
Nipigon,  Dunc.§tn,  V/abinosh Ho.,  Poplar Lodge.,  Red" Rock
Ho.,   Outoulabis.
Lake Nipigon during  the French regime was  called.
Alemipigon,  and Nemipigon,  afterwards  shortened  to
Nipigon,  meaning  "deep,   clear,  water".     It was also
called  later St.  Anne  or Red  lake and   on Hennepin's
maps  of 1682 and  1697,   lake  St.Joseph,  where a  fort
is shown at the north  end  called  "Outonlibis"   or fort
to stop the Assinipoels.     Lake Nipigon was  first surveyed   in  1869   by Robert Bell.
394    Nipissing House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post  on East Bay,   at  the
east  end   of lake Nipissing,   Ontario,  at  the   end of
the  portage  from Itout  lake via Vase river  on the
route  from Mattawa  to  Georgian Bay.     A short portage
extended  from the  southwest bay   of Trout  lake  to  La
Vase  river and  hence to  East Bay.     This  was  the
historic  route  of the  fur traders  from-the  Ottawa
river to  lake  Superior. There had been a  small
post  here under the  French  regime and an Indian village.     On Danville's map  of 1755   (No.97)   lake Nipissing
is  called  "Nipisirinis,   or lac  des   Sorciers".     A
North West  Co.   post was located  at  mouth  of Vase  rivor,.
called  Fort  La Ronde.     Before 1850  the Hudson's Bay
Co.   post was moved  to one  of the islands in  lake
Nipissing.     After the  construction  of the  Canadian
Pacific Railway,   the  post  was moved  to North Bay
about  5 miles  to  the north.     Map No.   123  and   23.
39 5    Fort Nisqually
Puget  Sound
Hudson's Bay  Co
shown  on maps
fort at  south  end   of
o.   8 and  100.     This  post
  was probably closed before 1865 as the Company made
no claim from the United States for it at that time.
See  Oregon Territory.
Fort Nitchequon
See Nichicun.
Fort Nontagnaniou
See Natashquan
396     Fort Norrcan
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  en right  bank "M&c-*-"
kenzie  river at mouth of Great Bear river.     Ifop No.
25.     Built in 1810.     Moved about 30  miles upstream in
1844 to a   site a  few miles   below Gravel, river   (Riviere du  Gravois),   called   Old  Fort Point,  near  the   3itf*
of the   old  North West  Co.   fort  Castor.     In 1851  it
was  moved  back  to  its present   site.     Maps No.   8,100-
1§1.
39 7    North  Dairy Farm
Hudson's  Bay Co.  post and  farm on Vancouver Island,  near fort Victoria,  named  in lists   of
1869  and  1872 and  shown on map No.   21.
398    North West River House
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post at upper  end   of
lake Melville,   at the   outlet  of Gra.nd  lake,   opposite
mcu^th  of Hamilton  river,  Labrador.     Established  184*.
and  in  operation  to date.
1743.     The first  trading post  was  erected   by the
French at the   outlet   of Grand  lake ,  called  "Riviere
Nord-Ouest  post".     Fornell's men wintered  there.
1749.     Baye des  Esquimaux concession was  granted   t»
the  widow Fornell.
1777.   The first Englishman wintered and   traded in the
Bay,  at the  remains  of the  old French post.
17I5_ Ifeircoux   (a French Canadian)   operated  an
establishment  at North West River  and  French  trading
posts were  in continuous  operation until  1837.
1836.   Hudson's  Bay Co.   erected   Fort   Smith   on the
site.     This name was soon ohanged  to Northwest
River  House   (1P40).     McLean arrived  at  Fort  Smith
16 February 1838  from fort ihimo   on  his   inland   journey from north to   south  Labrador.
1857.The  Hudson's  Bay  Co.  bought   out   their competitors.     This post   is named   on   the  1857  list and  is
i*  operation to  date.     Shown maps  No.   24 and   61.
  399 Norway House
HudsonTs Bay Co, fort at present located
at the north end of Fort Island, mouth of the Gunis&o
river, on Little Playgreen lake, Manitoba.
The original fort was located at the
south end of Mossy Point at the entrance to playgreen
lake (Puckescoggan lake), north end of lake Winnipeg.
Showns maps No 37 and 125.  It was built about 1800.
Franklin 1319 states that the origin of the name was
due to a settlement of Norwegians who were driven
from Selkirk's Colony in 1815, This fort was burnt
in 1825.
Before 1819 another post had been built
25 miles distant at the mouth of-jack river (now
called Gunisao river) known as Jack River House and
to this site the first Norway House was moved after
the fire of 1825. For some time the new fort was
called Jack River House or Norway House and is shown
on maps No. 8 and 101, and on Hind'smap 1858,
Ermatinger noticed the new fort in 1826. Sir George
Back stated that the Nelson river had encroached on
the original location 300 yards since 1819,
The present Norway House was built by
John McLeod in 1826 to 1828.  See. maps 125 and 37,
and 141.  (See also "Notes and Documents, Rupert's
Land 1825 & Minutes of Council 1825"). It was surrounded by a picket palisade 15 feet high enclosing
a square 150 yards on each side, having two gates.
Inside was the Chief Factor's residence 50 feet long
for the general council &c,, and other buildings for
the Governor, clerks, offices, men, &c.  Boat build*-
ing was the main occupation.
Remains of the first fort on Mossy point
are still visible. Norway House was an important
divisional point when goods were transported from
York Factory to the interior. The Northern Council
of the Hudson's Bay Co, annually met there and Sir '
George Simpson, whose residence was at Norway House,
presided at the meetings. The Cree syllabic characters were invented by Rev. J. Evans in 1801, and
the transfer of Rupert's Land to the Crown was arranged there in 1869.
400  Fort Nottingham
Hudson's Bay Co. fort at the west end
of lake Athabasksf. Built by peter Filler for the
Company in 180*2.   This was the first Hudson's Bay
Co. fort on the lake.  In 1808 the Company abandoned
the whole Athabaska district to the North West Co.
and fort Nottingham was deserted. In 1815 the
Hudson's Bay Co. returned and built Fort Wedderburne on
Coal Island some distance from the North West Co, who
had fort Chipewyan' on the opposite side. In 1821 after
coalition of the two Companies, the Hudson's Bay Co.
moved into fort Chipewyan which thoy enlarged, Maps
No. 8, 100 and 101-  See Fort Wedderburn.
  131
Nut  Lake  House
See Capot. River Fort.
401     Oak  Point  House
Small Hudson's-Bay Co.  post on southeast
shore  of lake "Manitoba.     It was  included  in the list of
1869 attached to Deed of Surrender and again on the 1872
list.     It was   of short  duration.     Shown mar No.   13 and
21.
402    Obijuan Post
post  established before
1830   on lake Obijuan   (Obiduan)   headwaters   of the  St.
Maurice river Quebec
pr es ent  us e
Fort Okanagan
Bay  Co.
'Tbidua:
An outpost  of Kikendatch.
Hudson's Bay  Co.  fort   on right  side  of
Columbia river at the mouth  of  Okanagan river.     Built
1811.     It  was a stockaded  fort.     The Company  claimed
indemnity for the less  of this fort  from the United
States.  • See Oregon Territory.     Shown maps  No.8,12,
100,101.     The North West Co.  was  located nearby.
Old  Establishment
Name variously applie
to  several  forts:
Port
(1) Peter Pond's  fort  on Athabaska  river - Se
Athabaska  river.
(2) Boyer's  fort   on Peace river at mouth  of Boyer river.
See Fort Vermilion.
(3) Boyer's fort  on Peace  river near mouth of Red river.
See Red River  fort.
(4) Possibly also Encampment  Island  fort  on peace river-
which see.
404 Old French House
French post built  before 1685 at the confluence of  the  Abitibi  and  Frederick House  rivers,
Ontario.     Shown on map No.   24.     This  was  probably the
post shown  on  Jaillot's map  1685  (No.85)   and  1696
(No.   117)   though  this  map  is  imperfectly drawn.
This post  is marked  "Old House"  on Arrow-
smith map of  1832   (No.101)   and   "Old   Log Tent"  on the
1824 map.     The   first Frederick.  House was probably built
at  this point.     See Frederick  House.
405 Old  Red River House
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  on left bank  of
Athabaska  river at   confluence  of Red  river   (now  called
McKay river  since 1912)  and  the Athabaska.     This   fort
is  now called   Fort McKay.     It   vas probably  constructed
  about  1870 and   appears  on the  list  of 1872 for first
time.     It probably superseded  the   older post pierre-
au-Calumet situated   about 10 miles   farther north.
Shown on map No.   11 and Red  River on map No.   34.
See Pierre-au-Calumet.
Old White Mud   Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on north side  of
North Saskatchewan  river, about   114016'W.,  and  about
2-| miles  east  of the  confluence  of Wabamun Creek
(White lake  Creek).     It was  one of the   early forts
in  this  region being  established in 1810 when both
forts Augustus and  Edmonton were abandoned and  reestablished as  White Mud  Fort at White Mud  Creek,
where they  remained until  about 1818.     This fort was
maintained until at  least  1875.     Maps No.   36,37 and
11.     See Fort Augusuts.
Olomanoshi bq'
See Fort Romaine.
4C7     Forfr- ♦ntario
British  fort at  mouth  of Oswego river,
New York state,   on right  bank.     Three forts were
constructed  in clos" *    "
left bank,  and
j-^^j proximity,   Ontario,   Oswego  on
-—._-,       „eorge  half a mile  further on.     These
Forts were captured by  the  French in 1756.     Shown  on
maps No.   10 and  96.
Oregon Territory
Forts  of  the Hudson's  Bay  Co.   in the
Columbia valley were surrendered   to the United■States
on settlement  of the  Oregon question 1846.     posts and
forts  of the North West Co.   on American territory,
i.e.  Minnesota &c,  were  surrendered  1796.     Forts  on
the Grand Portage,  lake Superior,  were surrendered
1796-1801.     The  following forts   of the Hudson's Bay
Co.were situated  south  of the 49th parallel.     The
Company  claimed indemnity payment  from the United
States  for these  forts.     Some of them had been built
by the Hudson's Bay Co.  and  some by the North West
Co.     "British and American Joint Commission-Memorial
of Hudson's  Bay .Co.   April,1865.  H.B.Co.  against U.S.
page 10".     Short notes are  given  on  each  fort  in the
memorial.
Forts,   Vancouver,   Champoeg,   Cowlitz at  river mouth,
George   (Astoria),   Cape Disappointment,   Chinook   or
Pillar Rock,  Umpqua,  Nez-perces   (Walla-Walla),   Hall,
Boise,   Okanagan,   Colville,  Kootanais,   Flat-Heads,
The  following forts  were  on American
Territory,   but no  claim for indemnity for their loss
was made by the Hudson's Bay  Co.:
Forts  Carkeeman   (Caweeman) ,   Nisqually,- Biliingham;
Simcoe,   Saleosh,   Spokane.     ?v!aps :   No.   6,8,100  & 101.
  408 Fort  Orleans
French fort   on south bank   of Missouri
river a  few miles above  the  mouth  of Grand   river
(called  Great   river).     This   fort  is marked   "Abandoned"
on Danville  map   of  1755   (No.97).     It is  shown also  on
maps  No.   96,   119 and  111.
409 Osnaburgh House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at east  end   of lake
St.   Joseph,   Ontario.     It  *$as built in 1786  to  offset
the North West Co.  at lake Nipigon and   to prevent  the
Indians  from trading with  that  Company.     It was  sometimes  called Albany House..   Rebuilt in  1794..    From
1810  to 1815  it was  closed   "since the affair at Eagle
lake".     It was  reopened  in  1815 and   has  been in
operation from that date to  present  time.     "Maps No.
100 & 101.
410 Fort  Oswego
British  fort at mouth  Oswego river,  New
York,   on  left bank.     Built  in 1726,  under protest
from the  French,   to  open a  route for the  Indians   to
fort  Albany  on  the  Hud-son  river,   fort Niagara being
under the French and   closing that  route.   .Fort  Oswego
was  favoured  by the   Iroquois.     Captured  by Montcalm
in July 1756  together with adjoining  forts and  mostly
destroyed.     After the  conquest  of Canada,   fort
Oswego was  rebuilt  by  the British.     The name  given by
the French  to  this  fort  was De  Chougnan and  the Oswego
river was called Onontaquis   (Onondaga).     Adjoining
forts were Ontario,   Oswego,  and   George.     l®.ps No. 10 &
15.
411 Fort  Quatanon
French  fort   on  the north  side   (right  bank)
of the upper Wabash river, about 50 mile3 above
Vincennes.     It was  the  first post  on  the Wabash and
was  palisaded.     Wag  included  in Bougainville's  list
1757.     Surrendered   to the British  1761 and was  captured  by Pontiac  1  June  1763.     Was  one  of the  forts
commanding  route  from lake  Erie  by  the Maumee and
Wabash  rivers  to the Mississippi.     Shown  on-map No.
10,. 97.     The Wabash was  called  by the  French  the  St..
Jerome  river.
412     Fort Outoulibis
Old French  fort at north  end   of lake
Nipigon.     Hennepin's maps  of 1682  and  1697 show  this
fort  marked   "Outoulibis   or fort  to  stop the Assini-
poels" and  such a  fort   is also  shown  on the  map  "Le
Cours  du Fleuve Mississippi  1737".     This  fort and  La
Tourette   (or  La Maune)   were the original  French  forts
on lake Nipigon and probably  Outoulabis was  the first
Hudson's Bay  Co.   fort   on the lake having been taken
over by  the Company after  the  cession of Canada and
the name  changed  to  fort Nipigon.
  413 Oxford House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post at   the northeast
end   of  Oxford  lake  on  the  Hayes   river route  from
Norway House  and   lake Winnipeg to York Factory.     It
was  the  oldest  post   in Keewatin District.     The first „
fort was  established   by Chief Factor William  Sinclair
in 1798 and  tho second  by John McLeod   in 1816.     This
post has been in regular   operation  from 179C to date.
It was an important  post when York  Factory was  the
main shipping  port and York  Treats were usod.     See
maps  68,   140,   100,   101  &  126.
414 Papinachois
Old French .trading  post at  mouth  of  river
De l'Isle aux Rosiers   on Baie  aux Outardes  near Bersimis   (Betsiamites)   on lower St-Lawrence,(the Papi-
nachois Reserve   des   Sauvages).     Location is shown   on
map  57.     It was  "Wuilt  before  1694,  a King's  Post  in
the Domaine  du Roy.     In 1694. it was under lease.     In
1701 was  leased  to   the  Cie.du Nord.      It  remained in
operation until   the  cession  ol  Canada,     Three posts
were near  together,   Isle-Jeremie   165C ,  Papinachois
a.   1694,  and Bersimis  a  1703.
Partridge  Crop post
See pineimuta Lake.
415 The  Pas
;Name is abbreviates  form  of the  old
French  fort pasquia nearby   (see pascoyac).
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  established at  The
Bas  between 1775 and  1790.     Has  been  operated by the
Co.   from date  of building to present   time.    A.   Henry
Sr.   rn  the  first  trader's   expedition to Wrest after
cession  of  Canada  passed  through in 1775 and  makes
no mention  of  the  fort.
416     Fort pascoyao
Frenoh fort at  mouth   of pasquia river
(called also Montagne  du Pas  river).     The name  is
written also  as  Paskoya,   Pasquia,   ?asko!a.     pascoyac
was   the  Indian name  for  the  Saskatchewan  river.     It
was  built by Verendrye  in 1749   (others  give 1744)
and was  located  very near the  present  town The pas.
Verendrye Sr. was  succeeded "by  de Noyelle who  through
one of  the Verendrye's  sons   built  Fort Bourbon  on
lake Y/innipegosis and  Fort  Jaacoyac.     It was  included
in Bougainville's  list 1757 who says  "fort  paskoia  is
on the  river' of that name,   ISO leagues  from Dauphin.
Frcm this   fort   one   comes   in   10  days to  the   river
Nalsoa".     In 1808 Alex.   Henry Jr.   found   the  remains
of an  ojLd   fort which he  estimated   to  be  50 years   old
at   the  locality  of Fort  l^scoyac.     In 1755 Hendry
stated  that jpauy  furs were here   obtained  from Indians
going to Hudson-Bay.     The first pest  built  by   the
North West  Co..  on Cumberland lake was near  the' site
of pascoyac.     Shown  on map 10.
  ■ Pas-Mountain House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post   on Carrot   river,
south  shore,   102°45'   W. ,  about   50. miles   from The pa
it  appears   on Macoun  map 1862   (No.13).     Probably
established  c.   1870- and   operated   to  date.
Fort Paubna'
Pembina   river'near its  mouth .Alberta .     Built by
Chaboillez  in 1797 and   abandoned  1800.
Peac
River Landing
See Fort   of the Forks.
Peel River House
See  Fort McPherson.
Pelican Narrows
Hudson's  Bay  Co.. post at  north  end   of
Pelican lake near Pelican Narrows between pelican
lake  and  Mirond  lake,   enlargements  of the Sturgeon-
weir' river,   on route between Rlendeer  lake and
Cumberland  House,  about   half way,  and  about 30  miles I
from Frog portage.     (Churchill  river,   Saskatchewan), I
This  post was   established  about 1798 and   is  still
maintained  by  the  Company.     It  is  shown  on several
old maps as a H.B.Co.   post without  name,  and   is  pro- j
bably  the  same post as   that  shown  on Miro»A  lake  on    I
some  maps.     Ifop No.   147.
Fort Pelly
See  Carlton House.
Fort Polly S^nks
!     Hudson's Bay Co.   post  near source   of tho
Pelly river,   Yukon territory.     Built   in  1842  by
Campbell  and  named from the  tank where he  first  saw    ;
the Pelly  river in  134*5.   . It was accidentally'burned ■'
in 1849 a»d   tho sito abandoned  in 1850-.     It   is  shown
on map No. 128,   the upper Yukon river 1867.
Fort  Pembip.a   (i)
First   fort   of the North West   Co.  at
Pembina was  built by Charles  Chaboillez  179 7-179*
for   the N.W.   Oo.   on the west   side  of the Rei   river
and   ths  south side   of  th« Pembina   river.     It was
kn"»vn as  Chaboillez  H"»use.     Henry   Jr... in  1800  saw
tft% remains  and  in  1001  slept  one  night there while
the'new  fcrt was   being built.     An  earlier  trading
pest had  boen  built   iv Peter Grant in 1793   (See
ttrant's  H^use No.   2C4) .
  422     Fort  Pembina   (2)
North West  Co,     fort at mouth  of Pembina
river on the north side  opposite  to  remains   of
Chaboillez'House   on  the   south side   (No. 421).-     It was
built  by Alex.   Henry  Jr.   1801 who "selected  the north
side  of Pandian river at  the point  of land  between
that and  the  Red  river,  about  100   paces  from each
river."       This   fort was  seized  by John McLeod  for the
Hudson's Bay  Co.   in December 1815.     Shown  on map No.
423     Fort Pembina   (3)
The  first  Hudson's Bay Co.   fort was
built   on  the  east  side   of  Red   river in 1793   by
McKay.     In  1801  the  Company  rebuilt  this  fort.     It
was  on the site  of  the present   St.Vincent,   Minnesota.
In.1812 the Company built  Fort Daer   (q.v.)   on  the
north side  of Pembina  river,   site  of present  town  of
Pembina.     In  1821  the Hudson's Bay  Co.   took   over the
N.W.   Co.   fort Pembina which stood   close  by,-    After
delineation of the International  boundary the
Hudaon's Bay Co. -moved  a  short  distance north to
British territory.     In  1871  Fenian  raiders  from the
United  States  seized  this  fort.
42^-    Fort Pembina   (4)
The  X.Y.Co.  also built   in  1801  by  Cre-
Fort Pepesquew
See  fort Y»eenisk.
425     Fort Pepin
French fort  built  in  1695  on Mississippi
river west   bank above  lake Pepin and  below  the
junction  of St.Croix and  Mississippi   rivers,   about
25  to 30 miles  below   the present  St.paul.     It was  rebuilt about   1730.
Fort  perrot
See Fort  Bonsecours,
426     Petit  Mecatina
Early French trading post  on the  lower
St.   Lawrence,   at  mouth   of petit  Mecantina  river,
opposite north  end  of petit Mecatina  island,  about
24 miles   southwest   of  Gros  Mecatina.     Built   in  1740.
It was  granted   in   1740   to  Henry A.   de  St.  Vincent.
In 1764 it  was   leased   to Alex.  Mackenzie and   Lym-
burner   for 6  years.     In 1804 they   sold   to Wm.Grant.
Maps   24 and   67.
II
  427 Petite Nation Fort
Stockaded French  fort  on bank  of
Ottawa  river,  about 35  miles  above  the  Longue  Sault
at  Grenville,   at  or  near mouth  of petite Nation
river.     Alex.   Henry  Sr.   in 1761  passed this   fort
and found   it  deserted.
428 Fort Pic
North West  Co.   fort at mouth   of pic
river,  north side  of Heron Bay,   lake Superior.
Built   before  1790.     This   post was at  the  beginning
of the canoe  route  to  Long  lake and   thence north.
After  the  coalition  of 1821-it was  operated by  the
Hudson's Bay Co.  until about  1865.     It appears   on
their  list   of  1856  but  not  on later  lists.     It was
sometimes  called peck fort   or The pic.     The X.Y.Co.
also  operated a   post at  this  locality  before  1804.
Shown  on maps No.   6,   8,   86.
429 Fort  Piekougami
Old French post at mouth  of Mistassini
river,   on shore  of lake St.   John,   Quebec,  about  8
miles  from Pointe Bleue.     probably built about  1700.
Shown Mitchell  map 1755 No.142,  and   on Bouchette's
map Canada  &c  1846 with a  note  "Site  of ancient
Trading post".     Also map No.   24.
430 Fort Pierre-au-Calumet
Old Hudso:
of the Athabaska riv
Calumet creek. This
earliest posts in tha
tab ligament and coSva:
In later years it was
House which, in turn,
Pierre-au-Calumet was
North West Co. It wa
river was formerly ca
Athabaska was known a
Shown on maps of 1851
12,  3,   41,   100-101.
n's Bay  Co.   post   on right  bank
opposite the  mouth   of
fort  was   probably   one   of  the
t region after pond's   Old Es-
1 with  the Fort   of the Forks,
superseded   by  Old  Red   river
became Fort  Mackay.     In 1817
seised  and  plundered  by the
deserted  before  1848.   IBckay
lied Red River,  and  the
Elk  or  La Biche  river,
lind's  map 1858,   on No.
431    Fort Pigeon Lake
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at northwest  corner of Pigeon lake,  about   25 miles  south  of  the
North Saskatchewan  river  on meridian 114°W.     It  was
included  in  the  lists   of,1869 and   1872.     Shown  on
maps  No.   34,   3 7 and   35.
432     Pik«   Lake  Hou
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post  on Pike  lake  about
15 Kiiles  west   of  lake Nikabau,   Quebec,   (49°10'N &
74°10'W.)   near the  source  of  Opawika  river.     It  was
probably  established about   18 25 and was   included  on
  the lists of 1836, 1857, 1869 and 1872.  Clo
about 1890.  Shown on maps No. 62, 24, 6.
See fort Crevecoeur.
Pine Fort
North West  Co.   fort   on north bank   of
Assiniboine  river west  of pine  creek,   18 miles below
junction  of Souris  and Assiniboine rive*rs,   in the
N.  E.   quarter  of  Section 36,   Tp.8,   R.14,   west   of
principal meridian, about   8 miles  south   of Carberry
Junction on the  C.N.R'y.     It was  built   in 1784-
1785.     Abandoned by the North West  Co.   1794 when the
Hudson's  Bay Co.   built  Fort  Souris  20  miles  by  land
higher up the  river in  1793. •  It was   the   lowest,post
of  the N.W.  Co.   on Assiniboine  river and  was   the
chief trading post   of  the  J&ndan Indians.     It  was
reopened  by  the  Hudson's Bay  Co.  about 1821 after
the  coalition.     Henry and  Harmon visited  the  re- ■
mains  of  this  fort in 1805.     It was sometimes  called
fort Des  Epinettes,  des Pins,   des  Trembles.     Shown
on maps No.   3,5,7,9,   101.
Pine Ridge Post
See Fort  llattawa,  and Lac La  Seul.
434    pineimuta  Lake Post
North West Co.   post   on lineimuta lake,
between St. I'&rtin's   lake and  lake Manitoba.     The
name   is  Indian  for partridge Crop and the North
Y/est Co.   post  was  known by the French  name "Fale
Perdrix" as   on their list   of  posts   in 1820.     It was
located about   15 miles northeast   of  the Hudson's
Bay Co.   post  Fairford   (q.v.).     It  was   discontinued
after  the coalition 1821  and  does not appear  on  the
H.B,Co.   lists.     See  Sectional   Sheet No.   172.
435     Fort piscoutagamy
French  fort  built by Charles ,   Sieur de
la  Tourette,   brother   of Dulhut,   in 1673,   at  outlet
of lake piscoutagami   (modern Nighthawk)   lake on the
Frederick  House branch   of the Abitibi  river,  about
45 miles southwest   of  lake Abitibi.     Shown   on La
Hontan map   of 1703   (No.20)  at  the  outlet   of a  lake
given as   source  of Albany river,  with legend  "Little
St.Germain which hinders  ye Assinipoels   to come
down to port Nelson" (English  reprint   of  1735).     On
Jaillot's  map   of  1685   (No.85)  and  1696   (No.117)   the
fort   is  shown with   legend   "poste du Sieur  de   St.
Geruain pour  couper presque   toutes  les  voies  des
Sauvages  du Nord   et  les   empecher de  descendre a  la
Baye  de Hudson".     Bellin says  "Albany river comes
from a  lake   of  the same name   (We  call  the  river Ste.
Anne,   the  Indian was  Quitchide Chouen)  and   on the
shore  of the  lake  we have a  fort  St.   Germain".     La
  Hontan 1703  gives Piscoutagarni  lake   on portage to
Michipicoten river.    Fiscoutagami and  Sti   Germain
were the  same  fort.     In  the  "Ueuxieme Memoire  de  la
Compagnie Fran^aise" by French Commissioners  1687  it
was   stated  that Fiscoutagami   .'jas   built   in 1675 i t
White discusses   the  question  of  the  site   of  St.Germain  in vol.8,   Canada  and  Its provinces *     The fort
was  rebuilt  by the French  in 1684 and  probably
destroyed by  them at   the  cession  of Canada.     In 1785
the  Hudson's Bay Co.   removed Frederick  House  from its
first site  to  or near the site  of Pise outagami.
See Frederick  House,     Maps  20,24,10,117,77.
436 Fort Pitt   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.  post   on south bank  of
North  Saskatchewan river about  109050'W.     It was a
square  palisaded and  bastioned  fort,   situated  100
yards  from the  river.     Built   in 1831.     Treaty with
Indians was   signed  there  in  1875.     It was  raided  in
the rebellion of 1885 and not restored after the
rebellion.     It was a small   establishment  in 1862,
principally used as a provision post for  dried meat.
Its location  is shown  on sheet 317  Sectional Map,
also on maps No.8 and  100.
Fort Pitt   (2   )
See Fort Duquesne.
Pointe Bleue
See  Lake  St.   John.
437 Fort Pointe Coupe
French  fort   on  right bank   of Mississippi
river above Baton Rouge.     It was  built  before 1750
as  one  of  the  chain  of French  forts  from Quebec  to
Gulf  of Mexico.     It was  built  with four bastions and
stockaded.     Shown  on  map No.   143.
438 Pointe  de  Meuron House
A small Hudson's Bay Co.   establishment
near    Fort William,   Lake  Superior,  about  9  to  10
miles up  the Kaministiquia   river,   on  the north bank
at  Pointe de  Meuron,   maintained as a  check upon  the
North West Co.     Location  shown  on $ap No.   144.
439 Fort Pontchartrain  (1)
Ancient  French  fort near.Brest," Bradore
Bay,   on lower St. Lawrence.     It was   in  the   original
grant   to  Courtemanche  of 1630 and  marked  the western
limit   of the  grant.      It   is   shown   on Del'Isle's  map
of 1703   (No.18)   at mouth of Eskimo  river  on Baie  des
Espagnols   or Esquimaux.     It was  built by Courtemanche in  170 2 and named by  him after  Louis  phelypeaux,
Coate  de pontchartrain.   Bradore  bay  was   called Baie
  des  Islettes  by Cartier and was known as Baie  des
Espagnols   in 1740.     It was  sometimes  called Baie de
Bonne  Esperance.     The Eskimo river is  now named St.
Paul  or Des Esquimaux.     The   fort  is   shown  on many
old   maps  sometimes named  'old"  fort.    Maps No.  2*
18,   96,95,97,105,118.
1704. Courtemanche's chart  of his  voyage indicated
a  fort at bottom of Bradore  bay.
1705. Courtemanche stated that he had   two establishments,   Pontchartrain and Baie phelypeau.
1714.   The Baye Phelypeau  concession was granted  to
Courtemanche   for life and  he was appointed  Commandant  pour le Roi  on coast  of  Labrador.
1718.  The concession  was confirmed   to  the widow of
Courtemanche  and   family.     Her son,  Brouagne,   was
appointed commandant.     The family  exercised  the privileges   of the  lease ur^-il  1760.
1760.  Governor Murray dispossessed Brouagne and
transferred  the property  to Mackenzie,   Lymburner and
others,  who were in possession until  1779.
1804.  Lymburner & Co.   sold  to William Grant,   (see
"Labrador"  by  Gosling, p.   132.)
Pontchartrain   (2)
See Fort Detroit.
Pontiac 's Conspiracy 1763.
The following forts were captured  by
Pontiac :-
Sandusky Tlay 16;   St.   Joseph May 25th;
Miami  May 27th;   Ouatanon  June 1;   Michilimackinac
June 4;  Presqu'Isle  June;     Le Boeuf June 18;   Venango
June  20;   (Presqu'Isle had been practically  destroyed
by  the French  in 1759.     The garrisons   from Le Boeuf
and  Venango  retired   to Detroit).     pontiac was   repulsed   from Ligonier  on   June  21,  and  from fort Pitt
in July.     Sault Ste.Iferie was  partly burned  by the
Indians.     L'Arbre Croche was abandoned   on  June  21-
Detroit held   out and  was  relieved.
440    Poplar Fort   (1)
Known also as  Old poplar Fort,   poplar
House,  Fort du Tremble,   des  Trembles,  aux Trembles,
Tremblier.
— North West  Co.   fort  on Assiniboine  river,  a
--  few. miles above  Meadow  Portage   (portage la
Prairie),   in  Section  6,  Tp.ll,. R-7.West   of principal
Meridian.     It was   one  of the  oldest  posts  of the
English  traders   on   the Assiniboine.     Alex.  Henry  Jr.
states  that it was  abandoned  in  the  autumn of 1781
after being attacked by  Indians and  three defenders
killed.     Maps  No.   1  & 3.
  Poplar Fort   (2) ■
Fort Alexandria  on Assiniboine  river
441     Poplar River Fort"
of Poplar
on ma-p  of  18:
Small North West  Co
iver,   lake Winnipeg,
post at  the  outlet'
east  shore.     Shown
established by  the
~.enry  Jr.  visite"
442 Portage de  l'Isle House
North West  Co.  post   on  right  bank  of
Winnipeg river above  confluence  of the English  river.
3i  miles   below Terre Blanche  portage.     It was an old
French post  which had   been re-established by  the
North West  Co.   in  1797.  Alex,
post  in 1800.
443 Portage-la-Loche
Known also as  Methye portage.     It was
first  crossed  by Pond  in 1778.     The Hudson's Bay  Co.
maintained  a post at  north  end   of  portage, at  the
Clearwater river.     Shown on rcap No.8   (1857)  and  41.
It was not  an important  post and was  of service principally  to  those crossing the  portage,  as a   depot.
The main post was  on Methye  lake and   the  present name
is  Portage  La  Loche  House.     The  North West  Co.   also
maintained a post   on  the portage   for  similar purpose,   i
See   "Athabaska   to  the Bay"  by F;H.Kitto,. for description  of portage.
444 Portage-la-Prai rie
The  first  fort  constructed  in the
locality was  La Reine  1738  constructed by Verendrye
at  the  beginning   of the portage.     In 1796   the  Hudson's  Bay  Co.   built a  fort   on the site  of or near  the
old  French   fort  which  they  had   occupied after the
withdrawal  of the French  garrison.     This  fort  was
sometimes  called Assiniboine River fort and  later
Portage-la-Prairie.     In September 1813 McLeod built
an  enlargement  to  the  fort  of  1796,  which  the H.B.
Co.   continued   to   operate until about  1870.     The
North West Co.   also  constructed a   fort at  the portage mentioned  by McDonnell  in his  journal   of  1794.
Harmon in  1805  described  this as   "a miserable fort
but  beautifully  situated".     It was  sometimes  called
Fort Des  Prairies  or Fort  La Reine.
This  site  was always   famous   in  the
western  fur trade.     Fort  La Reine was  one   of the
chief-.,"'French  trading  posts until  the cession  of
Canada'.     After that  it  was   occupied  by the Hudson's
Bay  Co.  who  remained until  1870.     The portage was
12 miles  across  to  lake Manitoba,     Goods were carried
by the Frenoh  on  this   portage  to Fort Dauphin.     The
portage  began 5 miles  below Poplar House,   just  below
a willow   covered   island   in  the   river.     The present
ffity Portage  la prairie  occupies  the site.     The
place was  also  called  Prairie portage,   Meadow, and
Plain  portage.
  See Mille Vaches.
445    Fort Presqu'Isle
French fort   on  the  south  shore   of lake
Brie,   site now  occupied by Brie,  Pennsylvania.
Built  in 1753.     Bougainville  1757  says,   "it was
built   of  cut  stones and   square  timbers and  was
situated  7  leagues  from fort De la  Riviere-au-Boeuf
and from Niagara, at the  entrance of a large bay 1{
leagues  in  depth and \  league in width.     This  post
is   for trade with fort Au Boeuf and  l&chault and is
a  necessary  entrepot".     The  fort was   located at the
beginning   of  the portage  route  from lake Erie to
the Ohio river,  which  route had  been opened about
1728.     The first  carry   on this   route was  from the
fort to  river Au Boeuf 7 miles   (now  called  French
Creek.)   The fort was  listed as  a King's Post for
trade.     One account  states  that  the  fort was  surrendered to  the British 1760,   another that  is was was I
destroyed  by the French  in 1759,  and another that  it/
surrendered to Pontiac  in 1763.     On La Hontan's map
of 1703   (No 20)   the beginning  of  the  route  is  shown
as  "Landing Place",   and  Bell in'a map 1744  (No.15)
shows   the portage.     The  fort  is  shown  on maps No.
97,   96 and 119.
Fort Prince of Wales
See Fort  Churchill.
446 Fort Providence   (1)
North West Co.  fort  on an island in the
North Saskatchewan river near the present town of
Prince Albert.     It was   in ruins  in  1808 as  seen by
Alexander Henry Jr.
447 Fort providence   (2)
Hudson's Bay  Co,   fort  on  the north  shore
of Slave  lake near  the  mouth of Yellowknife river.
Built  by Alexander Ifickenzie  1790.     It was afterwards  moved  to an- island   in the north arm of the
lake   (about  1850)   and  the name was  changed to Fort
Rae after  the  explorer Rae.  ]&ps  No.8,100 & 101.
448 Fort Providence   (3)
Hudson's Bay  Co.   fort  on Jv&ckenzie river
about  40   miles  below   the   outlet   of  Great  Slave lake,
built about   1850.     (Several   old   forts had   been built
and abandoned   on Hay  river near its  mouth and   on
Mackenzie  river below fort  Simpson.)
449    Fort prudhomme
French  fort   on  left bank Mississippi
river at  Chickasaw Bluffs,   160 miles below mouth of
  Ohio river, located nea
Tiptonville, Tennessee,
and was in ruins before
96,   98 & 145.
village of
Salle  in 1682
on maps No.  9,
450    Quagmire House
North West Co.   -post  on North Saskatchewan
river below Rocky Rapids, about  ||  miles upstream
from Bucklake House in the  circular bend  of the  river,
on north side'of  the   river,I14°48'W.     It was  called
by  Thompson,   Fort Muskey  or Mukako  in  1809,     Alex.
Henry Jr.  was  there in 1811 and  says  "an establishment   of ours on  the north side,  abandoned   several
years asro,   situation being-  improper for trade,  the
remains  of which are still  standing.     It  was   the most
inconvenient   spot  for an establishment  on the  river,
being surrounded  by a  deep    swamp."     Shown  on map II.
451 Fort  Qu'Appelle
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort  on the  right   (south)
bank  of Qu'Appelle   river,   103°46'W.   90 miles west  of
old   Fort Esperanee,  at  the mouth  cf  Jumping Deer
creek between the  Fishing lakes.     It was built before
1804.     Sometimes  called Qu'Appelle Lakes  fort.     It
appears   on  the  1872  list   of posts  and was probably
discontinued  after 1880.
The name Qu'Appelle is  derived  from an
Indian  legend   that  the  shores  are  haunted   by a   spirit
that   often wails  during the night  resembling a  human
voice.     The voyagexir3 applied   the name Qu'Appelle.
The North West Co.  also  maintained a post
built  by  John McDonald in 1808  on a "beautiful small
lake",  and  the X..Y.Co.  had  also an adjoining post.
452 Quebec
Settlement  was made  by Champlain in 1608
and   the first  fort was  built   (1508),   on the  cliff„  on
the  site of Dufferin Terrace.     Until about  1670,
Tadoussac was the   chief  trading post,   then Quebec
became  the headquarters until Montreal  was   selected
about  1700.     The  fortress was   captured  by Kirke  in
1629 and   returned   to France In 1632  by  the treaty  of
St.   Germain-en-Laye.     Frontenac  repulsed phipps In
1690.     Wolfe captured  Quebec  September 1759.     De
Levis was  repulsed   by  General Murray  1760 and  Montgomery was  repulsed by Carleton in 1775.
453 Quetachu Post
Sma11 Hud son's Bay
Quetachou Manicouagan on the 1c
5g  o 45'  w.   Shorn  on Bouchette'
post at Baie
St.Lawrenc e about
fg   of 1846.   Map     24
Hudson's Bay Co.
southern end of Marian lake,
of Great Slave  lake,     presen
ort   on an  island  at
ributary   to North Arm
1 oca ti on and  previ ous
  site  shown on map No.   25 Western sheet   of Great
Slave lake.     Originally Fort  Rae was  built at
mouth  of Yellowknife river 1790 and  called Fort
providence.     About  1850   it was  moved  to a  point   of
land near the northern terminus  of the North Arm on
east shore about  10 miles south of Frank Channel.
It was again moved about  15  miles  farther north  to
present  location.     On removal from mouth of Yellow-
knife  river,   the name was  changed  from providence
to Rae after  the explorer Dr.   Rae.    Maps  8,100-101.
Fort Rainy Lake
See Fort  St.Pierre,  Ft.  Frances ,  Ft ..Lac
La Pluie.
455 Rampart House
Hudson's Bay Co.   post   on porcupine river,
east   of  the  international  boundary line.     Originally
built  by Hudson's Bay Co.   (about  1860)   farther west
on Alaska Territory and  in 1869  moved to British
territory.     It was  abandoned about 1870.     Shown on
map No.   84,
456 Fort Rapid River
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at  confluence  of
Rapid  river,   outlet  of lake La Ronge,  and Churchill
river,   near Frog portage.     Established before 1860
to  supersede fort   on shore  of lake La Ronge and is
still  maintained under present name  of  Stanley House.
The post was   originally about  10 miles   east  of
Stanley Mission and  is now located   on  the south side
of the'river  opposite  Stanley.     Ifeps No.8 and  100.
457 Rat portage House
North West  Co.   establishment   originally
on Old  Fort  Island,   at  the head  of portage Bay  (now
called Keewatin Bay) ,  at   one  outlet  of Lake  of the
Woods.     Constructed between 1790 and  1800 at the
beginning  of portages  on route between Lake of the
Woods and Fort Alexander.     This  post   is shown  on
Thompson's map 1826   (No.7) and Capt.  palliser 1857
speaks   of  "the  small  trading post".     It  is also shown
'on Hind's map  of 1858 and   described  by him.     This
'post was   operated by  the  Hudson's Bay  Co.  after the
coalition  of 1821 who  constructed a  new  building
about  1840.     In 1861  the  post was moved from the
island  to   the  mainland.     Dr.   Bell  says  in his  report
of  1872:     "The  post  consisted   of two  long   one  story
houses, a  shop,  and  dwelling.     It was  built on what
afterwards  became  Main Street  of the   town Rat portage.
It  remained  on that site until moved across  the
street in 1881.     In 1882 the post was  burned.     In
1872   it was   only a  small clearing  surrounded by unbroken forest."    Rat Portage  is now Kenora.     See
Kaministiquia  route and  Lac  du Bonnet,     laps No.8
and  Sectional Sheet No.   74   .
  -   145
Red Deer Lake post
See  Lac  La Biche.
458 Red  Cedar Lake House
North West Co.   post   on Red  Cedar lake
north shore, about   25 miles from Turtle lake,
state  of Minnesota,   on the route between  Lake   of
the Woods and Red  river.     Thompson was  there  in
1798 When the post was  in charge  of John sayer.
This  post was also  called Upper Red  Cedar Lake
House and  the present name is Cass  lake.     Shown
on Thompson's map  1812  No.7,
459 Red Deer Hiver House
The North West  Co.   had  a small  post
on Red Deer river north bank about 20 miles above
its   outlet  in Red Deer lake,   tributary to lake
Winnipigoos .     The Hudson's Bay Co.  also maintained
a small post   on the south bank,   two miles below
the N.W.   Co.     Both posts are  shown oh map No.   37
of 1894.     N.W.  Co.   post was  on  boundary line
between Manitoba and  Saskatchewan.
460 Red Lake House   (1)
North West Co.   post at  north end   of
Red lake,   Ontario.     It was mentioned  by Duncan
Cameron in  1786 and   is  shown on  the map of Mackenzie's  route 1789   (Arrowsmith  1801)  No.4,  also map
of Harmon's  Journal-1805 No.2,  and  on maps No.8,
100,12,  101.     Location of  post is shown on map No.
146   on post Narrows  near east  end  of  lake.     This
fort was  taken   over by the Hudson's Bay Co.  in
1821 and has   been operated to date,  a continuous
period   of nearly  150  years  since  first built.     It
appears   on all the Company lists and  on all Arrow-
smith maps and   on Hind's  map 1858.
461    Red Lake House   (2)
North West Co.  post  on Red Lake,   source
of Lac Rouge  river,  a  tributary  of Red  river,   in
Fond-du-Lac  district.     Being in State  of Minnesota,
this post with  others was   relinquished  to the
United  States   in 1796.     The  Hudson's Bay  Co.  also
operated a  small  post  on Red Lake.     The country
was   early exhausted  of  furs,  although at   one  time
a  famous  region for beaver.     Shown on maps No.  3
and   7.
Red River Fort
North West Co.   fort at  the   junction  of
Little Red river and  peace  river.     It was   called
Fort  de  la  Riviere Rouge and  was known as  Little
Red  River  fort   to distinguish  it  from Old Red
River fort   on Athabaska   river  (Fort McKay).
  independent
this  region
North West ■
who built a  f
of Peace rivi
1798   or 1789,
Grand Mara is!
ruins  in  1805
fort and  have
and 35.     Litt
kwa  river.
he  first fort was  built  by Boyer,
in 1788.     It was   the  first  post  in
nd was afterwards abandoned.     The
was   represented  by  John Thomson
rt,   28  ft.  by 24 ft.   on north side
r at  mouth of  Little Red river,   in
known as  Little Red  river   or Fort
This fort was abandoned and  in
The Hudson's Bay Co.. rebuilt   this
operated  it   to date.     Maps  No.11
le  Red   river is now called  the Mik-
Red River Forts
The  present  Red river,   flowing north
into lake Winnipeg,  was known as  Lower Red  river
by  the North West Co.  and  the Assiniboine  river as
the Upper Red  river.     See under names :-
Frobisher's   fort(No,180)
Pembina  forts   (Nos.129-204-421-422-423-424)
Fort Daer   (No*.129)
Grant's House   (No.204)
LeRoy's House  (No.304)
Upper Red River House   (No.575)
Roy's  House   (No.482)
Henry's House   (No.220)
Turtle River House   (572)
Winnipeg Forts.
Several additional  posts  on the Red  river connecting with the Fond-du-Lac  posts,  not   identified.
463 Red Rock House
Hudson's Bay  Co.  post at mouth  of  .
Nipigon river  on right  side,  head   of Nipigon
harbour.     Mentioned   in Grant's  Ocean to  Ocean.
Established soon after coalition of 1821  on site
of,   or near  to,   the   old  French fort Nipigon.     It
was not  included  in the 1869 list nor later and
was  probably closed  about 1865.     See Nipigon House.
464 Reed Lake House
Small Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on Reed
lake,   54°30'N.   & 10C°30'W.,   about 40  miles  north  of
Moose lake,  tributary  tc Nelson river.     It was
built  by Ross under  direction   of  Thompson 1794.
In 1805  Thompson,   (now  in  employ  of North West  Co.),
built a  house  for  the North West  Co.  some  distance
east  of the H.B.Co.  post.     This  post appears   only
on the H.B.Co.   1856  list. i
Reindeer Lake posts
du Brochet,
See
& Vi
Fort  Caribou,
er Lak e.
Bedfont  House,
  465 Fort Reliance   (1)
Explorer's house at  the  extreme  eastern,
end   of Great  Slave  lake.     Built  by McLeod   of  the
Hudson's Bay Co.   for  Captain Back in 1833,  at mouth
of Lockhart  river.    Now  in ruins.     It was  operated a:
a  fur  trading post for  some  years by  the Company.
Tyrrell in 1901 described   the ruined fort as having
been beautifully situated   on a  green terrace  20
feet above   the harbour and   200 feet  from the shore.
The country was  thinly woodea with young spruce.
The  fort, which had  been burned,  was   30 by 50 feet
with three chimneys and   five   open fireplaces,   five
rooms with fireplace  in  each.     There were  2  amaller
buildings  18 feet square.     Only  the stone  chimneys
now remain.
466 Fort Reliance   (2)
Hudson's Bay Co,  post  on the  right  bank
of the  Pelly   or Yukon  river  64°20'N.   just north of
Dawson City.     It  is   shown   on map No.   122 and   on map
Alaska  1897 No.   83.     This  for"  was  probably  superseded by Dawson.
Fort Remy
See fort La. Chine.
Fort Repulse Bay
See Fort Hope (3).
467    Fort Resolution
Hudson's Bay  Co.   fort on south  shore  of
Great  Slave  lake about  4 miles   south of mouth Slave
river.     It was  first  built  in 1815 and  marked  the
most  northerly   operations   of  the  Hudson's Bay Co.
until after the union  of 1821.     After the union,   the
present   fort was  constructed   on  the  site   of  the  firs
fort.     The first North West  Co.   fort   on Slave  lake
was  built   by Cuthbert  Grant  and  Leroux  for peter
Pond in 1786'on  the Slave  river,  left  bank,  a  few
miles   from  its  mouth.     This was   called Slave  Fort.
A short  time after,   it was  moved   to Moose Deer
Island,   a  few  miles  from the mouth  of Slave  river
and   opposite  Fort Resolution.     There   the North Wost
Co.   remained until the  coalition of 1821 when Slav,;
fort was abandoned.     Maps  8,  100,  101 and  25  (part
12).
468    Fort Richelieu
French military fort  in seigniory grante
to Pierre  de  Sorel   (Saurel),   Captain in'carignan
regiment  1642,.constructed at mouth of sorel  river,
guarding approach from the south.     Governor Mont-
magny named  the  river Richelieu at  first and built
the  first  fort   in  1642.    Pierre  de  Sorel built  the
second  fort  in 1665.     The river was  sometimes  called
  Sorel and Chambly because of the forts erected on its
banks.  The first Anglican church in what was called
Canada was established at Sorel in 1785 although
services had been conducted from July 4th 1784.
Map No. 94 Del'Isle 1700.
469 Richmond  Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  erected  1749   on
Factory  Island,  Richmond   Gulf,   east  shore  of Hudson
bay.     In 1756 it was  taken  down and  rebuilt at mouth
of Great Whale  river.     In 1759  it was  closed.     It
was not  included  in the lists   of posts  in 1821 and
1869.     In 1923  it was  re-established and named
Richmond Gulf post,     it  is  shown on Bellin's map
1755  (No.93)  and Rocque's map  1763   (No.96).
470 Fort Rigolette
The first  trading post on lake Melville,
Hamilton Inlet,   Labrador,  was  erected  by  the French
in 1734  on  or near  the  site of the present North
West River post.     In 1785 a  Quebec Fur Trading Co.
established a   post at the   outlet  of lake  Melville
adjacent  to  site  of  present Rigolette.     It was  situated at  the   eastern limit  of  the  grant   to De Cour-     ]
temanche as  extended in 1702  to include  the  coast
from Brest  to Hamilton Inlet.     Trade was principally
with the  Esquimaux.   •
The Hudson's Bay Co.   erected  their fort
at  Rigolette  in 1834-35 and  in 1837  bought  out  their   j
competitors.     The North West Co.  does not appear to
have been   established   on  lake Melville.     Rigolette
was called also Hamilton Inlet and  Esquimaux Bay
Fort.     It  is   in  operation at present.     Shown   on map
No.   24 and  61.
471 Fort Riviero-au-Boeuf
Called sometimes  Fort Le Boeuf.     A
French  fort,   30  leagues   from I.~achault,   the  entrepot
for fort Duquesne.     It was  built  in 17 53 and  is  included   in Bougainville's  list  1757 who names   it also
Fort  Roial.     Was  situated about 10 miles  from the
shore   of lake Erie at  the  head waters   of the Au
Boeuf river,  now called French creek.     It was a King's ;
post  for  trade.     Location shown  on D'Anville's  map
1755   (No.97)  and Bellin's  1755   (No.93).     It was a
square fort   of  quarried  stone and  palisaded.     Surrendered  to British 1761 and captured by pontiac
June 18,   1765.       This was   one of the forts  commanding :
the route  from Presqu'Isle   on lake Erie to the  Ohio
river.
472 Fort Riviere-au-Liard
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on Liard  river near j
the mouth  of Black  river,   60015'N.     It was  built
about  1800 and  was   the first fort  on Liard   river.
Generally named Fort  Liard   on Arrowsmith maps.     It
  has been in continuous  operation to present date.
Tho North West Co.  also maintained a post   in the
locality at  the time  of coalition'1821.     Shown maps
No.   8,   21,   100,   101.
473    Riviere-aux-Morts post
North West Co.   fort at the junction  of
river Aux Morts  and  Red  river,  near the  outlet  of
the  latter in lake Winnipeg.     River aux Morts   is
now called Nettley Creek.     It was built about 1803
and   operated  by the North West Co.   until  the time of
coalition 1821 after which time  it was discontinued.
It was  situated about 9 miles  from the lake.     The
name arose  from a massacre  of Cree  Indians  by Sioux
about 1780.
47 4    Fort Riviere Desert
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort at mouth  of Desert
river,  a  branch of the Gatineau  river,   on the  left
.bank.     It was  probably located   on site  of present
Maniwaki.     It  is  shown on map  of Maniwaki  Reservation
(1867)   on page 322   of  "Indian Treaties and  Surrenders"
vol.   1-2,  also  on Arrowsmith map of 1857   (No.8).
475 Rock Fort
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on Hayes  river
Manitoba below the falls and  rapids, about 30 miles
below  Swampy  lake.     Established before 1812,  at which
time   it was  in charge   of  John McLeod,   chief trader.
It was   included  in  the  1856 list  of posts  but  omitted
from the  186.9  and   later lists.     Shown  on maps No.8,
.140,77,   100 & 101.     Sometimes  called Old Rock House.
476 Rocky Mountain House  (1)
Five trading posts were known as Rocky
Mounta in H ou s e:-
North West Co.  post  on North Saskatchewan
river,   \\   miles  above mouth  of Clearwater  river,   5
miles below pangman's tree   (1790)   on north bank  of
river,   70 yards   from  river's  edge.     It  stood  on high
bank,  well adapted   for defense    as block-houses  commanded  the fort.     Of exceptional strength being in
territory of Blackfeet  Indians.     Hence it was   sometimes  called  "Blackfeet post".    Built by John
McDonald   of Garth  in 1602,  although  the  first  structure was  erected  in  1799.     It was  visited  by  Thompson
in 1800 and 1806 and  by A.  Henry Jr.   1811.     It was
the uppermost  permanent  post  of the North Y/est Co.on
the  Saskatchewan river.     Ruins were  still  visible in
1886.     After union of the  two eoirqanies  it was   occupied  by  the Hudson's Bay Co.   for many years and
finally discontinued  in  1875.
The Hudson's Bay Co.   constructed a fort
near by   (about  114059'W.  & 52og2'N.)   called Acton
House  or Rocky Mt.  House,   both names  being given  on
some  maps.     See Acton Hous*j.  Maps No.   8,36,11,100,
101.
  477 Rocky Mountain House   (2)
Called also Old  Rocky Mt.   Fort.
North West Co.  fort   on Mackenzie river-
about  123020'W.&  62015'N.     Built  by John Thomson,
clerk  in N.W,   Co.,1800,   "in full  view  of Rocky Mts.
at whose  smallness  I was  greatly surprised."     It
was  soon abandoned and  spoken of by Alex. Mackenzie
in 1805 as   Old Rocky Mt.   fort.     Ruins are now
visible  in Camsell Bend  near mouth  of Nahanni  river.
It  is  marked   "Old Fort"   on Arrowsmith map 1832 No.
101.     see also maps No.3,1,100,8.
The   following  forts were also called
Rocky mountain House,  namely:
Jasper House No.   245 , • Euds on' s Hope No.   227,  Acton
House No.-3,  Henry's House No.   218.
478 Romaine
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   trading post  on lower
St.Lawrence at mouth of river Rcmaine  (about 60°30'
H).     Originally   this was  French post  built before
1710.     It stood,  in the territory  granted  to the
Labrador Company of  Quebec  1780.    'This  Company  dissolved  in 1820 and   the Hudson's Bay Co. acquired
the  post.     It was   reported as  a Hudson's Bay Co.
post  in 1831 and  is   still  in  operation.     It is
shown on Bouchette's map 1846 and   on Bayfield's   .
of  1857.     The  post and   river were also called  Oloma
noshibo,   Ouramane,   Grand  Romaine,  and Old  Romaine.
See Musquarro.
479    Fort Rosalie
French fort,   site now   occupied  by present  city of Natchez,   Mississippi.     Stood   on  left
bank   of the  river,  about   150  miles north  of mouth.
It was   built  by Bienville 1716,   of wood  with a
ditch,   on high bluff 200  feet  above  the  river.     The
place was  destroyed and many of the inhabitants
murdered   in 1729   by Natchez  Indians.     Fort was  rebuilt  and  came into  possession  of the  English 1763
by the Treaty  of Paris and   the  name  was   changed  to
Fort Parmure.     It  is   marked"destroyed"   on Bellin's
map 1755 No.   93,  also  on Bowen map  1763 No.   98,  and    j
Rocque's map 1763,  No.   96.     See also palairet  map
1755 No.   119 and  Mitchell map  1775 No.  111.
480    Fort Rouge
French fort at   forks   of Red  and  Assini-    \
boine  rivers,   on south  bank  of Assiniboine  river.
Built   by Verendrye  1734-5.     was   deserted before
1737 as  unnecessary.     St.Pierre wintered  there 1751-
52,   fort  La  Reine having been  burnt.     It was a  small \
log  fort palisaded.     Legardeur  St.Pierre  in 1751
built   his   own  fort  on  the north side  of  the Assini-    \
boine.     Near the  3ite  of Fort Rouge and   the  site  of    I
  La Pierre's fort   other small forts and shelter
houaes were built  by Bruoe and  Boyer in 1780,  and
by Alex.  Henry 1803,  also the   original  fort
Gibraltar 1807.     Fort Rouge is marked  "abandoned"
on Jeffery's map 1762,  also  on Rocque's  1763   (No.
96).     Its location is  shown  on  the south  side  of
the Assiniboine  river  on maps  of Paris  1737,   1740
& 1750,  also   on Bellin's  map 1755   (No.93).     See
Winnipeg Forts.
481 Fort Rouille
French fort on the site of Toronto,
built 1749 by Chevalier de Portneuf by order  of Do
la   Jonquiere, and named after Rouille,  Minister of
Marine, at Paris.     It was built  of oak logs,   to
control  the  fur trade  from the north and  to command
tho portage  from lake Ontario  to Georgian Bay.
It  is included  in Bougainville1s  list 1757  who calls
it  Toronto and  says  that it  was  built   to prevent,
the northern Indians  from trading at  Chouegtten
(Oswego),   "a little  fort of palisadea to aell  eau-
de-vie.   to  Indians for purpose of counterbalancing
the  commerce which they would  have at  Choueguen
(Oswego)".     He also names  it   fort  St.  Victor, a
King's post.
The  fort was  deserted  in 1759 and soon
occupied by  the British.     A settlement was  made
around   the fort and was called  "Muddy York"  in
1793.     The fort  and   settlement were probably abandoned for a few years  after the cession  of Canada
until  the arrival of U. E..- Loyalists from the
United  States  in 1784 who changed the name to York.
It was   incorporated as  Toronto in 1834. Shown
on maps No.  93,  119,   112 and  111.
482 Roy's  House
North West  Co.   establishment  built by
Roy  for  the  Company about  179 7,  at  the mouth  of
Salt  River  (tributary  of  the Red  rivor)   about  8
milos  south  of Henry's Hous'e at  mouth of Park  rivor,
North Dakota.     It was   visited  by Thompson 1798,   but
had   probably  been destroyed  before 1800 when A.
Henry Jr.   passed.
483 Fort Rupert
Hudson's Bay  Coi   fort at north  end  of
Vancouver Island  near present Port Hardy.     Built
1849.     Shown on map No.   8.
Fort Rupert  or Rupert's House
See Fort  St.   Charles.
484 Rush Lake House
Small Hudson's Bay  Co.   post   on Rush
lake,  Quebec,   near  source  of Chibougamou river, a
tributary  of the Waswanipi  river.     This  post was
closed in 1822-23.     Maps No.   24 &  63.
  485 Fort St.  Albert
Huds on's Bay
about  ten miles northwest
was  founded in  1863.     ;?ap
486 Fort  Ste.Anne   (1)
post on lake St.Albert
Edmonton. The Mission
o.   35 & 13.
Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on lake Ste.Anne-,
a  tributary of  Sturgeon river",  about  35 miles west
of Edmonton.     It was   established about  1870.     The
settlement was   made by  old   employees  of  the Hudson's
Bay Co.     Does  not appear on  lists  of forts later
than 1894.     Mips   13  & 35.
Fort Ste.Anne   (2)
See Fort Albany.
Fort Ste.Anne (3)
See Fort Vincennes,
487 St.Augustine post
Old French trading
Lawrence at mouth St.Augustine
of Strait  of Belle  Isle.'    Built
St.Augustine  concession 'was  gra
in 1720 for  life who   operated   i
1750.     It  was   then leased   to va
short  terms.     In 1761  Governor
concession to Morisseaux for 4
Lymburner sold the  posts &c  to
leased  to  the Labrador  Co.   in 1
Hudson's Bay Co.   decided to  bui
lished   there from that date
488 Fort  St.Charles   (1)
post on lower  St.
river,  near west  end
before 1720.     The
ted  to De Lavaltrie
t until his 'death in
rious  persons  for
Murray granted  the
years.     In 1804
Wm.   Grant.     It was
780.     in 1854 the
Id and were es tab-
present.     Map No.67.
The  original  name of Rupert's House,
Hudson's  Bay Co.   fort  at  mouth  of Rupert river.
This  was  the  first fort built  on Hudson  or  James
bays.     Built  by Groseilliers  in 1668,   zachary
Gillam being in  command   of the  ship "Nonsuch".     In
1670  it  was  renamed  Rupert's House.     Was   rebuilt and
strengthened  in 1677.     In 1686  it was   captured by
the French and  destroyed  in part.     The  French then
rebuilt  it and  named  it  fort  St. Jacques.     It was
recaptured by the English   in  1693,   then again by
the  French in 1595 and  by the English in 1696.     In
1697,   by terms  of the  Treaty  of Ryswick,  was  given
to  the  French who held  it until  1713 when it was
finally   resto^d   to the Hudson's Bay Co.  by  tho
Treaty of Utrecht,     On Mitchell's  map 1755   (No.Ill)
and  on D'AnvilIe ' s  1755  (No.97)   It.  is marked
"abandoned"..     Shown  on Rocque's  map 1763   (No.96) ,
on Del'Isle's  1700   (94),  and Bellin's  1744   (No.95).
Rupert's  river was  called  "Nemiscan"  by the French.
  >
489
-  153   -
Fort  St.Charles   (2)
French   fort at west  end   of Lake  of  the
Woods,  at  the Northwest angle,   on a  peninsula  extending  far  into the lake.     Built  by Verendrye  in
1732 and named after Charles  de Beauharnois,   Governor  of Canada,     it was a  strong fort  enclosed  by four
rows   of palisades  12  to 15 feet  high,   built with
four bastions,  and  the  stockade  enclosed a  church,
main buildings,  magazine and  storehouse,  and was
the most  elaborate   of the  French  outposts.    Bougainville 1757  described  it as   "about 60  leagues  from
St.   Pierre and  situated  on a   -peninsula  extending
into Lac Des Bois".     The French had abandoned  it'
before  1763.     It  is  shown   on map  of French forts
1756 and  was  probably  desertea soon after that date,
the garrison being withdrawn.     Supposed  to have been
burned by Indians   during Pontiac's  rebellion 1763.
Ruins   of  the  old  fort  were discovered in 1908.     Some
portion of it  was  still  standing  in 1775 when Alex.
Henry visited  the place.     This   fort was not   occupied
nor rebuilt  by either the North West Co.   or  the
Hudson's Bay Co.   both of whom erected  forts near by
called Fort  Lake  of  the Woods   (q.v.).     Various names
were given to the lake,   e.g.,  Mi.iitie,   Des Bois,
Pikwedina ,   Sagaigan,  Nimigon,   Clearwater,   Woody,
Whitefish,  and  Lac Des   Sioux.     Maps  No.   93  &-96.
490 Fort   St.   Croix
French fort   on St.Croix  river,  40
.    leagues upstream from  its   junction with the  Mississippi   river.     It was   built about  1700 and   commanded
approach to Mississippi  river from the west  end of
lake  Superior.     It is  included   in Bougainville's
list and  shown on Eellin's  map 1755  (No.93)  as
abandoned,  also  on Rocque's  map  1763 No.   96.
491 Fort  St.Frangois   (1)
French fortified post at mouth  of St.
Francis  river, west   end   of lake  St.peter in St.
Lawrenoe river,   on  right  bank.     It  guarded a settlement   of Abenakis  Indians and   is   included   in Bougainville's  list.
492    Fort   St.
angois
(-2)
French  fort   on right  bank  of Mississippi
river near mouth  of  St.Francis   river.     It was  sometimes  called Fort Kappa  from the  Indian village
located  there.     It was  located half way between  the
mouths   of  the  St.Francis  and Arkansas  rivers.     Maps
No.' 93,   96,   119  & 111.
493    Fort  St.  Frangois   (3)
French fort  on left bank  of Red river in
country   of Natchez  Indians,  about  100 miles upstream
from the  junction with Mississippi  river,   established  1714.     Its  site  is now  the  town  of Natchitoches,   Louisiana.     Shown  on Bellin's map  1755   (No.
93)  and Bowen's  map  1763   (No.98)..
  -   154  -
Fort  St.Francois   (4)
See  Fort Arkansas.
Fort  St.Frederick
See  Crown Point.
494    Fort  Ste.Genevieve
French fort  on right  bank  of Mississippi
river just above  confluence  of Kaskaskia  river.
Shown   on maps  No.   10 and  93.     Nearly  opposite Fort
Kaskaskia.
Fort St.Germain
Piscoutagami.
Fort  St.Ignace
See Fort  L'Arbre Croche.
Fort St.Jacques
See Fort  St.Charles   (1).
495    Fort  St.   James
Originally a North West Co.   fort at
east  end  of Stuart  lake,  B.C.,  built  by John
Stuart and Simon Fraser  1806.     At  first was known
as  Stuart  Lake  Fort  or Fort Nakasley and was  called
Fort New  Caledonia by Fraser.     Harmon was   in charge
from 1811  to 1817.    After coalition in 1821,   this
fort  became  the  chief Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  in New
Caledonia.     Has  been   operated  by  the  Company  to
date,   or  123  years   since   established.     Maps No.   8,
100,   101.
Fort  St.Je
See Fort  La Tour.
49 6    Fort  St.   John
Five different  forts were constructed
at  different times near the  present  location and
all were called fort  St.   John.
(1) First  fort was  built   by the North West Co.
on the left  or north bank  of the peace  river a  few
miles   below m'outh  of pine river,   about 121 °W,
twenty miles   below the  present  St.   John and  100
miles above Dunvegan.     Built in  1805.     In the
autumn of 1823   this   fort was  burned by  the  Indians
and  Guy Hughes and four  men were massacred.     Harmon
speaks   of visiting  this   fort   in   1810 and   in 1833
McLean describes  the fort as   in  ruins and   deserted.    {
(2) In 1860  the Hudson's Bay  Co.   constructed a
second  fort  on the south  shore at  the mouth  of North
Pine River.
  (3) In 1873   the  Company  erected a new  log fort
on the north shore opposite.
(4) In  1885  that  fort was abandoned and another
one  constructed across   the  river on the  south shore.
(5)_   In 1925  the  fifth and  present  fort  St.   John
was  built  at the  beginning  of Sikanny Trail.
497 Fort  St.John   (St.Jean)
French  fort  on Richelieu river,   site  of
present  town St.   Johns.     It was  built before 1750,
of palisades with 4 bastions.     It is  included  in
Bougainville's  list 1757.     It was  surrendered  to the
Americans Novr.   2,   17 75 after a spirited  resistance
of two months by Major Preston and after the fall
of Chambly.
498 Fort   St.Joseph   (1)
North West Co.  fort  on end of peninsula
southern extremity of St.Joseph island at  outlet  of
Sault  Ste. Marie,   shown on Standard  Sheet No.7 as
old  fort  St.Joseph.     Built  by British troops about
1765.     In 1792 the North West Co.  built an establishment  for  constructing canoes  for the  interior.
It was  visited  by Harmon in 1800.    A settlement was
made near the fort  in 1790.     The  fort stood  on a
rise   of ground   joined  to  the   island   by a narrow
neck.
499 Fort St.Joseph  (2)
Small French fort  on east shore of lake
Michigan at  mouth  of  St.Joseph river,  a  subsidiary
fort   to the main fort  St.Joseph about 50 miles up
the  St.Joseph river.     It was  occupied by  the British
1761 after the cession  of Canada.
500 Fort  St.Joseph   (3)
French  fort   on left  bank  Illinois  river
opposite  fort Miami.     It is  shown on carver's map
1778 No.   19,  and   on No.10.
501 Fort  St.Joseph   (4)
French fort  on right  bank of St.Joseph
river about  20  leagues  from  its mouth in lake
Michigan.     At  present  the  town  of South Bend,  Indiana.'     This was   the main fort in that^locality and
commanded  the  portage   route to  the Kankakee  river,
a  tributary  of the   Illinois  river and   from lake
Erie  by the Miamis  river  to  St.   Joseph river and  the
Mississippi.     It  is  named  in Bougainville's  list 1757
as  in  charge  of M.   Le Verrier and as a King's post.
After being  occupied   by the British  on the  cession
of  Canada   it was   captured  by pontiac   (1763)   and   the
garrison killed.     It was  one  of the   earliest  forts
in the west and was visited  by La  Salle in 1679.     See
maps  No.   97,   111,   119 and   96.     For  the portages see
map 97.
  502 Fort  St.   Joseph   (5)
French fort   on north  shore of  St.Joseph's
bay near mouth of Apalachicola  river,   Florida,   built
in 1719.     it  is  shown on Bellin's map 1755 No.   93
and   on Bowen's map  1763 No.97.
Fort  St.Joseph   (6)
See  fort Nashwaak.
Fort St.Joseph   (7)
See fort Detroit.
503 Fort St.   Louis   (1)
French fort   on  the  Illinois  river near
present   town Utica,   Illinois.     It was  built  in 1684.
Shown Bellin's  map  1755  (No.03). and   on D'Anville's
1755   (No.97)   narked  "ancien".
504 Fort  St.   Louis   (2)
North West Co. fort on Saskatchewan
river a few miles above Fort a la Corne, near pine
Creek. S. Henry Jr. in 1808 going upstream passed
Nepoin, then A la Corne (St.Louis), then this N.W.
Co. fort St.Louis, of which he says, "passed old
establishment of our own, which has been abandoned
since 1805, and called St.Louis from its proximity
to   the   old French fort below".
Fort  St.Louis   (3)
See fort a la Corne
Fort St.   Louis   (4)
See  fort  Crevecoeur.
Fort St.Louis   (5) $'W$'
See  fort Mobile.
Fort St.Louis   (6)
See  fort Moose.
St.Louis  River po'3t
See fort Fond-du-Lac   (2).    .
French seal  fishing post  on strait   of
Isle.     Shown map No.   24.     In 1735  it was  grant-
...   __ Boucault  & Foucault  by Beauharnois and
Hooquart.     In 1740  granted  by Hooquart  to Constantin.
In 1748 Constantin operated  the post for seal hunting.
In 1751  Constantin died and St.Modet was  granted  to
  Breard  for 9 years  by Jonquiere and Bigot.     In 1753
it was  granted  by  the King  to  Hoc quart.     In 1756
Bigot granted it  to Tache.     in 1763  Governor Murray
granted it to Tache  for 3 years.     In 1838 A.   Talbot
purchased the post   from J.  Dumaresque and  operated
it  for at least 10 years.     It  is included  in Bougainville's list  of 1757.
506 Fort  St.Nicholas
French fort  on the east bank  of
Mississippi   river near  or at  the mouth of the Wisconsin river..   It was  destroyed before 1762.     It is
marked  "destroyed"  on Jeffery's map 1762,  but is
shown as  in condition on Bellin's map 1755  (No.93)
and  on D'Anville 1755  (No.97)   it is named "ancien
fort de Franqois de S.  Nicolas", and No.96.
507 St.Paul House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post on North Saskatchewan river about   50 miles above fort Pitt, 111050'W.
Established about  1870.     Shown on mapa No.13,and  37.
508 St.Paul p08t
Old French trading post near mouth  of
Eskimo  river,called also Eskimo River post.   Built by
Courtemanche   (Legardeur de)   before 1701, within his
concession from Kegaska  river to Hamilton  river, and
is  shown  on Courtemanche's  chart  1704 as located  on
the first bay west  of Eskimo river,  Labrador.     In
1706 Vaudreuil'. and Raudot grante'd St.paul seigniory
to  Godefroy  de St.Paul,  who with his  descendants held
the seigniory till 17 81 when the rights seem to have
lapsed.     In 1781 the  Sieur St.paul  sold all his
rights and claims to N.  &. P. Lloyd who maintained
the post until 1805.     It was then sold to William
Grant and  in 1808 to Lymburner and   others.     In 1828
the  Labrador Co.   sold a  part  to Louis Chevalier, who
operated a  salmon  fishery, and  his  descendant L.D.
Chevalier operated  the post  in 1891.     Shown on map
No.   24.
5°9    Fort  St.Philip
French  fort  on Mississippi river,   50
miles above fort Chartres.     It was destroyed before
1775.   Shown on map No.97.
510    Fort St.Pierre
French fort  on Rainy lake first built by
La NouS  in 1717.     In that year La Noue was sent by
Vaudreuil to  establish posts at Kaministiquia   (where
a  fort had  been     erected  by Dulhut many years  before);
then  to  go  on  to Rainy lake   (called Takamamiononis)
to  establish a second post;     then to acquire information  for establishment  of a third post at  the
lake  of the Assinipoels.    Little is known of his  ex-
  pedition.     In 1731   La  Jemeraye constructed fort  St.
Pierre  for Verendrye at  the  outlet   of Rainy lake.
Its site was about 2  miles  east   of the  present  fort
Frances and half a mile down  the  river from the lake.
This  old  French fort was  destroyed before  1763 and
is marked   "destroyed"   on D'Anville's map  of 1756.   It
is  shown  on Bellin's map of 1755   (No.&3)  and   on Roc-
que's map 1763   (No.^6).     The North West Co.  built a
fort on the  site   of the  old French fort  and   called
it  fort  Rainy Lake  or  fort  Lac  la pluie.     This   fort
surrendered to Capt.  D'Orsonnens  for  Lord  Selkirk
Oct.3,   1816.    The Hudson's Bay Co.  also   operated at
that  time a   fort near the  present Fort Frances built
in 1790 and called Rainy Lake   fort.     In 1820  the
Hudson's Bay Co.   erected the present  Fort Frances
near the site  of the  old Freneh fort   (called
Takamamionenxnin 1717)  and named it Fort Frances
after Sir George  Simpson's wife.     This  post was
operated  by the  Company until  about  1900 and  the
name has continued  in the settlement and   the Indian
reservation.     Bougainville 1757  describing posts, in
La Mer d'Ouest  says  "St.Pierre  is situated  on left
shore   of  lake  Takamamionen   or Lac  la pluie,   300
leagues   from Michilimackinak  and   (100)   frcm
Kamanistigoyia  or Trois  Rivieres at  the northwest
end of lake Superior."
511 Fort   St.   Regis
French  fort   on  the right  bank   of St.
Lawrence river on the  international  boundary  line
45°N.     In the list  of Bougainville 1757 it is
mentioned as   "a new mission  of Jesuits for  the
Iroquois".     St.  Regis  was  defended by de  Salaberry
in  the war of  1812 and   temporarily  captured  by the
Americans.
512 Fort Ste.Rose
French fort   on Ste.Rose  island,  not far
east   of pensacola,   Florida.     Shown on  maps No.   93,
96, 98 and  119.
513 Fort Ste. -Therese  (1)
French fort   on  the  Sorel   (Richelieu)
river about  6  or  7 miles above  fort Chambly on  the
right baafe.     Built in  1665  by M.  de  Salieres.     It
was abandoned  before  1757.     Shown on maps No.  18 &
97. Called also  Ste.   Teresa.
Fort Ste.Therese   (2)
See fort  Severn.
Fort  St.  Xavier
See f.ort Baie-des Puans .
Fort  Sakiadac
See  fort Baie-des-Puans.
  514 Saleesh House
North West  Co.   post within  the basin    of
the Columbia   river.     Built   in Nov.   1809 by David
Thompson,   near mouth  of  present Ashley creek,   in
Montana,  about  1 mile southwest   of present  town
Woodlin  on Nor.  pac.  R'y.  and near the  town Thompson.
Shown   on map No.   5.
515 Fort Salmon River
Small Hudson's Bay Co.   post at   the head
of Burke  Channel B.C.,   probably  on  the site  of
Bellakula.     It was named Salmon River on  the Arrow-
smith map 1857   (No.8)  and  on No.   21.
516 Salt River House
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post  on Slave  river
near Fort  Smith,  above  the  rapids.     It was   later
called Fort  Fitzgerald  and   became a station  of the
R.N.W.M.P.     Shown on map No.3.
517 Fort Sandusky
French fort,  built  about 1750, at  the
head  of Sandusky bay,   lake Erie,  at  outlet  of
Sandusky river on left bank, a  few miles west of
the  present   city  of  Sandusky,  Ohio.     It was  surrendered  to British forces  at cession   of  Canada and
garrisoned.    On May 16,   1763,   the fort was captured
by Pontiac and  the garrison murdered.     It  commanded
the  route  from lake Erie  by  the  Sandusky and
Scioto rivers   to the  Ohio river.     Shown  on maps No.
93,   96,   111,   112.     Mitchell's  nap of 1775 shows   the
fort as  garrisoned.
518 Sandy Banks House
Small Hudson's Bay Co.  post   on Hamilton
river,   Labrador,   on left bank, about  40  miles above
North West River House.     It was  built    before 1844;
Closed about  1880;     the  site of  the  clearing seen
by Low  1895;     reopened  about 1895 and  still in
operation.     Maps No.   24 & 61.
519 Sandy  Lake  House   (1)
A small  post  of the North West  Co.   in
Winnipeg river  on sand   lako   (near Kenora).     It was
on the  canoe   route  from Lake  of the Woods   to Fort
Alexander on Winnipeg lake.     It was named  in the
1.820  list  of posts  and  was taken over by  the Hudson's
Bay  Co.  after tho  coalition 1821 and  called  Sandy
Point House.     It appears   on  tho  Company lists  to
1872 and was  probably closed  about  1880.
520 Sandy Lake House   (2)
North West Co.  post  on Sand  Lake  near
  Red Cedar lake,   Fond-du-Lac  district,   lake Superior,
Minnesota.     The route of the North West Co.  from
lake  Superior  to  the Red  river and   the west   (in
addition to the  regular trade  route from Fort
William  to  Rainy lake,   Lake of the Woods,   lake
Winnipeg &c)   was   from Fond-du-Lac,   by  the  St.Louis
river,   Sand lake,   Red Cedar and Red  lakes,   to  the
Red  river,   and  thence north.     This   route was   explored  by David  Thompson 179 8.     Sandy  Lake House
with  other posts  on American territory was  surrendered  to  the U.S.   1796.
521 Fort  Sault  St.Louis
An old  French  fort,  strongly built and
palisaded,   on south  shore   of lake St.Louis,   St.
Lawrence  river,  above  the  Lachine  rapids,   now
Caughnawaga.     It was  included in Bougainville's list
1757 and  contained a  Jesuit  mission for   the  Iroquois'
where 350 Indians were settled having lands,  cattle
&c.     Trade was  carried   on for the benefit   of the
Jesuits.
522 Fort  Sault   Ste.   Marie
At  the  falls   or rapids   of Ste.Marie..
First  built  as  a Jesuit mission by pere M&rquette
1668.     Owing   to  war with  the   Iroquois   the  fortified
mission was  abandoned  in 1689.     A    French fort was
soon after built on the north side   of  the  rapids.
In 1750,   Jonquiere,   the  Governor,   granted  to Chevalier  de Repentigny six  leagues  for  erection of a
fort.     This  was   on the  south shore and  was  called
Fort  Sauvage   (see map No.10)  and was also known as .
fort  Sault   Ste.Marie.     It was  located at  the Mission  of  Ste.Marie,   just west   of St.   George's  island.
The  palisade surrounding the  fort   extended  110  feet
each way and  enclosed  several  houses and a  redoubt.
It  is  included  in Bougainville's  list  of 1757.     The
American  fort  Brady   was afterwards/constructed   on the-
site   of  this  French fort and  mission,   see map No.15-
Thia  fort  was  surrendered  to the British 1760-1.     It
was   visited  by A.   Henry  in 1762,  was  captured and
partly burned by Pontiac  in 1763.     The garrison had -
been withdrawn  to Miohilimackinac before pontiac's
attack,  and   on Mitchell's map  of 1755   (No.Ill)   this
fort  and mission are marked  "abandoned:1    After the
war  of  American  independence,  this   fort together
with  the  peninsula   of Michigan was   held  by  the
British forces  until 1796.     The second French fort
on the north  shore was  reconstructed   some  time after
the American  revolution and   became the base  for
operations   of the North West  Co. and   later  the
Hudson's  Bay  Co.     Bellin's  map 17<±4  (No.15)   shows
the  location-of the mission  on the  south  shore.
Arrowsmith maps  No.   101 and  100 show a  Hudson's Bay
Co.   fort   on  the north  shore,     sault Ste.   li&rie under,
the French became  the centre of  the  fur  trade  in
that  region and  was  the  central  mart   for the whole
north-west.     It was   regarded  by  the  Ottawas as  their
preserve  in 1650.     The North West  Co,  was- early
  established  here.     In 1792 they were said  to have
several houses and  stores.     They built a  road
around  the portage and   in 1797-98 constructed  the
first  Sault  canal  on the Canadian shore,  haIf-a-
mile long with one lock 38 ft.   lone,   8 ft.9  ins.
wide,  with a  lift of 9  feet  for  the  passage  of
freight  canoes.     They had also a  good wharf and §
storehouse as  described  by Harmon."    A tow path
along the  shore  enabled   oxen to  track  the canoes
ana  bateaux through the upper part  of the rapids.
This lock was destroyed  in  July 1813-.by American
troops   from Mackinac  Island,  and   the  fort and
establishment  pillaged and  burned.     After union
of the two companies  in 1821,  trade  of Sault ste.
Marie  began  to  decline aa  the Hudson's Bay Co.  used
the Albany route to York Factory.    McLean speaks
of Sault  Ste.  ?,B.rie as a  large depot  in'1833 and
the Hudson's Bay Co.  fort  is shown on Arrowsmith
map 1857   (No.8).    Abo"t  1850 a tramway  operated
by horses was  built at  the   old portage succeeding
the  single horse and  cart used before.     Map of
Upper Canada 1800   (No.121)   shows  two  forts  on the
south  side  of the strait at  east  end   of rapids
opposite  the  "New portage",  which was  constructed
when  the British  forces  retired   to  Canadian side
of strait   in 1796.     Presumably one  of these forts
was  constructed by the Americans after retirement
of the British  forces.
Fort  Sauvage
See fort Sault Ste.  Marie.
523 Fort  Schlosser
French fort  on American side  of Niagara
river just  above  the Falls  and   opposite Navy
Island.     At  the  cession  of Canada  1761  this  fort
with  others was   surrendered  to British forces.
After  the American revolution it was garrisoned
by American  troops.     Location about  12 miles  south
of  old   fort Niagara at  the present  city Niagara
Falls.     In December 1813 this.fort was captured
and  destroyed  by the  British  troops.     On D'Anvil-
le's  map 1755   (No.67)   this  fort  is   shown as  "An-
cienne Maison",  and   on Mitchell's map 1755   (Nolll)
It  is  called   "Storehouse".     On Bowen's map 1763
(No.98)   it  is  called  "French Storehouse" and  on
Palairet's  map 1755   (No.119).
524 Fort Selkirk
Hudson's  Bay Co.   fort  built  by Robert
Campbell  in summer of  1848  on the Pelly   (Yukon)
river at mouth  of Lewes   river about 300 miles
from fort Halkett.   It was  first  built  on a  point
of land  between the   two  rivers,  but  on account   of
flooding due  to   ice  jams  in the spring  of 18'§2  it
was  moved  across  the  river and  a  short  distance
below mouth  of Lewes  river where its  ruins are now
  visibla.     Indians  from Chilkat and  Chilkoot Inlets
S?£^?amp5e-J1 Sen al0n^ and  &1**«? an? burnt
the fort August 1,  1852.     Shown  on maps No.  122 and  8
Fort  Selkirk   (2)
vannipeg Forts
525     Sept   Isle
Fortified post in the King's Domain  on
iiaie Sept Isles lower St.Lawrence river.     It was  the
easternmost  of the King's  posts,  and   one of the
earliest.     Probably built  in 1650.     It was  lease to
Demaure m 1658;     to Compagnie  des  Postes du Roi  1700.
In the  Ordinance  of 1720   (Traite de Tadoussac)   it  is
mentioned as a King's post.     Was  included  in-Bougainville'3 list  1757.     In 1764 it was   operated by Dunn,
Gray,  & Murray.     In  1768  it was  leased   to  James
McKenzie  for  the North West  Co.     In 1821 the Hudson's
Bay Co.   took   over this  post and   operated  it  until
1859 when  it  was  closed and again  reopened about
1870 and   operated   to date.     It  is  shown  on  the
various  Company maps and   on Bouchette's map 1846.
526 Setting Lake Post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post   established  1922
on Hudson's Bay R'y.   137  miles north   of The pas.
Present  house built  1925 after  former was  destroyed
by  fire.
527 F*rt  Severn
Hudson's Bay  Co.  fort at mouth  of Severn
river.     In 1680  the Company  ordered  the building  of
a  factory at New  Severn river.    The  fort was  completed   in 1685  of logs with 4 bastions at  mouth  of
Severn  river  on left  bank.     This  fort was  burnt by
the  English 1689  to prevent   its  capture by the French.
In 1691  the French constructed a  new  fort,  called
Ste.Therese  or Neuve  Savanne,   on the  right  bank near
mouth  of river  (map of Del'Isle  1703   (No.18).    This
was  captured  by  the English 1693.     In the  following
year 1694 it was  again captured by the French and
rebuilt by  them in 1701-2  on south--sidre~:%Outh of
river.     The  fort was   finally  restored  to the Hudson's
Bay  Co.   by  the  Treaty of Utrecht  1713.     After 1714  the
fort was   for a   timo abandoned by the  Company,   but  in
1759   the present  fort was  rebuilt  on the north bank
and has  boon operated  continuously  to date.     (Maps
Nos.   1,   3,   4,   8,   18,   96,   94 and 140.,
528    Severn  Lake House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at  outlet,  northeast  end,   of lake Severn near source  of Severn river.
Sometimes  called Big Lake.     It was  established  in
1795 and   operated until about  1870.     Shown on Hind's
map 1858 and   on the  Company map 1857   (No.8) and   on
  Nos.   100,   101,   68 & 140.
529 Shamattawa  River Post
II2§W« Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on  right  bank  of
Shamattawa  river,   tributary  of Hayes  river,   about
140mofl9130ni m°Uth  °f  river*     Sh0vm  on maPs ®°-
Shaw House
See  fort Lac d'Orignal.
Fort Sheffield
See Baie Chateau.
530 Shell River Fort
North West Co. fort at the mouth of
Shell river, junction with the Assiniboine river',
Manitoba,  Built by peter Grant 1794.
531 Fort Shepherd
Hudson's Bay Co.  post on right bank of
Columbia  river,   just north  of 49th parallel,  at
mouth of Clark Fork.    Established  1811.     Shown on
maps No.  21 & 16 and on Hind's map.
532 Shingle point  Post
Post  of Hudson's Bay  Co.   on Mackenzie
Bay recently established.
533 Shoal  Lake House
Hudson's Bay  Co.  post  on Shoal  lake,  a
tributary   of    Lake of the Woods.     Shown  on Arrow-
smith  map  1857   (No.8)   and included  in list of posts
with Deed  of Surrender 1869  and named  on 1872 list.
Closed  probably about  1880.
Shoal River House
See pSwan Lake House.
Sieur rs Fort
See fort Bas  de la Riviere.
Fort  Simeoe
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on left bank  of
Yakima  river,  state  of Washington, about  the location
of present  town Yakima.     It was  built later than 1821.
Shown  on map No.   6.
Fort Simpson  (1)
Hudson's
ay Co.   fort  on an island  at
  i-ij0?3   °fvLiard and Mckenzie  rivers.     I
Hi tJ^J07 the North We^  Co.    about  18
18llSil«°P*^5_*l?e.F0?8r     After the unior
1 101.
changed  to fort  Simpson.     Map3  8,  100
536 Fort Simpson   (2)
Hudson's Bay  Co.   fort near mouth  of Naas
river,  B.C.,   built 1831-32.     In 1834 it was moved   to
Tsimean peninsula.    A new  fort was  built  in 1860.
It was  closed  in 1913 and burned  in 1914,     mva
82 and   100. *
537 Sipiwesk Lake House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post built by Thompson
m 1792   on west  side  of  Sipiwesk  lake,  a  tributary
of the Nelson river,   on a rocky point.     The site is
now    covered  with a  grove  of poplars.     It was 30
miles  from Chatham House  on Wintering lake.     Called
by Thompson Seepaywisk  House,     lake shown on map 42.
Fort  Siveright
See George River Fort.
Fort Slave
See Fort Resolution.
Fort Slude River
See Fort East Main.
Smallpox Plague
carried by Indians
1640
1670
1758
1775
1763
1636    broke  out at Quebec and
to  the west.
it was  among the Huron missions and  Indians
blamed  Jesuits  for  the plague.
it depopulated all  the northern  Indians  of
Canada   (i.e.   Ontario & Quebec),  and almost
depopulated  Tadoussac.
at  fort William Henry decimating  Indians.
at  the  seige   of Quebec and at Halifax.
throughout   Indian settlements around  Great
Lakes  Ohio and Mississippi valleys  spreading
into  the West.     A potent  factor  in ending
pontiac's  rebellion.
1778    on  the Assiniboine river and thence through
the West,   breaks up  Indian war and   lasts till
1783.
1780-1783  spread  all   over the West   into  far north.
Lake  of Woods   region depopulated.     Red   river &
Winnipeg region severely affected.     Hearne
reported  that  it   destroyed nine-tenths  of
Chipewyans and  other northern Indians.    David
Thompson describes   the- plague  on Saskatchewan
  "I
riZ+rBi    i:       Cau£ht  in 1780 by Sioux who took
m       ?Vf -masaao^d whites  -  extended across Rooky
Mts.  &  far into north.     For more   than one-half
I!f^  died-     Thei^ aead bodies eaten by wolves and
dogs who mostly died or lost their fur."    Completelv
ended fur  trade  for 2   or 3  years. Scourges north
?oC„he Saskatchewan river in 1816,   1817,  1818    1856
1857    1858,   1863,   1870-1873. Hind   fvol.lJp.   90*
& vol.   2 p.164)   describes   ossuaries   of dead  Indiana
killed by small-pox.
538 Fort Smith
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on Slave  river below
the rapids at 60° parallel.     Erected 1870.
539 Somerset House
North West Co.   post on Swan  river,  about
50 miles  upstream from Swan  lake,  Manitoba.    Built
in 1800 by Harmon for  the Company.     It was sometimes
called Elbow fort and  Montagne Oiseau,   or Bird
Mountain  fort,     tops  2 and  4.     See Swan ILake House.
Fort  Sorel
See fort Richelieu.
540 Fort  Souris   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort   on  the  Souris  river
near  its  confluence with the Assiniboine,  M&nitoba.
This was  the  first   of  the H.B.Co.   forts  erected  in
that region.     Built in 1793  for  trade with the
Mandan  Indians.     Brandon House was  built in  1794
nearby and this  forced  the North West Co.  to abandon
Pine  Fort   (on  the north bank  of Assiniboine  river).
Map No.3.
541 Fort  Souris   (2)
X.Y.Co.   fort near mouth  of Souris  river,
built about 1800 within gunshot   of H.B.Co.  fort
Brandon  on Assiniboine  river.     It  became a North
West Co.   fort after fusion  of the two companies  in
1804.     Souris   or Mouse  river was  called  St.  Pierre
river by Verendrye,
Fort Souris   (5)
See Assiniboine House No.26 N.W.Co.
South Branch House   (1)
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   fort   on south Branch  of
Saskatchewan  river about  65 miles above the forks.
Built before 1790.     On June  24,   1794,   it was plunder
ed and  burned   by the  Falls   Indians who had plunderei
Manchester House the  previous autumn.     Occupants
were all murdered   except   one, man who  escaped.
Thompson had visited  the  fort  in October 1793.     The
  ?nlLla8-+6lDUill  in 1805 atout six railes above the
106     8,  i5o*& ?SlS8  Vi8ited the P°8t   in 1806-     M*J»
543 South Branch House   (2)
+i,    tt a        ,  North West  Co.   fort about 1000 yards  from
?5qt       mS1.   8 Bay Co'  fort  of same narae-    Built about
T»oJ'  J.    s was attackeci- hy the Falls  Indians June,
1794 alter they had destroyed  the H.B.Co.  fort,  but
they were   repulsed.     The N.W.  Co.   fort was  soon
after abandoned,    in 1805  the Company rebuilt about
6  miles  farther upstream,  within a  few hundred  paces
of the new H.B.Co.   fort,  after abandoning their   (N.W.
Co.)   Chesterfield House which was at  the forks  of
Red Deer & Bow   rivers.     Harmon vi3ited this  fort  in
1805.     After union  of the  two Companies in 1821 the
Hudson's Bay Co.  took  over this  fort and  operated  it
until  about 1870.     Map No-.   8.
South Reindeer Lake House
See fort Caribou.
544 South River House   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co.  post near confluence  of
Kaniapiskau and  Swampy Bay rivers,   Labrador,  about
120  miles above Fort  Chimo.     It was  built before 1832
and appears  on the  lists  of 1857,'69 and   '72.     It
was   probably closed about  1880.     In  1915 fort M0-
Kenzie was  built  on  the site of South River House
and  is  in  operation to date.
South River House   (2)
See fort Mamattawa.
545 Split Lake House
Old  Hudson's Bay Co.   post established
on  Split  Lake,  Nelson river,   Manitoba,  between 1740
and  1760,  antedating Cumberland  House by about 30-
years.     It was   one  of the   earliest  posts  off the Bay,
about   140 miles  from Fort Nelson.     It is  included  in
the  1856 list and  shown on maps  No.   8,   12,16,86,100
and  101.     For some years  this post  seems   to have
been  closed and the  present  Split Lake House was
established in 1886  at  the north  end   of the lake.
Supplies  for this post were at first brought frorn
Norway House down  the Nelson river by York boat
this  method was abandoned in 1916 and supplies ar
now brought  by railway  from The pas  to Landing Rr
(mile  279)   and  thenoe by canoes  26 miles to the p
546 Fort  Spokane
but
North West Co. fort at Spokane Falls,
iver, 1 mile above mouth of
east bank of Spokan
Little Spokane river and about 10 miles northwe
present city Spokane, Washington.  It was built
  i^°^?ii'«^v  \he PrinciFal distributing and wintering point  of the North West Co.   for the Upper
t?™^' ^otenay ^ Flathead trade and was continued  by the Hudson's  Bay Co.  after 1821 to 1826
(vJl+n was atandoned  for a new   fort at Kettle Falls
(Fort Colville)   built under orders   of Governor
Simjson.     in 1812  the Pacific Fur Co.  built a  rival
house but   this was  purchased with    Astoria  in
October 1813.     Map No.   3.
Fort Stager
Site  of this  fort  is shown on map No.  35
of 1898   on left  bank   of Kispyox river at  the confluence  of  Skeena river  just north  of Hazelton,B.C.
Stanley House
548    Fort  Stikine
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on peninsula  in
Stikine   Straits,  B.C.,  4 miles  distant from mouth of
Stikine river.     Originally  established by Russian
American Fur Co.  and  transferred to H.B,Co,  about
1841 on a  10 years lease.     Arrowsmith map 1857 No.8
shows  the  settlement  Stikine but not marked as  a  fort.
Stone Fort
See  Lower Fort Garry.
Stone Indian River House
See Assiniboine House No.  26.
Fort  Stuart  Lake
See fort  St,   James.
549 Fort  Sturgeon
North West Co.   fort  on North Saskatchewan
river at mouth  of  Shell river,  west  of Prince Albert,
Saskatchewan.     Said  to  have been built by Peter Grant
1794.     It was  unoccupied in 1808 when A.  Henry Jr..
passed who records  that   "remains   of several  old   establishments appeared."
550 Sturgeon Lake Fort   (1)
North West Co.   post  on Sturgeon lake
about  70 miles west  of lake Nipigon,   Ontario.    Built
before 1805.     It was  situated near the  east  end   of
Sturgeon lake.     It was   probably  operated by  the
Hudson's Bay Co.  after coalition of 1821.    Maps No.5
& 79.
Sturgeon Lake Fort   (2)
See Cumberland House.
  661    Sturgeon River Howsa
c^wJU     •  Nor*h West Co.   post near the mouth of
belowg the1";^   flake NiPissin*>   a^t  four miles
wa. 121!+  x1^^   °f stur*e™ ?alla,  Ontario,     it
Tn!^erat°« $r  ^e Hudson's Bay Co    after the
coaltion of 1821 and  finally abandoned about  1890.
t-?aI,P0st °arried on an active trade with the
Indians   of lake Temiscamingue  district until the
O.P..R y. was   opened.     Map No. 125.
Surrenders
„.*«.       ii         Forts  surrendered to the British at and
after the conquest  of Canada 1960-17517^	
Detroit.
Miami  on the Mauraee.
Ouatanon  on  the Wabash.
Schlosser on Niagara  river.
Presqu'Isle,  south shore   of  lake Erie.
Le Boeuf,   south of Presqu'Isle.
Venango,  south of Presqu'Isle.
Duquesne  (named  Fort  Pitt).
Sault  Ste.Marie.
Machilimackinac.
L'Arbre Croche,   east  shore   of lake  Michigan.
St.Joseph   , ". " " "
Chartres,   the last   surrendered 1765.
A number   of  the  smaller  forts and  posts
were destroyed by the French on retiring.
552    Swampy Lake House
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post   on Swampy lake
Manitoba ,  a widening  of the  Hayes river,  shown  on
maps  No.   8 and   100.     It was  included  in 1856 list.
Closed probably  before 1859-70.     Map No.  140 shows
location  of  the lake.
,
553    Swan Lake  House
The  first  fort  on Swan lake   (Manitoba)
was  built  by  the Hudson's Bay Co.   in 1790.     It was
located about  4-J miles up the  Swan river from its
outlet  in the lake.     This  fort  was not  long maintained by  the  Company as they moved  about 1808  to
the  outlet  of Swan lake and  operated  there until
about  1895.     This   fort   is   shown  on map No.37.     It
was   sometimes   called "Shoal River House"  being at
source of the shoal  river.-    The North West Co.  at
first  located   in the  abandoned Hudson's Bay  Co.fortor
in  the immediate neighbourhood  and  later moved 12
miles   up the  Swan river.     On coalition in  1821   the
H.B.Co.   took  over the N.W.   Co.   house and   called   it
Swan  Lake  House.     See maps  No.  45,  57,   8,13,16,2,
86  7  9,9,101,   141.     In 1800 Harmon built  a  fort  50
miles  farther up the  Swan  river and  called   it
Somerset  House   (Map No.2) .     It was also known as
Elbow Fort.     Prior  to 1806  the  Swan and Red Deer
  Co    w?th%LmainT°hannels  of trade   of North West
tended aiSrS  India£s and  a g°od  cart trail  extended along   the north bank of the river.    The X.
i.  oo.  also had a   Post 12 miles up the swan river.
554     Sylvester's  Lower Post
n-p t-q   a     ■   A Hudson's Bay  Co.  post  on left bank
ot Liard  river above  the mouth  of Dease river
o.i>.,   built about  1890  to take  the place  of Toad
River post,     it was called also Dease Post,     see
Fort Halkett.     Maps No.90,  55 and 91.
555    Fort Taco   (Taku)
Passage,
in 1842.
556     Tadoussac
; Bay  Co.  fort near Stephen's
a landlocked harbour.     Built
At mouth  of  Saguenay river.     The  oldest
fur-trading post in Canada and   one  of the  oldest
settlements  in North America,     it was  first  visited
by  Jacques  Cartier in 1555 and  from that  date  the
port   of St.Malo kept up a   constant   trade with
Tadou3sae,   several   of Cartier Ts   relatives being
among -the  chief traders.     At  first  the  fisheries
were   the chief product,  but   the fur trade  soon
developed and  Tadoussac  became  the chief mart  for
furs  from northern and western regions.     Basque,
Norrean, and Breton mariners  frequented   the harbour
in  their whaling voyages.     The first   trading post
was   established in  1599  by pontgrave and  Chauvin.
Chanplain visited   the  post   in 1602.     The first
mission of the Recollet Father Dolbeau was   established in 1615.     The  post  was  seized  by Sir David
Kirke in 1628.     In 1661   the garrison was massacred
by  Indians.     The  Jesuits had charge  of the mission
from 1641   to  1782 when  they were   suppressed.     Charlevoix  relates  that in  1670  there were rarely  less
than 1200 Indians  to  be seen encamped at Tadoussac,
the   entrepot  of  the  fur trade at  that period,   but
in that year the  small-pox  scourge put an end   to
the   trade   by almost  annihilating  the  Indians.
Tadoussac was   one of  the  first posts known as
King's  Posts   in the King's Domain.    After the
cession of Canada,  Dunn,   Gray & Murray   obtained  the
lease in 1764 and   the North West eCo.   in 1788,   the
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   in 1821, who  did not   operate   the
post after  1859.     Mckenzie,  who  visited   the  post   in
1808  for  the North West  Co.  stated  that  "it was
headquarters   of  the King's  posts.     The chapel  in
1808 had  stood   for  110 years   (1698-1808).     In 1775
the  field pieces at  the post   saved  it  from American
privateers".     The  present  chapel was  built  in 1747
upon the  remains  of the first  chapel.
Temagami  Post
Called also Temagamingue  "Deep Waters"
The  Hudson's   Bay  Co.   established a small post in
  182'
Temaft!
ruins
the p
locat;
Alexa:
Frencl
river
Iroqu
166*
from
on  la,
first
on shore  of a small  cove at  south end  of
•"mi  island,  near  the centre  of the  lake,
of which post are still   visible.     In 1875
at was moved  to Bear  Island,   its  present
on,   on account   of opposition fur trading by
.der Dukes.     Lake Temagami was  visited   ty  the
from fort Tirniecaming via the Metabechouan
as shown by pictography on cliffs also by th
ois   Indians who  raided  the  entire region in
The North West  Co.   operated  six  outposts
fort  Timiscaming and   possibly  they had a post
'emagami.     Map No.46  shows  location  of
ti     Ontario.
658    Fort Temiskamay
Hudson's  Bay Co.  post   on lake Temis-
kamay near  east  end   of lake Mistassini   emptying
into  lake Little  Mistassini   (lake Albanel) .     It
was built about 1825 and was an outpost  of Mistassini  House.     The post   is   given  in lists   of  1856,
1857,1869 and  1872 and  was  closed about  1890.     Hap
No.8 shows   "Timmiskummay".     A.   P.   Low  in 1884  found
remains   of the   old abandoned post  consisting  of
squape spruce logs.
Fort  Terre Blanche
See White Earth.
Thorburn's House
Fort  Esperanee
Fort  Thompson
See  fort Kamloops.
559     Fort  Ticonderoga
Originally  built  by French  in  1755
at south end lake Champlain on  outlet  of lake
George',  and   called   by  them fort  Carillon after the
chiming sound   of the waters..    It was     so named   in
Bougainville's list 1757.     This  fort was  defended
by Montcalm July 5,   1758,  against  Abercrombie.     It
was   captured   by Amherst  July  26,   1759  after being
deserted and blown up by the  French.     Amherst  then
rebuilt   the   fort at   great  cost-and  renamed   it
Ticonderoga.     This   fort   surrendered   to Ethan Allen
May  10     1775i     It was   recaptured   by Burgoyne   July
Fort  Tick3arondic
See  fort Detroit.
?ort Timiscamingue
Old   Frenoh fort   on the   east  shore  of
imiskaming   (Ottawa  river)   on a  point  at  the
  Narrows,   north   shore   of   LaPerriere   bay,   on  the  route
to lake Abitibi and   James bay.     Built  in 1686 soon
aiter Sieur de Troyes'   expedition to Moose  river for
the  capture   of the Hudson's Bay Co.   forts   on James
bay.     See map No.46.     This   fort was  in active service under the  French until  the  cession of Canada.
It  was  a strong and   important post,   large and well-
equipped.     Immediately after being deserted by  the
French,   it was   occupied  by the free-traders and   then
by  the North West  Co.     In  1821   it became the headquarters   of the Hudson's  Bay  Co.   f:r surroundinsr
posts and was noted  for  its laree library.     The post
was abandoned   in 1888 and- a  small  store was   erected
near  the  village  of Baie des  Peres  CVille Marie)
about 4 miles north   of  the  old  fort,     mttawa  then
became  the headquarters with the  opening  of the C.p,
Ry.     I&ps 10,8,100  &• 101.
The diary   of de Troyes  entitled,
"Relations and  Journal  of a  Journey  to  the North  by
a  detachment   of 100 men under command   of Sieur de
Troyes,   March 1686",   says   that  the party arrives at   j
the house   of The Company of the North   on an island
of lake  Timiskamingue   "situated  between  two rapids
proceeding from a   little  river called Metabec-.
Chouan",. where  14 men  of the  Company were on  duty.
This -island   lies at the  outlet  of the Metabitchouan
and Montreal   rivers which  empty Into lake Timiskaming
nearly  conjointly.     This  waa  the first post  on the
lake and was built  by the Compagnie du Nord between
1.676 and   1685.     About  1870   the Hudson's Bay  Co.
operated  a  sjxall post at  the ancient  Indian village
at  the head   of the lake.
"1
561 Toad River post
A small   Hudson's Bay  Co.   post   on the
left  bank   of the  Liard   river near mouth  of Toad
river,  B.C.     Built   in  1675  to  take place   of Fort
Halkett.     It was abandoned  about 1890.     Shown  on maps
No.9t and 55.     See  fort  Halkett.
562 Fort  Tomb ech. j
French   fort   on  left  bank  Tombigrbee river
a  branch   of the Mobile  river not   far from the  present  city   of Columbus,   Mississippi.     It  is   shown  on
Bellin's" map  1755   (Nc.95)  and   on Rocquea  1763.. (No.
96)   and  as a   settlement   on Bowen's map  1763   (No.98)
and  pallairet's  1755  (No.119).
Fort Toronto
63     Touchwood Hill
Hudson's Bay  Co.   post  on  the' east  side   of
Touchwood  Hills and   northeast   of Last  Mountain,
Saskatchewan.     Established   before  1850.     In operation
1858.     Closed  temporarily  in August 1862.
in  1869  list   of posts   with Deed   of Surrender
trace  of the   fort  remained   in 1873.
  Fort  Toulouse
7„  «? ?a<* ^yer8 siting to  form the Alabama  river
Alabama-6   *%?**W:   i# Was   called als0 fort
Bowen's
•     Shown on Bellin's  map 1755   (No.93)
1/63  No.98 and  Rocques  1763   (No.96).
Tree River ppgt
Hudson's Bay Co. post on southwest shore
of Coronation Gulf, 4 miles east of mouth of Coppermine  river.    A recent post.
of
mi:
Fort Tremhlant
See fort Alexandria   (l).
Fort Trial
See Erlandson Fost.
566     Fort  Trois Rivieres   (1)
fn  the  St.Lawrence.     Mission and   trading
post  established  1617.     Settlement and  village
founded  1634.     Fort built  1634.     In 1653   the settlement was  almost   destroyed   by  the   Iroquois.     For 100
yaftrs  this  post was  much frequented by Indians, trading from the north and west,  but  Montreal afterwards monopolized  the  trade.     After the cession  of
Canada,   1762,   this   old   French  post   eventually came
to  the North West Co.  and   to  the Hudson's Bay  Co..
in 1821 who  operated  the post until about 187C.
Jesuit sap  »f 1660  (No. 1033  shows mission and   fort.
Fort  Trois  Rivieres   (2)
See  fort Kaministiquia.
56 7    Trout  Lake  Post   (1)
Hudson's Bay Co. post on Trout lake, a
tributary of Lac Barriere and Grand Lake Victoria,
Quebec.    Built  later  than 1760 and shown  on map No.24
568 Trout   Lake  Fort   (2)
Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort  on Fort  Island at
north  end  of Trout  lake   (Fawn lake) ,  near the
source  of Fawn  river,   tributary  of  the Severn -river,
northern Ontario.    luilt about  183f  or earlier and
in operation  to date.     The North West Co.   had a post
on Trout  lak« in 1793  and   to this   the Hudson's Bay
Co.   may have  succeeded,     shown  on Arrowsmith maps
1832   (No.101),   1850   -'No. 100),   1857   (No.8)  also  on
map No.   140.
569 Trout  Lake Post
  t  lake about  40 miles
Ontario,   District   of
d   in 1869  & 1872  list
on southeast  shore of Tro
north  of outlet   of Lac  Se
lac  la Pluie.     it was  includ
Shown  on map No.  57.
570 Trout   Lake po3t  (4)
-k    i      *    -l     Sml1 Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on west
Dank  of stream entering southernmost  of Trout lakes
(now  called Peerless  lake)   56030'N.  & 114°30'W.   in
Athabaska  district,  Alberta.     Probably established
about 1880.     Shown  on map No.69  dated  1897.     At head
of  trail  from Wabiskaw.
Turtle Mountain House
See Montagne a  la Bosse.
571 Turtle River House   (1)
North West Co.   post on south  side  of
Saskatchewan river about one. mile below mouth of
Turtle river and  4|  miles above mouth  of  Jackfish
(Pike)   river,  near town  of Delmas  in Tp.46,  R.18.W.
of 3rd  Meridian,   Saskatchewan.     A.   Henry  Jr.   in 1808
passed   old   "Turtle  fort"  which  stood in a  low bottom
on south  bank.     In 1800 Thompson found   the  post  in
ruins.
572 Turtle River post   (2)
Hudson's  Bay Co.   post   on  the Red   river
at  mouth of Turtle  river about 18 miles north  of present  Grand  Forks.     It was  built by McLeod  in November
1812.     John Cameron was  sent  by A.   Henry  in Sept.
1802  to.build a   fort   on Turtle   river.
573 Fort Umpqua
Stockaded fort   of Hudson's  Bay  Co.  at
mouth  of Umpqua   river,   Oregon.     Built in 1822.     One
of the  forts   for which  theCorepany claimed  inderanity
in 1865.     See Oregon Territory.
574 Upland's Farm
A Hudson's Bay Co.   farm and _post on
Vancouver Island near  fort Victoria.     It was  included in  the lists  of 1869  and  1872 and   shown on
map No.   21.
Upper Neepawa  fort
See fort A la   Corne.
575       Upper Red River House
North West  Co.  post   on the Red  river at
the Forks,   junction of Red  lake  river,  near present
town  of Grand   Forks,   North Dakota.     Built before 1789.
Maps No.   5,3,7.     See Red River Forts.
Upper
err
e Blanche fort
  576 Fort Vancouver
MttJfoiJ     •   HMson's Say Co.   fort   on right  ba»k of
5n^i?friVer'   31X rniles above  its  ^^ion with the
Willamette  river.     Built  in  1824*25,  under charge
01  Dr.   John McLoughlin.     Occupied  as  being  on British
territory until  the  treaty  of 1846.     The fort  was
maintained'by the  Company for several years after the
ireaty,   until  dispossessed  by U.S.  military authorities in I860.     In 1847 McLoughlin was  succeeded  by
Peter  Skene Ogden who aftermrds  transferred  the
Company's  headquarters   to Victoria.     The fort was  of
large size,   enclosed  by  stockade 750 x 600 feet and
had attached a  1500 acre far».     The   enclosure contained  the fort with dwelling houses,   store-houses,
servants^   quarters,  shops,   barns  &c.     On the appertaining land were barns,   stables and  farm buildings
near the  main fort.     Cultivated   fields,  pasturage,
extended^long the  Columbia  river bank  for 25'miles
and  10 siiles  back  from the  river,  also  on Sauve and
Menzie's  islands.     It was  sometimes  called  Fort
Columbiai     Maps  No.8,   100 & 101.
577 Fort Venango
French fort built in 1753 on right bank
of Allegheny river at mouth of river Au Boeuf (now
called French Creek), on the site of present city
.of Franklin, Pennsylvania. It was occupied by the
British in 1760 after being deserted by the French
who retired to Detroit. It was captured by pontiac
on June  20,   1763. j Maps No.   119 & -.98.
Fort Verde   (Vert)
See  fort  L'Huiltier.   .
578 Fort Vermilion (j)
North West Co.   fort   en north  bank  of
Peace  river  near mouth   of Boyer river.     The  first
fort,  known as  the  "Old Establishment" was  built by
Boyer 1798.     After  the union of 1821  this  fort was
taken  over by the Hudson's Bay Co. who later built
a new  establishment  about 5 miles  farther up stream
from Boyer river,  and   still operate  the post.     Harmon
visited'the Old  Establishment  in 1808.     The Arrow-
smith map  of 1857   (No.8)   shows  the location of the
"Old  Fort".     See also  roups No.   11,100  & 101.
579     Fort  Vermilion   (2)
mil
sid
Alb.
day
to
87
the
Both  the North West  Co.  and  the Hudson's
built  closely adjoining forts called Ver-
ion in 1808,   on North Saskatchewan river  on north
irectly ^opposite  mouth  of Vermilion river,
erta.     Both these forts were abandoned  on the same
May  31     1810,  and   the   goods were transported
new  forts  at  the mouth  of White Earth river about
miles  upstream.     The Hud sen's  Bay  Co.     maintained
ir post at White Earth river until about 1870.
Henry Jr.  was   the
in September 1808.
  sometimes called Lower Fort Des Prairies.  See White
Earth River and Old White Mud Fort. Maps No.11, 40,36.
Fort Victoria (l)
Hudson's Bay Co. post at Victoria Settlement on North Saskatchewan river about 70 miles below
Edmonton.  Established about 1870.  It was raided in
the rebellion of 1885.  Maps 3 7 & 13.
Fort Victoria (2)
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Vancouver Island.
Built in 1843 by Douglas under direction of Dr,
McLoughlin.  In 1849 it was headquarters of the Western
Department. In 1846 about 160 acres were cultivated in
wheat etc., and in 1847 about 300 -acres.  The first name
given unofficially after the fort' was built was Fort
Camosun.  Shortly after, the name was again changed unofficially to Fort Albert in honour of the Prince Consort and about December 1843 the fort received its
official name of Fort Victoria.
Fort Vinoennes
French fort on Wabash river about 50 miles
below Ouatanon, now Vincennes, Knox County, Indiana.
First fort was built in 1702 and this was rebuilt in 1710.
It was the seat of empire of France In the Ohio valley.
Called simply "Le Poste" for over 30 years and name then
changed to Vincennes, after de Vincenne one of the
officers of the fort.  It was included in Bougainville's
list of forts 1757, as dependent on New Orleans.  It was
surrendered to the British in 1763;  captured by
Americans in 1779 and named by them Fort Sackville.  It
was recaptured by the British and finally by the
Americans and name changed to Fort Patrick Henry.  It is
named Fort Ste.Anne or Vincennes on Danville's map 1755
(No.9 7) and placed at the mouth of Ste.Anne river, a
tributary of the Wabash. Also maps No.93 and 10.
Wabinosh House
. See Nipigon House.
Fort Wabiskaw
Hudson's Bay Co. post on north shore of
southernmost Wabiskaw lake, about 50 miles northeast of
Lesser Slave lake (1140W. & 560N.)  Shown maps No.69,35,
34.
Fort Wallace
See Baie Chateau.
Fort Walla Walla
bank of Columb:
Originally a North West Co. fort on left
ibia river', at mouth of Walla Walla river,
  Lewis
5 miles below mouth  of f
Built  in 1818.     The Hudson's B
this  fort  in 1821 and   rebui
and  bastions  of brick
desert.     The Hudson's Bay Co
this fort in  1865
12,100,101  &  8.     It ■
Perces.
585    Fort Wapikopa
reat Snake  river.
Co.   succeeded  to
in 1841,  the walls
It was  surrounded  by sandy
laimed  indemnity for
Oregon Territory).     Maps
s  sometimes  called   fort N«
z-
Hudson's Bay Co.   fort  on lake Wapikopa,
Ontario,   headwaters  of the Winisk  river  (55°N.  &
88  15'W.)  about  85 miles north  of Gloucester House.
It  is  shown  on Arrowsmith maps  of 1832 and 1857
(No.101 & 8).     On Bell's map" of lake Nipigon 1910
(No.69)   "site of  old  Hudson's  Bay Co.  fort"  is marked,
and  on Mclnnes'  map of Keewatin 1903   (No.54)  it  is
named  "Old  fort  Concord".
Fort War Road
See fort Battle River.
586 Waswanipi House
Hudson's  Bay  Co.   post at   outlet  of lake
Waswanipi,  northern Quebec, an  old post antedating
1820 and possibly  originally a  French post.     At  the
time   of union 1821,   both  the  Hudson's Bay  Co.  and
. the North West Co.  had posts at  this spot.     It was
included   in the   1869   list with Deed   of Surrender also
on 1857 list.     Is  still  in  operation,     laps No.   8,
100,   101 and   63.
587 Waterhen Lake House
Hudson's  Bay Co.  post on the  east  shore
of Waterhen lake,   Manitoba,  at  the  southern extremity,   (51°55'N;   99°35'W).     It   is  shown  on
Tyrrell's  map of northwest Manitoba   1891   (No.43).
About  1885  this post was  moved  from near the  outlet
of lake Winnipegosis   (where  the  old  fort had  stood
for many years)   to present  location.
588     Fort Wedderburne
Hudson's   Bay  Co.   fort  o:
on Coal   island,   one mile  from Fort i
1808 the Hudson's  Bay Co. abandoned
Athabaska  district   to  the North Wes
fort Nottingham built  in 1802.     In
ed and  built  Fort Wedderburne.     Th:
by Norman McLeod   of the North West
1817,   abut was  re-established  in  18
Simpson,  afterwards  Governor,  winte
the union  of   1821,   the Hudson's Ba;y
fort  Chipewyan, (which has  been   enla
times)       and after about  1860  fort
closed.'     Maps  No.   100,   101 &  8.     S
q lake Athabaska
Chipewyan.     In
the whole of the
t Co.  and also
1815  they  return-
s  fort was seized
Co.   March  23,
18.     In 1820,
red  there.     After
Co.   took   over
rged several
idderburne was
fort Nottingham.
  "I
Fort
eenisk
ill I   Hudson's  Bay Co.  post  on Weenisk
?el?4    J: 87v32   ■,)"     ^ilt  before 1820.     The North
V^ -«?'       S0 had an ar5Joining post.    -
100,101 and   57.     Sometimes
aps No.
called Pepesquew  fort!
590 Weymontachingue Post
.     Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on the upper St.
Maurice river   (now  ;ianuan or b'eyraount  on the C.N R.
Built before 1827;     included in  the  1857 list-
shown on Arrowsmith map 1832  (No.101)  and  in  '
operation to  date.     Map No.   24 and   the Standard
Sheet  Montreal-Quebec.
591 Whale River Post
Hudson's Bay Co.   post at the mouth of
Whale  river,  Ungava.  Bay.     Included  in 1869  list   of
posts and   in  operation to date.     Shown on Maps No.
65 and  24.
592 White    Dog House
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Winnipeg river
at mouth  of White Dog river,   outlet   of White Dog
lake,  north   of the Dalles and  Hat Portage,   Ontario.
Shown on the Arrowsmith map 1857   (No.8) 'and on
Sectional   Sheet No.   74.
593 Fort White Earth River   (1)
Hudson's  Bay Co.  and  North.West  Co.
operated adjoining forts   on the north Saskatchewan
river at  mouth  of'White Earth  river   (112°15 'W. ) ,   to
which location they removed  in 1810  from the mouth
of Vermilion  river.     The site was a  short  distance
below  the present Victoria,   (See  fort Vermilion 2),
and a  short  distance below   "Mud Brook House"   (Fort
Augustus).     Thompson visited   the region in 18C0.
It was   called also  Terre Blanche,  White Earth House,
White Mud Brook,  and  Lower White Earth  or Mud Fort.
Shown  on reap No. 11.
594     Fort White Earth Ri
er  (2)
Hudson's  Bay Co.  and North West Co.  removed  from Edmonton in 1810   to north side  of the
Saskatchewan  river at  the   east  side  of a small
stream,  about 2 miles  below  the present White Lake
Creek,   halfway  between fort Augustus   (Edmonton)  and
Boggy'Hall,   114°20'W.,   in Section 30,   Tp.51,R.2,
West of  5th  Meridian.     The  post  last appears   on the
1872  list and was probably closed about 1875.    Known
also as  White  Mud  fort,   Old White Mud,  Upper Terre
Blanche,  Upper White Earth.     A.  Henry Jr.   in 1811
described  the   fort as  being  in a   "pretty location on
an  elevated  plain with  range  of hills   in rear".
Established  in 1810 for  trade with  the Assiniboines.
See Fort Augustus.   Shown  on map No.36.   See also No.
406.
  595 Fort  White Earth River (3)
n-F  i 7qq J!??11  f ort   built  by AltiX-   Henry in autumr.
of 1799 on White Mud-river (Terre Blanche) emptying
into south end of lake Manitoba'about 35 to 40 milSs
toll inS1810 P°rtage la Prairi«-     Henry rebuilt  his
596 Whitefish Bay Honan
^ Small Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Whitefish
bay    xake  of the Woods.     It was  included  in list   of
posts with Deed  of Surrender 1869 and  last appears
on the 1872 list.
Fort Whitefish Lake  (I)
Hudson's Bay Co.  post  on Whitefish lake
(now  called Utikuma lake,   meaning whitefish)  about
20 miles north  of Lesser Slave  Lake,  draining into
Peace  river by wabiskaw  river.     Erected  before 1830,
included  in 1869 list,   and  still in  operation.     The
North West  Co.  also  built a   fort nearby.    Maps  No.
35,   69,   8,   100,   101.
59 8    Fort  Whitefish  Lake   (2)
Small  Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on Whitefish
lake about  15 miles  north   of Georgian Bay and  40
miles   east of fort  La  Cloche,   outlet  opposite Great
Cloche  island.     Map No.8.
599    White Horse Plains House
Old Hudson's Bay Co. post on north bank
of Assiniboine river near present town of Headingly,
about 12 miles west of Winnipeg. It was located
near the North West Co. pine Fort, and built on site
of Blondishe's old fort. It Is shown on Arrowsmith
map 1856 (No.8) and was included in 1856 list. Probably built about  1810.     Closed about 1880.
White Mud  Fort
See  Fort Augustus and White' Earth River.
Willamette River Fort
A North West  Co.   post   on Willamette
river   outpost  of Fort Georere   (Fort Vancouver).
Named  on the  Company list  1820.
601     Fort Willi
(1)
North West Co.   fort   on left  bank of
Ottawa  river above  the  north  end   of Alumettes
island.     It was known also-as'fort  Lac  des Alumettes
and   stood   on the  site of an   old French fort.     The
Hudson's  Bay Co.   succeeded  to this  establishment  m
1821.     Shown on map No.8.
  602    Fort William (2)
old  French fort
orth West Co.   fort  built  on site  of the
Kaministiquia  (q.v.)   on lake Superior
a-c moutn of the Kaministiquia river.     The North West
Co.  used  the Grand Portage route until 1801-2 when
they moved  to Kaministiquia and used thenceforth the
old  French route  to the west which had  been-rediscovered by Roderick  McKenzie 1798,   the Grand Portage
being  on American territory.     They rebuilt  the  old
French fort  in 1800 and called  it  "New Fort".     On the
union  of the X.Y.Co. and   the North West Co.  the  fort
was again rebuilt  in 1804 and called Fort William.
It was a  great  trading centre,   the  entrepot to the
great west and northwest,  and all  furs and supplies
of the Company passed  through this  fort both ways for
nearly a  quarter century.    Supplies were received by
schooner from St.Mary's,   though transported at first
by canoe.     The fort was  surrounded by palisades  15
feet high with bastions.    Within the  enclosure were a
log-house dining room,  Council House,  Doctor's  residence,   storehouses,  forge, workshops,   prison,   shipyard,  garden,   cattle & horses.     A lock-out was always
maintained.     The  fort was  captured by Lord  Selkirk
in 1817 and came under control  of  the Hudson's Bay
Co. at  the.union of both companies  in 1821.    After
the union Fort William began to decline as a  trading
centre,   furs  being  transported by way  of.Norway House
and York Factory,  and McLean says  that in 1833  the
fort  was  rapidly decaying and  had become "a  petty
post".     Across  the Kaministiquia  river at pointe
de Meuron  (q.v.)   the Hudson's Bay Co. maintained a
small  observation post  during the activities   of the
North West Co.
Fort William Augustus
See  fort  Levis.
603 Fort William Henry
Fort  built  by English at   foot  of lake
George  in 1755.     Captured  by Montcalm August 9,1757,
and  the garrison massacred by Indians after surrender.
It was   recaptured by Amherst  in July 1759.
604 Windy Lake House
Snail -Hudson's  Bay Co.   post on Windy
lake,  source   of poplar  river,   flowing  into lake
Winnipeg,  north  of Beren's  river.    Mapa No.12 and  100.
Built  before 183C
605 Winnibigoshish House
North West Co.   post  on lake Winnibigoshish
Minnesota.     Visited  by Thompson 1798.     Maps No.  3 and
  Winnipeg Forts.   List   of
1. Fort  Rouge  1734 No.   480
2. St.Pierre's  fort  1751   (see ^ort Rouge 480 and  191
3. Bruce  & Boyer's  fort  1780   (see Fort  Rouge 480
M     ,    . and Gibraltar 191).
(First  fort  built  by British traders after
the French).
4. H.B.Co.   fort at  St.Boniface 1780.(Traditional)
" "     called   "The Forks" 1799
"         "     called   "Fort  Selkirk"   1800,See No.
142
7. Alex.Henry's  fort  1803  near site  of fort Rouge.
See No.191.
8. Fort  Gibraltar N.W.Co.1807 No.191.
9. Fort Douglas  H.B .Co.1812 , on site fort  Selkirk
NoJ.42.
10. Fidlers   fort  H.B.Co.   1818 No.165
11. First Fort  Garry 1822 No.182
12. Second     " "       1835 No.182
15.  Lower Fort  Garry 1851.  No.520
6.
Winnipeg House
See Bas  de la Riviere.
Winnipeg Lake Fort
See fort Alexander.
Winnipeg River House .
See Bas   de la Riviere.
60 6    Fort Winokapau
Hudson's Bay Co.  post at  the upper  end
of lake Winikapau,  an  enlargement  of Hamilton river,
Labrador, about  150 miles above North West River
House and  50  miles  below Grand  Falls.     It was  established  about 1850 but abandoned  1876 and  soon afterwards  it was   destroyed  by  fire.     Map No.   61.
607    Fort Wolstenholme
Hudson's 3ay Co.  post near cape
Wolstenholme,  Ungava.     Built in 1909 and   in present
operation.     ?.&p No.   24.
Port Wrangell
See  fort Highfield.
608    Fort Wrath
Small Hudson's Bay Co.   post  on northeast
shore of lake  Temiscamingue,.  Ottawa  river,   one mile
above Piche point.     Built about  1880 and  closed
before  1890.     Ifep No.   46.
  609 Fort Wriglev
Hudson's Bay Co. fort on Mackenzie rive
left bank, about 65°15'N. , half way between Forts
Norman and Simpson. Built by Chief Factor Cantsell
about 1880. Formerly known as "The Little Rapid".
Named after the Chief Commissioner of the Company.
Mip No.   25*
610 Fort Yale
Hudson's Bay Go, post on Fraser river
about 20 miles upstream'from Fort Hope. Built' in
1848 and  closed  about  1880.
611    Fort Yaz ou
French fort  on left bank Mississippi
river at mouth  of Yazou river  on south  side.     Marked
"French fort" abandoned  on Bellin's map 1755 No.95,
shown on Rocque's map 1765   (No.96), and marked
"destroyed"   on Mitchell  map  1775  (No.111).
Fort York  & York Factory
See Fort  Nelson and  Chateau Bay.
Fort Yukon
Hudson's Bay Co.  fort at  junction of
Porcupine and  Yukon rivers.     Built  1847  by Alex.  H.
Murray.     It was  operated  for 22 years until 1869
when Alaska was  purchased by the United  States,    l&p
No.   84 shows it  "abandoned".
  List   of chief Authorities
consulted
Hudson's Bay Company and Vancouver Island,
a   .   .     J!  B.  Fitzgerald,   London    1849.
Origin and  Progress  of North Vest Company
A.   Murray,   London,   1811.
mm Hunters   of the Far West,
Alexander Ross,   London    1855.
Notice  respecting Boundary  etc.,
H.   Murray,   London,   1817.
Travels  through Interior America,
Thomas Auburey,  London,   1789.
Hudson's  Bay,
R.  II.  Ballantyne,  Edinburgh,  1845.
Journeys   of David Thompson,   in Proceedings  of
Canadian Institute,   vol.VI,   pg.35"   1888.
History of  Canada,
William Kingsford,   Toronto,  1887.
Travels   through North America and Canada,-
Weld,   1800,   London.
Three Reports   of Select Committee,   H.of  C.   to  enquire  into Trade and  Commerce  of Upper Canada,1835
Sixty Years  in  Canada,
Wier,   Montreal,   1903.
History of Canada ,
William Smith,  Quebec,   1815.
Peace River Canoe Voyage  of Sir George Simpson in  1828,
Edited  by M.  McLeod,   Ottawa,  1872.
The  Company of Adventurers,
Cowie.
Saskatchewan,
Earl  of Southesk,   London,   1875.
Old Forts  by the  Sea,
Bourinot  in Transactions Royal  Soc'y,1883.
History  of New  France by Lescarbot,
Translated by Grant and"Biggar.Toronto,   1907.
Forts  and. Trading posts  in Labrador and  Adjoining
Territory'by James White,   Ottawa,  1926.
British and American Joint  Commission,  Memorial   of
H.B.Co.   ,   London 1865.
Histoire de  la Nouvelle France,
P.F.X.Charlevoix,   Paris,   1744.
Historical  Guide  along the  St.Lawrence,
Le Claire,   1906'.
Monograph on Anticosti,
Dr.Joseph  Schmitt,   Paris,   1904.
History of Canada under French regime,
H..H. Miles,   1872.
Nord-Guest,   Territories  Hudson Bay,   police Monte,   1875.
History  of the San  Juan Water Boundary Question,
Viscount  Milton,   1869.
Account  of British America,
Hugh J-urray,  Edinburgh,   1839.
Notes  sur  U Cote Nora    du Bas   St.Laurent,
E.  Ruchette,     Quebec,   1926.
American Fur Trade  of Far West,
H.   M.   Chittenden,   New York,   1902.
New  Light  on Alexander Henry and David  Thompson's
'Travels       Elliott Coues,   1897,
Letters   on Hudson Bay Territories,   by E.  Ermatinger,1859,
Report   of T.  K.   Ramsay.
  Reports  on Boundaries   of Ontario 1872-78 vol.1 & 2
Toronto,   1878.
Report  of Select Committee  on Hudson's  Bay Co.,
British Parliamentary papers 1857,vol.XV,
'Session II,  Appendix 5,^.5 76,   London.
Nouveaux Voyages  de M.   le Baron  de la  Hontan  dans  l'Ame-
rique  Septentrionale in 1688,   La Haye,   1704.
Suite  du Voyage de l'Amerique,   ou Dialogue de M.   le Baron de  la Hontan   et d'un Sauvage,   Amsterdam
1704.
Minutes   of Council Hudson's Bay Co.   1825   (McLeod papers),
Canadian Historical Review ,vol.VII,  1926*
Rupert's  Land  in 1825,  by H.A.Irmis.
Labrador,   by W.G.  Gosling,
Toronto,   1910.
Narrative  of Journey from Hudson Bay  to Pacific,
Sir George Simpson,   London,   1847.
Voyages  through Continent   of North Ameriea  1789 and 1793,
by Alexander Mackenzie,  Reprint.Toronto,1911.
Report   of Palliser's Exploration 185 7-1860,
Imperial  Blue Book,   Lond en.
Ontario Bureau  of Mines,  Fifth Annual  Report,
Toronto.
Voyage  en Amerique par La Rochfoucault-Lianeourt,
Paris  1 Lond en,   1799.
The Canadian West   (translated),   Abbe  0. Dugas,1905,
Montreal.
Canadian Exploring Expedition,   1857,
H.Y.Hind,   London,   1860.
Astoria,   by Washington  Irving.
Journal   of Voyages and Travels  in  Interior  of North
America,  Daniel W.  Harmon,  Andover,1820.
Ocean  to  Ocean,   Sandford  Fleming's Expedition 1872,
by Principal  Grant.
History  of the Northwest,
Alexander Begg,   Toronto,   1894.
Journal  of a  Voyage through Rupert's Land,  1851,
Sir J.  Richardson.
Notes   of a  Twenty-five Years  Service In Hudson's Bay
Territory,     John McLean,   London,   1849.
Natural and   Civil History  of French Dominions  in America,
1761,     Thomas  Jeffreys,   London,   1761.
Manitoba  Historical  Society,   Transactions 1885-1927,
C.N.Bell  on Historic Places and  ^orts at
Winnipeg.
Alexander Henry's  Travels,
J.  Bain,   Toronto,   1901.
History  of Northwest Coast,        )
"       "    Alaska )  fcy H.H. Bancroft
"       "     Oregon )
History of Northern  Interior  of British Columbia,
4..G.Morice,   Toronto,   1905.
Royal   Soc'y of Canada,   Transactions   1885-85-92.
Hudson's Bay Co.  1670-1920 -  Memorial  publication by
the Company 19 20,
The  Great  Company,
Beckles V'illson,   Toronto,   1899.
The North West  Company,
Gordon C.  Davidson,   1918.
  History of Hudson's  Bay Co.,
George Bryee,   London]  1900.
^.es. Bourgeois  de la  Compagnie Nord-Quest et Esquisse
Historique,   L.   R.   msson,  1889-1890.
containing:     McKenzie's  Journal   of trip to King's
posts  1808;   Johnston's Account  of  lake  Superior;
McDonnell's Account   of Red River 1797.
Relations  et Memoires   Inedits  pour servir a  l'histoire
de la  France 1867,  by Pierre Margry.     Contains
de Bougainville's Memoir and  list  of forts,1757.
Hudson's  Bay Co.   Land  Tenures,
A.   Martin,   London,   1898.
Search for the Western Sea,
L.   J.   Burpee,   Toronto,   1908.
Canada  and   Its  provinces,  vols.  1,4,8,
Toronto,   1914.
Imperial Blue Books,   1749 and   1857.
Despatch of Governor Milnes  to Lord  Hobart,with List  of   .
117 N.W.Co.   forts   in 180 2,  Dominion Archives,
(Can.   q.89 pg.   166).
Annual  Report   of Dominion Land  Surveys  1921,
Historical paper  by G.H.Blanchet.
Edits  et  Ordonnances,  vol.11,  1803.     Ord onnanee pour lea
Unites   du  Romaine par Hocquart   1735.
Forts and  Trading Posts  in Labrador,
James White,   Ottawa,  1926.
Histoire  de  Longueuil,
Jodoin and   Vincent,   Montreal,   1889.
Wintering Partners   on peace River,
J.N. Wallace,   1929.
Annual Reports  of Geological  Survey  of Canada.
Across the  Sub-Arctics,
J. W.   Tyrrell,   1893.
The Beaver,   Hudson's  Bay  Co.,
Winnipeg.
Encyclopaedia Britannica XIV  edition.
The Chronicles  of Canada,
Toronto,   1914.
Pioneers   of  France in  the New World,       )
La Salle and  Discovery  of Great "/est,     )
A Half-Century  of Conflict, )
Old Regime  in Canada, )
Jesuits  in North America,
Conspiracy  of pontiac. )
Athabaska  to  the Bay,
F.  H.  Kitto,   1919.
Historical View   of the United States  and   of
Settlements in America,  Winterbothara,
North West passage by  Land,
Milton and   Cheadle,   1862.
Parkman
European
1795.
  List of laps showing one or more forts an
trading poets .
Rorthwest  Territories  in "Conquest  of Great Northwest" by Agnes C.  taut.
m       Interior  of North America   engraved  for Harmon's
Journal  1820.
5. North West Territories by G.  Rinfret,   from "Henry-
Thompson Travels" by Dr.   Coues.
America  exhibiting 'Mackenzie's  Track,   jArrowsmith
1801.
America  exhibiting principal  trading stations   of
North West Co.   in Davidson's North West  Co.,
.London  1817.
6. The Company's  Territory in'The  Great Company" by
B.  Willson.
7. Portions  of David  Thompson's  Map 1812   in "Henry-
.Thompson's  Journals"  by Dr.   Coues.
North America,  Arrowsmith 1857,  showing territories
claimed by Hudson's  Bay Co.
Part   of Indian Territories  in'North America,exhibiting  routes to stations  of North West
Co.   from British Museum maps  69917   (75)
about   1817.
10. North America shewing possessions   claimed by France
in 1756,   from Boundaries  of Ontario.
11. Early Alberta   forts,   by J.  M. Wallace,   Calgary.
12. North .West Canada  from Crown Lands  Report 1857,
by T.  Devine,   Toronto,   1857.
15.    -"{"forth-West  Territory and Manitoba,   from "Manitoba
and   the Great  North West",   J. Macoun 1882.
14. Routes   of Explorers   in-Atlas  of Canada 1915.
15. Carte  des  Lacs  du Canada 1744,  Bellin,   Paris.
16. North West Territory and  Manitoba,   Report  of
Minister  of interior 1877,  by  J.   Johnston.
17. British America,  from "British America",  Edinburgh,
H.   Murray,   1839,   vol.1.
18. Carte  du  Canada  ou de  la  Nouvelle France,  Del'isle,
'   Paris   1703.
19. North America  17 78 from Carver's  Travels.
20. New  France,   by La Hontan 1703,   English  edition 1735.
21. Canada,   from "Canada and  the  States-Recollections"
'l851  to  1886  by Sir E.  W.  Watkin.  H.B.Co.
forts  numbered  for list   of 1872.
22. North America about  1845,  Atlas,  Blackie & Son,
Glasgow,
23. part of Upper Canada, portages Mattawa to Georgian
Bay,   1820.
24. Forts  & Trading Posts  in Labrador peninsula and
adjoining portions  of Ontario and  Quebec,
James  White 1926.
25. Mackenzie River,   Topographical  Survey,  Department
of the  Interior 1923.
26. New France,  map of French  forts   in  "History  of
Canada  under French  regime",   by H.H.Miles
1872,   Library  of Parliament.
27. Oregon Territory and  Forts,   in  "History   of San
Juan Water Boundary  question"  by Viscount
Milton 1869,     Library  of parliament.
  30
Hudson Bay Territories  1763,   in Series   of Letters
by E.  Ermatinger 1858,  report  of T.K.Ramsay.
Library  of Parliament.
<sy.    North West  Territories  in Series   of Letters   etc.
Location  of Fort Nelson,   in Robeson's  "Six Years
in Hudson's Bay",   in "First Great Canadian"
Reed.
51. Part   of North America, Del'isle 1700.
52. Part   of       " « » 1718.
53. North West Territory,   Report Dept.of Interior,1887.
34. Part  of Northern Canada, Dept.of Interior 1907,   in
the "New North West".
35. Northwestern part of Dominion of Canada, Dept. of
Interior 1898.
36. Northern Alberta, J.B. Tyrrell 1887.  G.S.C.
37. Northwest Territories and l&nitoba 1894,Dept. of
Interior, J. Johnston.
38. District of Assiniboia 1811, Alex. Lean.
39. Dominion of Canada, H.B.Co.establishments 1924.
40. part of Alberta, G.S. Hume, 1925, G.S.C.
41. Lake Athabaska to Churchill river, J.B.Tyrrell,
1895, G.S.C.
42. Explored  routes  Churchill and  Nelson rivers
drainage area,  W.McInnes,1914,G.S,C.
A3.     Forest Distribution N.W. Manitoba  &e,   J.B.Tyrrell,
1891,  G.S.C.
44. Lake  of the Woods and adjacent   country,  A.C.
Lawson,1897,   G.S.C.
45. French River sheet,  R. Bell,   1897,G.S.C.
46. Lake  Timiskaming sheet, A.E.Barlow,   1908,G.S.C.
47. Manitoulin  Island   sheet,  R.  Bell,1907,G.S.C.
48. Pembroke  sheet,   R. W.  Ells,   1906,  G.S.C.
49. Lake  Shebandowan  sheet,  W.  Mclnnes,1896,G.S,C.
50.-   Explorations   from Lac   Seul  to  Severn lake,   C.
Cams ell,   1904,  G.S.C.
51. District  of Keewatin,  D.B.Dowling,1896,G.S.C.
52. Northern Ontario,  W.J.Wilson,1905,G.S.C.
53. Northwestern  Ontario, W.J.Wilson,1904,G.S.C.
54. Part  of District Keewatin,  W.  Mclnnes,1905,G.S.C.
55. Northern portion  Labrador,.A.P.   Low,   1902,G.S.C.
56. Northwestern Ontario,   W.H.Collins  & W.  Melnhes,
1909,   G.S.C.
57. Albany,  Severn,  Winisk   rivers,  W.McInnes,1910,G.S.C.
58. portions   of Algoma  & Thunder Bay.W.J.Wilson & W.H.
Collins,   1905,   G.S.C.
59. Lake  Nipigon,   R.  Bell,  1910,   G.S.C.
60. Harricanaw-Turgeon Basin,. J.M.Tanton,1918,G.S.C.
61. Labrador Peninsula,   S.E.,  A.P.Low,18"
Basin of Nottaway
Labrador peninsula, S.
Labrador peninsula, N,'
Labrador peninsula, N.
ell.1903,G.S.C.
A.P.   Low,   1896,G.S.C.
,A.P.Low,   1896,G.S.C.
A.P.Low,   1896,   G.S.C.
Abitibi District,   R.   Bell,   1910,   G.S.C.
Gulf  of St. Lawrence, north shore,  G. Rinfret ,1913 .
Keewatin,  Place Names N.  Canada,   J. White,  1911.
peace  to'Athabaska rivers,   R2$*r.  McConnell ,1897,G.S
province Quebec 1765,Capt.Carver,London,1776.
Lake Abitibi  region,1901.W.T.Wilson & J.Johnstone,
G.S .0.
Thunder Bay District,   lake Nipigon,Dept .Lands &
Forests,1926.
          

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