BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Canada's diamond jubilee of confederation Canada. National Committee for the Celebration of the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation 1927

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  The University of British Columbia Library 
COLLECTION 1867 1927 
Canada's Diamond Jubilee of Confederation
CANADA'S COAT OF ARMSThe Royal Imperial Crown which surmounts the whole device denotes that Canada, a nation among the British
^^~s Commonwealth of Nations, recognizes the Imperial Sovereign ruling over this vast Empire. Immediately
beneath this is the crest upon the royal helmet, which is always, as represented, set full face with the visor closed
and showing six bars and colored gold. The crest is the Royal lion "passant, guardant," which means, walking,
with head facing the spectator, holding in its dexter {or right) paw a maple leaf of Canada, colored" gules," which
means in heraldic language, red. The silver and red twisted cord upon which the lion is standing is what is termed
the "wreath" and originally formed a support for the crest upon the helmet, and the artistic drapery of silver and red
represents this "wreath when torn in the wars of ancient days." The animals on either side of the shield are known
as "supporters." It is thought by some authorities that supporters really are the heraldic survival of fancifully
dressed pages or footmen who uphold the banners, standards, or shields of those engaged in tournaments. In the..
Canadian Coat of Arms {or insignia) we have on the dexter side a golden lion upholding the banner of the union
{England, Scotland and Ireland) and on the sinister or left side the Unicorn of Scotland upholding the banner
of France, modern. The shield of Canada shows four quarterings, namely:
{1) "Gules" the 8 lions passant guardant "or" {i.e. gold) for England.
{2)  "Or" a lion rampant "gules" within the royal treasures for Scotland.
{3)  "Azure" {blue) a harp "or" for Ireland.
{4)  "Azure" S fleur-de-lys "or" for France.
With the base of the shield argent, charged with a three-leaved sprig of maple "proper" {or natural color) the
emblem of Canada.
Beneath the shield is the motto: "A Mari Usque ad Mare"—"Even from sea to sea," with the national floral
emblems of the nations which form the ancestral foundation stock of the Canadian people—namely, the Rose of
England, the Thistle of Scotland, the Shamrock of Ireland, and the Lily of France; providing an artistic foundation upon which the Canadian armorial insignia rests, the whole forming a beautiful and historic combination.
 The Fathers of Confederation
 Government House,
our request to give a message to the
-.ularly as I have a very delightful
May nth, 192J
Dear Alderman Woodside:
Very gladly I res
citizens of Vancouver, m
recollection of my recent visit to your city.
As our beloved sovereign s representative I send you all most
cordial greetings on fuly 1st, when in all parts of the country we shall
be celebrating the 60th anniversary of Confederation in this great
Dominion. I trust that the coming years may bring you all ever increasing prosperity and progress, and that the efficiency of the wonderful
development of your City in past years may be carried on in the same
spirit in the future.
With the certain growth of the importance of all the interests
and activities of Vancouver, will come an ever increasing influence on
the destinies of the future of Canada.
May I venture to urge on you all to remember on this historic
day, the great purpose of Confederation, and to use that influence to cooperate with all other parts of your country in building up Canada a
great nation, which will always be a bulwark of strength and support
for the unity of the British Empire.
Yours sincerely,
 The Victory Tower and Dominion Parliament Buildings, Ottawa
^^>—■ ""'HREE hundred and seventy years before Confederation became an accomplished fact in 1867, John
£ ^-^ Cabot sailed from the port of Bristol, on the west coast of England, and landed on the shores of
i ^ \ Labrador on June 24, 1497. There he planted the English flag. Nearly jive hundred years prior to this
m ■ date—about   1000 a.d.—Norse explorers from Greenland visited Canada and established a settlement
^k M  whose situation is unknown. These hardy adventurers were soon overwhelmed by Indians, who
^ ^     remained in undisputed possession until the coming of European explorers in the fifteenth century.
Thirty-seven years after the landing of Cabot, the French navigator, Jacques Carrier, sailed up the Gulf of
St. Lawrence in a single ship to a point where land could be seen on either side. Returning the following year, 1535,
he reached the Indian encampment of Hochelaga, now the city of Montreal, and passed the winter at the mouth
of the St. Charles, where the city of Quebec stands today.
These journeys of discovery were the beginnings of Canadian history—a romance which dates back for nearly
four centuries of authentic record, and now forms a proud tradition of pioneering upon which to erect a futur.e of
immeasurable possibilities.
It was not, however, until July I, 1867,.that the Dominion of Canada—or the "Kingdom of Canada," as it
nearly became known—entered upon its official history. Three important conferences preceded the uniting of
British North American colonies under one government.
The first advocate of union was William Smith, a former Chief Justice of Canada, who in 1789 laid before
Lord Dorchester, governor-in-chief, a project for the establishment of a central legislative body consisting of a
nominated council and of an assembly, the members of which were to be chosen by the popular branches of the
provincial legislatures. Nothing came of this plan, nor was any action taken on a somewhat similar scheme propounded twenty-five years later by Chief Justice Sewell. The difficulty of communication between the various
colonies was considered to be an insuperable bar to any union other than that involved in their common allegiance
to the British Crown.
With the introduction of railways, the idea appeared more feasible. In 1850, the British America League,
formed to counteract the annexation movement of 1849, stated in its prospectus that the true solution of the
 Arrival in Vancouver of the first C.P.R. transcontinental train, May 23,1887
difficulties of the time lay in the confederation of all the provinces. In the following year the Hon. Henry Sherwood,
who had filled the offices of Attorney General for Upper Canada and Prime Minister, published a scheme for the
"Federative Union of the British North American Provinces." The Fathers of Confederation seem to have had
Sherwood's draft before them when framing the British North America Act of 1867. For example, it designates
the representative of the Sovereign as the "Viceroy," and this may have suggested the name "Viceroyalty" for the
united provinces, which was under consideration at the London Conference of 1866. Sherwood's scheme, however,
like the others, failed of result.
It was not until 1858 that the question of confederation may be said to have entered the domain of practical
politics. In that year, Alexander Gait, then member for Sherbrooke in the provincial assembly, advocated, both
in and out of Parliament, the union of all the British North American provinces, with such effect that the Cartier-
Macdonald government, formed a few months later, in which he was included, despatched a mission to England
to sound the Imperial authorities on the subject. They were informed that only one colony besides Canada had
expressed any opinion in regard thereto, and that until the other provinces had made known their sentiments,
Her Majesty's Ministers would be acting prematurely in authorizing a meeting of delegates which might commit
them to a preliminary step, to the principle of which the colonies had not signified their assent. On the return of
the Canadian delegates, the governments of the Maritime Provinces were put in possession of all the proceedings,
but a change of ministry in England occurring shortly afterwards, nothing more was heard on the subject for
some years.
Political difficulties, owing, in large measure, to the sectional antagonism between Upper and Lower Canada,
finally brought about a deadlock which threatened to render all government in Canada impossible. It was at this
crisis that George Brown, leader of the reform party in Upper Canada, patriotically offered his co-operation towards
settling forever the constitutional difficulties between Upper and Lower Canada. With the co-operation of
Macdonald, Cartier and Gait, a compact was entered into to form a coalition government for the purpose of negotiating a confederation of all the British North American provinces. On that understanding George Brown, Oliver
Mowat and William McDougall, leading members of the opposition, entered the cabinet of which Sir Etienne Tache
was the head, and of which John A. Macdonald and George Cartier were leading members.
Meanwhile, a somewhat similar movement was taking form in the Maritime Provinces, which, with the
exception of Newfoundland, had been originally under one government—that of Nova Scotia. Although
some of the bolder leaders looked forward to a union which should embrace all British North America, the interminable postponements, frequent political crises, and constant changes of policy in the Upper Provinces had caused
 (i) Cordova Street today (2) Hastings Street and the Cenotaph (3) A peep at the harbor
(4) Looking up Granville Street (5) The Bathing Beach at English Bay (6) Corner of Hastings and Granville Streets
the people of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island to give up hope of coming to an arrangement
with Canada. They attempted, therefore, to bring about an alliance among themselves,_ and authorized their
respective governments to hold a joint conference for the purpose of discussing the legislative union of their own
three provinces. This happened most opportunely for the newly-formed coalition government of panada, which
was then seeking an opportunity to open negotiations with the other British colonies, looking to union. Permission
was asked, and obtained, to lay the views of Canada before the Maritime Conference, which assembled at Charlotte-
town on September I, 1864.
This was the first of the three conferences which finally resulted in Confederation.
At this conference Nova Scotia was represented by the Hon. Charles Tupper, Premier and Provincial Secretary;
the Hon. W. A. Henry; the Hon. R. B. Dickey; the Hon. Jonathan McCully and Adams G. Archibald.
New Brunswick was represented by Hon. S. L. Tilley, Premier and Provincial Secretary; the Hon. J. M.
Johnson; the Hon. John H. Gray; the Hon. E. B. Chandler, and the Hon. W. H. Steeves.
Prince Edward Island.was represented by Colonel the Hon. John Hamilton Gray, the Hon. Edward Palmer,
the Hon. W. H. Pope, the Hon. George Coles, and the Hon. A. A. Macdonald.
Canada sent a delegation of eight members of its government: the Hon. John A. Macdonald, the Hon. George
E. Cartier, the Hon. George Brown, the Hon. Alexander T. Gait, the Hon. William McDougall, the Hon. Thomas
D'Arcy McGee, the Hon. Alexander Campbell, and the Hon. Hector L. Langevin.
This conference was conducted behind closed doors, and no report of its proceedings has ever appeared.
The Canadian delegates, not having been empowered to discuss the question of legislative union, were not members
of the conference. To such good effect, however, did they present their views on the larger issue, that the conference
agreed to suspend deliberations and adjourned to meet at Quebec in the course of the following month for the
purpose of conferring with the Canadian representatives on the subject of a federal union of all the British North
American provinces.
At eleven o'clock on the morning of October 10, 1864, the historic gathering assembled.within the walls of
the Parliament House, Quebec, for the second conference on confederation.
Those present were—From Canada: The Hon. Sir E. P. Tache, the Hon. John A. Macdonald, the Hon. G. E.
Cartier, the Hon. George Brown, the Hon. Oliver Mowat, the Hon. Alexander T. Gait, the Hon. W. McDougall
the Hon. T. D'Arcy McGee, the Hon. Alex. Campbell, the Hon. J. C. Chaplais, the Hon. H. L. Langevin, the Hon'
J. Cockburn. From Nova Scotia: the Hon. Charles Tupper, the Hon. William A. Henry, the Hon. Jonathan McCully
the Hon. R. B. Dickey, Adams G. Archibald. From New Brunswick: The Hon. Samuel L. Tilley, the Hon  W H'
Steeves, the Hon. J. M. Johnson, the Hon. P. Mitchell, the Hon. E. P. Chandler, Lt.-Col. the Hon. John H. Gray,
the Hon. Charles Fisher. From Newfoundland: The Hon. F. B. T. Carter, the Hon. Ambrose Shea. From Prince
Edward Island: Col. the Hon. J. H. Gray, the Hon. E. Palmer, the Hon. W. H. Pope, the Hon. A. A. Macdonald,
the Hon. G. Coles, the Hon. T. H. Haviland, the Hon. E. Whelan.
Sir Etienne Tache, Prime Minister of Canada, was chosen chairman, and Major Hewitt Bernard executive
secretary. The proceedings, which were held in secret, continued until October 28, and were finished at Montreal
on the 29th. In the seventeen days of conference many important questions were fully discussed and determined.
Upon one subject there was complete agreement. The delegates, one and all, affirmed their intention to maintain
and perpetuate, to cement and not to weaken, the union with the mother country. Macdonald and some others
openly avowed their theoretical preference for a legislative as opposed to a federal union; but that, for many reasons,
was felt to be impracticable. Questions relative to the nature and composition of the Upper Chamber provoked
much discussion. Macdonald and Brown, though differing on many points, agreed in preferring a nominative to
an elective Senate, and their views prevailed.
The financial problems proved most difficult of adjustment. Sharp differences of opinion existed and very
nearly resulted in breaking up the conference, but wiser counsels ultimately prevailed and at length an agreement
was arrived at. The result of the deliberations was embodied in seventy-two resolutions, which were laid before
the Parliament of Canada at the following sessions, and approved by a vote of 91 to 33 on March 11, 1865.
The Canadian Government .shortly afterwards despatched a mission, consisting of Messrs. Macdonald,
Cartier, Brown and Gait, to England with the object of conferring with Her Majesty's Government upon certain
subjects of public concern, at the head of which stood "the proposed Confederation of the British North American
provinces, and the means whereby it can be most speedily effected."
Meanwhile, things did not go well in the Maritime Provinces, where unexpected opposition to Confederation developed. In Prince Edward Island the situation was even more hopeless. Gradually the Maritime position
began to improve. On April 17, 1886, the House of Assembly of Nova Scotia, under the leadership of Dr. Tupper,
the great supporter of union in his province, passed a resolution authorizing the appointment of delegates to arrange
with the Imperial Government a scheme of union "which will eventually insure just provision for the rights and
interests of this province." On June 30, 1866, New Brunswick adopted a resolution similar to that passed in Nova
Scotia. Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island remained obdurate.
While the difficulties in the Maritime Provinces were thus yielding, fresh obstacles were arising in Canada.
Reciprocity negotiations with the United States, the withdrawal of George Brown from the coalition, the Fenian
 Part of Vancouver from the Air
 raids, financial exigencies and other matters of pressing concern engaged the attention of the ministry until the
opening months of 1866. In June of that year, however, Parliament met and passed the necessary resolutions
providing for the local constitutions of Upper and Lower Canada, subsequently to be known as the provinces of
Ontario and Quebec.
It had been arranged that the further Confederation negotiations should take place in London, but it was not
until November that the Canadian delegates left for England, meeting their Maritime colleagues in London, where
they had been for many weeks. The delegates were received by a sub-committee of the Imperial Cabinet, headed
by Lord Carnarvon, Secretary of State for the Colonies, while Sir Frederick Rogers, his permanent under-secretary,
acted as intermediary between the Imperial and Colonial statesmen. The meetings of this body were for the most
part confined to formal occasions, the real business being transacted by the delegates, who met apart in the Westminster Palace Hotel, London, in a room where now a tablet marks the historic event. The first meeting was held
on December 4, 1866, sixteen members, or fewer than one-half the number which met at Quebec in 1864, being
present. Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland were not represented.
Hon. John A. Macdonald was elected chairman of this conference, and the resolutions of the Quebec conference
were then taken up, considered, amended in certain particulars and adopted anew. From these amended resolutions
was prepared a rough draft of the Bill that was necessary to give them effect. This rough draft was then submitted
to the law officers of the Crown, who framed successive drafts expressive of the wishes of the Conference, until
the measure reached its final form, and became law as the British North America Act.
Discussions of the London Conference were held in secret, and no official record of the proceedings exists.
The Bill, as finally agreed upon in the London Conference, passed through Parliament without much criticism,
and received the Royal Assent on March 29, 1867. On May 22 following, a Royal Proclamation was issued, uniting
the provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into- one Dominion under the name of Canada. Two
days later, Lord Monck, who had been appointed Governor General of the new Dominion, entrusted Sir John
Macdonald with the formation of his first ministry, a task of no small difficulty, which, however, Macdonald
successfully accomplished, and on July I, 1867, the Dominion started on its career.
One incident of particular interest, touching the selection of the name of the Confederation, deserves to
be recorded. A clause in the Quebec resolutions provides that Her Majesty Queen Victoria should be solicited
to determine the rank and name of the united colony. This provision appears in the resolutions as revised by the
London Conference, and also in the first draft of the Bill. Apparently there was a change of policy in regard to this
subject, for in the place of the name in the fourth clause of the third draft, which had been left vacant in the earlier
 The"City Hall" and Council after the fire of June 13,1886
 draft, appears, for the first time, the "Kingdom of Canada." Sir John Macdonald has left on record that the
conference desired this designation for the new Confederation, and made every effort to retain it, but that Lord
Stanley (afterwards 15th Earl of Derby), then Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, objected on the ground that
the name "Kingdom" might wound the susceptibilities of the Americans. For this rather inadequate reason,
"Kingdom" was disallowed and "Dominion" substituted.
At Confederation, in 1867, the new Dominion of Canada comprised the four provinces of Nova Scotia, New
Brunswick, Quebec and Ontario, an estimated area of 377,000 square miles. Today the total area of the Dominion
is 3,797,123 square miles,or 111,992 square miles larger than the United States and Alaska combined. Nine organized
provinces and the Yukon and Northwest Territories make up the Canada of today, which is bounded by three
oceans and nearly thirteen thousand miles of sea-coast—nearly half the circumference of the earth. Almost as large
as Europe, eighteen Germanys could be rolled into its area; it is thirty times greater than the United Kingdom;
twice the size of British India; thirty-three times the size of Italy; eighteen times the size of France; one-third the
area of the British Empire.
But not in physical growth alone has Canada sought fulfilment of the verse from the 72nd Psalm, from which
the word "Dominion" was chosen: "He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends
of the earth." Achievement, almost incredible in its courageous conception and determined accomplishment, marks
the intervening years that stretch backward to Confederation. Through every line of the history of Canadian progress
runs the story of the inspired vision that actuated the Fathers of Confederation and gave birth to a new nation.
Only by comparison with conditions in 1867 and those enjoyed today can the imagination begin to comprehend
the vast changes that have been brought about within the span of a life-time.
Sixty years ago buffalo roamed the prairie in their native state and Winnipeg, now the gateway to the wheat-
growing provinces of the west, did not exist. The present site of that city was then occupied by the trading
post of Fort Garry, a mere settlement of 215 people. The pioneers of those early days have seen civilization step in
and the wilderness swept out. Today there are thriving cities and towns where bleaching buffalo bones marked the
ox-trails of fifty and sixty years ago. Today mighty freight trains, each with its thousand-ton.cargo of wheat or
merchandise, roar down the roads where the old "prairie schooners" and Red River carts once creaked in jolting
journey. Sixty years ago the entire population of Canada was but three million souls. There were but 2,278 miles
of railway. Chartered banks had only 123 branches at that time. Today Canada boasts a network of 40,352 miles
of railway and there are 3,589 chartered bank branches. Hardy pioneers have wrought this great transformation,
and men are living who remember when Portage la Prairie was the end of the main line of the Canadian Pacific
 Railway. Today, this company has 258 miles of sidings at Winnipeg, the largest railway yards in the world under
the operation of one concern. Only ninety-one years ago—July 21, 1836—Canada's first railway, the Champlain
and St. Lawrence, running from Laprairie to St. Johns, Quebec, a distance of 14^ miles, was opened to the public.
The rails were of wood with flat bars of iron spiked on top. The primitive locomotive drew a coach, followed by 14
cars drawn by horse teams over tracks and roadbed. Compare this with the Canadian National Railway of today—
the greatest system of publicly-owned railways in the world—-with its 3,101 locomotives, 3,647 passenger cars and
121,999 freight cars.
Only sixty-two years ago plans for Confederation were delayed because of lack of communication. Today
the combined telegraph systems cover 284,121 miles. In 1887, only 20 years after Confederation, the first transcontinental Canadian Pacific train covered the 2,896 miles that divide Montreal from Vancouver, and thus brought
to accomplishment what has been recognized as one of the greatest engineering feats in the world. Again, in the
matter of communication, Canada was without the telephone at Confederation; it was not until 1874, seven years
later, that Alexander Graham Bell invented this greatest of modern necessities in the city of Brantford, Ontario—
a Mohawk village in 1784, and an incorporated town twenty years before Confederation. At the close of 1926,
1,144,095 telephones were in operation in Canada. Beyond question the growth of the Dominion has, to an incalculable degree, been built by the systems of inter-communication provided in the railway, telegraph and telephone
achievements of the past three-score years. Of these fundamental assets to trade and commerce, to pleasure and
profit, one of the most fascinating sections of Canadian history might be written around the romance, adventurous
hardships and final triumph of those great pioneers whose sturdy perseverance was responsible for the heritage
of development that we enjoy today.
As an agricultural country, wheat has been responsible for substantial growth and prosperity throughout Canada.
On the 22nd day of June, 1869, an Act was passed providing for the government of the Northwest Territories—
the first big expansion of the new Dominion. On November 19, of the same year, the deed of surrender to the Crown
of the Hudson's Bay Company's territorial rights in the Northwest, was signed. On May 12, 1870, an Act to
establish the Province of Manitoba was passed, followed, on July 15, by the transfer of the Northwest Territories
to the Dominion, and the admission of Manitoba into Confederation, followed in 1871 by British Columbia, and
Prince Edward Island in 1873. Thus began the opening up of Canada's vast prairie lands and their immense wheat-
growing possibilities. Seven years later the first exportation of wheat was made from Manitoba to the United
Kingdom—four years before the first sod of the Canadian Pacific Railway was turned. Then, on September I,
1880, all British possessions in North America and adjacent islands, except Newfoundland and its dependencies,
 were annexed to Canada by Imperial Order in Council of July 31. Two years later the Provincial Districts of Assini-
boia, Saskatchewan, Athabasca and Alberta were formed, and Regina was established as the seat of the government
of the Northwest Territories on August 23, 1882. From this western empire the Dominion of Canada has created
many interesting records in connection with the raising and storage of grain. Seager Wheeler, of Rosthern, Saskatchewan, once a British newsboy,who was rejected by the navy on account of lack in stature and physical measurements, grew wheat that won the world's championship no less than five times. For fourteen out of sixteen years
Canada has held the world's wheat supremacy, the double championship of wheat and oats being carried off in
1926 by Herman Trelle, of Wembly, Alberta, in the Peace River District.
Grain storage affords several claims to the big things of a big country. Fort William has a combined elevator
capacity which is the second largest in the world, while Montreal claims the world's largest grain conveying system.
Hauling has provided another record. A Canadian Pacific Railway engine has pulled one hundred and ten fully
loaded cars of wheat, an aggregate of 165,000 bushels, making a train of nine-tenths of a mile in length. In the year
ending July 31, 1926, Canada led the world as an exporter of wheat and flour. Over 4,000 elevators, with a capacity
of over 250,000,000 bushels, provide storage for the Dominion's crop of grain. Today Canada exports' her grain
and grain products to sixty countries of the world, and of all agricultural countries Canada stands first in ratio of
increase of production in the past twenty-five years. As with the progress of railroad and telegraphic communication,
already touched on in this necessarily brief survey, the agricultural development of Canada since Confederation
forms an epic in itself.
The lure of gold and precious metals has ever held a fascinating grip upon the minds of adventurous men.
No matter how inaccessible the region in which earth's treasures are stored, men of all races readily risk every
possible hazard and difficulty in the winning of fortunes from nature's stronghold. Though the trail of the prospector
be taken by dog team, pack train, or "mushed" on foot, always in his wake there follows commerce and development.
Because of these things, and by reason of Canada's immense richness in minerals, many a new district has been
opened up for permanent settlement in the wake of successful prospecting. It is not surprising, therefore, to find
that in mining, as in so many other things, Canada holds some enviable records. One of the few commercial sources
of helium is found in the Dominion. The Kimberley zinc-lead mine in British Columbia is one of the most important
in the world. Eighty per cent, of the world's nickel requirements come from Canada; with only a little over five
per cent, of the world's population, ninety per cent, of its cobalt is produced. Eighty-eight per cent, of the world's
supply of asbestos is mined here, nine per cent, of its silver, eight per cent, of its gold, and three per cent, of its
copper. With over two hundred million dollars' worth of new minerals being produced each year in the Dominion,
 An air view of the University of British Columbia, Point Gr
 the highest per capita pre
of any country in the world stands to Canada's credit. Incidentally, sixteen metals
- .._e mined in this country. It may be asserted without fear of contradiction that
Canada of today leads the entire world in the possibilities of its mining industry—even though the underground
resources of the Dominion have as yet scarcely been touched. The first forges in Canada were set up in the St.
Maurice Valley, in 1667, where iron ore was first discovered. In 1926 Canada set up a new record in mining production
—#242,886,000. In this vast investment, fifty-four per cent, of the shareholders are Canadians, thirty per cent.
American, thirteen per cent. British, and three per cent, foreign. British Columbia and Ontario rank highest in
the production of minerals among Canadian provinces, each having a total record'of over #900,000,000. Ontario
has some 256,880 square miles of mineral lands, only seven per cent, of which has been exploited. British Columbia,
with an area of 355,855 square miles, or ten per cent, of all Canada, is only at the very commencement of her mining
possibilities. The Hollinger gold mine in Ontario, one of the world's chief producers, has a total yield to date of
#115,000,000—over #95,000,000 in excess of the public revenue of Canada in the, year following Confederation.
In the matter of coal resources Canada claims second place in the supply countries of the world. In newsprint
production Canada, exceeded that of the United States and thus took her place as the world's greatest source of
newsprint supply. And so the story might be continued almost indefinitely concerning these vital natural resources
of the D01
the beginnings of c
1 of r
lone their bit towards the re-creation of the map in
)ns virgin lands have been brought under fruitful
nee formed almost impenetrable barriers; orchards
;tately solitude for generation after generation; rails
trails were the only medium of travel; powerful
development; log cabins and primitive
istory, pioneer
rai resources, .from  primitive cond
ation; cities have been built where primeval   forests
1 where a few short years ago the giant had  reigned i
el link up the settlements that were founded when w
3 have replaced the ox team in the evolution of agriculti
a given way to homes of comfort, convenience, charm a:
.But wonderful as the various changes appear from the outlook of today, each fades into insignificance beside
the thrilling stories of adventurous travel and discovery that the makers of Canada undertook in bygone days.
Two hundred and fifty-seven years ago King Charles II granted to Prince Rupert and his associate "gentlemen
adventurers" a charter which carried the right to trade with the natives of the Hudson Bay region. This was the
beginning of the Hudson's Bay Company, which today has its trading posts, as then, all over the Northwest.
Thus we trace the trapping and trading of furs back to the very beginnings of Canada's history and commercial
development. In 1670 the Hudson's Bay Company was accorded the privilege of trading in skins throughout the
 territory which bears its name. Today Canada ranks as one of the world's great fur producing countries, 3,820,326
pelts being taken in the season of 1924-25. Fur farming is now carried on in practically every province of the
Dominion, and silver, black, red and blue foxes, Persian lamb, mink, racoon, muskrat and skunk are being bred
in captivity. Yet for many years to come the silent places of the vast northwest will present an attractive field
to hardy adventurers who stake their skill against the stern forces of nature along the trap-lines of the far-away
fur country, once policed from the international boundary to the Arctic Circle by that magnificent force, the
Royal North West Mounted Police, as it was formerly named.
Of these silent places—the unpeopled northlands—much might be written. Roaming across the hills, valleys
and plains that lie between Lake Athabasca and the Canadian Rocky Mountains, is the last wild herd of wood
buffalo, or bison, on the continent of North America. It numbers some eight hundred animals. Far north of the
unlimited stamping ground of the buffalo another great natural preserve exists. From the 60th degree of latitude
to the barrens of the Arctic Circle muskox graze in the open all the year round, ranging over an area of one million
square miles. In small herds of twenty or thirty, an estimated total of 25,000 of these stone-age animals survive
in Arctic Canada only and defend their existence from wolves by "hollow square" formation in the wild life battles
of the unknown places. A #500,000 reindeer industry is now proposed for the Mackenzie River basin.
To the south, fenced in an enclosure of 158 square miles, the largest herd of buffalo in the world are preserved
by the Canadian Government near Wainwright, Alberta. In the same province an immense mountain wilderness
of 4,400 square miles has been set apart for the nation and the pleasure of tourists—Jasper Park. It is the largest
and, undoubtedly, the most beautiful reserve in the world, for it contains innumerable lakes of lovely setting,
unexplored regions, unclimbed mountain peaks, vast glaciers, great snow-fields, wonderful canyons and caves, a
panorama of grandeur and surpassing charm. Mount Robson, the highest peak of the Canadian Rockies; Mount
Edith Cavell, the monument eternal to a heroine of the English-speaking race; peaceful Lake Maligne;the Miette
hot springs—these are found among a thousand wonders within the confines of Jasper Park. And, beyond all scenic
appeal, it is the largest big game sanctuary in the world.
It was through such untraveiled territory that Alexander Mackenzie, in 1793, dared the great unknown, crossed
the Rocky Mountains and reached the mouth of the Bella Coola River which empties into the Pacific Ocean on the
coast of British Columbia. Mackenzie and his associates of a fur trading company blazed a trail through the
wilderness of forests, rivers and lakes, beset by every conceivable form of known and unknown danger from hostile
Indian tribes and the perils of exploration. On foot, by pack horse and dog team the travel trails of early days
presented the very antithesis of modern railway journeying. Today the 2,896 miles that lie between Montreal and
are tunnelled; the great
;e, danger and difficulty
Vancouver may be traversed in ninety hours. The mountain barriers of Mackenzie's <
rivers are spanned; the forest fastness is penetrated by the railway right-of-way; dis
have been eliminated within the memory of living men.
Yet the old means of travel still exist in out-of-the-way places. Prospectors, trappers, traders, the police of
the north country, surveyors, and all whose calling or inclination takes them into the still sparsely settled regions,
must journey by canoe along nature's water highways, or over the mountains and plains on foot, by horse, or
behind the "huskies" that speed their sleigh-loads over interminable spaces of snow-covered country with the
untiring pace of their wolf forebears. Thus is the link between past and present maintained by a two-sided picture
of the manner in which inter-communication and movement has been overcome. Today, with over 400,000 miles
of highway linking the Dominion in a network of convenient communication; with radio bringing the remotest
habitation into contact with the great centres of industry and pleasure, the frontiers have been pushed back and
the greatest era in the history of the Dominion has commenced a period of development and prosperity that is
limited only by the energy and ambition of the nation.
Wonderful indeed as may be the physical characteristics of the Dominion, it is, after all, the record of
human achievement which creates the romance of progress. The record of Canada, since Confederation in
particular, is a record of enormous undertakings successfully accomplished, of daring visions translated into fact.
Among a hundred interesting projects is the Connaught Tunnel in the Canadian Pacific Railway, bored through
the heart of the Selkirk mountains for a distance of five miles—the longest tunnel on the continent of America.
As an engineering feat this ranks with the Gouin dam at the head of the St. Maurice River, one of the largest
dams in the world, having a capacity double that of the Assouan Dam on the River Nile in Egypt. Still another
engineering feat is the Trent Canal hydraulic lift lock at Peterborough, Ontario—again the largest in the world.
By reason of Canada being one of the largest producers of pulp and paper products in the world, it is not
surprising to discover that a number of record-breaking enterprises have been developed in that industry. At
Chicoutimi, Quebec, for instance, there is a pulp mill that has a daily capacity of 550 tons of mechanical pulp and
200 tons of chemical pulp. It is one of the largest of its kind anywhere. The largest ground wood mill is situated
at Three Rivers, in the same province, while at Iroquois Falls, Ontario, there is a single newsprint mill which
operates the world's largest paper machines—232 inches wide. Grand Mere, Quebec, lays claim to having the
fastest-running newsprint machines, which operate at 1,050 feet per minute.
Industrial development is, of course, only possible by reason of adequate water power resources, the develop-
increased 180 per cent,  in the past ten years. Canada now leads the world in the public per
ich has
 "RealEstate Office" following Vancouver's Big Fir
 capita distribution of electricity from central power stations, and is second of all countries in generation of electric
power per capita. One of the world's largest electrical power and light undertakings is the Hydro-Electric Power
Commission of Ontario, a co-operative municipal enterprise which generates and supplies on wholesale scale over
480 Ontario municipalities. Nearly 200 villages, 180 townships and most of the cities and towns of the province are
supplied by the main transmission lines, in eight systems, covering over 3,600 miles. From coast to coast hundreds
of big industrial constructions and extensions, ranging from a #500,000 company in Alberta to manufacture paper
from straw, to the thirty-eight million dollar Bridge River power project of the British Columbia Electric Railway
Company, are under way in this, the sixtieth year since Confederation.
The story of Canada's industrial growth, like that of her agriculture, mining, transportation and the development of her great natural resources, teems with the romance of daring achievement and splendid enterprise. This
is substantiated by the fact that 1926 was Canada's record year of construction; that it marked the most successful
year in Canadian history; that Canada has now become a two-billion-dollar Dominion; that Canada's wheat yield
of 17.8 bushels per acre again led all other countries, and that the Dominion again led the world in wheat and flour
exports, winning the world's wheat championship for the eleventh time, the Empire championship in apples, and
producing the world's champion hen, the famous "Hen No. 6," of the University of British Columbia experimental
farm—to quote but a few of the records that were established; that Canada has the largest per capita favorable
balance of trade of any country in the world; that her export trade between 1913 and 1926 increased ninety-four
per cent., as against that of a thirty per cent, increase by the United States; that Canada has the greatest fore
,, the r
capita, one of the v
the largest loom in the w
world countries, the lowe;
These few
fisheries, the largest pulpwood r
irgest gold mines, one of the largest h
rid at Yarmouth, Nova Scot'
: in per capita taxes as against Aust
r that might be produced, j
:s, the world's greatest railway mileage per
mills in the world on the Fraser River, and
a; that in national wealth Canada ranks seventh among
;t Australia, Great Britain and the United States.
,    ve some idea of the strides taken by the Dominion
of Canada since George Brown, speaking of the Confederation which he helped to bring about, said: "I believe it
contains the best features of all the suggestions that have been made in the last ten years for the settlement of our
troubles, and thankfulness that there were found men of position and influence in Canada who, at a moment of
is, had nerve and patriotism enough to cast aside political partisanship, to banish personal considerations
omplishment of a measure so fraught with advantage to their common country."
s a way of repeating itself, and it is not surprising, therefore, to find a seco:
ikfulness   that  in   a   national   crisis   men  would   prove   themselves   men
and unite for the
History ever ha
George  Brown's   thai
 hour of need. Thus it came about that during the Great War of 1914-1918, 619,636 men enlisted in the Canadian
Expeditionary Force, of which 424,589 went overseas for active service. Of this number 59,544 fell in action or died
of wounds and disease. Beyond this active service record, Canadians in all ranks of social, industrial and political
life united in the common cause, aided from coast to coast by a magnificent devotion on the part of the women of
the Dominion. Of the valiant exploits of Canadian troops on the'field of battle, from the first great baptism of fire
at the second battle of Ypres, on April 22, 1915, to the capture of Mons on November 10, 1918, it may be said
in truth and reverence that the men from the Dominion lived up to every tradition of the British race, and played
their part even as their pioneer forefathers did in the earlier struggles and hardships of nation-building.
The Great War was not, however, the only occasion upon which Canadians left their home and country to
engage in the Empire's cause. Fifteen years prior to the embarkation of the First Canadian Contingent in October,
1914, the First Canadian Contingent left Canada, in the same month, to take part in the South African War of 1899.
No record, however brief, would be permissible without reference to the educational progress of the Dominion,
and it is interesting to note, in this connection, that the first schools in Canada were opened at Three Rivers and
Tadousac, Quebec, in the year 1616. Today Canada boasts of twenty-three universities and eighty-five colleges,
including six agricultural, two technical, two law, twenty-six theological and thirty-one classical institutions, in
addition to all the public and private schools scattered across the Dominion. Besides these centres of learning
Canada has 966 libraries and a frontier college, staffed with twenty-two teachers, and reaching»over 20,000 workers
in isolated camps, of which there are some 4,000 employing approximately 200,000 men in various seasonal works.
Touching again on the historical side of Canada's career, the Dominion premiers since Confederation, in the
order of their election, are: John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie, John A. Macdonald, John J. C. Abbott,
John S. D. Thompson, Mackenzie Bowell, Charles Tupper, Wilfrid Laurier, Robert L. Borden, Arthur Meighen,
W. L. Mackenzie King. There have been thirteen Governor Generals during this sixty-year period: Viscount Monck,
Lord Lisgar, the Earl of Dufferin, the Marquis of Lome, the Marquis of Lansdowne, Lord Stanley of Preston,
the Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl of Minto, the Earl Grey, Field-Marshal H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, the Duke
of Devonshire, Lord Byng of Vimy, Lord Willingdon.
Another glimpse backward—this time at the historical associations that surround present-day towns
and cities of the Dominion—brings to light many a half forgotten story of the days when Canada was little more
than an undiscovered country awaiting the coming of men of vision and endurance—an empire that seems to have
been kept in readiness for the time when hundreds of thousands of settlers from the congested areas of the older
lands would reach out into the space that lies beyond the confined limits of old-world conditions.
 Out of the beginnings of Canadian history the ancient city of Quebec, founded by Champlain in 1608, may
justly claim to be the cradle of the Dominion, for it was here that the Confederation conference of 1864 came to
the momentous decision "that the best interests and present and future prosperity of British North America will
be promoted by a federal union under the Crown of Great Britain, provided such union can be effected on principles
just to the several provinces." It was in Quebec in the year 1621—two hundred and forty-six years prior to Confederation—that the first code of laws was issued, and a register of births, marriages and deaths opened.
Around the early days of what is now the City of Montreal much of the bygone past has an intense interest
today. From the Indian village of Hochelaga, visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535, followed by the trading post set
up by Champlain—Place Royale—in 1611, Ville-Marie (now Montreal) was founded by Maisonneuve in 1642.
Among many records of more than ordinary interest is the fact that Montreal has the oldest board of trade in
Canada, this body having functioned with uninterrupted life since 1822, or from forty-five years before Confederation.
Halifax, Nova Scotia, is another of the older Canadian cities, having been founded in 1749, and holding the
honor of publishing the first newspaper in the Dominion with the issue of the Halifax "Gazette" on March 25, 1752.
Kingston, 254 years old, built on the site of Fort Frontenac, dating back to 1673, gives place to Three Rivers,
Quebec, the second oldest city in Canada, founded by Lavoilette in 1634, while Toronto—"the place of meeting"
according to the Indian word from which it is named—goes back to 1749, v '
a French fur trading post. Ottawa, capital city of the Dominion, and chosen a
as Bytown in 1826. Victoria, the capital city of British Columbia, founded i
by Queen Victoria—to mention but two more of Canada's pre-Confedei
Many men—and many v
towards the progress of this Domir
great trials shadowed the pathway of those whose faith, courage
country. Many lives have been given to encompass the
sixtieth anniversary of Canada's Confederation. Many a
to the building of a national character that, finds its cc
From all the pages of absorbing interest which consti'
partial sketch of the high lights has been attempted i
recounted to substantiate the splendidly phrased tribu
With this asset the Makers of Canada have not
when it was known as "Fort Roui
s such by Queen Victoria, was founded
1 1842, and New Westminster, named
1 cities—dates back to 1858.
1 and unknown in the annals of Canadian history, have contributed
I the day when  John Cabot first set foot on Canada's
id the foundations of this great
iperity and security which we celebrate on this
ts of heroism, self-sacrifice and patriotism have contributed
nterpart throughout the long history of British tradition,
ite the written record of the Dominion of Canada, but a-
. the confines of this short survey. Yet enough has been
:: "Canada's greatest resource is character."
ibored in vain.
 (5) Evangeline's IVell, Grand Pre (6) General Wolfe's Monument, Plains ofAbrahc
ROFITABLE trading in furs—following the first adventurous voyages of discovery dating back to
578, when Sir Francis Drake, English privateersman, raided the Spanish ships of the South Seas,
ind sailed up the coast of Northern California to take possession of the entire Northwest in the name
>f Queen Elizabeth—was the chief incentive which brought white men to the coast of what is now
mown as the Province of British Columbia. The lure of gold brought about the second entry—
1 peaceful invasion which carried the white man up the Fraser River and far into the heart of the
. peaceful save for the attacks of hostile Indians, who resented the penetration of their hunting grounds
by the strange newcomers.
From the first discovery of profitable dealings with the native Indians of the north coast in .the bartering
of pelts, to the time of the gold rush, over seventy years elapsed, and in that period much of British Columbia's
early history was written into the records of time.
Four world powers—Russia, Spain, the United States and England—were involved in the early contests
for occupation of the coastline territory from which there came such valuable cargoes of magnificent furs.
As early as 1728, Peter the Great directed one Vitus Bering, a Dane, to open up the fur trade of the Islands
of Unalaska on behalf of Russia. In 1774, Spain, worried over the incursion of the Russians in the north, ordered
Don Juan Perez, with whom was Don Estevan Martinez as navigator, to proceed from the California settlements
on a trip of discovery in the sailing ship Santiago. This expedition reached the Queen Charlotte Islands, and on
August 18 sighted Vancouver Island. Perez was followed by Don Bruno Hecata and Francisco de la Bodega y Quadra.
A landing was made on Vancouver Island by Hecata, and Spain recorded her claim to territorial rights.
In 1776, during the reign of King George III, the British government commissioned Captain James Cook
to search the north-western waters of America for discovery of the supposed waterway connecting the Pacific
and Atlantic Oceans. Cook, with two small ships, the Resolution and Discovery, the former under his own command
and the latter under Captain Charles Clerke, reached Hope Bay, near Nootka, on March 29, 1778. Fur trading
with the Indians of that locality was engaged in while the ships were being repaired. The following winter Captain
Cook was killed in a fight with the natives of the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), whither he had repaired for winter
  When reports of this expedition, and the possibilities of fur trading, got abroad, many adventurers embarked
for the North Pacific Coast. Among these was Captain James Hanna, who arrived in 1785, and established himself
as the pioneer fur trader of the coast islands. One year later the King George, the Queen Charlotte and the
Imperial Eagle, the latter carrying the first white woman to visit the coast in the person of the bride of its commander, Captain Barkley, did valuable exploration work along the waterways of the coast.. Another renowned
adventurer was Captain John Meares, who, on his second trip in 1788, established a fur trading post at Nootka.
This little settlement all but precipitated war between England and Spain, for in 1.789 the Spaniards sent two
warships to Nootka under the command of Don Stephen Joseph Martinez, who seized Meares' settlement and
his ships, which included the North-West American, a boat of forty tons, and the first ship built on this coast.
It took nearly two years for the news of this action to reach England, when the British Government promptly
demanded restitution by Spain in an ultimatum despatched by Pitt, the British premier: Both countries prepared
for war over the incident, with Great Britain, Holland and Prussia lined up against Spain and France, but Great
Britain's demands were finally acceded to in the Articles of Convention, signed October 28, 1790.
The carrying out of this agreement brought Captain George Vancouver to the North-west, he having been
commissioned in 1790 to proceed to the Pacific coast in command of a new 340-ton vessel, H.M.S. Discovery.
His ship was accompanied by the armed tender Chatham, under Lieutenant W. R. Broughton, their orders being
to explore the coast line and take possession at Nootka "of the buildings, districts, or parcels of lands, which were
occupied by His Majesty's subjects in the month of April, 1789." Captain Vancouver first explored Puget Sound,
and, with Lieutenant Peter Puget, passed through the Lions' Gate into Burrard Inlet on June 13, 1792, naming the
harbor after Sir Harry Burrard. A few days later he encountered two Spanish ships off Point Grey, or Spanish Banks,
as the locality became known. These boats were from Mexico under command of Lieutenants Galiano and Valdez,
names subsequently given by Vancouver to the two islands bearing these names. On August 28, Captain Vancouver
reached Nootka, after having sailed round the immense island upon which it was situated, and which he subsequently
named "Vancouver's and Quadra's Island," the latter part being in honor of his Spanish friend Don Juan Francisco
de la Bodega y Quadra. Surrender by the Spaniards was made on March 28, 1795, and Nootka, and the whole
area claimed by Captain Vancouver, was included in the transfer to Great  Britain.
In 1810, fifteen years later, the United States awoke to the possibilities of the territory which now forms
the States of Washington and Oregon, when, with the encouragement of the President of the Republic, John
Jacob Astor formed the Pacific Fur Company with the purpose of establishing a fur trading post on the
Columbia River.
 (i) Indian Village, showing Totem Poles        (2) Cherry Picking in British Columbia
In the meantime, during which Captain Vancouver was yet engaged in
intent on reaching the Pacific Ocean. As with the expeditions of the sailing shi
fur trading played its part. For Alexander Mackenzie—the intrepid young See
insuperable danger and hardship, came out at Bella Coola, and, with a mi
inscribed on the side of a great rock this simple record: "Alexander Mackenzi
second of July, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-three"—was in th
rivals of the Hudson's Bay Company, the great NorthTWest Fur Company
did Lewis and Clarke, citizens of the United States, reach the Pacific in wha
first cross-continent journey to be made by white men north of Mexico. Tl
was the annexation of all territory west of the Rockies, as a counter move
The year 1805 brought with it further discovery and exploration of Brit
Fraser, another partner in the fur company, was sent to Fort McLeod. Th<
St. James, which, for many years, was the centre of fur trading in the West. In
the interior of the province, which was given the name of New Caledonia, -
United States. Fort George was established, and a year later Simon Fraser set
finally brought him to the mouth of the Fraser River, so named in honour of
the Thompson River. It is recorded that, on the return trip, which was mad
he and his party narrowly escaped death from Indians at a spot almost oppo
minster. A world of thrilling adventure surrounds this notable journey; the stor
venture"; of canyons "turbulent, noisy and awful to behold"; of precarious si
upon a thread . . . the failure of a line or a false step of one of the men, mij
The year 1810 brought the rivalry of the North-West Company and th
under Astor, to a head. David Thompson, who established the fifth perman
Kootenay House, near Windermere, received orders from Montreal to forest
mouth of the Columbia River. Thompson, as recorded by Hon. Mr. Justic
History," was one of British Columbia's first and most successful prohibitic
regarded as a mainstay of trade, a supply awaited Thompson in readiness foi
defiles of the mountains," wrote Thompson, "I placed the two kegs of alcohol
Section of Vancouver Waterfro
kegs were empty .  .  . I wrote to my partners what I had done, and that I woulc
and for the six years I had charge of the fur trade on the west side of the mou
to introduce spirituous liquors."
Astor's sea expedition arrived before Thompson paddled down the Colun
at the stern, and manned  by Canadian voyageurs. The Astorians, under the
engaged David Stuart, who on September 11, 1811, left the United States trac
the first white man to visit Okanagan Lake.  The year following he establisl
of Kamloops. To avoid capture, at the commencement of the war of 1812 be-
States, the American interests sold out to the North-West Company.
During the next few years rivalry between the Hudson's Bay Compan
their struggle for the fur trade of the West, developed to the point of open fight
Hudson's Bay Company was killed near the present city of Winnipeg. It took t
to England. An amicable agreement was reached in 1821, and the two rival coi
Hudson's Bay Company. George Sin
Dr. John McLoughlin was created ch
another young Scotsman, James Do-
As a result of this union of the r
Oregon, Washington and the portio
more important were Fort Langley,
Fort Victoria, 1843.
Space prevents anything more than brief mention of the boundary difficulties arising after the war between
Great Britain and the United States, 1812-14. The latter country claimed the restoration of Astoria, a final settlement being arrived at in 1846, when the suggestion previously made by Great Britain in 1826, providing for what
is practically the present boundary, was agreed upon.
With the possibility of Great Britain losing control over the Columbia River territory, and the very apparent
advantage of securing seaboard headquarters for the convenience of their sailing vessels in the fur-carrying trade
between British Columbia and London, Sir George Simpson, early in 1842, instructed Chief Factor James Douglas
to explore the lower portion of Vancouver Island for the purpose of locating suitable headquarters.    Douglas
eventually reported favorably on the Port of Camosack (or Camosun) as a suitable site, having the necessary
safe harbor and "a great extent of valuable tillage and pasture-land" in close proximity.  Thus began the city of
pson, a Scotsman, was placed
ief factor at Fort Vancouver in
large of the compan
3, and to him is due
iglas, well named "The Father
of B
ritish Columbia," t
val companies a number of fort
n of Alaska leased from Russia
re established throu
the Hudson's Bay
erected in 1827; Fort Simpson
lit five years later;
 ) New Westminster from the River        (2) SS. Beaver, firs
n boat on the Pacific Coc
 Victoria, and the foundations of the province of British Columbia,
on the first power-vessel in the Pacific, the historic Beaver, taking a
—paid with a blanket for every forty pickets cut with axes loa
using a single nail. The fort was ultimately named "Fort Victoria'
The discovery of bituminous coal in 1835 marked the nex
From the day that an Indian brought samples of "black stones"
Dr. W. F. Tolmie, the Hudson's Bay Company turned its attem
coaling of steamships. Miners came out from England, and in 1852
Bay, as the district was then known. The Indian who made the disc
James Douglas laid down full regulations governing taking possess
per ton royalty to the Company, and the proper licensing of the
Fort Victoria, August 24, 1852, addressed to Mr. Joseph McKay,
authority for occupying Nanaimo, or Colvilletown, as the settlemer
which stands today only a few feet from its first location.
In 1849, under an agreement with Great Britain, the Hue
trading rights, and undertook to colonize Vancouver Island and
rental for the Island was fixed at seven shillings yearly, and it was si
lands sold reasonably, public lands should be reserved as requirec
be devoted to improvement, except for a ten per cent, commissio
In anticipation of rapid settlement (which did not materialh
one pound per acre and the stipulation that every purchaser of :
men), the British Government sent out Richard Blanchard as Gov
machinery. No salary was attached to the appointment and Gove:
the moment of his arrival, due to the fact that the Hudson's Ba
almost the entire population, really ruled the colony. Before resi,
a Council, consisting of Chief Factor James Douglas, John Tod ar
in response to a memorial presented by fifteen independent set
signatories were: James Yates, Rev. Robert Staines, James Coope
Sangster, John Muir, senior, John Muir, junior, William Fraser, A
Robert Muir, Archibald Muir, Thomas Blenkhorn. The provision
 when James Douglas received the appointment as Governor, which was followed on July 9, 1852, by h__ r.
to be Lieutenant-Governor of Queen Charlotte Islands. The salary was fixed at 800 pounds a year. With the appointment he was made a Vice-Admiral. At about this time the total number of settlers on Vancouver Island was only 450.
Mr. B. A. McKelvie, as historian of the Native Sons of British Columbia, relates the following interesting
incidents connected with the records of the first legislative council of the colony of Vancouver Island, in his book
"Early History of the Province of British Columbia." At the meeting of April 28, 1852, after approving of certain
accounts, the first law enactment was considered. This was a liquor law. The suggestion that a duty of 5 per cent,
be placed on all imports was objected to on the grounds that it "would prove a bar to the progress of settlement,
impose a heavy burden upon settlers from England importing implements and furniture, and that in the present
state of the colony, there not being above twenty settlers on the whole island, the sum arising from the duty would
not much exceed the expense of the officers necessary for its collection." So reads the minute. In October it was
decided to issue wholesale and retail licenses.
Magistrates and Justices of the Peace were appointed on March 29, 1853, as follows: Edward E. Langford,
Esquimalt district; Thomas J. Skinner, Peninsula; Kenneth McKenzie, Peninsula; Thomas Blenkhorn, Metchosin.
On this date, quoting further from Mr. McKelvie's history, "the subject of public instruction was next brought
under the consideration of council," and it was decided to open two schools, one at Maple Point, and another
near Victoria, "there being about thirty children and youths of both sexes, respectively, at each of these places."
The first school was at Minies Plain, and Robert Barr was the first schoolmaster.
Among other interesting occurrences in 1853 it is recorded that a committee of four was appointed to locate
a route for a road to Sooke; justices were required to hold petty sessions and quarter sessions; the first trial by jury
was held; a court of common pleas was instituted; Mr. David Cameron was appointed to the judgeship at a salary
of 100 pounds; Hon. John Tod, Hon. Roderick Finlayson and Thomas J. Skinner, J.P., were appointed to inspect
schools; fees for the colonial school were approved.
The year following appropriations for public works were passed. "The council then proceeded to consider
the state of the country and means of defending it against the Queen's enemies (Russians) in case of invasion,"
and it was decided to charter the steamer Otter, arming her with thirty men and "to employ her in watching over
the safety of the settlements until Her Majesty's Government  take some other measures for our protection."
The year 1855 brought trouble with the Indians and an armed force of eight privates, a corporal and a sergeant
under a "competent officer" was maintained during this period. Two thousand pounds was appropriated for a
public hospital, court-house and road construction. On the 4th of June,  1856, instructions were received from
 the Imperial Government calling for public meetings for the election of representative:
With the discovery of gold on the Thompson and Fraser Rivers between 1855 and :
ment commenced. The despatch by Governor Douglas of 800 ounces of gold, traded fror
Bay Company, to the mint of San Francisco, started the stampede for the new gold fi
from California, Washington and Oregon. At this time Vancouver Island constituted a (
no government on the mainland save the control exercised by the Hudson's Bay Compan}
who promptly issued a proclamation fixing license fees for the new mining territory. In
investigation of the trading privileges enjoyed by the Hudson's Bay Company on Vancouv
tion of the possible effects of the gold rush, the Hudson's Bay Company was asked by
to relinquish its special privileges, a suggestion that was fully agreed to. Governor E
sever his connection with the Company and accept, in addition to the governorship o
control of the colony, both island and mainland, under the name chosen for it by Queen Vict
Thus it came about that on November 19, 1858, the ceremony of administering the oath c
as chief justice of British Columbia was performed by James Douglas at Fort Langley
sworn in as Governor of the new colony.
This year marked the introduction of decimal currency in Canada, and the comp
cable; Fort Hope was established, and Yale became the centre of the new mining indu
Many thrilling fights with Indians form the record of the invading army of whi
of early times would be complete without paying tribute to the pioneer missionaries who ps
and commerce in an almost unknown country, where danger lurked on every hand.
Incidental to the new status of the colony, the Colonial Office carried out the reco
Lytton that a corps of Royal Engineers be despatched to British Columbia. This corp
volunteers who were offered special conditions of service. When finally completed, t
officers and men included representatives of every trade or profession necessary to a prop
The command of the corps was entrusted to Colonel Richard Clement Moody, and they
parties, the first consisting of surveyors, the second carpenters. These sections were pi
inauguration, the main body arriving at Esquimalt, after a passage around Cape Horn,
Moody held a commission as lieutenant-governor and was chief commissioner of works
Writing of this force, in his History of British Columbia, His Honor Judge Howaj
explorations in the colony, a great deal of the surveying of townsites and country lands, ai
 (i) View of the Historic GoldTown of Lillooet,B.C. (2) The"Hangman's Tree" neat Lillooet, said to be 150 years old
 of roads, were performed by them. Portions of the Douglas-Lillooet, the Hope-Similkameen, the Cariboo and the
North roads were built by them. The maps of the colony and of portions of it were made by them, from their surveys,
prepared in their drafting-office and lithographed and published by them. The designs of the first schoolhouses and
churches, the first colonial coat-of-arms and postage-stamps were prepared by them."
Upon arrival at Victoria of the first detachment of Royal Engineers, Governor Douglas employed them in
locating a seat of government for the colony, and this work was proceeded with near Fort Langley. The site chosen
was situated on the south side of the Fraser River, some thirty miles from its mouth, and named "Derby." When
Colonel Moody arrived he found that the townsite had been platted and a sale of lots had been held. The location,
from a strategic point, did not meet with his approval, as being too far from the mouth of the river and altogether
too adjacent to the territory of a foreign power. Moving some fifteen miles down the river, he found in the present
site occupied by New Westminster a more suitable location, and public notice was given that the town would be
laid out as the capital. "Queensborough" was suggested as the name, but residents of Victoria objected, and the
selection was finally referred to Queen Victoria, who chose "New Westminster." The Royal Engineers,
were quartered at Sapperton during the period of building New Westminster, which, in 1859, was
the second port of entry for customs duties.
Meanwhile the lure of gold was taking men far into the heart of British Columbia, and the CI
the Thompson River and the Quesnel River were prospected, followed almost immediately by the
rush and the stampede into the Similkameen Valley. By i860 fully 6,000 miners had invaded the cc
discoveries were being recorded almost every week. The following year Williams Creek, declared to 1
richest mining ground, was discovered. It is estimated that nearly three million dollars in gold was se
Much of this metal passed through the New Westminster Assay Office, and gave rise to the suggestio
Columbia mint its own gold currency. This suggestion met with the approval of the Colonial Office,
a mint was established, dies forwarded from England, and five ten- and five twenty-dollar gold pieces
struck, final authority was withheld, and the firs't mint in Canada went permanently out of business.
In the spring of 1928 it is expected that construction work now under way will be finished and that the last
link of the trans-provincial highway—the Cariboo Road—will be completed. Today the auto creates a demand
for this road. Sixty-five years ago the building of the Cariboo Road was a necessity to provide access to the gold-
bearing creeks of the Cariboo country. To this end Governor Douglas commissioned the Royal Engineers first to
improve the trail from Hope to the Similkameen, and later to undertake the plan of Mr. Walter Moberley for widening
the Indian pathways along the interior route. A government bonus and the provision of tolls were agreed upon and
or "sappers,
sstablished as
ilcotin River,
Cariboo gold
lony and new
5e the world's
:ured in 1861.
n that British
but although
 sectional contracts were begun by a soldier and civilian force, under Captain J. M. Grant, between Yale and
Chapman's Bar, from that point to Boston Bar, and from thence to Lytton. The road from Lytton to Fort Alexandria was undertaken by Mr. Moberley, Charles Oppenheimer and T. B. Lewis. Without the anticipated financial
support from the Imperial Government, Moberley and Oppenheimer, who had bought out their partner Lewis,
were ruined, and the government of British Columbia had to take over the charter and finish the work—an undertaking of tremendous difficulties, but one which was accomplished with such marked success that the road still
retains portions of its original constructon.
Another road-builder of the '6o's was Alfred Waddington, who conceived the possibility of a highway opening
up the interior from Bute Inlet. This enterprise led to what has become known as the "Chilcotin War" of 1864,
when raiding parties of Indians murdered a number of the construction men, settlers and packers after forty miles
of trail had been constructed by Waddington along the Homatcho River. Before the culprits were finally brought
to justice and hanged, this little Indian war cost British Columbia #80,000.
Meanwhile, the first white settler on the ground now occupied by the City of Vancouver spent his first night
encamped with an Indian on the shore at Stanley Park. This was in the fall of 1862; the name of the young Englishman was John Morton, who, with his cousin, Sam Brighouse, and William Hailstone, purchased 550 acres of the
present West End of the city. In this year, on August 2, the City of Victoria became incorporated.
Morton's small log cabin and barn were the first buildings erected on the peninsula, and the trail that he and
his companion cut near the present location of Carrall Street, was the first development to take place.
The north shore of Burrard Inlet was the scene of the next development, when, in 1863,Two New Westminster
men, Graham and Hicks, erected a water-power lumber mill. This was subsequently taken over and successfully
operated by Moody, Nelson & Co., and resulted in a little village, known as Moodyville, adjoining the present
site of the City of North Vancouver, coming into existence. Another lumber venture was established on the south
shore two years later, when Captain Stamp, of Alberni, built the Hastings Mill, where it stands today on its original
site. Around the mill a small community began to grow, and this village was named Granville.
Two gold rushes were witnessed in 1864-5, tnis time to the Kootenay and the Big Bend country. Wild Horse
Creek produced rich pay and the Big Bend diggings brought good rewards, but neither field proved permanent.
In an attempt to secure trade from the goldfields for the colony, Mr. Edgar Dewdney was commissioned to build
a road via Osoyoos Lake, Kettle River and the Columbia to the mines. This became known as the Dewdney trail.
With the expiration of Governor Douglas's term as executive administrator of Vancouver Island in 1863,
and as Governor of British Columbia in 1864, Queen Victoria, desiring to recognize his splendid services, but not
 the personal investiture of James Douglas, Esquire, as a Knight Commander (civil division) of the
Order of the Bath." This document is dated October 3, 1863. Bearing the bold signature of Qu
dated "the sixteenth day of May, the fourteenth year of our reign," the original commission of £
is inscribed on thick parchment, appointing him "Governor and Commander-in-Chief in and ov
of Vancouver and the islands adjacent between the 49th and 52nd degrees, and also of all forts anc
and established or to be erected or established on the said Island of Vancouver and islands adjace
our will and pleasure."
The question of uniting the colonies of the mainland and Vancouver Island engaged publ:
Arthur Kennedy succeeded Sir James Douglas as Governor of the Island, and Frederick Seymo
similar appointment on the mainland. This demand was ratified by a majority vote in the Ass<
in 1865, and supported by a petition from 445 British Columbia residents. Jealousy between
Victoria and New Westminster as to which should be the capital of the united colonies engend
agitation, which ended only with the royal proclamation of the union of Vancouver Island to
on November 17, 1866. Victoria was chosen as the capital of the new colony of "British Colui
A more democratic form of government; the building of a wagon-road across Canada; a
the possibility of annexation by the United States, and a feeling that closer union was necessan
Columbia and Canada—these were reasons which prompted a movement to have the colony ent
This was at first opposed by Governor Seymour, but with the formation of a Confederation Leaj
meetings were held throughout the colony, and the proposal received support from a majority
the death of Governor Seymour the following year, Anthony Musgrave was appointed as his sua
Canada received a new impetus, and a delegation supporting the plan was sent to Ottawa. On J
was received intimating that Canada was favorable to immediate union and would guarantee t
The terms under which British Columbia became a province of the Dominion on July 20, 18
changes and included: Dominion liability for mail service, salaries of the lieutenant-governor, ju
connected with customs, marine, fisheries, militia, and similar institutions; provision for six mem!
and three senators at Ottawa; an annual subsidy to the province, various departmental arran
building of a trans-Canada railway.
Fourteen years elapsed before the last spike was driven and the first Canadian Pacific Raih
into Port Moody on November 7, 1885. From this date began the magic that is wrought by tran
(Top) Waterfront, showing the magnificent new "Pier B. C" (Below) Ballantyne Pier and some of the grain elevator
 The British Columbia of today presents an astounding contrast to the pioneering days of twenty-five, fifty
and seventy-five years ago. From the two schools of 1853, well over one thousand schools are now required to provide
education for the hundred thousand pupils in the province—from a building forty feet square to the palatial facilities
of the University of British Columbia at Point Grey. In the late 70's the province was without a telephone; today
over 27,000 miles of wire have been strung to serve the installation of 96,400 telephones—an increase of 89,750 in
22 years. One year after Confederation British Columbia boasted but two branch batiks; in 1926 there were 185.
There were no railways in the province when the Royal Engineers came to New Westminster in 1858, but now 5,144
miles are in operation. With an investment of #68,000,000—considerably more than three times the public revenue
of Canada at Confederation—the British Columbia Electric Railway Company has given the province the largest
street railway undertaking in Canada with a system aggregating 340 miles.
Since Confederation British Columbia, with an area three times that of the United Kingdom, and larger than
Italy, Switzerland and France combined, has increased its population from 60,000 to 568,400. The Greater Vancouver
of today has grown from the first settler with his two companions of 1862 to a metropolitan area having a population
of over 250,000 people. Victoria, in 1843 but a pallisaded fort, sheltering a mere handful of hardy pioneers, is now
the beautiful capital of the province with a population of 65,000. Vancouver Island, 15,000 square miles in area, or
larger than Belgium, once a primitive Indian hunting paradise, now one of the most fertile and prosperous portions
of Canada's great Pacific province; New Westminster, with the only fresh water harbor west of the Great Lakes,
and a population of 15,000—thriving beyond all recognition from the days when red-coated "sappers" first commenced to lay its foundations; Prince Rupert, youngest but not the least lusty of Pacific coast ports—so the story
of achievement and progress of a hundred settlements in British Columbia might be continued if space permitted.
Of British Columbia as a whole a fascinating record of development has been interwoven through the years
that have passed. Next to the last province to enter Confederation, an amazing growth has been brought about
since the days of colonial rule. Nature's bounty has given British Columbia an area of 182,750,000 acres of forest
land, upon which there is today an aggregate stand of 360 billion feet of merchantable timber, thus giving the
province an undisputed lead over all Canadian provinces in lumber production. Wood pulp was first manufactured
in British Columbia in 1909, and in that year the production amounted to 644 tons. In 1924 the province advanced
to third rank among the provinces as a producer of pulp and paper.
In fisheries British Columbia also retains supremacy for the entire Dominion. In mining, although but a
comparatively small area has been prospected, British Columbia stands third among the provinces w'ith a #67,750,000
record of production in 1926. The largest silver-lead-zinc mines in the world and the largest mill for the treatment
 of these ores in the British Empire are situated in British Columbia. So, too, are Canada's three largest copper
mines and the three largest concentration mills for treatment of copper ore. Nor do these claims exhaust the record.
The giant Sullivan Mine is estimated to be able to produce ore at the rate of 4,000 tons daily for one hundred years,
and the Britannia Mines recover 3,800 tons of crude ore daily. British Columbia holds second place in the provinces
of Canada as a gold producer—about 13 per cent, of the Dominion total—and ranks third in the production of silver.
Vast progress must also be recorded in commercial and industrial activity, the value of manufactures in 1925
having reached the total of #225,000,000. Exports climbed to #147,530,000 in the same year, while shipping tonnage
for the province reached the huge total of 44,673,191 tons. British Columbia ranked as third province in Canada
in its record of new incorporations, there being 706 companies with a capital of over 171 million dollars in 1926.
:nty-five years farm production within the province has increased from six million to sixty-five
r production from one million to ten millions; fruit production from #393,000 to five million
nbia is now the third largest apple-producing province in the Dominion, although the industry
ve years old. The commercial production of cherries is confined to this province and Ontario,
the province ranks third in Canada with an existing turbine installation amounting to 414,702
lose of 1925.
once the only business on the cost of British Columbia—brought a revenue of #1,403,796 in 1926.
this brief summary must necessarily be, it conveys some idea of what has been accomplished
ill British Columbia "home." But beyond all material things in relative value to the progress
litable spirit, the fine courage, the never-failing loyalty, the hardy perseverance that marked
who pioneered on behalf of present and future generations. Of these faithful and unselfish
from the days of Mackenzie and Fraser down through the years to our present dai
ig history might be written. In every field of human endeavor—c
lution, in welfare work, in betterment of the common lot, in the ;
happiness and prosperity, British Columbians have played their part in keeping with th
Nor has that fine sense of loyalty which actuated every thought of Sir James Douglas,
been lost to the succeeding generations, for thousands of British Columbia's sons crosse
Empire's call in the wars of South Africa and Europe. On land and sea, in the air and
men of Canada's coast province upheld the finest traditions of those early explorers
pioneers who followed in their fo.otsteps.
Upon these firm foundations the future of British Columbia rests secure.
n the past t\
dollars; da
. British Col
is less
than twenty
n water pow
power at the
ur products-
ncomplete a
tiadians who
lies the indo
the m
tn and worn
ts of progres
rs of entranc
cal, poli
tical, profes-
n of health,
of Britis
ized the
1 Columbia^
vide" at the
waters, the
trail for the
8ETWEEN the little log cabin erected by John Morton on
and the metropolitan City of Vancouver of 1927, there is
back to the dim beginnings of the cities of older lands, ha
of the west, for but a mere span of sixty-five years lie betj
canyons of business centralization on the Granville and
"Vancouver", however, was not the original name I
Inlet was known. Some years prior to the great fire of 1886, one John '.
with a barrel of whiskey and sundry other doubtful belongings. John was
ordinary volubility, better known as "Gassy Jack." Shortly after his advent, which
building of "Deighton House" on the part of those citizens whose goodwill had b<
christened "G;
of Vancouver.
le south shore of Burrard Inlet in 1S62,
great gulf fixed. Yet time, as measured
scarce left its touch on this young giant
:en that forest shack and the man-made
:ets of today.
first settlement on Burrard
ved from New Westminster
:r, a Yorkshireman of extra-
as marked by the voluntary
secured through sharing the
>v which
" The transformation of transportati
ts of the keg, the un-named settlement
was responsible for the change to the pi
Negotiations between Hon. Wm. Smithe, premier and co
in 1884, and Mr. Wm. C. Van Home, vice-president and genera
from which the railway company evolved, brought Mr. Van Hon
ference on the acquisition of lands for railway terminal purposes
The little town of Granville, or "Gastown," as it was be
delighted with the situation of Coal Harbor as compared to the ra
that he would change the name of the terminal from Granville to
endorsation in Montreal, Toronto, Ottawa and London, England.
But, to go back for a moment to the days prior to the great fire and the coming of the railway. Elev
after John Morton located his domicile, twenty children formed an important part of the population that had
grown up around the Hastings Mill settlement, and educational facilities were demanded on their behalf. To meet
this situation the mill company provided a building, and the first single-roomed school opened on February 12, 1873.
Miss Sweeney, whose father was mechanical foreman in the mill, was appointed teacher, and to her belongs the
lands and works for British Columbia
lanager of the Canadian Pacific Railway syndicate,
2 to the coast late in July of that year for a con-
t Coal Harbor and English Bay.
:er known, was inspected; Mr. Van Home was
railway possibilities of Port Moody, and stated
to "Vancouver". The proposed change
and the cl
 (i) A glimpse of the Evergrt
i Playground (2) The Rustic Tea Rooms (3) The"Seven Sist,
(4) Second Beach
r of init
he citv's
present school syste
m. Judge
H. 0
school w
as c
erated in
the fire of 1886, afte
which a
new sc
100I was ope
| with J.
binson a
> principal, and Miss
A. Chris
tie as
assistant. N
e term, w
hich finished with an
enrollment of 28
5. It was no
ender St
s occupie
ng t
The Dail
y News" of Vancouv
er, June
6, "the who
the firs
was afire" in the holocaust t
hat wipec
out t
he commun
the 1
of the day that Capta
in Vanco
d his party,
From six hundred to
one thou
sand b
aildings were
outof the po
tion of 2,000, could never be ascertained
re, which cor
2 on in the d
ct betwee
n the present locatior
of Main
imbie Street
ne build
le west end, the Hastings Mill
in the ea
on of the to\
eight or ten other structures on the banks of False Creek. The gale
the conflagration spread carried the flames in a wall of fire before it, driving the terror-stricker
waterfront, and some measure of safety on the wharves and boats alongside. Carriages and
from New Westminster carried hundreds of homeless sufferers to the Royal City after the fi:
in boats to Moodyville, across the Inlet. Although the total value of property destroyed was i
of #1,300,000, with comparatively little insurance to cover the extensive loss, the spirit of 1
weakened. Within four days of the fire new buildings were going up in all parts of the city, th(
the situation being expressed editorially on June 17 as follows: "The Caldwell Block, wherein 1
situated, was one of the first to be overtaken by the fire, and not even a scrap of paper was sa
others who had started in the new city, however, we perceive that the fire, whatever may be its
uals, is to the city as a whole not a very serious matter; in fact it can scarcely impede the pre
at all." The paper then proceeds to give a partial list of buildings "rising from the ashes" on Wa
heimer, Cordova, Abbott, Hastings and Alexander Streets. This single sheet newspaper was
at New Westminster. Over one hundred survivors of the fire are still resident in the city, and vivi
tions of the fateful forty minutes during which Vancouver was literally wiped out of existence.
The year 1886 proved to be a momentous one for the citizens living on the shores of Bun
6, only two months prior to the fire, the City of Vancouver became incorporated. So great v
people that a reconstructed city, housing some  2,500 persons, and costing half a million doll
: scholai
 by the end of the year. As might be expected, the first loan raised by the first city council was for an amount of
#6,900 wherewith to purchase suitable fire-fighting equipment. In November, twenty-year debentures for the sum
of #14,000 were issued. With this loan a fire hall, water tanks and a city hall were constructed, and an additional
sum of #70,000 was borrowed for street improvements.
This ambitious programme was not regarded in a very friendly way by the older city of Victoria, whose
citizens visioned serious competition in the commercial and shipping field if Vancouver were allowed to become
the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway. In this sentiment they were supported by the people of Port Moody,
who sought to prevent the railway being continued to Coal Harbor. Victoria merchants were at pains to point out
that the Lions' Gate entrance to Vancouver's harbor was dangerous to shipping, and even carried their protest
to the extent of sending a manifesto to eastern traders, threatening a boycott by Victoria wholesale houses if
Vancouver agents were appointed.
Under the first Mayor of the city, Malcolm A. MacLean, a petition was presented to the Dominion Government requesting that Stanley Park, then a federal reserve, be set aside for park purposes. The first council consisted
of: Mayor M. A. MacLean, Aldermen Robert Balfour, C. A. Caldwell, Peter Cordiner, Joseph Griffith, Thomas
Dunn, J. Humphries, Henry Hemlow, E. P. Hamilton, L. A. Hamilton and Joseph Norcott. Thomas F. McGuigan
was city clerk; George Baldwin, city treasurer; J. P. Lawson, city engineer; Blake & Muir, solicitors; John Boultbee,
magistrate; J. M. Stewart, chief of police; J. fl. Carlisle, fire chief—who, with forty-one years of faithful service
to his credit, still directs Vancouver's splendid fire-fighting force.
On the 4th of July, 1886, the first through train from the east pulled into Port Moody, thus bringing to
fruition one of the chief conditions upon which British Columbia entered Confederation. Vancouver, however,
had been definitely decided upon as the terminal city, and the C.P.R. was already preparing for construction of
the Hotel Vancouver.
This year also marked the opening, on September 1, of Vancouver's first banking institution—or agency, as
it was then called—in the Bank of British Columbia, located on Cordova Street west. It is of interest to note that
there was no local bank in existence at the time of the city's incorporation, and that a civic delegation which went
to Victoria to raise a loan for city improvements could not get the required money, which was subsequently provided
by the Bank of British Columbia. The first banking transaction to take place in Vancouver was between Mr. James
Cooper Keith, manager, and a Mr. Leonard. This occurred on August 31, the day before the official opening.
Another interesting event of 1886 was the preliminary meeting of the Vancouver Board of Trade, Mayor
MacLean presiding. A waterworks system, under private capital, also came in for consideration as a necessary project.
 Towards the close of the year the Asiatic question began to obtrude itself, an ever-
Chinese having obtained employment in Vancouver and surrounding districts. The feeling c
until the citizens decided to take the law into their own hands and run the Chinamen out
culminated in 1887, when the authorities at Victoria put in a large force of special police and
The chief event of the year 1887 was the arrival in Vancouver of the first passenger ti
May 23, the final accomplishment of the transcontinental railway "from ocean to ocean."
a baggage, a colonist sleeper, a first-class, a Pullman and a drawing-room car, the engine beinj
with evergreens, streamers and mottoes. This being the golden jubilee year of Queen Victor
headlight bore her portrait, while on the smokestack was displayed the message: "Montreal
City." 1887 witnessed the first real celebration of Dominion Day in Vancouver after incorp
Up until this time the city water supply was obtained from wells, a condition which
mittent cases of typhoid fever. The city was also without the advantage of electric light in
marked, however, by substantial progress; the selection of Vancouver as a customs port; sur
in preparation for waterworks; the construction of C.P.R. docks for ocean-going steamers;
in the establishment of new industries, following the formation of the Board of Trade; the gra:
under lease from the federal government and an expenditure of #20,000 by the city towai
The population was then estimated at 5,000 and a second school had to be built to meet the i
requirements of the growing city.
In David Oppenheimer, mayor of the city from 1888 to 1891, Vancouver found a pr
administrator whose ability and business acumen did much for the ambitious young city in
history. Many local improvements were undertaken, among which must be mentioned the la]
main across the Lion's Gate; the introduction of electric lighting and the granting of a st
extension of the telephone service; completion of the Stanley Park driveways, the erection o
firehall, a hospital, and a market at the corner of Main and Hastings Streets; thirty-six miles I
in 1888, twenty-four miles of sidewalks were laid down, and the beginnings of a sewerage svsi
On July 26, 1888, the Beaver, first steamship to ply the waters of the Pacific Coast, whose
with the Hudson's Bay Company operations in the days when British Columbia was a- Croi
touched on elsewhere in this book, went ashore off Prospect Point and became a total loss.
During the next two years progress was maintained at a rapid pace. In this period the 1
doubled itself over that of 1888, and by the end of 1891 the city comprised 2,700 buildings, ii
 {i) A boating picnic on Seymour Creek in 1887      {1) Vancouver the morning after the big fire     (3) First C.P.R. train arriving in Vancouver, May, 1887
(4) Vancouver from the South in 1800 (5) First Street Car July 1189o (6) Dominion Day Tarade, Cordova St., July 1, 1887
 five schools, Provincial Government buildings anc
two iron foundries, fifty-five hotels, four lumber
a cost of #20,000. This building has for many ye
grounds and Hastings Park were provided for at
operation. A thirty-year franchise was granted
Is and a sugar refinery
been occupied as the (
3St of #10,000 each, an
the street railway company
direct from London carrying a general cargo. Mayor Oppenheimer advocated purchasi
works and the street railway system in 1890, the year in which the first provincial electioi
Cotton and J. W. Home were elected. Civic assessments had by this time reached to #9,404,445.
The history of the city's waterworks sheds an interesting light on local conditions between the years 1887
and 1890. On March 26, 1889, Capilano water was used by the citizens for the first time, but prior to this many
difficulties had been met and overcome. A rival company attempted to secure a franchise for the purpose of bringing
water to the city from Coquitlam Lake, but the ratepayers, by a vote of 86 to 58, turned down the proposal to
give this franchise to the Coquitlam Water Works Company in June, 1887. Shortly after the Vancouver Water
Works Company commenced their Capilano project, which was completed in April, 1888, the first submerged
main being successfully laid across the First Narrows in August of the same year. In 1890 the company opened
negotiations with the city to purchase the water system, and two years later the arbitrated price of #440,000 was
accepted by the ratepayers who ratified the purchase proposal by a vote of 189 for and 11 against.
It is interesting to note that the Dominion Day celebration of 1890 was featured by the beginning
of Vancouver's street railway system, for on that day, thirty-seven years ago, the first single-truck car made its
appearance. The city's electric light service also commenced this year.
As a great seaport Vancouver set up its first claim to prominence in 1891, when the famous "Empress" ships
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company arrived in port and inaugurated trans-Pacific shipping. These were the
"Empress of India," "Empress of China" and "Empress of Japan." The dismantled hulk of the old "Japan," last
survivor of this famous trio, rides at anchor off Moodyville today—mute evidence of modern progress and the
replacement brought about by the liners of today, the magnificent "Empress of Asia" and "Empress of Russia."
In the year following, the population of Vancouver had reached a total of 15,000. The paving of Cordova,
Hastings and Granville Streets engaged the attention of the civic authorities, and large sums were expended for
local improvements; these included #150,000 on a high school and other school buildings; an outlay of #175,000
on the waterworks system, and #570,000 for general and specific purposes. The Hudson's Bay Company, whose
first store in the city was on Cordova Street when Vancouver was known as "Gastown," opened a branch 'store in
 the Crewe Block on Granville Street in 1889, and in 1892 commenced construction of the store which formerly
occupied the site of the present building at the corner of Granville and Georgia Streets.
In the early days the electric lighting system of the city was provided by the Vancouver Illuminating Company.
This concern had the first electric power plant, and service was commenced on August 8, 1887, with three hundred
lamps. The plant was situated between Hastings and Pender Streets, on Abbott, and generated current at 50 volts.
Current transmission was then unknown, with the result that lamps as far away as Granville Street scarcely received
enough current to make them visible. The old Vancouver "News-Advertiser" was the first paper to be printed in
Canada by electric power. As already noted, the Vancouver Street Railway Company secured in 1888 a long-term
franchise for construction and operation of a street railway system. This agreement allowed the use of horses, cable,
gas or electricity for power purposes. Early in April, 1889, the preliminary lines were constructed for horse-car
operation, stables were built near False Creek and a buyer was sent east to purchase the animals required. With
everything practically ready to start operation, the directors suddenly decided to electrify the system; electric
cars were ordered from New York, electrical machinery was purchased and installed, track changes were made,
the horses were sold, and on June 28, 1890, six miles of electric railway were opened to the public. A year later,
owing to financial difficulties arising from imperfect plant and loss on operating expenses, the company offered to
sell out to the city for the sum of #162*000. This offer was refused, as also were subsequent proposals, and Vancouver's street railway system underwent many fluctuations until its purchase in April, 1897, by a London syndicate
headed by Mr. R. M. Horne-Payne. The properties and assets taken over included the Vancouver street railway
and lighting system, the New Westminster street railway, the Westminster-Vancouver interurban line and the
electric railway and lighting system of Victoria and district. Thus commenced the #68,000,000 investment now held
When British Columbia entered Confederation, in 1871, the two mill sites at Hastings and Moodyville were
on the north shore brought about incorporation of the District of North Vancouver. This district originally included
the entire area—in later years divided into the City of North Vancouver, and the Districts of North and West
Vancouver, now embracing a population of approximately 15,000 people. Municipally-owned ferries and a one
and three-quarter million dollar bridge have replaced the row-boat journeyings that once were the sole means of
communication between the settlements of the north and south shores.
A period of general depression set in all over Canada during 1893-94, and this was felt quite keenly in the
young city of Vancouver. But notwithstanding the pinch that made itself felt in many directions—including
 reductions in civic salaries—much improvement work was carried on. In 1894 two di
the city: the Governor-General, Lord Aberdeen, and Hon. Wilfrid Laurier. Lady I
during the visit, in the foundation of the Local Council of Women.
Not until the early part of 1896 did conditions begin to show real signs of impro
and machinery required in the camps was reflected in an improved outlook among th
and led to renewed optimism. Mount Pleasant and Fairview began to build up rap
309 ocean-going vessels entered the port, the total tonnage for the year 1895 being 5
were reduced from 44 cents per light per night to 27 cents; against the city debt of jus
Local affairs are often shaped by movements at some far distant place, and so
swung in behind the business that resulted from the frenzied rush to the goldfields of th
From almost every quarter of the globe the gold-seekers poured into the city on their
hotels were crowded and excitement increased as the town was stormed by these str
experience brought an awakening to the citizens of Vancouver—a realization of the p<
and the opportunities of the city as an export centre. Although quite unprepared for 1
whelming stampede, the merchants reaped considerable trade from the variegated 1
to the Yukon through the portals of Vancouver—a throng whose movements and be
eagle eye by the scarlet-coated troopers of the Royal North West Mounted Police.
Reference to the Klondike days brings back memories of other gold rush times ai
by the Bank of British Columbia—the first banking institution to open a branch in Var
gold stampede. Incorporated in 1862, the bank had its branches at Yale, Quesnel and B:
for some years assay offices at the latter point. Thus, for thirty-eight years, the Bank
the business community of the province until its amalgamation in 1900 with the Ca
In 1886, when the C.P.R. put on the first sale of town lots in Vancouver, the bank pu
south-east corner of Hastings and Richards Streets for the sum of #2,250.
But to return to the history of the city. War in South Africa broke out in 185
first opportunity for the men of the Pacific Coast city to prove their never-wavering
Empire—a call which then, as in later years, found a ready and eager response.
At the time of Queen Victoria's death in 1901 the population of Canada was 5,-
i The "Lions" from Capilano River        (2) A view on Marine Drive, We
) Capilano Suspension Bridge, North Va
gradually emerging from pioneering days to take the prou
In that year the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and Yoi
paid a memorable visit to the city; trade and commerce c
and Vancouver, for the first time in its history, was wii
An important link in this direction was the completion of
of the Chamber of Commerce of the British Empire, held
local Board of Trade.
At this period—only twenty-four years ago—Vance
a steam plant of only 2,000 horse-power. Not until 1904 w;
Vancouver Island and the mainland.
Beginning with the prosperous times of 1905, the
growth, which lasted until one of the biggest real estate "
painful close in the summer of 1913. Throughout the yes
comers arrived in thousands from all over the continent. <
some homes went up where only bush had been before; ma
linked up new residential localities, such as Kitsilano, or Gi
blocks and business buildings appeared on hitherto vacan
each other with almost bewildering rapidity, and civic in
population of Vancouver had reached 100,000. By 1911 1
world-wide depression of 1913 set in the city had quadrup
and found itself equipped for the big business of a metroj
This factor proved the redeeming feature of the slum
although many investors keenly felt the depression
facing a new opportunity as a world port wit
had at its command in commercial, industrial
ti the opening of th
and shipping impro
Then, with a sudden crash, came the G
reat War. Before th
on their way to take part in the titanic struggle
ments was maintained and Vancouver's servic
. And through all th
and sacrifice—loya
of the entire community—stamped itself into t
those who had taken their place on the field 0:
he indelible records
 machine shops, thus supplying the Allies with the essential  requirements of ships and shell cases—new industries
for the city, but competently undertaken.
Following the re-adjustment period of post-war conditions, the city moved forward slowly but surely until
stabilization had been effected and the present era of substantial progress had begun. Such is the brief recital of
Vancouver's history from its earliest days down to the present time. The real romance of the city, however, is more
clearly portrayed in the comparisons of past and present; in the story of the pioneers who brought about the great
Twenty-four years after John Morton and his two companions established themselves in lonely possession
of what is now the west end of the city, two thousand people comprised the population of Vancouver's pre-fire
settlement. In the intervening forty-one years Greater Vancouver has reached a population of 260,000—and the
real growth has only just commenced. Back in 1886 the Hastings Mill Company erected the community's first
store and post office (a building which is still in use); today three huge departmental stores and hundreds of smaller
places of business serve the public needs, and a general post office with a score of sub-offices have replaced the little
wicket accommodation that once did duty. From Miss Sweeney's one-room school and her twenty scholars of
1873 a great educational system has been evolved with which 600 teachers provides 22,000 pupils with tuition
from the kindergarten class to the post-graduate courses of the University of British Columbia at Point Grey.
In 1886 the municipal assets at the end of the year were computed at #2,639,077; the assessment roll for Greater
Vancouver now exceeds #380,000,000. Thirty-two years ago the total number of vessels*that entered the port
aggregated 2,365; in 1925 this figure had increased to 19,665. Huge elevators have been constructed along the once
wooded shore-line, through which sixty million bushels of wheat have passed in a single season—figures that are
destined at no very distant date to double and treble as this great all-the-year-open port enters its ultimate development. Where once the old Beaver threaded her passage through the Lions' Gate, ocean-carrying ships of all nations
pass today in their voyages to the seven seas and the four corners of the earth.
From those days, which now seem almost prehistoric, when the telephone bill collector came to the door
with the account and a screwdriver and orders to collect either the money or the telephone, to the present system
which connects Vancouver with far distant points in the province, is a long stride in progress—but not in the matter
of time, for it is only forty-seven years since the first telephone exchange in British Columbia was opened at Victoria.
The first line on Burrard Inlet was run by a butcher, Benjamin van Volkenburgh by name, to whom, in 1883, the
Canadian Pacific Railway construction contractors engaged on the coast section let a meat contract. A condition
of this contract provided that Volkenburgh must have his abattoir connected by telephone with New Westminster
 and Por
Moody. He a
vas cor
to j
le Company.
No other figures
so concl
a ci
As a ma
tter of compa
ison tl
e figures for
the J:
—reveal in concise t
srms the am
)f Vancouver in 1926 and those of 1892—only thirty-five years
ement that has taken place in this comparatively short space
of time, for in 1892 the bank clearings were #8,414,923, while last year's total reached the enormous sum
of #888,704,118.
Notwithstanding the rapid spread of Greater Vancouver—the term includes the city proper, South Vancouver,
Point Grey and Burnaby—1926 established a new record in building development when permits to the value of
over twenty-five million dollars were taken out. Nearly #5,000,000 of this astounding total went into home building
in the model municipality of Point Grey, but every section of Greater Vancouver moved forward under the impetus
of the building programme. These figures, however, tell but a part of the story for they take no account of the
new Canadian Pacific Pier "B.C.", a #2,500,000 structure that opens, fittingly enough, on Dominion Day of this
year. In this big undertaking Vancouver may claim the most modern and magnificent pier accommodation on the
Pacific Coast. Coupled with the vast freight capacity of the big Ballantyne Pier, the loading facilities of the port
can now handle almost any traffic that offers.
Yet another glimpse backward, this time to visualize what electricity has accomplished. When the city was
incorporated in 1886, candles, coal oil lamps and gas contributed their lean light in the homes and on the unpaved
streets when darkness fell. Horse-drawn street cars were but a subject for speculative gossip when the day's work
was done. Compare this primitive condition with the Greater Vancouver of today—one of the most brilliantly-
lighted cities on the entire continent; consider for a moment that between Dominion Day thirty-seven years ago
and the celebration of 1927 the largest street railway system in Canada has been built into the service of Greater
Vancouver; that ninety miles of fertile farm lands, clear through to Chilliwack, have been tapped by produce-
bearing, electrified trains; that hydro-electric power to the extent of a #38,000,000 project at Bridge River is being
prepared for the future growth of this city.
Thirty-eight years ago David Oppenheimer, delivering the first annual report of the Vancouver Board of
Trade, predicted "that if we continue to use our exertions as we have hitherto done, the realization of our most
cherished dreams is not far distant, and our phoenix-like young Terminal City will attain that prominent rank
amongst her sisters on the Pacific Coast to which she is entitled by her geographical position and other natural
advantages." The cherished dreams of the great optimists who laid the city's foundations have indeed been more
 m   «t
f ED ffll
iyfe3^k\'^I^Hra     BBS
<T^ tfW w^'tfg' />&«, «>«*«• »/ Carrall and Water Stret
 than realized. Yet if those stalwarts of a past generation could view the Vancouv
many unbelievable changes.
They would see an artificial island near the mouth of False Creek, on wl
hums with busy life; further up, at the head of False Creek, their astonished e
out before two massive railway stations—standing where the oozy mud-flats
unoccupied; paved streets and fireproof business buildings would meet their
celebrated gala days with horse races and the sportive events of the early 8o's; i
autos, these former patrons of the old Gurney cabs would pass far beyond th
Vancouver's fine residential district of Shaughnessy Heights—reclaimed from
park-like beauty by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company; and then on bey
Grey to the great University of British Columbia; where logging operations o
the woods along the shores of English Bay these pioneers would find a fine an
the wide stretches of the city's bathing beaches; and as they passed from poi
continent on wheels—the never-ending stream of tourist travel that now make;
seekers from the Mexican border to the seaboard of the Atlantic—would fill thei
of only forty years; so, too, with the Granville and Hastings Streets of today,
mental marts of modern business cost far in excess of the value of the comb:
December, 1886. Nor do these things comprise the sum total of advance sin
the boundaries of Greater Vancouver lie the municipality of South Vancouve
of Point Grey—new, lovely and minutely modern, and "the municipality of I
suburban homes and cultivated acreage.
"I am sure," said David Oppenheimer, in review of the development reo
(Vancouver) may be classed a marvel of progression, almost the only city never
fully up to the most sanguine expectations of the greatest optimist."
Perhaps they were justified in being oblivious to the pioneering difficulti
thirty-nine years ago, yet we, living in an age of modern comfort and convenie
days were never known. More than one hundred of the men who actually es
burned to the ground are still with us. From the bucket-brigade of those days to
of today has been a matter of gradual evolution—a series of steps along the pal
as we have come to recognize them, were those through whose labors we have atta
e^fighting Au?pmmt
oneers. For pioneers,
 And back of all our civic pride and prosperity lies the brain and brawn of the makers of Vancouver.
During the forty-one years that have elapsed since the city became incorporated, twenty mayors have served
in the office of chief magistrate. Their names and terms follow: M. A. MacLean, 1886-1887; David Oppenheimer,
1888 to 1891; F. Cope, 1892-1893; R. A. Anderson, 1894; H. Collins, 1895-1896; W. Templeton, 1897; J. F. Garden,
1898 to 1900; T. O. Townley, 1901; T. F. Neelands, 1902-1903; W. J. McGuigan, 1904; F. Buscombe, 1905-1906;
A. Bethune, 1907-1908; C. S. Douglas, 1909; L. D. Taylor, 1910-1911-1915-1925-1926-1927; Jas. Findlav, 1912;
T. S. Baxter, 1913-1914; M. McBeath, 1916-1917; R. H. Gale, 1918-1921; C. E. Tisdale, 1922-1923; W. R. Owen,
Many distinguished visitors have been entertained by the city, the public receptions accorded to H.R.H.
the Prince of Wales and to President Warren G. Harding being both particularly memorable occasions. Never
before had a president of the United States set foot on Canadian soil. Within one week of delivering his message
of international goodwill in Stanley Park, death claimed him with tragic suddenness. Of the many vessels that
have ridden the waters of Burrard Inlet since Captain Vancouver's visit of long ago, none have aroused greater
interest and enthusiasm than that evoked by the coming of the British super-battleship, H.M.S. Hood. Never
has the Lions' Gate given passageway to a larger craft of peace or war.
The description of the harbor, as penned by Captain Vancouver in 1792, completes the contrast of the
vanished years:
"The shores of this channel," he wrote, "which, after Sir Harry Burrard, of the navy, I have distinguished
by the name of Burrard's Channel, may be considered, on the southern side, of a moderate height, and though
rocky, well covered with trees of a large growth, principally of the pine tribe. On the northern side, the rugged
snowy barrier, whose base we had now nearly approached, rose abruptly, and was only protected from the wash
of the sea by a very narrow border of low land."
Today, the "trees of a large growth" are replaced by a sky-line of towering buildings, and the lion-guarded
gateway to the Orient has become the chief deep-sea port on the Pacific Coast. Today, with the finest harbor in
the world, forty-two steamship lines and three great railway systems connect Vancouver with the trading centres
of the world. Six elevators, twenty-eight berths, thirteen loading berths, and a harbor railway that is connecting
the north and south shores, are recent developments along the twenty miles of sheltered waterfrontage. Eleven
hundred industrial plants, giving employment to 15,000 people; many churches and missions, and thirty public
and four high schools—these are but a few of the sidelights that reflect the city's great growth since the pioneers
first set out to give Vancouver "that prominent rank amongst her sisters on the Pacific Coast to which she is
 entitled by her geographical position and other natural advantages."
tion made by Roger Babson that "Vancouver will, within the lifet
on the Pacific Coast."
If space permitted, the names of many men and women who h
up-building of their city, might be recorded in these pages. But a m
printed word has been incorporated into their own handiwork—am
this recognition our honored pioneers are well satisfied.
And what of John Morton, you ask? John Morton lived to se
homestead of his. And only this year was the last portion of his <
acquired by the city for the perpetual beautification of Vancouver.
General Chairman: Alderman Frank E. Woodside Secretary: Bob Forgie, Jr.
ance: T. H. Kirk, Chairman; Capt. Jas. Anderson,  C. C. Buckland. A. E. Foreman, W. R. Gillespie, Roy Hunter, C. J.  K
George Kidd, J. M. Lay, Col. Victor Spencer, J. E. Stephenson, W. J. Blake Wilson. D. H. Robinson, A. J. Pilkington.
Parade: R. H. Gale, and members of the Gyro Club. Parade Marshal: Chief of Police Long.
C. M. Wo
■■  Hi
2nd Printir
lie Scho
Is Celebrat
and Princ
1 H
uatic Spc
ris: Aid. E
v'   1)
■cle Spar
s: Fred De
ckers: H.
cing: Be
tball: Th
>mas Fawk
rosse: J.
H. Allan
.M. W.
. Braith
.A. G.
A.. McCon
t. James A
S. B. Clement.
F. Crone.
W. Dobson.
Parks: C. E. 1
Tewis1- Georg
e SparlingWn'
Swimming: Be
Yachting: G. 1
. H. Robinson.
Military: Lieut-Col. A. L. Coote.
Confederation," David Loughnan
E. W. Dean
H. E. Almond
P. C. Gibbens
John Bennett
J. W. Cornett, Reeve
Jas. R. Anderson, Walter J. Buckingham, D. W. Grii
David Hall, A. MacDonald, E. L. Armstrong,
W. H. Cotterell.
Louis D.
or, Mayor
lan Ward 1
J. A. Garbutt
nan Ward 2
R. J. Paul
ian WardS
F. E. Woodsi
Angus Macln
es Alexander Paton, Reeve
C. Ath
Dr. Robt. N. Fraser, W. C. B
d, Thos. E. Bate, Warner Loat,
"rancis Gordon Forbes.
C. C. Bell, Rem
J. G. West, J. Gray, Lawrence Lambert, Gordon S. Moc
:, W. T. Wil
of this
i's Org
been un
dertaken by thi
The Cor
mittee by
rhos. H.
Mrs. D. j
. McLachlan
The Con
*w» Coot
mittee by
Mrs. A. C
W. A. Clark
Rjse, Cowan Sr> £atta, limited


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