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BC Historical Books

The Washington historical quarterly. Vol. XIII Washington University State Historical Society 1922

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1922
VOLUME XIII
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON 11» -^u ^agftmgton 3|fetorical O&uarterlp
Contributing (Ebitorss
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle       H. B. McElroy, Olympia
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank A. Golder, Pullman F. W. Howay,
William S. Lewis, Spokane New Westminster, B. C.
O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma
^Managing Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
JSujStnegjS JWanager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. XIII.  NO. 1 JANUARY, 1922
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Year
EDMOND   S. MEANY    The Cowlitz Convention: Inception
of Washington  Territory    3
JEANETTE PADDOCK
NICHOLS     Advertising and the Klondike __20
C. L. ANDREWS    The   Wreck   of   the   "St.   Nicholas" 27
EDMOND  S. MEANY    Origin of Washington Geographic Names. .32
DOCUMENTS—The    Nisqually Journal,   Edited  by  Victor J.  Farrar 57
BOOK   REVIEWS     67
PACIFIC NORTHWEST AMERICANA    75
NEWS   DEPARTMENT    78
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON Wot l^agfimgton WtotK&itv
£S>tate 2|tetorical gmtiztp
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Judge Cornelius H. Haneord
Samuel Hill
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary VOL. XIII., No. 1
January, 1922
TOastfjington Historical ©uarterlp
THE COWLITZ CONVENTION: INCEPTION OF
WASHINGTON TERRITORY
Historians have fallen into peculiar confusion as to dates, persons and events associated with the subdivision of Oregon Territory,
events lying at the very foundation of the Commonwealth of
Washington.
Reasons for the confusion may be found in these facts: two
Fourth of July orations were delivered in Olympia, one in 1851
and one in 1852; after each of such orations meetings of citizens
were held and agitation made for a separate territorial government
north of Columbia River; and in each case the agitation led to
a regularly constituted convention; each of such conventions memorialized Congress in behalf of the object sought to be achieved.
The first convention was held at Cowlitz Landing, near the
present Toledo, August 29, 1851 and the second at the home of
H. D. Huntington, "Uncle Darby", at Monticello, near the mouth
of the Cowlitz River, on November 25, 1852. No correct valuation
of those two conventions has been made and from that fact has arisen
the confusion of the historians.
There was no newspaper north of the Columbia during the
Cowlitz convention of 1851. However, on September 11, 1852,
Volume I., Number 1 of The Columbian appeared in Olympia. In
that issue of the first newspaper published north of the Columbia
River, Daniel R. Bigelow's Fourth of July oration was printed
in full. It was eloquent and patriotic and for the rest of his life
Mr. Bigelow was praised as the orator who helped to lay the
foundations of a State. During its first year The Columbian occupied itself with the calling of meetings and advocating the organization of a separate territory to be called the Territory of Columbia.
(3) 4 Edmond S. Meany
The very name of the paper was a part of the agitation. As stated,
there was no newspaper to print, even tardily, John B. Chapman's
Fourth of July oration of 1851 and no paper to urge attendance
at the Cowlitz convention of that year. The oration is lost and too
little attention has been given to the proceedings and results of the
convention . Both conventions were important but it is high time
that certain errors should be definitely corrected.
In a recent checking of the situation, it was found that Clinton
A. Snowden in his History of Washington, The Rise and Progress
of an American State, Volume III., pages 197-198, 203-206, ignores
the convention following Chapman's oration and puts both conventions in 1852. Hubert Howe Bancroft in his Works, Volume
XXXI, Washington, Idaho and Montana, gives the membership
of the Cowlitz convention of August 29, 1851, and mentions a memorial-to Congress, pages 48-49. However, on pages 60-61 of
the same volume, he says that Joseph Lane, Oregon's Delegate to
Congress, immediately on receiving the Monticello memorial, made
his request for the Committee on Terrtories to inquire into the
expediency of dviding Oregon. That was a physical impossbility
at the time which will be shown below. Mr. Bancroft frequently
cites with approval the works of Elwood Evans of Tacoma. That
is well, for Mr. Evans was usually accurate. However, in his
large work, History of Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washing
ton, Volume I., page 337, he gives a very brief mention of John
B. Chapman, says nothing of his Fourth of July oration of 1851 and,
on pages 348-349 of the same volume, he credits Mr. Bigelow with
making the first oraton which led to the Monticello convention, and
caused Delegate Lane to begin the work in Congress. Edmond S.
Meany, History of the State of Washington, pages 156-157, says:
Delegate Lane had acted on the Monticello document. On the first
day of the second session of the Thirty-second Congress, December
6, 1852, Mr. Lane, by suspension of the rules, introduced a resolution requesting the Committee on Territories to examine into the
expediency of dividing Oregon Territory and reporting by bill or
otherwise."1
The physical impossibility of Delegate Lane's acting on the
Monticello memorial is easy to see. The Monticello convention was
held on November 25 and the Delegate introduced his resolution
on December 6, 1852. At that time there was no known way of
sending such a document  from Oregon  to  Washington  City in The Cowlitz Convention 5
eleven days. The Congressional Globe shows that Delegate Lane
introduced his well known resolution on December 6, 1852, and
he must, therefore, have acted on his own volition or upon the initiation of some other source, possibly from the Cowlitz convention of
1851.
In discussing the matter with William P. Bonney, of Tacoma,
Secretary of the Washington State Historical Society, it was found
that he had also noticed the puzzle and had found its solution. It is
perfectly natural that Mr. Bonney should be interested. He loves
history, he has lived all his life on the shores of Puget Sound
and on August 17, 1882, he was married to Miss Eva Bigelow, of
Olympia, whose father was the famous Fourth of July orator of
1852. Mr. Bonney concluded that the memorial of the Cowlitz
convention of 1851, though. slighted or overlooked by historians,
was really the one used at first in Congress. He wrote to Congressman Albert Johnson to search the records for that document.
It could not be found but Mr. Bonney wrote again and urged that
the papers of Delegate Lane in the Library of Congress be searched.
Congressman Johnson was enthusiastic over the success there
achieved. The manuscript memorial was found and with it were
two Oregon newspapers, The Oregonian, Volume I., No. 42, September 20, 1851 and Oregon Spectator, Volume VI., No. 3, September 23, 1851. Across the top margin of the latter was the
address "Hon. Dan'l Webster." Each of the newspepers contained
on the front page full proceedings of the Cowlitz convention of
August 29, 1851. The proceedings were regularly dated and signed
by the president and two secretaries.
Congressman Johnson had the manscript memorial and the two
newspapers photostated and forwarded to Mr. Bonney, who filed
them in the archives of the Washington State Historical Society,
where they bear the number 2684, 2685 and 2687. These documents
permit a complete readjustment of the initiative leading to the
creation of Washington Territory. They are of sufficient importance to be reproduced in full.
The manuscript memorial has two endorsements: "To Gen'l
J. Lane, Petition to Congress. A Petition to divide Oregon Territory. Com. on Territories, Lane;" and "Oregon Territory. The
petition of Citizens and the proceeding of a public Meeting in
Oregon Territory in relation to the division of said territory. Dec.
30, 1851.    Referred to the Committee on Territories.    Mr. Holli- 6 Edmond S. Meany
day. Gen'l Lane." These endorsements, on two sides of the back
as the document was folded, indicate that the memorial was before
the Committee on Territories one year before Delegate Lane
moved his important resolution of December 6, 1852. There seems
to be no record of the memorial in the Congressional Globe of
December 30, 1851. When the next, or Monticello, memorial
appeared, more than a year later, it was printed in full in that
official publication. This, of course, is another reason for the
historical distortion.
The manuscript memorial is as follows:
To the Honorable The Senate and Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Congress of the United States of America at Washington
City Assembled.
The undersigned respectfully beg leave to represent to your Honorable
body. That at a regular constituted Convention of Delegates of the people
of Oregon Territory North of the Columbia River holden on the 29th of
August 1851 (a copy of the proceedings of which convention are here forwarded accompaning this memorial and prayed to be considered as a part
thereof)x a Resolution passed said "Convention Resolving That a seperate
Territorial Government ought to be organized North of Columbia River and
That John B. Chapman, M. T. Simmons & F. S. Balch be appointed a committee to draw up a suitable memorial to! Congress on That subject'.
The Committe have had the same under consideration and directed me
to report The following petition to Congress.
That Government and order is contemplated for the convienience and
benefit of the people, and That every community and. settlement of Citizens
participating in the burthens of Government are entitled to its benefits and
protection; and That when ever any portion of That Community, from
locality anid Geographical position are left out of the existing rule & order
in concequence of That Government, It then becomes. [Ms. Page 2] the duty
of the Supreme power from which those rules of order emenates to reestablish those systems of protection and Government, by placing the power
and the means in the ability of this seperated & neglected portion of the
whole community; for the reestablishment and organization of a Government, for their own convenience & protection.
They beg leave to further state that the Inhabitants North of the
Columbia River receive no benefit or convenience whatever from the Territorial Government of Oregon as now administered. They maintain positively that it costs more for a citizen in the North of Oregon Territory to
travel to a clerks office or to reach a District Judge than it does for a
man to travel from S. Lewis, Missouri to Boston, Masachussetts and back;
and, much longer;
It is true that Judge Strong, resides on the North Bank of the
Columbia River, but in such a position and obscure situation near Astoria,
that he cannot be reached under any emergency under several days travel
from the interior. The great body of the Indians of Oregon inhabit the
North side of the Columbia River, no Indian agent has ever been known
to be north of the River except Gov. Lane while superintendent.
The Committe further state that the Geographical extent of the American or U. States Territory is too well known by your Honorable body to
require comment by the Committe, but the Committe beg leave to State other
facts in regard to said Territory which they know [Ms. Page 3] to have been
1 Evidently the same proceedings which appeared in the Oregon Spectator, -which -will
be  reproduced  following  this   document. The Cowlitz Convention 7
misrepresented, That is the availability of said Territory for civilized and
domestic purposes; The Committe beg leave to State from personal
knowledge that in the forty thousand square miles of Territory beginning
at the British line [an extra stroke is given to the "n" making the word
literally "lime"] North: that one half the whole eare [area?] is good tilable
land, and that the great portion of the other half is valuable Timber Land.
Coal mines, & Gold mines, which have but verry recently been the least developed, and what may appear more astonishing to your Honorable body is
no less a fact, that that small extent of Territory North of the Columbia
River has a face of good Sea Board Navigation exceeding one thousand
miles, with not less than twenty five good safe Harbours & Bays, that the
largest Ships can clear from any day, for any part of the whole world, and
that the greater portion of the land bordering on this Sea-Board is as fertile
Ik productive as any in the United States, containing immense quantities of
Timber of the first qualities for Ships, buildings or Domestic use.
The numerous Rivers and small Streams of Fresh water emptying in
to this extensive Sea Board Navigation affording numerous sites for Hydro-
lie power is conclusive that such a country will admit of a dense population.
But that this whole Country is very thinly settled for so many good qualities
the undersigned admit, and for the best of reason. One of the finest portions of the Country at the very Head ofi "Pugets Sound" is [Ms. Page 4]
claimed by a British Trading Post, known as the Hudson Bay Co. to the
extent of Sixty miles by Thirty all that fair and beautiful region lying
between the Nisqually & Puyallup Rivers, etc., & South & East Six [ty,
Portion of word obliterated in photostat copy.] miles to M|t. Renier, that
Company has never pretended to carry on an agricultural persuit, the rural
part from the Trading post was Stock, Cattle, Horses,-& Sheep. The American Settlements from the States was inimical to the grazeing persuit of the
Hudson Bay Co. hence all the emigrants from the States who attempted a
settlement in that region of! Country on Pugets Sound, was compelled to do
it over the heads of that Company like an army Storming a Castle, hence
but fiew was willing to incur the displeasure of a large monied institution,
and a British Fort at That: and inconcequence of so many being detered
from settlement it caused another verry great reason for the nonsettlement
of the Country. That is, no Wagon Roads have yet been made from the
Columbia or else where, to the interior of the Territory and hence wholy
inaccessable except by water: and all the commerce of the North being
monopolized by the Hudson Bay Co. there was" no inducement for American
Vessels, hence no means of conveyance as the Company Vessels were never
allowed to carry an American Citizen, by this monopoly and influence of
the H. Bay Co. over some U. S. Officers, the Emigrants from the States
have been untill this day, literally excluded from the Northern Territory of
Oregon.
The Committe beg leave to represent and show Congress. That there
is now about three thousand Souls North of the Columbia. That they have
raised a large amount of produce, Wheat, Oats, potatoes, onions, &c for
exportation, but with the many abuses of their rights [Ms. Page 5] and
neglecteld condition in their civil immunities as Citizens it is impossible for
them to prosper in commerce, or advance one step in the improvement of
Roads & highways.
The Seat of Government at present is distant about three hundred miles
from the principle Settlements North; The entire Legislative power is South
of the Columbia River & from Locality and Geographical position the South
has no interest in common whatever, with the North, and in conciquence of
the immence expensive travel, from Oregon City to the North of Columbia;
Government Officers but seldom if ever visit the North; under the present
condition of things, the rights of Citizens must go unredressed crimes and
injuries unpunished.
Notwithstanding all these inconveniences and obstacles the Emigrant is 8
Edmond S. Meany
daily surmounting all barriers and settleing in our midst and loudly-calls
for the rights and privleges of a citizen, for the protection of himself and
""in consideration of the premises and many inconveniences of the present inhabitants and in complyance with the resolution of said Convention
The Committe most respectfully request that Congress will pass an act
organizing a seperate Territorial Government North ot the Columbia Kiver;
with the immunities & privliges of her [Ms. Page 6] most favoured Territories, and that Territory be known and designated as "Columbia Territory
and, That the Seat of said Territorial Government be fixed as near the] centre of the Territory North and South as convenience and circumstance will
admit of. All of which is most respectfully submitted for the consideration
of Congress.
J. B. Chapman
Chairman Com
and corresponding Com
That document and the accompanying proceedings, familiar
to Delegate Lane froml December, 1851, to December, 1852, are
sufficient to explain his prompt action when the new session opened
on December 6, 1852. Of the two copies of the proceedings that
in the Oregon Spectacular is selected for preproduction, as from
the older of the two papers. The account is checked with that in
the Oregonian and with other sources, corrections being indicated in
brackets. At the top of the article appears the words "For the
Spectator."
Cowlitz Convention.
Cowwtz, Lewis Co., O. T., )
August 29, 1851. )
The following are the proceedings of
gon Territory, north of the Columbia Ri
constituted arrangement of the citizens
aid convention and selecting delegates t>
convention of delegates in Ore-
,j which was called by a previous
of  said district of country, calling
> attend the same, to take into c
sideration the propriety of  organizing a  separate  Territorial  Government,
and such other purposes as the demands and wants of the people required.
The convention met in compliance with the order of the election of the
delegates, at the Cowlitz, in Lewis county, on the 29th day of August, 1851.
The convention was called to order by Thos. M. Chambers, Esq., when the
following gentlemen came forward and presented their credentials as delegates duly elected from the several precincts in said Territory, and took
upon themselves the duties of members of said convention: Messrs. Catlin,
Burbie, Huntress, Warbass, Jackson, Frazer, Bernier, Bosit [Borst], Della-
braugh, Chapman, Plomondo, Poe, Crosby, Chambers, M. T. Simmons, Maynard, Brownfield, Broshears, Bradley, Edgar, Balch, Wilson, Saunders, A.
T. [J] Simmons, Cochran, and Ford.
The convention then proceeded to ballot for officers, which resulted in
the unanimous choice of the Hon. Seth Catlin for President, and F. S. Balch,
Esq., and Alonzo Poe, Esq., for Secretaries.
The President, on taking the chair, addressed the convention in an appropriate manner, and stated the object of the convent
the convention ready for business!
Mr. Jackson then offered the following resolution,
Resolved, That parliamentary rules be observed by this convention fc.
their government, in so far as the same may not be altered by this convention
Mr. Chapman introduced the following resolution, which was adopted
i, then announced
hich was adopted. The Cowlitz Convention 9
Resolved, That the following standing committees be appointed by the
President.
1. A committee of five on Territorial Government.
2. A committee of eight on Districts and Counties.
3. A committee of three on the Rights and Privileges of citizens.
4. A committee of three on Internal Improvements.
5. A committee of three on Ways and Means.
Mr. Simmons then moved an adjournment until 10 o'clock, which was
carried.
According to adjournment the convention met, when the President
appointed the following gentlemen on the several committees:
Committee on Territorial Government—Messrs. Chapman, Jackson, M.
T. Simmons, Huntress, and Chambers.
Committee on Districts and Counties—Messrs. Brownfield, Wilson,
Crosby, Jackson, Burbie, Plomondo, Edgar, and Warbass.
Committee on Rights arjd Privileges of citizens—Messrs. Huntress, Maynard, and Chapman.
Committee on Internal Improvements—Messrs. M. T. Simmons, Burbie, and Borst.
Committee on Ways and Means—Messrs. Frazer, A. T. [J.] Simmons,
and Bradley.
Mr. Chapman then submitted the following resolution, which was
adopted:
Resolved, That the Committee on1 Territorial Government report to this
convention the propriety of memorializing Congress for the organization of
a Territorial Government north' of the Columbia River, in Oregon Territory.
Mr. Chapman then introduced the following resolution, which was
adopted:
Resolved, That the committee on Districts and Counties, do report to
this convention the propriety of petitioning the Legislature of Oregon, to
lay out the Northern Territory in suitable boundaries for counties, and that
such boundaries be designated by the committee, ["convention" in Oregonian]
leaving each district and county to organize whenever the citizens of such
districts and counties may think proper.
Mr. Balch submitted the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That the committee on Internal Improvements, report to this
convention the propriety of memorializing the next Legislature of Oregon,
for constructing a plank road from some point on Puget's Sound to the
Columbia River> near the mouth of the Cowlitz River.
Mr. Chapman offered the following:
Resolved, That the committee on the Rights and Privileges of Citizens
are hereby required ["requested" in Oregonian] to report to this convenfioi}
for its consideration, a suitable memorial to Congress, requesting that in the
organization of a Territorial Government north of the Columbia River, all
male citizens over the age of 18 years, six months a resident, and 30 days
in the county in which they vote, be allowed the right of suffrage; and
that all natural and naturalized male citizens over the age of 18 years, north
of the Columbia River, be allowed the benefit of the act of Congress donating land to the people of Oregon.
Mr. M. T. Simmons submitted the following amendment—That after
the words 18 years, "Except Negroes and Indians" to be inserted.
After an exciting debate, in which Messrs. Chapman, Simmons,
Huntress, Balch, Maynard, and Wilson, participated, upon the question for
the adoption of the amendment being put, it was adopted. Then upon the
question for the adoption of the resolution as amended, being put, it was
lost: Yeas 7; nays  14.
Mr. Poe moved the adjournment of the convention until Saturday morning at 8 o'clock, which was adopted. 10 Edmond S. Meany
Saturday Morning, 8 o'clock
According to adjournment the convention convened. . The Secretary
read the proceedings of the preceding day, and the minutes were adopted.
[Reports from committees being in order, Mr. Chapman, chairman ot
the committee on Territorial Government, offered the following report:
Mr. President—The committee on Territorial Government, to whom
was referred the resolution requiring them to report to this convention the
propriety of organizing a Territorial Government north of the Columbia
River, have had the same under consideration,, and directed me to make the
following report: . . .     .
That the committee are unanimously of the opinion that a Territorial
Government ought to be organized by Congress, north of the Columbia River,
The propriety of such an organization arises from the demand and necessity
of the occasion. That the Government is contemplated for the benefit of
the people. The vast extent of territory north, well adapted to agriculture,
commerce and manufacturing, the total absence of all municipal law or
civil officers, the great distance from the seat of the present government,
and the isolated situation of this part of the territory therefrom, and many
other reasons too well known to require repitition, conspire to convince the
committee that there is much propriety in the organization of a separate
territorial government, and that no time ought to be lost in demanding the
same from  Congress.
Therefore the committee offers the following resolution for adoption:
Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed by the President of
the convention, to prepare a suitable memorial to Congress on that subject,
and that the same be forwarded to the delegate in congress from Oregon
territory, requesting him to use his influence in procuring the organization
of a separate territorial government.
The question on the adoption of the. resolution being put, was unani-.
mously adopted.
iMr. M. T. Simmons, chairman of the committee on Internal Improvement, presented the report of that committee in) favor of memorializing
Congress to open a territorial road from some point on Puget's Sound
towards Walla Walla ["fort Walla Walla"1 in the Oregonian] on the Columbia River, over the Cascade Mountains. Also in favor of the construction
of a plank road from some point on Puget's1 Sound to the most eligible point
on the Columbia River near the mouth of the Cowlitz river, and the committee offered the following resolution, for adoption.
That our delegate ["in Congress"—Oregonian] be and hereby is instructed and required to use every exertion possible to procure an appropriation of One Hundred Thousand Dollars by Congress, for the opening of
a territorial road from Puget's Sound to the Walla Walla, on the Columbia
River; and that the committee appointed to draft the memorial on a territorial government, also forward a memorial on the subject of said appropriation, which resolution was unanimously adopted.
Mr. Maynard then submitted the following resolution, which was
adopted:
Resolved, That our representative be and hereby is instructed to use
all honorable means in the next Legislature of Oregon, to obtain a charter
for a plank road from Olympia, on Puget's Sound, to the nearest and most
eligible point on the Columbia river near the mouth of the Cowlitz river.
Mr. Huntress moved an adjournment to half past two, P. M., which was
According to adjournment the convention met: when the President,
as authorized, appointed the following gentlemen to compose the committee
to send a memorial to Congress on the subject of organizing a new territorial government north of the Columbia River: Mr. J. B. Chapman, Mr.
F. S. Balch, and Mr. M. T. Simmons. The Cowlitz Convention 11
Mr. Brownfield, chairman of the committee on Districts and Counties,
submitted the following report:
Mr. President—The committee on Districts and Counties, to whom was
referred the resolution requiring them to district the territory north of the
Columbia river into suitable county boundaries, have had the same under
consideration, and directed me to make the following report:
That no doubt but much good may result by having the territory properly bounded, the metes and bounds designated and those districts not sufficiently inhabited for organization can be attached to other counties which
are sufficiently populated. Such regulation is calculated to harmonize settlements and communities. They come to the country knowing what is a
judicious arrangement for future counties. Therefore they have fixed the
following boundaries:2
1. Whitby's   [Whidbey]  island,  one county.
2. From the Strait of [Juan de] Fuca to the Sinhomas [Snohomish]
River, including all the country north ["south". This error was1 evidently
in the document, itself, for it is repeated by both the 'Spectator and Oregonian.] of the British line, one county.
3. From the mouth of the Sinhomas River, up the Sound to1 the north
side of the Pugallup [Puyallup] River, thence due east to the Cascade Mountain, one county.
4. From the north side of the Pugallup, beginning on the Sound, running due east with County No. 3, to the Cascade Mountain, thence south
with said Cascade Mountain until the line reaches the dividing ridge between the waters of the Cowlitz and Nisqually river; thence westwardly
with said dividing ridge sufficiently far until a line due north will strike
the mouth of the Nesqually river; thence west in the channel of the Sound,
sufficiently far to include the islands lying north of Nesqually and west of
the Pugallup river, thence to the place of beginning, at the mouth of Pugallup, shall form the bounds of one county.
The 5th county shall be as follows, beginning at the mouth of the Nisqually river, running west with the Sound to Poe's point, thence across the
arm of the Sound to the west bank of Budd's Inlet, thence up Mud Bay
[Eld Inlet] west fifteen miles, thence southeast to the forks of the road
leading to Yilm [Yelm] and Olympia; thence, to the southwest corner of
county No. 4, thence north with said county line No. 4 to the place of begining
at the Sound, to be the bounds of said county.
6. The following bounds to form county No. 6, to wit; beginning at
the north end of Shoal Water [Willapa] Bay, thence up said Bay to Cedar
Cieek, [probably North River] then up said Cedar Creek until a line north
will strike the Wanouchie [Wynoochee] river, then up said river to the
boundary of county No. 5; thence west to the Red Salmon Fishery; thence
south with the shore of the Pacific Ocean to the place of beginning, shall
form one county.
7. The following bounds shall form county No. 7: To include all that
district of country lying between Cape Flattery on the Pacific, and Hood's
Canal, and south to county No. 6, shall form tha! bounds of one county.
8. The following bounds shall form county No. 8, to wit: All that
district of country lying east of No. 6, and west of No. 5, to the mouth of
Black river, and west to the dividing ridge between the Ghehalis [Chehalis]
and Columbia rivers.
9. The following bounds shall form the county bounds No. 9, lying
between the mouth of the Blackj river, up the Ghehalis river to the east end
of Old Channel at the Land Slip, including all the territory not otherwise appropriated in county No. 5, and to the dividing ridge of the waters of Columbia and Ghehalis [Chehalis] rivers.
2 This is the first attempt at designating an adequate subdivision of the large area
into units for local government. It is remarkable to observe how closely the first rough
draft  was followed  in  the  subsequent creation  of  counties. 12 Edmond S. Meany
10 The county boundaries of No. 10 shall be as follows, to wit:
Beginning at the corners of counties No. 4 and 5, and south with the dividing ridge between the Skucum Chuck! [Skookumchuck] Nowancoon [Newau-
kum] and the waters of Nisqually and Cowlitz rivers, until it strikes the
dividing ridge between the Nowancoon [Newaukum] and Cowlitz rivers;
thence along said ridge until a west line will strike the east end of Nowancoon plains, thence south to the dividing ridge of the waters of the Gehalis
[Chehalis] river and the Columbia river; thence west with said dividing
ridge until it strikes the boundary of county No. 9; thence with said
county boundary to the place of beginning.
11. That the following bounds form the county No. 11: Beginning at
the forks of the Cowlitz; thence up the right hand fork to its source; thence
north to the head branches of the left-hand fork of the Cowlitz; thence
west and north with the dividing ridge between the waters of the Nesqually,
[Nisqually] Cowlitz and Gehalis [Chehalis] rivers, until it intersects the
eastern boundary of No. 10; thence parallel with said east boundary to the
southwest corner; thence south to the place of beginning, at the forks of
the Cowlitz.
12. That the following bounds constitute county No. 12: Beginning
at the north end of Dear island, on the Columbia river; thence northeast to
the head branches of the right-hand fork of the Cowlitz, intersecting the
boundary of No. 11; thence down said right-hand fork of Cowlitz to the
forks; thence northwest with line No. 11 ["to the northwest corner of No.
11"—Oregonian]; thence with the dividing ridge of the Columbia and Ghehalis waters to Pacific county; thence with the line of Pacific county to the
Columbia river; thence up the middle of the channel of said river to the
place of beginning, shall constitute the bounds of one county.
Be it further Resolved, That our representative be and he is herebyy
instructed to procure the division of said territory, as above designated? and
to organize such districts as may be petitioned for by the inhabitants thereof,
["therein"—Oregonian] and to attach such other districts for judicial purposes to those organized, until such time as they may have sufficient inhabitants to organize.
Previous to the question of the adoption of the resolution being put,
Mr. Chapman Submitted the following amendment, which was adopted: To
attach to county No. 5, all that portion of unappropriated territory not
embraced in the bounds of any county lying between No. 5 and Hood's
Canal, and that the north line remaining west when it reaches Budd's Bay,
instead of up Mud Bay, [Eld Inlet] to say across Mud Bay.
Mr. Warbass also proposed the following amendment, which was
adopted:
That the boundaries of County No. 11, be so altered as to include the
whole of county No. 10, and that the said county be known by the name of
Lewis county.
Mr. Warbass also proposed the following amendment, which was adopted:
That all that portion of territory lying east and south of the main Cowlitz river, now included in the county No. 11, be known as St. Helen's county.
Upon the question for the adoption of the report as amended, being
put, it was; adopted.
Mr. Balch proposed that county No. 4, be called Strilacoom [Steilacoom]
county.   Adopted.
Mr. Maynard proposed that county No. 5, be called Simmons' countv.
Adopted.
Mr.  Wilson proposed that county  No.  7, be  called  Clalam   [Callam]
mtil 8 o'clock in the evening, The Cowlitz Convention
In accordance with the adjournment the convention met, when Mr.
Chapman sumbitted the following resolution, which was unanimously adopted:
Resolved, That our delegate to Congress be instructed to use his influence with the Congress of the U. S., that in the organization of said
territorial government to have said territory designated as Columbia Territory, and that the name of Columbia Territory is most especially solicited
and required
Mr. Maynard submitted the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That when this convention does adjourn, it adjourns to meet
on the third Monday in May next, at Olympia, then and there to form a
State constitution, preparatory to asking admission into the Union as one
of the States thereof, provided that Congress has not at that time organized
a territorial government.8
Mr. Brashears submitted the following preamble and resolution, which
was adopted:
That whereas, ships and foreigners are in the habit of coming into our
seaboard and cutting timber off the" unsettled lands, and shipping the timber
away for commerce to foreign ports, to the great detriment of future
settlements of the country; therefore,
Resolved, That our delegate in Congress be instructed to enquire of the
Department at Washington City whether or no the Government cannot take
such measures under the existing laws as to prevent those trespasses by non
settlers, and that the committee on correspondence forward this resolution.
Mr. Warbass offered the following resolution, which was adopted:
Resolved, That the President appoint a committee to request the editors
of the several newspapers of Oregon to publish the proceedings of this con-
Whereupon the President rose and appointed the following gentlemen
as members of said committee: Mr. Warbass. Mr. Jackson, Mr. Frazer.
Mr. Huntress introduced the following resolution, which was adopted.
Resolved, That our representative to the legislature be instructed, and
hereby is so, to use his influence to obtain the enactment of a law for the
appointment of an inspector of flour at Oregon City, and in other places
where Inspectors are needed; and also for a law regulating the weigths of
all kinds( of grain.
A resolution from Mr. Chapman being offered to instruct our delegate
in Congress to use his influence to procure an amendment to the land bill,
so as to take off the restrictions of sale of any part of said donation, was
rejected.
Mr. Balch then moved that the convention adjourn, which was carried.
SETH CATLIN, Prest.
F. S. Balch, A. M. Poe, Secretaries.
It is apparent that the committees were active after the convention adjourned. A copy of the proceedings was sent to Oregon
City for the Oregon Spectator and another copy to Portland for
the Oregonian, the two best vehicles for publicity. At least one
copy each of the papers was sent to Washington City. And the
special committee formulated and forwarded the memorial or petition to Congress. It is shown in the document that the committee
consisted of John B. Chapman, M. T. Simmons and F. S. Balch,
and that the committe directed Mr. Chapmen to "report the following petition to Congress."   The memorial or petition is officially
3 The May meeting thus provided for was not held and the agitation was begun anew 14 Edmond S. Meany
signed by J. B. Chapman. In this and in the transactions of
the convention, it is evident that John B. Chapman, who had given
the Fourth of July oration in 1851 and had stirred much enthusiasm
by referring to the proposed new Territory of Columbia, had followed the matter up with vigor. For all this he deserves credit. He
seems not to have enjoyed the appreciation of his contemporaries.
Though very prominent in the Cowlitz convention of August 29,
1851, he was not a member of the Monticello convention of November 25, 1852. His unlettered but successful colleague, Michael
T. Simmons, was a member of both conventions.
H. H. Bancroft, (Works, Volume XXXI., page 50) refers to
"the ubiquitous Chapman" and in footnote 19, page 50 of the
same volume he scolds Chapman roundly as follows: "Chapman,
in his autobiography in Livingston's Eminent Americans, Volume
IV., page 436, says that, after much exertion, 'he obtained a
convention of 15 members, but not one parliamentary gentleman
among them, hence the whole business devolved upon him'; that
he 'drew up all the resolutions' and memorial, though other members
offered them in their own names, and so contrived that every name
should appear in the proceedings, to give the appearance of a large
convention; and that neither of the men on the committee with him
could write his name. Autobiographies should be confirmed by
two credible witnesses. In this instance Chapman has made use of
the circumstance of Simmons' want of education to grossly misrepresent the intelligence of the community of which such men as
Fbey, whose private correspondence in my possession shows him to
be a man of refined feelings, Goldsborough, Catlin, Warbass, Balch,
Crosby, Wilson and others were members. As to Simmons, although his want of scholarship was an impediment and a mortification, he possessed the real qualities of a leader, which Chapman
lacked; for the latter was never able to achieve either popularity
or position, though he strove hard for both. The census of 1850
for Lewis county gives the total white population at 457, only
six of whom, over twenty years of age, were not able to write.
It is probable that not more than one out of the six was sent to
the convention, and he [Simmons] was appointed on account of
his brain power and consequent influence."
While that is an unfortunate showing for Chapman in history,
it is probable that his failure to acquire popularity and the qualities
of real leadership may account to some degree for the lack of appre- The Cowlitz Convention 15
ciation for the Cowlitz convention and its memorial to Congress.
Apparently Chapman entered the employ of the British company,
of which his memorial complained, then left Puget Sound
before the new territory was organized. In the Evidence for the
United States in the Matter of the Claim of the Puget Sound
Agricultural Company Before the British and American Commission, page 140, is the following deposition, under date of November
23, 1866: "John Butler Chapman, aged 68 years, residence Washington, D. C, and I am a clerk in the Treasury Department. I
have been in Washington Territory in 1851 and 1852. I made
a survey of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company's [subsidary
of the Hudson's Bay Company] lands."
Whatever may have been the opinions held of Chapman at
the time, we now know that his memorial of the Cowlitz convention reached Delegate Lane and was by him filed with the Committee on Territories as early as December 30, 1851, and that Lane
evidently acted on that memorial and the accompanying papers
by introducing his effective resolution on December 6, 1852,, before
it was at all possible for him to know anything of the Monticello
convention of November 25, 1852.
Having adjusted the credit due Mr. Chapman and having shown
the importance of the Cowlitz memorial, it is well to discuss briefly
the better known and more popular Monticello memorial.
Even so careful and so just a man as Arthur A. Denny allowed
his feelings toward the Monticello document to lead him into the
error common among local historians. He was a member of the
Monticello convention and prized a copy of the memorial. When
Congress passed the enabling act to admit Washington Territory
to statehood, the old pioneer sent his copy of the memorial to the
Post-Intelligence on March 22, 1889, with an article in which
he said: "The bill for the formation of Columbia Territory, in
answer to this memorial, was earnestly supported by Delegate Lane."
In truth the memorial was an incident to, rather than the cause
of, the bill mentioned.
There should be little wonder that the Monticello convention
was more popular than its predecessor. It was larger and more
representative. It was suggested, advocated, approved and praised
by the only newspaper north of the Columbia River. It reflected
the popular desires and the people knew all about it.
As already stated, a meeting of citizens followed Mr. Bigelow's 16 Edmond S. Meany
Fourth of July oration of 1852, but the real impulse came when
The Columbian began publication in Olympia on September 11,
1852. In the first issue Mr. Bigelow's oration was printed. In
the third issue, September 25, there appeared an article "To the
Residents of Northern Oregon," signed "Elis", advocating that,
at the meeting to be held at the home of John R. Jackson on Octo-
ter 25, arrangements should be made for the election of delegates
to a convention to be held at Monticello. In the fifth, sixth and
seventh issues there were printed editorials advocating the proposed
new Territory. In the ninth issue, November 6, there was an editorial article headed: "Prepare! Prepare!" and giving a full account of the meeting at John R. Jackson's home on October 27
and calling a convention to be held at Monticello on "the last
Thursday of November." In following up this start, The Columbian published urgent editorials under such headings as "Turn Out!
Turn Out!" and "Rally! Rally!" In the thirteenth issue, December
4, there appears a full account of the Monticello convention of
November 25. In the issue of December 11, there is printed an
address delivered by Quincy A. Brooks, one of the delegates.
These articles in a regularly succeeding series fix the dates
beyond cavil, and yet Historian Bancroft (Works, Volume XXXI.,
page 52) who frequently cites The Columbian as a source, says the
meeting was held on September 27, instead of October 27 and that
the convention was called for October 25, instead of November 25.
His errors have been often repeated by subsequent writers.
The convention met as urged and adopted a memorial which
was forwarded to Delegate Lane. While it was traveling on its
way across the continent, Delegate Lane acted on the impulse trom
the former documents and got his resoution adopted requesting the
. Committee on Territories to report "by bill or otherwise." That
Committee reported by a bill to create Columbia Territory, which
bill was known as "H. R. Number 348." The bill did not come
up for debate in the House until February 8, 1852.
On that day Delegate Lane made a long and earnest speech
in favor of the bill. At its conclusion, Representative Richard
H. Stanton of Kentucky moved to amend the bill by changing the
name from Columbia to Washington as an honor for the "Father
of His Country." The amendment was quickly accepted. During
his speech, Delegate Lane offered a "memorial of sundry citizens
of Northern  Oregon,  adopted at a convention held near Puget The Cowlitz Convention 17
Sound." That was the Monticello memorial which made its appearance in Congress eleven weeks after its framing in Monticello
instead of the eleven days indicated in so many local histories.
The clerk read the memorial and it was published in the Congressional Globe. There, however, only the first nine signatures
were printed. In the copy saved by Mr. Denny all the signatures
are given.   In that more complete form it is here reproduced:
To the Honorable the Senate and House or Representatives of the United
States, in Congress1 Assembled:
The memorial of the undersigned, delegates of the citizens of Northern
Oregon, in convention asembled, respectfully represent to your honorable
bodies that it is the earnest desire of your petitioners, and of said citizens
that all that portion of Oregon Territory lying north of the Columbia river
and west of the great northern branch thereof, should be organized as a
separate territory under the name and style of the Territory of Columbia.
In support of the prayer of this memorial your petitioners would respectfully urge the following among many other reasons, viz:
1. The present territory of Oregon contains an area of 341,000 square
miles, and is entirely too large an extent of territory to be embraced within
the limits of one state.
2. The said territory possesses a seacoast of 650 miles in extent, the
country east of the Cascade mountains is bound to thati on the coast by the
strongest ties of interest; and, inasmuch as your petitioners believe that the
territory must inevitably be divided at no very distant day, they are of
opinion that it would be unjust that ond state should possess so large a seaboard to the exclusion of that in the interior.
3. The territory embraced within the boundaries of the proposed "Territory of Columbia," containing an area of about 32,000 square! miles, is, in the
opinion of your petitioners, about a fair and just medium of territorial extent to form one state.
4. The proposed "Territory of Columbia" presents natural resources
capable of supporting a population at least as large as that of any state in
the Union possessing an equal extent of territory.
5. Those portions of Oregon territory lying respectively north and
south of the Columbia river, must, from their geographical position, always
rival each other in commercial advantages, and their respective citizens must,
as they now are and always have been, be actuated by a spirit of opposition.
6. The southern part of Oregon territory, having a majority of voters,
have controlled the territorial legislature, and Northern Oregon has never
received any benefit from the appropriations made by congress for said territory, which were subject to the disposition of said legislature.
7. The seat of the territorial legislature is now situated, by the nearest
practicable route, at a distance of 400 miles from a large portion of the citizens of Northern Oregon.
8. A great part of the legislation suitable to the South is, for local
reasons, opposed to the interests of the North, and inasmuch as the South
has a majority of votes, and representatives are always bound to reflect the
will of their constituents, your petitioners can entertain no reasonable hopes
that their legislative wants! will ever be properly regarded under the present
organization.
9. Experience has, in the opinion of your petitioners, well established
the principle, that in states having a moderate sized territory the wants of the
people are more easily made known to their representatives, there is less danger of a conflict between sectional interests, and more prompt and adequate
legislation can always be obtained. 18
Edmond S. Meany
In conclusion, your petitioners would respectfully represent that Northern Oregon, with its great natural resources, presenting such unparalleled
inducements to immigrants and with its present large population constantly
and rapidly increasing by immigration, is of sufficient importance, m a
national point of view, to merit the fostering care of congress, and its interests are so numerous and so entirely distinct in their character, as to demand the attention of a separate and independent legislature.
Wherefore your petitioners humbly pray that your honorable bodies will,
at an early day, pass a law organizing the district of country before described
under a territorial government, to be named the "Territory of Columbia.
Done in convention assembled at the town of Monticello, Oregon Territory, this 25th day of November, A. D., 1852.
R. V. White,
Secretary;
L. B. Hastings,
B. C. Armstrong
S. S. Ford,
W. A. L. McCorkle,
N. Ostrander,
H. Mimes,
E. L. Ferrick,
Q. A. Brooks.
A. A. Denny,
E. H. Winslow,
G. B. Roberts,
C. S. Hathaway,
A. Cook,
A. F. Scott,
Wm. N. Belt,,
L. M. Collins
N. Stone,
C. H. Hale,
E. J. Allen,
J. R. Jackson,
F. A. Clarke,
A. Wylie,
J. N. Low,
A. J. Simmons,
M. T. Simmons,
G. N. McConaha,
Pres. of the Con.
D. S. Maynard,
Wm. Plumb,
Seth Catlin,
S. Plamondon,
C. C. Terry,
L. L. Da\
S. D. Ru
A B. Du
H.   A.   GOLDSBOROUGH,
H. C. Wilson,
J. Fowler,
H.  D.  Huntington,
A. Crawford,
C. F. Porter,
P. W. Crawford,
S. P.  Moses.
The bill, with its amended name, passed the House on February 10 and was sent to the Senate where Stephen A. Douglas,
as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, offered an
amendment that the name be changed to "Washingtonia" to avoid
confusion in the mails with the name of the National Capital. He
later withdrew the amendment and the bill passed the Senate and
was signed by President Millard Fillmore on March 2, 1853.
. Ten days after the Monticello convention the Territorial Legislature of Oregon met at Salem and strongly reflected the sentiments
of the northerners as revealed in their two conventions. The
north had as representatives F. A. Chenoweth and Isaac N. Ebey.
They found their colleagues from the southern counties willing
to adopt Ebey's resolution that Congress be asked to appropriate
money to build a road across the mountains from Steilacoom to
Walla Walla as advocated in the Cowlitz convention. Four new
counties, Island, King, Pierce and Jefferson, were created following in the main the boundaries suggested in the Cowlitz convention,
though the names chosen were different from those approved. In
accordance with both the northern conventions, the Legislature
adopted a memorial offered by Mr. Ebey asking for the division
of Oregon Territory as follows The Cowlitz Convention 19
Your memorialists, the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Oregon,
legally assembled upon the first Monday in December, A. D., 1852, would
respectfully represent unto your honorable body that a period of four years
and six months has elapsed since the establishment of the present Territorial
government over the Territory of Oregon; and that in the mean time the
population of the said Territory has spread from the hanks of the Columbia
River north along Puget Sound, Admiralty Inlet, Possession Sound, and
the surrounding country to the Canal de Arro; and that the people of that
Territory labor under great inconvenience and hardship, by reason of the
great distance to which they are removed from the present Territorial organ-
Those portions of Oregon Territory lying south and north of the Columbia River must from their geographical position, difference in climate
and internal resources, remain in a great degree distinct communities, with
different interests and policies in all that appertains to their domestic legislation, and the various interests that are to be regulated, nourished, and
cherished by it:
The communication between these two portions of the Territory is dff-
icult, casual, and uncertain, although time and improvement would in some
measure remove this obstacle, yet it would for a long period in the future
a serious barrier to the prosperity and well-being of each, so long as
:hey remain under one government.
The territory north of the Columbia River, and west of the great north-
branch of that stream, contains sufficient number of square miles to
i a state, which in point of resources and capacity to maintain a popu-
n will compare favorably with most of the States of the Union.
Experience has proven that whens marked geographical boundaries,
which have been traced byi the hand of nature, have been disregarded in the
formation of local governments, that sectional jealousies and local strifes
have seriously embarassed their prosperity, and characterized their domestic
legislation.
Your memorialists, for these reasons, and for the benefit of Oregon,
both north and south of the Columbia River, and believing from the reservation of power in the first section of the organic act that Congress then
anticipated that at some future time it would be necessary to establish other
Territorial organizations west of the Rocky Mountains, and believing that
that time has come, would respectfully pray your honorable body to establish
a separate Territorial government for all that portion of Oregon Territory
lying north of the Columbia River and west of the great northern branch
of the same, to be known as the Territory of Columbia.—Journal of the
Oregon House of Representatives, Appendix, pages 34-35.
That cordial and dignified document was adopted in the House
on January 14 and in the Council on January 18, 1853. Judging
from the time it took to transmit the Monticello memorial, the
bill creating Washington Territory would have been passed by
Congress and signed by the President about four weeks before
the Oregon Legislative memorial arrived in Washington City.
However, it is an interesting link in the chain of events leading up
to the creation of an American Commonwealth.
Edmond S. Meany. ADVERTISING AND THE KLONDIKE*     .
With the advance of civilization come additional factors in
the shaping of the courses of historical events. Along with the
broadening of business activities has come the growth of a new
science, advertising. We have had much written on the various
economic phases of history, but, prior to the recent war propaganda, little or no attention has been paid to the possible effect of
skillful advertising on history.
The American business man is continually in search of new
fields of productivity. Although the breadth of his vision has never
been exactly measured, it is known that he has played no small part
in showing the Nation where to plant the flagstaff. His efforts
have never been confined to small areas or to those close at hand.
Sometimes the Orient, often the Caribbean, and occasionally even
the Northwest have beckoned insistently. The period of the Klondike craze in the last three years of the nineteenth century is one
of these occasions. It illustrates an influential factor in the removal of the "last frontier" by "westward expansion". This* factor
is advertisement.
During the autumn and early winter of 1897 the Klondike rush
promised growth and profit to the Pacific Coast cities. Their
thinking business men and boomers reasoned in this wise:—
1. Outfitting of would-be Klondikers must mean money in the
pockets ofi whoever sold the outfits.
2. Any given city would have all the trade which no other city
seized.
3. Any means ofj diverting the flow of travel and trade from opposing cities was good business and permissible ethics from the
point of vie^w of the competing metropolis.
4. Incidentally a certain amount of service might be claimed as
rendered to the public.
This reasoning brought on an inter-city rivalry which can be
understood by a discussion of Seattle's part in it.
On July 19, 1897, a certain Thomas J. Church wrote from
Chicago to General J. B. Metcalf of Seattle, describing the interest
of midwesterners in Klondike possibilities, and the efforts of the
(20) Advertising and the Klondike 21
Southern Pacific to direct the route of travel toward San Francisco.
Similarly, the Canadian Pacific was advertising Vancouver and
Victoria; the Oregon Washington Railway and Navigation Company, Portland; The Great Northern, Seattle; and the Northern
Pacific both Portland and Seattle. General Metcalfe showed this
letter to Mr. Cooper, a prominent business man, with the result that
a meeting of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce was called for
August 30, following, to consider "measures for widely advertising
the city of Seattle as the principal outfitting point for Alaskan
miners and also to counteract the efforts of other cities in the
same direction." At this meeting the Chamber voted in favor of
the appointment of special committees on advertising and finance,
to make these measures effective.
Within four days the advertising committee had organized
with Mr. E. F. Sweeney as chairman and Mr. Erastus Brainerd,
be it noted, as Secretary. These gentlemen were able to prepare
a Tentative Project of Work which was rewarded with the cordial
approval of the committee. It carried the signatures and united
opinion of all the committee members and declared their implicit
faith, as business men and members of the Chamber of Commerce,
in "elastic publicity". It advised a campaign of paid and unpaid
advertising, strongly reinforced by propaganda, for the best results.
Mr. Brainerd at once presented this Project to the Board of
Trustees and received their hearty approval and cooperation. He
could have the use of the Chamber of Commerce rooms: the Republican State Committee would loan a desk and the cash would
come from the business men, taxed according to the probable amount
of benefit received by them. The special committee thus became
permanent. The excellence of the choice of Mr. Brainerd as paid
Secretary, student of psychology, and opportunist, was demonstrated by his energetic prosecution of the twelve points in the Project
Not the means he used, but the adjustment and correlation of them,
made his work significant in the history of the Klondike and of
advertising. The means employed, classify themselves in four
groups:— 1 Newspapers and Periodicals; 2 Civic Pride; 3 Circulars; 4 Interlocking Correspondence.
For the purposes of direct advertising, Seattle followed the
lead of her competitors in choice of publication and type of advertisement. Because Portland and Victoria had been advertising in the
New York Journal, Seattle paid $800 for three fourths of a page 22 Jeannette Paddock Nichols
in a Sunday issue. Similarly, the American Review of Reviews
had been carrying Canadian matter: Munsey, McClure, Cosmopolitan, Harper, Century and Scribner's enjoyed patronage with a like
motive. The great ardor of each Chamber in correcting the misconceptions created by the others was exploited by the advertising
mediums, whose business managers took much pains to follow up
each tilt with suggestions that the aggreived city set the world
right by more advertising. Mr. Brainerd felt these controversies
were justifiable if cheap, and used clipping bureaus to inform him of
inaccuracies about Seattle, as well as other cities. Taking clipping
as an index, Seattle advertised five times as much as her competitors. Also the Secretary wrote feature articles, particularly a well-
illustrated one for Harper's and one of two columns for the "Jubilee
Edition" of the Tacoma Ledger. (It is not known why the Tacoma
editor offered this courtesy.)
The Associated Press played no favorites. It used material
from all sides as plate matter for editorials. At first, Mr. Brainerd
felt it a real achievement when Seattle material went into plate
editorials. But when his clippings showed him that his competitors
were similarly blessed, he learned that most editors could blame
the Association for errors on Klondike affairs. Thereafter, he
tried to have his corrections placed in that part of a paper devoted
to local matter. Thereby, his corrections were more widely read
| than the original error. Editorials were of course far less valuable
than news items, of which an excellent example is the following:—
a paragraph widely published under the date line of Seattle, Sept. 3:
"As a result of the Klondike excitement, which has overwhelmed the city with inquiries from all parts of the world as to routes of
transportation and cost of outfitting, there has been established,
under the auspices of the Chamber of Commerce, a public Bureau of
Information."
This confusion of cause and effect passed unnoticed by the
general public.
Seattle's periodicals were used for purposes of distribution, to
create a cumulative effect when the same correspondent had received a series of periodicals. Newspapers have a natural tendency to
exploit themselves by special editions, so the "Klondike Edition" of
ihe Seattle Post-Intelligencer served as capital in a gigantic scheme
of distribution. It went to:—every postmaster in the United States
upwards of 70,000: every public library, 6,000: every mayor of a Advertising and the Klondike
23
city, nearly 4,000: Great Northern Railway, 10,000: Northern Pa-
cific, 5,000.
When the Secretary undertook to insert small advertisements
in county seat newspapers only, he learned that the Western Newspaper Union and other publishing houses customarily mix county
seat papers with village issues on the syndicate circulation lists. But
he had studied the replies to circulars issued early in the game for
hints as to the profitable advertising localities, and was able, by
selecting three lists distributed over states in the middle west and
southwest, to attain the large circulation of 9,990,400 papers. The
most numerous responses to these advertisements came from regions
in which an over-supply of labor caused industrial disaffection.
Mr. Brainerd understood the delight of rural townsfolk in published letters from former friends who have "moved away". The
only thing necessary was to persuade the movers to send the letters.
After experiment, he sent a confidential plea to employers and
heads of organizations, explaining why it was not "desirable" to
take this step publicly, drawing attention to the special value of personal letters in a neighborly community and asking them to urge
their clients, congregations, subordinates, employees and friends, to
at once correspond with their old home paper and friends in the
East. For this, the Bureau offered to furnish the material all
ready for the affixing of names and signatures, to pay the postage,
and to post the letters.   The "drive" was a psychological success.
The wastebaskets of our public officials mutely testify to the
present commercial and political popularity of the circular idea.
In 1897, the Seattle Bureau of Information carefully promulgated
four circulars, varying with the intended recipient and his intended
reaction:— 1 To newspapers and publication: 2 To governors and
mayors: 3 To important officials everywhere: 4 To Senators and
Representatives.
Circular 1 informed every daily in the United States and every
publication having over 5,000 circulation, that Seattle was the port
of departures and outfitting station for the Alaskan gold-fields. It
was generally printed by all classes of periodicals—without charge.
Circular 2 asked a number of questions, in order that the conservative business men of Seattle might avoid the pitfalls of stampedes and might inform inquirers as to the facts on the gold fields.
Its attraction was enhanced by the Chamber stationery, typewriter
type, and the word "dictated" prominently placed in an upper cor- 24
Jeannette Paddock Nichols
ner. It expressed solicitude for the good of the public. Finally, it
inquired for prospective migrants and their place of outfitting. By
most of the governors and mayors the circular was referred to their
local dailies and printed. The personal response varied inversely
with the size and importance of the locality and gave opportunity
for a display of humor on the part of the officials of large places.
Mr. Brainerd analysed the replies to these circulars, consulted
influential Seattleites, and achieved his masterpiece, Circular 4.
This he was able to put forth as an official proclamation, because
he persuaded the Secretary of State (of the State of Washington)
to sign it. It was a combination of the paternal, advisory, and reassuring: it can have deferred few who had already made up their
minds, and must have reassured the timid. For example, although
shooting rapids was inadvisable, "Of those who have gone in... not
more than half a dozen have lost their lives and these from carelessness in fording." (Conditions are still such that it is difficult
to prove assertions about Alaska.) All were reminded of the willingness of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce to impart Information. Because this message entered the channels of the press via
public officials, it was considered seriously at home and abroad.
The ministers of France, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland and the Baltic countries sent it as a communication to their governments, by
whom it was gratefully printed. This foreign idea was pushed so
far as to include Christmas gifts, sent to the crowned heads of
Europe, of Alaskan and Klondike photographs and views. The
Prince of Wales and President McKinley had a greater liking for
their gifts, than did the German Emperor, who refused a package
that "might contain dynamite."
The Canadian Pacific Railway and the Dominion cities, proclaimed the advantage of outfitting in Canada, as soon as their
Government placed 30% tariff charges at Klondike ports of entry.
United States railway officials sent Mr. Brainerd strong protests,
and shortly thereafter, he sent Circular 4 to the "representative
Americans" comprising the Senate and House of Representatives.
As good protectionists, they were petitioned to nourish the "new
field of American enterprise" in Alaska and at Seattle. The apparent cooperation of the British Government and the British Columbia Board of Trade, and the alleged activities of Lieutenant
Governor Mcintosh in diverting Americans from Alaska to the
Northwest Territory made a strong case, on the strength of which Advertising and the Klondike 25
the encouragement of Americans to outfit in American cities and to
prospect on the American Yukon was urged. Quotation was made
from a correspondent of Harper's Weekly, (Mr. Brainerd) as to the
superiority of Seattle for Alaskan trade. Finally, the members of
Congress were asked if they would favor an immediate settlement
of boundary and tariff issues, the establishment of an army post
on the Yukon, and the division of Alaska into two territories.
In spite of their preoccupation, a large number of replies to
Circular 4 were received. These were in conformity with our legislative system and indicated an attitude of uninformed wariness.
The legislators either refuses to commit themselves for lack of
knowledge, or reserved the right to change on more complte information. The more active promised to investigate the subject—
which indicates the importance of a Chamber of Commerce. Party
men remembered senatorial courtesy, as when J. D. Hicks and O W.
Underwood promised to be governed by the opinions of Senator
Wilson and Congressman Lewis of Washington. Opposition to
the present division of Alaska showed itself, although a better
government and a delegate were advocated, in conformity with the
national tradition of a colonial policy looking toward self government where possible.
Throughout this advertising campaign, the Seattle business
men were bound together by an ingenious system of interlocking
correspondence, which quietly gave merchants the names of possible customers and which made them prompt with the dues owing
to the Bureau of Information. The nomadic character of western
population, personal pique, editorial antipathies, and local pride,
wove a network of espionage which was used to inform Seattle of
her rival's plans that she might forestall them. All the Coast cities
were contending with the railroad officials for the exclusive use of
certain special privileges, such as cut rates, passenger running, and
distribution of train circulars. Also they were trying to secure definite promises from Secretary of War Alger, for the outfitting of
advertising.
Finally, what were the results? As to legislation, the March
Report of the Bureau asserts that "No little of the energy and information of Congress shown in its dealing with Alaskan affairs at
this session is due to the literature that they have received from this
committee." The actual record of the 55th Congress shows an increase of at least 300% in the number of Alaskan bills passed, with Jeannette Paddock Nichols
s corresponding number which died in committee. Other factors
in these increases are not hard to find. The question of the effect
of the advertising upon the city of Seattle is equally debatable.
Although the census shows an increase of population from 42,837
in 1890 to 80,671 in 1900, this increase was mostly in the laboring
population, at the time when Alaska and Seattle both stood in
greatest need of capital. It cannot be gainsaid that the Bureau of
Information of the Seattle Chamber of Commerce gave momentum
to the growth of both the Klondike and Seattle.
Jeannette Paddock Nichols. S^j J>~J
f. 3 S .   u/«- tz*-
"—y
THE WRECK OF THE ST. NICHOLAS*
The Russian ship St. Nicholas sailed from New Archangel
(Sitka), Russian America, September 28th 1808, for an exploring
and fur trading voyage along the shore of what is now the State
of Washington. The commander was Nikolai Isakovich Bulagin
and the supercargo, or prikaschik, was Timothy Tarakanof, who
preserved the story of the voyage and the varied experiences of
the crew in a manuscript which was deposited in the archives
of the Russian American Company at Sitka for many years.
Land was sighted on October 10th at Cape Juan de Fuca
(Flattery), and the ship then lay off the coast of Vancouver Island
in calms and light winds, while the officer mapped the shores
and traded with the Indians who came to the ship in their canoes
to the number of hundreds in a day.
The canoes were generally of small size, carrying from four to
ten passengers each and the Indians brought sea otter skins, deer,
goats, and fish for sale. For a large halibut the Russians paid a
quarter arshin of blue coral beads, five or six vershocks of glass
beads, and some thread. The Indians refused with contempt all
offers of beads, nankin cloth, or iron implements for sea otter
skins, and demanded cloths of the kind similar to that used in
the jackets of the Russian sailors.
The arms of the Indians consisted of arrows tipped with deer
horn, iron spears without stocks, bone spears with long handles,
and weapons made from whalebone, half an arshin in length, blunt
on the sides, about two and a half inches wide and a quarter inch
thick.   These last were used in night attacks on their enemies.
After working as far north as Clayoquot Sound they sailed
south to the vicinity of Destruction Island, off the Washington
coast, and began work on the survey of that part of the shore in
latitude 47° 33' North. While so engaged the wind fell to a calm,
the swells drifted them into dangerous reefs off shore and they
were compelled to put out their anchors to hold themselves off
the rocks. The cables chafed and broke and the ship was finally
thrown on the beach by a southeast wind and struct at high tide,
becoming a total wreck.    The vessel struck in latitude 47°  56'
(27) 28 C. L. Andrews
North on November 1st not far from the mouth of the Quillayute
River.
The crew reached the shore without loss of life and were
fortunate enought to save arms, ammunition, some tents, sails, provisions, and other goods. During the time they were taking the
goods ashore the Indians appeared and thronged around, stole
small articles and finally attacked the Russians with stones and
spears. The Russians then fired on them with their muskets,
killed two and drove others away.
The Russian ship Kodiak was to sail for the coast of California and was expected to meet the St Nicholas at Gray's Harbor
before proceeding farther south. The survivors of the wrecked
ship decided to attempt the journey to the place of rendezvouz
by traveling along shore on foot and accordingly, taking arms and
ammunition and a small amount of food, after throwing the ship's
cannon and other equipment into the sea, started along shore on their
journey. The way along the beach was difficult and natives with
whom they met showed them a path through the forest and assured
them that it was much more passable. After three days on this
road, harassed by hostile natives at different points, they reached
a river which was too deep to ford. A native camp of bark
shalashes or huts was on the bank and the Russians hired the
inhabitants to ferry them across in the canoes. Two canoes were
brought, into one of which were loaded nine men, into the other
Anna Petrovna, wife of the captain, and a native of Kodiak, an
Aleut, and a young Russian. In midstream the Indians pulled
a cork from the bottom of the larger boat, then sprang overboard
and swam ashore while their countrymen on the opposite bank
attacked the inmates of the boat with spears and arrows. Fortunately the boat drifted near the shore from which they embarked
and all landed safely except several being wounded by the arrows
of their assailants. The other canoe was taken ashore near the
huts where Anna Petrovna, the Aleut ( and the Russian boy were
made prisioners. The Russians fired on the Indians from such
muskets as had not been wet in the river, killed two, and wounded
several. One Rusian, Sovasnikof, was wounded so severely by
an arrow that he soon died.
After this encounter the Russians withdrew to a small hill at a
little distance and made a camp for the night, all in mortal fear
for their lives, for there were some two hundred Indians opposing The Wreck of the "St. Nicholas'
29
them, and Bulagin was frantic over the loss of his wife. Rain
fell incessantly, their muskets were wet, their provisions were exhausted, hunger oppressed them, and they were in desperate straits.
They searched for mushrooms, wood fungi, plant roots and other
possible food that might support life. They ate the leather soles of
their shoes and the sea-lion throats which were in their kamlikas.
Bulagin resigned the leadership of the party to Tarakanof
who took command. On the 14th of November in sheer desperation
the Russians went to the river determined to fight the Indians
but found that their enemies had departed and from the huts they
took as much dried salmon as they could carry and went back
to their camp.
A day or so later Tarakanof, the hunter Ovchinnikof and an
AleuTwent out to scout for a route toward the mountains. They
were ambushed by the Indians, Ovchinnikof and the Aleut were
wounded by arrows, and with great difficulty they repulsed their
assailants and made their way to their own camp. They now gave
up the plan of reaching the place of rendezvous and determined
to go up in the mountains to a lake they heard was near the
headwaters of the river, and there make a winter camp. They
made headway slowly, hampered by the rains and the heavy forest.
At times they met Indians who were not hostile and bought salmon
of them for beads and other trifles. After several days they were
overtaken by a native who came with a proposal that the Russians
ransom Anna Petrovna. This Bulagin was determined to do and
practically all the remaining property was offered. The natives
demanded four muskets in addition which the Russians decided
they could not give in their already weakened condition. Bulagin
then asked to see his wife and the interview was granted. The
meeting was piteously affecting and he begged for her return but
as the ransom was not reduced the savages took her away with
them.
After struggling toward the mountains for a few more days
the Russians made a fortified winter camp, building a spuare log
house with sentry boxes at the corners for the guards and otherwise prepared for defense. Here they remained for the winter,
during which they built a boat.
On February 8th they went down the river, piloted by an old
Indian and Bulagin again in command. At one place Indians
were encamped on an island and prepared for hostilities but the 30 C. L. Andrews
pilot took them down a narrow passage and avoided the hostile camp.
At the mouth of the river they camped opposite the village at
the place where Anna Petrovna was captured. Here a large
number of Indians were gathered and the Russians as a precaution
captured two women and a young Indian man and held them as
hostages for the release' of Anna Petrovna and the others held
by the Indians. After a few days, more natives appeared and
brought Anna Petrovna. When the exchange was demanded Anna
I refused to leave the Indians, saying she was well treated and well
fed while if she again joined the Russians she would be compelled
to wander in the forest half starved. Bulagin was at first furious
at her refusal to return and threatened to shoot her but afterward
went away dejected with grief.
Tarakanof, finding that the ones captured were not ill treated,
proposed to surrender to the Indians and trust to being rescued
by some European ship along the coast. In this he was joined
by four other Russians and they gave themselves up as prisioners.
The remaining Russians attempted to cross to Destruction Island,
their boat went on the rocks and was lost together with their provisions, while they narrowly escaped with their lives, only to be
captured by the Indians.
Tarakanof was taken by a chief named Utramaka who carried
him to his home near Cape Juan de Fuca (Flattery), called by
the Indians Koonistchat, where they had their winter habitations.
Bulagin was claimed by the same chief but was finally exchanged
to another master who held also Anna Petrovna. The prisoners
were exchanged from hand to hand among the savages. Anna
Petrovna died in August 1809 and her master threw her body into .
the forest to the great grief of the Russians. Her husband
hearing of her fate pined away and died of consumption in the
following February.
Tarakanof, by his knowledge of tools, made himself useful to
his master and was well treated, was allowed to have a hut by
himself, and had many favors granted. He amused the Indians
by constructing and flying a kite, which greatly pleased them and
they said the Russians could reach the sky. He describes them as
"Perfect children, governed by trifles, and a bauble consols them."
In September of 1810 they went to the east far up the Strait of
Juan de Fuca, and during the next winter they suffered greatly
for want of food. The Wreck of the "St. Nicholas" 31
May 6th, 1811, a brig came to anchor near the shore, Tar
kanof, with his master, went on board and found it to be a vessel    /j
from the United States, the Lydia under command of Captain
Brown.   The Captain set about ransoming the prisoners and ordered
all brought on board.
An Englishman, John Williams by name, was brought, for
whom the Captain paid five sazhens of cloth, a locksmith's saw, two
steel knives, one looking glass, five packages of powder and five
bags of shot. The same amount was offered for each of the Russians and was accepted for all except Bolotof and Kurmachof for
whom the Indians demanded higher ransom and it being refused
they were taken away, Shubin had been taken to Destruction Island.
Captain Brown then seized a chief who came aboard and held
him as a hostage for the delivery of the remaining Russian captives,
all of whom were brought in within a few days.
Thirteen captives were ransomed, seven died in captivity, one
Aleut was later ransomed on the Columbia River by the Captain
of the American ship Mercury, and one Russian named Philip
Kotilnikof had been taken so far away that he could not be found,
so remained with the Indians.
On May 10th, they sailed from the Strait and reached Sitka
June 9th, 1811. C. L. Andrews
SerCA >Ik-~ m ORIGIN OF WASHINGTON GEOGRAPHIC NAMES
[Continued from Volume XII., Page 299.]
Roza, a town in the southern part of Kittitas County, named
in 1883 or 1884 by the Superintendent of the Northern Pacific
Railroad Company in honor of his daughter. (M. J. Roberts, in
Names MSS.   Letter 407.)
Ruby, a name much used for creeks and mining camps. In the
central part of Okanogan County, Thomas Fuller in 1885, built the
first cabin of a settlement. He was one of the owners of the Ruby
Mine and so he called the settlement Ruby. (C. H. Lovejoy to
Frank Putnam, on Tonasket, in Names MSS. Letter 3345.) In
the central part of Pend Oreille County, some prospectors found
rubies in a little creek, which was at once named Ruby Creek. In
1905, when a postoffice was established there, it received the name
of Ruby.   (T. D. Eastlick, in Names MSS.   Letter 428.)
Rudd, see Machias.
Ruff, a town in the eastern part of Grant County, named for
Gotfred Ruff, on whose property the town was to have been located.
(W. H. Poggevall, in Names MSS.   Letter 180)
Russelxs, a creek and a town in Walla Walla County. "The
creek was named for Charles Russell who settled there in 1889, but
Russells Station was named for Patrick Russell." (W. D. Lyman,
of Walla Walla, in Names MSS.   Letter 246.)
Ruston, surrounded by Tacoma, Pierce County. In 1915,
Doctor Pratt, Mayor of Ruston, and one of the incorporators, stated
that the name was an honor for W. R. Rust, one of the founders
of the smelter at that place, on account of his benefactions and
his kindness to employes. Mr. Rust was President of the Tacoma
Smelting Company. (E. L. Sweeney, of Tacoma, in Names MSS.
Letter 114.)
Ruth's Prairie, in the southern part of Thurston County,
named in 1850 for B. F. Ruth, a settler there. (F. D. Conklyn, of
Rainier, in Names MSS.   Letter 59.)
Ryan, a town in the northwestern part of Stevens County,
named for Henry Ryan, who owned a farm there. (Joseph T. Reed,
of Marble, in Names MSS.   Letter 125.)
Ryder Channel, see Balch Passage.
(32) Origin of Washington Geographical Names 33
Rye, a station in the central part of Whitman County and
another with the same name in the southeastern part of Kittitas
County. The latter was named by the Chicago, Milwaukee and St.
Paul Railway Company after Rye, New York. (H. R. Williams,
in Names MSS.   Letter 589.)
Sachal, an early name for a river and lake in Thurston County,
southwest of Olympia, probably the Black River and Black Lake
of more recent maps. The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in describing
the Indians of that region, say the Sachals numbered about forty
and "reside about the lake of the same name, and along the river
Chickeeles" [Chehalis].    (Narrative Volume Vv page 132.)
Sachap, see Satsop.
SachEn Point, see March Point.
Saddle Mountain, a local name frequently encountered for
saddle-shaped peaks. Captain John Meares, while off the entrance
of Willapa Harbor in 1788 named such a peak in the present Pacific
County. (United States Public Documents, Serial No. 1005, page
403.)   The name also appears in the southern part of Grant County.
Saddlebag Island, in Padella Bay, in the northwestern part of
Skagit County. The Wikes Expedition, 1841, included it as one
of the "Porpoise Rocks." (Hydrography, Volume XXIII, Atlas,
chart 92.) The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart
6377 shows the present name evidently derived from the shape of
the island.
SaddlEhorn Mountain, in the southwestern part of Asotin
County. It was named by the early settlers because it is shaped
like a saddle. (Henry Hanson of Hansen Ferry, in Names MSS.
Letter 236.)
Sage, a station on the north bank of the Columbia River, opposite Blalock Island* in the southwestern part of Benton County. It
was named for the prevailing vegetation there. (L. C. Gilman, in
Names MSS. Letter 590.)
SahalE, a peak at the headwaters of the Stehekin River, in the
northwestern part of Chelan County, named by The Mazamas,
mountaineering club of Oregon. The word is from the Chinook
Jargon and means "high" or "above". (Henry Gannett; Origin of
Certain Place Names in the United States, page 269.) 34
Edmond S. Meany
Sahaptin River, see Snake River.
Sahawamish Bay, see Shelton Bay.
Sa-ha-wamsh, see Hammersley Inlet.
Sah-kEE-mE-huE, see Sauk River.
SahpEnis River, see Toppenish Creek.
Sahtlilkwun, see Okanongan Creek.
Sail Rock, in the Strait of Juan de Fuca, two miles east of
Waaddah Island, in the northwestern part of Clallam County. It
was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, on account of its shape
and color. The rock is 150 feet high. (Hydrography Volume
XXIII., Atlas, charts 76 and 80.) Captain Kellett, in 1847, called
it "Klaholoh." (British Admiralty Chart 1911 and George Davidson: Pacific Coast Pilot, page 523.)
Saint Andrews, a postoffice in the east central part of Douglas County, named about 1890 in honor of Captain James Saint
Andrews, a Civil War veteran who was an early settler and first
postmaster at the place.   (A. D. Cross, in Names MSS. Letter 210.)
Saint Clair Island, see Sinclair Island.
Saint Germain, a town in the central part of Douglas County,
named in honor of A. L. St. Germain. (B. C. Ferguson, of Mansfield, in Names MSS. Letter 77.)
Saint Helens, a town in the northwestern part of Cowlitz
County.   See Mount Saint Helens for the origin of the name.
Saint Helens Reach, the Channel in the Columbia River
east and west of Cape Horn, named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841.
"In this part of the river, which I named St. Helens Reach, we met
the brig Wave, that had brought our stores from Oahu." ANarra-
tive, Volume IV., page 319.)
Saint John, in Clarke County, see Hidden.
Saint John, a town in the northern part of Whitman County,
named by the Oregon Railway and Navigation Company in 1888 for
E. T. St. John, an old settler and owner of the land at that place.
(J. C. Crane, in Names MSS. Letter 472.)
Saint Joseph's Mission, esablished inl848, on Budd Inlet,
about a mile north of Olympia, by Rev. Pascal Ricard. (Elwood
Evans: History of the Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington,
Volume I., page 302 and Hubert Howe Bancroft: Works, Volume
XXXL, page 10.) Origin of Washington Geographical Names 35
Saint Pierre, see Mount Saint Pierre.
Saint Roc, see Columbia River.
Saint Roque, see Cape Disappointment.
Sakpam River, the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gave this name
for the present Duwamish River, in King County. (Hydrography,
Volume XXIII., Atlas, chart 67.)
Salem Point, see Salmon Point.
Saleesh, see Clark Fork River.
Sallal Prarie, near North Bend in the central part of King
County, named for the sallal berry shrubs which abound there. (W.
H. Ruffner, 1889: Resources of Washington Territory, page 62.)
Sallie's Lake, a name sometimes applied to Rock Lake, Whitman County.
Salmon Bank, off the southwestern point of San Juan Island,
discovered by the United States Coast Survey in 1854. (United
States Public Documents, Serial No. 1134, page 96; and George
Davidson: Pacific Coast Pilot, 554.)
Salmon Bay, now within the limits of Seattle, King County.
On its shore developed the City of Ballard, since joined to Seattle.
See Ballard. The Indian name was Shul-shale, for a tribe, now
extinct, which had its headquarters on the bay. (J. A. Costello,
The Siwash.) In December, 1852, Arthur A. Denny, knew the bay
as "Shilshole." It was later changed to Salmon Bay because it was
thought to be frequented by Salmon. (Arthur A. Denny: Pioneer
Days on Puget Sound, Harriman edition, page 52.) The Lake
Washington Canal passes through the bay. See Lake Washington
Canal.
Salmon Creek, at least nine streams in the State of Washington bear this name, all because they were frequented by salmon in
the spawning seasons.
Salmon-Fall River, a name once used for Methow River.
Salom Point, the northern point of Squaxin Island in the
southeastern part of Mason County. It was named by the Wilkes
Expedition, 1841, which also charted the island as "Jack's Island?'
(Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, charts 78 and 79.) The
meaning of the names has not been ascertained. The spelling is
often "Salem", but the United States Coast and Geodetic chart
460 retains the original spelling Salom. 36 Edmond S. Meany
Salsbury Point, the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, gave this name
to two places, an eastern cape of San Juan Island and on Hood
Canal east of Termination Point, near Port Gamble. (Hydrography Volume XXIII., Atlas, Charts 77 and 78.) The United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Charts 6380 and 6450 show the
name on San Juan Island to be changed to Turn Island and the one
on Hood Canal to be retained as originally given. The honor bestowed by Wilkes was intended for Francis Salsbury, captain of
the top in one of his crews. Men of such rank were the ones most
often chosen for honors in the naming of points.
Salt Lake, a name sometimes used for Moses Lake. There
is a small lake by the name in the south central part of Okanogan
County.   The name is descriptive.
Salter's Point, see Gordon Point.
Salzer Valley, in the northwestern part of Lewis County,
named for a pioneer family. Joseph Salzer filed on the first homestead in the valley. His son Gottleib lived on the claim to hold it
for the father and during that time the valley was named. (C.
Ellington, of Chehalis, in Names MSS. Letter 21.)
Samahma, see Cle Elum.
Samego, the northwest extremity of McNeil Island, Pierce
County, so named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography,
Volume XXIII., Atlas, chart 79.) Captain Inskip, in 1846, named
it McCarthy Point, in honor of Lieutenant Henry H. McCarthy of
the Fisgard. (British Admiralty Chart 1947.) Neither name persists.
Sa-milk-a-meigh, see Similkameen River.
Samish, a bay, island, river and town in the northwestern part
of Skagit County and a lake in the southwestern part of Whatcom
County, all from the name of a tribe of Indians which formerly
lived in that region. (Myron Eells, in American Anhrapologist for
January, 1892.)
Sammamish, a lake, river and town in the northwestern part
of King County. The name is from a former tribe of Indians. The
word is from Samena, hunter. (Bureau of American Ethnology:
Handbook of American Indians, Volume II., page 421.)
Sand Island, in the Columbia River near its mouth. The
island of sand and driftwood, never many feet above the surface
of the water, has shifted its position from time to time.      This Origin of Washington Geographical Names 37
quality is discussed by Captain George Davidson of the United
States Coast Survey. (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 458.) On account of these changes, Sand Island has caused conferences between
the Legislatures of Oregon and Washington. Boundary and fishing
rights are involved.
Sanderson, a town in the northeastern part of Douglas County,
was named for Thomas Sanderson, the first postmaster at that
place.    (C. A. Carson, in Names MSS. Letter 38.)
SandFord CovE, at the northwest extremity of Fidalgo Island,
Skagit County, named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of
Thomas Sandford, Quartermaster in one of the crews. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, page 310 and Atlas, chart 92.) See also
Point Sandford. The name of the cove has not persisted. See
Boxer Cove and Flounder Bay. The United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6377 now shows the little Sandford Cove to be
Flounder Bay.
San de Fuca, a town on the shore of Penn Cove, Whidbey
Island, in the northeastern part of Island County. The Holbrook
donation land claim was acquired by Henry C. Power and in 1889
a townsite was platted by L. H. Griffiths, H. C. Power and J. W.
Gillespie. In choosing a name, they evidently confused the names
of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and San Juan Island. Whatever else
may be said of the mythical Juan de Fuca, he certainly was no
saint. (Edmond S. Meany: History of the State of Washington,
pages 15-16.) The little town of San de Fuca has not grown bul
from its neighborhood there have gone many young men who have
echieved careers as seamen and steamboat men.
Sandy Point, this descriptive name has been given to many
places on the shores of Washington. The most historic one is on
Whidbey Island, at the southwestern entrance to Saratoga Passage.
It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography
Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 89.) Captain George Davidson, of
the United States Coast Survey, wrote: "It is moderately long, low
and has no bushes.... It is locally known as Joe Brown's Point."
(Pacific Coast Pilot, page 600.)
San Juan Archipelago, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey has been urged to accept this locally used name In
lieu of the officially charted Washington Sound. The origin and
evolution of the name are shown in the discussions following of
San Juan Channel, San Juan County and San Juan Island. 38 Edmond S. Meany
San Juan Channel, east of San Juan Island and between
that and the islands Oreas and Lopez. The Spanish explorer, Eliza,
in 1791, named the passage between San Juan and Lopez Islands
"Boca de Horcasitas," a name from the same source as that of Orcas
Island. (United States Public Documents Serial No. 1557, Chart
K.) The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, called that part of the channel
"Ontario Road," the southern entrance to it "Little Belt Passage"
and the waterway between San Juan and Orcas Islands, "President's Passage." (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart
77.) These were honors for historic war vessels. See Lopez,
Orcas, San Juan Island, Little Belt Passage, Ontario Road and
President Channel. Captain Richards, in 1858, sought to change
the name to "Middle Channel." (British Admiralty Chart 2840.)
The present name of San Juan Channel is shown on the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6380.
San Juan County, named for one of the largest islands in
Washington Sound, which should be known as San Juan Archipelago. Following the boundary treaty of 1846, a dispute arose
between the British and American Governments for the possession
of this group of islands, which dispute was settled by Emperior
William I., of Germany, as arbitrator on October 21, 1872. Oh
receiving information of that award the Territorial Legislature of
Washington organized the archipelago into San Juan County on
October 31, 1873.
San Juan Island, the western part of San Juan County, received its name in 1791 from the Spanish explorer Eliza, who realized that there were1 several islands in the group and wrote on his
chart "Isla y Archiepelago de San Juan." (United States Public
Documents, Serial No. 1557, chart K.) The Spanish map remained only in manuscript for many years. The Wilkes Expedition,
1841, respected the names given by Vancouver in 1792 but apparently knew nothing of the "San Juan" name. The large island
was named "Rodgers" in honor of Commodore John Rodgers who
commanded the President in the combat with the Little Belt, which
was also commemorated in the attempted naming of the adjacent
waterways. See President Channel and Little Belt Passage. The
whole group was called "Navy Archipelago," the report saying:
"Navy Archipalego is a collection of 25 islands, having the Straits
of Fuca on the south, the Gulf of Georgia on the north, the' Canal
de Arro on the west and Ringgold's Channel on the east.   They have Origin of Washington Geographical Names 39
been named from distinguished officers late of the U. S. naval
service, viz., Rodgers, Chauncey, Hull, Shaw, Decatur, Jones, Blake-
ley, Perry, Sinclair, Lawrence, Gordon, Percival, and others."
Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, page 306, and Atlas, chart 77,)
Captain Henry Kellett, of the Royal Navy, in 1847, restored the
Spanish name of San Juan for the island but gave no name for the
archipelago. (British Admiralty Chart 1911.) The Hudson's Bay
Company gave a local name of "Bellevue" to the island. (Pacific
Coast Pilot page 556.) When the United States Coast Survey began work among the islands in 1853, the archipelago was named
Washington Sound. (Pacific Coast Pilot, page 556.) The confusion of names for the island is shown by the official charting of
"Bellevue or San Juan Island." (United States Coast Survey Report for 1854, chart 51.) The maps by the Surveyor General of
Washington Territory for 1857 and 1859 show the same dual names.
(United States Public Documents, Serial Nos. 877 and 1026!)
Later the American geographers dropped the name "Bellevue" and
accepted the Spanish name as restored on the British charts.
Sanpoil River, a tributary of the Columbia River in the southwestern part of Ferry County. On July 24, 1825, John Work, of
the Hudson's Bay Company, called it "Lampoile River." (Wash-
, ington Historical Quarterly for April 1914, page 100.) In June,
1826, David Douglas, botanist, used the name "Cinqpoil River."
The name was derived from that of a band of the Spokane Indians.
The Bureau of American Ethnology gives many synonyms.
(Handbook of American Indians, Volume II., pages 45l-452.y
San Roque, see Cape Disappointment.
Santa Rosalia, see Mount Olympus.
Saptin River, see Snake River.
Saratoga Passage, the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, made the
following record: "I have called Saratoga Passage the strait leading
from Deception Passage to Admiralty Inlet at the south end of
Whidby's Island, 35 miles distant." (Hydrography Volume XXIIL,
page 311, and chart 77.) Wilkes had called the island on the east
of the waterway "McDonough's Island" in honor of Thomas Mac-
donough who gained fame in the Lake Champlain battles of 1812,
using as his flagship the Saratoga. Intensifying a geographical
honor for a naval hero by an adjacent one for his ship, was a favorite scheme of Wilkes. Vancouver, in 1792, had named the waterway Port Gardner after Sir Alan Gardner.   The southeastern cape 40 Edmond S. Meany
he had called Point Alan after the same man and the adjacent
waterway he called Port Susan after Lady Susan Gardner. He
took possession for Great Britain and called the waterway from
Point Alan to the southern end of Whidbey Island Possession
Sound. Captain Henry Kellett in 1847 gave the Spanish name
Camano to the island and sought to restore Vancouver's name of
Port Gardner has now practically disappeared. The United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6450 shows Possession Sound extending from the southern end of Whidbey Island to Allen Point
and Saratoga Passage from that point northward. The same Survey's Chart 6448 gives the name Port Gardner to the southern portion of Everett Harbor. See Allen Point, Camano Island, Everett,
Port Gardner, Port Susan and Possession Sound.
SarEs Head, see Langley Point.
Satsop River, a tributary of the Chehalis River in the eastern
part of Grays Harbor County. The Bureau of American Ethnology
says the name was that of a Salish band of Indians living along the
river. (Handbook of American Indians Volume II., page 471.)
The word is said to mean "on a creek." (W. F. Wagner, in
Names MSS. Letter 218.) The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, spelled
the word "Sachap." (Narrative, Volume V., page 127.) J. A.
Costello says the Lower Chehalis Indians called the river "Sats-a-
pish."   (The Siwash.)
Satus Creek, a tributary of the Yakima River in the southeastern part of Yakima County. The Indian word is said to mean
"rich land." (Robert M. Graham, of Mabton, in Names MSS.
Letter 297.) The Bureau of American Ethnology has, a different
spelling and meaning: "Setaslema—'a people of the rye prarie.' A
Yakima band formerly living on Setass Creek." (Handbook of
American Indians Volume II., page 514.)
Sauk, the name of a river, mountain and railway station in the
central part of Skagit County. The name is from that of a tribe
of Indians. (Postmaster at Sauk, in Names MSS. Letter 49.) The
postoffice of that name was established in 1884. (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 244.) George Gibbs writing on
March 1, 1854, said the Indians had a portage from the north fork
of the Stilaguamish to the "Sah-kee-me-hu" branch of the Skagit.
(Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 472.)
Saundersonville, see Chehalis.
Sawamish, see Mason County. Origin of Washington Geographical Names 41
Saxon, a railroad station in Snohomish County, which years
ago had a postoffice. It was named in honor of a widow by the
name of Saxon, about 1888. (Charles F. Elsbree, of Acme, in
Names MSS. Letter 195.)
Scabock Harbor, see Seabeck.
S cadget Head, see Scatchet Head.
Scaffold Camp CrEEk, a tributary of Twisp River in the west
central part of Okanogan County. On September 30, 1853, Captain
George B. McClellan made his way up the creek seeking a passage
across the mountains. He charted the creek by an Indian name
"Nai-hai-ul-ix-on." (Pacific Railroad Reports Volume I., pages
377-389.) The origin of the name Scaffold has not been ascertained. There may have been a hanging there and, what seems more
likely, pioneers may have found huge tepee poles standing at an
Indian camping place. Such poles have been found at other camping places. For an illustration of such a camp, see The Mountaineer
for 1911, facing page 22.
ScageT RrvER, see Skagit River.
Scarboro Hill, back of Chinook near the mouth of the Columbia River in the southwestern part of Pacific County. The name is
often spelled in full as Scarborough Hill. Oh November 21, 1813,
Alexander Henry referred to it by two names when he wrote: "We
ascended the Chinook hill, or Red Patch, from the top of which we
had an extensive view." (Elliott Coues: New Light on the Early
History of the Greater Northwest, page 755.) The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, also charted it as "Chinook Hill." (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 68.) Captain James Scarborough, on
leaving the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, took up a claim
at Chinook and also served as river pilot for the mail steamers from
from California. (James G. Swan: Northwest Coast, page 101.)
The giving of his name to Chinook Hill was recognized by the
United States Coast Survey in 1858. (Annual Report for 1858,
page 392.) For another honor proposed for the same man, see
Neah Bay.
Scarboro Shoals, see Toliva Shoal.
Scarborough Harbor, see Neah Bay.
Scarborough Point, see Klatchopis Point.
Scatchet Head, at the southwestern extremity of Whidbey
Island, in Island County.   It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 42 Edmond S. Meany
1841, (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 78.) The
same name was probably in local use by the Hudson's Bay Company
prior to 1841. (J. G. Kohl in Pacific Railroad Reports, Volume
XII., Part I., chapter XV., page 286.) The name was taken from
that of the Indian tribe, now usually spelled Skagit. The incorrect
spelling was recognized and yet used by the United States Coast
Survey in 1858 and the Indian name of the cape recorded as
"Skoolhks."    (Annual Report for 1858, page 444.)
Schuh-Tlahks, see Priest Point, Snohomish County.
Schwan-ate-koo, see Kettle Falls.
Schwock RrvER, see Swauk Creek.
Scott Island, a small island in Carr Inlet, in the northwestern part of Pierce County. It was named in honor of Thomas
Scott, Quartermaster in one of the crews, by the Wilkes Expedi-
313X i'%1 lJBlP 'S*PV '1IIXX anrnpA '^H4^BoxpCH) -j^gi <uoi;
name has since been changed to Cutts Island. (United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6460,)
Scott's Prairie, about three miles northwest of Shelton, Mason County, named in honor of John Tucker Scott who crossed
the plains in 1852. After two years in Oregon, the family moved
to Washington Territory and settled on the prairie in 1854. During the Indian war of 1855-1856, the family was stockaded at
Fort Collins, opposite Acadia. Not long after the war the family
moved back to Oregon. Two of the children became famous: Harvey W. Scott, veteran editor of The Oregonian, and Mrs. Abigail
Scott Duniway, editor, writer and pioneer advocate of women suffrage. It is related that Harvey W. Scott, after splitting rails
and ranching on the prairie farm for a year or two "hoofed it" to
Forest Grove, Oregon, where he obtained the beginings of his education in the academy, now Pacific University. (Grant C. Angle,
of Shelton, in Names MSS.    Letter 83.)
Scow Bay, a pioneer name near Port Townsend, Jefferson
County, and probably the same as Long Bay and Kalisut Harbor.
Scriber Lake, about four miles east of Edmonds in the southwestern part of Snohomish County. It should be called Schriber
Lake since it was named for Peter Schriber, a Dane, who proved
up on a hometead including all of the lake about 1890 or 1893.
(Samuel F. Street, in Names MSS.   Letter 152.) Origin of Washington Geographical Names
43
ScribnER, a Northern Pacific Railway station in the central
part of Spokane County. It was named in honor of Peter Scribner,
a particular friend of W. P. Kenney, Vice President of the Great
Northern Railway Company. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS.
Letter 590.)
Sdze-sdza-la-lich, see Seattle.
SeabECK, a bay and town on the east shore of Hood Canal,
in the west central part of Kitsap County. The Wilkes Expedition,
1841, evidently tried to spell an Indian name when charting "Sca-
bock Harbor." (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 78.)
At the southwest cape was also charted "Scabock Island." Captain Henry Kellet, in 1847, changed the name of the bay to "Ha-
hamish Harbor," but retained the Wilkes name of the supposed
island, changing the spelling to Seabeck Island. (British Admiralty Chart 1911.) When the pioneers built a sawmill on the bay
they chose the British spelling and it has remained Seabeck ever
since. The idea of an island, however, is abandoned and for some
reason there is charted in its place Point Misery. (United States
Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6450.) J. A. Costello says the
Skokomish Indian name for the bay is "L-ka-bak-hu" (The Siwash.)
Seabold, a town on Brainbridge Island, near Agate Pass, in
the east central part of Kitsop County. William Bull gave the name
in 1894 because the place was near a tidal shore. (Postmaster at
Seabold, in Names MSS.    Letter 13.)
Seabury, a station in the northeastern part of Whitman
County, so called after a Maine town of the same name. (H.R.
Williams, Vice President of the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul
Railway Company, in Names MSS.   Letter 589.)
SeahavEn, in Pacific County. "The town of Seahaven, at
mouth of the Willapa River, was founded about 1889 and was
located on a tract of tide land belonging to Thomas Potter. The
moving spirits in the townsite proposition were Herman Trott of
Saint Paul, Minn., John Dobson, Frank Donahue, N. B. Coffman
and others of Chehalis, Wash. In 1890, it had a bank, a newspaper,
a large hotel and several buildings. All of them have long ago
disappeared or have been moved to South Bend and the place is
again a fine dairy farm." (F. A. Hazeltine, of South Bend, in
Names MSS.   Letter 91)
Seal River, see Washougal River. 44 Edmond S. Meany
Seal Rock, a name sometimes used for Sail Rock.
Seaport, a townsite platted by Lewis Henry Rhoades in the
early nineties on a place commonly known as Sand Point, Willapa
Bay, Pacific County. The plat was later vacated and the name
went into disuse. (L. L. Bush, of Bay Center, in Names MSS.
Letter 97.)
Seatco, see Bucoda.
Seattle, on Elliott Bay, now Seattle Harbor, a part of Puget Sound. It is the metropolis of the State and county seat of
King County. The colony of twelve adults and twelve children,
from which the city has grown, landed at what is known as Alki
Point on November 13, 1851. The winter was stormy at that
point and on Februrary 15, 1852, A. A. Denny, W. N. Bell'and
C. D. Boren located and marked three claims on the east shore of
the bay. On March 31, 1852, Dr. D. S. Maynard arrived and accepted the offer of the others to move their lines so as to give him
an adjoining claim on the south. In October, 1852, Henry L. Yesler
arrived, looking for a mill-site. Maynard and Boren adjusted
their lines to accomodate him. The road leading from his mill became Mill Street, later changed to Yesler Way. Before this,
Denny, Boren and Maynard agreed upon a plat and a name for
the town. On May 23, 1853, Denny and Boren filed the first plat
for the town of Seattle and later the same day Doctor Maynacd
filed his part of the plot. Chief Seattle, who was thus honored,
had been frienly to the white settlers and remained so during the
Indian war \which followed in 1855-1856. (Arthur A. Denny:
Pioneer Days on Puget Sound, pages 17-21.) Chief Seattle did
not know his age. He died in 1866 when the pioneers estimated
his age as eighty years. If this be true, he was a boy of six when
Vancouver dropped anchor at Restoration Point on May 19, 1792,
and the Suquamish Indians saw white men for the first time.
Vancouver gives a graphic account of the Indians and their camp.
(Voyage Round the World, second edition, Volume II., pages 118-
127.) While still a boy Seattle succeeded his father Schweabe as
Chief of the Suquamish tribe and on attaining manhood he evidently
was a thorough savage. The Hudson's Bay Company's daily record,
known as the Nsqually Journal, contains frequent references to the
Chief. The entry for September 30, 1835, says: "This forenoon a
quarrel took place between Ovrie and an Indian of the So qua mish
tribe by name See alt or by us called La Gros. It is said he threatened Origin of Washington Geographical Names 45
Ovrie with his gun. This is the second time. I of course brought
him to an account and told him that if ever he did so again I should
not pass over the business so quietly. At best this fellow is a scamp
and like Challacum [Steilacoom] a black (heart ready to pick a
quarrel." The writer was Chief Trader at Fort Nisqually. (The
original manuscript journals of Fort Nisqually are in the possession
of Thomas Huggins of Tacoma.) The entry for October 18, 1835,
says a Skagit Indian-gave ten large beaver skins to "See yalt as a
present to his daughter." In six entries for 1836 the name is
spelled "See yat". The entry for December 6, 1837, says: "The"
Chief See yat has murdered an Indian doctor, much talk about the
affair amongst the Soquamish tribe. I wish they would determine
on shooting the villian." On January 9, 1838, the record says:
"Challicum with a party of his Indians cast up, put a few skins in
the store and then left us for a visit to the Saw aye waw mish to
buy some articles for the death of a So qua mish shot by the villian
See yat, the latter having got a gun from the Saw aye waw mish
and with it committed murder." Seattle's people were good hunters.
The Fort Nisqually record contains a summary for 1837, showing
that of 555 large beaver, Seattle brought 68, 16 out of 141 small
beaver, 37 out of 261 otter skins. In this, his tribe was excelled,
only by the Skagits. The condemnatory entries cease after 1838.
For this there are two good reasons: The Puget Sound Agricultural
Company, a subsidary of the Hudson's Bay Company, changed the
nature of Fort Nisqually making it an agricultural and stock raising center; and Chief Seattle was baptized under the name of
"Noah Sealth" by a Catholitc missionary, probably Father Modeste
Demers, who began work on Puget Sound in 1838. The futile attack on Fort Nisqually by Chief Patkanim of the Snoqualmie tribe
pun ajdoad autiM atp juo puauj b ojui joijjbav :rerri paStretp 6^81 UI
must have had an influence for good on Chief Seattle as well.
United States troops were brought to Puget Sound and Fort Steilacoom established that same year. (Edmond S. Meany: History of
the State of Washington, pages 149-150.) Whatever the cause or
causes, Seattle became the friend of the pioneers who settled in his
neighborhood in 1851 and remained steadfast during the remaining
fifteen eventful years of his life. The Chief was a large man, an
impressive leader of his people. Among his other native talents,
was that of oratory. Miss Emily Inez Denny, daughter of David
T. Denny, has gleaned from the memory of her father and other 46 Edmond S. Meany
pioneers anecdotes about Seattle's oratory. Dr. H. A. Smith, for
whom Smith's Cove was named, told about the first arrival^ of Governor Isaac I. Stevens at Seattle in 1854. "The bay swarmed with
canoes and the shore was lined with a living mass of swaying, writhing, dusky humanity, until Old Chief Seattle's trumpet-toned voice
rolled over the immense multitude like the reveille of a bass drum,
when silence became as instantaneous and perfect as that which follows a clap of thunder from a clear sky." (Blazing the Way pages
362-363.) The grave of the old Chief remained unmarked until June
28, 1890, when Arthur A. Denny, Hillory Butler, Samuel L. Crawford and other pioneers placed over it a large marble cross seven
feet high. (Frank Carlson: Chief Seattle, page 30.) The religious
letters "I. H. S." are entwined with ivy. Two sides of the monument bear inscriptions: "Seattle, Chief of the Suquamps and Allied
Tribes, Died June 7, 1866. The Firm Friend of the Whites, and
for Him the City of Seattle was Named by Its Founders." "Baptismal name, Noah Sealth. Age probably 80 years." The grave is
at Suquamish, Port Madison Bay, Kitsap County,, near the famous
long-house home of the Chief. The spelling of the name has been
much discussed. The different forms arose from the difficulty in
catching the gutteral pronunciation by the Indians. In addition to
the above instances, it may be cited that in 1853, Theodore Win-
throp wrote it "Se-at-tlh." (The Canoe and the Saddle, J. H. Williams edition, page 32.) In 1858, the United States Coast Survey
wrote it "Se-at-tl." (Annual Report for 1858, page 446.) The
more euphonious spelling on that first pioneer plat has persisted.
The Indians' own name for the place was "Tzee-tzee-lal-itch,"
meaning "little portage," and referring! to the trail to the large lake
—Washington—so much shorter that the circuitous river route.
(Charles M. Buchanan, of Tulalip, in Names MSS. Letter 155.)
Frederic James Grant has recorded the origin of the city's "pet"
name as follows: "The summer of 1883 was distinguished by the
arrival of many people of note, from both far and near. General
Sprague and John Muir, of the Northern Pacific, addressed Seattle
as the Queen City of the Sound." (History of Seattle, page 167.)
The city's rapid growth in recent years has resulted in its merging
with a number of suburbs, such as Fremont on the north shore of
Lake Union. See Alki Point, Ballard, Columbia, Fauntleroy Cove,
Georgetown, Latona, and Ravenna Park.
Seaview, a town on the ocean shore in the southwestern part Origin of Washington Geographical Names
47
of Pacific County. J. L. Stout secured some four hundred acres
on North Beach in 1871. He erected a summer hotel and gave it
the name which has become that; of the town. (History of Pacific
Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II., page 588.)
Sedro-WoollEy, a city in the west central part of Skagit
County. The place was first settled in 1878 by David Batey and
Joseph Hart. In 1884, Mortimer Cook bought forty acres and
planned a town. Desiring a name that would be unique he called
it "Bug." The settlers did not like the lack of dignity and threatened to prefix the syllable "Hum" to the sign at the river landing.
Mrs. Batey said she had found "Sedro" in a Spanish dictionary as
meaning cedar. As there were many fine trees there of that species
the suggested name was taken though the spelling should have
been "Cedro." In 1890, Norman R. Kelly platted some land and his
part of the town was known as "Kellyville." With the boom of 1890,
Philip A. Woolley started a rival town nearby under the name of
"Woolley". The dual government' was expensive and on December
19, 1898, the movement for consolidation was successful, resulting
in the hyphenated name of Sedro-Woolley. (History of Skagit and
Snohomish Counties, pages 219-227.)
Sehome, now a part of Bellingham, Whatcom County. The
original town of Sehome was laid off by E. C. Fitzhugh, James
Tilton and C. Vail in 1858 on the land claim of Vail & De Lacey.
The name was from that of a chief of the Samish tribe. (H. H.
Bancroft: Works, Volume XXXL, page 367.)
Seh-quu River, see Toutle River.
Sejachio, a former name for Crescent Bay.
Sekou Point, the western cape of Clallam Bay in the northwestern part of Clallam County. It was first charted by Captain
Henry Klellett, 1847. (British Admiralty Chart 1911.) Captain
George Davidson says it should be pronounced Sik-ke-u. (Pacific
Coast Pilot, page 524.)
Selah, the name of a town, creek and valley in the north central part of Yakima County. "I have talked with a number of the
oldest residents of our valley, one among whom came to the valley in 1861. As a result of my inquiries, I have found that Selah
is an Indian word meaning 'still water' or 'smooth water.' This
was locally applied to a section of the Yakima River about a mile
and a half in length and lying between the present site of Pomona 48 Edmond S. Meany
and a point a little south of Selah. That part of the river between
EUensburg and Pomona is very swift and rough. As it emerges
from the Kittitas Canyon it reaches a level valley where it flows
smoothly for a short distance and then passes over rapids again.
Hence the name Selah applied to this section of the river. As near
as I can learn, the Indians here had no name for an entire stream
but named different sections of a stream from their peculiar characteristics. The name Selah was extended to Selah Creek and to
different parts of the valley by the people who settled here. Selah
has been often confused with the Hebrew musical term which has
the same spelling and pronounciation but is of entirely different
origin and meaning." (Arthur C. Vail, of Selah, in Names MSS.
Letter 355.)
SELLECK, a town in the central part of King County, named
for F. L. Selleck, who was resident Superintendent of the Pacific
States Lumber Company, operating the principal industry of the
place.   (F. G. Arnold, in Names MSS. Letter 487.)
Selows-kap Creek, a former name for Colville River.
Semiahmoo Bay, at the northwestern corner of Whatcom
County, at the Canadian boundary. During the gold rush of 1858,
the town on the bay was called Semiahmoo. In 1885, the town's
name was changed to Blaine. Likewise the bay was formerly charted as Drayton Harbor. The name Semiahmoo is that of a former
tribe of Salish Indians living on the bay. (Handbook of American
Indians, Volume II., page 500.) See Blaine, Boundary Bay and
Drayton Harbor.
Seno de Padilla, see Padilla Bay.
Seno de Gaston, see Bellingham Bay.
Seno de Santa Rosa, see Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Sentinel Rocks, just south of Spieden Island, in the northwestern part of San Juan County, named by the Wilkes Expedition,
1841. (Hydrography Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 77.) The rocks
are sometimes charted as an island.
Sepulchre Island, see Memaloose Island.
Sequalitchew;, the name of a lake and small stream in the
west central part of Pierce County. Near this stream the Hudson's
Bay Company's famous Nisqually House was located. See Du-
pont and Nisqually House.   The Wilkes Expedition celebrated the Origin of Washington Geographical Names 49
Fourth of July there in! 1841. (Edmond S. Meany: History of the
State of Washington, page 77.) During the American agitation
of "Fifty-four, Forty or Fight!" the British were urged by their
secret mission of Warre and Vavasour to build defenses there.
"Any description of work can be thrown up, such as a bastion or
redoubt, on the large plain near the Sequalitz stream, with barracks* etc., for the accommodation of Troops." (Washington Historical Quarterly, April, 1912, page 151.)
Sequim, a town in the northwestern part of Clallam County.
Rev. Myron Eells says the Clallam tribe had a village on Washington
Harbor, just south of New Dungeness Bay and the village was
known in the Clallam language as Such-e-kwai-ing, from which has
been derived the word Sequim. (American Authopologist for January, 1892, and Handbook of American Indians, Volume II., page
510.) Matthew Fleming, a pioneer who lived in that vicinity for
more than sixty years, thinks the present word is as near as we can
get to a proper spelling of the Clallam word, meaning "quiet water."
The Indians applied it to Washington Harbor but the white people
have extended it to the prairie and the town. (J. H. McCourt,
postmaster at Sequim, in Names MSS. Letter 572.)
Servia, a station in the west central part of Adams County,
named for the European country of that name. (H. R. Williams,
Vice President of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul Railway Company in Names MSS. Letter 589.)
Sha-ap-Tin, see Snake River.
Shag Reef, adjacent to Cactus Island, north of Spieden Island,
San Juan County. It was charted by Captain Richards, 1858-1860.
(British Admiralty Chart 5860.)
Shais-quihl, Indian name for the peninsula at the southeastern end of Fidalgo Island. (Point Elliott Treaty with the Indians,
January 22, 1855.)
Shallow Nitch, see Grays Bay.
Shanghai Creek, a branch of Lacamas Creek, flowing
through the Shanghai district. (Chauncy Price, of Sifton, in
Names MSS. Letter 181.)
Shanghai Valley, Cowlitz County, named by Samuel J.
Huntington who thought that Mr. Choate and sons, early settlers
in the valley had unusually long legs. He called them "Shanghais"
and referred to the valley as "over to Shanghai."   The name thus 50 Edmond S. Meany
given in jest has stuck to the region. (Mrs. Antoinette Baker
Huntington, of Castle Rock, in Pioneer Biography Manuscripts,
University of Washington.)
Shannon Point, a northwestern cape of Fidalgo Island, at
the western edge of Skagit County. It was charted as "Ship
Point" by Captain Richards, 1858-1859. (British Admiralty Chart
2689.) For a reason not ascertained, American geographies have
given the present name. (United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
Chart 6300.)
Shanwappum, see Tieton River.
Shark REEF, on the west coast of Lopez Island, south of the
present Fisherman's Harbor. The name was given by Captain
Richards, 1858-1859.    (British Admiralty Chart 2689.)
Shaw Island, in the central part of San Juan County. The
Spanish Captain Eliza in 1791 included this island with others in
his "Isla y Archipelago de San Juan." The present name was
given by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of Captain'John D.
Shaw, of the United States Navy, who had served prominently in
the war against Algiers, 1815. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL,
Atlas, chart 77.)
Shawuteus, see Colville River.
Shawpatin Mountains, see Blue Mountains.
Shawpatin River, see Snake River.
Sheep Creek, a number of small streams have obtained this
name since the beginning of grazing flocks in the hills.
Sheep Island, in West Sound, Ojrcas Island, San Juan County.
It was charted by Captain Richards, 1858-1860. (British Admiralty Chart 2840.)
Sheetshoo, see Spokane River.
Shelton, county seat of Mason County, named for David
Shelton, the pioneer who secured there a donation land claim and
lived on it until his death in 1897. (Grant C. Angle, in Names MSS.
Letter 261.) An arm of Hammersly Inlet is called Shelton Bay
and a small stream there is known as Shelton Creek. The Indian
name for the region was Sahawamish. (Grant C. Angle, in Names
MSS. Letter 83.) David Shelton was an interesting figure in the
pioneer history of Washington. He was born in North Carolina
September 15, 1812, and with his parents moved to Missouri in Origin of Washington Geographical Nan,
51
1819. Trapping, Indian fighting, hardships and farming were experienced until 1847 when he migrated to Oregon with the traditional ox-teams. Near Walla Walla, he met Marcus Whitman six
weeks before the tragic death of that missionary. He left the family in Oregon while he joined the gold rush to California in 1849.
Returning to Oregon he settled at East Portland until January,
1852, when he moved to Puget Sound. In April, 1853, he moved
from Olympia to the! place which became Shelton. He was a member of the first Territorial Legislature in which he got his home
section organized into Sawamish County. When a member of a
later session he sponsored another bill, to change the name to Mason
County in honor of Charles H. Mason, first Territorial Secretary
under Governor Isaac I. Stevens. Mr. Shelton was honored with
election to most of the important offices in Mason County and
also served as Mayor of the city which bore his own name. His
wife who had shared his pioneering died in 1887, aged seventy-one
years, while he lived to attain the age of eighty-five years. (Rev.
H. K. Hines: Illustrated History of the State of Washington, pages
575-576.)
Shih-bah-lup, see Tacoma.
ShilsholE, see Salmon Bay.
Shine, a town on' the west shore of Hood Canal, west of Port
Gamble in the northeastern part of Jefferson County. The Post-
office Department rejected the proposed name of "Sunshine" but
approved "Shine." (Charles A. Cook, Postmaster at Shine, in
Names MSS. Letter 154.)
Ship Harbor, east of Shannon Point, at the northwestern extremity of Fidalgo Island, Skagit County. (United States Coast
and Geodetic Survey Chart 6377.) "The superior excellence of
Ship Harbor had been known perhaps even before the United States
vessel Massachusetts began making it her headquarters—a circumstance which is said to have given it its name." (History of Skagit
and Snohomish Counties, page 89.)
Ship Point, see Shannon Point.
Shipjack Islands, see Bare Island and Skipjack Island.
Shoal Bright, on the southeast coast of Lopez Island, San
Juan County. "Named by the United States Coast Survey in 1854.
We were the first to discover this available anchorage.   It is called 5g Edmond S. Meany
Davis Bay on the English Admiralty Chart of 1859." (Captain
George Davidson: Pacific Coast Pilot, page 562, note.)
Shoalwater Bay, see Willapa Bay.
Shovel Creek, a small stream in the southern part of Asotin
County. It derived its name from a wild tale by prospectors that
they had taken gold out of the stream "by the shovelful." (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page 647.)
Shushuskin Canyon, south of EUensburg, in the south central part of Kittitas County. An Indian by that name brought a
plow from Nisqually and became a farmer. Miners on their way
to gold prospects were fed and befriended by him. His name was
given to the canyon and its little creek. (Interview with Mr. Hou-
ser in the History of Kittitas County, by the Seventh Grade in the
State Normal School at EUensburg, page 3.)
ShuTEs River, see Deschutes River.
Sidney, a former name of Port Orchard, county seat of Kitsap County.
Sierra Nevadas de San Antonio,, see Cascade Mountains.
Sifton, terminus of the Oregon-Washington Corporation's
electric line from Vancouver, in the southern part of Clarke County.
It was named about 1908 for Doctor Sifton, of Portland, Oregon,
one of the original stockholders in the company. (Chauney Price,
of Sifton, in Names MSS. Letter 181.)
Siga-kah, a former name for Kettle River.
Silcott, a postoffice at the mouth of Alpowa Creek, in the
northern part of Asotin County. It was named for John Silcott, the
pioneer who ran the ferry across the Clearwater, to Lewiston, before
that city was named. (Cliff M. Wilson, Postmaster at Silcott, in
Names MSS. Letter 240.) William S. Newland filed the plat for
"Alpowa City" on April 10, 1882, but nothing came of it and the
place lapsed into Silcott in 1885. (Illustrated History of Southeastern Washington, page 697.)
Silkatkwu, see Colville Lake.
Silver CrEEk, a town in the west central part of Lewis County,
named on April 28, 1868, by John Tucker for a small stream by that
name. (G. H. Tucker, in Names MSS. Letter 398.) Six other
small streams in the State have the same name.
Silver Lake, there are five small lakes and one postoffice Origin of Washington Geographical Names 53
bearing this name in the1 State. The postoffice is located near the
shore of the lake of that name in the north central part of Cowlitz
County, about six miles northeast of Castle Rock. It is a camping
place for those who ascend Mount St. Helens. This lake was formerly known as Toutle Lake. (Joseph O'Neill, Postmaster at Castle Rock, in Names MSS. Letter 158.) Another Silver Lake is west
of Medical Lake in Spokane County, named by W. F. Bassett.
(H. S. Bassett, of Harrington, Lincoln County, in Names MSS.
Letter 327.) Another lake by the name is near Eatonville, in
the south central part of Pierce County; a fourth is seven miles
south of Everett in the southwestern part of Snohomish County; a
fifth is at the head of Silver Creek, near Monte Cristo, in the southeastern part of Snohomish County. (Henry Landes: A Geographic
Dictionary of Washington, page 254.)
SiLVERDALE, a town on Dyes Inlet, in the central part of Kitsap
County, named by a Mr. Munson about 1880. (Postmaster at Sil-
verdale, in Name MSS. Letter 450.)
SilverTon, a town in the central part of Snohomish County,
christened on August 26, 1891, by a mass meeting of miners. History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, pages 373-374.)
Simcoe Creek, 'a tributary of Toppenish Creek in the central
part of Yakima County. Captain George B. McClellan arrived
there on August 16, 1853, and mentioned it as Simkwe Creek. (Po>-
cific Railroad Reports, Volume I., page 380.)    See Fort Simcoe.
Similk Bay, on the southern shore of Fidalgo Island, north-east of Description Pass, in the west central part of Skagit County.
It was named by the Wilkes Expedition, 1841. (Hydrography Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 90.) The name is retained on the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey Chart 6380.
Similkameen River, a tributary of the Okanogan River, near
Osoyoos Lake, in the north central part of Okanogan County. Alexander Ross, of the Astorians, wrote: "At the Indian camp we remained one day, got the information we required about the country,
procured some furs, and then, following the course of the Sa-milk-
a-meigh River, got to Oakinacken at its forks." (Oregon Settlers,
in "Early Western Travels." Volume VII., page 206.) The surveyors with Captain George B. McClellan in 1853 included the
Similkameen as part of the Okanogan, calling the main stream
northward through the lake "Sahtlikwu" and the present Similk- 54 Edmond S. Meany
ameen "Millakitekwu". (Pacific Railroad Surveys, Volume I.,
Chapter XVIIL, page 214.)
Simkwe, see Simcoe Creek.
Simmons, a name proposed for Thurston County.
Simmons Lake, two miles west of Olympia, Thurston County,
named for William Simmons, whose land claim embraced the lake.
(H. B. McElroy, of Olympia, in Names NSS. Letter 46.)
Sinahomis River, see Snohomish River.
Sinawamis River, a name once used for the Duwamish River.
Sinclair Inlet, the southwestern arm of Port Orchard, in
the south central part of Kitsap County. It was named by the
Wilkes Expedition, 1841, in honor of George T. Sinclair, Acting
Master, in one of the crews. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, page
317, and Atlas chart 88.), See Dyes Inlet, Liberty Bay, and May's
Inlet.
Sinclair Island, north of Cypress Island, at the northwest
corner of Skagit County. It was named by the Wilkes Expedition,
1841. (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 77.) Since
Wilkes was naming the islands of this archipelago for "distinguished
officers late of the U. S. naval service," it is probable that this honor
was for Arthur Sinclair, Sr., Commander of the Argus in the War
of 1812. (E. S. Maclay: History of the Navy, Volume I., pages
183, 383, 427 and 491.)
Sine, a former postoffice in the eastern part of Grays Harbor
County, named for Jackson Sine, a pioneer when the postoffice
was established in March, 1905. It has since been discontinued.
(L M. Croft, of McCleary, in Names MSS. Letter 121.)
Sinnahamis, see Snohomish River.
Sin-see-hoo-illE, a tributary of .the Palouse River, on James
Tilton's Map of a Part of Washington Territory, September, 1859.
(United States Public Documents, Serial No. 1026.)
Sin-too-too-ooley, see Latah.
Sisco, a town in the northwestern part of Snohomish County,
named for a pioneer of that name, who homesteaded land there
about 1890. In 1900 the Stimson Company and the Standard
Logging Company opened up camps there and Sisco came into
existence. Later the camps moved to different locations and "a
shingle mill is Sisco's only lease on life". (Mary M. Farrell, in
Names MSS. Letter 163.) Origin of Washington Geographical Namei
55
Sister Islands, northeast of Orcas Island, in the northeastern part of San Juan County, named' by the Wilkes Expedition,
1841.    (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 77.)
Sisters Point, on the north side of Hood Canal, east of Union,
in the central part of Mason County, named by the; Wilkes Expedition, 1841.    (Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas chart 78.)
Siwash Slough, near Samish, in the northwestern part of
Skagit County. "Daniel Dingwall seems to have been the pioneer
merchant of the Samish county, having established a store in
partnership with Thomas Hayes, in the fall of 1869 on Samish
Island, adjoining the Siwash Slough. This Siwash Slough was so
called from the location upon it of two thousand Siwashes engaged
in fishing and hunting." (History of Skagit and Snohomish
Counties, page 111.) "Siwash is the Chinook Jargon word for
'Indian' and is a corruptions of the French word 'sauvage'." (Rev.
Myron Eells in the American Anthropologist, for January, 1892.)
SkaewEna Indians, see Yakima Indians.
Skagit, the name of an Indian tribe which lived on the river
now known by the same name, The tribe also occupied part of
Whidbey Island. As in the case of other Indian names there, hav«;
been many forms of the word used. (Handbook of American
Indians, Volume II., page 585.)' John Work, of the Hudson's Bay
Company, in 1824, referred to Scaadchet Bay. (Washington
Historical Quarterly, July, 1912, page 225.) George Gibbs used
the present form of the word on March 1, 1854. (Pacific Railroad
Reports, Volume I., page 471.) The same form is used in the. treaty
by which the Skagits ceded their lands, January 22, 1855. The
County bearing this name was created by the Legislature of the
Territory of Washington on November 28, 1883. At the southern
extremity of Whidbey Island is a bluff called Scatchet Head, another spelling of the same word. Near the northern extremity of
the same island are Skagit Bay and Skagit Island. Skagit City
began with Barker's trading post in 1869. The townsite was platted
on the homestead of W. H. McAlpine. "It is no longer much of a
place." (History of Skagit and Snohomish Counties, page 246.)
The Wilkes Expedition, 1841, charted the island as "Skait Island".
(Hydrography, Volume XXIIL, Atlas, chart 90.)
Ska-ka-bish, see Skokomish.
Skait Island, see Skagit. 56 Edmond S. Meany
SkakanE Creek, in the hills near Cashmere, Chelan County,
an Indian name meaning "deep canyon". (A. Manson, of Cashmere,
in Names MSS. Letter 300.)
Skamania County, organized by the Washington Territorial
Legislature on March 9, 1854. The name is an Indian word meaning "swift water" and was "probably applied to the troubled waters
of the Columbia River". (Henry Gannett: Origin of Certain Place
Names in the United States, page 284.) A town in the county
bearing the same name was formerly known as Butler until the
residents petitioned for1, a change. (L. C. Gilman, in Names MSS.
Letter 590.)
S'Kamish, an Indian name applied to White River. (Theodore Winthrop: The Canod and the Saddle, J. H. Williams edition,
page 78, note.)
Skamokawa, the name of a town and a small tributary of the
Columbia River at that place in the south central part of Wahkiakum
County. The word, sometimes spelled "Skamokaway," was the
name of a famous old Indian chief. (W. D. Lyman, in History of
Pacific Northwest: Oregon and Washington, Volume II., page 176.)
"Skamokawa is an Indian name, meaning 'smoke on the water'.
Nearly every morning there is more or less fog at the mouth of
Skamokawa Creek. It is thought that the Indians derived the name
from that source, although there was a chief named Skamokawa.
His tribe was one of the numerous little off-shoots of the Wahkia-
kums or Chinooks." (S. G. Williams, proprietor of the Skamokawa
Eagle, in Names MSS. Letter 560.)
Skawn-te-us, see Colville River.
SkeET-ko-mish, see Spokane River.
Skeetshoo, see Spokane River.
Sketsui, sometimes spelled "Sketch-hugh," is a former name
of Coeur d' Alene Lake.
SkiFF Point, the north cape of Rolling Bay, in the west central part of Kitsap County, so named because at low tide it has the
appearance of an overturned skiff and, also, many skiffs are found
stranded on the shallow bar. (Lucas A. Rodal, Postmaster at Rolling Bay, in Names MSS. Letter 1.) See Murdens Cove and Rolling Bay. DOCUMENTS
The Nisqually Journal
Continued from Vol. XII, Page 303
[March, 1851.]
[Ms. Page 49.]
Saturday 1st. Weather the same. Chaulifoux1 & Tapou2 making
good river Boat at beach. Jollibois3 making a Harrow (wood
Teeth). Edwards4 & Young5 Salting beef. Indian gang, women,
picking & sorting Potatoes. Men cleaning in Swamp. Oxen fetching grass up from beach. [Ms. Page 50.]
Sunday 2d. Overcast morning. Afternoon Fine.
Monday 3rd. Fine & Clear.' Califoux & Tapou at various Jobs
about Fort. Jollibois making a Harrow. Edwards sowing Oats
(9 Busl. quantity sown). Young looking up & preparing Barrels
for packing Beef. Indian gang, men, enlarging (widening) river
about slaughter house & dairy. Women, cleaning in Swamp.
Oxen carrying rails. Two Harrows at work. A visit from Major
Goldsboro" on his way down the sound. Says the Albion is on her
way down, will reach here about midnight. An express arrived
yesterday from Victoria.7 A visit from T. Linklater8 in quest of
Shepherds.
Tuesday 4th. Morning Frosty. Fine Sunny weather remainder of
day. Caulifoux & Tapou building a wagon, intended for Plain service. Jollibois at Harrow. Cowlitz10 at Kitchen. Young packing
Beef. Edwards sowing Oats (11 1/2 Bushlh. sown). McPhail11
with Indian gang as yesterday. Oxen hauling rails. The Ship
"Albion"12 arrived this afternoon. Anchored off Landing.13 A
Visit from Captn. Fay14 & Mr. Smith.15 Sent the Key of lower
store to Smith who is anxious to ship Simmon's16 Potatoes early
tomorrow.
6 Hugh Allen  Goldsborough.
i. servant.
10 A
11 John McPhail,  a servant,  j
12 The brig Orbit, Capt. Kob(
ons. of Olympia, and engaged in t
See this Quarterly, Vol. XI, No.
the first appearance of this boat o
13 Nisqually Landing.
14 Capt. Kobert Fay now commanding th
15 Levi Smith, a partner of Si
l the Sound.
, 1849, in charge of the post
1920),   p.   141,
.   of  the
16
Olympia
of  1
(57) 58 Victor J. Farrar
Wednesday 5th. Frosty & Fine. Caulifoux, Tapou, Jollibois, &
Cowie as yesterday. Edwards sowing Oats (15 bushls. sown).
Young attending at the Shipment of Potatoes on board "Albion,"
7 Barrels Beef & 3 of Pork sent down to "Albion" on a/c Mr.
Simmons. McPhail & gang cleaning river. Oxen employed
fetching up grass & carrying rails. [Ms. Page 51.]
Thursday 6th. A Continuation of Fine weather. Edwards sowing
peas, Ploughed in by Jack" & Hatal.18 3 B. in to day. remaining
hands employed as yesterday. "George Emery"19 arrived from
Steilacoom & anchored off landing.
Friday 7th Morning Misty. Afternoon Fine. Caulifoux & Tapou
at new Wagon. Cowie20 & Jollibois making ox Yokes. Edwards
sowing Peas (3 Bis. in). Oxen fetching Fire wood, four Indians
at work in Swamp cutting large trees in readiness for rolling.
McPhail & gang have been for the last two days employed making
> a new Cut for river Sequalitz21 commencing at garden, & continuing on, as far as dairy, it is expected by so doing, to lower the
river in a small degree (New Channel being much deeper than former one) and thus allow the Swamp to discharge itself in much
less time. Bastien22 finished hauling Potatoes in from Plains, quantity sent in is as follows, from Tlithlilow,28 466 Bis., Muck,2* 371,
Sastuck,25 160 Bis. Grand/ Total 997 Bushels.
Saturday 8th. Fine. Edwards sowing Peas & at work in garden,
remaining hands employed as before. Oxen brought a load of grass
up from beach. The Indians that arrived last Sunday with an express left last night with letters for Victoria. 2 1/4 Bushls. Peas
sown. A note from Mr. Ross26 saying that he had, in the presence
of Montgomery27 & Lapoitrie,28 warned off J. McLeod29 from the
17 "Cowlitz" Jack,
an Indian employee.
18 S. Hatal, an emp
loyee or servant, possibly a kanaka or Sandwich Isl
19  The brig George
Emery,  Capt.   Layfayette  Balch,  passed Fort Nisq
ually on  April
4, 1860,  headed for Olyi
apia, with a cargo of merchandise.    Balch apparent
ake special inducements to get him to locate there
ly thought the
not the case, us Slmmoni
s not friendly.
Accordingly, he decided
o found a town of his own,  at Steilacoom.
20 A servant.
21 Sequalitchew ere
ne  of  the Red River  settlers  of 1821,  now living
on the Plains
near   Steilacoom.
n near Steilacoom, originally settled by the Red Ri
In 1841 and called Tlilth
ow.    After their departure in 1842 the place was ta
rlcultural Company and later a Mr.  Heath was pen
lltted to settle
thereon.     From  this  clr
Walter Ross, clerk, took
charge, and this place was called Ross Vllle.    A jo
24 A company post
maintained by the company near the present town
of Roy, Pierce
25 A company Btatio
n on the plains.    Precise location has not yet been
26 Mr. Walter Ross
27   John  Montgomer
T,   a  servant. Nisqually Journal
59
P. S. Co.'s.80 Lands at Muck. Flocks of geese seen, proceeding
from the Southword.    [Ms. Page 52.]
Sunday 9th. Dull Misty weather, packhorses in from Tinalquot31
with Sheepskins.
Monday 10th. Rain all day. Chaulifoux making wagon Box.
Jollibois making ox Yokes. Cowie, Steilacoom,32 Tumwater83 &
Secaille,34 sent out to Tlithlilow to put up a new dwelling house for
Mr. Ross. Tapou with three Indians sent of f to the Puyallop river
to trade fodder for the Cattle. Edwards in barn thrashing & otherwise employed. McPhail & gang at new water cut. The runaway
Kalama85 here from Vancouver.36 Oxen employed carting dung
& fetching firewood.
Tuesday 11th. Fine. Chaulifoux making blacksmith's Forge, fixing bellows &c under shed adjoining Kitchen. Jollibois making
Yokes for Often. Edwards sowing seeds in garden. Young cleaning up Stores. Indian gang as yesterday. Oxen hauling rails &
Firewood. C. Jack & S. Hatal, commenced ploughing new land in
Swamp, intended for Potatoes.
Wednesday 12th. Cloudy with occasional showers of rain. Chaulifoux preparing Iron Work for wagon, remaining hands employed
as yesterday. Oxen carting up grass from beach.
Thursday 13th. Cloudy. Signs of rain, hands employed as yesterday. Oxen carting dung into garden. Rabasca37 off to Cowlitz38 with letters for Vancouver. 100 lbs. Biscuit sent for Mr.
Roberts.39   [Ms. Page 53.]
Friday 14th. Showery. Chaulifoux at wagon. Jollibois variously
employed, remaining hands employed about new water Course.
Tapou returned this morning, having with him a good supply of
Prele.40 Oxen employed carting up same from beach.
Saturday 15. Gloomy. Squally, rainy weather. Chaulifoux finished wagon which was forthwith sent out to the Plains. Jollibois
jobbing about Fort. Edwards thrashing wheat. Tapou carting
firewood. McPhail & party at new watercourse. Oxen hauling
Firewood. 2 Bis. Peas sown & ploughed in, in Field in Swamp Park.
SO  The Puget's  Sound A
Ticultural Company
31  Tenalquot Prairie,   Thurston  Co.
32 An Indian  employee.
33 An Indian em
35 A kanaka or Sandwich
Islander, formerly <
36 Fort Vancouver.
37  A  servant.
38 Cowlitz Farm,   a comj
>any post on the Cc
39 Mr.  George B.  Robert
:s,   in charge of Coi
40 Prele,  the shave gra3i
5 or esquisetem hyei 60 Victor J. Farrar
Sunday 16th. Showry. Afternoon Rabasca arrived from Cowlitz,
bringing with him a packet, also a small requisition from Vancouver
for this place, 50 lbs Beads & a few assed.41 Files.
Monday 17th. Fine, mild weather. Edwards morning sowing 3 1/2
Bis. Peas. Afternoon with all hands at new water course which
was finished & water allowed to run in this evening, shall be able
tomorrow, to judge of its usefulness. Oxen employed fetching
fodder from beach. A Beinston sent to a Mr. Doherty (who has
lately jumped one of the Coys42 claims at Steilacoom) with a trespass notice of warning to quit. Blue partridges seen. [Ms. Page 54.]
Tuesday 18th. Fine. Severe Gales from S. East. Chaulifoux &
Tapou morning sharpening pickaxes, afternoon moving & rebuilding a Cow Shed. Jollibois attending on his family, all of whom are
severely attacked with influenza. Edwards with gang of Indians
delving in garden, remainder of gang variously employed. Oxen
morning down after a load of Salt. A. noon off with 2 Ploughs &
fodder for horses, to small enclosed field Treehatchee midway to
Muck, which is to be ploughed & made ready. The new water
course works well and gives complete satisfaction, water running
rapidly out of swamp.
Wednesday 19th. Fine, mild weather. Chaulifoux & gang employed as yesterday. Jollibois sharpening Pit Saws. Edwards with
five Indians planting trees &c. in enclosure behind large house.
Indian Mob Cleaning in Swamp. The convict Presse43 (who has
by some means escaped from bondage at Oi. City)44 lurking about
the Fort. Oxen off with a load of fodder to Treehatchee, they will
stop there one or two days to haul rails for making good fenceing
around field there. A visit from Dr. Haden.45 settled Offs mess
a/c for last Qr.46
Thursday 20th. Morning Frosty. Fine all day. Hands employed
as yesterday. Last Evening J. McPhail made a reengagement for
the term of two years, to serve in the capacity of Shepherd & to
make himself generally useful wages £30 per annum. [Ms. Page 55]
Friday 21st. Heavy showers of rain. Chaulifoux making a step
ladder for use in garden prunning fruit trees &c. Jollibois preparing material for a new necessary in enclosure behind large house.
48 An Indian thief.
44 Oregon City,  former capitol  of  Oregon.
46 This much-abbreviated line Is "settled officer's mess-account for last anarter " Nisqually Journal
61
Edwards in garden. Tapou with 9 Indians off to Puyallop (per
Canoe & Boat) to trade prele. Young repairing harness. McPhail &
gang darning river below slaughter House preparatory to deepening
it & to bring.on a level with new water cut. 3 Indians to Treehatchee
to assist at fenceing. five Cows mired in a Swamp behind J.
Ross's.47
Saturday 22d. Cloudy & Showery, hands employed as yesterday.
Tapou & gang returned.
Sunday 23d. Overcast, rain toward evening, a Canoe of Indians
despatched to Victoria with a mail, Mr. J. Ross going as passenger.
Monday 24th. Cloudy occasional heavy showers of rain. Chaulifoux & Tapou repairing pick axes & sundries. Edwards thrashing
wheat. Jollibois off duty in consequence of indisposition. McPhail
& party deepening water course. 16 Bushels oats sent to Trehathee.
A Visit from Messrs. T. J. Simmons48 & Sylvester.49 The "Orbit"
is still a fixture on dry land.
Tuesday 25th. Heavy storm of Hail. Edwards winnowing wheat.
9 Bis. cleaned, remaining hands as yesterday. Dr. Tolmie50 rode
out to Tlithlilow to choose a site for new house. [Ms. Page 56.]
V/ednesday 26th. Overcast frequent showers. Oxen in from Tree-
hatchie for a supply of fodder, two extra hands sent to assist
there. Indian axemen in from Tinalquot having split 5000 fence
rails which is the number required, hands employed as yesterday.
Thursday 27th. Fine partial Sunshine. Chaulifoux previously employed about Fort. Tapou with 4 Indians building Cow Park. Edwards sowing grass seeds. McPhail & gang clearing in swamp.
Young making Candles. Indian Sam, lately taken on, harrowing
with 2 Oxen, new ground lately ploughed in Swamp. Jollibois still
sick.
Friday 28th. Fine mild weather. Chaulifoux beating out old garden Hoes &c. Jollibois building1 a new necessary. Edwards sowing
vegetable seeds in garden. Tapou & 4 Indians repairing fence
around large enclosure. McPhail & gang, ditching in Swamp.
Men & Improvements returned from Treehatchie having completed
operations there.   Dr. Tolmie. rode out to Muck.
L Agricultural Compan 62
Victor J. Farrar
Saturday 29th. Lambing commenced. McPhail & Tapou have
taken charge of Fort bands. Indians picked out to assist in the
Plains, hands employed as yesterday. Mob variously. Mr. Ross
reports, that he yesterday in the presence of Montgomery & A.
Beinston51 warned off as trespassers, two Americans J. Lowrie &
  Brownfield,52 who have lately commenced building operations on P. S. Co.'s Lands at Salatats58 place. [Ms. Page 57.]
Sunday 30th. Fine. Agreeable weather. A Schooner named
"William Kendall" belonging to Crosby & Co.54 is reported to have
arrived off Steilacoom.
Monday 31st. Fine. Chaulifoux jobbing. Jollibois at new convenience. Tapou & gang of 10 Indians fencing a space of ground
in Swamp Park intended as site for new Stables. McPhail attending Sheep. Edwards hunting for his wife who slipt off last
night. Young sick. Indian gang planting Potatoes &c. Oxen
hauling rails for Sheep Parks. 8 Indians sent out to Mr. Ross, an
addition of 6 to Indian Gang. 17 bushels Ladies Fingers55 planted.
2 Ploughs & 1 Harrow at work.
[April, 1851.]
Tuesday 1st. Fine pleasant weather. Vegetation advancing rapidly.
Chaulifoux beating out Hoes, remaining hands employed as yesterday. Edwards excepted, sowing Oats. Oxen hauling Fence
rails. Mob variously. A Packet arrived from Victoria in charge
of J. Pike, who is on his way to Cowlitz to serve as agricultural.
Sat? [Ms. illegible] received the pleasing intelligence that the arrival of the Co. ship "Una" must be expected in course of a week
or two, with a good supply of goods for this place. The "William
Kendall'" arrived and anchored off landing. 7 1/2 B. Oats sown to
day.   [Ms. Page 58.]
Wednesday 2d. Fine. Hands employed as yesterday, a packet arrived from Cowlitz. Young still on the sick list.
Thursday 3d. Fine. Chaulifoux & two Indians fixing gate to new
Stable Park. Edwards with gang of Indians delving in garden,
two Indians employed sawing planking, gang of women hoeing
land in Swamp. Oxen carting home firewood. 5 Bis Peas sown
& ploughed in.
51 Adam Beinston,  a servant.
52 Probably Daniel F. Brown
53  Spelled  "Salatal's"  Plain
Tlilthlow  Jo
54 Owners of the mill at New)
or Tumwater
55  A variety  of potato. Nisqually Journal
63
Friday 4th. Fine all day. Rain toward night. Edwards sowing
Peas, 4 Bl. in. remaining hands as before. Oxen carting dung.
Jolibois despatched to Victoria with a packet.
Saturday 5th.      Forenoon Rainy.     Afternoon Fine.    Chaulifoux
finishing convenience.   Edwards thrashing wheat.   Gang employed
in Swamp.    Lambing progressing rapidly.    Cowie advancing with
new residence at Tlithlilow.   Young still sick.
Sunday 6th.   Fine Sunny weather.
Monday 7th. Fine. Chaulifoux finishing necessary. Edwards,
Forenoon sowing Peas. Afternoon employed in garden. Gang at
work in Swamp. Ojxen fetching Prele from beach &c &c. 4 1/2
Bis. Peas Sown.    [Ms. Page 59.]
Tuesday 8th. Fine. Chaulifoux making door latches. Edwards
sowing garden seeds. Young putting Store in order. Indian gang
at work in Swamp. Two Indians handling Hoes, recently purchased from Mr. Simmons. 1 Plough & 2 Horses in charge of Sam
lent to Mr. J. Ross for 1 day or 2. Indian Jack ploughing in Peas.
1/2 Bl. Sown. Oxen carting dung to land in Swamp.
Wednesday 9th. Fine. Chaulifoux making window sashes. Edwards employed in garden. Indian gang, men ditching & women
making potato drills in Swamp. Oxen carting dung. 2 Bis. Peas
sown & ploughed in. Four Indians making good fences.
Thursday 10th. Rain all day. Hands employed as yesterday. Mob
clearing a fine peace of land in Swamp. Oxen carting dung. 1
Bl Peas sown.
Friday 11th. Fine clear weather. Chaulifoux at window sashes.
Six Indians repairing fenceing. Mob clearing in Swamp. Oxen
carting dung. Dr. Tolmie rode out to Tlithlilow. Mr. Ross confined to his bed with sickness. Edwards also off duty. Sick, a
visit from Dr. Haden & Lieut. Dement.56
Saturday 12th. Fine all day, towards night signs of rain. Hands
employed as yesterday. Oxen carting firewood. A Canoe purchased and sent out to Tlithlilow. Edwards not at work. [Ms.
Page 60.]
Sunday 13th. Gloomy. Dr. Tolmie rode out to Tlithlilow. Mr.
Ross slowly recovering, early in the Evening arrived Jolibois &
crew from Victoria bringing as passengers Miss L. Work57 & Rev.
J. Staines.
i Wark,  daughter of John
1 Mr.  Edward Huggii 64 Victor J. Farrar
Monday 14th. Morning heavy rain. Afternoon fine partial sunshine. Chaulifoux employed about large house. Edwards resumed
work, sowed 2 1/2 Bushels Peas. Young cleaning up Stores.
Indian gang clearing land in Swamp. A gang of 8 women sent to
Muck to commence potatoe planting. Oxen sent with a load composed of seed Potatoes & Prele to Tlithlilow, at which place they
will remain some days to haul the squared timber for new dwelling
there. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by the Revd. Staines rode out to
Steilacoom.
Tuesday 15th. Fine weather. Hands employed as yesterday. 4
Bis. Oats sown. Dr. Tolmie & Mr. Staines gone on a trip to Newmarket58 per Canoe.
Wednesday 16th. Cloudy, Gloomy weather. Chaulifoux off fo
Cowlitz on his own business. Jolibois reroofing small room adjoining large house. Edwards sowing Peas (1 1/2 Bis. in). Young
variously. Indian mob clearing in Swamp, renewed with Sergt.
Hall59 the Exchange of Beef for Pork after the same rate as before. Finished sowing Oats. Quantity sown is 91 bushels. [Ms.
Page 61.]
Thursday 17th. Fine. Hands employed as yesterday. Dr. Tolmie
returned from Newmarket.
Friday 18th. Fine, Clear weather. Edwards sowing Peas. 5 bis.
sown. Indian gang clearing in Swamp, two ploughs ploughing in
Peas. Dr. Tolmie accompanied by Mr. Stains rode out to Tlithlilow.
Saturday 19th. Fine. Jolibois! jobbing about Fort. Edwards sowing Peas. Indian gang superintended by McPhail making Potatoe
drills. Afternoon arrived Mr. Heatling a Company Clerk on his
way to Victoria.
Sunday 20th. Gloomy with slight showers rain, divine service
was performed this morning by the Rev. J. Staines.
Monday 21st. Fine clear weather. Chaulifoux making window
sashes. Jollibois squareing timber. Edwards sowing Peas & at
work in garden. Gang making Potato drills. Opcen morning hauling pickets. A.noon down after a load of lumber. This afternoon
Messrs. Staines and Heatling took their departure for Victoria. 6
B60 Peas sown.
Tuesday 22nd. Cloudy & overcast. Chaulifoux at sashes. Jolibois
clearing site for new stables.   Edwards sowed 3 bl Peas, afterwards
59 First  Sergt.   James Hall,   Co!   M,  1st Artillery,  TT.   S.  A.    of Fort  Steilacoom Nisqually Journal
65
at work in garden. Mob making drills. A gang of eight in charge
of Gohomee61 making good fences. Oxen brining [bringing] lumber from store on beach.    [Ms. Page 62.]
Wednesday 23rd. Fine a strong wind blowing from S. West.
Chaulifoux as before. Jolibois repairing roof to Shearing house.
Squally62 with 6 Indians making good fences. Edwards sowing
Peas & jobbing in garden. Five Indians sawing Planking. Gang
making Potatoe drill in Swamp. Oxen took a load of lumber out
to Tlithlilow. Pere Leclaire has been residing here the last three
days. An old Indian woman murdered at Sastuc, she was found
shot through the head, in a lake at the back of house at Sastuc,
she was employed as a grass cutter to A. Beinston, perpetrator, as
yet unknown.   2 1/2 Bl Peas sown.
Thursday 24th. Fine. Chaulifoux making sashes. Joilbois pulling
down old Stables. Edwards sowed the patch of ground in American
plain63 with 3 1/2 bushels peas, ploughs at work at same piece.
McPhail & gang breaking up land in swamp, nine Indians setting
up fencing, two hands delving in garden, wagon broke down this
morning coming up hill with a load of grass, rendered useless for
the rest of day. four hands draining in Swamp.
Friday 25th. Fine. Chaulifoux as before. Jolibois with six hands
commenced rebuilding Stables. Edwards in garden. Mob Forenoon pulling down & removeing old stables. A noon in Swamp,
ploughs breaking up land where cattle park formerly stood. Oxen
off to Tlithlilow with a load of Shingles. A visit from Dr. Haden
& Major Goldsboro. received from the latter gentleman the intelligence that a port of Entry has been established at the City of
Olympia. finished sowing Peas. Total quantity of Bushels sown
47 3/4.   [Ms. Page 63.]
Saturday 26th. Gloomy, signs of rain. Hands employed as before.
Edwards again on sick list. Dr. Tolmie rode out to Steilacoom &
paid a visit to the Brig "Una" lying some two or three miles below
Steilacoom, waiting for the arrival of the Customs Collector.
Sunday 27th. Fine, this afternoon arrived the "Una" and anchored off landing. Captain Sangster is present master. Last evening
John Ross arrived per Canoe from Victoria bringing a packet. 66
Victor J. Farrar
Monday 28th. Chaulifoux at window sashes. Jolibois with Indians
commenced building new Stables for Oxen. Young with Indians
unloading Una. all out of her but the Salt. A gang in charge of
Squally setting up fences. Edwards & McPhail with Indian gang
planting Potatoes in Swamp. 12 bushels planted, ploughs ploughing up old Cow park. Oxen hauling fence rails, two hands sawing
planking.
Tuesday 29th. Fine. Chaulifoux & Jollibois employed as before.
Young with Indians finished unloading "Una", remaining hands as
before.
Wednesday 30th. Fine summer weather. Edwards employed hi
garden. McPhail & Co. planting Potatoes in Swamp 11 1/2 B
planted. Mr. Ross & party in with a band of horses for shipment
"Una". Dr. Tolmie rode out to Steilacoom to visit the sick there,
Dr. Haden being absent.
[To be continued.] BOOK REVIEWS
History of the San Francisco Committe of Vigilance of 1851. By
Mary Floyd Williams.. (Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1921.    Pp. 543.   $5.00.)
Papers of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance of 1851.
Edited by Mary Floyd Williams. (Berkeley: University of
California Press, 1919.   Pp. 906   $5.00.)
California has had a history quite as dramatic and colorful
as that of any other State in the Union. The frenzy and excitment
following the great gold rush of 1849 called into being the Vigilance
Committee of 185L The work accomplished was vigorous and
effective as against wrong-doers. Since that time it has been a
live theme of conversation and writing by Californians everywhere.
As may be easily inferred from the above titles, the records
are now set forth in type for the enlightenment of the present
reader and for the use of all future historians. The larger of
the two books contains the minutes, miscellaneous papers, financial
accounts and vouchers of the Committee. The volume is thoroughly indexed making the mine of information quickly available. This
work is Volume 4 of the "Publications of the Academy of Pacific
Coast History."
The other volume is a history based upon the documents mentioned above and upon other prime sources. The author records
one source of her inspiration for the monumental work on the
dedicatory page as follows: "To the memory of my father, Edward
C. Williams, a Lieutenant in Stevenson's Regiment and a loyal
citizen of California from 1847 to 1913." In addition to inspiration
Miss Williams has had an abundance of intelligent industry. Her
books will live and serve.
On page 416, we read: "During the years 1855 to 1870 gold
rushes like that of 1849 sent prospectors by the thousands into
Idaho, Montana, Eastern Washington, and Oregon." These experiences are briefly discussed and other references to the north-
lands are made. The great bulk of the book, of course, deals with
California. This work is Volume 12 of the "University of California Publications in History." Professor Herbert E. Bolton is
the general editor of both series of publications.
Edmond S. Meany.
(67) 68 Book R>
Sketches of Butte, from Vigilante Days to Prohibition.   By George
Wesley Davis.    (Boston:   The Cornhill Company, 1921.   Pp.
179.   $1.75.)
Mr. Davis is a much travelled man and has lived in many
cities. Yet his life interests have centered in Butte. He is an
artist in many lines, a painter, and a musician. Others of equal
knowledge might have written chapters like these. He is the only
competent one that we feel would have done so. The book is true,
but not all the truth. Many of the shady colors are sketched. The
brighter tints are not depicted in proportion.
We are not finding fault with Mr. Davis on account of these
limitations. We wish that the book were three times as long and
that he had added the remaining part of the spectrum. But this
was not Mr. Davis' thought. As we have said he is an artist and
criticism should be from the art standpoint. The book is not description. It is not analysis. It is not economic. It sketches. It
is an impressionistic presentation of certain incidents, certain
characteristics presented as a picture not delineated as a narrative.
It is an artist's book,
John F. DaviEs.
The Fur Trade of America.   By AgnES Laut.    (New York:   The
Macmillan Company, 1921.   Pp. 341.   $6.00.)
Kings of the Missouri.      By Hugh Pendexter.       (Indianapolis.
The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1921, Pp. 360.   $1.75.)
The literature of the fur trade is growing apace. Since the
publication of H. M. Chittenden's The American Fur Trade of
the Far West, however,.no similar work has been attempted. That
work remains the most substantial and trustworthy history of
the fur trade period of 1803 to 1847. The new literature treats
for the most part of various detached events and limited periods.
The volumes under review make no pretention of adding to
the hisrorial knowledge of the fur trade period. Miss Agnes
Laut, in The Fur Trade of America, has confined herself, in fact,
almost wholly to the present day fur industry. She has compiled
from many sources a manual of the fur business. The book is
well written and furnishes many facts for all who buy, sell, or
wear furs. Some of the leading topics are: Transfer of the fur
markets of the world to America; false furs and fake trade names; Paul Bunyan Comes West
69
fur farming; the dyeing and dressing of furs; fur sales; laws
for the protection of fur game animals. The amount of information supplied by this volume is so great that it is hard to understand why an index was not supplied. Many will be surprised
to learn from this book that the supply of dressed furs is not
decreasing, but actually increasing from year to year.
The Kings of the Missouri is a novel of the fur trade, opening
in the year 1831. Real and fictitious characters mix in a grand
melee of traffic, love, and breathless adventure. The volume has
merit, doubtless, as a vivid picture of the fur trade days.
Charles W. Smith.
Paul Bunyan Comes West. By Ida Virginia Turney. (Eugene
Oregon: University of Oregon Press, 1920, Pp. 34. $1.00.)
This interesting pamphlet is purely a local product. It is
made up of Paul Bunyan stories, collected by students in English
at the University of Oregon, and illustrated by the students in
design at the same institution. The stories might be termed a
Puget Sound cycle, since most of the exploits narrated center
about this region. Paul Bunyan is the hero, demi-god, and super-
jack of the lumber camp. He has come west with the lumber
industry, growing in stature and power and skill. It is doubtful
if the limit to his marvellous powers will be reached until the
lumber jacks have cut down the last stick of timber in the Western
forests. Long life to this master woodsman and suitable recognition in the literature of the frontier!
Trailmakers  of  the Northwest.    By  Paul Leland  Haworth.
(New York:   Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1921, Pp. 277.
$2.50 net.)
The author dates his preface from "Eastover West Newton,
Indiana." He has previously published such books as On the
Headwaters of Peace River, George Washington: Farmer, The
United States in Our Own Times, 1865-1920. Most of the present
volume is devoted to the Canadian Northwest and the fur trade.
His first chapter is headed: "The Beaver and His Wonderful
Works and How the Demand for His Fur Led to Great Discoveries." Chapter XIV., tells "How Amundsen Made the Northwest
Passage."
It has a peculiar present interest in Seattle since the great 70 Book Reviews
explorer is making his headquarters in this city during the winter
1921-1922 preparatory to his sailing for the North Pole. Mr.
Haworth's chapter covers pages 226 to 340. It gives a sympathetic
account of Amundsen's great achievement of the Northwest Passage in 1905, mentiones his discovery of the South Pole on December 15, 1911, and closes as follows: "Among modem explorers
Amundsen takes equal rank with our own immortal Peary. He is
a man of great humanity, strong yet gentle. In the recent Great
War he returned to Germany all the decorations bestowed upon him
by that country. He did not wish, he said, to be honored by a
country guilty of such barbarities. All honor to the noble Norwegian !"
Oregon, Her History, Her Great Men, Her Literature.   By John
B. Horner.    (Portland, Oregon:    The J. K. Gill Company,
1921, Pp. 366.    $2.00 net.)
This is a revised and enlarged edition of the author's book
which the Oregon Legislature commended most cordially by a
joint resolution dated February 25, 1919. It is wholly an Oregon
product. The author has lived in the State for more than half a
century; the many beautiful illustrations were engraved by the
Hicks-Chatten Engraving Company, of Portland; the printing
and binding were done by the James, Kerns & Abbott Company, of
Portland; and the publishers are the famous old book men, also
of Portland.
The author has compiled an abundance of material which he
has prepared in a way to attract many readers, especially young
ones. He has omitted a bibliography and uses only a few foot
notes. However, he says in the preface: "The task of preparing
this publication has been hopefully pursued with one advantage
over its predecessors—the opportunity of gleaning the choicest from
all of them." The book has a helpful index and an inserted map
of the State, specially printed for this issue.
Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860. By Samuel Eliot
Morison. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1921, Pp.
.401.)
While preparing this work, the author favored the Washington Historical Quarterly with a chapter from his researches entitled:    "Boston Traders in Hawaiian Islands, 1789-1823", which Report of the Director of the National Park Service        71
appeared in the issue for July, 1921. From that introduction,
readers in the Pacific Northwest will be prepared for a delightful
feast in this beautiful volume. The author is of the history staff
at Harvard University. The style and purpose of the present
work is best told by Mr. Morison himself in his preface as
follows: "Here is no catalogue of ships, reader, nor naval chronicle, but a story of maritime enterprise; of the shipping, seaborne
commerce, whaling, and fishing belonging to one American commonwealth. I have chosen to catch the story at half flood, when
Massachusetts vessels first sought Far-Eastern waters, and to stay
with it only so long as wind and sail would serve. For to one
who has sailed a clipper ship, even in fancy, all later modes of
ocean carriage must seem decadent."
There is interest in every chapter and every picture but Pacific
Northwest readers will turn quickest to chapters IV. and V.
"Pioneers of the Pacific" and "The Northwest Fur Trade" and
to chapter XXI. "Oh! California." Here are found many familiar
names and such pictures as "Captain Gray Ashore at Whampoa",
"Ship Columbia Attacked by Indians in Juan de Fuca Strait", and
"The Ship Boston Taken by the Savages at Nootka Sound, March
22, 1803."
Footnotes, bibliography and an index add greatly to the value
of the work. The people of Hawaii and the Far East will surely
appreciate the volume quite as much as those on the Pacific Coast of
America.
Report of the Director of the National Park Service to June 30,
1921. By Stephen T. Mather. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1921, Pp. 306.)
This fifth annual report, like its predecessors, covers all the
national parks- and is chiefly interesting to readers in the State
of Washington on account of its information about Mount Rainier
National Park. Director Mather gives a review of the year's
work and discusses improvements needed. In the appendix, pages
213 to 222, greater details are given in the report by W. H. Peters,
Superintendent of Mount Rainier National Park. The book is well
worth saving by all who favor the care and use of these wonder
places and playgrounds of the people. 72 Book Reviews
A History of Minnesota. By William Watts FolwELL. (Saint
Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1921, Pp. 533.)
This is the first volume of the promised four-volume work
on Minnesota's history. The author is President Emeritus of the
University of Minnesota. He says that he wrote an historical
sketch for the Jubilee number of a local newspaper. This led to
an invitation to write a volume for the "American Commonwealth"
series. That resulted in the preparation of a greatly enlarged manuscript which he offered to the Minnesota Historical Society saying: "I thought that I might thus crown a long life of public
service by a much-needed contribution to the historical literature
of the state which has given me a home for more than fifty years."
Solon J .Buck, Superintendent of the Society, in an editor's
introduction says: "For over seventy years the Minnesota Historical Society has been garnering the materials for the history of the
state. As a result of Dr. Folwell's industry and generosity, the
society now has the privilege of publishing a four-volume History
of Minnesota based in large part on those materials. The present
volume deals with the period of beginnings—the span of almost two
centuries from the coming of the first white men to the organization
of Minnesota as a state in 1857."
It is pleasant to note how the love and respect for history is
fruiting in a sister State.    Mr.  Buck says  friends may obtain
copies of the book as long as the supply lasts through membership
in the Minnesota Historical Society.
Excavation of a Site at Santiago Ahvitzotla, -Federal District of
Mexico.     By Alfred M.  Tozzer.       (Washington:  Government
Printing Office, 1921, Pp. 56 and plates.)
The Aztecs and Toltecs are always interesting to ethnologists
and historians. This Bulletin 74 of the Bureau of American Ethnology adds a valuable chapter to the general theme. The numerous high grade illustrations enhance the value of the report.
Firearms in American History.   By Charles WinThrop Sawyer.
(Boston: The Cornhill Company.   Pp.237.   $4.00.)
Our Rifles, 1800 to 1920.   By Charles Winthrop Sawyer.    (Boston: The Cornhill Company, 1920.   Pp. 409.   $4.50.)
These are works in a general series entitled "The Firearms in The Hoover War Collection 73
American History Series," published by The Cornhill Company.
They do not fall in the particular field of this Quarterly but are
here mentioned for the sake of such readers as are sportsmen, officers or men in service or inventors. The books are well printed
and profusely illustrated.
The Hoover War Collection. By E. D. Adams. (Stanford University, California: Stanford University Press, 1921. Pp. 82).
Professor Adams here gives a report and an analysis of the important work indicated by the title. Mr. Herbert C. Hoover, a
Stanford alumnus, has given his own collection of manuscripts, pamphlets, books, placards, etc., pertaining to the World War and in
April 1919, he cabled the gift of $50,000 to make additions. "The
limit of fifty thousand dollars has since been removed by the generous donor." Stanford University will become one of the greatest
centers in which to study the history of the World War.
Other Books Received
Clark, Sam H. Custer and the Last West. (Bismarck, N. D.:
Printed by Humphrys and Moule, 1921.    Pp. 19.)
Corthell, Roland. On the Sidewalk. (Boston: Cornhill Publishing Company, 1921.   Pp. 61.   $1.50.)
Harrington, M. R. Religion and Ceremonies of the Lenape.
(New York: Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1921.   Pp. 249.)
Jackson, F. J. Foanes. An Introduction to the History of Christianity, A. D. 590-1314. (New York: Macmillan, 1921.
Pp. 390.)
Pennsylvania Society. Yearbook, 1921. (New York: The
Society, 1921.   Pp. 166.)
PiTTmon's Portland Official Guide. (Portland: Mrs. Armena
Pittmon, Publisher, 1921.   Pp. 254.   50 cents.)
Puget Sound Conference op the Methodist Episcopal Church.
Journal and Yearbook of the Thirty-eighth Annual Session.
(Aberdeen, Wash.: R. C. Hartley, Secretary, 1921.   Pp. 179.)
Skinner, Alanson. Notes on Iroquois Archeology. (New York:
> Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, 1921.
Pp. 216.) 74 Book Reviews
Twitchell, Anna Spencer. With Star and Grass. (Boston:
Cornhill Publishing Company, 1921.   Pp. 59.   $1.50.)
Washington Bankers' Association. Proceedings of the Twenty-
sixth Annual Convention. (Ritzville: The Association, W. H.
Martin, Secretary, 1921.   Pp. 135.)
Washington State Pharmaceutical Association. Proceedings
of the Thirty-second Annual Session. (Seattle: The Association, A. W. Linton, Secretary, 1921.    Pp. 72.)
Wisconsin Historical Society. Proceedings of the Sixty-eighth
Annual Meeting, 1920. (Madison: The Society, 1921. Pp.
191.) PACIFIC NORTHWEST AMERICANA
Regional Bibliography
With the growth in the aggregate number of printed books, the
need for specialization in book collection has become increasingly
apparent. Librarians are giving serious thought to various methods
of coordination, involving a more careful definition of scope and
a limitation of field.
A similar need is apparent in bibliographic enterprise. Important national bibliographies have failed of completion because of
the difficulties of adequately covering a large field. One need
only cite the monumental bibliographies of Evans and Sabin to
illustrate the magnitude of an inclusive list of books published in
or about America.
Charles Evans' American Bibliography was planned to furnish
a chronological list of material printed in America down to and
including the year 1820. Eighteen years have brought forth eight
folio volumes recording more than 25,000 titles and the record
has been completed only through the year 1792. The last volume
lists the output of but three years. With the increasing number
of publications from this date forward, some idea can be formed
of the task yet remaining of the author's goal of 1820 is to be
reached.
Joseph Sabin undertook, in his Biblioteca Americana, to give
an alphabetical list of books relating to America down "to the
present time". Publication began in 1868 and was suspended in
1892 in the middle of the letter S. Although much effort has
been expended toward the completion of this splendid work, nearly
thirty years have passed without the addition of a single volume.
The task of completion, moreover, is constantly increasing with
the accumulation of books printed since the compiler's death.
Future development in America bibliography, lies obviously
in subdivision and specialization. Some limitation must be made
if important projects are to be financed and completed within
reasonable limits of time. In the United States several excellent
bibliographies have been made covering single states of the Union.
Most of the states, however, are without adequate state bibliographies nor could a series of individual state bibliographies be unreservedly recommended. The amount of duplication in titles and
effort would be extreme.
(75) 76 Pacific Northwest Americana
Librarians in the Pacific Northwest have but followed the
logic of the situation in preparing a bibliography of the literature
of a large area having historical and geographical unity.1 Most
of the fundamental source items for the history of Washington
are identical with the source items for the history of Oregon, and
many of these same titles would prove just as essential in a bibliography of Idaho, Montana, or British Columbia. The regional bibliography serving adequately each political division therein affords
a happy compromise between a laggard national bibliography and
a shelf full of state lists each in a large measure duplicating the
others. The cooperative method, moreover, which has in this
instance been employed, served to hasten the completion of the
work and to reduce the expense involved. The usefulness as well as
the completeness of the list was augmented by combining the
titles from fifteen contributing libraries into one union list, indicating at the same time the location of all copies recorded.
New Items for the  Checklist
One result of the recent publication of a Checklist of Pacific
Northwest Americana has been the bringing to light of additional
titles and editions. While new books will be published from time
to time, especial interest will attach to the locating and listing of the
older and rarer material. Such unregistered items should be
reported to the compiler of the Checklist.
One such item recently obtained by a contributor is an abridged
edition of George Vancouver's Voyages, translated into German by
M. C. Sprengel and published in 1799, the year after its first
appearance in English. This prompt translation illustrates the
eager thirst for geographical knowledge in the early years following
the French Revolution.
Another more recent title has been added to the list of Pacific
Northwest Americana: The Shenandoah; or, The Last Confederate Cruiser, by Cornelius E. Hunt, one of her officers. (New
York: Carleton, 1867. Pp 273.) This volume recounts the exploits
of a confederate expedition designed to destroy the New England
whaling fleet off the Northwest Coast of America. The book
records the capture of thirty-eight prizes, most of them whaling
k. t1  P<^S? S011?}™'* Americana:    Achecklist  of books   and pamphlets   relating  to  the
n!fl°„7 ,   ,oo,      Sf oSJv"1"^1^ Pon«,Uea by Charles W. Smith.  (New Tory: H. W. Wilson Auction Prices of Western Americana
77
vessels take off from the coast of Alaska. The frontispiece pictures
the Shenandoah towing prisoners from three burning whaling vessels in Bering Straits, June 25, 1865, or some ten weeks after
Lee's surrender at Appomatox.
Auction Prices of Western Americana
Buyers in Western America have taken unusual interest in
the sales of Western Americana at the Anderson Galleries in New
York on November 28 and 29, 1921. Many standard titles and
some unusual items were offered. The prices realized on the
former were in a number of instances well under the second hand
market. The rarer books and pamphlets brought prices well beyond
the reach of the average buyer. The following prices illustrate
the tendency in both directions:
Association de la propagation de la f oi. Notice.
Checklist 122  $130.00
Burnett, Old Pioneer.    Checklist 541         9.50
Canfield, Report on Northern Pacific Railroad.    Not in Checklist      145.00
Dunn, Oregon Territory.   Checklist 1059....        6.50
Eells, Hymns in Chinook.    Checklist 1092__       8.25
Grover, Oregon Archives.    Checklist 1552 160.00
Hewitt, Across the Plains.   Checklist 1665..      18.00
Lee and Frost, Ten Years in Oregon.    Checklist 1092          4.00
Thorn, Claims to the Oregon Territory.   Checklist 3971           1.00
The outstanding feature of the sale was the offering of the
Fort Sutter Papers, recently discovered after more than a half
century of search. These valuable documents neatly bound in
39 folio volumes brought the respectable sum of $8,450.00.
Union List of Canadian Books
The Quarterly is in receipt of a mimeographed "List of Canadian Books contained in the Victoria Public Library and the Provincial Library, Victoria, B. C". This list of 42 folio pages is classified
by subject. Eleven pages are devoted to books on History, while
much additional material of similar nature is to be found under
the heads of "Travel", and "Biography". Items are located in
each or both of the Victoria libraries. NEWS DEPARTMENT
Historical Association Meeting.
The annual meting of the Pacific Coast Branch of the American Historical Association was held in Portland, Oregon, November
25 and 26th, Professor Robert Carlton Clark, of the University of
Oregon, presiding.
During the Friday session papers were read by Miss Olive
Kuntz, of Reed College, who received a Ph. D. degree in History
at the University of Washington last year and Professor Richard
F. Scholz, now President of Reed College, who had been for the
past two years Professor of Ancient History in the University of
Washington.
The Association adopted a resolution in which it voiced approval of the plan for a reduction of armament offered by Mr.
Hughes, Secretary of State; and expressed their hope for a settlement of future international disputes "by orderly process rather
than by the destructive and irrational methods of war". The
Association also adopted a resolution endorsing the movement for
the reconstruction of the old Hudson Bay Stockade at Vancouver,
Washington.
The University of Washington was represented at this meeting
by Professor Oliver H. Richardson and Professor Henry S. Lucas.
For the year 1921-22 Professor Payson Jackson Treat, of Stanford University, was elected President. To the Council of the Association were added Professor Henry S. Lucas, of the University of
Washington and Dr. Olive Kuntz, of Reed College.
Searching County Records.
The time is coming when the official records at county court
houses in the Pacific Northwest will be carefully searched for
genealogical and historical information. Newspapers, pamphlets
and memories of pioneers have thus far furnished the main sources
for research. County, city and state archives slowly grow in the '
meantime. It has been the same way in the older communities
where many studies of the official records are now being made.
One interesting evidence of this condition is The County Court
Note-Book, published at Bethesda, Montgomery County, Maryland.
Volume I., No. 1 of this "Little Bulletin of History and Genealogy"
(78) Memorial Treei
has just been received by this Quarterly. The editor is Mrs. Mil-
nor Ljungstedt. Her program is that of an earnest, intelligent and
industrious gleaner in out-of-the-way corners for items that will
serve both causes of genealogy and history. The work is now being done in the counties bordering both sides of the Mason and
Dixon Line, although the editor has formerly searched similar records in other states.   The little journal costs but one dollar a year.
Memorial Trees.
Armistice Day bids fair to become a great tree-planting day in
America. Here in the Northwest educational institutions have all
observed that feature of the anniversary by planting trees in memory of former students and graduates who gave their lives in the
World War. By far the greatest effort in that line in 1921 was
the beginning made on the planting of one thousand elms along
the highway between Seattle and Tacoma. The beauty of the years
held in such an achievement is different to anticipate at the time of
planting the trees.
Ninety-first Birthday.
Ezra Meeker, famous as the marker of the Oregon Trail, had
a public celebration of his ninety-first birthday in Seattle on December 29, 1921. The Borrowed Time Club members were special
guests. The occasion was made memorable by several happy
speeches and the singing of old-time songs.
Interest in Idaho History.
Mr. John S. Richards, Librarian of the Idaho Technical Institute, Pocatello, and Miss Gantt, City Librarian of the same place,
took the initiative to centralize the local interest in history. A meeting was assembled and enough interest was manifested to go ahead
with the efforts, which may result in the foundation of a branch
of the Idaho State Historical Society. They have begun to collect
manuscripts and other materials of historical value.
Historical Relic at Whitman College.
Dr. Howard R. Keylor, a member of the Board of Overseers
of Whitman College, has presented the museum of that institution
an interesting relic.   The Whitman College Pioneer describes it as
the swivel end of a brass howitzer which was used by the Oregon 80 News Department
volunteers in 1848 to punish the Indians, who had taken part in the
Whitman massacre. It is said that the howitzer blew up killing
two men by the explosion. The fragment was found by Gilbert
Blue on the Keylor ranch near Whitman Station.
Gift of Books
Mrs. Sabina Morton, widow of the late General Charles Morton, U. S. A., has presented to the University of Washington library
a number of books from General Morton's library. They are mainly technical volumes and will be of distinct service to the Department of Military Instruction. "Principal Articl^in ^ *
' '■■£ Volumes I-X
(Sec issue for Ortobei, 1919)
^.tVOBOME XI   ,
[ The Voyage of the"-Hop€_ _____: A—■____________.—_-__■__«..■ M".-"--/o«/_.y j
J~?rancis Heron, F.ur^Trader: Other Herons____-_"__:—_-!_:fPV/hVi»r 5". L'nvis J
[-Death .of EI O   S   S-holetif-IJ  C  B   hi ji ->   I
feljion&r.' and Historical. Societies of. .Washington.::. . -—Victor J.-Farrar :".
'Origin of-Washington Geographic Names *'V -_^____- __Brf»iond 5   Meaiiv
I^eoplrong ,o£ the Russian-Ame ican ConvenUon of 1824 Victor J Farrar^
I Beginning ot .Mission Work in; Alas! a William S  Holt
David Thompson's Journeys m -Idaho—:—_:-_—_—_-___—_—__-T.-C Ellwtt
'■ £john Wo'rk's Journal of a Trip trom-Fort.Colville to Fort
~_L y-arlcouver and Retuin in 1^3is__If//a;   S   Ltl   v  md fatob A. ALvo*
. Shtphiiildmg--in the^Pacjffi Northwest_--_--__--__--__-__-/-e/<?w D: Goodintn /.
.-Beginning of ^Militia, m - Washington----,--- _—__________—.George .Gibbs .
raFirgt Militia Companies -in Eastern ..Washington Teirftop __lk /i „h  S'..Lewis-"-
Mudee E" F- Oliphant Tames E   F [>h   \
Bibliography of the Anthropology; of ".the Puget Sound Indians—_•_-__■_ -J
|f >-.j:__i::___"_______________-______I:_____________-_ id Leechmm |
'"    ^VOLUME XIL - .
£Authorship,:ofc-.the-Anonvmous Account,of Captain Cook's-Last Voyage. •
-• - - _-_i=i--- - _■_-__ '—- F.   W.   Ili'^uy   I
Origin of .ISfeshiflgton Oe6gr^^^^^^s^^^^^^^p^^^t2^^^^-^^
L'Joseph Line McDonald .md the Pimlusi "ot Alasl a Vutnr / Fa>ui>
Biblmt.rrphj   ot Raihoads, in tin   T itiii«   NorthwesT      Ujrwi   (   j/-
II Facts A bout' Gc-Lirye "Wa jhnn,t<«n ~__ J -Juriits T   Twurt
^Boston Trades iu"H.iv'.uidii Tslandi,, 17S<M,23 S F.  Mons.i-
Captains Gj^Sfid" ICfnd^i^ '^K^AXf^C^^.r^^^^S^^^M^fi:
Namine.'Stampede Pass J IV   /'   Ecnmy
t^The-OxegonXaws of, I845-.!_ John 21 Condon «
'"'  .DOCUMENTS     The   Tohn   Boil   Lo_   oi   tlu    Columbia      lh«.    Toct-ph
E_ridl Letters   Th    Nisquall    Touinil     v to     <'
The Washington Historical (Jinu-rK   u pulih^Iml  bj   the  Washington
j^.Jiniversity; State.Historical Society.; It is issued quarterly with title page and
index in the last number of (.adi vulunu , it is al-<> mdi\ d m The Mju-uhu    I
Subject-;Index-     Tht- curicnt subscription-pine  's ^2\^ p<i jeai,  oi   $0 7."
each tor single copies     I? u 1  numheis ari   «u ul il le as toll< n1-
-;rorumes:i-X, Complete with OcneraLIndex ' '—-—--1 ___$4H.0tl _
I ^B______B__S____^-_-__^_B-M-____-_i_B-i_3_Hi
KA olumes  XI-XII,- eadi 1 _. _' __; - 3 (jn
'.'   ' (Single numbers, 7cc each }   -
•\.- For.information in"regard to subscriptions or exchange,  Address- ,   :     .
.   CHARLES _\\    SMITH   Busmess Maua.cr
:\a-.hm_t<.n Hist.-n.al (]uuU il ,
TTm ei ip   Matiun   beattl     \^ r-h Qnti^lii§l|j
CTliroughtlie. coiu'tesy of William P/.Bonney.
Setietan of the \\ dshington State Historical
Society,  »opies  of   documents   w ei e' secured J
so/.'-.which -have- enabled-a readjustment to be made-j-«1
of the pla e m our local his-ton justh beloiuj-
r   my"to the Cowlitz Convention of   August 29>.\
' '_§,5I J-
UMi'b "Jeanette Paddock.Nichols, a, student.of
.' *\'Columbia University-. New York, .while work-'
ing among historic documents-at Washington.\
:.    D.VC ,7;in preparing--av-histoiy of- j^laska;: came"
*■■   upon :i u_h _lof.e of information about Seattle
and the Klondike    Through the couites\  of
~  "Mr Waldo G. Leland of the Department 'of ,|
r ; Historical  Research,  Carnegie:j-Institution Vof
•■- Washington,  an  article on. that  subject  was
fo: v. aided to tlu_ Quarterly - /
' CG:-.Ii". Andrews, -w-hor-contributes. the interest- -,
f mg 11 title a'bout'the first wieck on the shores
,'.; • of. \\ hat is now the State -of Washington, :is"-
well known to readers of this Quarterly/ He J
- - has furnislied for. its'pages a number 6£ articles
[ .- on the history of Alaska. *jS
r flTlie    new    department—Pacific .-.^Northwest.
'»   Americana—should  pn >ve  of special'interest
|*   and \dlue to collectors of lare items and to
' librarians throughout  the  special- region cm-"
CVoltune XIII , beginning with tins issue, will -'
:   be; richer in content "and. service .1 elide red than T
any. of  it_  predecessors  if earnest care  and---
•>■*    effort by-the editois can make it so 3£assf)mgton Historical <©uarterfn
Contributing Ccitora
Clarence B. BA<_fig£ Seattle       H. B. McElroy, Olympia
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank A. Golder, Pullman F; W. Howay,
William S. Lewis, Spokane New Westminster, B. C.
O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma
.Managing Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
3_-U£>tne£tf manager-'^^^M
CHA__i_^S.#;:^MITH
sateak-xm. no. 2
APRIL, 1922
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per  Year
Content*
Ft   W.   no WAY. .*.>^^^_^Si/TH_S*Xoss of the "Tonqul
VICTOR J. FARRAR   . . . . .;4jj6' Backgronnd o
1   MacDonald
EDWARD   McMAHO^j!|fcvj... James   Bryce,   a   Tribute
CHRISTINA M. M. WILLIAMS   A   Daughter
"YAKIMA HERALI¥»pp^v-.. .Yakima  Remlnl_cence4^^^^.-^^^^^^S
EDMOM)   S. MEAN**jf»7~ Origin of Washington Geographic Names.
DOCUMENTS—The    NisquaUy  Journal, Edited by Victor J. Farrar	
BOOK REVIEWS -i-^^_?^fe-^^^^rfe^^&fo^^^'^^^^^^^
PACIFIC NORTHWEST AMEBICAlf^^f-S^Ecv^i^lr^*^^^-.*
NEWS  DEPARTMENT   , . •'"■'i^^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^^.
. THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTQ-!J|£AL SOCIE^^^T
University Sta$£dJ§^?3
-: SEATTLE, i^mM&<m?Z:  tEfje
&a_tfnngton historical <©uarterlj>
Contributing Cbitorg
Clarence B. Bagley, Seattle       H. B. McElroy, Olympia
T. C. Elliott, Walla Walla Edward McMahon, Seattle
Frank A. Golder, Pullman F. W. Howay,
William S. Lewis, Spokane New Westminster, B. C.
O. B. Sperlin, Tacoma
-Managing Cbitor
EDMOND S. MEANY
Puginess -Manager
CHARLES W. SMITH
VOL. XIII.  NO. 2
APRIL, 1922
ISSUED QUARTERLY
Two Dollars per Year
Contents
F.   W.   HOWAY The Loss of the "Tonquin"   	
I J. FARRAR    The Background of the Purchase of
CHRISTINA M. M. WILLIAMS   A   Daughter  of   Angus   MacDonald   	
LOT
EDMOND  S. MEANY    Origin of Washington Geographic Names. .
t__
DOCUMENTS—The    Nisqually  Journal, Edited by Victor J. Farrar	
181
NEWS   DEPARTMENT    	
«K
THE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY
STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY
University Station
SEATTLE, WASHINGTON
Seattle, Washington, under the
: of Congress of July 3
.  the  Postoffice  i QHje Wa&tyn&ton WLnibttxity
Matt Historical B>otizty
Officers and Board of Trustees
Clarence B. Bagley, President
Judge John P. Hoyt, Vice-President
Judge Roger S. Greene, Treasurer
Judge Thomas Burke
Judge Cornelius H. Haneord
Samuel Hill
Professor Edmond S. Meany, Secretary
University of Washington Press VOL. XIII., No. 2
April, 1922
Mastfnngton historical dguarterlp
THE LOSS OF THE TONQUIN
The Tonquin sailed from Astoria on the 5th of June, 1811. She
never returned. Within three months rumors were current on the
Columbia that a vessel had been seized and destroyed by the natives
of Vancouver Island, and by degrees suspicion strengthened into
conviction that this was the Tonquin. It was not, however, until
about the Sth of August, 1812, that the fact was verified by the story
told to the Astorians by- the interpreter, Lamayzie. At the outset
it may be remarked that we have only Lamayzie's own statement to
prove that he was really there and was the interpreter; for he was
not on the ship when she left Astoria, but was picked up, either at
Grays Harbor or at Woody Point, near Nootka Sound. The accounts conflict, but there is little doubt that he belonged to Grays
Harbor. At first blush an interpreter from Grays Harbor would
seem of little value amongst the Indians of Vancouver Island; unless an accomplished linguist he would speak the Chehalis or the
Chinook language, while they would speak the Coast Salish, the Aht,
or the Kwakiutl language. According to Franchere (English edition, p. 179), it appears that he could not speak Chinook. To understand how great are the differences between these various languages
the reader need only glance at Dawson and Tolmie's Comparative
Vocabularies of the Indies! Tribes, Montreal, 1884. The story,
having difficulties enough in itself, this initial question is passed
over. It will therefore be assumed that Lamayzie was present and
was the sole survivor. At the best he could only have been on the
Tonquin about three weeks before the fatal day. The scene of the
tragedy has been identified as Templar Channel, Clayquot Sound,
not far from the old Indian village of Echatchet. This places it in
the vicinity of Meares' Port Cox. The interpreter called the spot |
Newity, but it is not known when, he obtained the name.    Sprout,
(83)
MP F. W. Howay
in his Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, London, 1868, page 314,
says that the word is not known on the west coast of Vancouver
Island. This identification shows that it was about fifteen or twenty miles from Adventure Cove where the Columbia spent the winter
of 1791-2. How far Wickananish, the chief of the region, was implicated we do not know. Whether the miscreants, in view of
Maquinna's experience, would have saved a Jewitt we can only surmise; for it seems that the destruction of the vessel and of the life
upon her was the result of design by the remaining white men or
man.
The story in all its variations, or perhaps one should rather say
the various versions of the story, may be found in Franchere's
Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America, New
York, 1854, p. 179 et seq., and in the original French edition, Relation d'un a la cote de I'Amerique, Montreal, 1820, p. 129 et seq.;
Ross Cox, The Columbia River, London, 1832, vol. I, p. 88 et seq.,
Chap. V; Alexander Ross, Adventures of the First Settlers on the
Columbia River, London, 1849, p. 159 et .-eg.; Edmund Fanning,
Voyages to the South Seas, New York, 1838, p. 138 et seq.; Washington Irving, Astoria, London, 1832, vol. I, p. 173 et seq.; John
Dunn, History of Oregon Territory, London, 1844, p. 222 et seq.;
Peter Corney, "Early Northern Pacific Voyages" in The London
Literary Gazette, 1821, reprinted in Honolulu, 1896, p. 8 et seq. All
of these writers obtained their accounts more or less directly from
the. natives, or, at any rate, claim to have done so. References to
the disaster, with flickering gleams of light on some of its phases,
will be found in Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist, London,
1859, p. 237; John Scouler, "Journal of a Voyage to North West
America in 1825-6," Oregon Historical Quarterly, vol. VI., p. 194;
The Victoria Gazette, Sept. 9, 1858; Sturgis, Lecture on Oregon,
p. 11; Walbran, British Columbia Coast Names, Ottawa, 1909, p.
92; and Professor E. S. Meany, Vancouver's Discovery of Puget
Sound, p. 49.
Passing from the sources to the histories, the reader becomes
quite bewildered. Elwood Evans in his History of the Pacific
Northwest, vol I, p. 78, gives the merest skeleton of the story,
following in the main, Franchere. Snowden in his History of
Washington, vol. I, p. 344 et. seq., simply appropriates Washington
Irving's version, verbatim.    Professor Shafer,  in his History of The Loss of the "Tonquin"
85
Oregon, first edition, p. 104, enters into some details, taking Franchere as his guide; but in the second edition, 1918, ^e wisely refrains from laying down as history any version of the event. For
there is no doubt that Scouler and Paul Kane are right when the
former says "We know nothing authentic concerning the loss of
this vessel"; and the latter: "It was quite impossible to obtain a
clear narrative of this melancholy event as no white man lived to
tell the tale". An effort will nevertheless be made in this article to
reach the probable story, and the first published version of the occurrence will be given.
When the sources are examined all of them except four may be
at once dismissed from our consideration; these four claim to have
received their accounts from the interpreter himself. In the order
of the date of the appearance of their writings, they are: Franchere, 1820; Ross Cox, 1831; Edmund Fanning, 1838; and Alexander Ross, 1849. Washington Irving is not included in this list
from the very nature of things. Taking then these four synoptic
writers, we find that Franchere is not only the first in date, but was,
also, at Astoria when the interpreter arrived. Having been at that,
time about a year and a half in the region we can believe that he
was, as he claims, able to talk with and understand Lamayzie. The
Rev. A, G. Mosier in his Dictionnaire Historique des Canadiens de
l'ouest, Kamloops, 1908, p. 115, says: "Franchere fit preuve
d'optitudes peu communes pou4e»les langues sauvages." Ross Cox,
though out of time so far as the actual occurrence and the vague
rumors were concerned, had reached Astoria only about three
months before the alleged interpreter was brought in. His recent
arrival makes it plain that he could not converse with the savage
himself, while certain allusions, as for instance, the reference to the
dress of Weeks and Anderson, whom he had never seen, show that
he is giving, as his own, the opinions of other people. Alexander
Ross, who at the time was stationed at Fort Okanogan, did not, of
course, meet the interpreter and is manifestly merely repeating the
story that had reached him through—who knows how many lips.
And as to Captain Fanning's version we must remember that it was
obtained in 1823 or 1824—some twelve or thirteen years after the
incident—by Captain Sheffield of the brig Horsilia from "an Indian
fellow by the name of Lamayzie, who told Captain Sheffield that
he was interpreter and pilot of the ship Tonquin". To arrive then
at the probable story we must eliminate Ross because his account is
_y 86
F. W. Howay
clearly hearsay, and we must drop Fanning also because of, amongst
other things, the magnifying and altering effect of the long interval
of time. The correct version of what the interpreter told must
therefore be sought in Cox and Franchere. As between these two
witnesses the narrative of the latter should be preferred for the
reason already mentioned.
While these two reports agree in the main, they do not coincide
as closely as one would expect, considering that both writers purport to repeat a story in which intense interest was centered and
which both allege that they heard from the same person and at the
same time. In many respects Cox's version is the fuller. The principal variances will be found on the question whether the survivors
in the cabin were part of the crew from on deck or of those who
were aloft when the massacre commenced; in the circumstances of
McKay's death; and as to the time when the explosion occurred—
whether on the dreadful day of slaughter or on the following day.-
Hereunder on the dreadful day -of-slaughter-or-orrthe following-day
being pages 88 to 96 in Cox and 180 to 186 in Franchere; in it the
similarities indicating a common origin will appear, while at the
same time the differences are shown. It will be noted that Franchere is the shorter, -the plainer, and the more likely story.
Cox
the conspiracy was formed in revenge, because the captain having
caught one of the principal men in
a petty theft had struck him.
The interpreter  discovered  the conspiracy and notified Mr. Mckay who
immediately went on board the ship
and informed the captain.
Two canoes   each   containing   about
twenty men came alongside.
Other canoes followed.
All were allowed on board.
They all brought furs to trade.
The officer of the watch, seeing
other canoes approaching, became
suspi/cous and warned the captain.
As all the men wore short cloaks
the interpreter knew their designs
were hostile.
Franchere
The conspiracy was formed in revenge, because the captain, having
had a difficulty with one of the principal chiefs over the price of some
goods, put him off the ship and
struck him with a roll of ftars.
One canoe containing twenty men
came alongside. Later came another.
Other canoes followed.
All were allowed on board.
The
first
brought
furs
trade.
It
is
not
certain
that
th<
others did.
The multitude of savages on deck
alarmed the crew who went to warn
the captain and Mr. McKay.
Because of the multitude, their
hurried movements, and the absenec
of women the interpreter became
suspicious. The Loss of the "Tonqu
He notified McKay.
McKay at once apprised the captain
and begged him to clear the ship immediately.
The captain treated the caution with
contempt, saying "that with the arms
they had on board they would be
more than a match for three times
the number."
The crowd of Indians blocked the
passages and obstructed the crew.
Having unsuccessfully ordered them
to retire the captain said that he was
going to sea and had given orders to
raise the anchor.
Immediately a signal was given and
the savages with a loud yell attacked
the crew with knives, bludgeons, and
short sabres.
McKay was one of the first to be .
attacked. He was stunned and
thrown overboard into a canoe
where he remained for some time
uninjured.
The captain strove to reach the cabin. His only weapon was a jack-
knife with which he killed four and
wounded others; exhausted with loss
of blood he rested a minute on the
tiller and was clubbed to death.
The interpreter then, uninjured, leaped overboard and was taken into a
canoe by some women and covered
with mats.
McKay at this time was alive, the
Indians intending to hold him for
ransom, but in revenge for a chief's
death the interpreter saw three savages beating out his brains as his
head hung over the edge of a canoe.
Three of the crew fought their way
to the cabin. The Indians seem at
this time to have left the ship and
taken to their canoes.
The three survivors, having laid a
train to the powder magazine, bar-
He notified McKay.
McKay spoke to the captain
"The latter affected an air of security, and said that with the firearms
on board there was no reason to
fear even a greater number of Indians."
The Indians pressed around the captain, McKay, and Lewis with their
furs, crying "Trade! Trade!" At
the urgent request of his officers the
captain ordered the anchor to be
raised and the sails unfurled, and the
natives to depart.
Immediately, at a preconcerted signal, the Indians rushed upon the
crew with knives and bludgeons that
had been concealed in the bundles of
furs.
Lewis was struck down, but McKay
was the first victim. He was felled
by two savages who flung him into
the sea where the women dispatched
him with their paddles.1
The captain defended himself for a
long time with his pocket knife, but,
overpowered by numbers, he perished under the blows of the mur-
The interpreter, after seeing the five
men who were aloft slip down into
the steerage hatchway, jumped overboard and surrendered as a slave to
the women who hid him in a canoe
under some mats.
Soon there .was a sound of firearms
and the Indians fled from the ship
to the shore. They did not venture
to return again that day.
The next day, having seen four men
lower a boat, the Indians sent canoes
rted by the translator; they
grandcoup de potumagane  (espece de sabre dont il
mmes, qui etaient restees dans les pirogues, l'ach-T- ■H
P. W. Howay
lit, but with what result the
ot know.2 Seeing no
the Tonquin the Indians went
m board in great numbers (400 or
iOO), and then without any warning
he ship blew up. The interpreter
the time of the ex-
interprel
Pl0!
gained with the natives that, if permitted to leave in peace, the latter
should have quiet possession. After
they had left the natives swarmed
aboard and a great explosion occurred. The interpreter had reached
the land before the explosion
The   fleeing   white   men   cor
reach the  ocean  because  of  a head *   *   *
wind; the Indians started in pursuit
and  overtook   and   murdered   them
while sleeping.
The interpreter had been held as a
*    *    * slave for two years, hence the long
delay in bringing the news.
It will be observed that according to Cox, McKay was clubbed
into insensibility and thrown overboard just to save him, but later
was killed by three men in a spirit of revenge; while Franchere says
he was at once dispatched by the women, and his editor adds, with
their paddles. Cox leaves the impression that the whole crew was
on deck when the attack began; but Franchere states that five men
at least were aloft unfurling the sails. Again, Cox says the explosion took place on the very day of the massacre; but Franchere tells
us that it occurred on the following day. According to Cox the
three men (who were completely in the Indian's power anyhow)
bartered for their freedom, but slipped away unobserved just the
same, towards the close of the terrible day; according to Franchere
the four men were seen by the natives to leave the ship on the next
day. And, finally, Cox's story is that no one was left upon the vessel and that the explosion was perhaps merely a deferred one;
while Franchere's is that the four men left their fatally wounded
comrade to wreak a terrible vengeance. It should be added here
that the note in the English edition of Franchere (New York, 1854),
page 189, appears to have been made by the editor. It is not to be
found in the original French edition (Montreal, 1820).
If, now, Ross's account be compared with Cox's and Franchere's, it will be seen that it has many variances, as might be expected, for it was written in 1846—thirty-five years after the event,
(2)    The  English translation  doe
not  reproduce  exactly  the meaning  of  the French
as will be readily seen by the following comparison.
"Le lenlcmain, ayant va quatre hommes
s'eloigner du navire, dans une chaloupe, lis envoyerMit
quelques pirogues s. leur poursuite; et
'oi tout lieu de croire que ces quatre hommes fnrSni
rattrappes et maisacrgs; oar je n'ai v-
aucun d'eux ensuite."  (Montreal, 1820, ed. p. 150)
"The next day, hairing seen four men
ower a boat, and pull away from the ship, they sent
some pirogues  in chase:  but whether
those  men, were  overtaken and murdered,  or gained
the open sea and perished there, I con
d never learn."    (New York ed. 1854, p. 185) The Loss of the "Tonqui,
by a man who was then in his sixty-fifth year. He even purports to
give verbatim conversations between the interpreter, the captain,
and McKay. Lamayzie, the interpreter is, he says, a member of the
"Wick-a-nook" (i. e. the Wickananish or Clayoquot) tribe; he is
picked up at Woody Point, not at or near Grays Harbor; the fundamental trouble does not arise from either theft or differences in
trade, as the others have stated, but from an Indian's having cut the
boarding nettings—none of the other sources suggest that the
Tonquin ever had up her boarding netting, and moreover the ease
with which men were thrown from her deck makes such a thing
very doubtful3; the ship is blown up while the carnage is in progress;
and the interpreter has not been kept in slavery for two years, but
has been detained for that interval by sickness. He adds that Lamayzie, whom he calls Kasiascall, had acted a treacherous part in the
tragedy, was not on board at the time, and was himself privy to the
whole plot.
But what shall be said of Fanning's account? It is indeed a
strange one. It is alleged to have been received from Lamayzie
some twelve or thirteen years later. It has increased greatly in its
details—it now covers thirteen pages. It contains many things, of
which not the slightest hint is to be found in any of the above three
versions. All of them, for instance, unite in stating that Captain
Thorn was killed; but here we find the captain alive and setting a
•light to the slow-match that is to destroy the treacherous savages W
and making quite a speech over it, too. Franchere does not say who
set off the explosion; Cox leaves us free to infer that Weeks may
have done it; Ross states definitely that Weeks did do it; but now
comes Fanning who says it was Captain Thorn who really did it;
and, to add to our astonishment, all these conflicting accounts are
alleged to have been received from the same source—the interpreter,
Lamayzie. Equally strange is the change which has occurred in
regard to the men in the cabin. According to Franchere the fate
of the four men was unknown to Lamayzie in 1812; according to
Cox the three men were murdered by the natives who pursued
them; according to Ross no one ever left the ship after the slaughter
began; but now according to Fanning the four men were pursued
and brought back to the village, where the interpreter talked to them
did not have his  boarding  netting  rigged
st qu'il se rendit coupable d'une negligence
avigateurs qui frequent
/ (Montreal,  ed.,
Lk- 90
F. W. Howay
and learned their plans on quitting the ship, and "they were all put
to death by cruel, lingering torture, in the usual horrid manner of
savages." How the same man, Lamayzie, could possibly have told
all these different versions it is difficult to conceive.
We thus find that the later accounts are the most embellished;
the earlier the story, the simpler, and, as we suggest, the nearer to
the truth. It is for this reason that after expressing a preference for
Franchere's report, it is proposed to reproduce here the first version
of the catastrophe as published in England. The original can be
found in the Annual Register (London) 1813, vol. 55, p. 83. Investigation has shown that it is almost a verbatim copy of the story
as it appeared in the Missouri Gazette of 15th May, 1813. It has been
already reprinted in Chittenden's History of the Fur Trade, vol. 3,
page 909, but, inasmuch as that book is an expensive one and even
now quite scarce, the republican seems justifiable. This account
has the appearance of having been adapted from one written by
some person who had come out to Astoria on the Beaver. That vessel had arrived on 9th May 1812 and is manifestly the ship referred
to therein. The suggestion is made that this story was brought
overland by Robert Stuart's party, which set out on 29th June 1812
to carry dispatches to Mr. Astor in New York. That party reached
St. Louis on 30th April, just two weeks before the item appeared.
This would explain its publication in Missouri instead of in New
York—which would be the natural place if it had come by the usual
route. Lamayzie did not arrive with his farrago until August 1812,
so that this version is, as it states, the current rumor. It will be
observed that where it touches any point upon which Cox and
Franchere disagree it is closer to the latter's account than to the
former's.
"The following is an account of the singular and melancholy
fate of the American ship Tonquin, the crew of which were destroyed by the savages, while on a trading voyage on the coast north
of the River Columbia, on Vancouver's Island:—
"A native ship arrived from New York, after a passage of near
seven months, with merchandize and provisions for the company.
It was here we learnt with horror that the story of the Tonquin's
having been cut off was but too true.4   The circumstance has been
i Beaver on 9th May 1812,
Thus the people on 1
iere they received sad c The Loss of the "Tonquin" 91
related in different ways by the natives in the environs of the establishment, but that which carries with it the greatest appearance of
truth is as follows:—
"The vessel, after landing the cargo intended for Astoria, departed on a trading voyage to the coast north of Columbia River,
with a company including officers, of twenty-three men, and proceeded about 400 miles along the seaboard, when they stopped on
Vancouver's Island, at a place called Woody-point, inhabited by a
powerful nation called Wake-a-ninishes. These people came on
board to barter their furs for merchandize, and conducted themselves in the most friendly manner during the first day; but the
same evening information was brought on board by an Indian whom
the officers had as interpreter, that the tribe where they then lay
were ill-disposed, and intended attacking the ship next day. Captain
Jonathan Thorn affected to disbelieve this piece of news, and even
when the savages came next morning in great numbers, it was only
at the pressing remonstrance of Mr. McKay, that he ordered seven
men aloft to loosen the sails. In the mean time about fifty Indians
were permitted to come on board, who exchanged a number of sea
otters for blankets and knives; the former they threw into their
canoes as soon as received, but secreted the knives.
"Every one, when armed, moved from the quarter deck to a
different part of the vessel, so that by the time they were ready, in
such a mariner were they distributed, that at least three savages were
opposite every man of the ship, and at a signal given, they rushed
on their prey, and notwithstanding the brave resistance of the
whites, they were all butchered in a few minutes.
"The men above, in attempting to descend, lost two of their
number, besides one mortally wounded, who, notwithstanding his
weakened condition, made good his retreat with the four others to
the cabin, where finding a quantity of loaded arms, they fired on
their savage assailants, through the sky-lights and companion-way,
which had the effect of clearing the ship in a short time, and long
before night these five interpid sons of America were again in full
possession of her.
"Whether from want of abilities or strength, supposing themselves unable to take the vessel back to the Columbia, on the following morning, the four who were unhurt, left her in the long boat,
in hopes of regaining the river, wishing to take along with them the msm
92 F. W. Howay
wounded person, who refused their offer, saying that he must die
before long, and as well on the vessel as elsewhere.
"Soon after sun-rise she was surrounded by an immense number of Indians in canoes, come for the express purpose of unloading
her, but who from the warm reception they met with the day before, did not seem forward in boarding.
"The wounded man showed himself over the railing, made signs
that he was alone, and wanted their assistance; on which some embarked, who finding what he said was true, spoke to their people,
who were not any longer slow in getting on board, so that in a few
seconds the deck was thronged, and they proceeded to undo the
hatches without further ceremony. No sooner were th'ey completely engaged in this, than the only survivor of the crew descended into
the cabin, and set fire to the magazine, containing nearly nine thousand pounds of gun powder, which in an instant blew the vessel and
every one on board to atoms.
"The nation acknowledged their having lost nearly one hundred
warriors, besides a vast number of wounded, by the explosion, who
were in canoes round their ship.
"The four men who set off in the long boat were, two or three
days after, driven ashore in a gale and massacred by the natives."
F. W. Howay. THE BACKGROUND OF THE PURCHASE OF ALASKA
It is a common fault of mankind to ascribe to a great man all
the credit of a victory, invention or other remarkable achievement;
and thus Seward is given the whole credit for the purchase of
Alaska.
Seward, himself, never claimed undue credit. He never said,
"I did it." While neither he nor his spokesmen in Congress, Sumner and Banks, dwell for any great length on what transpired before Seward's connection with the purchase, they do hint that the
subject was an. old one, and had been up at least four times before.
The background of the purchase goes back to the days of Gray,
who in 1790 was on the northwest coast in quest of furs. The credit
for having made known this wonderful region is generally given to
Cook who found it on his third voyage of 1776-1780. In his wake
followed a swarm of traders. The Americans were second in point
of time to engage in this new enterprise, but they soon became first
in point of numbers, and with the dawn of the 19th century became
a serious problem to the Russian who since 1741 had enjoyed the
traffic alone. While the Russians remained to the north in the
vicinity of the Aleutian Islands and Cook's Inlet the full effect of this
competition was not met; but in 1799 they advanced to Baranof
Island and built a fort to the north of the present Sitka, also called
Sitka. The Russian soon discovered he was no match for the Boston trader. To him the fur trade was a business—something to be
built up and kept up. To the Boston it was a speculative voyage, j
and he cared little what became of the Indian or of the business if I
he got his furs. Guns, ammunition and liquors were bartered without conscience, while downright fraud and even force were often
employed if the furs could be got in no other way.
Sitka was built in the land of the Kolosh, a very savage people.
As long as the Russians enjoyed the advantage of superior weapons
they felt themselves secure in their fort but in 1802 the savages,
armed with equal weapons, surprised the Russians, and wiped out
the whole establishment. The Russians placed the blame of the
calostrophy upon the Bostons, and laid a complaint before their
government. As St. Petersburg was far away, and transportation
slow and tardy, no echo of this charge reached American statesmen
(93) 94 Victor J. Farrar
until 1808; but in that year the Russian government, prompted by
new complaints, retold the story of the Sitka massacre, and protested against the sale of guns and liquors to the Indian. The Tzar
regarded the traffic as both illicit and clandestine, and proposed
that the consequences of this practice be avoided by the restriction
of this trade to the port of Kodiak, in Russian America. Also, that
these restrictions be stipulated in a convention between the two
powers.
The American reply, which for the same reasons did not come
forth until 1810, took issue on the question of the legality of selling
arms and ammunition to the Indian. If, said the note, the Indians
in question are sovereign to Russia, then the United States is only
bound to leave its citizens to the penalties of the Russian law; on
the other hand, if the Indians are not sovereign to Russia, but constitute independent tribes, then the subjects of all nations may trade
with them, unless it be in contraband in time of war.
The two powers never came to any constructive agreement
over this matter, but the incident is important in that it marked the
entry of the United States into the diplomacy of the Northwest
Coast, an ill-defined region beginning somewhere south of the Columbia River and extending to as equally indefinitive a place in the
north. Part of this later became Old Oregon and part became Alaska, but it was one and the same then.
In 1811, John Jacob Astor built the first American settlement
on the Northwest Coast, at Astoria. This post was lost to the United
States during the war of 1812, but the sovereignty thereto was restored by the treaty of Ghent. This event marks the first recognition of American sovereignty in this region.
Four nations now had claims here.
The Spanish claim began at the equator and extended to at
least the 60th parallel of north latitude, say Cooks Inlet. It had
once been admitted by Russia, although that was now denied. It
was marred by provisions of the treaty of Madrid, folowing the
Nootka Sound Controversy.
England's claim was based on the discoveries of Drake, Cook,
Vancouver and others, and extended from about San Francisco to
the Arctic. Its continuity of direction was interrupted by the provisions of the treaty of Ghent.
The Russian claim was based on the discoveries of Bering and The Background of the Purchase of Alaska 95
■others and an occupation of the country by the fur company, and
extended as far south as the Columbia River.
The American claim had never been pushed prior to the treaty
of Ghent; but after that event it grew like an avalanche. The voyage of Captain Gray, the trader, received full attention at this time,
and a retroactive sovereignty, based upon his discovery of the Columbia River and the official character of his mission, was set up.
The Louisiana purchase was made to include a generous slice of the
Pacific Coast, while the track of Lewis and Clark only served the
more to confirm the whole claim.
The adjudication of these claims was not improved by events
immediately to come.
In 1818, the United States and England entered into a convention of joint-occupancy.
In 1819, Spain ceded all her rights north of 42 to the United
States.
This left two powers holding jointly, but at variance with the
exclusive claim of each, and flatly opposed to the pretentions of
Russia, at least south of the parallel of 60 degrees.
In 1821 the Tzar, in compliance with a request of the Russian-
American company (now reorganized on a military basis and entered upon its second charter) issued an imperial ukase aimed at the
ubiquitous Boston, and the closely approaching Northwester of
. Montreal. This ukase settled the question of conflicting claim by
decreeing that the country north of 51 belonged solely to the Tzar;
and it handled the Boston and his kind by declaring the ocean for
100 Italian miles (115 statute miles) of the shore to be a closed sea.
Both Great Britain and the United States protested in practically the same terms. Each denied the principle of the closed sea,
and each depreciated the claim of Russia south of Cook's Inlet, and
upheld her own.
When the Tzar saw how his ukase was received he immediately invited the powers to send their ministers to St. Petersburg,
that they might, with his own, adjudicate this matter. Both powers
responded. The United States appointed Mr. Robert Middleton,
Great Britain Sir Charles Bagot, to confer with Count de Nessel-
rode, of Russia.
Mr. Adams, Secretary of State, in his instructions to Mr. Middleton, outlined the position of the United States with regard to the 96 Victor J. Farrar
Northwest Coast. That portion of it south of 51 he regards
as within the natural limits of the United States to come; but with •
regard to the country above it he shares the opinion of his day; it
is a region by distance and character alone forever destined to remain the abode of the savage, the trapper and the trader. The entire Northwest Coast, therefore, he would divide into spheres of influence: Russia is to make no settlement south of 55; the United
States none north of 51; while Great Britain is to make none
north of 55 or south of 51. But for the purposes of trade with the
Indians each is to have the right to traffic within the domain of the
other, provided there is no establishment nearby.
This proposal for a time received serious consideration from
Great Britain, although she utimately rejected it. In stating her
reasons she gave above all that she had from the beginning no intention to treat jointly since she felt it was not to her advantage to
do so; but it is known that she imagined a growing collusion between
Russia and America to reduce her claim to as small a compass as
possible. At any rate all chances for a three-party joint agreement
were destroyed, when on December 2, 1823, the president issued
the Monroe Doctrine. Accordingly, each power proceeded to treat
separately with Russia, and the outcome was the two treaties—the
Russian-American of 1824, and the Russian-British of 1825.
These conventions reflect almost wholly the principles laid
down in Mr. Adams' three-party proposal.
But the treaties are not alike, although frequently confounded
by writers who invariably state that at this time the United States
drew the present boundary line, at fifty-four, forty, and acknowledged the sovereignty of Russia above that parallel. This is not true.
Both these items were stipulated in the British convention, but not
in the American. Ours was almost wholly a trade agreement based
upon Mr. Adams' former three-party proposal. We merely agreed
not to build any establishment north of fifty-four, forty; but the
question of a boundary was left untouched. It cannot be found in
the treaty, which states :
"Article II. With a view of preventing the rights of navigation and of fishing exercised 'upon the Great Ocean by the citizens
and subjects of the high contracting Powers from becoming the pretext for an illicit trade, it is agreed that the citizens of the United
States shall not resort to any point where there is a Russian estab- The Background of the Purchase of Alaska 97
lishment, without the permission of the governor or commander;
and that, reciprocally, the subjects of Russia shall not resort, without permission, to any establishment of the United States upon the
Northwest coast.
"Art. III. It is moreover agreed that, hereafter, there shall not
be formed by the citizens of the United States, or under the authority of the said States, any establishment upon the Northwest coast
of America, nor in any of the islands adjacent, to the north of fifty-
four degrees and forty minutes of north latitude; and that, in the
same manner, there shall be none formed by Russian subjects, or under the authority of Russia south of that parallel."
The convention with Great Britain specifically states that
Alaska shall belong wholly to Russia, and the boundary line, minus
certain alterations made in later years following a quibble over details, is the one in use to-day. British diplomacy was different from
the American. It made too much of Russia's position of the
"closed-sea." England's diplomats felt that they must give Russia
a vehicle for retracting the doctrine of the closed-sea, and they accordingly selected boundaries and territorial claims as the proper
one. The United States had no such feeling. Hence the whole convention is practically a trade agreement, beginning with Article I
which annuls the doctrine of the closed-sea in the Pacific Ocean,
and follows with a recitation of other agreements in the mutual interest of the fur-traders of both nations; hence, also, it contains no
"boundaries" or other declarations of sovereignty.
Had Mr. Adams' principles been adopted in their entirety no
future difficulties would have been anticipated, but this was not the
case. Mr. Adams had held out for the right to trade on the unoccupied places in perpetuity, but as this was a sore point with the
Russians, since it hit the very object of the ukase—the elimination
of the Boston trader, a compromise on this one point was therefore effected, as follows:
"Article IV. It is, nevertheless, understood that during a term
of ten years, counting from the signature of the present convention, the ships of both Powers, or which belong to their citizens or
subjects respectively, may reciprocally frequent, without any hindrance whatever, the interior seas, gulfs, harbors, and creeks, upon
the coast mentioned in the preceding article, for the purpose of
fishing and trading with the natives of the country." 98 Victor J. Farrar
This ten-year clause expired on the 17th of April, 1834. The
Russians attached much importance to it, since it fulfilled hopes of
"exclusive trade" held since 1799. The British convention had one
year to go.
On the precise day the American treaty was to expire trouble
began anew. It chanced that two American traders, Captains Snow
and Allen, by name, were then in Sitka, and when interrogated about
their future plans stated their intention to visit the nearby coast
(above fifty-four forty) to trade. The governor, Baron Wrangell,
forbade them to do so, on the ground that the ten years were now
up, and that the privilege of trading, in consequence, was no longer
open to the Americans. Messrs. Snow and Allen refused absolutely
to listen to the governor on this point, contending that any such prohibition would have to come from their own government; and they
went about their business. Baron Wrangell then appealed to the
department of state at Washington, and even went so far as to publish a proclamation in the Congressional Globe.
This was the first time in ten years that any trouble had come
from this quarter. President Van Buren, after reviewing the matter, came to the conclusion that the ten-year agreement had been a
good one, productive of mutual benefit, and urged that it be renewed. Mr. Dallas was now Secretary of State, and Mr. Wilkins
minister to Russia. Count de Nesselrode was still connected with
the department of foreign affairs. In 1835, Mr. Wilkins took up the
matter and proposed that the article be renewed by a convention,
and he handed Nesselrode such a one already for his signature.
Nesselrode hesitated. He alleged that inasmuch as the Russian American Company had embarked its capital upon a monopoly
from the emperor it was impossible to disregard its wishes; and that
he must postpone an answer until the arrival next season of its
governor.
Wrangell arrived in the summer of 1836, and was immediately
closeted with Count Nesselrode, but his opinion was already known
to be unfavorable.
In the meantime another incident occurred. In the fall of
1836, the American brig, Loriot, Captain Blinn, master, was turned
back at Forrester's Island, by Russian men-of-war. He immediately returned to his starting place in the Sandwich Islands and
1 with the American consul both a complaint and a claim, The Background of the Purchase of Alaska
99
alleging that he had the right to land on the unoccupied places to
trade by virtue of Article I, even though the ten years had expired.
This incident gave the American officials a chance to file a
claim which Nesselrode was obliged to answer. His answer was
unfavorable. The right to trade on the unoccupied places as set
down in Article I, he said, was conditional to Article IV which limits
the privilege to the space of ten years, and when Mr. Blinn was
turned back the ten years had expired.
Mr. Dallas' reply, which had now been in process of evolution
for several years, is remarkable for its construction of the whole
treaty of 1824—a construction quite in keeping with the phraseology therein, and one which emphasizes more than anything else
the fact that the convention of 1824 was above all a trading agreement, and not a declaration of the sovereign claims of the respective
powers.   He says:
"The undersigned submits that in no sense can the fourth article be understood as implying an acknowledgment, on the part of
the United States, of the right of Russia to the possession of the
coast above the latitude of 54 40 north. It must, of course, be
taken in connection with the other articles, and they have, in fact, no
reference whatever to the question of the right of possession of the
unoccupied parts. To prevent future collision it was agreed that
no new establishment should be formed by the respective parties to
the north or south of the parallel mentioned; but the question of the
right of possession beyond the existing establishments, as it stood
previous to, or at the time of, the convention, was left untouched.
"By agreeing not to form new establishments north of latitude
50 40 the United States made no acknowledgment of the right of
Russia to the territory above that line. If such an admission had
been made Russia, by the same construction of the article referred
to, must have equally acknowledged the right of the United States
to the territory south of the parallel. But that Russia did not so
understand the article is conclusively proved by her having entered
into a similar agreement in her subsequent treaty of 1825, with
Great Britain, and having, in that instrument, acknowledged the
right of possession of the same territory by Great Britain. The
United States can only be considered inferentially as having acknowledged the right of Russia to acquire, above the designated
meridian, by actual occupation, a just claim to unoccupied lands.
W^ 100
Victor J. Farrar
Until that actual occupation be taken, the first article of the convention recognizes the American right to navigate, fish, and trade,
as prior to its negotiation."
So far as can be ascertained the United States never admitted
the complete sovereignity of Russia to the country above fifty-
four. A few more notes were exchanged at this time when the
matter was dropped. Occasionally an echo of it is heard thereafter
in semi-official proclamations of the state department notifying
traders that the article had expired. The Russians never yielded
and the Americans appear to have acquiesed; but no retraction of
the above position has ever appeared in the published diplomacy of
the United States. All reference to the incident appears to have
been avoided, and Sumner, who dwells to a great length on the
P.ussian title at the time of purchase makes no mention of it. Nor
does he refer to the treaty of 1824. Possibly he did not care to
cloud the title at a time when Seward was offering a price for the
country. But the correspondence thereon is not hidden in the archives.    It was long since published in the serial documents.
One ray of light, if light it can be called, is thrown upon the
subject by Representative Nathaniel C. Banks, chairman of the
committee on foreign relations, in 1868. Speaking on the subject
of the purchase of Alaska at the time, he said: "Once during Polk's
administration the matter was discussed, but terminated without
any formal offer or refusal. The offer, however, was made twice,
once in Mr. Van Buren's administration, and once in Mr. Buchanan's administration."
For the purpose of this discussion I have assumed the authenticity of the Bank's testimony and the validity of the offer. As a
witness Mr. Banks gives every evidence of reliability. His word
went unchallenged at the time, while those portions of it which can
be checked against other evidence agree exactly. His testimony is
further substantiated by that of Mr. Myers, given at the same time
and place. Mr. Myers claims he got his information from the State
Department.
It is not difficult to see why Mr. Van Buren dropped the article
4 controversy, but it is difficult to see why he made the offer of purchase. If Mr. Adams' view still held—that the northwest coast
was without the pale of civilization and useful only for trading—
Alaska was well nigh  worthless,  now.    The   sea-otter had  been The Background of the Purchase of Alaska
101
hunted in these parts all to well. Natural decrease in animals to be
taken together with the entry of a new competitor, the mighty Hudson Bay Company, to take them, had left the good old days only a
memory. Mr. Van Buren would have gained but a trifle had he won
the controversy.
Viewed from another angle, however, the United States did
have use for Alaska. The Oregon Question was now coming to the
fore. Years before, in 1818, and in 1828, this matter seemed settled, but events were now moving with amazing rapidity. Americans were pouring into Old Oregon and demanding the abrogation
of the agreement of joint-occupancy and the formation of a commonwealth upon the Pacific.
The desire to freeze out the Britisher from the coast below
fifty-four, forty was soon magnified into a desire to own the coast
above. Says Cassius M. Clay, minister to Russia, at the time of the
purchase.
"My attention was first called to this matter in 1863, when I
came over the Atlantic with the Hon. Robert J. Walker, upon whom
I impressed the importance of our ownership of the western coast
of the Pacific, in connection with the vast trade which was springing
up with China and Japan and the western islands. He told me that
the Emperor Nicholas was willing to give us Russian America if we
would close up our coast possessions to 54° 40'. But the slave interest, fearing this new accession of 'free soil,' yielded the point and
let England into the great ocean."
This story has been fairly well received, although it is depreciated by Golder, who claims he found no record of it in the Russian archives.   It has many versions.
Says Mr. Banks, on the floor of Congress, July 1, 1868: "Once
during Polk's administration the matter was discussed, but terminated without any formal offer or refusal."
Says Representative Myers, on the same date. "Yes, 'fifty-
four forty or fight,' was the cry; and what for. Simply to adjoin
this terrible land from which my colleague shrinks with a coldness
beyond that of the climate he depicts—a territory for which we had
under Van Buren and Polk twice offered five millions and been refused. If the gentleman looks to the State Department he will find
the evidence."
And Representative Benjamin F. Butler.   "If we are to pay for
_J>^ 102
Victor J. Farrar
her friendship the amount, I desire to give her the $7,200,000 and let
her keep Alaska. I have no doubt that at any time within the last
twenty years we could have had Alaska for the asking—I have
heard it so stated in the cabinets of two presidents—provided we
would have taken it as a gift. But no man ,except one insane enough
to buy the earthquakes of St. Thomas or the ice fields of Greenland,
could be forced to agree to any other terms for its acquisition to
the country."
F. W. Seward, in his Reminiscences, carries the "purchase"
back to Polk: "Even as early as during the Oregon Debate in 1846-
7, the suggestion had been made that by insisting on the boundary
line of 54 degrees 40 minutes, and obtaining a cession from the
Emperor Nicholas, the United States might own the whole Pacific
Coast up to the Arctic Circle. But the slave-holding interest, then
dominant in the Federal councils, wanted Southern, not Northern
extension. The project was scouted as impracticable, and the line
of 54 degrees 40 minutes was given up."
Senator Charles Sumner in his Speech is the first to mention
the Polk connection. The story was evidently current at this time.
"I am not able to say when the idea of this cession first took shape.
I have heard that it was as long ago as the Administration of Mr.
Polk."
However much one is inclined to depreciate this data on the
ground that it cannot be corroborated by papers in the Russian
archives, one must agree that there was a desire on the part of
American statesmen to secure Alaska at this time. The matter may
never have been the subject of a state paper, but it was certainly
the subject of much verbal discussion, and many independent witnesses have knowledge of it.
With the settlement of the Oregon Question by the division
of the Oregon Country the acquisition of Alaska is no longer desired. Our interest in Alaska at this time is at its lowest ebb. We
do not want it for territorial purposes; it has little value for fur-
trading purposes.   A new demand for Alaska must be created.
There are two more movements for Alaska prior to the purchase.
The first occurred in 1855 and is wholly a Russian movement.
It has been described in great detail by Golder. The incident, briefly related is this: The Background of the Purchase of Alaska
103
At the outbreak of the Crimean War the Russian-American
Company, fearful lest England would seize the colonies, devised a
fictitious sale to a San Francisco concern known as the American
Russian Company. The contract with blank spaces for filling in
the date, etc., was sent to the Russian legation at Washington, D.
C, for approval; but before any understanding had been reached,
the two fur companies came to an agreement and induced their different governments to respect each other's possessions in the northwest coast. -
Some news of this leaked out and many persons thought the
United States was about to buy Alaska; but the matter never became a state item and the offer was never made.
In 1859, Senator Gwin, of California, came forth with a semiofficial offer of purchase for five million dollars. His offer has
never been thoroughly understood. It is known, that he represented
several private interests in California, including Joe Lane McDonald, Louis Goldstone, the American Russian Company, and
probably others, who were were trying to buy the country outright,
in order that they might obtain privileges which their government
had never secured by treaty. This movement, though genuine,
never had the backing even of the commonwealths on the Pacific;
it was secretive, and had it been widely advertised would have
brought forth the same opposition that was later marshalled against
the Alaska Commercial Company who secured the fur-seal monopoly. It must, however, be regarded as the fore-runner of that economic advance which is identified with the history of Alaska during the eighties; and which Seward predicted, but at this time it
was premature.
The last and final movement for Alaska, accordirig to F. W.
Seward, Sumner and President Johnson, began shortly after the
commencement of the Civil War. It has been tersely described by
F. W. Seward in his Reminiscences.   He says:
"Soon after this came our great Civil War. During its continuance my father, as Secretary of State, had found the Government laboring under great disadvantages for the lack of advanced
naval outposts in the West Indies and in the North Pacific. So, at
the close of hostilities, he commenced his endeavors to obtain such
a foothold in each quarter."
It would appear, then, from the foregoing, that American state 104 Victor J. Farrar
policy toward Alaska is quite in keeping with American state policy
toward the Northwest Coast in general. From 1790 to 1840, or
thereabouts, this region, as so much land, country or territory had
very little value. It had worth only in so far as it was a vantage
ground for the taking of furs, and for this reason the treaty of 1824
is wholly a trading agreement. After 1840—possibly before—fur-
trading suffered a decline, and state demands for trading rights
north of fifty-four are not so vehement—certainly less so that in
1821. After 1840 our attitude changes, and the slogan is, "All of
Oregon, or None!" "Fifty-Four, Forty or Fight!" Alaska now
assumes added importance and political significance. How nice it
would be to own the entire Pacific Coast to the Arctic. With the
settlement of the Oregon Question, by dividing the Oregon Country, Alaska loses this significance, and its acquisition is not seriously
contemplated until the Civil War, when it is desired as a base for
naval stations in the Pacific, and purchased for that purpose.
Victor J. Farrar.
* The principal authorities u
sed in this ps
per are as follows.    For the ereaty of 182
s,  Foreign R
lotions, vol.  V;  Fur-seal Arbitration,  1S9S
-'or
Docs., serial 338, doc. 1.    The Clay versio
of t.
e Walker Story is containec
report,   V.  S.  Pub.  Docs., serial 1339.    Th
.    The fictitious bill of sale is from Golder
"Th
Purchase of Alaska,"  Ame
il Review,  XXy,  411.    The life of  Josep
J_am
McDonald is the subject of i
writer in the Washington Historical Quartet
iy.
Vpril,  1921. JAMES BRYCE—A TRIBUTE
Historical students everywhere were saddened at the opening
of the present year (January 22) by the announcement of the death
of James Bryce—Viscount Bryce, to speak more accurately—but
he will always be remembered affectionately in America as James
Bryce. Bryce like so many of the familiar British type was a many-
sided public man but he will be most widely known in America
perhaps because of his studies in history and government. Son
of a school teacher, born in Ireland, educated in Scotland and England, he began life as a lawyer and was then called back to Oxford
as Regius professor of civil law. At the age of 26 he made a name
for himself by his prize composition, The Holy Roman Empire,
which is still the standard work in its field. His great work The
American Commonwealth (1888, revised 1910) was1 the first serious
study of the American government from the standpoint of the
historian and constitutional lawyer. It became a classic at once
and was very widely used as a text book in colleges and universities. Serious scientific study of our government may be said to
begin with Bryce. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence appeared in 1901, followed two years later by Studies in Contemporary Biography. In 1897 following a visit to South Africa he published a volume of Impressions that had a large influence in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed. A similarly
illuminating volume on South America) recorded his observations
there. Perhaps his crowning work was Modern Democracies which
was produced at the age of eighty-three . As late as August 1921
Bryce delivered eight lectures before the Institute of Politics at
Williams College on International Relations, and in the same year
as first occupant of the Chair of American History, Literature
and Institutions founded by the Anglo-American Society rendered
a brilliant interpretation on The Study of American History.
The versatility of the man is evidenced by activities in other
lines. In early life he became an expert alpinist, and published a
scientific volume on The Flora of the Island of Arrm. In 1880,
Bryce was elected to Parliament as a Liberal, later he became in
rapid succession, under secretary for foreign affairs, chancellor of
the duchy of Lancaster, president of the Board of Trade, chairman
(105) 106 Edward McMahon
of the Royal Commission on Secondary Education, chief secretary
for Ireland, and finally British Ambassador at Washington.
As Ambassador Bryce took leave of party politics and his
work in this capacity entitled him to be regarded as one of the real
builders of a better civilization. "If every nation could send to
every other nation an ambassador who understood and loved both
his home country and the country to which he was accredited as
James Bryce knew and loved Great Britain and the United States,
nothing could be more difficult than to start a war * * * With Bryce
there could be neither patronizing nor obsequiousness; any class
melted away in the sun of his geniality, his humor, his common
sertse, and his abiding friendliness."
As Americans we owe him an additional measure of gratitude
for his pioneer work in the study of our institutions. Every
thoughtful student should read his American Commonwealth and
hold in grateful remembrance its author's name—James Bryce,
scholar, historian, statesman.
Edward McMahon. THE DAUGHTER OF ANGUS MacDONALD*
My father was Angus MacDonald, a clerk and chief trader
of the Hudson's Bay Company who was later prominent settler of
Montana and died in that state in 1889. My mother was of mixed
blood. .Her name was Catherine Baptiste. Her father was an Iroquois Frenchman, long in the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company, and a man of lively disposition and full of tricks and nicknamed by his superiors in the Hudson's Bay Company's employ,
"Baptiste Rascale." Mother was a cousin of "Eagle-of-the-Light",
the Nez Perce chief; she has sometimes been referred to as his
sister, but this is due to a confusion of the Nez Perce word, the
same expression being used for both sister and niece.