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A history and geography of British Columbia : for use in public schools Lawson, Maria; Young, Rosalind Watson, 1874-1962 1906

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Array History Mti W^o^^^iy
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Lawson and Young
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Gage St Co* Limited THE UNIVERSITY OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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FOR USE IN PUBUC SCHOOLS.
HISTORY—By MARIA LAWSON.
GEOGRAPHY—By rosalind watson young, ma.
Authorized for use in the Schools of British Columbia.
W. J. GAGE & COMPANY, Limited
TORONTO mksi[
Entered  according to Act of Parliament of Canada,   in the office of the Minister  of
Agriculture, by W. J. Gage & Company, Limited, in the year
one thousand nine hundred and six. CONTENTS.
HISTORY.
Chapter
I.
Chapter
IL.
CnAPTER
III.
Chapter
IV.
Chapter
Y.
CnAPTER
VI.
Chapter
VII.
Chapter
VIII.
CnAPTER
IX.
Chapter
X.
Nootka Sound	
The Hudson's Bay  Company.
Explorations Overland	
A Hudson's Bay Colony. . . . .
How We Are  Governed	
A Crown Colony	
Confederation	
Churches and Schools	
Later Progress	
PAGE
9
15
23
30
39
45
49
57
64
70
GEOGRAPHY.
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
Chapter
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
vn.
Chapter VIII.
81
87
104
110
116
Vancouver Island	
The Coast.—Queen Charlotte Islands. . .
Atlin	
New Westminster District	
Tale District -      123
Lillooet.—Cariboo      130
Kootenay District      137
     147 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
Provincial Parliament Buildings, Victoria    JÎYontispiece
First Steamer on Pacific and Steamer
of To-day        .. 11
New Westminster in Early Days 12
New Westminster of To-Day     .. 13
Indian Cradle  11
Captain Cook  16
Launch of the " North-west America." 17
Captain Vancouver  19
Vancouver's Ships in Noptkà Sound  .. 21
Fac-Simile of Hudson's Bay Company's
Standard of Trade         23
Prince Rupert  25
Stalking Seals  26
Rival Traders   ..       ..       ,  27
An Old Trapper  28
Sir Alexander Mackenzie  30
Fort St. James  31
Ships of the Hudson's Bay Company .. 32
Indian Raid        33
Sir James Douglas        .. 35
Esquimalt Harbor  36
Fort Simpson—Indians in foreground.. 37
Fur Brigade       38
Hudson's Bay Company's Fort, Victoria 40
An Aboriginal Stockade  42
First Assembly in British Columbia  .. 44
Too Busy to "Talk Politics"      ..       .. 45
Yale, on the Fraser  50
Coke Ovens, Comox ..       ..       .... 53
Old Parliament Buildings, Victoria   .. 56
Home of the Buffalo  60
Bishop and Mrs. Cridge  65
Indian Church, Metlakahtla      ..       .. 66
Craigflower School, Vancouver Island. 67
An Indian Burial        70
A Centre of Supplies  72
Chinaman           73
King Edward VIL    ..         74
The Rocky Mountains
Okanagan Lake	
A Glacier	
The Fraser River       	
Siwash Rock	
Devil's Club      	
The Olympic Mountains
City of Victoria	
Rockside Orchard	
Dry Dock, Esquimalt	
Aerial Train way       	
Chemainus        	
Coal Mine	
Steam Logging	
Cable Station -	
QuatsinO Wharf        	
Nootka in 1778	
Totem Poles	
Oolachans in Net      	
Haida Types	
Dredge at Gold Run ..
Hydraulic Mining	
Dog Team	
Town of Atlin	
Fishing Fleet in Fraser River    ..
Fraser River Bridge, New Westminsi
Vancouver Harbor	
Ashcroft %
A "Round-up"	
Harvesting in Vernon
Cariboo Waggon Road
Quesnel	
" Cariboo Cameron's " Cabin
Barker ville       	
Kicking Horse Canyon, C. P. R..
Washing Gold	
A Smelter	
Tipple and Coke Ovens at Michel.
Bonnington Falls       	
MAPS.
Hudson's Bay Company's Territory .. 8
Vancouver's Track along N.-W. Coast. 22
Northern British Columbia .. 51,115
Haro Archipelago, Showing the Three
Channels 62
Disputed Territory 77
Map of British Columbia
Vancouver Island
Queen Charlotte Islands
Westminster District.
Yale District
Kootenay District
84
85
87
89
90
91
97
99
101 «
103
10)
107
109
111
112
113
114
118
120
121
125
127
129
130
133
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
108
116
123
137 INTRODUCTORY.
This little book has been prepared for the use of the public schools
of British Columbia, in the hope that the children who study it will
derive both pleasure and profit from its perusal. Lts aim is to show
how, from a wilderness, this province has become the home of civilized
men, who are preparing the country for a much larger population.
We s*haH see how the explorers came here, first by sea, afterward by
land ; how they were followed by the fur-traders, the fur-traders by the
gold-seekers ; and they in their turn by the miners, lumbermen, manufacturers, fishermen and merchants, who now occupy the settled parts
of the province. In the course of our story we shall learn how, from
a fur-trading territory, British Columbia became a province of the
Dominion of Canada and was linked to her sister provinces by the
great railroad which has done so much toward making of the inhabitants of widely separated provinces a united people.
If, while reading these pages, the children learn to love better the
grand and beautiful province which is their home, and resolve that,
by honest work and brave endeavor, they will do their part toward
making it a great country, the earnest wish of the authors will have
been accomplished.  HISTORY
..OF..
British Columbia
CHAPTER I.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  the largest province of Canada, is
situated between the Rocky Mountains on the east and
the Pacific Ocean on the west.  The States of Washington,
Idaho and Montana lie to the south of it, while the Canadian i
territory of Yukon and the district of Mackenzie
- n  ,     ,     stretch from its northern limits  to  the Arctic
Ocean.    For about three hundred miles along the
northern part of the coast there is a fringe of islands and deeply
indented rocky territory belonging to the United  States.    The
extent   of  this   strip   of   seacoast   was   a   matter   of   dispute
between   Great Britain and the United States for many years.
In  1903   a   commission,   appointed   by   England,   the  United
States and Canada, settled the question of the  position of the
boundary line between Alaska and British Columbia.
The many fine harbors of the Pacific province and the
great length of its seacoast have already made it noted for its
commerce. Its position on the border of the continent makes
it   the   western   gateway   of Canada.   A line  of  magnificent 10 History of British Columbia.
Canadian steamships crosses the Pacific with wonderful regularity, to exchange the productions and manufactures of the
young Dominion for those of the. ancient lands of India, China
and Japan. Another line, not greatly inferior in size and accommodation, traverses more than a quarter of the distance
round the globe, returning with fruits and Qther products of
Australia and the islands that lie along this great route across
the pathless ocean. Every week, the Pacific Steamship Company's steamers bring mails, passengers and freight from San
Francisco, the greatest western port of the United States,
meeting often on their way ships laden with coal from the
collieries of Vancouver Island.
To and from the cities on Puget Sound steamers ply daily
to supply us with many things that the busy
Commercial    bming and skilM handg of Qur kinsfolk in the
neighboring republic have prepared for our use,
taking in return such products of our mines, our fisheries
and our forests as will find a market there.
From Vancouver and Victoria, during summer, numbers
of steamers carry to the miners of Northern British Columbia
and the Yukon, food, clothing, machinery, furniture and books,
and whatever else will help to make life in the far north
comfortable, prosperous and happy. All along the coast of
Vancouver Island and the mainland, are fur-trading, fishing
and mining settlements which furnish a profitable trade to the
merchants of Victoria and Vancouver.
Besides the ships bent on peaceful errands, gun-boats
were formerly seen in British Columbia waters, Esquimalt being
until recently, the British naval station for the Pacific Coast. History of British Columbia. 11
But we have lingered too long outside. Pausing one moment
to glance at the great sailing vessels or big steamships that,
having crossed two oceans, bring merchandise from Great
Britain or some other distant land, we turn our attention to
the province itself. The sides of the coast mountains, the islands,
and the uncleared valleys, are covered with a magnificent growth
of timber, which one might suppose would last forever, did he
not know that regions which half a century ago were clothed
with forests almost as vast, are now. timberless.
TITE "BKAVKB," PTRST STE\MER ON THE PACIFIC,  AND A STEAMER OF TO-DAY.     .
The city of Victoria, at the south end of Vancouver Island,
seems to welcome the traveller from his ocean voyage.
Its lovely gardens, delightful climate, and picturesque surroundings
invite him to make his home there.    A great deal of business is done
in its quiet streets.      Want is comparatively unknown
-t i n-ur        an<^ many °f its citizens are wealthy.    It is, as the
splendid parliament buildings show, the capital of the
province.   The population of Victoria and its suburbs is at least 25,000.
Nanaimo,   an  important  coal-mining  centre,   on  the   east  coast, 12
History of British Columbia.
seventy miles from Victoria, has about six: thousand inhabitants.  There
are also several smaller towns on Vancouver Island.
As yet, only the southern portion of the island is inhabited.
Farmers and coal-miners have been at work there for half a century.
Recently, copper and silver were found between Victoria and Nanaimo.
Mines have been sunk and smelters erected to separate the metal from
the ore. On Texada Island is a marble quarry • there, also, are iron,
copper and gold mines.
Crossing to Burrard Inlet we find spread out before us on
the  mainland^ a rapidly grow- %SmSÈï^mpss^
ing city.    Its wide and well-    .g
paved, streets, large  park,   /^^^^^^^j^Mi^^^B
excellent system of water-    Jfj
works and many good    fj^pw^^g^ppF^^^^^^Sl
school buildings testify to fijjjyl ^1111
the   public   spirit   of   its   ^^PâaQ^^^^^^^^SS--
citizens.    This is Vancouver, the        '^^^^^^^^^^P^^
largest city in British Columbia.       NEW ^stmfnster in early days.
It has a population of over forty thousand, and is the centre
of the lumber trade in the Province.
The neighboring city of New Westminster, on   the   Fraser,
is the oldest city on the mainland.
Though it has not fulfilled the hopes of its founders, its lumber
mills and salmon canneries give employment to a large number of
people. It is the centre of a fine agricultural district, and has a good
market and considerable country trade.
At Vancouver we first see the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which has climbed over the wall of mountains separating this province from the rest of Canada.     Part of the
goods that come to  Victoria  and Vancouver from Asiatic ports  for
eastern Canadian and United States cities, and even those for Great
Importance of
the Cities. Histoey op British Columbia. 13
Britain, are sent over this great continental road. To the south of
the railroad and along its route, mines have been developed and cities
are growing up. Of mining towns, Rossland and Nelson are the
largest, though there are nearly a score more.
The silver, lead, copper and gold of Kootenay and Yale
have been heard of all over the world, while the fruit and
grain of Okanagan are finding markets both at home and
abroad. There are great coal mines at the Crowsnest Pass
and smelters in various places. Rich gold mines are operated
in Cariboo, Omineea and the Boundary.
NEW WESTMINSTER OF TO-DAY.
Branch roads from the Canadian Pacific and the Great Northern
Railroads have entered southern British Columbia in many places and
others have been projected. To the north, though there are great cattle
ranges in Cariboo, and a number of men employed in hydraulic mining,
the country is to a large extent uninhabited. With the exception of a
few missionaries, gold-seekers, fur-hunters and employees of the salmon
canneries, the great districts of Cassiar and Omineea have no civilized
inhabitants ; and large tracts of land there are yet unexplored.
Until the beginning of the nineteenth century,  no white
man had made his home in all this region—greater than any 14
History of British Columbia.
European kingdom — that lies west of the Rocky Mountains
between the 49th and 60th parallels of north latitude. At the
present time, however, the white population of the province is
estimated at about 160,000.
Its forests and valleys, the banks of its streams and the rocky
islands near its coast, were the haunts of beautiful fur-bearing
animals. Beside the rivers, or in sheltered
coves, dwelt tribes of savages who dressed
themselves in the skins of these creatures and
lived on the salmon that every summer sought
the fresh water in millions. Other tribes among
the mountains obtained a less certain livelihood
by hunting. Many of the Indians were skilled
in the arts of carving and weaving. The coast
tribes were good canoe builders, and displayed
much ingenuity in making fishing implements and
weapons of warfare. Learned men tell us that the
Indians west of the Rocky Mountains are descended
from the inhabitants of the opposite coasts of
Alaska, or of the islands in the Pacific Ocean, but no one
has yet discovered certain evidence of this, or of how or when
they found their way to our shores.
INDIAN CRADLE. CHAPTER II.
NOOTKA sound.
In the mighty battle that is ever going on between sea and land,
the western coast of the American continent has, throughout the
greater part of its extent, stood firm against the ceaseless onset
of the waves of the Pacific Ocean. For hundreds of miles, in
both North and South America, there is scarcely a break in the
shore line. But, as the mariner nears the forty-ninth parallel,
a very different scene presents itself. The land is everywhere
indented with long narrow inlets, bordered by great rocks or overhanging precipices. Hundreds of islands have broken away from
the mainland, and against their rocky shores the first force of the_
western waves is spent. It was on one of the inlets in the largest
~of these islands, that the history of British Columbia began.
In 1774-5, three Spanish explorers sailed along the northwest coast of America, from California nearly
-jvar y    p ^0 ^ ^0Y^eY 0f Alaska, and claimed the terri
tory for the king of Spain. In the course of
their voyage they landed at Nootka Sound, on the west side of
the island now known as Vancouver.
In 1778, Captain Cook, a British navigator, reached the same
inlet. This famous man had twice before sailed round the
world. He set out on his third voyage in order to find an
open passage between the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans. For
more than two hundred years, captains of ships had tried to
thread their way among the islands and icebergs of the North
15 16
History of British Columbia.
CAPTAIN COOK, 1787.
Atlantic Ocean, seeking the  open  sea, which was believed to
lie near the North Pole.    They had failed.
Captain Cook hoped to succeed by entering the Arctic Ocean
from the west. He left England in 1776,
and, after a-long cruise in the Southern
Seas, crossed the Pacific. He first saw
land near Lat. 44° on the coast of Oregon.
Missing the mouth of the Columbia and
the Strait of Juan de Fuca, he reached
Nootka. Here he found a safe harbor
where he could repair his ships—the
Resolution and Discovery. Soon great
numbers of Indians came in canoes to see
the strange white men and their wonderful ships. The natives were dressed in beautiful furs which
the explorers admired.
Before sailing away, Captain Cook gave to a friendly chief
a parting gift, and received in return a valuable beaver robe.
The Indians begged their visitors to return,
promising to have a store of skins ready for
them. In this way began the fur-trade, which
for many years was the chief business, not only of the island,
but of the whole of British Columbia.
"When his ships were repaired, Captain Cook sailed north.
He reached the Arctic Ocean, but could see no sign of an open
passage. However, it was late in the season, and he hoped to
have greater success in the spring. But he had taken his last
voyage. He was murdered hy the natives of the Sandwich
Islands where he had gone to winter.    Captain Clerke, who
Captain Cook
Saw the IVand History of British Columbia.
17
succeeded to the command of his ships, tried, but he also
was unable to find the open sea, and the expedition returned to
England. The chief result of this voyage was the knowledge
gained that the north-west coast of America abounded in valuable
fur-bearing animals.
Not long afterward British fur-trading ships from England,
India and China appeared on the coast. The first of these came
in 1785. Cape Scott, Barkley Sound, Dixon Entrance, Queen
Charlotte Sound and other places were discovered and named by
the masters of these vessels.
In 1788 Captain Meares arrived at Nootka with two large
ships. He
was one of a
company of
East India
merchants
who had pre-
par ed in
China an expedition to
the northwest coast, to
establish a
trading post
there. Besides   the
crews of the ships, he brought with him ninety men, among
whom were mechanics, both white and Chinese. The
Indians were friendly, and Meares bought a site for his trading
LAUNCH OF THE   ' NORTH-WEST AMERJ History of British Columbia.
Meares'
Explorations.
post. There he erected a large building to serve as storehouse, dwelling and workshop for his little colony. As
soon as possible he set his men to work to build
a ship—the North-West America—meanwhile
going out to explore the coast and to purchase
furs. He entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, examined the
coasts on both sides, and made friends with several tribes.
Later, he launched his ship and then returned to China to
sell, his furs and prepare for a still larger expedition the next
year. The new ship and another were left at Nootka with
directions to winter at the Sandwich Islands and return as
early as possible in the spring.
In May of the following year two Spanish ships arrived
from San Bias in Mexico, destroyed Meares' establishment,
seized his ships as they arrived from China and the coast, and
sent two of them as prizes to San Bias. The indignant trader
complained to his government of the insult to the British flag
and of his loss of property. England remonstrated with
Spain; but the government of that country declared Meares
was a trespasser on Spanish territory, and denied the right of
any other nation than Spain to settle on the Pacific coast of
America south of the Russian possessions.
There was talk of war, but the quarrel was peaceably
settled. The Spaniards agreed to pay. Meares for his
losses, to abandon Nootka Sound and to allow
the British to trade, sail and settle wherever
they wished on the west coast north of San
Francisco. To satisfy the offended dignity of England, the
Spanish   fortifications   at  Nootka were  to   be  destroyed,  the
A Dispute
with Spain History of British Columbia.
19
Spanish flag lowered, and that of England hoisted in its stead.
The harbor was then to be abandoned by both nations.
The British government commissioned Captain George Vancouver to proceed to North America to see that this ceremony
was duly performed, and to search the coast thoroughly for
any waterway that could lead to the Atlantic Ocean.
Near the end of April 1792, Vancouver entered the Strait
of Juan de Fuca with two war ships—the
Discovery and the Chatham. The officers of
these ships gave their names to so many
places along the coast, that it is well to
learn who they were. On the Discovery were
Captain Vancouver and Lieutenants Mudge,
Puget and Baker. The officers of the Chatham were Commander Broughton, Lieutenant
Hanson and Master Johnstone. The expedition left Falmouth on April 1st, 1791, so
that a year had passed before Vancouver
arrived at his destination. As they sailed up the strait, the
voyagers saw, away to the north-east, a splendid snow-covered
mountain peak, which Vancouver named
Mount Baker, in honor of its discoverer.
As they coasted slowly along, capes, harbors, islands and bays received the names of places or people
in the old land dear to those sailors who had roamed so far
from home.
Soon they entered the body of water that still bears the
name of Lieutenant Puget, and spent weeks in following the
windings of its shores.    They left Puget Sound about the end of
CAPT. VANCOUVER.
English Captains
Explore the Coast. 20
History of British Columbia.
May and began the exploration of the islands and coasts of the
Strait of Georgia. Strangely enough, Captain Vancouver
missed the mouth of the Fraser River, as, in coming along the
coast of what is now the- State of Oregon, he had passed,
without noticing it, the mouth of the Columbia.
In June he met two Spanish captains, Don Valdez and
Don Galiano. They told him that Quadra, the commander of
the" west coast of Spanish America, had arrived at Nootka and
awaited him there. Before meeting Vancouver, the Spaniards
had visited—besides other places—Victoria Harbor, Nanaimo
and Burrard Inlet, but they, too, had missed the mouth of the
Fraser River. The English and Spanish captains were very
friendly, and together they explored many islands and inlets of
the Strait of Georgia, some of which such as Galiano Island
still retain their Spanish names ; while Johnstone Strait and
Cape Mudge recall the English explorers.
When the lateness of .the season warned the English that
they must hasten on their way, the courteous Spaniards—whose
vessels were much slower — gave them charts of the waters
toward the northern end of the island.
By the close of August, Vancouver reached Nootka Sound,
where   he   was   hospitably   entertained   by   General   Quadra.
tS ? When the   British   officer  produced his
Interesting History   .    ,      ,. AT   *_
of Earlier Days. instructions to receive Nootka from the
Spanish commander, Quadra stated that
he had received no orders to deliver the place to him. Vancouver agreed to wait; and, in the meantime, the island,
whose coasts had now been thoroughly explored, received the
name   of  the Island  of   Quadra   and Vancouver.     The   two History of British Columbia.
21
commanders  spent  some  time pleasantly together, and parted
in September when Quadra sailed for Monterey.
In  October Vancouver  went to   the  Sandwich  Islands  to
winter.    The officers never met at Nootka again.    When Van-
■
LTVER S SHIPS—NOOTKA SOUND.
couver made his final call in 1794, he was grieved to learn
that Quadra had died the previous winter. General Alva
succeeded to his command, but still no orders had been sent
from Spain concerning the delivery of Nootka to the British.
In 1793 Vancouver went on with his exploration of the
west coast of the mainland, again returning to the Sandwich
Islands for the winter. The following spring he sailed directly
for the coast of Alaska, and proceeded southward till he
reached the highest point gained the year before, thus com- .
pleting his survey of the coast from Cape Flattery to Alaska.
He was then able to report that no great body of water penetrated the continent of America above the forty-ninth parallel of
north latitude. Vancouver's maps of the north-west coast and
the journals of his voyages have been relied upon by England History of British Columbia.
in all disputes with
foreign nations concerning her ownership of British
Columbia.
In 1792 Vancouver had sent Captain
Broughton home by
way of China with
despatches. Not receiving any orders,
he sailed for England
in the autumn of
1794. He was promoted, but did not
live long to enjoy
his honors. In 1798
this brave and capable officer died at
the early age of forty.
Lieutenant Pearce
and General Alva
met at Nootka in
March 1795. The
Spanish fort, there, was dismantled, the lands restored to the
king of England, and the British flag hoisted. England had
established her right to settle on the north-west coast of
America. Then both commissioners sailed away and the place
was left to its original owners—the Indians.
SECTION OF ONE OP VANC3UVERS MAPS.
Showing Ms vessel's track along the north-west coast when he was seeking
waterway to the Atlantic. CHAPTER III.
THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.
Although it is little more than a hundred years since the
first  white  man   crossed  the  Rocky  Mountains   and   entered
n* xrx.
STANDARD of TRADE at the feveral Factories of the
HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY, fùblifting this prefcntYear 1748,
NAMES of GOODS.
Bends. Urge Milk
of Colours
of all Sorti •
Kettles, Brefs, of all Sue»
Black-Lead      -       -
Powder
Shot      -
Sugar, Brown
Tobacco, Brazil      -      -
Leaf
Roll       -       '
Thread
Vermilion
Brandy, EngUJb
Waters, Wfae<
or Bed
7$0
MO
y
<X
Fac-Simile of Company's Standard of Trade.
British Columbia, if we go much further back we shall find
facts which had a most important bearing on the early history
of the province.
Over two centuries and a half ago, the people  of England
went to war with their king, Charles I., because he wanted to
put his own will in the place of the laws of the
spec '    country.    He was  defeated,  taken prisoner, and
when   it   was   found   that   he   did   not   intend  to   keep   the
23 History of British Columbia.
many promises he had made, was beheaded. England then
.became a Commonwealth, at the head of which was a great
man whose name was Oliver Cromwell. At his death the
English nation, which, after all, loved the name of king,
recalled the son of Charles I. from exile and put him on his
father's throne.
Even those most devoted to the royal family of Stuarts,
have been able to say little that is good about Charles II.
However, he was fond of science, took an interest in commerce, and had considerable knowledge of the discoveries made
by the many great sailors who had, from the days of Queen
Elizabeth, crossed the seas and explored the shores of distant
lands.
I In the year 1666 two French fur-traders were brought from
New England to London by a great lord, Sir George Carteret,
who had been sent by Charles II. to America to settle some
disputes among the English colonies there. These traders,
whose names were Radisson and Groseilliers, had lived many
years in Canada and had quarrelled with the governor of
the* French colony because he had fined them heavily for
trading in furs without a license. They told the king about
the great bay to the north of Canada which had
been discovered by an Englishman, Henry Hudson,
some fifty years before ; and described the animals
living in the surrounding regions. They showed what great
fortunes were made by those who bought rich furs at a trifling
cost from the natives of the western wilderness, and sold them
at high prices in European cities. Why should not London
merchants have a share in these profits?
French
Traders History of British Columbia.
25
The two Frenchmen strengthened their statement by offering
to guide British ships to this wonderful Bay of the North, if the
king would furnish them.   The king had a cousin, Prince Rupert,
a famous cavalry officer .who had
fought gallantly for Charles I.
during the civil war. Charles IL,
his brother James Duke of York,
and Prince Rupert, were greatly
interested in the story told by
these foreign fur-traders, and
approved of the plan proposed.
Accordingly two vessels were
sent out in 1668, and the report
of Radisson and Groseilliers was
found to be true.
In 1670 a charter was granted
to a company of gentlemen—with
Prince Rupert at its head—giving
them "the whole trade of all those waters that lie within the
entrance of Hudson's Straits and of all the lands that border
those waters." They and then* successors were made sole
owners and rulers of the region thus described.
What were the waters spoken of in the
charter 1 Look at your map. The Saskatchewan,
flowing from the Rocky Mountains, the Red
River, rising near the source of the Mississippi, and a number
of streams issuing from the rocky region to the north-west of
Lake Superior, all find their way into that great natural reservoir called Lake Winnipeg.    When it can hold no more, it
PRINCE RUPERT.
The "Great
Company"
Formed. History of British Columbia.
sends its surplus waters by way
of the Nelson River to Hudson
Bay. The Churchill, the Severn,
the Albany and a thousand lesser
streams empty directly into the
bay. The territory thus drained
forms the larger part of Canada.
Little did the selfish, easygoing king guess how vast an
extent of land he was giving
away. All that the Company
was asked to do in return for
the great privileges granted them,
was to endeavor to find the
North-west Passage from ocean
to ocean, and to teach Christianity to the savages.
At first the Company prospered greatly. Markets were
found in Holland for the furs not needed in England. The
shrewd Dutch merchants sent the furs they bought from the
Hudson's Bay Company, to Russia. Forts were built at the
mouths of the principal rivers emptying into Hudson Bay, and
ships were sent out from England every summer with cargoes
of goods, to return in October laden with costly skins of the
seal, beaver, otter, marten and silver fox.
But   before  long   there   came   stormy times for
French     ^ne  Q.reat Company.     The French fur-traders were
jealous of their English rivals.    The forts on Hudson
Bay were taken  and retaken  many times between
1685 and 1713, and profits grew less in consequence.    At that
Traders
Jealous History of British Columbia.
27
time, however, Hudson Bay became, by treaty, an undisputed
possession of England, and has remained so ever since.
The Company's men did not go far inland. The Indians
brought them all the furs they wanted. The country around
the bay was, except for a few months of the year, a dreary,
barren waste, dangerous to traverse. The conversion of the
Indians, and the finding of a North-west Passage were alike
looked upon by these shrewd, sober traders as the dreams of
enthusiasts impossible to realize.
In 1731, however, a French family of explorers, the Veren-
dryes, set out from Lake Superior and built trading stations
at Lake Winnipeg, on the Assiniboine and on the distant
Saskatchewan.
They, of course,
occupied the territory in the name
of the king of
France. Whether
news of these explorations reached
England or not,
there began to be
great dissatisfactionna that country,
with the Hudson's
Bay Company,
which would — it
appeared — neither
explore the north-
RIVAL TRADERS. 38
History of British Columbia.
North-west
Passage.
west of America nor allow any one else to do so. On
account of its want of enterprise, France was likely to get
possession of territory that rightfully belonged to England.
In spite of the condition in the charter, no. attempt had
been made to discover the North-west Passage. Many other
accusations were brought against the great com-
Seekmg the pany 0f fur-traders ; but beyond the fact that it
limited its operations to building about half a
dozen factories (trading posts) on the shores of
the bay, nothing was proven. Its officials declared that they had
tried to find the North-west Passage, but were convinced that
no open channel existed.
Since that time numbers of valuable lives have been lost and
great sums of money expended in the search, yet
men of to-day are no nearer finding a water way
between the Atlantic and the Pacific, than were
the explorers of the eighteenth century.
In 1769 a daring trader and successful explorer, Samuel Hearne—sent
out by the Hudson's Bay Company—
discovered the Coppermine River, reached
the Arctic Ocean, and on his return in 1772,
visited Lake Athabasca. He made friends,
during the journey, with all the Indian
tribes he met. Six years before Hearne
set out on his journey, Canada had come
an old trapper. into the possession  of   the English,  and
in 1783 a number of Scottish merchants in the old fur-trading
city of Montreal formed themselves into an  association called History of British Columbia. 29
. the Northwest Company, and sent out expeditions of French
voyageurs and trappers by way of Lake Superior, to hunt and
trade in the great prairie country. Then began a busy time
for the Hudson's Bay Company. On every lake and river
between the Rocky Mountains and the bay, and between the
Arctic circle and the United States frontier, where bands of
Indians could bring their winter's gathering of furs, forts were
built by one or both companies. Often there were fights
between the rival traders, and each company tried to sell its
goods cheaper and give more for its furs than the other. At
last, fearing they would both be ruined, the companies united in
1821. The new association, thus formed, bore the old name of
the Hudson's Bay Company. mmm
CHAPTER IV.
Alexander
Mackenzie
EXPLORATIONS OVERLAND.
It is to the Northwest Companythat the honor belongs of
&rst sending explorers across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific
Ocean. In 1788 a young Scotchman named Alexander Mackenzie was stationed at Fort Chipewyan, on the shores of Lake
Athabasca. Adventurous and enterprising, he
determined to exchange the life of a fur-trader for
that of an explorer. He left the fort on the third
of June, 1789, and having cruised around Great Slave Lake,
found its outlet, the great river now called by his name. In six
weeks he reached the Arctic Ocean, and on
the 12th of September returned to Fort
Chipewyan, before the frosts of winter
had sealed the river. He had traversed
a vast fur-bearing region and was convinced that the road to the Pacific did
not lie through the Arctic Ocean. Feeling his need of the knowledge of the
use of instruments, he spent most of the
year 1791 in England, studying astronomy
and mathematics. In the autumn of 1792
he returned to Lake Athabasca, where
he made preparations for a journey to the Pacific coast.
Already, posts had been established along the Peace River;
and, wintering at the most westerly of these, Mackenzie set out
30
SIR ALEXANDER MACKENZIE. History of British Columbia.
31
early in the spring of 1793 and rowed through the Peace River
Pass in the Rocky Mountains. Turning south, he followed the
Parsnip branch of the Peace River to its source. After a short
portage he embarked on a stream fed by a thousand mountain
torrents—the mighty river now known as the Fraser—and
followed it to the mouth of the Quesnel. Finding his course
impeded by rapids and waterfalls, he left the Fraser, and, turning
west, travelled by land till he reached the Bella Coola. He
procured a canoe from the Indians and paddled down that
river to the ocean, which he reached on the 22nd of July, 1793.
Mackenzie was* afterward knighted by King George III.
Early in the nineteenth century the Northwest Company
determined to occupy the country into which Mackenzie had
discovered a way. Two men, a Scotch-Canadian named Simon
Fraser, and an English surveyor and astronomer, David Thompson, were sent to establish trading posts in the
region west of the
Rocky Mountains,
and to explore its rivers. Fraser Î*
followed Mackenzie's route into what
these Scottish fur-traders called New
Caledonia. He and his hardy companions built Rocky Mountain House—now
called Hudson Hope—Fort St. James on Stuart Lake, Fort
Fraser, and Fort St. George at the mouth of the Nechaco.
Fort McLeod had already been established on Lake McLeod.
Having founded the northern fur trade, Fraser, in 1808, in
defiance of danger and difficulty, explored the Fraser to the
present site of New Westminster.    This pioneer fur-trader and
Fraser and
Thompson.
FORT ST. JAMES. 32
History of British Columbia.
explorer of the Pacific slope lived to be a very old man, but
received no honor, unless he counted it one that the grand river
whose course he was the first to follow was named after him.
In 1805 Thompson found his way into southern British
Columbia, where he discovered and explored the Kootenay and
the Upper Columbia with
their many tributaries and lake
expansions. He
established the
fur-trade in the
Kootenay country. He crossed
and recrossed
the mighty range of the Rocky Mountains, and is' said to
have been the first to traverse Kicking Horse, Vermilion,
Athabasca and Kootenay passes. At last, in 1811, he was
ready to descend to the Pacific coast by the Lower Columbia.
But Lewis and Clarke—explorers from the United States—
had preceded him. In 1805 they had reached the Columbia at its confluence with the Snake River and followed its
course to the ocean. When, in 1811, Thompson
arrived at the mouth of the Columbia, he found
that a fur-trading station, called Astoria, had
been established there by a rich New York merchant, John
Jacob Astor. Thompson was hospitably treated by the fur-
traders at Astoria, and having accomplished his commission,
returned to Canada.   In the honor-roll of men who have helped
SHIPS OP THE HUDSON S BAY COMPANY.
Rival
Explorers History of British Columbia.
33
to make Canada, the name of this explorer and pioneer surveyor of the rich region of south-eastern British Columbia,
should not stand last.
Near the close of the war of 1812, Astoria was purchased
for the Northwest Company by John G. Mactavish. Shortly
afterward the flag of England was hoisted at the post by the
captain of a British cruiser. In 1818 the place was restored
to the United States by treaty, although the Northwest Company was allowed to retain its property there. The loyal fur-
traders had changed the name of Astoria to Fort George.
The first governor of the united fur-trading companies was
George Simpson. Few men have ruled a wider territory. He
was master of all Canada—excepting Ontario, Quebec and the
Maritime Provinces—besides the greater part of that region
now included in the States of Washington and Oregon. Under
him were officials
noted for their
business ability
andhonorable dealing. Their skill in
the management of
the native races did
much to save
Canada from the
horrors of Indian
warfare, and made
it possible for the
more capable among the Indians to share in the occupations
and adopt the pursuits of white men.
INDIAN RAID. 34
History of British Columbia.
The Hudson's Bay men, with few exceptions, treated the
Indians   of   this   coast   as   fellow-creatures — kindly,   firmly,
honestly.    Of no  one was this truer  than of John
Indians
Kindly
Treated.
MacLoughlin, the manager of the Company's affairs
on the north-west coast, who came to Fort George
in 1824.
MacLoughlin determined to abandon this post and to build
a new one on the north bank of the Columbia. This change
was made because it was thought that before long the boundary
between British and United States territory must be drawn,
and it was believed that the Columbia River would form part
of that boundary. The site chosen was about six miles from
the mouth of the Williamette. Here was erected Fort Vancouver, for twenty years the principal Hudson's Bay station
on the Pacific coast. Other posts were established farther up
the river and on Puget Sound. Fertile situations were selected
and farms cultivated. Cattle were imported and saw and grist
mills built. Soon lumber, and the produce of the farm and cattle
ranches, were sent to the Sandwich Islands, to the Russian
settlements in Alaska and to the forts in the Upper Country.
MacLoughlin ruled at Fort Vancouver, loved and respected by
his subordinates as well as by the Indians who, though hostile
at first, soon became the firm friends of this noble white man.
Attracted perhaps, by the reports of the Company's successful
experiments in commerce and agriculture, immigrants from the
Eastern States came to live in the neighborhood of
S ttlers      *ts  forts  an(*  farms in   Oregon,  and   the   shrewd
officials saw that a still more northern site must be
found to serve as a centre for their trade on the Pacific slope. History of British Columbia.
35
They determined that the best situation for such an establishment was the southern end of Vancouver Island.
In 1843, James Douglas went from Fort Vancouver to
what is now the inner harbor of Victoria City. This man who
played so large a part in the early history
of British Columbia, was then about forty
years of age. He had been in the ser- A
vice of the fur-traders since boyhood /||
and had spent about twenty years west |||
of the Rocky Mountains. Although he j
had passed most of his life in the
wilderness, he was neither ignorant nor '
uncultivated. His body was vigorous
and his intellect powerful. He was a
brave, honorable man and an efficient
servant, whether of the Company or of
the Queen.
Douglas soon selected the present site
of Victoria as the most suitable for his purpose.    It was near
the ocean and in its neighborhood was a large area of excellent farming land.    Moreover  the  situation was
mglas, very beautiful.    It was  at first called Camosun,
"The place of rushing water," the name given by
the Songhees Indians, whose village was not far
away. With the fort-builders, came Father Bolduc, a Jesuit
missionary whose preaching had so great an effect on the
surrounding tribes of savages—the Songhees, the Cowiehans
and the Clallams—that numbers of them were baptized. The
Indians looked upon the erection of the fort with no friendly
SIR JAMES DOUGLAS.
Founder of
Victoria. 36
History of British Columbia.
eye, but they did not interfere with the work of the builders,
and by October, 1843, a large and strong fort was ready for
occupation. Charles Ross, who was put in charge of the new
establishment, lived only a few months. He was succeeded by
Roderick Finlayson, a gentleman who spent the greater part
of a long life in the city of which Fort Camosun was the
beginning, and performed the many duties that fell to his lot
with perfect integrity and thoroughness.
In 1845 the name of the new fort was changed to Victoria.
It was a prosperous place. Crops grew well and flocks and herds
increased. Trade sprang up with the Russian ports in Alaska.
Goods were imported from England; and the Hudson's Bay
Company's forts along the coast and in the interior were
supplied with these as well as with the produce raised in the
vicinity of Victoria.     Occasionally whaling ships called at the
neighboring   harbor   of
^ -      . -i&g^-    vi.   - Esquimalt for  sup-
". \ "* * plies.    Gradually
";%;*       *;!.'}- - ^» the   Indians   be-
.r.**^"   came friendly, or
MK&'.y   at least peaceable.
\'&£    When   in   184 5
there was talk of
war between England   and   the   United
esquimalt harbok. States   concerning   the
Oregon boundary, quite a fleet of warships were stationed at
Esquimalt.
In 1818 an agreement had been made between England and History of British Columbia.
37
No Trade
Restrictions.
the United States by which the subjects of both nations were
equally free to trade, hunt or settle on territory west of the
Rocky Mountains, between the forty-second and forty-fifth
parallels of north latitude. This agreement
remained in force till 1846 when the Oregon
Treaty was signed, making the forty-ninth
parallel the boundary to the middle
of the channel,
where the line bent
south in order to
give all of Vancouver Island to Great
Britain.
As the Hudson's
Bay people would
thenceforth have
to pay duty on all
goods brought by
them into American territory, the posts there were abandoned.
During the forty years that elapsed since Fraser and
Thompson had carried the fur-trade across the Rocky Mountains, their successors established stations at intervals over the
territory now called British Columbia, and opened up a profitable trade with almost every tribe of Indians living there. The
posts on the coast were Fort Rupert at the northern end 'of
Vancouver Island, Port Essington near the mouth of the
Simpson River and Fort Simpson on Portland Canal. (Forts
Taku on the Taku River and McLoughlin on Milbank Sound
FORT SIMPSON—TSTMPSHEAN INDIANS IN FOREGROUND. Mœmmm
38 History of British Columbia.
had been abandoned when Camosun was founded.) A chain
of forts stretched northward from Langley to Fort St. James,
and here and there, in what are now called Kootenay, Okanagan
and Yale Districts, the Hudson's Bay Company occupied central
if solitary stations. Fort Kamloops, which was the connecting
link between the forts on the Fraser and those on the Columbia,
was one of the most important of the interior trading-posts.
The life of the factors and traders  at these  stations was a
lonely and dangerous one.    Year after year they occupied the
outposts of civilization,  surrounded by  savages
and only visited by a wandering traveller or by
the   fur brigades,   as they  gathered the year's
collection of f urs
or   returned   to
leave   supplies
and   provisions.
One of the
most noted of
the rare visitors
to the forts was
the botanist
Douglas, who spent the years between 1824 and 1834 in
examining and collecting specimens of the plants of this
province. The Douglas fir, one of the noblest of trees, still
recalls the name of this naturalist.
Yet most of the officials lived to a good old age. The
Indians seldom harmed them ; and their active life in the balsam-
laden air made it possible to resist disease. CHAPTER V.
Passing of the
Fur-trader.
A HUDSON'S BAY COLONY.
For two hundred years the Hudson's Bay Company had
carried on the fur-trade in British North America. Gradually
its officials occupied the country west of Hudson Bay and
planted their forts on the border of the continent. Thus far
they had dealt with Indians only, and it was their policy to
discourage settlement. When immigrants did
come to take up land near their trading-
posts, they at once abandoned those districts,
from which wild beasts and wild men fled. The Hudson's
Bay men had made excellent fur-traders, but excepting in
regions unfitted for human habitation, the fur-traders' day
was past.
However, the shrewd factors and traders of Fort Victoria
saw that the mild climate and fine harbors of Vancouver
Island, as well as its ivealth of coal, must sooner or later
attract settlers, so they determined to trade with the newcomers as they had with the Indians; and in order that no
one should share in these profits, the Hudson's Bay Company
in 1849 obtained from the British Government a grant of
Vancouver Island for the purpose of colonizing it. There
was much opposition to this monopoly, and the great corporation had to be contented with a charter for five years.
Richard Blanshard was appointed governor of the new
colony, although  the   Company preferred to  have their own
39 SSli 40.
History of British Columbia.
chief factor, James Douglas, selected to fill the position. No
salary was provided for the governor, who arrived in 1850.
He resigned his post and left the colony in 1851. Governor
Blanshard was a conscientious gentleman, anxious to do his
duty, but at that time there was no need of him, as there
were very few colonists ; and the Hudson's Bay Company,
who owned all the property and employed most of the people
on Vancouver Island, were very well able to manage their
own affairs.
During his short stay of about a year and a half the
governor spent much of his private means,—for living, in
Victoria, was very expensive. He .was succeeded the same
year by Douglas, who was provided with a salary of £800.
The  colonist who,  attracted by
the advertisements in the English
papers,   came   out   to   the   new
colony, in those days
would have seen on
landing at Victoria, a
little walled town protected by two
bastions. Inside the walls were the £t?^p
Company's stores, warehouses and
workshops, with cottages for its servants and a large building
where the officials had their quarters. Outside of the fort,
where much of the present city stands, was the fine farm of
the Hudson's Bay Company, and a few miles away, at Craig-
flower, that of the Puget Sound Agricultural Company. If the
stranger had enquired the-price of land in the neighborhood, he
would have been  told there was none for sale, as ten square
A Walled
Town. History of British Columbia.
41
miles were reserved for the use of the Hudson's Bay Company
and another large tract for the Puget Sound Company. Beyond
these reservations, land could be bought for one pound sterling
an acre. If an immigrant had money enough to procure a hundred
acres, he was compelled to place three families or six single
persons upon it.
The first settler in the colony was Captain Grant, a Scotchman, who bought a farm at Sooke. He shortly after sold his
land to Michel Muir, whose descendants still own it. The
second pioneer had a farm at Metchosin.
No goods could be purchased in the colony except at the
Company's stores, and if the farmer were fortunate enough to
have any produce to sell, he must exchange it for the Company's goods, as money was not then used in Victoria. The
colonist who ventured to engage in trade soon found that the .
Company undersold and outbid him till he was forced to give
♦up his enterprise. Most of the early immigrants came out as
servants of the Company, and many of them were paid in land
at the close of their term of service.
The  period  of  the   early settlement  of Vancouver  Island,
was that of  the  first gold excitement in California.    News of
the wonderful success of the miners on the
°       # ° Sacramento reached Victoria, and not only
the settlers but the Company's servants made
haste to  leave  the  struggling   colony for   the   gold-diggings.
Perhaps it was little wonder that in 1853 the white population
of the Island numbered only four hundred and fifty.
In one respect the people of Vancouver Island were
fortunate.    Douglas effectually protected them from the natives, 42
History of British Columbia.
AN ABORIGINAL STOCKADE.
who were many times as numerous as they. He formed a
force of mounted men from among the settlers and servants of
the Company; and the commanders of the war-ships stationed
at Esquimalt were always ready to help him maintain order
or punish crime. He took care
that the guilty persons, and they
only, were punished. By a display of force he was generally
able, without bloodshed, to persuade or frighten the savages into
giving up the criminal. On the
other hand, the Indians were treated by the Company with
kindness and justice, and the white men were not allowed to
injure or molest them in any way.
Nor were the Hudson's Bay officials unmindful of the higher
needs of those depending upon them. In 1849 they engaged
the services of a chaplain, the Rev. Robert*
Staines, who was accompanied by his wife, a
most estimable lady. Mrs. Staines was employed
to teach the children, of whom there " were then several
at the fort. Mr. Staines was not satisfied, either with
his duties or his salary, as clergyman. He tried to make
money by farming, and when he found difficulties in the way,
became a leader of the discontented among^the colonists. In
1855, he was commissioned by them to go to England to
complain of the misdoings of the Hudson's Bay Company, but
the ship in which he took passage was wrecked, and all on
board perished. Although so little had been done toward
settling Vancouver Island, and in   spite   of much  discontent,
Efforts to
Christianize. History of British Columbia. 43
the British Government in 1854 determined to allow the Company to continue its experiment for five years more.
Previous to 1853 the governor and the officers of the
Company, had themselves administered justice and maintained
order. In that year a chief justice was appointed; and to meet
the expenses of his salary and of the necessary courts, a heavy '
license fee was exacted from all who sold intoxicating liquors.
One of the conditions upon which the Hudson's Bay Company
had obtained a grant of the colony, was that the revenue from
nine-tenths of all the Crown Lands sold, should be expended
for the good* of the colony, and it was thought that this would
be sufficient without resorting to taxation.
The government at this time consisted of Lioutonant-
Governor Douglas and his council, James Cooper, John Tod,
Roderick Finlayson and John Grant. When the Governor-in-
Council—finding that the proceeds of the land sales were not
sufficient to defray the expenses of the management of the
colony—undertook to make the liquor dealers pay
Colonists a license, they and other colonists declared that it
Object to wag not iawfuj to tax British subjects who had
no voice in the imposition of the taxes. Complaints
were sent to England, where for many years governments had
been employed in trying to give all who were entitled to it,
their fair share of representation in Parliament. The statesman who directed the affairs of the colonies sent Douglas
orders to summon a House of Assembly. The governor, as in
duty bound, proceeded to obey the command, and the colony
was divided into the four electoral districts of Victoria, Esquimalt, Sooke and Nanaimo.    An election was held and the first 44
History of British Columbia.
House of Assembly met on the  12th  of August  1856.     The
names of the members  were J.   D.  Pemberton,  James Yates
and James W.
McKay, Victoria ;
Thos. Skinner and
J. S. Helmcken,
Esquimalt ; John
Muir, Sooke, and
John F. Kennedy,
Nanaimo. Through
the Assembly, the
Governor was able
legally to obtain
the money necessary for governing
the colony.
Of this little legislature, the only survivor is the Hon. J.
S. Helmcken. For more than half a century he has assisted
in the development of the province and watched its progress;
and even yet there are few more acute observers and fewer
still as well able to form an intelligent opinion on the events
of the day, as the "old doctor." He spends a quiet and
honored old age in the city of Victoria, where his many deeds
of unpretending kindness, long ago gained for him the affection of the community.
Governor Douglas and his Assembly continued to manage
the affairs of the colony, when suddenly the discovery of
gold roused, not only the methodical fur-traders and the discouraged settlers of the Island, but the whole world.
First Assembly in British Columbia.
(From an old Daguerreotype.) CHAPTER  VI.
HOW WE ARE GOVERNED.
Up to 1856,  the colony of Vancouver Island was governed
by- one man—James Douglas.    In that year he obeyed, some-
what reluctantly,  the  command  of   the   British
"legislation.       ,,     ... J'
authorities to summon a parliament.
Between 1856 and 1871, the
legislative assemblies of the
colony made laws and granted
money, and the governor and
council spent the money and
conducted public affairs, without
much regard for the wishes of
the law-makers or the taxpayers.
The legislative body had little
control over the executive branch
of the government.    During the
first gold ex-
c i t emen t,
people were
too busy to pay much attention TO° BUSvr TO "TALK politics.-
to politics, but when British Columbia threw in its lot with
the Dominion, a great change was made. Ever since, legislators have met at Ottawa to make laws concerning those
matters which affect every province  in  Canada  alike,  and to
Confederation
Brings a Change 46 History of British Columbia.
vote money for carrying on the business of the whole country ;
while the Parliament of British Columbia provides for the
expenses of such public works as are needed for the exclusive
use of the people of its own province, and makes those laws
which concern its people only. The members both of provincial
and federal parliaments are chosen by manhood suffrage, only
Indians and Chinese being prohibited from voting.
Every governing body has two duties to perform. First, it
must make laws; secondly, it must see that those laws are
obeyed. These are called the legislative and the executive functions of government. Sometimes, as in the case of Governor
Douglas, before the first Legislative Assembly of Vancouver
Island was summoned, the same person tells what must be done
and then sees that it is done. A school is a good illustration
of this kind of government.
In countries governed by the people*, there are two ways of
selecting representatives.    In one case, each elector votes for
the person whom he considers best fitted by character  and
ability to assist in making the laws  of the  country and  in
conducting its business.    In this way mem-
How legislators   , *     -u    i -u     ^      j 4. t
bers ot school-boards and town councils are
elected.    In thé other,  the man is chosen
who holds  opinions on some  great public question which  the
elector believes to be true, even though he may not be as able
or  as  good  a man  as his   opponent.     This   is called  party
government,  and  is   the plan followed in  provincial, federal
and imperial polities.     The man of most influence and ability
on either side becomes the leader of the party.     After the
elections are over, he who has the greater number of followers History of British Columbia.
47
in the legislature, is asked by the governor to form a ministry.
The leader then chooses the men whom he considers most able
to manage the affiairs of the country. When the selections
are made, he and his associates take charge of the ship of
state, and as long as they remain in office, are spoken of as
the Government, the Executive, the Cabinet or the Ministry.
If a member of the cabinet disagrees with his colleagues on
any important question he must resign his office. Should the
government lose the confidence of the majority of parliament
the premier is expected to tender his resignation to the governor,
who would then call upon some one who he thinks can
command a majority, to form a new ministry. The Executive
is therefore the servant of Parliament, and Parliament is the
servant of the people. If foolish laws are made or if the Executive mismanages public affairs and wastes the people's money,
the electors can refuse to return to power the men who have
abused their confidence. A wise and upright nation will never
long want able and honest rulers.
In British Columbia, as in most other provinces, the people
of the towns and more thickly settled rural districts are
allowed to form   municipalities.     A  government,
Municipal
Rulers.
called a council, consisting in the cities of a mayor
and aldermen, and in the rural districts of a reeve
and councillors, is elected by the householders every year.
This body levies taxes and has control of the expenditure for
local public works. In this way a town is supplied with
fight, water and sewers ; streets are paved, school-houses
built, parks laid out and provision made for enforcing order
within its bounds.    The representatives of the municipalities, 48
History of British Columbia.
whether in town or country, have important work to do, and
should be independent, public-spirited, trustworthy men of
good business ability.
Over all our public buildings, whether municipal,
-provincial, or federal, floats the flag of England, in token of safety and protection.
Canadians have the fullest measure of
self - government,    while   the   Mother
Country   defends   them   from   their
enemies.     The    only    power   which
Great Britain still withholds is  that
of making treaties.    Before Canada
asks to be allowed to undertake the grave
responsibility   of    dealing    directly    with
foreign   nations,  she  should be prepared
to share in  the  defence  of her shores and the protection  of her frontiers. CHAPTER VII.
A CROWN COLONY.
The  Hudson's Bay factors had long known that there was
gold in the river-beds  and in  the  rocks  of  various parts  of
the region now called British Columbia.     They had sent men
to   examine   these    places,    but   not   until   1857   were   they
convinced that there was enough of the
The Precious . , , , ,,    ,.    .
M ,  .. precious   metal   to   make   gold-digging more
profitable than fur-hunting. In that year,
Douglas reported to the British Government that gold nuggets
had been found in the bars of the Thompson; and Finlayson
recorded the statement that the precious metal had been dug
with iron spoons out of the rocks bordering the river. It was
no longer possible, even if the Company had wished it, to keep
these discoveries secret. In a few months the news reached the
California miners, and during the summer of 1858, thirty
thousand gold-seekers arrived at Victoria and pitched then-
tents outside the walls of the fort. Many of them became
discouraged and left the place when they heard of the distance
yet to be traversed and the expense and difficulties of the
journey, but thousands persevered and reached the Fraser.
A town soon sprang up at Yale; and along the river between
Hope and Lytton, every bar was searched and its sands
washed. A few sluices were made, but most of the gold
was washed out in pans by hand.    Though large quantities of
49 50
History of British Columbia.
gold were taken from the river, many were disheartened by
the hardships, the difficulties, and the uncertainties of their
life, and forsook the Fraser.
Great profits were made by the  Hudson's Bay
Ëj^     Company, who had large stores of provisions
. ~^jHGi 8b£"^       an(^/ other   necessaries at   its  posts.
.A   The Company's officials, nevertheless,
\^5T"V *2 Vy:* ~%f dealt honorably with the miners and
C^JL ^tel in   were  trusted by thern.
H ' From the beginning of the gold
excitement^ Governor Douglas
;,^w^ exercised authority
Bfek over the miners of
B tJjjjf' the Fraser River.
| JKS> f At first he declared
that the Hudson's
Bay Company had
5^53?- an exclusive right to
carry freight and
passengers and to
trade on the Fraser. When the Colonial
Secretary was informed of this claim,
he wrote to Douglas and told him that the only monopoly the
Company could claim was that of the fur-trade. In 1858 the
British Government created the colony of British Columbia, and
took from the Hudson's Bay Company all its exclusive privileges.
About the same time England reimbursed the Company for all
the expenses which it had incurred for the colony of Vancouver
Island, and this; as well as British Columbia, became a  Crown
^
YALE, ON THE FRASER. History of British Columbia.
51
colony.    Governor Douglas was made governor of each of the
colonies.
When the miners first took possession of the gold bars of
the Fraser, the Indians resented their intrusion.    The savages
thought they had as   good a right  to   the   gold
.„ . ~ -     as   to   the   furs   in   their   wilderness   home,   and
attempted to drive away those who were carrying
it off. After many murders and more than one little battle,
the miners formed a small force under a humane and resolute leader named
Snyder. The
Indians were
soon convinced
that it was useless
to try to overpower
the white men, and
numbers of them
went to work for
the miners at good
wages. There were
many lawless characters among the
miners, but
Douglas promptly
appointed officers
of justice in all the
principal camps.
In 1859 Matthew Begbie was made chief justice of British
Columbia,  and   evil-doers,  whether   white   or red, learned  to
A SECTION OF NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA, SOUTHERN
YUKON, AND ALASKA, SHOWING ROUTE TO DAWSON. 52
History of British Columbia.
their cost that in the wilds of the new colony the man who
committed crime would be surely and severely punished. Those
who had come to the Fraser to make a living by deceiving and
robbing their neighbors, left the camps, and this province
became distinguished among mining countries as a place where
life and property were safe.
In 1860, great quantities of gold were discovered in the
creeks tributary to the Cottonwood, the Willow, and the
Quesnel (branches of the Fraser, in Cariboo), and a period of
renewed prosperity began for Victoria, as the miners spent their
winters, and a large part of their fortunes as well, in the little
city by the sea. From Cariboo, the gold-seekers went farther
north, to the Omineea, the Stikine, the Liard and Dease Lake
districts. Many of them remained from 1872 to 1876 in that
northern country, in spite of thé fact that scarcity of labor and
the difficulty of transporting supplies, made mining, except in
the very richest diggings, unprofitable. Twenty years passed
before (in 1897) the discovery of the wonderfully rich gold
fields in the Klondike, Yukon Territory, turned the eyes of the
whole world in that direction. The memory of that excitement
still remains, substantial evidences being the city of Dawson
and the White Pass Railroad (built to accommodate the miners
who made their homes in that almost Arctic region), while,
within the confines of British Columbia, is the beautifully
situated town of Atlin—the centre of a rich mining area.
But though the gold of British Columbia is famed the world
over, it was not the first of her mineral deposits whose extent
and value became known. In 1835 a tribe of Indians visited Fort
McLoughlin on Milbank Sound.    Seeing the blacksmith feeding History of British Columbia.
53
Coal on
the Surface
the forge fire with coal, they informed him that such black
stones as he was using were to be found on the beach at the
north end of Vancouver Island. Men were immediately sent to inquire into the truth of their
story, the result being that a fort was built at
Beaver Harbor, Scotch miners were brought out, and in 1849
a mine was opened at Fort Rupert. The coal did not prove
of the best quality, and in a year or two the mine was abandoned and the miners removed to Nanaimo, where a large seam
of very fine coal had been discovered beside an excellent harbor.
The first mine
Bay Company was
earliest    shipment   of
m
opened there by the Hudson's
called the Douglas mine a$.d the
coal to San Francisco was made
in 1853, when that trade
began which is still
Nanaimo's chief source
of prosperity. A memorial of the days of the
Hudson's Bay Company's
rule, still exists in the old
bastion which attracts
the attention of the visitor as he lands at the
Coal City. In 1862 the Nanaimo mines were sold to the New
Vancouver Coal Company, an association of British capitalists.
For nearly twenty years the mines of this Company were
under the management of Samuel Robins, an English gentleman, who not only extended, developed and improved the
mines, but carried out many plans for the good of the people
COKE OVENS, COMOX. 54
History of British Columbia.
of the town.    In 1902   this   group   of  mines   was sold to the
Western Fuel Company.
In 1869 Robert Dunsmuir discovered coal mines at Departure
Bay, at Wellington and afterwards at Comox. These coal fields
are of vast extent and the coal is of excellent quality. Their
discoverer became a very wealthy man, and was for some years
before his death a member of the legislature. These mines and
others since discovered, are now owned by the Wellington
Colliery Company, of which James Dunsmuir, son of the Hon.
Robert Dunsmuir, is the largest shareholder.
More recently, great deposits of coal have been found in
the Growsnest Pass near the south-eastern border of the
province. The coke made from the coal of this region is used
in smelting the ores of Kootenay and the mines immediately
south of the United States boundary line.
In 1858, when Douglas assumed the office of - governor
of British Columbia, he, in obedience to the wishes of the
Imperial Government, resigned that of Hudson's Bay factor
and severed his connection with the Company
To assist the governor in maintaining order
among the miners and in preparing the colony
for settlement, the British Government sent out Richard
Clement Moody, colonel of the Royal Engineers and commander of Her Majesty's land forces in British Columbia, with
a corps of 400 men. On his arrival, Colonel Moody went at
once to the Fraser, and finding there was no need of their
services as soldiers, set his men to prepare the site for a
town to be the capital of the province. The place chosen was
on the bank of the Fraser, and a town was laid out which at
Governors of
the Colony. wm
History of British Columbia.
55
first received the name of Queensborough, soon afterward
changed to New Westminster. The city was incorporated in
1860.
In 1863 a legislative council was formed in the colony of
British Columbia, consisting of thirteen members, only three
of whom were elected by the people. With the assistance of
this Council the governor imposed taxes and carried on the
business of the colony. The taxes were heavy, for it cost a
great deal to open up roads in the ' sparsely settled country
and construct such public works as were absolutely necessary.
In this year Douglas' term of office as Governor of Vancouver Island expired, and Governor Kennedy was sent out to
succeed him—though for another year he presided over the
colony of British Columbia, whose inhabitants had petitioned
that their government should be separated from that of the
Island colony. In April, 1864, Frederick Seymour went to
relieve Douglas, who received the order of knighthood and, as
Sir James Douglas, retired from public life followed by the
best wishes of the principal people of the colony.
The first governor of British Columbia served her long and
well. In the twenty-two years of his rule, the territory which
had been a vast hunting ground, became a great colony. By
his resourcefulness, foresight and firmness, the multitude of
gold-seekers had been provided for and controlled. Government had ' been established and nowhere
ove^m?r, oug» a in the Queen's dominions were there more
law-abiding people than those who dwelt by
the sea-coast of Vancouver Island or among the mountains and
rivers of British Columbia.   The many tribes of Indians inhabit- 56
History of British Columbia.
ing the widely separated territories ruled over by Douglas,
both as chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company and as
governor of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, had been
treated by him with such humanity, justice and wisdom that
the majority of them had come to look upon the white men
as friends. British Columbians, young and old, do well to
honor the name of James Douglas, the founder of the province.
The experiment of dividing the colony did not succeed.
The total population of Vancouver Island and British Columbia
was not more than fifteen thousand, and it cost twice as
much  to  govern *two  colonies as one.    Accordingly, in  1866,
they were united
under the name of
the mainland colony, but it was considered best that
Victoria, where
Governor   Douglas
OLD PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS, VICTORIA. ]la(J      ereCted      what
at the time was considered a handsome and suitable. group
of public buildings, should be the capital. Governor Seymour, who had succeeded Douglas as governor of the mainland,
was neither wise enough nor strong enough to govern the
new colony. He died in 1869, and was followed by Sir
Anthony Musgrave, who for the previous five years had been
governor of Newfoundland.
F~~~Z
13|5i
siilÉRêJN&2!BS»»   " c."- . —	
SUli %
CHAPTER  VIII.
CONFEDERATION. .
The gold excitement which began in 1858, lasted about ten
years.    At the close of that period, there were still some white
miners and many prospectors at work.    But the great majority
had abandoned the streams from which the coarse gold had been
taken, leaving to the more patient Chinaman or
p   .   - the stolid Indian, the task of sifting the sand for
the fine grains which remained. Many of the
miners, the mechanics and the merchants who had brought their
families to the coast in the belief that great commercial cities
would grow up to minister to the wants of the miners, found
themselves without the means of subsistence in a country where
living was very expensive. Some of those who had the means
sought a livelihood elsewhere, and the noisy mining camps and
busy seaport towns were alike deserted. Yet there remained
men of means and working men, too, who could see that in a
country where the supply of timber was unlimited, whose rivers
and seas teemed with the finest fish, where the rocks were rich in
coal and other minerals, and where there were areas (limited, it is
true) of rich grazing and agricultural lands, there was room for a
thriving, if not a wealthy population. These British Columbians
'remained in the country and looked around them for some means
of developing the vast resources of the colony. A few saw in
annexation to the neighboring Republic the way to prosperity,
but the majority were loyal British subjects;   and while they
57 58
History of British Columbia.
could not help admiring the energy and enterprise with which
their American cousins were developing the resources and
extending the commerce of California and Oregon, they
were determined, for their part, to live under the British flag.
North of the forty-ninth parallel there was a territory whose
extent and natural resources were sufficient to support a people
that, in the years to come, might be a great
Forec st nation,   but  which  in its   growing  time   would
remain under the protection of England. In
1867, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia had
united to form the Dominion of Canada, and in 1870, Manitoba.
Why should not the Pacific colony cast her lot with them? The
answer to this question was that there lay between the Rocky
Mountains and the western border of Ontario a wilderness
belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, which it was not to
the interest of that body to make the home of civilized man.
But even the greatest corporation cannot long prevent the
progress of the world, and in 1869 the Dominion purchased the
North-West territory. In 1870 Dr. Helmcken and Messrs. Trutch
and Barnard were sent to Ottawa to see if Canada would make
British Columbia a member of her new household on terms that
would ensure the future prosperity of the Pacific province.- The
premier of Canada, John A. Macdonald, was a wise and prescient
statesman. He foresaw that the prairies would in the not
distant future form one of the vast granaries of the world, and
that a great commercial, mining and manufacturing community
would inhabit the Pacific Slope. He determined that British
Columbia and the North-West should form part of Canada.
He promised the delegates from British Columbia that if that i History of British Columbia.
59
British Columbia
Joins Canada.
colony joined the Confederation a railroad would be built to
connect the Atlantic with the Pacific Ocean; that the eastern
and western sections of the road would be
commenced together, and that it would be'
begun within two and finished within ten
years from the 'time of Confederation. The consent of the
Canadian Parliament was obtained to this bargain in spite of
great opposition, and on the 20th of July, 1871, British
Columbia became a province of the Dominion of Canada.
Governor Musgrave, who was a man of much tact and
ability, helped to negotiate the terms of union and assisted in
bringing about the introduction of Responsible Government,
which took place on the eve of Confederation. He was
succeeded by Sir Joseph Trutch, the first governor of the
province of British Columbia.
The work of building the road was even more difficult than
had been anticipated, and the surveyors had not decided upon
the best route when, in 1873, Sir John Macdonald resigned.
A company of which Sir Hugh Allan was the head, was
trying to get a contract to build the great railroad. An
election must soon take place ; and Sir Hugh Allan and his
associates, thinking that the Macdonald party would be more
likely to favor their scheme than a Liberal Government, contributed a large sum to the Conservative election fund. The
electors, justly indignant that the Government should have
put itself under an obligation to the company with whom it
was about to make a bargain in the people's name, returned
its opponents to power. Alexander Mackenzie, the leader of
the Liberal party, changed the plan of beginning the road from 60
History of British Columbia.*
The Great
Railroad Built
the western end, and during the next four years not a sod was
turned on the Canadian Pacific Railroad in British Columbia.
The people of the province were very angry at what they
considered a breach of faith, and threatened to separate from the
Dominion. They sent petitions to the British Government, but
England would not interfere. The Earl of Carnarvon, acting as
peace-maker, drew up a fresh agreement which however, like
the first, was broken. Earl Dufferin, the Governor-General of
Canada, visited the province and tried to convince the discontented British Columbians that the Mackenzie
Government was doing its best to fulfil
Canada's part of the bargain. Though the
disappointed people were not to be pacified, Lord Dufferin's
visit accomplished great good.    His  pen was  as  powerful   as
his speech was eloquent and
he used both freely to
make the resources of
western Canada
known to the British ■
public and more
highly valued by the
people of the eastern
provinces of the Dominion. In 1878 Sir
John Macdonald returned to power and resolutely set to
work to fulfil his pledge to British Columbia. The contracts
for the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railroad were
made in 1879, and in 1885 the last spike was driven at Eagle
Pass by Sir Donald Smith, now Lord Strathcona.
HOME OF THE BUFFALO. History of British Columbia.
?3W™pPk£^
^^^^^§.;
The Canadian Pacific Railroad has done all that
was hoped for from the North-west Passage so
long and so vainly sought. It has brought the East
and the West together. The traveller from Liverpool can reach Vancouver in a fortnight. In three
weeks more he can be in China, and in less than a
month, in Australia. The great prairies, the home
of the buffalo and the hunting-ground of the Indian,
have become immense wheat-fields, where a busy, a
prosperous and a rapidly increasing population toils
cheerfully to supply food to the cities of the East
and West. In our own province, forest and mine,
valley, river and ocean have begun to yield a
generous  return to enterprise and industry.
The year 1871—in which British Columbia became
a province of the Dominion—saw the settlement of a
vfc*^ dispute between England and the United States which
had lasted since 1846 and been the cause of much ill-feeling
between the people of Vancouver Island and their neighbors
on the other side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca. To the south
of Vancouver Island, lies a small group of islands of which
the largest is San Juan. The archipelago is separated from
Vancouver Island by a passage of  water about seven miles 62
History of British Columbia.
Territorial
Dispute.
wide, called Haro Strait, and from the mainland of the United
States^ by a narrower channel named Rosario Strait. The question in dispute was: through which of these channels did the boundary line pass, or, in other words,
was the island of San Juan, with the smaller ones
adjacent, United States or British territory? The Hudson's
Bay Company had made a settlement on San Juan about the
time that Fort Victoria was founded. -
Settlers from the
United States had
also more recently
made their homes
there, and the government of that
country had declared the islands
part of one of the
counties of Washington  Territory.
Officials both
from the colony of
Vancouver Island
and from the
United States,
tried to exercise
"•'*-/■ 1 authority  on    San
SKETCH MAP OF HARO ARCHDPÈLAGO, SHOWING THE THREE
channels. Juan. The subjects
L Line claimed by the United States.    2. Proposed middle channel.      £    ,
3. Line claimed by Great Britain. 01   the tWO  gOVem- History of British Columbia. 63
ments quarrelled, American soldiers took up their station on
the island and British ships threatened to drive them away,
so that for a season there was real danger of war. Owing
largely to the forbearance of Rear-Admiral Baynes, commander of the ships at Esquimalt, the danger was averted,
and it was agreed in 1860 that a company of British soldiers
as well as a contingent from the United States, should occupy
the island until an agreement as to its ownership was reached.
As time went on, still graver causes of quarrel arose between
the two great nations so closely related in blood and speech.
Ambassadors from England and the United States met at
Washington with Sir John Macdonald, premier of Canada, and
settled the Alabama Claims and the Fisheries dispute. They
determined to leave the matter of the San Juan boundary to
the arbitration of the German Emperor. He gave his decision
in favor of the United States.
More than a third of a century has elapsed since British
Columbia became a province of Canada. The old feeling of
isolation has passed away. A very large number of its
inhabitants are bound to the older parts of the Dominion by
the closest of all ties, that of Home. Yet while each holds
dear the memory of his native province, he loves also the
land of his adoption, the birth-place of his children; and in
his heart has grown up a feeling which he shares with the
best of those who live in this, the noblest colony of the British
Empire; for beneath the shadow of the everlast-
XfOve for ^^ hills, on the broad wind-swept prairie, in the
n valley of the St. Lawrence and on the shores where
the Atlantic billows make solemn music, men
everywhere are proud to bear the name Canadian. CHAPTER IX.
CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS.
We have seen that a Jesuit Missionary, Father Bolduc,
accompanied the party of Hudson's Bay men who went in
1843 to found Fort Camosun. In 1849 ,a priest
arrived in Victoria ; and from that time forward,
missionaries of the Roman Catholic Church have
settled in every part of the province. They
have been specially zealous in then work i
among the Indians, and the majority
of the natives of  British Columbia
Religious
Efforts.
profess the Roman Catholic faith. In
NATIVE BOY, CIVILIZE!*
all the cities there are convent schools for girls,
and hospitals where the good sisters wait °n the sick. St.
Ann's Convent in Victoria, founded in 1858, is one of the
oldest institutions in the province.
Rev. Edward Cridge, an Episcopalian minister, went in
1855 to Vancouver Island, as chaplain of the Hudson's Bay
Company, succeeding Rev. Mr. Staines. Mrs. Cridge opened a
boarding and day school at the fort. Bishop Hills arrived in
Victoria in 1860 as the first Bishop of the colonies of Vancouver
Island and British Columbia. The Baroness Burdett-Coutts endowed the Church of England in Victoria, and in 1860 sent out
from England an iron church which is still in use. With the
increase of population during the mining excitement, clergymen
of other denominations arrived, and very soon   churches  were
64 mm
History of British Columbia.
65
built where each man could worship according to his belief or
inclination.     Bishop Hills and Rev. Edward Cridge could not
agree concerning  the  doctrines  and  ritual  of the Church of
^.^"~ England.   Mr. Cridge,.
^H |k      therefore,  left    the
Jl Anglican and joined
the Reformed
Episcopal church.
He was afterward
made a bishop,
and though now
no longer in active
service as a minister, his venerable
form is seen wherever
kind-hearted people meet to make plans for the relief of those
who are in want or affliction.
While the population was insufficient, the Government
helped to build churches, and paid for teaching in schools under
Church of England control; but as soon as people of other
denominations settled in considerable numbers in the colony, it
was considered unfair that public money should
Unsectanan ^e g^ent ^ teaching the doctrines of any par-
* ticular church. The practice was stopped, and
ever since, British Columbian schools have been unsectarian
and the churches supported by money freely given by the
members of each.
The most noted of the Protestant missions was that founded
by Mr. Duncan, who was sent out by the Church Missionary
BISHOP AND MRS.-CRIDGE. 66
History of British Columbia.
Society of England. He arrived at Fort Simpson in 1857 and
found the Tsimpshean Indians there a very savage race. Their
evil passions had been made worse because of the liquor sold
by the white traders who came to the coast in vessels. In 1862
Mr. Duncan persuaded a thousand of these people to remove to
Metlakahtla, a village on the northern coast.
Here the Indians, under his
direction, built a good church
and a comfortable schoolhouse.
They erected shops, a storehouse
and a salmon-cannery, all owned
and managed by themselves. The
little town was well lighted and
a musical band organized. There
were carefully cultivated gardens
and potato-patches. Later, sawmills, and a factory for weaving
cloth, were established, and the
Indians learned how to make
barrels, to work at the forge and do many other things
requiring mechanical skill. Bishop Hills testified to the piety
of the Indians of Duncan's mission. But this zealous and
successful missionary, intolerant of what he considered undue
interference on the part of Bishop Ridley, who was appointed
in 1879 to preside over the northern diocese of Caledonia, went
with a great part of his flock to Annette Island in United
States territory, where he founded New Metlakathla.
The Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Methodists and Presbyterians   have   missions   in   different   parts   of   the   province.
DUNCAN'S INDIAN CHURCH, METLAKAHTL.4 History of British Columbia.
67
Connected with many of them are schools, for it is  felt  that
more lasting  and  better work can be done with the children
than with  adults.     In many a lonely station,
j ^ -L.    i      both   on   the   coast  and  in the   interior, good
and Schools. . . ,   .
men   and   women   are   quietly   devoting   their
lives to the uplifting of the native races of the province.
Allusion has been made to the schools taught by Mrs.
Staines and Mrs. Cridge. The first public school in the colony
was on the Company's farm at Craigflower. During the time
that public affairs
were under the
control of Mr.
Douglas, much
interest was taken
in the schools, and
provision was made
for the education
of the small number of children in
the colony. In the
period between the
retirement of Sir James Douglas and Confederation, little
" attention was paid to education ; but in 1872 a common school
system was instituted in the province. Ever since, money has
been liberally granted for the support of schools. The school
law has been amended several times. High schools have been
established in most of the cities; and in every part of the
province where twenty children can be brought together,
there  is  a  public  school.     As   yet,  British   Columbia has no
CRAIGFLOWER SCHOOL, OLDEST IN VANCOUVER ISLAND. 68
History of British Columbia.
university; but in Vancouver, students can take the first two
years of the Arts Course of the University of McGill in
Montreal, and in Victoria they can complete the First Year
Course. It is expected, however, that in the near future,
British Columbia students will be able to graduate from McGill
without the expense and inconvenience of leaving their own
province.
The schools are under the  management of - the Executive
Council, which, when it turns its attention to the schools, is
called the Council of Public Instruction.    One
Schools Well   of tho members of tne Council is the Minister of
Education. Under him, are the Superintendent
of Education and the inspectors. In addition to these officials, a
City Superintendent is engaged by the Board of Trustees in each
of the cities of Vancouver and Victoria. A board of trustees is
elected annually by each school district and by each of the cities.
The trustees in the cities have control of the expenditure of all
the money needed for the support of their schools ; and by an
Act passed in 1905 the people of each rural school district are
required to contribute directly to the payment of the teachers'
salaries and all other expenses of the school. The country
schoolhouses were formerly built by the Government and the
teachers received their pay from the same source. There are
manual training classes in the schools of the principal cities,
and a provincial Normal School is established at Vancouver.
The people of the province spend a great deal of money
on education, and the boys and girls of British Columbia
should leave school well-prepared to enter upon the duties of
manhood or womanhood. ——
History of British Columbia. 69
There are many teachers, besides those who conduct classes
in a school-room, and in these days one of the most important
is the daily paper. An honest, independent and truthful newspaper has an influence for good which it would be hard to
overrate. The men who in 1858 and in succeeding years sought
their fortunes in British Columbia, did not lose their interest
in what was taking place in the countries from which they
were self-exiled. To satisfy their anxiety for
ewspapers    news an(j ^o afford a channel for the expression
of public opinion, newspapers were established.
The first two had but a short existence. Then in December,
1858, Amor de Cosmos published the British Colonist Mr.
De Cosmos was a man of talent, and the Colonist became a
leader of public opinion. It is still one of the principal papers
of this province, though it has now a score or more of contemporaries. It was, for a long time, owned and edited by
Hon. D. W. Higgins, formerly Speaker of the Legislative
Assembly of British Columbia.
NATIVE GIRL,, CIVILIZED. CHAPTER X.
later progress.
Since the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway  the
growth of the province, though not rapid, has been steady.   By
almost every train immigrants have arrived, chiefly from Great
Britain and the  eastern provinces  of  Canada.    In
A - the ' mining  districts  and  in the  cities,  are to be
Advance.
found many United  States  citizens whose money
and enterprise have aided in the development of the province.
Among the working miners are Belgians and Italians.    These
with the Chinese and Japanese form our foreign population.
The   natives   of   the   province, unlike
the   Indian   races   of   the Atlantic
coast or of the plains, readily learn
the  occupations   of   civilized men.
If they had  not  also  learned to i
drink   the   white   man's   whiskey
(which,   in   spite   of   the   law,  is
supplied    them    by   unprincipled
traders), they could support themselves and their families in comfort.
The directors of the Canadian Pacific
Railway were soon dissatisfied with Port
Moody, the western terminus at first
chosen, and selected the site of the present city of Vancouver,
on a broad inlet, from whose northern shore the mountains
rise in well-defined peaks. Very soon people arrived and the
new  city  was  commenced.      The   Canadian  Pacific  Railway
70
AN INDIAN BURIAL. History of British Columbia. 71
Company owned considerable property in Vancouver, and was
accordingly anxious for the progress of the city. The first
settlers were chiefly mechanics and business men from the
eastern provinces. They were enterprising, industrious, ambitious and persevering. When but a beginning had been
made,  a fire   destroyed   riearly the   whole   town.
A.-L.    *'j.' The   ashes   were   hardly   cold   before   saw   and
the Cities.    _ J      l
hammer were again  at work.    In less than five
years   Vancouver   had   grown   into   a   prosperous   little   city
which invited all who arrived at the Pacific coast to remain
and share in its   prosperity.     Many   of   these   thought they
could not do better than invest then capital and employ their
skill,  strength and knowledge  where  such a good beginning
had been made.
It must be hard for the visitor from a European or even,
an  eastern   American   city,   to   realize as he   (in   1905)   rides
around Vancouver in a commodious electric car, that less than
twenty years ago its site was a dense forest.
Victoria has grown more slowly, but it, too, has greatly
increased in wealth and population. What an eye for natural
beauty the Hudson's Bay factor, Douglas, must have had when
he chose Fort Camosun as the site of a future city! There are
few more delightful places in the world, and its situation as the
first point of call from Pacific and Puget Sound ports, gives it
an advantage as a commercial city which will always make it
an important wholesale centre.
Along the line of railway, Revelstoke and Kamloops have
grown from stations into cities. New Westminster with its
fisheries and  lumber, and  Nanaimo  with its coal mines, have 72
History of British Columbia.
perhaps less for which to thank the great railroad. Farmers
from Great Britain and from eastern Canada have settled on
Vancouver Island, on the smaller islands in the Strait of
Georgia, and in the valleys of the Fraser and the Okanagan.
But in none of these places can the traveller drive more than
a few miles before he passes through belts of forest or acres of
uncultivated land. Excellent roads penetrate the southern part
of the colony. The centre and north have yet been scarcely
. touched by man.
The greatest progress, as might have been expected, has been
made in mining.    The mountains that border the valleys of the
Columbia,   the   Kootenay  and  their  tributaries  are
1 .      rich in gold, copper, silver and lead, as well as coal.
The rivers of this region, with their fine lake expan-
sions,   afford
natural  means
of    communication.
During the
time between
1890 and 1900,
this mining
territory was
opened up, and
Rossland, Nelson, Kaslo,
Greenwood,
i CENTRE OF SUPPLIES.
Phoenix   and many   other   places   in   the   Kootenay country,
grew from mining camps into cities. History of British Columbia.
73
It costs a great deal more to get minerals from the rocks
than to wash gold from the river bars, so that the richest of
quartz mines must lie idle until a great deal of money is
spent in buying machinery and hiring labor. In other words,
mining cannot be carried on without capital.
Unfortunately, here, as in other mining countries, the men
who work the mines  and the men  who own  them have not
agreed very well.     He who has labor to sell is too prone to
look upon his employer as hard   and   grasping,
•^./»    fe while the man who  invests his  money in what
Difficulties. . „   I /
may after all, turn out an unprofitable speculation, thinks the wage-earner unreasonable and exacting. The
result is that far less work has been accomplished than would have been, had there
always been good feeling between employers and workmen. The presence of a
large proportion of Chinese among the
population of the province, has added to
the difficulties of the labor problem. The
Chinese work cheaper, live on less, and
send more money out of the country than
any other class of laborers. On the
other hand they are industrious, sober
and reliable. In 1903 an Act was passed
by the Dominion Parliament exacting
from every Chinaman an entrance fee of
five hundred dollars—which will discourage further immigration.
I Except for a little gold and copper mining in the district
of Alberni,   the  twentieth century  drew near before  it was 74
History of British Columbia.
found that the rocks in the southern part of Vancouver
Island contained copper, gold and silver in sufficient quantities
to pay for working. A good beginning has been made, and
smelters have been erected at Crofton and Ladysmith—small
towns between Victoria and Nanaimo. From what we have
read, it is evident that British Columbia, though a rich
country, will not yield its treasures easily. He who would
succeed in this province must be prepared to work hard and
to spend much thought on his labor. To such, the immense
area and vast resources of British Columbia offer a grand
field, and promise a great reward.
Even since Confederation, the task of
managing the public affairs of this great
province has not been an easy one. It is
the duty of the provincial government to
build roads and bridges and to keep them
in repair. The education of the youth
of the province is under its control.
Although the Federal Government pays the
salaries of the judges and maintains the
penitentiary, a great part of the cost of keeping order and
administering justice is borne by the provincial government.
These and many other expenses, made greater by the vast
extent of land to be traversed and by the rugged character of
the country, must be met without overburdening the comparatively small population with taxation. To do this requires
honesty of purpose, wisdom and foresight. British Columbia
needs able and patriotic legislators in Victoria as well as at
Ottawa.
KING EDWARD VII. History of British Columbia. 75
During later  years, as well as in the earlier period of her
history,   out*  province   has   had  reason   to  disagree with the
United States.    One of the industries of this province is sealing,
and, in Victoria, a large amount of capital has been invested in
building and fitting out sealing schooners.    The
Y TT    ,. seal is a migratory   animal,   whose   principal
Rights breeding grounds are the  Pribilof   Islands  in
Bering Sea. Alaska, which borders that sea on
the east and south, is United States territory, having been
purchased from the Russians in 1867. The seal-hunters were
accustomed to follow the animals from California along the coast
of Vancouver Island and the mainland into Bering Sea where
they hunted up to the three-mile limit, the waters inside of
which are by international law the property of the country
owning the land that borders the sea. About the^ year 1886
the United States declared that Bering Sea and all the seals
in it were United States property, and that no one had any
light to enter it or hunt the seals without her permission. To
enforce her claim she sent armed cruisers into the sea to seize
all foreign sealers found there.
British Columbia sealers, indignant that their trade should
be ruined by such high-handed proceedings, appealed to
England. It was agreed that the dispute should be submitted to a number of learned gentlemen who had no interest
except to see justice done. This assembly met in Paris in
1893, and determined: that Bering Sea was part of the Pacific
Ocean, that it was open to all the world, and that seals were
wild animals not owned by any nation. While deciding
against the claims of the United States, the arbitrators advised
1 76
History of British Columbia.
that, for the sake of all who had an interest in preserving
the seal herds from extinction, the following rules should bç
observed: 1. No seals should be killed within sixty miles of
Pribilof Islands. 2. There should be a close season of three
months—June, July and August. 3. No firearms should be
used in seal-hunting within the limits of Bering Sea.
The United States and England agreed that their sealers
should be bound by these rules for a period of five years when,
if. found satisfactory, the experiment could be renewed. These
rules do not affect other nations, nor the operations of an
American Company, who are allowed to kill one hundred thousand seals annually on the Pribilof Islands.
The question of the Alaskan Boundary which had been in
dispute for many years, was settled near the close of the year
1904 in favor of the United States, by a tribunal consisting
of the Chief Justice of England, two commissioners appointed
by Canada, and three by the United States. The question at
issue concerned the width of that strip of seacoast—west of
British Columbia, between latitude 54° 40' and
the 60th parallel—which with Alaska was
bought from Russia by the United States.
The United States claimed that the strip was to be ten leagues
wide, measured from the heads of the inlets, while Canada
insisted that the distance should be measured from the seacoast
of the Pacific Ocean. The Canadian Commissioners refused to
accept the finding of the majority of the commission, which
gives every inlet north of the 55th parallel to the United
States and prevents Canada from having a harbor along three
hundred  miles of seacoast.     One   cannot  help   feeling,   with
The Alaskan
Boundary Case. History of British Columbia.
77
Portia, that it is not always right to take all that the law
allows, for these inlets are of far more value to Canada than
they will ever be to her wealthy neighbor.
No history of
the province, however brief, should
omit to mention
the fact that when
help was needed
during the Boer
war in South
Africa (1899-1902),
volunteers from all
parts of British
Columbia joined
the Canadian regiment that went to
reinforce the
British troops. At
Paardeburg, where
Canadians proved
themselves worthy
to take their places
in
DISPUTED TERRITORY.
Heroes in the
Boer War.
the ranks with England's heroes, British
Columbia lads did their duty nobly, many of
the little band falling on the field. Afterward, in skirmishes, on many a long, hard march, during
anxious nights of watching and in all that makes up the hard
but  necessary  routine   of   a soldier's life, they fulfilled their 78
History of British Columbia.
duty so as to win the approval of officers not easy to satisfy.
The Fifth Regiment of Victoria had to mourn the loss of their
gallant and much-loved officer Captain Blanshard, who early
in the summer of 1900 fell a victim to a Boer bullet.
One of the last acts of Queen Victoria was to thank the first
contingent of Canadian volunteers for its aid. Not one of these
young men will ever forget the day when she, who had spent so
long a life in England's service, praised their loyalty to her
their Queen, and to their country. The enthusiasm with which
every South African victory was greeted in British Columbia
proved the warm and deep affection of the people—not only
for the absent soldiers, but for the dear old Motherland.
Our task is now accomplished. We have tried to bring before
our young readers the beauty, the immensity and the varied
resources of the province. The story of its settlement and
development has been briefly told. Its past is short. What its
future may be, depends (Who knows how much 1) on the generation of boys and girls into whose hands this little book will fall.
If they grow up industrious, intelligent, brave, honest and pure,
they will add many noble pages to the record. Nature has done
her part, and as we look forward into the future, the hope arises
that here, as in the countries of the old world, the poet's words
will be fulfilled :—
Two Voices are there ; one is of the Sea,
. One, of the Mountains ; each a Mighty Voice :
In both from age to age Thou didst rejoice—
They were Thy chosen music, Liberty. GEOGRAPHY
.OF.
British Columbia
CHAPTER I.
BRITISH COLUMBIA, the most westerly Province of the
Dominion. of Canada,  lies between the 49th and 60th
parallels   of   North  Latitude.      The   Rocky  Mountains
divide it from Alberta on the east ;  on its west lie the Pacific
Ocean and a portion of Alaska.    The region thus
bounded exceeds every other Canadian province in
size.    But, though the area is about 400,000 square miles, the
people number only 178,657.    A comparison with England suggests the thought  that an inhabitant of  British Columbia has
a thousand times more room than an Englishman.
Not only is British Columbia large, it is rich in natural
resources. Whereas the wealth of Manitoba is in wheat-lands,
that of British Columbia is in minerals, forests, fisheries, and,
to a lesser degree, fruit.
Roughly speaking, British Columbia is a paral-
oun am   ielogram twice as long as it is wide, and trending
Ranees
"      from north-west to south-east.    Conforming to the
general direction of the country are four chains of mountains.
I 82
Geography of British Columbia.
These   are   the   Rocky,   Selkirk;   Coast,   and   Island   re
Taken  together,  they  embrace  a portion of the Cordillera or
great mountain belt of the West.
The Rocky Mountains, 60 miles in average width, skirt our
Province along its eastern margin. Near the 49th parallel
they show peaks of 10,000 feet; at the 52nd, the peaks
approximate 15,000; but in the neighborhood of the Peace
River, the mountains dwindle into hills. Of the dozen or more
passes that intersect the range, the Crow's Nest and Kicking
^^g^^^SK^ Horse have been used as gateways
for railroads. The Yellow Head
and Peace—passes lower in elevation but farther north—are likely
to be selected in the future for a
7 similar purpose. Separated from
%^ the Rockies by a valley 700 miles
long, is a second range of mountains—
the Selkirks. So broken is this range
that in different parts various names have been given :—
North of the " big bend " of the Columbia—" the Cariboo
Mountains"; between the Okanagan and Arrow Lakes—
"the Gold Range"; between East and West Kootenay—"the
Purcell Range." This broad mountain region averages eighty
miles in width, with many of its peaks surpassing 8,000 feet.
Towards the 54th parallel it becomes lost in cross ranges.
Whereas the Rockies are grand in aspect, their lofty crests
seeming to form castles and cathedrals, the
Seikirks are pleasing in their softer outlines,
their forms being more rounded and their sides well timbered.
OKANAGAN   LAKE.
The Selkirks. Geography of British Columbia.
83
Many glaciers have their homes in the gorges, and avalanches
have often been the cause of loss of life. The rocks of the Selkirk Range are believed by geologists to be older than any others
in the province, indeed to be part of the original crust of the
earth. If so, then the Selkirks lifted up their heads above the
water when all else of what is now British Columbia was ocean.
A third" and parallel mountain system is the Coast Range.
For a width of 100 miles, it fringes the Pacific from the delta
>. . -      .    —^ of the Fraser
I   i
to the head
■--■■■
of    L y nn
jjlljljjjjj
Canal.    The
average alti
1»- --■• s
jjjjiiiiii
tude of the
lH§jjH|jjji
higherpeaks
^^^^^^3 is   about
%rs^i 6,000 feet.
The  Is-
1 land Range,
being partly submerged, is
represented by an archipelago
that includes Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Several summits on Vancouver Island exceed 6,000
feet, and on Queen Charlotte
Islands 4,000 feet.
The great Interior Plateau of British Columbia lies between
the Selkirk and Coast Ranges.   But lakes and rivers have cut
A GLACIER. 84
Geography of British Columbia.
Interior
Plateau.
such deep channels in the lava rocks of which the plateau is
composed that it closely resembles the mountainous tracts. This
is the chief agricultural area of the province. Beginning about the southern boundary line, it extends
northward for 500 miles until cut off by transverse mountains in the Stuart Lake region. Its average width
is 100 miles, and its mean height 3,500 feet. It is drained
principally by streams flowing south, of which the Fraser
River is chief.
THE FRASER RTVER.
A glance at the map suffices to show us how well provided
our province is with waterways, without which so mountainous
a country would be inaccessible. The lakes, ribbon-like in
length and narrowness, are generally of great depth. Atlin
in the extreme north-west, Babine and Stuart in the middle,
and Shuswap, Okanagan, Arrow, and Kootenay Lakes in the Geography of British Columbia.
85
Climate.
south of the province, are a few of the larger ones. The inlets
or fiords of the coast, outrivalling those of any other part of
the world, with perhaps the exception of Greenland, are the
submerged valleys of the coastal mountains. Of rivers, the
Fraser and the Columbia (with their tributaries), the Skeena,
the Nass, and the Stikine are of most importance.
British Columbia being in the same latitude as the British
Isles, a similar climate is experienced. Moisture-laden winds
from the ocean are in both cases a moderating factor.
The part played by the Gulf Stream in modifying
the climate of the United Kingdom, is assumed by the warm
Japan current, which sets southward along the North American
coast after crossing the North Pacific to the Aleutian Islands.
On the mainland the mountain ranges govern climate to some
extent, for to them is due the alternate moist and dry belts.
The people that have made this province their home are
largely of English, Scotch, and Irish extraction. One-fourth
of the population, however, consists of Indians, Chinese, and
Japanese.
SIWASH ROCK.  CHAPTER II.
VANCOUVER ISLAND.
If valued only by its area, Vancouver Island would not be
of much importance. It is only half the size of Ireland.
And, small as the island is, settlement is confined mainly to
the south-eastern p art.
This fact is not to be wondered at;
Natural Wealth f or i0f ty
of the Island.     moun.
tains, thick forests, and the
matted undergrowth of
moss, salal, and devil's-
club, make travelling in
the interior very difficult.
Yet Vancouver Island
is important. Why? Because it has fields of coal which,
though worked for over half a century, show no signs of
giving out. Because it has timber—fir, spruce and cedar—
equal to any in the world. Because it has rich deposits of
gold, copper, and iron ; and because the capital is situated there.
Over a great part of the island, there is but a shallow covering of soil ; indeed, in many places, bare rock forms the surface.
Twenty per cent of the entire area may be said to be productive, and of that, only about two per cent is under
cultivation.    In the making and placing of soil, glaciers have
DEVIL S - CLUB.
Soil.
J 88 Geography of British Columbia.
played an important part. A glacier is a river of ice which, as it
moves, makes a path for itself by breaking up or carrying along
every obstacle that it meets. Rocks thus carried in front or
on the sides of a glacier form moraines. When a glacier
retreats, the moraines are left strewing the surface of the
country. Water made by the melting of the ice carries them
until power to do so is lost. As rocks of all kinds make up
the moraines, the soils produced afford great variety, for soil
is just powdered rock to which decayed vegetable or animal
matter has been added. Once a glacier occupied the position
of the Gulf of Georgia and the southern end of Vancouver
Island. When conditions changed, the glacier disappeared ; but
grooved and polished rocks, gravelly, sandy, and clay soils
remain as evidence of its former activity.
Victoria, the capital of British Columbia, is situated at the southeastern extremity of  Vancouver  Island.      For  age, natural beauty,
and   wealth,   this   city   holds  first  rank.      When  the
r., Hudson's Bay Company  feared   that  they were going
to lose their trading posts on the Columbia River, by
reason of a more northern boundary line, they sent Sir James
Douglas to select a spot suitable for a fort on undoubted British
territory. As a result of that gentleman's recommendations, Victoria
was founded in 1843. Fifteen years later, when gold was discovered
on the Fraser River, Victoria became a city of tents with as large
a population as she now possesses.
In the matter of climate Victoria is favored. The records of many
years indicate the mean annual temperature to be 49°.    Southerly winds
prevail throughout the year. Blowing from the ocean,
Climate       ^ey ^aVe ^e e^ect °^ lessenhig the heat of summer and the
cold of winter. From the continent comes the hot wind
of summer and the cold wind of winter—the North wind.    Its changed History of British Columbia.
89
nature is due to the ability of land to absorb heat and its inability to
retain heat. Less rain falls here than elsewhere on the island. This
is partly accounted for by the fact that the ocean winds leave
much of their moisture on the Olympic range of Washington state,
THE OLYMPIC MOUNTAINS.
and pass dry over Victoria. Lack of rainfall in the summer months
renders dust a nuisance. Rainy weather is prevalent during November, December, January and February. The thermometer never
goes below zero. If snow falls, it remains on the ground but a
short time.
In   June   the   Capital   City  looks   its   best,   when   there   is  a
wealth   of   roses  on  every  cottage  and  gorgeous   yellow  broom  in
fields   and   hedges.      Every  day  some steamer lands
m      . , its parties of  tourists, to whom the  English  tone of
Tourists. r ' &
the   city  appears   novel.    The  Parliament   Building,
of gray  granite  and  sandstone, constructed  in chaste and dignified
style, and surpassing  in  beauty   the  buildings  for  similar purposes
in other provinces of   the  Dominion, never  fails to call forth their
admiring remarks. |>n:\£
By  tally-ho,   these  visitors  drive  along  the   Dallas  Road,   with
tasteful  cottages  on  their left, and  Juan  de  Fuca  Strait and the
Olympic   Mountains   on their  right, until they come to the gnarled 90
Geography of British Columbia.
and stately oaks, sombre firs, artificial lakes, deer park, aviary, and
bear pits of Beacon Hill Park. Continuing along the water front
they pass the rifle range, and a succession of picturesque bays along
whose shores are many campers. Government House is seen occupying a commanding position on a rocky ridge.
Upon returning to the city they go, perhaps, to.one of the boat
houses and secure seats in a naphtha launch. Speedily they are conveyed
through the Inner Harbor with its varied craft of steamers, sealing
CITY OF VICTORIA.
schooners, and Indian canoes, into an arm of the sea.    Many bathers ;
are in sight, for the water of the "arm" is pleasantly warm.    Among
the trees lining the bank attractive homes appear.
Despite the quiet air of the town, much business is transacted.
Government Street contains many retail houses that have a good
reputation throughout the province.    Of wholesale houses, such as the Geography of British Columbia. 91
Hudson's Bay, some have been established since the city's infancy.
_   .        . Shipbuilding is an important and growing industry, and,
in conjunction with the iron works, gives employment
to many men. Herej sealing has its headquarters; and also the
whaling industry which has  lately  been   revived.
There are two hospitals of high standing, many well-built churches,
and an efficient school system consisting of ward schools and the High.
School (or Victoria College) which is in affiliation with McGill
University.
Beyond the city limits and near the pumping station which
elevates the water for Victoria mains, there are a number of fruit farms.
ROCKSIDE ORCHARD.
A pretty sight it is to see row after row of straight, clean-
barked, trees, even when their leaves are off; but it is in spring
that orchards look their best, when bowed down by the weight of
blossoms. As land is expensive, worth $175 an acre, all available
space is made use of. Small fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries,
and logan berries, are planted between the rows of apple, plum, pear, and
cherry trees. Trees bear early, even in their second year
„ therefore  are  planted thickly and afterwards   thinned out.
If shippers exercise proper care in packing, an abundanf
market may be found in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba,
where the demand for fruit is very much greater than the supply. 92
Geography of British Columbia.
Having touched at the Capital, we are now ready to begin
our travels throughout the Province of British Columbia.
Wishing   to    see    the
Saanich Peninsula, which
ranks  next to   Comox as
an agricultural district, we
board the
The Saanich   Tr-    ,
Aiic^aamv.11     Victoria
Peninsula.       m ,
Terminal
Railway. After passing
the lakes that provide
with water the city we
have just left, we come to
a cross-road leading to
Tod Inlet, where there is
a plant for the manufacture of Portland cement.
The rich valley lands
which we see, consist of a DRÎ OOCK> ^uimalt.
clay subsoil and a black loam. On the highlands strawberries are
cultivated with wonderful success. At Sidney, the terminus of
the railway, connection is made with a ferry running to Port
Guichon on the mainland ; and also with a steamer that makes
calls at Nanaimo, Crofton, and the neighboring islands.
Of these islands, Salt Spring is the largest and most fertile. Its
ranchers make a living by dairying, fruit-growing, sheep-raising and
poultry-keeping. Between Ganges Harbor and Vancouver Island there
is telephone communication.
Pender Island is particularly suitable for sheep. Geography of British Columbia. 93
Mayne Island is a favorite summer resort. Between it and Galiano
Island lies Active Pass,* through which the daily steamer from Victoria
to Vancouver runs. Because of its narrowness and tide-rips, this
channel is difficult, especially in foggy weather. Then, pilots keep the
fog-horn blowing almost constantly that the echo may serve them as a
guide.
On Darcy Island there is a lazaretto.
Saturna Island has a quarry of excellent sandstone.
The* Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway, 78 miles long, runs
between Victoria and Wellington. For building the railway,
in addition to a cash bonus, a land subsidy was granted.
This railway belt, represented on the map by a dotted line,
extends from Otter Point to Cape Mudge. It includes mineral
as well as surface rights, except in the case of the precious
metals, gold and silver.
Soon after our train leaves Victoria, we come within sight of
the ideal harbor of Esquimalt which for many years was the
headquarters of the North Pacific squadron.
+ ~ "^oc^ed Flagship, cruisers, torpedo boats, gun boats
and Commodious       f    *'        j .   ' ,    ,        [       ,
Harbor an(*  survev sniP  lormerry lay at anchor in
its waters. But in 1904 the Admiralty withdrew the naval forces. Henceforth the station will be frequented
only by flying squadrons.
At the time of the above change the Canadian Government
undertook the maintenance of the military defences. The
garrison, about 400 strong, is divided between Work Point,
Macaulay Point and Rod Hill, but the barracks and most of
the men are at Work Point. How complete the fortifications
are we do not know, for on this point secrecy is necessary.
* Commonly known as Plumper Pass. 94 Geography of British Columbia.
West of the entrance to Esquimalt harbor lie the Royal Roads,
a bay where any vessel can anchor three-quarters of a mile from
shore.
In an adjoining bay the William Head Quarantine Station is
situated. Every steamer from the Far East must stop here, that its
passengers with their effects may be fumigated. This
<5,   ,. delay irritates travellers, but it is necessary as a precau
tion against the introduction of cholera, smallpox, and
bubonic plague, diseases which are liable to come to us through Chinese
and Japanese steerage passengers.
The head of the Saanich Arm is the prettiest bit of scenery
along the line of railway. At Shawnigan Lake we see trim summer
cottages and well-patronized hotels.
Duncan's, half way up the line, is the market town of the Cowichan
district, a fine farming section. The freight taken on board is chiefly
dairy products and fruit, especially apples. Much of it, we observe, is
addressed to Ladysmith. From Duncan's a road goes to Cowichan
Lake, a favorite resort for fishermen.
AERIAL TRAMWAY.
Westholm interests us, not on its own account but because from it
we can reach the copper mines of Mount Sicker and the smelter at
Crofton.
At Chemainus we come in sight of the water of the Strait of
Georgia, a happy relief from the walls of sandstone and shale, or the firs
of a second growth, which we have been looking at from the car window. Geography of British Columbia.
95
In the bay are several vessels bound for Africa, Australia and South
America, taking on cargoes of lumber from the Chemainus mill.
Cars laden with coal, and immense coal bunkers,  tell us that we
have arrived at a colliery town.    It is Ladysmith.    Though its foundations were laid during the Boer war, its growth has been so rapid
that it is now incorporated as a city.    The coal mine upon which the
prosperity of Lady-
smith  largely  depends is seven miles
distant.     A copper
smelter adds an important industry to
the place.
As soon as we
arrive in Nanaimo
we make arrangements to visit the chemainus.
underground workings of the coal mine. We have not far to
go, for the shaft is within the city limits. Clad in waterproof
and cap, we enter a cage and slowly drop down 650 feet, the
sensation no worse than that of going down an elevator in a
large building. When the cage stops, we walk out into a
spacious, electric-lighted apartment with whitewashed walls. A motor with a long train of cars
happens to be going to Protection Island. We get
into an empty coal car and, seated on a sack of straw, are
rattled along, amid a deafening noise, for two and a half
miles. To us, travelling through the "level," comes the
thought that several hundred feet overhead is the water of
Nanaimo Harbor. At Protection Island, through another shaft
we regain the surface, and return to Nanaimo by rowboat.
A Coal
Mine. 96
Geography of British Columbia.
Fifty years ago, the level through which we have just ridden, was a seam of coal.
The usual mode of  mining   is   the   pillar-and-stall   system.    The
stalls represent the portion from which coal is removed, and the pillars,
the coal left as props.    When any part of a mine is to
a &*  .°      be abandoned the pillars are " drawn," that is, the coal of
which they are composed is taken out, the result being
that the roof caves.    In those parts of the mine to which electric cars
cannot go, hauling is done by mules.
Danger in coal mining arises from various causes, but chiefly from
explosion due to coal-dust or to noxious gases, and from falling coal or
timbers. To secure pure
air, when miles of levels,
slopes, and inclines have
to be ventilated, becomes a
difficult problem. Large
fans are used to force the
air to circulate. By a
careful system of compartments, the "intake"
and the " upcast " air are
kept from mixing.
Wellington, the terminus of the railway, is a
forlorn-looking place.
When its coal seam was
i     j j±   i i COAL MINE.
worked   out,   new   fields
had to be  sought.     Miners   were  withdrawn   to  Ladysmith   and   in
many cases their houses also were moved.
Leaving the Nanaimo coal area behind us we go farther
north, to the Comox coal area. The steamer lands us at Union,
where there are wharves, bunkers, and ovens for the making
of coke.    By a mixed train composed of coal cars and one pas- Geography of British Columbia.
97
senger coach, we proceed to Cumberland, a coal-mining town of
about 2,000 people. Here not long ago the discovery of a vein
of hard coal or anthracite was reported. In all other places on
the island the coal is soft or bituminous.
In the Comox district, the valleys of the Comox and Courtenay
rivers are wide, undulating, and composed of rich bottom land.
STEAM logging.
Conditions are most favorable for dairying. Cattle raising and
vegetable gardening also receive attention. All agricultural
products are easily sold to the local miners.
North of Comox, logging camps are the chief scenes of
activity. The timber limits of Vancouver Island rank among
the most valuable in the whole province. On the east coast they
extend from Cowichan to Nimpkish. Douglas fir and red cedar
are the principal trees. Of these, the former—named after David
Douglas, a well-known botanist—is the staple timber of com- 98 Geography of British Columbia.
merce. Average trees grow 150 feet high, clear of limbs, with
a diameter of 5 to 6 feet. The wood has great strength and
is largely used for shipbuilding, bridge work, fencing, railway
ties, and furniture. As a pulp-making tree the fir is valuable.
Its bark makes a good fuel.
The red cedar, unequalled as a wood for shingles, comes next
to the fir in importance.    Because of its variety of shading, and
the brilliant polish which it takes, it is prized for the interior
finishing of houses.   As the cedar lasts well under-
ground it is used for telegraph poles and fence
posts.    An Indian war canoe is but a cedar tree the
heart of which has been dug out.    Well can this wood be called
the settler's friend, for from it he can with simple tools, such as axe
and saw, build his house, fence his farm, and make his furniture.
On Malcolm Island, opposite the Mmpkish river, there is a
Finnish community numbering about five hundred. These frugal
and thrifty people engage in lumbering and farming. In their
blacksmith shop they have the equipment for repairing small steamers
that have been disabled.
Alert Bay is an Indian village noted for its totem poles, salmon
cannery, and industrial school.
At Fort Rupert the Hudson's Bay Company in early days established
a fort in order to trade in furs with the Indians. In front of the fort
for a long time lay a pile of coal carried thither in sacks by the Indians.
Scotch miners were brought out by the Company to prospect and work
the coal but were soon transferred to Nanaimo. Though Fort Rupert
is now of little importance, near at hand is Hardy Bay, which is expected to become some day the terminus of an island railway. A town
site has been blocked out and a wharf built.
In the region north of Comox there are areas which, if drained,
would make valuable meadows and cattle ranges. Geography of British Columbia.
99
Though we might reach the west coast of Vancouver Island
by stage from Nanaimo to Alberni, or by trail from Hardy
Bay to Quatsino, we prefer to return to Victoria in order to
go by steamer.    Our journey has just begun when we pass the
CABLE STATION.
oldest lighthouse on the coast, that on Race Rock, built in 1861,
and modelled after the Eddystone. At Sooke and
w m •      Otter  Point  we   see   fish   traps,  where   sockeye
salmon are caught as they are about to enter
the Strait of San Juan de Fuca. An examination of the
stomachs of these fish shows them to be devoid of food. This
indicates that the unknown feeding ground of the sockeyes is
a long way off.
Our first stop is at Port Renfrew (or San Juan), seat of a
botanical station and a lumber mill.
Through a choppy sea, we sail past Carmanah Point
and Cape Beale into the smooth waters of Barkley Sound,
and soon reach Bamfield Creek, where the Pacific Cable
Station is located. We make fast to a wharf, the first
since leaving Victoria. Upon going ashore we climb a steep
road. Uncleared ground, with a confusion of stumps and
branches, stretches to right and left.    The Cable Station is a 100
Geography of British Columbia.
Pacific Cable
Station.
spacious building, shingled and stained, and commanding from
the height of rocks an exquisite view.    The front door opens
into a long, broad hall that leads to the despatch
room.     By the machine  sits  an  operator, who
seems to do nothing but receive into his hand
long, tape-like pieces  of paper on which the instrument has
recorded a message, or press a button to flash a thought round
the world.    We stand only a minute or two by his side, yet in
that time he cables to Fanning Island, 4,000 miles distant, and
receives his answer.
Proceeding, we pass on our left Tzartoos or Copper Island,
upon which there is an enormous deposit of iron.
Alberni Canal, as the upper part of Barkley
^    r Sound is called, is  always windy.    Along its
Cumbering. '. J J , &
snores   prospecting   tor gold   and   copper has
been carried on to  some  extent.    Hills wooded  from  summit
to   base,  rise  abruptly from the water's  edge.     Alberni   and
New Alberni, small rival towns two miles  apart, are  situated
at  the   head  of   the   canal.     Their  support is  derived from
agriculture and lumbering.    The Alberni Road, through varied
and beautiful scenery,  crosses the island to Nanaimo.    Along
this   road are   some   fine   specimens  of   the  arbutus — a   tree
which, on account of its shiny evergreen leaves and red bark,
is of striking appearance.
Before leaving Barkley Sound we enter Ucluelet Arm. The
large Indian reserve is deserted except by a few old people,
for the younger portion of the population have gone sealing or
to the canneries. The curing of halibut is carried on and
shipments of the dried fish are made regularly. History of British Columbia.
101
We are in   open   water   now   until we get to  Clayoquot
(Klak'-wat).     Wreck Bay,  where gold is washed from black
sand,  lies   along   our   route.     Midnight though
it is,  we land at  Clayoquot  in order to make
purchases of   Indian   baskets  and  other curios.
A Powerful
Ught.
Mining, fishing, and lumbering engage the people.
Farming is carried on to
a small extent, but dyking
is necessary to reclaim the
tidal lands, of which there
are thousands of acres.
The lighthouse in Clayoquot Sound contains a
light said to be the most
powerful now in operation
in America. Under favorable conditions it may be
seen for twenty-five miles.
Bedwell Sound, the
northern extension of
Clayoquot Sound, is impressive   in    its   beauty.
Bordering the water are mountains higher than those hitherto
seen. We turn in here to let off a couple of men who are
on their way to a copper prospect on Bear River. There
is one empty house where they land. Forest surrounds it,
and we breathe the fragrance of pine trees. Immense cedars
grow in the neighborhood.
.-w*iS'!ÈH&fôri«*
QUATSINO WHARF. 102
Geography of British Columbia.
Historic
Friendly
Cove.
After stopping at Sydney Inlet to put off supplies for the
copper mine, we proceed to Hesquoit (Hesk'-wit) Harbor.
Here, a church gives evidence of a prosperous Roman Catholic
Mission. On the beach are native children playing in the
sand. There is no wharf, so we anchor and wait for passengers, who come out in " dugouts " piled high with bundles
and cedar baskets. Klootchmen (Indian, women) are in the
majority—most of them neatly dressed, and not unattractive
in feature.
Historic Nootka,—noted in the 18th century on account of
its fur trade and diplomatic correspondence! Here in 1778
Captain James Cook landed at Friendly Cove. Ten
years later came Captain Meares, who erected the
first house in British Columbia and launched the
first ship built in the colony. No opportunity is
afforded us to go ashore, but we aie led to understand that
Friendly Cove is an Indian village little different from what
it was in Cook's time.
After passing Kyuquot (Ki-u-kot) we steer far oceanward
that we may safely round the towering promontory of Cape
Cook. This part of the coast is rocky and dangerous, the
scene of many a wreck. Off Solander Island we see a herd of
sea-lions. In the open water are schools of spouting whales
and darting porpoises.
On the south-east arm of Quatsino Sound, Yreka (Wi-ré-ka)
is situated. Ore bunkers, a sawmill, shops and cabins have
been built. Leading to the copper mine is a steep trail,
shady with hemlock, spruce, and cedar. There is no Douglas
fir.     So humid is the atmosphere   that   ferns grow in rank Geography of British Columbia.
103
Coal and
Copper.
luxuriance. Other deposits of copper occur on the opposite
side of the arm. These bodies of ore lend value to some
workable coal seams which have been exploited on
the north side of the Sound. If local smelting were
advisable the coal would be of inestimable importance.
A pulp mill has been
erected for making pulp
out of spruce.
Three and a half days
after leaving Victoria we
gain sight of Cape Scott
and drop anchor in Fisherman's Harbor. An inhospitable shore it looks.
Having heard of a Danish
settlement we expected to
see a village. Less than half a dozen houses are all that we
find. Others there are, however, on inland clearings. The
Danes, about sixty in number, make a meagre living out of
fishing, farming and hunting.
The west coast of Vancouver Island is an unsettled region,
and one not likely to support a large population. Its future
depends on its minerals, its timber, and its harbors.
NOOTKA IN 1778. CHAPTER III.
Northern I,imit
of the Fir.
THE COAST.—QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS.
The waters separating Vancouver Island from the Mainland
are the Strait of Georgia, Discovery Passage, Johnstone Strait
and Queen Charlotte Sound. Opening into
these on the Mainland side, is a series of
inlets remarkable both for grandeur and size.
Howe Sound is perhaps best known, because of its large copper
mine and its fruit industry. Logging camps are thickly strewn
as far north as Knight's Inlet where the Douglas fir disappears,
giving place to the yellow cedar.
In the Strait of Georgia the largest island is Texada.    The
name is of Spanish origin, and was originally spelled Tejada,
which probably means the " roofed " island,
«*«exf' -i^T\  Ci É   because   the   mountainous   interior   gives
"Roofed Island.''    | &
the   appearance   of   a   pointed   roof.    At
Gillies Bay iron has been mined for upwards of thirty-five
years, though not continuously.   As there are hills of it, mining
can be carried on cheaply by means of open cuts.   From the
iron  mine  a road  crosses  the  island  to  Van  Anda on the
eastern  side, where   there   are   copper   mines,  and  kilns for
making lime.
104 GEOGRAPHY OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA. 105
Seymour Narrows, less than half a mile wide, is the gate to Discovery Passage.    Its tide-rips make careful navigating very necessary.
Issuing from Queen Charlotte Sound we stop at Rivers Inlet. Seven
salmon canneries give employment to a large number of Indians,
Japanese and Whites.
Bella Coola is an Indian
village at the mouth of the
Bella Coola River. This river
affords the best route into
the Ootsa and Chilcotin
country. In the valley
there is a Norwegian colony.
Totem poles and flags,
marking an Indian burial-
ground, catch our eye at
Bella Bella on Campbell
Island. The custom of interment not being practised, the
dead are placed in wooden
houses.
Gardner Canal with its
lofty perpendicular shores,
its water-
The Kitimat   „ ,, ,
_  H falls    and
Railway. .
glaciers,  is
very beautiful. Near it is Douglas Channel, whose head
is called the Kitimat Arm. From Kitimat, an all-Canadian
railway, to Hazelton, Atlin and Dawson, is projected. If built,
this line will open up coal land, mineral belts, and fertile valleys.
The Skeena, 300 miles long, is a difficult river to navigate by
reason of its winding course, canyons, fierce rapids, bars, and
TOTEM POLES. 106
Geography of British Columbia.
shoals.    Salmon canneries and  sawmills  dot its shores.    The
Babine and Bulkley rivers are its chief tributaries.    The former
drains Babine,* the  second largest lake in  British   Columbia.
The Bulkley valley, containing many acres of good farming
land, is already attracting settlers by the hundreds.
Port Essington, situated at the mouth of the Skeena River, is the
monument of one far-seeing man who owned its canneries, sawmill
and public buildings, but who died before realizing all his plans, f
Though not a port of call for Alaskan steamers, it is visited by vessels
in the coasting trade. One hundred and fifty miles higher up the
stream, Hazelton occupies a picturesque spot hemmed in by mountains. ,
Goods for the Omineea gold mines and the Hudson's Bay post at
Babine are landed here by steamer, to be packed inland. Here, too,
the Dominion telegraph line crosses the Skeena.
Prince Rupert, western terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, is situated on Kai-en (Ki'-en) Island, thirty miles north of Port
Essington.
It was selected as a terminal for the following reasons :—
(1) Its excellent harbor; (2) Lands were available for purchase at
a reasonable figure ; (3) Accessibility to the Skeena River down which
the railway must come ; (4) It is so situated half way between the
Skeena and Nass rivers that it escapes in a measure the cold, moisture-
laden winds that blow down these canyons.
Prince Rupert harbor is sixteen miles long. It averages one mile
wide and one hundred and fifty feet deep. It is land-locked. Its
entrance is straight and contains few rocks—two particulars in the
interest of shipping. The tide rises about twenty-five feet. Access to
the Pacific is through Dixon Entrance.
Metlakahtla is the seat of an Anglican mission founded by Mr.
Duncan, a missionary, who had pronounced success in teaching the
Indians the industrial arts as well as religion. When superseded he
founded a New Metlakahtla in Alaska.
Port Simpson—at the entrance to Portland Inlet—is an old
Hudson's Bay post.    It is, also, the headquarters of a Methodist Indian
*The name " Babine," French-Canadian in origin, means "lippy"and refers to the Indian
custom of piercing the lip with wood or bone,
t Cunningham. Geography qf British Columbia.
107
Mission. The population, with the exception of a dozen white families,
consists of eight hundred Indians. Like other places on the coast, it
has the disadvantage of an excessive rainfall.
Portland Inlet has a triple head
—Portland Canal, Observatory Inlet,
and Nass River. With the Nass the
name of oolachan (candle-fish) is
closely connected. In March, a
month earlier than they appear in
the Fraser, the oolachans enter the
Nass. A superstition is current
among the Indians that snow always falls at this time in order to
keep clean any fish that might touch
the ground—for their
regard for the oolachan amounts almost
to reverence. In addition to the use
of the flesh as food, the fat is collected by steaming the fish with hot
stones. When cold this fat looks
like lard, and is used in much the
same way. Done up in boxes, it is
in great demand among Indians living as far east as the Rocky Mountains. Another use of the oolachan
is to provide light. For this purpose
strings of them two yards long are dried in the sun. Such a
string, nailed to a board and lighted, burns like a torch, hence
the name "candle-fish."
An Indian
Superstition.
OOLACHANS TN A NET. 108
Geography of British Columbia.
Now we are at the portals of Alaska. From Portland
Canal northward, British Columbia is shut off from the coast
by a narrow strip of United States territory. Survey parties
are in the field marking the boundary line determined by
the Alaskan Boundary Commission of 1903.
The  Queen Charlotte Islands  are  about one hundred and
pg fifty in number.     Of  these  Graham
E ^^lSxM?s" 111 and- Moresby are of most importance.
I 1 Though known to be mineral-bearing
since 1852, they have received little
attention up to the present, because
so hard to reach.
Off   Queen  Charlotte Islands   are
/o the halibut banks.    An average fish
iSÉfiW M   wei&ns sixty pounds, but  specimens
occur five to six feet in length and of
two hundred pounds weight.   Steamers
engaged in  deep-sea  fishing   convey
their cargoes to Vancouver in four or five days.    Ice preserves
the fish while on the steamer ;   at Vancouver the
halibut is  repacked  and   sent  in   cold   storage  to
eastern cities.
West of Queen Charlotte the black cod (or skil)
is abundant. Though a delicious pan-fish, the skil is difficult to
preserve. Too delicate to be transported fresh, it is too fat to dry
and salt. Pickling has been tried but without complete success.
The pungent yellow cypress or cedar, which in southern
British Columbia is not found at sea level, here descends to the
coast.    Of great durability, the, wood commands a higher price
Queen
Charlotte
Islands. Geography of British Columbia. 109
than either Douglas fir or red cedar.    Spruce and hemlock also
are common.
Skidegate (Skïd'-e-gàt) Inlet is rich in resources, abounding
in fish, timber and anthracite coal.    The waters just outside its
entrance are the greatest resort on the coast, so far as known, of
the dog fish.    From spring to fall the fish are caught continu-
ously and oil extracted from their livers.   While
* '    the liver oil is fine in quality and useful for
lubricating purposes, a coarser oil is obtained by
steaming the bodies of the fish in        ^<^^%!Lr>.„
retorts.    Massett is another inlet      J0mi ^"•^v
of importance and the site of a / tg^
large Indian village. A
The Queen Charlotte natives
are the Haidas, a clever tribe
with  character-
Natives of      .   ,-        t   .-     v
t     -      istics   distinct
from   the   Coast
Indians,   towards  whom   they
have always been war-like and
aggressive.    Strangely enough,     %
the   women   have    red   hair.      .1
Their   mode of burial resembles
the Peruvian.    The dead are placed
in boxes in a sitting posture. haida types.
The climate is milder than that of the coast of the opposite
mainland.      In   winter   the   sky   is   nearly   always   overcast.
Though there are areas suitable for agriculture, a light, sandy
soil prevails.
W CHAPTER   IV.
Gold Discovered
in Atlin.
ATLIN.
In the autumn of 1898, through the discovery of gold, Atlin
came before the world's notice. Previously, it was only the
hunting ground of the Taku-Teslin Indians.
So little was known about it, that during
its first year as a mining camp, there was
uncertainty as to whether it was in British Columbia, the
North-West Territories, or Alaska. Now, in 1906, it is the
foremost Placer Camp in British Columbia.
It is easily reached. Car Cross, a station on " The White
Pass and Yukon Route," 68 miles from Skagway, is the railway divisional point. Twice a week during the summer a
steamer plying on Lake Tagish makes connection with the train.
In the early morning we arrive at Taku, the stopping place
of the steamer. After two and a half miles of railway portage
we come to Lake Atlin, and another steamer conveys us to
the town of Atlin on the opposite side of the lake. It has
taken twenty-four hours to come from Skagway.
Atlin   Lake   is   the   largest   and,   wo   believe,   the   most
beautiful lake in the province.    It is encircled by snow-clad
-& lÉSy mountains,   and   out   of   its   limpid
The  largest I,ake , . . ,     ,       mi .   .
.    ,«    _     . waters rise many islands.    Through its
in the Province. ,_ .    -        Axl.x     & .    ,   6
outlet—the   Atnnto   River—it  becomes
one   of   the   head   waters  of   the  Yukon   River.      The   lake
no Geography of British Columbia.
Ill
runs north and south. Midway on its eastern side, it receives
the water of Pine Creek, the Creek where the first gold was
discovered.
Pine Creek and its tributaries, especially Spruce, Gold Run
and Boulder, have been
the mainstay of Atlin.
Traces of gold, however,
can be found in every
creek. Without doubt, as
rich ground as any worked
will yet be located. Atlin
gold is generally coarse and
is worth about $16.00 an
' ounce. The largest nugget
found weighed 48 ounces
and was valued at $875.00.
The methods of mining followed may be placed under four
heads: (1) Individual Placer Mining, (2) Hydraulicing, (3)
Dredging, (4) Steam-shovel.
In Individual Mining the gold-bearing gravel is handled with pick
and shovel. When the gravel is thrown into sluice boxes, the gold
being heavy sinks to the bottom arid is held between "riffles," while
the "tailings" (i.e. the gravel without the gold) are
dumped at the end of the boxes. When a " clean-up "
is made, the water is turned off, and the riffles—either
poles or blocks—are taken out. Then the material in the boxes is
"panned," that is, washed with a peculiar rotary motion in a shallow
iron pan. Gradually the pan is emptied of its contents until naught
remains but black sand and gold. The black sand is got rid of by
blowing and using a magnet. If the gold is fine, quicksilver is used
to collect it.
Where gravel is moved by hand, the ground must be very rich in
gold in order to pay more than wages.    Hydraulicing is a manner of
DREDGE at gold run.
Sluicing and
Panning. 112 Geography of British Columbia.
working ground that would not pay the individual miner. Water
under high pressure is directed through a " giant " or steel pipe against
a bank of gravel. By the force of the water the bank is broken down
and passes as a muddy stream through the sluice boxes.
HYDRAULIC MTNINÔ.
But hydraulicing has its drawbacks. There must be a good head
of water and adequate dump. These are often impossible on flat land.
In that case dredging becomes a feasible method of working. The
dredge works by electricity. A chain of buckets lifts the gravel and
tumbles it into a revolving cylinder fitted with jets of water. Through
holes in the cylinder, the finer material drops into sluice boxes, whereas
the boulders, too big for the holes, roll into chutes which dump them at
the side of the dredge.
Ground that is too hard, or that contains too many boulders, to be
dredged successfully is worked by steam-shovel. When the shovel has
filled itself, it empties its load into dump-cars which convey the gravel
to sluice-boxes.
The town of Atlin is charmingly situated on the lake front.
Though here and there tents remain as relics of pioneer days, they
have in general been replaced by comfortable cabins and houses.
The public buildings are well built with a view to permanence.
Delicacies as well as necessities are found in the shops, for bacon
and beans no longer form the staple diet.    In the gardens all the Geography of British Columbia.
113
common vegetables are raised. Indeed potatoes, turnips, carrots
and cauliflower have a sweetness and lettuce a crispness that is
unusual. Atlin is a relay station of the Dominion Telegraph.
On account of leakage of current along the line, messages
from Ashcroft to Dawson are here strengthened.
Dog-
Mushing.
No better roads are to be found anywhere than those leading
to the principal creeks. A rubber-tired carriage and spirited
horse—for Atlin is quite civilized—enable these roads to be
enjoyed. In winter, dogs are more used than
horses. One in front of another, with the most
sagacious as leader, they are harnessed to a.narrow
sleigh.    Without rein or whip they trot steadily along the trail
at the rate of six miles an
hour. The "musher," or
driver, runs behind the
sleigh. " Mush " is a corruption of the French word
marche, and means "go
ahead."
DOG team.
The summer though
short is warm and full of
sunshine. In June there is no night, for the sun rises about
two and sets toward ten. Between sunset and sunrise there is
bright twilight. Winter weather is on the whole moderate.
So dry is the air that even intense cold is not much felt.
Three to four feet is the ordinary depth of snow. Spring is
rather a tedious season, because, though the snow goes off the
ground in April, the ice in the lake does not break up until May. 114
Geography of British Columbia.
Before leaving Atlin we must visit the Llewellyn Glacier, so
far as known, the largest inland glacier on this continent. We go
to the south end of   the  lake, and, following   a  rough trail
TOWN OF ATLIN.
The largest
Inland Glacier.
from the lakeside, emerge upon a flat covered with gravel and
sand. At every step our feet sink into the loose soil. Now we
have gained the ice! By cutting out steps
we climb to its surface. The ice looks black.
That is on account of the powdered rock.
Though the walking is good, we have to be on the lookout
for crevasses or rents in the ice. To fall into one of these means
destruction. Some of them are narrow, and we can jump
across; at other times we have to retrace our steps. Lying
at the edge of one crevasse, we look down upon a waterfall
of thirty feet, imprisoned in ice of a heavenly blue. Hours
pass as we walk, but the air is so exhilarating that we feel
no fatigue. This glacier extends for sixty miles as one continuous ice-field, out of which rise isolated mountain peaks.
The Atlin Electoral District extends as far south as the
Stikine River, up which many an expedition tried to gain the
Klondike in 1898. Telegraph Creek is the head of navigation, a
Hudson's Bay post, and a station of the Dominion Telegraph.
From it a pack-trail goes to Dease Lake.    On Dease River, a Geography of British Columbia.
115
tributary of the Liard River, gold-mining has been carried on for
many years. The Liard country contains thousands of acres
never yet looked upon by a white man. It, as well as Atlin,
forms part of the Cassiar mining district.
The whole of this northern country abounds in game. There
are moose and caribou; mountain sheep and mountain goat;
grizzly, cinnamon, brown, black, and silver-tip
bears; wolves and wolverines; black, silver, and
red foxes ; lynx and -marten. Of the countless
ducks, the mallards, teal and butter balls are considered least
fishy. Blue, willow, and spruce grouse; geese, and ptarmigan,
complete the list of game birds. In the lakes aire trout,
grayling and white fish.
Animals
and Birds. CHAPTER V.
NEW WESTMINSTER DISTRICT.
The New Westminster District comprises sixteen municipalities, two of them urban, namely Vancouver and New Westminster. Each rural municipality is governed by a reeve and
council; the
cities by a
mayor and
council.
The Fraser
River is the
life-giving
artery of the dis-      5*
trict.   By it the rich     °^
soil has been deposited, and to it come countless salmon.
Farming, fishing and lumbering are the main industries.
Though agriculture is general, it is pursued with special
success in Chilliwack, Langley, Delta and Richmond municipalities. Hay, oats, and barley are
the usual crops. Vegetables are superior in
quality and size. Fruit culture is most successfully carried on at
Chilliwack, Maple Ridge, and Mission.   The fruit includes apples,
116
U.S.TERRITORY
Fertility of the
lyower Fraser. Geography of British Columbia. 117
pears, peaches, grapes, plums, prunes, and cherries. At Chilliwack hops are grown to perfection.
The soil consists of clay covered by an alluvial deposit. This
alluvial deposit is made up of gravel, sand, and mud, mixed with
humus, and varies in depth from one to six feet. In Delta
municipality, however, the alluvium is much deeper.
Dyking has been necessary to protect this fertile land from
the river and from the   sea.     The Chilliwack dyke, following
the Fraser and Chilliwack rivers for twelve to fifteen
Costly      mil     cogt the provincial Government $250,000.   Rich-
Dykes.
mond and Delta have been dyked to keep out the sea,
the expense of the undertaking being borne by the municipalities. In all, about one hundred miles of dykes have been
constructed. The work is done by means of steam dredges
which cut out broad ditches on the inside of the dyke. The
material thus cut out is thrown up in the form of an embankment very much like that prepared for a railroad. Sluices and
openings under and through the dyke provide for the drainage
of the reclaimed land.
The fishing industry centres round Steveston and New Westminster. Steveston, situated on the south side of Lulu Island,
has in summer a population of over 4,000, made up of Chinese,
Japanese, Indians, and Whites, engaged at the canneries and in
fishing. In a good season, from six to eight weeks, enough
money is made to allow a fisherman to be idle, if so disposed,
during the rest of the year. Indians leave sometimes with
$1,800 in cash, and ordinarily with $500 to $1,000.
Five varieties of salmon run in the Fraser River. These are
Sockeye, Spring, Coho, Dog, Humpback. The first three are used for
canning, but the sockeye, on account of its rich flavor and the deep Geography of British Columbia.
jtink color of its meat, is most prized. Dog salmon, though never
canned, is dry-salted and exported to Japan. Humpback,
the smallest variety, is not of much value. There is a
difference between Pacific and Atlantic salmon. The former
go up rivers and lakes to spawn, but die after depositing
their ova.    The latter, after spawning, return to the salt water.
To maintain the supply of fish, hatcheries have been established.
Spawn taken from some lake stream is placed in especially designed
cases at the hatchery.    After the fry come out and  have attained
PISHING FLEET AT THE MOUTH OP THE FRASER RIVER.
sufficient size, they are towards spring put in large boxes which are
then placed in different parts of the river.
During the fishing period there is a weekly close-season of thirty-
six hours. What more engaging sight than that of the fleet as it
rides out to the sand-heads on a Sunday evening ! At least two men
are in each boat, one to throw the net, the other to pull the boat. The
nets are very long, some of them 1,200 feet. One end, having a buoy
attached to it, is thrown out to drift with the tide; the other end is Geography of British Columbia.
119
securely fastened to the boat.    When the buoy sinks, the net is taken
up.    If it does not contain enough fish with which to
Pantrht        £°  ^°  ^e canneiy>  another " drift " is taken.    The
net is supplied by that cannery to which the boat is
bound to deliver.    On arrival at the cannery the fish are counted by a
marker, • for the  fisherman  is  paid  for  each  fish  he  delivers.    The
principal fishing ground is the mouth of the Fraser River as far as the
sand-heads ; but fishing is allowable as far up as Sumas River.
Other fish frequent the Fraser. Sturgeon are taken at some of the
canneries, and the roe shipped as caviare. They are also sent East in
cold storage. Oolachans and smelts are caught in large quantities and
preserved by salting.
The chief logging camps are along the Lillooet and Stave
rivers. Douglas fir and cedar logs are hauled to the streams by
means of horses and steam railways, then rafted
down to the mills at New Westminster. In the form
of planks, boards, and square timber they are sold at
home and abroad. The smaller timber is well fitted for piling,
and finds a ready market in San Francisco.
The Fraser River is tidal as far as Harrison River, a distance
of seventy miles. Formerly, Yale was the head of navigation, but
now, owing to the sediment brought down from thé mountains or
as a result of mining operations, the river has become so filled
between Yale and Chilliwack, that deep-draught steamers do not
run above the latter place. Even below Chilliwack, bars are constantly forming which require to be dredged to keep the passage
clear. Between forty arid fifty years ago, vessels drawing twenty
feet of water went up to the Hudson's Bay fort at Langley
to load salted salmon. At the present time, vessels of that
draught can go only to New Westminster, sixteen miles farther
down the river.
hogging
Camps. 120
Geography of British Columbia.
PRASER RÏVKR BRIDGE,  NEW WESTMINSTER.
Magnificent
Bridge.
A steel truss bridge, built by the province at a cost of one
million dollars, spans the Fraser at New Westminster. The
substructure consists of nine granite piers resting on a foundation of concrete and piles. Great
solidity is required to stand the strain during
seasons of freshet. The bridge has two decks, the lower one for
railways, the upper for vehicles. Over it pass Great Northern
Railway trains from Blaine (on the American side), from Port
Guichon, and from Vancouver.
Agassiz is the site of a Dominion experimental farm and the
starting  place  for   Harrison   Hot   Springs.
Mission is a Canadian Pacific Railway junction, from which a
branch line runs to Seattle.
Ladner's Landing is the shipping-place for the Delta.
New Westminster—the "Royal City"—was the capital of
British Columbia until 1866, the year of union with Vancouver
Island. It is superbly situated on terraced ground on the right bank
of the Fraser, in full view of Baker and Rainier mountains.    Since Geography of British Columbia.
the great fire of 1898, when a space six  blocks long and four blocks
wide was devastated, the business part of the city has been rebuilt.
The  city's water  supply  is  brought   fifteen   miles  from
The Great
„. Coquitlam  lake  at  a  head  of  400 feet.      In July  and
August, all along the water front, canneries are running
to their full capacity.    The leading   factories are  for the making of
boxes   and cans.      An   inter-urban   electric   line   provides   an   hourly
service with Vancouver.
Friday is market day. Farmers come fifteen to twenty miles with
their produce, and thither dealers from Nanaimo, Victoria, Vancouver
and local centres repair to make their purchases.
The Royal City has an insane asylum capable of housing 500
inmates ; it has also a penitentiary and a jail. The penitentiary
is controlled by the Department of Justice, Ottawa ; the jail and the
asylum by the Provincial Government.
4Mi-"=?!5j^^
VANCOUVER HARBOR.
Vancouver is the Terminal City of the Canadian Pacific Railway
and the commercial metropolis of British Columbia. Since the laying
of its foundations in 1885, it has grown to be a city of 55,000
people, and its full growth is not yet attained. 122
Geography of British Columbia.
Vancouver's
Shipping Trade.
The entrance to Vancouver harbor is known as "The Narrows."
The harbor is all that could be desired—land-locked, roomy and of
great depth. The wharves and freight sheds that extend for a
mile along the water front denote the importance
of the shipping. Trade with the Orient steadily
increases. Steamers from China, Japan, Australia,
California, and Alaska are often in port at the same time. The
railway station, substantially built of stone and brick, is within
easy access to the wharves. ï&Èir
The lumber and shingle mills on Burrard Inlet and False Creek are
the most complete of their kind. At the sugar refinery, raw sugar
from Java, Fiji Islands, and South America, is purified. Foundries
,and machine shops are numerous. Shipbuilding yards are growing
in importance.
Paved and boulevarded streets, fine houses and gardens mark the
residential section. Handsome business blocks are built on Granville,
Hastings, and Cordova Streets. The Coast mountains on the opposite
side of the Inlet, afford a beautiful setting to this young seaport city.
Stanley Park, named-in honor of the Governor-General who performed the opening ceremonies, is Vancouver's chief  pleasure resort.
It  forms  a  peninsula  of  which   Brockton   Point is the apex.    The
seven-mile drive along the shore line is one continual feast
of pleasure.    Out of mountains, water, and forest an endless combination of beautiful pictures is furnished.     For
large ferns and gigantic trees the park is justly famous.    The big trees,
300 feet high, are Douglas firs.
Vancouver has a speedy car service, a mountain water supply,
and an efficient sewerage system. Money has been lavishly spent in
building good school houses. Here the McGill University College
of British Columbia is established. A Provincial Normal School
provides for the training of High School graduates who intend to
make a profession of teaching. CHAPTER VI.
YALE DISTRICT.
The  District of   Yale  contains  five   important   valleys:—
Thompson,    Nicola,    Similkameen,    Okanagan,    Kettle.     Its
a resources are  mainly agricultural and mineral.
and Mineral    "^s ^ ^es amios^ wholly within the dry belt its
Yale. climate is exceptionally fine.
By Canadian Pacific
Railway we
emerge from
the New Westminster D i s-
trict. Following the canyon
of the Fraser,
we at length
stop at Yale
Station. Within sight, are
the fine build-
ing and the
well -kept
grounds of a
girls' school
conducted   by
Map of
Yale
District.
123 124
Geography of British Columbia.
Mild
Climate,
an Anglican Sisterhood. Above Yale all the " bars " or shallow
places in the river were worked in the fifties for gold. Since
that time Indians and Chinese have, year after year, mined in
the same places by means of rockers.
At Lytton* the railway departs from the Fraser to follow
its tributary, the Thompson. However, by waggon road we may
follow the Fraser from Lytton to Lillooet, a distance of
forty-six miles. Many fine ranches lie along this route.
So mild is the climate that grapes, watermelons,
tomatoes, and sweet potatoes can be raised. Three miles from
Lytton there is an industrial school for Indian boys where
practical farming is taught. For several years gold-dredging
in the Fraser has been tried. Heretofore, coping with boulders
has been the main obstacle in the way of success.
Spence's Bridge is the station where connection is made
with the Nicola and Similkameen stage. The drive to Nicola
Lake is 45 miles; and to Princeton, situated at the junction of
the Similkameen and Tulameen rivers, 110 miles. Cattle raising
is at present the chief industry both in Nicola and Similkameen.
But immense possibilities centre in the coal beds that underlie
the Nicola valley. In view of the great smelt-
r    i -Q fi m& industry which is being built up in the Yale
District, it will probably not be long before railway communication is obtained with Nicola, that her coal area
may be developed. No less keenly felt is the need for a railway
in the Similkameen, where gold, copper, platinum and other
minerals are found, but where mining is retarded because of
poor transportation. In both valleys conditions are favorable
for fruit culture. Geography of British Columbia.
125
Resuming our railway journey from Spence's Bridge, we
come to Ashcroft, important as the cattle-shipping point of the
grazing districts to the north. As we shall have to return to
Ashcroft if we wish to make our way into Lillooet and
Cariboo, we now pass on to Kamloops* at the forks of the
North and South Thompson. By ranching, mining, trading, and
trapping, the city of Kamloops has attained its present
importance. Among its public buildings of more than
local interest, are a jail and
an old-man's home. It has
sun s bine the year round,
little rain, and mild, short
winters, and is thus a resort
of health - seekers. On the
outlying   ranges   are   about
40,000 head of cattle.    The whole country north of
Kamloops for a hundred miles, is rich in gold and
silver.     Deposits  of copper,  iron, quicksilver, and
coal have been more or less opened up.
Following the shore of the beautiful Shuswap Lake we come
to Sicamous, and there take the Shuswap and Okanagan railway
in order to reach the greatest wheat producing
area in British Columbia—the Okanagan. Ender-
by, on the Shuswapf River, has a mill where
wheat, not only of the valley but of the region about Moose
Jaw, in the Province of Saskatchewan, is turned into flour.    A
* Kamloops is an Indian word meaning the "meeting of the waters."
f Formerly known as the Spallumcheen river.
ASHCROFT.
A Health
Resort.
Great
Wheat Belt. 126
Geography of British Columbia.
day's output, when the mill is running to its full capacity,
is two hundred and fifty barrels. Armstrong, 15 miles from
Enderby, though small, is an important and busy town. Under
the co-operative system the farmers run their own flour mill and
butter factory.
Between Enderby and Armstrong the country is comparatively flat and the soil is for the most part a clay loam. The
farms therein situated are of moderate size. One of them,
which will serve as a type, contains about 1,400 acres. Of this
amount 600 acres are arable. Timber and meadow lands make
up the balance. All the wheat is fall sown, and the average
yield is thirty to thirty-five bushels an acre. Two hundred
sheep, eighty head of cattle, seventy-five horses, and one
hundred hogs comprise the live stock. Coyotes are troublesome to sheep, the bounty of two dollars a head not serving
to reduce their number.
Yernon, prettily situated and the terminus of the railway,
is the most populous town in the Okanagan. Between it and
Armstrong the country is rolling and made up of bush and
wheatlands. Here are the big ranches, some containing 14,000
acres. On a ranch of such size about a thousand head of cattle
are kept, and approximately 600 tons of wheat
grown. These large holdings are a detriment to
the valley. Gradually they are being broken up
into smaller holdings, which can be more completely cultivated
without their owners being at the mercy of laborers.
South of Yernon there stretches an extensive fruit belt in
which Coldstream and Kelowna are the largest producers. In
order that fruit raising may be carried on with profit, great care
Vernon's
Big Ranches Geography of British Columbia.
127
is required. Given the right location as to soil and temperature,
orchards must be thoroughly drained, cultivated, and fertilized.
The  fruit  planted ought to be suitable to the locality,—only
A ** ROUND-UP.
Fruit
Raising
after practical tests can the best varieties be determined.
Frequent and careful spraying are necessary to keep the trees
clean and free from pests. There should also be
judicious pruning, that the trees may be kept in
good shape and their fruitfulness insured. The Coldstream ranch, five miles from Yernon, is the property of Lord
Aberdeen. Many acres are set out with apple, pear, and apricot
trees. Hops are grown with success and in ever increasing
amount. . The hills that flank the ranch are used as ranges
for cattle.
A  steamer runs  on  Okanagan Lake, making calls, among
other places, at Kelowna, Peaehland, and Penticton.
Kelowna is the centre of the Mission Valley, devoted  to fruitgrowing and mixed farming.     Sufficient fruit is raised to export to the 128 Geography of British Columbia.
Kootenays and to Alberta. In Kelowna there is a plant for the making
of evaporated fruits; a cigar factory, in which the tobacco used is
home-grown; and a pork-packing establishment.
Peaehland is on the opposite side of the lake. Thither the fine
climate has attracted many retired farmers from the North-west Provinces.    As the name implies, the land is favorable for peach-growing.
Penticton, at the south end of the lake, is the starting-place of
stages into the Boundary. From it, also, a road goes to the mining
camps in Similkameen.
The Boundary is that country, between the divide of the
Okanagan and the divide of the Columbia, drained by the
Kettle River. The drive from Penticton to
Greenwood is 83 miles, but we need not enter
the Boundary by stage. We cau go to it by railway, not,
however, from the Okanagan. The Columbia and Western
Railway, a branch of the Canadian Pacific, runs from Robson
in Kootenay to Midway in the Boundary; while a branch of
the Great Northern Railway goes to Grand Forks.
Within ten years the Boundary has advanced from obscurity to being the largest producer of copper in Canada.
Were it not for cheap mining and smelting, Boundary ore
would be of too low grade to be profitably worked. But it is
mined largely from open quarries by means of steam shovels,
and smelted on a large scale in huge furnaces, all at small cost.
Grand  Forks   and   Greenwood  are  the   chief  cities.     The
former is well situated at the junction of the Kettle River and
•   4 . „ A its North Fork, in a fertile valley favorable to
Chief Towns.     ,, ,,      «   «   ., , ,,
the growth ot   fruit,   vegetables,   and   gram.
Near it,  is  the Granby Smelter, with a capacity for treating
2,000 tons of ore a day.    A Bessemer plant converts the forty- Geography of British Columbia.
129
five per cent copper matte into a ninety-nine per cent blister
copper.* Up to the present there is no refinery in Canada foi
extracting the gold and silver values. For refining, the blister
copper is sent to the United States.
Phoenix is purely a mining town with the Granby mines on its
outskirts. A railway spur to Eholt connects it with the Columbia and
Western.
*The marketable product of copper smelting.
HARVESTING TTST VERNON, m
CHAPTER VII.
A Coach-
and-Four.
LILLOOET.—CARIBOO.
One    summer   morning  before   dawn,   the   Cariboo
stands in front of the door of the Express Office at Ashcroft.
Soon the coach-and-f our is clattering across
the  Thompson  River bridge,  and with
many a sharp turn   takes   us   up   the
river terraces.    On the light-colored, sandy-looking
soil nothing  is  growing  but   sage-brush  and
wormwood.    Though seemingly barren,  the
soil requires only water to
make   it  fertile.    Proof
of this is afforded at Cache
Creek, where there are vegetable   gardens   from which
potatoes and onions are taken
to Ashcroft to be shipped by
the carload.
After driving fifteen miles
we   pass  from  the  District
of Yale into that of Lillooet.
From   Hat   Creek   a   branch
road runs   to   the town of        J^m
Lillooet.     Perhaps  in   early days,  when it was the  base >of
supplies for the Cariboo gold diggings, this little town enjoyed
130
CARIBOO WAGGON ROAD. Geography of British Columbia.
131
Chinese as
Butter-makers.
greater prosperity than now. The quartz and the placer
mining on Bridge River, and the gold dredging near at hand
in the Fraser, promote its present welfare.
Northward from Clinton, the chief town in the Lillooet
District, the main Cariboo road crosses a plateau, then by four
hills it descends into the valley of Lac La Hache. Whereas up
to this point the settled portions of land have been long distances
apart, along Lac La Hache farm adjoins farm. Dairying is the
principal occupation of the people, all the
butter made being easily disposed of in the
mining region to the north. Chinese are
frequently the butter-makers as well as the general farm
laborers. They are old residents, for they came from California
when the white miners came, upon learning of the discovery
of gold. Not only do they mine and farm, but also " freight."
As there is no railway, goods have to be delivered by freight
waggons, large canvas-covered vans drawn by six or eight
horses. So large and profitable a business is by no means
wholly in the hands of Chinese. They freight only for their
own countrymen.
The divisional point for Horsefly and Bullion is 150-Mile-
House. Though gold was discovered in the Horsefly country
in 1859, it was not found in such quantities as to hold men
in the face of richer strikes made farther north. Though
well-nigh abandoned, the Horsefly was never wholly so. On
the very ground where the first gold was taken out, an
Hydraulic Company is now operating. But the hard character
of the gravel, poor dump, and difficulty in obtaining labor
have retarded development. 132
Geography of British Columbia.
The road from 150-Mile-House to Bullion passes through a
Sparsely settled section well fitted for stock-raising. Even at
an altitude of 3,000 feet, farming is successful.   This is evident
from the fields of fine oats we see at Big Lake.
Greatest Bullion is purely a mining camp. Its cluster of
M. houses,   comprising   offices,   store,  bunk   houses,
boarding house, hospital, shops and stables, form
the neatest little settlement in Cariboo. On account of the
large extent of high-grade gravels and the magnitude of the
hydraulic plant, Bullion surpasses all other properties of its
kind on the continent. A visit to the camp garden reveals
almost every kind of vegetable. Wild fruits also abound—
strawberries, raspberries, cranberries, blueberries, huckleberries,
service berries, and soap berries. The last mentioned are very
bitter and used by Indians as a tonic. When stirred in a bowl
they froth like soapy water, hence the name.
About the month of August, Pacific salmon, which have
come up the Fraser and Quesnel rivers, arrive at Quesnel Lake,
four miles from Bullion. Recently a fish-ladder has been made,
to enable them to get above the dam at the lower end of the
lake, because formerly the salmon were so tired out by their
long journey of about seven hundred miles up stream that-
they could not make headway against, the swift water coming
through the sluice gates. Baffled again and again in their
efforts, they at length died of exhaustion.
From Quesnel Forks, a small settlement at the junction of
the north and south forks of the Quesnel River, a trail leads
to Barkerville by way of Keithley Creek. The journey to
Barkerville would be much shortened by taking this route, and, Geography of British Columbia.
133
moreover, there would be the satisfaction of following in the
footsteps of the men who discovered Barkerville Creeks; nevertheless the stage returns to 150-Mile-House and continues by
the main Cariboo road.
Down grade we go to Soda Creek, the next stopping place
and the first point of   contact of the road with the Fraser
River. Here a wire rope ferry gives access to Chilcotin, one
of the best grazing districts in the province. Another mode
of entry is from 150-Mile-House by ferrying the Fraser at the
mouth of Chimney Creek. Extensive meadow lands lie on
either side of the Chilcotin River. Bunch grass provides feed
for large herds of cattle, and the climate is so tempered by
Chinook winds that the animals do not need shelter in winter. 134
Geography of British Columbia.
The Fraser is navigable from Soda Creek to Quesnel, a
distance of sixty miles. So strong is the current that while
the stern-wheel steamer takes nine hours to make the trip up
stream, the return is made in one-quarter of that time.
Precipitous banks, wooded to the top, border the river. When
navigation closes, the stage runs through to Quesnel, passing
on its way fine cattle ranches and farms. The altitude is
sufficiently low to admit of wheat being ripened. At Quesnel
there is a floui* mill with all modern appliances, also a lumber
mill. The timber is mainly fir, the largest trees measuring
about forty inches in girth, twelve feet from the stump.
Well-stocked stores indicate that Quesnel is the base of supplies for a wide area.
The last section of the road is from Quesnel to Barkerville. Up, up we climb until we reach a summit of 5,000
feet, and the famous Lightning Creek comes in sight. Tailings, old timbers, and falling cabins tell us that here in years
gone   by   hundreds   ^gg§f||      H^fe^
Deep Gravel     » i    j jdk ÈÉ*.
* of   men   worked
Mining. .,T       .   , ,
with pick and
shovel. But Lightning Creek is
not wholly deserted. Mining still
goes on, though the modern ^
method differs from that of early
days. By boring, it has been discovered that below the thirty feet
of surface-gravel worked by the old miners, there is a stratum
of clay about seventy feet thick, beneath which are other
gravels carrying gold.    To work these deep gravels a shaft is
CARIBOO CAMERON S Geography of British Columbia.
135
sunk to bed-rock, that the gravel may be hoisted to the
surface for sluicing. Deep gravel mining is likewise carried
on at Slough Creek and Willow River.
On the fourth day after leaving Ashcroft, the stage arrives at
Barkerville, the end of the Cariboo Waggon Road. This road is
280 miles long, and was originally longer, for it began at Yale.
As is well known, it was built in the time of Governor Douglas
and was rendered necessary by the influx of miners in the opening
sixties. To keep it in good repair, thousands of dollars are spent
annually. Barkerville is situated among mountains, itself at an
altitude of 4,000 feet, too high up for either vegetables or fodder
to be grown. One long straggling street that runs by Williams
Creek comprises the town. Williams, the richest creek in
Cariboo, has already produced $20,000,000. Nor has all the
gold yet been taken out. Balsam, tamarac, spruce and pine
are the timber trees.
end of the stage line, a big northern
It is the New Caledonia of the early
From Quesnel one may go by trail to
many a Hudson's Bay trading post established a
century ago and still occupied to maintain the
trade in furs. Buffalo and elk are extinct, but marten, lynx,
mink, otter, beaver, fox, bear, moose and caribou are plentiful.
The caribou or reindeer has an excellent food in the lichen
that hangs in threadlike masses from trees. In the sixties,
the Hudson's Bay forts were enlivened by the coming of
prospectors who by hundreds drifted up from Barkerville
and the Fraser River. As a result of the prospecting, gold
was discovered in the Omineea,  the country north of Fort St.
Though this is the
country lies beyond.
explorers.
New
Caledonia 136
Geography of British Columbia.
James.   By 1871 there were 1,200 people in Omineea, and the
output for the year was $400,000.
Lakes and mountains make up so large a portion of New
Caledonia that the productive area is limited. Yet there are
many tracts suitable for agriculture and cattle raising. The
gardens at the forts prove that .vegetables and grain can be
__ __^^ grown.    Summer frosts are prevalent,
S^w but these will probably disappear
J\ as the country becomes settled.
Settlement is out of the question,
however, until a railway is built
and with it roads and trails made
to connect.
Part of this vast area will be
opened up by the Grand Trunk
Pacific Railway which will enter
the province by the Yellowhead
Pass. Thence by following the
Fraser, Nechacco, Bulkley and
Skeena rivers a water-grade can be
maintained to the coast.
Peopling New Caledonia are about
5,000 Indians called the Western Dénés, among whom for
many years Oblate Missionaries have labored. At Fort St.
James there is a prosperous Mission. Stuart Lake, on which
the Fort is situated, is a beautiful expanse of water, surrounded
by lofty hills, and with the Rocky Mountains in plain view.
Salmon and sturgeon are found in its waters.
BARKERVILLE. Kootenay
District.
(BflW***-
CHAPTER VIII.
kootenay district.
1. Columbia River Valley. 2. Kootenay River Valley.
The District of Kootenay occupies the south-eastern corner
of the province. In shape it is a triangle, with the International
Boundary as base and with its apex just above the "big bend"
of the Columbia River. The Selkirk range of mountains
bisects  it  lengthwise  into  East   and   West   Divisions.     East
137 138
Geography of British Columbia.
Kootenay differs from the Western Division in containing
extensive coal deposits and a considerable amount of land fit
for cultivation. Too mountainous for agricultural lands, West
Kootenay is almost entirely devoted to gold-copper and silver-
lead mining.
The Columbia River, with its tributaries, drains both
Divisions. Taking its rise in Columbia Lake, situated in the
valley between the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains, it flows
northward past Windermere and Golden. The Windermere
country contains many fine farms and affords good pasturage
for cattle. Timber, consisting of fir, tamarac, pine and cedar,
is plentiful ; and the mineral prospects are good. A waggon
road extends from Cranbrook on the south to Golden on the north. I
Golden, at the junction of the Kicking Horse River and
the Columbia, may be called the first Canadian Pacific Railway
station in British Columbia, because the intervening
stations between it and the Rocky Mountains
come within the boundaries of the Canadian
National Park. It is chiefly a distributing centre.
Lumbering, a little mining and stock-raising are carried on in
its neighborhood. Below Golden the railway for a space
parallels the Columbia. Then while the former makes its way
through the Selkirks by Roger's Pass and the Illecillewaet
River, the latter continues its course to the north until with a
gigantic swerve the " big bend " is formed and the direction of
the stream is reversed. Railway and river come together again
at Revelstoke. The Big Bend attracted thousands of miners
in the sixties and produced in its best year about $5,000,000.
Placer mining still goes  on,  though not to the same extent.
Golden,
and the
Big Bend. Geography of British Columbia. 139
North and west, there is a large mica-bearing belt, but the
expense of production, where everything has to be packed
in or out on mules' backs, is too great to permit of its development. In addition to minerals, there are agricultural lands,
some of which, however, are subject to overflow during
high water.
KICKING HORSE CANON, C.P.R.
Revelstoke   is   a   supply   centre   and  divisional   point.    It
spreads over  a  large  area, for  around  the  railway station  a
town   has   grown   up   a   mile   and   a   half   away   from   the
old town.     Workshops for the Pacific Division
of the railroad are here  on  a  large  scale.   In
Workshops.
them we see huge engines that have been smashed
in snow-slide or in  collision,  awaiting  repairs.   From Revel- 140
Geography of British Columbia.
stoke a railway spur  runs  south  to   Arrowhead,  where   close
connection is made with the lake steamers.
East of Arrowhead is the Lardeau section, including Fish
River and Trout Lake. Though this has long been recognized
a,s a mineral-bearing region,  development was slow, until the
WASHING GOLD.
discovery of rich gold quartz near Poplar Creek, attracted
both men and capital. Improved means of travel being desirable, a railway has been built from Lardeau, on Kootenay Lake,
to the lower end of Trout Lake. Thence by steamer and
waggon road the way is open to Arrowhead.
The Arrow lakes, two in number, are long and narrow.
As mountains rise abruptly from the shores, there is little
land fit for cultivation except what may be at the mouth of
creeks flowing into the lakes, in the flats along the shores, or
in the loamy slopes that here and there form the base of the
mountains.    Such fertile patches would be insignificant were Geography of British Columbia. 141
it not for the value lent them by the extreme ruggedness of
the country and by the large mining population to be supplied
with fruit and vegetables. From Halcyon Hot Springs, a
favorite resort of Kootenay people, we steam ahead to Nakusp,
where the steamers required for the Columbia River and Arrow
Lake service are built. These are fine boats of three decks,
luxuriously furnished.
Nakusp is the terminal of a railway that taps the chief
silver-lead district in Kootenay, namely the Slocan, situated on
the eastern side of Slocan Lake, with Sandon as its centre.
It is in the slate which comprises the country rock over an area of
about one hundred square miles that the principal bodies of galena, or
sulphide of lead, occur.    South of the slate formation is the
„. " dry ore '' belt, i.e., a granite formation containing quartz
veins high in silver. Actual mining began in the Slocan in
1891. After ten years of advancement there came a falling off in production owing to depression of the lead market and the low price
offered for silver. Under the stimulus of a bounty granted by the
Dominion Government, for five years, on every ton of lead mined and
smelted in Canada, mines that have been shut down are being re-opened.
The Slocan is exceedingly mountainous. Because near the tops of
mountains, rocks are more exposed than at lower levels, outcrops of ore
have usually been discovered at high altitudes. This has not been a
disadvantage ; for ore so situated can be mined by running tunnels, a
method cheaper than that of sinking a shaft, inasmuch as expensive
machinery is not required.
In addition to the railway from Nakusp to Sandon, there is
a narrow-gauge line between Sandon and Kaslo. An outlet to
the south is provided by a steamer that runs on Slocan Lake,
connecting at Slocan City with a railway to Slocan Junction,
half way between Nelson and Robson. 142
Geography of British Columbia.
From Nakusp there is an unbroken run down Lower Arrow
Lake to Robson, where two trains are waiting, one bound for
Nelson, the other for Rossland.    We choose
CSÙëS^^'    the latter because as far as  Trail it follows
~^9 WSÊÊÊÊ    tne Columbia River.    On approaching Trail a
;' -:~ group of buildings painted black may be seen.
0/cjj BlpllBdl    These,  covering a space of forty-five acres,
^BSHlSBiW    are ^e ^ar^es^ lead-copper reduction works
in Canada.    Refined silver and pig lead are
produced and a plant has been installed for
the manufacture of
lead pipe.
As the crow
flies, Rossland is
about five miles
from Trail, but it
is so much higher
in elevation that
the railway, in its
switchback ascent,
covers double the
distance.
SMELTER.
In 1894 the Rossland mining camp began active production. At
the close of ten years its total yield in gold, silver, and
copper amounted to $26,000,000, gross value. The chief
contributing mine has been " Le Roi." And next to it in
War Eagle " and " Centre Star."
Rossland's
Output.
output, the
A study of the rocks has shown that the city of Rossland Geography of British Columbia.
143
stands on the neck or central area of an old volcano. The
ore veins that are being exploited are above the town on the
side of Red Mountain, not in the neck of the volcano but near
its edge.    The greatest depth so far reached in mining is 1,600
A short distance beyond Trail the Columbia River crosses the
International Boundary and makes its way to the Pacific Ocean
through the State of Washington. The Le Roi smelter at Northport,
a few miles south of the boundary line, obtains almost all its ore
from Rossland, with which place it is connected by the Red Mountain
Railroad.
The Kootenay River rises in the Rocky Mountains, not far
from the headwaters of the Columbia. Indeed so near do
these two rivers come that at Canal Flat they are separated
by a low divide only one-quarter of a mile in width.
~)° enay      The canal constructed across the divide, to divert
the water of Kootenay River into the Columbia,
is closed by order of the Government; for the reason that, as
the Kootenay flows in part through United States, the diversion of the stream was likely to give rise to international
complications. Throughout its length of 113 miles, from Canal
Flat to Tobacco Plains, the Kootenay is navigable; and if the
canal were open, a steamer could go all the way from Tobacco
Plains to Golden. When it becomes more widely known how
fertile is the land of the upper Kootenay Yalley, settlers cannot
fail to be attracted.
Before the coming of the Southern Railway, Fort Steele
on the left bank of the Kootenay, midway between Canal Flat
and Tobacco Plains, was an important town. Since 1864,
placer mining has been carried on in its vicinity.    Thither, to 144
Geography of British Columbia.
Crowsnest Pass
Coal Mines.
accommodate the early miners and to keep their gold from going
across the line, the Dewdney Trail was constructed from Yale.
The valley known as Tobacco Plains is fertile and sparsely
settled. Years ago it was employed by the Hudson's Bay
Company as a winter range for their horses. From it a trail
leads to the petroleum fields of the Flathead. Another trail
into the same oil region starts at Elko. Both are well-worn
paths used by the Kootenay Indians when they went to hunt
buffaloes east of the Rockies. The principal seepage of oil,
so far as known, is at Sage Creek where, near a spring of
water, several pools are covered with a thick dark-green oil.
The British Columbia Southern, or
Crowsnest Pass Railway, crosses Southern
Kootenay from east to west. In 1897,
simultaneously with
railroad construction
work, coal mining
was started in the
region of the Crowsnest Pass. When
the railway reached
Coal Creek, several
thousand tons of
coal were ready for
shipment. Besides
the colliery at Coal
Creek there are those at Michel and Morrissey. A fan estimate
of the extent of the coal fields is two hundred and thirty
square miles. One-half of the coal produced is made into
coke at Fernie, Michel and Morrissey.
TIPPLE AND COKE OVENS AT MICHEL. Geography of British Columbia.
145
The coke ovens are built of fire brick, in double rows, with supporting walls of masonry. A railway runs along the top of each battery.
Over it cars are hauled to charge the ovens with slack coal, through a
circular hole at the top. For about seventy-two hours the coal is
burned, that is, the gases are driven off. Almost pure carbon is left
behind. When drawn from the oven the coke is firm and has a
metallic lustre.
The City of Fernie, in the heart of the coal area, is the
most important place in East Kootenay. Into it Great Northern trains run. Thus two railways give markets to the coal
fields for their products.
Cranbrook, farther west, situated on a prairie and within
view of the Selkirks and Rockies, ranks next to Fernie in importance. It is a lumbering centre and has the railway workshops. From it a railway runs to the lead and silver mines of
Kimberley.
The chief lead producer in Canada is the St. Eugene silver-
lead mine at Moyie. By means of machinery the ore is sorted
in a huge concentrator, the largest in the
province, and shipped as concentrates.
After leaving Moyie the British Columbia
Southern passes through the Goat River mineral section to
Kootenay Landing, its terminus, whence a steamer runs all
the year round to Nelson.
When we parted with the Kootenay River at Tobacco
Plains we did so with the expectation of meeting it again,
after it had passed through the States of Montana and Idaho.
Upon recrossing the boundary line the river expands into
Kootenay Lake, then issues from the west arm of the lake to
join its old neighbor, the Columbia. The confluence of the
two streams is at Robson.
Moyie
Silver-lead Mine. 146
Geography of British Columbia.
Nelson, on the west arm, is the third city in importance in
the province. In 1886 ore was accidentally discovered on
Toad Mountain, so in the following year, the townsite of Nelson
was located. The Hall Mines smelter was built for the treatment of copper-silver, but latterly its work has been confined
to lead ores. Nelson is well built and beautifully situated. By
railway or steamer it is in close touch with the rest of
Kootenay and also with the Boundary. Southward is the
Ymir Camp, where the ore is chiefly free milling gold, and
where the largest stamp mill in the province is to be found.
Eastward are orchards along the west arm as far as Procter;
and westward, in the. Kootenay River, are the Bonnington
Falls, which supply Trail, Rossland and Nelson with light
and power.
BONNINGTON FALLS, KOOTENAY RIVER. APPENDIX.
DISTRICTS.
British Columbia is divided for political purposes into Electoral and
Federal Districts ; for judicial purposes, into Counties. There are in addition
school districts, mining and land divisions. From time to time the boundaries
of the Districts are rearranged, the convenience of the people affected and the
. geographical features being, as a rule, the determining factors in the rearrangement.
A.
electoral districts.
1.
Alberni.
13.
Grand Forks.
25.
Richmond.
2.
Atlin.
14.
Greenwood.
26.
Rossland.
3.
Cariboo.
15.
Islands.
27.
Saanich.
4.
Chilliwack.
16.
Kamloops.
28.
Similkameen.
5.
Columbia.
17.
Kaslo.
29.
Skeena.
6.
Comox.
18.
Lillooet.
30.
Slocan.
7.
Cowichan.
19.
Nanaimo.
31.
Vancouver City.
8.
Cranbrook.
20.
Nelson.
32.
Victoria.
9.
Delta.
21.
Newcastle.
33.
Yale.
10.
Dewdney.
22.
New Westminster.
34.
Ymir.
11.
Esquimalt.
23.
Okanagan.
12.
Fernie.
24.
Revelstoke.
147 148
Appendix.
B.
federal districts.
COUNTIES.
1. Atlin.
1. Comox-Atlin.
2. Cariboo.
2. Nanaimo.
3. Nanaimo.
3. New Westminster.
4. Kootenay.
4. Kootenay.
5. Vancouver.
5. Vancouver City.
6. Victoria.
6. Victoria City.
7. Westminster.
7. Yale-Cariboo.
8. Yale.
population of cities and towns.
1st class—Vancouver
Victoria   .    .    .
2nd class—New Westminster
Nanaimo .    .    .   .
Nelson      .    .    .
Rossland .
Fernie ....
Revelstoke
Ladysmith
Kamloops
55,000
25,000
6,500
6,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,200
3,057
2,200
3rd class-
-Greenwood
2,000
Trail      .    .    .
1,800
Kaslo
1,500
Grand Forks   .
1,455
Cumberland
1,149
Phoenix
1,050
Slocan .      .    .
950
Vernon       .    .
800
Sandon       .    .
551
railways.
Canadian Pacific, main line and branches  1,265 miles.
Great Northern 180     1
Others       .      .      .      . 130     "
Under construction : Total      ;      *      • X'5^5
Spence's Bridge to Nicola Valley by Canadian Pacific.
Boundary to Similkameen by Great Northern.
Roads  5,800     "
Trails  4,500     "     i?o6   l?§? 

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