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An ethnological survey of Canada. - Report of the committee, consisting of Professor D.P. Penhallow (Chairman),… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1901

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Array 408 REPORT—1901.
insufficient to induce tbem to perfect the processes necessary for making
them accurately interchangeable. In short, the British Association screw
gauge of 1884 was of too complicated a form to allow of its accurate
realisation except at a cost which has proved prohibitive.
That very accurate gauges with rounded threads can be produced is
not disputed, but the difficulty of doing so for small screws is very great.
The names of three firms in America and of one in Germany have been
proposed to the Committee as being competent, and probably/willing, to
undertake the production of gauges and tools of the rounded tMread. The
Birmingham Small Arms Company, who produce interchangeable work on
a very large scale, and to a high degree of perfection, use only round-
topped screws, fitting all over, for bicycle work; and/Mr. Clements
exhibited gauges used by that firm illustrating his paper read before the
Section at Bradford. This firm does not produce these gauges for sale.
The American firm of Pratt & Whitney have manufactured a large
number of sets of gauges and screwing tools for the English Government,
but declined to submit these to the Committee on/he ground that they
were not sufficiently accurate to satisfy us. After long delay they
submitted to us three specimens, which were/reported upon by this
""Committee at the Dover meeting. Though the best we had seen, they
were distinctly inferior to the screws used ivL the ordinary micrometers
purchasable in tool shops, which have threads of the character which
this Committee has recommended for adoption.
While the round thread is only produced satisfactorily by a very few
firms, who have made a special study of tnis class of work, the Committee
believe that the form of thread they have proposed can be made in
any fairly equipped tool room; and/that this facility in producing or
obtaining the necessary appliances/must very greatly encourage the
maintenance of an accurate standara in small screws, to promote which
has been the object in the view ofahe Committee. If, on the other hand,
these tools and gauges are very special, and perhaps costly, appliances,
obtained only by the refined/processes of certain factories, their use
in workshops will extend slowly. The Committee aim at putting the
matter on such a footing that the common everyday appliances in the
hands of workmen shall be of a good order of accuracy, and this is
only possible if they are produced easily and cheaply.
It is not suggested/ by the Committee that the form of thread
recommended is the best for all purposes and for all sizes of screws, and
they have expressly excluded sizes of screws below No. 11 British Association gauge, which are produced by pressure and not by cutting. Their
recommendation applies only to the screws used in instrument making
and similar trades for assembling parts, of which screws a large
proportion—perhaps 95 per cent.—are of brass. Considerations affecting
the use of screws for other purposes have been put before the Committee,
especially byJKlr. Clements in the case of bicycle and gun screws, and by
Mr. Taylor In the case of lens screws. These have thrown suggestive
light on thjrquestion before the Committee, and will be closely considered
by them preappointed.
Since/the last report the Committee's proposals have attracted much
attention, but no sets of gauges or tools of the new thread have been
submitted to them, and so far their recommendation has had no practical
result. They are informed, however, that one firm of manufacturers in
England is occupied in producing tools and gauges for their own use, and ON  THE  SMALL SCREW  GAUGE. 409
if they succeed in producing them of satisfactory accuracy will submit
them to the Committee.
Mr. .0. P. Clements, the author of a paper on screw threads used in
bicycles, read before the Section at Bradford, has been elected to the
Mr. W. Taylor, who has taken a leading part in ^^standardisation of
the screws of photographic lenses, and has been in communication with
the Committee, has also been elected a member^/"
Dr. R. T. Glazebrook has been elected a m-ernber of the Committee.
Correspondence has passed between the^Jommittee and Dr. R. T. Glaze-
brook, the Director of the National Efeysical Laboratory, respecting the
examination of screw gauges, and tjare following arrangements have been
The National Physical L^ooratory will undertake to examine and to
report upon gauges of the British Association submitted to them.
The Committee hava^pplied the grant of 45?. made to them at Bradford
to the purchase of apparatus for the examination of gauges by the National
Physical Laboratopy^ and have appointed Mr. C. V. Boys, Lieut.-Colonel
Crompton, Dr.^Kf T. Glazebrook, Mr. W. A. Price, and Colonel Watkin
to be a subcommittee for the expenditure of the grant. The Committee
are of oromon that the previous grant of 45?., made in 1900, will be
insufficient to purchase the necessary apparatus, and recommend their
reappointment, with a grant of 45Z.
Ethnological Survey of Canada.—Report cf the Committee, consisting
of Professor D. P. Penhallow {Chairman), the late Dr. George
M. Dawson (Secretary), Mr. B. W. Brabrook, Professor A. C.
Haddon, Mr. E. S. Hartland, Sir J. G. Bourinot, Mr. B.
Sulte, Mr. C. Hill-Tout, Mr. David Boyle, Mr. C. N. Bell,
Professor E. B. Tylor, Professor J. Mavor, Mr. C. F. Hunter,
and Dr. W. P. Ganong.
Tx recording the work of the past year we are called upon to notice the
very sudden decease of Dr. G. M. Dawson, which occurred at Ottawa on
March 2, 1901, as the result of bronchitis. Dr. Dawson had been
identified with the work of this Committee from the time of its organisation, and he served at first as its Chairman, and later as its Secretary,
■which position lie held at the time of his death. His well known ethnological studies in connection with the Indians of the Pacific coast and the
keen practical interest which he constantly manifested in the prosecution
of such work gave special weight to his connection with this Committee
the object of which commanded his warmest sympathy and his deepest
interest; and we are keenly sensible of the great loss we have sustained
in the removal of one whose broad interest in the progress of scientific
research, and whose intelligent appreciation of the many difficult problems
connected with the prosecution of ethnological work in a country where
the conditions are changing so rapidly, gave him exceptional qualifications
for the guidance of our work and imparted to those especially engaged in
collecting data a never-failing stimulus and enthusiasm.
Renewed  negotiations with certain of the provincial Governments
have been opened during the year with a view to having the work of this
fOmmittee placed upon a more permanent basis, and it is hoped that
vourable results may appear before our next annual report is made. 410 REPORT—1901.
Dr. Ganong has undertaken the organisation of systematic work in
New Brunswick, with special reference to the remnants of Indian tribes
in that section of the country, and a somewhat definite statement of
progress in this direction may be anticipated for the next report.
The anthropometric work of the Committee has been in progress for
the last three years, and material is steadily accumulating which will
ultimately be placed in competent hands for final analysis.
Mr. Leon Germ, whose very acceptable work upon the Indians of
Lorette was reported upon last year, has continued his studies with
reference to the Iroquois of Caughnawaga; but the material is not
sufficiently advanced to make it available for the purposes of the present
Mr. A. F. Hunter has shown continuous activity in the ethnology of
Ontario. He has published in the ' Archaeological Report of Ontario for
1900 his third contribution to the bibliography of Ontario archaeology.
In volume iii. of the c Ontario Historical Society ' he has also published
an article on * The Ethnographical Elements of Ontario/ This paper was
prepared in the line of the investigations of this Committee, and, as in the
case of the contributions by Mr. Suite, it will serve as an important basis
for further investigations. Its importance and the fact that the place of
first publication would secure only a limited circulation made it desirable
that a certain number of extra copies should be secured by the Committee
for use in its special work. These are now available, and a copy is
transmitted herewith.
Mr. Hill-Tout has continued his studies of the Salish tribes of British
Columbia. His report for this year deals chiefly with the Halkome'lem
tribes of the Lower Fraser. The evidence, both from his archaeological
investigations and from his linguistic studies, leads him to conclude that
these tribes are comparatively late comers in their present territory, and
that the original undivided home of the Salish stock was not on the shores
and bays or tidal rivers of this coast, each tribe or division having
separate and distinct names for the various kinds of fish and other marine
products, which could not conceivably have been the case had they lived
together here, since fish formed the principal portion of their food from
time immemorial, as their midden-heaps testify. Their stories and myths
accounting for the origin or presence of the salmon and other forms of
marine life in these waters are also widely dissimilar, plainly showing
that they have been independently evolved since the separation of the
tribe into its present divisions.
Another important result has been reached by a comparative study of
the philosophy and social customs of the Salish tribes. It has been found
that their beliefs and customs furnish us with the steps by which the
peculiar totemism of the northern tribes of this coast is reached. It is
seen to be the natural outgrowth and development of an earlier fetishism,
the different cultural planes of the Salish presenting very clearly the
intermediate steps by which the former gave rise to the latter.
The linguistic part of the report, to which the author Has devoted
much time and study, forms a valuable addition to our knowledge of the
Salish tongue. It presents a comprehensive exposition of the grammatical
structure of two important dialects of this family, to which are added
examples of native text and extensive glossaries of Kwa'nthen and
TeiTqeuk terms.
The Committee desire to be reappointed, with a grant of 30£, in
addition to the balance of $46.15 in hand.    The Committee recommend OX NATURAL HISTORY AND  ETHNOGRAPHY  OF MALAY PENINSULA.   41.1
that Mr. C. Hill-Tout, of Abbotsford, British Columbia, be appointed
Secretary, and the Rev. John Campbell, of Montreal, a member of the
sSjitural History and Ethnography  of the Malay Peninsula.—Second
\ Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr.  0.  H. Read (Chair-
\nan), Mr. W. Crooke (Secretary), Professor A. Macalister, and
jRrofessor W. RlDGEWAY.
The Committee have received the following report from Mr. W. W.
Skeat, tfte leader of the expedition in continuation of the report presented
last year :V-
Second Report on Cambridge Exploring Expedition to the Malay Provinces
V* Lower Siam.   Drawn up by W. W. Skeat.
In continuation of my report of last year (in which the route taken by the
Malay States Expedition was described) I have the honour to forward a
report descriptive o\ the ethnographical material collected in so far as it
is possible for me to do so under existing conditions.
I propose also, for^convenience, sake, to preface the ethnographical
part of the report with \ few general remarks on the collections made in
the other departments of science which were represented on the staff of
the expedition.
Afotes on Zoology.
Zoology.—An extensive collection of Vertebrates was made, but this
group has been, comparatively speaking, so well worked that the interest
of the collection is more likely rq consist in extending the range of
species already known than in the Viaking of new or startling additions
to our existing information about the Peninsula. About three or four
new species have, however, already beeW reported.
A few of the most interesting points^about the entire collection, from
a zoological point of view, are :—-
1. The discovery of the first two species of Peripatus found in the
Malay Peninsula.
About thirteen specimens of Peripatus (comprising two species) were
collected by members of the expedition.
The first species was first collected on Bukit BesV (3,000 ft.), in Patani,
by Mr. R. Evans, and the second some time later nyr Mr. F. F. Laidlaw
at Kuala Aring, in Kelantan, both localities being in tfee East Coast States.
A third species was collected some months afterwards (and independently
of the expedition) by Mr. Butler in the West Coast State of Selangor.
All three species are included by Mr. Evans in a new gentjii which he has
called * Eoperipatus.'l
A point of great interest (Mr. Evans tells me) is that iii the earlier
stages of development (e.g., in the size and structure of oVuni) they
resemble the Australian forms, but at a later period (e.g., in the size of
embryo at birth), they more nearly approximate to the American, forms,
to which anatomically they also bear so strong a resemblance that they
have been included in the same sub-family (of Peripatidae).    Mr. Byans
1 Quart. J. Micr. Sc.t vol. xliv., Pt. IV. n.s.


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