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BC Historical Books

Gold dust; how to find it and... how to mine it. An elementary treatise on the methods and appliances… Thomson Stationary Co., Ld. 1898

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Vancouver, B. C.
Thomson Stationery Co.,
Civil Engineering.
Engineer's Pocket Book— Molesworth $ 2 50
Field Engineer— Shunk         35
Levelling (Barometric, Trigonometric and Spirit)
—Baker         65
Spons' Engineer's Tables         60
Roe's Engineers' and Surveyors' Pocket Table
Book, containing ^Logarithms of Numbers from
I to 10,000, Logarithmic Sines and Tangents,
Natural   Sines   and  Co-Sines; and    Traverse
Table         60
Engineering and Architecture—Mosely     7 00
Tables for  finding   strains in   Railway   Bridge
Trusses—Dubois     2 25
Field Practice for laying out Circular Curves—
Trautwine    '     3 00
Drawing and Designing—Leland .-.        85
Curves for Railroads—Trautwine     3 50
Forty Lessons in Engineering—Mitchell         75
Engineer's Pocket Book—Trautwine     5 50
Engineering and Mechanics.
Engineer's Handy Book—Roper  3 50
Practical  Test and   Ready \ Reference   Book—
Stephenson  1 25
Steam Heating for Building—Baldwin  2 25
Practical Instructor for Machinists—Zwicker.... 1 25
Toothed Gearing—Foreman "  2 25
Belts and Pulleys—Cromwell . :  2 50
Treatise on  Toothed  Gearing—Cromwell  .... 2 50
Vancouver, B. C.
Pattern Maker's Assistant—Rpse $3 5°
Mechanical Engineer's Pocket Book—Whittaker 2 25
" " " —Haswell.. 4 25
" 9 " —Kent zljh $ 25
Iron Smelter's Pocket Analysis Book—Whitwell 2 40
llpery Man his own Mechanic  3 75
Scientific American Cyclopedia—Hopkins  6 50
Elasticity and  Resistance  of Materials  of   Engineering—Burr.-,„  7 25
Steam Engines and Steam Boilers.
Catechism of the Locomotive—Forney  5 00
How to run Engines and Boilers—E. P. .Watson I 40
Shop Kinks—R. Grimshaw  3 50
Practical Manual  of Engines  and  Boilers—W.
Barnett Le Van   325
Engineer's Catechism of Steam Engines—Roper 2 75
Steam Boiler Explosions—Colburn         60
ipfanual of Steam Boilers—Thurston  7 5°
Locomotive Catechism—Grimshaw  275
Marine Engineering.
jiilanual of Marine Engineering—Seaton  7 50
Elementary Engineering for Young Marine  Engineers— brewer  I 00 .
Engineer's Calculations —McLaughlin Smith  3 5°
Engineer's Hand Book to Local Marine Board
of Examinations—Reed  5 °°
Key to ditto—Reed  3 00
Electric Light Fitting—Urquhart ;.. :v 2 50
Supplement to the North   Pacific  Pilot,  Pt I---
Imray  I 00
Bergen's Seamanship  1 00
||Eaptains and Mates Examiner on  Steam (Local
Board of Exams) —S. M. Saxby  75
Practical Hints to Young Officers and Merchants
Steamers—-Reed               65
Seamanship and   Navigation   (Local   Board   of
Exams)--R. Maxwell         50
Vancouver. B. C.
Book of Knots---"Tom Bowling" $ 65
British Columbia Pilot, 1888, with  supplement.. 2 75
Examiner in Seamanship—Ainsley  85
Seamanship and Rigging—Tas.   B. Moffat t  65 .
Pocket Book for   Marine Engineers—-F. Proctor I 65
Seamanship Examiner—Newton  40
Reed's Seamanship  80
Reed's Seamanship	
Norie's Navigation—Rosser  6 40
Primer of Navigation—-Flag  50
Newton's Guide to Board, of Trade Examinations,. 2 75
Ainsley's  Guide to  the Local  Marine Board of
Examinations  3 00
Reed's ditto  2 25
Practical  Navigation. (The   Sailor's   Sea   Book)
^—Greenwood and Rosser  2 80
Azimuth  Tables .on  the   Sun's   True   Bearings
— Burdwood , ..   . 2 00
Roe's Logarithm Tabled, pocket size, containing
Sines and Tangents,   Natural Sines, Co-Sines,
Traverse Tables  60
How to Keep Chip's Accounts—Ainsley  65
American Nautical Almanac, 1899  1 00
"                .,.,'."                1900  1 00
British Nautical Almanac, 1900  1 25
North Pacific Coast "Pilot, Pt I—Imray    5 75
Tide Tables, 1898........   75
Pacific Coast Tide Tables,  our own  publication,
1898............. ..;.      15
We carry the above constantly in stock and are
gradually increasing, our list. We have special facilities
for procuring, any book published—American or English, and will, he pleased to have your orders for any
book you want. Thomson Stationery €o*9
l>td.. Vancouver, K. .C
Vancouver, B. C.
Thomson Stationery Co., ld.
New Books constantly added.
Prospecting for Gold and Silver—Lakes $ i 25
Prospectors' Hand Book—Anderson,   cloth.....     1 25
" '' leather flap    1  75
Hidden Mines and How to Find Them—Newman    1 50
Placer Mining, a Hand  Book  for  Klondike  and
other Miners and Prospectors         I   25
#2fEveryone interested in   Mining   should   have   these
four popular treatises on mining and minerals.
Assaying ami Geology.
Manual of Practical Assaying—Furman  .4 25
Manual of Assaying Gold, Silver,   Lead, Copper,
—W. L.   Brown  3. 75
Text Book  of Assaying—Beranger  4 00
Assay Notes-*—Chapman.... .::...;,  75
The Assayer's Manual — Bruno Kerl  4 00
Ore Deposits—J. A. Phillips.  8 00
Hand Book of Rocks—Kemp  2 50
Genesis of Ore Deposits—Posepney  4 50
Geology—Ihls.eng  >. a|-.:  60
Geology—Geikie ."....•  60
"            - - "    (unabridged) [  2 00
Manual of Geology —J as. A. Dana	
The Self Assayer and  Miner describes   in .plain
concise form simple and accurate   processes for
determining the values of various ores, written
!" for the every day miner ... .\ . .. jfe. j.';...... 25
Iflining and Mineralogy.     ^&W6
"Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography—Dana..    3 00
Vancouver, B. O.
• Mineralsand How to Study Them—Dana   $ 2 25
System of Mineralogy— Dana  15 00
Practical Treatise on  Hydraulic Mining—Bowie 6 00
Manual of Mining—Ihlseng  5 25
Metallurgy of Gold—Eissler  5 50
"         of Silver—    "     ......     3 25
Metallurgy of Argentiferous Lead—Eissler  4 00
.Cyanide Process for Extraction of Gold—EissleT 3 00
Chlorinatiori ' Process   for  Treatment   of  Gold—
Wilson  2 00
Metallurgy of Silver, Gold and   Mercury (2 vols)
—Eggleston  18 00
Blowpipe Practice—Chapman  3 25
Mineral Indicator—Chapman  1  50
Miner's Pocket Book—Locke  3 75
The Metallurgy of Gold—T. K. Ross  7 50
Methods of Working—Ihlseng (Mining Primers) 60
Power in Mining                "                     " 60
Ventilation .                      . "                      " 60*
Coal and Metal Miner's Pocket Book of Principles
Rules, .Formulae and Tables,, largely illustrated,
an exceptionally useful  book, in leather cover
with flap...  375
Rudiments of Mineralogy—Ramsay....   1  50
Pocket Manual of Mining—Chewett   (cloth).... 1 25
Jj                 "                 "            (leather).. 1  50
Prospector's Field Book and  Guide—Osborne.. 2 29
-Determinative Mineralogy and Blowpipe  -Brusch 4 50
Metalliferous Minerals and Mining—Davies .... 4 25,
^Miner^s Hand Book—Milne  2 50
Pocket Book.for .Miners & Metallurgists—Powers 3 25
Elements of Mineralogy— T. Rutley r v 80
Mineral Surveyor and Valuer's Guide-W. Lintern 1 75
Getting Gold—J. C. F. Johnson  200
The Hydraulic Gold Miner's Manual--Kirkpatrick 1 50
Mineral Wealth of Canada—Wilmott  1 25,
Gold and Silver Ores—W.  H.   Merritt  (leather) 1 00
.Manual of Hydraulic Mining—Van Wagenen.. 1 50*
Vancouver, B. C.
Placer   Mining,   a Handbook   for Klondike  and
other Miners and Prospectors ..    $ I 25
Yukon Mining Laws ....     25
Telegraphic Codes.
Moering and. Neal Mining Telegraph  Code.  7 25
Bedford McNeill Mining Telegraph Code  7 50
'A. B. C. Telegraph Code  6 00
Slater's Telegraph Code  2 50
Clough's Mining Code  2 25
A 1 Telegraphic Code    10 00
Ship Owners' Telegraphic  Code  8 00
Adams Cable Codex, (paper)    40
(cloth)  65
MIPS Showing Mining Locations.
52 Big Bend and Trout  Lake Mining Districts 1 00
63 Trail Creek Mining Camp—J.   H.   McGregor 1 00
35 C^al Hill Mining Camp,   Kamloops  50
57 Slocan Mining Camp showing the country immediately around Sandon  i 00
36 Harrison Lake Mining Camp  I 00
•58 Slocan Lake District, showing mining locations
—Thomlinson  1 00
07 East Kootenay, showing locations—McVittie 1 00
■41 Cariboo, showing locations—Garden, Hermon
& Burwell  I  00
39 Lillooet, showing locations—Garden, H. & B. 25
40 Lillooet,-                "           —Burnette  50
20 Texada Island  1 00
19 Mining Camp on Jervis Inlet  50
21 Map showing locations of mineral claims in
vicinity of Shoal Bay and Phillips Arm .... 50
37 Mineral Claims situated on Fire Mountain—
Vaughari  , V  50
.38 Bridge River Mineral Claims,  Lillooet—J. P.
Forde.....'.  50
Vancouver, B. C.
39 Map of Lillooet.and Cache Creek ■. $ 50
;42 Map of the Cariboo Mining District—Bowman 50
.41  Cariboo Mining   District   showing   Hydraulic
Mines—Thomson Stationery Co.   Ld      1 00
44 Fairview Mining Camps    75
52 Big Bend and Trout Lake Districts—H. Perry
. Leake..: ".:      1 00
53 Map  of Hot   Springs   Camp,    Ainsworth—
§ Strobeek ,     1 00
54 -East .and West   Kootenay   Mineral   Claims-
Government   25
55 Fletcher'.s Map.of East .and,.West Kootenay    1 25
56 Perry's Mining Map of the  South  District  of
West Kootenay          1 00
57 Part  of the Slocan- Mining Camp - Drewry
58 Sketch  Map of the   .Slocan   Lake District—
Thomlinson  1 00
59 Map of the Slocan Mines  1 00
51  Salmon  and Wild    Horse—Field  &  Hobbes . 25
50 North Fork and Wild Horse Districts. ...... 1  50
69 WestTCootenay Topographical Map ........
60 Map of the Trail Creek  Geological  District.. 25
61 Mineral Claims .of the Trail Creek. Mining Dis 1  50
62 Mining Map of Trail  Creek,   showing claims
in vicinity of Rossland      1 50
63 Trail    Creek . Mining   Camps — McGregor
Atkinson      1 00
64 Map of Rossland—Buck & Bouillon      1 00
67 Portion of .East  Kootenay District—McVittie    1 00
68 Prospectors'Map of East  Kootenay—Lang..     1 00
69 Nelson and - Salmon  River Districts........     1 ;©o
26 Map of the  Yukon—Thomson Sta.   Co.,  Ld        25
27 "              Ci                  (mounted   on  linen)
Thomson Sta. Co.,  Ld  50
28 Route   Map,   Juneau   to   Porcupine    River,
Alaska—U.S. Geodetic Survey         50
Vancouver, B. C.
29 Map of the Yukon River from mouth up, being
American Govt,  chart $"T" t.° $      75
30 Map of Alaska,   in  case         75
31 Gosnell's Map of the Yukon  30
34 Millroy's Map of Alaska, paper         50
35 " mounted on cloth..     1  50
32 Province.  Map   of   the    Canadian    Yukon,
mounted ..            75
33 Yukon . River, . Alaska  50
36 Map of the! Copper  River   Route, just pub
lished—J. H. Tyrrell     75
37 Map.of Alaska, from,latest geological surveys,
—J. B. Tyrrell         75
General Maps of Uritisn Columbia
1 British Columbia, 4 maps in  one         25
2 Brownlee's Map of British Columbia, mounted
on linen      1 75
3 ditto ditto with rollers    2 00
4 British   Columbia,   by   Government,    in   two
parts          I 00
5 Southwestern   part    of   British   Columbia,
showing . Vancouver    Is.,    Coast,    Lillooet,
Yale, Westminster, (Government)  50
6 Central    portion     of   British    Columbia,
(Government)     50
7 Northern Coast of British Colurnbia, (Govern
ment) showing Cassiar, Coast Dist., Queen
Charlotte Is and Graham Is  25
46 Map. of Findlay and  Omineca  Rivers	
'   5 Southwestern part of British Columbia, showing
the "Coast, Lillooet, Yale, Westminster...... 50
7 Northern   Coast   of   B.   C,   showing   Coast,
Lilloet, Yale,/Westminster  25
22 Squamish  District—De Wolf & Munroe.. ..        25
Vancouver, B. C.
23 Birds Eye View of Puget-Sound.......    $      50
24 Annette Island—J. B.  Tyrrell  50
Government Reports and Books.
Report of the Minister of Mines for British Columbia, being an account of the mining operations
in the Province for 1897, -with maps  60
ditto        for 1896  60
Report of Vancouver Island, with maps—Dawson 40
"        West Kootenay District,  wiih   maps—
Dawson  35
Report of Kamloops Mining District,  with maps
—Dawson  75
Report of \ ukon  District,    with  maps—Dawson
Revised Edition 1898  60
"        Mining District of Cariboo—Bowman 40
"        Northern Alberta—McConnell  40
Official Guide  to   the   Klondike,   paper—-Ogilvie 50
"                            "                    cloth        *'          1 00
Mineral  Wealth  of British  Columbia—Dawson 40
Mineral Statistics and Mines Annual Report, 1892 50
Yukon  Gold  Fields —Bruce  75
Mining in the  Pacific Northwest,   with maps—
Hodges  60
Mining Laws  of B. C •  25
Summary Report- of the Geological Survey Department  for the year 1891  25
Report of the Yukon and Mackenzie   Rivers—
McConnell ,   .... 40
Mining Resources of Canada  25
General  Infoimation of the  Province of British
Columbia  25
Glimpses  of Alaska,   Klondike   and   the   Gold
Fields, a portfolio of views  50
Alaska Cook Hook,   a  thoroughly  reliable  cook
book for the camp  60
Handy Reliable Cook Book,   100 pages  25
Vancouver, B. C.
Dictionary, vest pocket size,   leather, indexed... 50
" *               "               cloth,          " 35
Rules of Order       "              leather  50
Edison's Handy Cyclopcedia  35
Conklin's             "                    35
Ropp's  Calculator,   the best  all   round   Ready
Reckoner published   (pocket form)  60
Chinook Dictionary  25
Alaska Indian Dictionary '.  30
Chinese-English Phrase Book     2 00
ThonlsoO Stationery
Company, Ld. —■*"
Printers, Lithographers,
Rubber Stamp Manufacturers
Prospectors7 and Miners7 Supplies, etc.
■  Placer Gold.—Character; Value; How to prospect; Tools; How to pan; To make a horn.
Where to Prospect.— River; Low bars and
rapids; Creeks; Gulches; Best claims; Hill claims;
Old. channels; Vein croppings.
Geologic Formation.—Likely or not to contain
Black Sand as an indication.
Methods of Mining.—Panning; Dry washing;
Rocker; How to build and use it; Self dumper;
Sluice boxes; Rimes; Bedrock drain; Sluice fork;
China pump; Shovelling in; Setting the boxes;
Quicksilver Rime; Ground sluicing; Cleaning up^
the bedrock and boxes.
Hydraulic Mining.
Booming.—Automatic flood gate, or self-shooter.
Drift Mining.—Where the pay streak is;, Plan
of working;Tools used in cement and frost;Use of
lire and. steam; Twist drill; Wooden car.
Cleaning the gold.—Black sand and other minerals; Amalgamating; Cleaning and. retorting
amalgam; Cleaning quicksilver; Sodium amalgam,
character and use of.
Testing gold.
Testing Ore for Silver with Nitric Acid.
\   Minerals Often Mistaken for Gold.      Table of
specific gravity.
Fire Tests of Minerals and Metals.—Cupelling.
Quartz Mining.
Free Gold Mining Assay.
Arrastra.—Construction and operation of.
Base Ores.—Gold, silver, lead, copper, with tests
for each; Arsenic, etc.
Groups of rock and Ores Usually Associated.
Philosophy of Glaciers as applied to Forming
Points of Mining Law of United States and
Alaska and the Yukon Region as Reported and
Reasoned out.—Klondike and Stewart rivers.
Furnace and China Bellows.
Tempering Steel.
Prospector's Outfit.—Hints on cooking, camping
and cures. Introduction.
In offering this little work, I hope to give reliable information, of just the sort desired, by
those who are going to gold fields in any part oi
the world; and who have neither time nor opportunity to gather and sift it from the various
sources from which I have obtained it; nor to
verify it by hard work and experience, as I have
done, and thus to separate matters of actual fact
from false theories of titled gentlemen, passing
them back without comment for correction. In
composing these pages, I have tried, above all
things else, to be brief and truthful and to state
in common language the facts and principles
which I have found use for in my seven years of
experience in mining and and prospecting in the
western half of the Uuited States.
There is much that might be added to the subject matter, but it is difficult to make a strictly
scientific matter plain without the use of technical
terms, which again would involve an endless tangle of definition. Those, therefore, who desire
technical knowledge, are respectfully referred to
technical works.
There is much, also, of petty detail left out, in
the belief that it is unnecessary to men of fair intelligence.
Gold Dust
Gold,'as found in placer mines, is scarcely ever
pure, and may contain silver, copper, iron lead or
any other of a dozen metals, each of which makes
a change in its appearance, character and value.
It is usually an alloy (that is, a mixture) of gold
and silver, and is worth at the United States mint
from $20.65 down to as low, in rare cases, as $5.00
per iroy ounce, United States gold coin being
worth $18.60 per ounce. It is all shades of color, from silver white
through yellow and red, to black as iron.
Gold is always heavy, being from 12 to 19 1-2
times the weight of the same bulk of water; yet
thin flakes of it will float after being dried, or
coated with grease of any kind.
It is nearly always tough and malleable, but is
sometimes spongy and brittle when it comes from
decomposed telluride ores; such, however, is malleable after melting, and is usually high grade.
How to Prospect
In hunting for gold, some things are indispensable, though experience will suggest a substitute
for many very useful tools. The dirt and gravel
must be taken up and separated with care from
the gold, if you are to know in what quantity the
gold is present; and for this work the pick,
shovel and gold pan are the tools commonly used,
though, some experienced prospectors take a shovel,
and hatchet, or knife only, when making a long
cruise with a light pack; others go still lighter,
with a knife and a horn spoon or a tin cup, but
one cannot learn to use such an outfit successfully
in a week, and they are slow at best.
The most important tool for a beginner is a gold
pan, which should be made of one piece, of Russia
iron or sheet steel, pressed into shape and stiffened
with a steel wire in the rim. A pressed frying
pan with the handle cut off is a good substitute,
if there is no grease in it.
Having found dirt likely to contain gold, and
water with which to test it, take about ten pounds
of dirt in the pan and put it under the water;
then stir it and shake it until the mud is softened,
and the gravel and sand is loose and clean, washing away the thin mud as fast as you make it;
Next hold the pan half out of the water at a low
angle, and shake, roll and dip it in ■such a manner that the heavy parts will sink and the light parts
will be washed over the side.
When you have washed it all out but the last
handful, or when you begin to see a streak of black
sand along the edge of the gravel, you should take
care not to wash the gold over the side, which can
be prevented by holding the pan fiat and shaking
it occasionally. When you have washed out all
of the white sand and taken out the pebbles, examine the black sand carefully by rolling it around
in the pan with water; and if any portion is much
heavier than the rest, examine that by crushing
it in your teeth, or other wise; if it is malleable it
is metal, and unless it is a piece of a bullet, may be.
The horn, sometimes called the great horn spoon,
ia useful to test a small quantity of dirt or crushed
ore with, where water is scarce. It is used in
about the same manner as a pan, and for the same
purpose. It is made by cutting the outer arc
from a cow's horn and scraping it down thin and
smooth, making a boat-shaped tool holding about
half a pint and weighing but a trifle.
Where to Prospect.
In exploring a new country not previously prospected, the all-important question to be determined first is: Is the object you are seeking in the
region you are in? The first route of * exploration,
and often the main line of travel, is along the
river; either on the water or along the bank. If
game is your object, look for tracks at the places
of easiest access. If you are seeking gold, the
easiest place to find the trace is among the boulders
at the water's edge at low water, and at the head
of the rapids.
Find a place on the low bars, where the current
is strong enough to carry away all the lightest
gravel when the water is up, but not strong
enough to tear out the boulders as large as your 5
head. If you find a few points of rough bedrock
sticking up, it is the best in sight. Now, with a
pick or bar, turn out a few boulders and take the
sand and fine gravel from ..among them and pan it
carefully. If you get a large handful of black
sand, and not a color of gold, try two more such
bars, and if they yield the same, go down the
stream, for there is but a very slim chance of any
pay on any branch above.
If you get some gold, but not rich to satisfy you,
then hunt for some place where you can dig to
bedrock, and find a layer of coarse gravel on what
is or has been at some time the head of a rapid.
Dig there and test the gravel,.and also clean out
the crevices in the bedrock and wash the dirt. If
the pay dirt is not there it is probably up the
stream; perhaps up some creek or gulch, each of
which you should try as you pass.
When you have found a creek that prospects
better, or yields coarser gold than the river does
above the mouth of it, follow it up. Take notice
as to what kind of rock the gravel is made up of,
and the nature of the bedrock (see chapter on formation), and when you pass a rapid or find the
channel widening out, so as to form a bar on either
side of the stream, try for bedrock, the same as.
on a river, at both ends of the bar, and don't forget the small gulches.
The best claims on a river or large creek are most
likely to be where the channel is of moderate width,
and the bedrock has a natural grade of seven to
eighteen inches to the rod. Deep holes in a channel very -rarely pay for cleaning out, theorists and
professors to the contrary notwithstanding.
The best claims on a small gulch are at, and
just below, the ledges and veins that furnished
the gold, due allowance being made for water.
Diggings are often found on the sides and tops
of hills, and if water can be obtained for working,
•they sometimes pay wonderfully. They are of two
sorts.   That is, old channels and vein out-crops. The old channels are where streams have run in
an earlier age of the earth, and while usually following the same general course as the streams of
the present age, they often cross nearly at right
angles, and in rare cases even run the other way.
They may be good, poor or indifferent, but usually
have the advantage over the modern channels of
having plenty of dump. Their most common form,
that of high bars near present streams, are often
the best paying mines in their districts.
In some parts of the world they are covered
with lava or other volcanic flow, in such a way
as to puzzle the oldest inhabitant; and it takes,
a fine flow of speech indeed to describe them so
that sensible people will think the speaker understands them.
Vein outcrops are usually richer and more profitable than the veins that they lead up to, but not
always. Very much depends upon the character
of the rock, and the gold is often hard to save,
being in all shapes and sizes, and often coated with
other mineral, or enclosed in rock, which makes
crushing necessary.
Geologic Formation.
Nearly every miner is more or less tied to his
own theory as to where gold is likely to be found,
which is the result of his own observation and
study, and, when he finds out, and is compelled to
acknowledge to himself that his own pet theory
is wrong, he usually contents himself With that
proverb of the ancients that "Gold is where you
find it," yet it remains a fact, that you are more
likely to find it among some kinds of rock than
among others, and it may be set down as a rule
that, when all the rocks you can find in a certain
region lie in horizontal layers, Whether they are of
slate, limestone, sandstone or lava, and the
boulders in the streams consists of the same mater- ial, it is not worth while to look for gold in that
If the hills are rounded at the top like haycocks,
and boulders of porphyry and pieces of quartz
are common in the streams, the stratified rocks
dip under the hills, and dykes of porphyry and
other eruptive rock are common, then gold is likely
to be found not far away.
And the largest and best mines are usually round
near where the longest and strongest traces of
eruptive rock cross that part of the country rock
which carries the gold. And, sometimes it is the
eruptive itself which furnishes all the gold,
though its step-mother, the quartz, gets the honor.
Among old-time miners it is said that "quartz
is the mother of gold," and, as a matter of fact,
when both axe found in the same kind of country
rock, on one hill, they are nearly always both in
the same fissure, or vein; though either one may
be found with scarcely a trace of the other. Veins
containing gold, however, nearly always contain
either quartz, iron or talc also, and often all of
them, and many other metals, making a rock that
almost anyone would recognize as ore, and with
a little practice could readily trace it home, if not
too much scattered.    (See base ores.)
Among placer miners black sand is said to be
an indication of gold. As a matter of fact, when
both gold and black sand are in the bed of the
same stream, where the current throw one they
will throw the other also, as both are much heavier
than common sand. So, in prospecting a stream, if
you get. one in large quantities and none of the
other, you can take it for granted the other is not
Methods and Appliances.
Panning, heretofore described, is used in prospecting, in cleaning up and in mining, where only a small amount of dirt is to be handled, and the
facilities are not at hand for doing it any other
Dry washing, practical only in very dry climates,
is accomplished Avith machines of various sorts,
which it would take a book larger than this to
describe. Most of them utilize the principles of a
bellows blower, or fanning mill, and screen the dirt
to different sizes, and blow it away, keeping the
The rocker comes next to the pan in size and
capacity, and is very useful in mining on a small
To build one of the ordinary size takes about
12 feet of lmber, though they may be made of
any size desired, according to circumstances and
material at hand. For the ordinary take a
clear board 12 inches wide and about 30 inches
long for the bottom. For the sides take two
boards, 12 inches wide at 12 inches from one end
and tapered to 11 inches at the short end, and three
inches at the other, and the same length at the
bottom. For the higher end a board 12 inches
wide, 1 inch thick, 16 inches long at the top
14 at the bottom, will make it the right shape.
At the lower end put on a cleat not over 11-2
inches high. By nailing these together in the
right manner you make a scoop-shaped box, 11
inches deep at one point and two inches at the
farther end, 12 inches wide at the bottom and
14 at the top. Now take four boards each 4
inches wide and scant 12 inches long, nail box
fashion 12 by 14 inches, and cover the bottom
with a perforated screen, made by punching one-
quarter inch holes in a piece of sheet iron. Now
put cleats in the high end of your box, about 2
inches from the top, for the screen to rest on, and
put another across the top to brace it. Next make
the apron by tacking a piece of canvas on a frame
that is made to fit inside the box on an angle, so that it will catch the sand andr mud that comes
through the screen and carry it to the back end
of the box. The side bars of the frame should project about 2 inches beyond the canvas at the lower
end, so that it will not choke up with sand. Now
put cleats in the high end of your box, about 2
inches from the top, for the screen to rest on, and
put another across «the top to brace it. Next make
the apron by tacking a piece of canvas on a frame
that is -made to fit inside the box on an angle, so
that it will catch the sand and mud that comes
through the screen and carry it to the back end
of the box. The side bars of the frame should project about two inches beyond*" the canvas at the
lower end, so that it will not choke up with sand.
Now put rockers under 'the box, about six inches
from each end and about three inches high, and
put a pin in the centre of each to keep it from sliding
about on the foundation when tilted from side to
side. Put a handle on the top of the box to shake
it with, and if you are going to mine fine gold,
spread a piece of cloth on the bottom and fasten
it down with cleats. Set it on a 'smooth foundation
so that the open end is about three inches lower
than the other, and you are ready for work.
- Now put a shovelful of dirt in the screen and
P'cur water on it with a dipper, shaking it meanwhile. When the mud is all washed through throw
out the gravel, but save the big nuggets; also take
out your apron once in a while and save the contents for panning.
Rocking is the most practical method where the
necessary amount of swift running water cannot
be had. !
A self-dumping rocker will handle the dirt much
faster than when two men are working together*
To build the simplest of the self-dumping rockers
take two boxes 3 or 4 feet long and a screen long
enough to cover the bottom of one of them. The
boxes should be 12 inches wide and 6 incehs deep,
with the end closed, and mounted in a frame on rockers, so that the sand and mud from the upper
box. will drop into the head of the lower, while the
gravel will be carried on and dumped on the
ground. The boxes, being given a grade or slant
of about 1 1-2 inches to the foot, brings them a
foot or so apart at the front end, where the dirt
and water is put on, and the mud runs out.
The screen should be mounted in the upper box,
an inch from the bottom, and extending 2 inches
beyond, so as to waste the gravel, water being
poured on with a big dipper, as needed, to wash
the mud and gold through the holes.
Shallow riffles may be put in if needed, and a
blanket should be placed in the lower box to catch
the fine gold, being fastened down with cleats, or
other means, as your ingenuity suggests. Such a
rocker may, under favorable conditions, be made
to handle four or five yards per day of dirt.
These are necessary where any large amount of
dirt and gravel is to be washed and the gold taken
from it. They consist of boxes commonly 12 feet
long, though any length may be used, and of what-
evei size the mine they are made for requires. They
should never be less than 10 inches deep and the
same wide, and for each 3 inches added to the
width, add 2 to the depth.
A movable rough bottom, called riffles, is always
used in them, to give the gold a place to lodge.
Riffles may be made of any old thing, round poleSj
lumber, blocks and cobble stones being in common
use, the best the writer ever used being 1 by 3
battens, set on edge lengthwise of the box, one
inch apart, wedged fast with small blocks. Heavy
rocks rolling over them soon wear them out, however, and other styles are used for economy, and
sometimes they are thought to be better for other
reasons. For long strings of boxes, where a large
amount of dirt and rock is run through, the
cheapest style of good riffles, if timber grows near,
is the block riffle, made by sawing six-inch blocks from a. log and hewing two sides until they are
the width of the sluice box, say 18 inches, leaving
them round the other way, and setting them on
end, forcing gravel around them to wedge them
down. One or more boxes, at the head, of the
string, should have riffles more open, though, to
catch the coarse gold. The main ooject to be kept
in view in making a set of rithes is to furnish a
hole where the gold can drop in and the running
water will wash away the sand, without having
power to raise the gold.
In all styles of washing, a string of boxes at
least 20 to 30 feet long should be used, and strings
of them a mile long are used at some large mines,
where they are cleaned up but once a year.
When no lumber is obtainable for making sluice
boxes, an inferior substitute, which will serve for
ground sluicing purposes, may be constructed as
Make a trench, as for boxes, three and a half
feet wide, making the bottom smooth and even.
Lay a floor of sacks or canvas, beginning at the
lower end, and lapping a little. Cover this with
small poles of even size, laying them crosswise,
Lay a straight log about 15 inches in diameter
on each end of these tight against the side of
the trench, and stake them down so that the
water cannot move them. Hew the inner side so
that nothing can catch against it or under them,
and fill the holes behind with tough clay.
In working very flat ground it is often desirable
to drain the water from the mine, or pit, at the
same time using the lower part of the pit for dump
To uo this, start a ditch at the lower end, bringing it up on a grade of one inch or ore to the rod,
until bedrock is found, the dirt being shoveled in
and sluiced away, and the boulders laid in the bottom of the ditch in such a way that the water will
run under and between them.   A sluice fork should be used, and all the small rock thrown on top of
the boulders, thus putting a filter over the drain.
A sluice fork, which is merely a pitch fork, with
nine to twTelve tines an inch apart, should be in
every placer miner's outfit, it being useful in getting rid of the small gravel when there is not grade
or dump room to wash it away.
In working near large streams, it is often desirable to draw off the water from a hole several feet
lower than the level of the stream. In such a case
the China pump often serves to do the work. To
make one, make a straight box long enough to
reach from the bottom of the hole to a point from
which the water will flow away, with a grade of
about one foot in three.
Get a canvas belt, made of strong cloth the
width of the box and long enough, to pass over a
pulley at each end of the box. Make buckets by
riveting pieces of wood that will just fill the box,
on the belt a foot apart. Operate it by connecting
the upper pulley wTith a current wheel in the
stream, making the current where wanted by wing
dams if needed.
Shoveling In.
... The common, and sometimes the only practical
way of working low bars and river and creek
diggings, is by shovelling in. For this style take
two or more sluice boxes 10 inches wide, fitted with
riffles of slats, or small poles. If the bottoms of
your boxes are made two inches wider at one end
than the other, they will be easier to set up and
make tight at the joints, for this style requires
frequent moving. You can then set the small end
of one box in the big end of the one below, making
it tight by shoving them together. Bring enough
water through a ditch across the ground to be
worked to.fill the boxes half or two-'thirds full. 13
Now set the boxes near the lower end of the ditch,
so as to take up all the water, and stop the leaks
with rags, moss or sod, giving the boxes a grade
of not less than one-third of an inch to the foot,
a full inch to the foot is the best, if it leaves dump
enough to carry away the tailings. Shovel in the
dirt to be washed, not lower than the head of the
lower box, and let nature do the rest.
Great care should be taken at all times, and
especially when shovelling in, that the sand does
not become packed on top of the riffles when gold
is going into the boxes, as the water is likely to
carry it out through into the tailings.
The tailings at the end of the last box should
be tested occasionally, and if much fine gold is
present, a quicksilver riffle should be put in near
the head of the last box. To make this, take a
straight box or piece of plank an inch narrower
than the box, by two feet long, cut or saw notches
across it, a half inch deep and wide, an inch apart,
beginning four inches from the upper end. Put
a thin scrip on each side to close the ends of the
notches and set in the box with the service in line
with the other riffles, put some water in to see
that it is not tilted to one side, and then put five
or ten pounds of mercury in the upper notches,
and take care not to splash it out by dropping
gravel on it. If coarse gold is going through, set
the box you are shoveling into nearly level, and
give those belOw more grade to keep the riffles
clear, and so that the dirt will be softened before
it is carried through.
Ground Sluice.
Ground sluicing is the favorite way of working small bars and gulch diggings, where ,a hose
is not at hand or the water supply is too low
down to use one. More grade and dump room
is needed for this than for shovelling in; also
more water, and the dirt can be worked very
much faster.    Bring the water across the ground 14
as for shovelling in, and at the lower end dig a
trench on a grade of one or one and a half inches
to the foot, until the head of it is twp or three
feet deep; set a twelve inch or larger sluice box in
and stop up the leaks, filling the trench with sod
and rock around the head of the box. Now turn
on the water, and with a pick help it to tear up
the earth, throwing the large rock out of the way
when you come to them, sending the mud, sand
and gravel through the box.
If the bed rock pitches to either side, it is well
to work off the higher part first, as that is hard
to reach, after the lower part is stripped.
Cleaning Up.
When for any reason it is desirable to clean up,
strip all gravel and loose dirt off the bed-rock,
washing it down towards the boxes. When that
is finished turn off the water, sending it around
some other way. When the bedrock is dry take
a pick and dig out all the seams and crevices and
scrape them clean, shovelling the dirt always down
toward the box, starting from the highest part.
When the pile of dirt gets too big to handle, turn
on the water and wash it through, putting in the
last pile at the head of the box very slowly, to
keep from clogging the riffles.
When all the gold from the race above has been
washed down and is in the box, turn off all but
a very little water, leaving enough to cover the
bottom of the box about one fourth of an inch
deep, and take up the riffle at the head of the box,
washing the mud and sand down very slowly and
throwing out the gravel, taking up the last of it
with a small scoop and panning it. But do not
take up the last riffle while there is running water
in the box, unless you have a cleat over an inch
high in the tail of the box to catch the gold. i5
Hydraulic Mining.
Is done in a manner similar to ground sluicing,
but the earth is torn up with water, applied from
a nozzle under high pressure, the ditch supplying
the water being from 30 to 500 feet above the dirt
to be washed, the water being conveyed in a pipe
made of cotton or iron, according to the pressure,
six inches or more in diameter. The cleaning up
is nearly the same as in grouifd sluicing. But to
give a full description of hydraulic mining would
require a large book, and this is a small one to
be put into your pocket.
Booming Out
Booming is a very old English style of mining,
and is used to advantage in cleaning out steep,
narrow gulches, where labor is expensive and the
surface dirt deep. It is accomplished by setting
a string of large, strong sluice boxes in the lower
part of the gulch, anchoring them firmly to the
rock, and building a reservoir in the upper part,
sometimes as much as half a mile distant. A large
gate is put in, that will let out as much water as
the boxes will carry off, usually being made auto-
ma tic, so that it will open When the reservoir is
full, letting out a flood of water that takes everything with it while it lasts, and gives the operator
a chance to build walls and shape its course between floods, thus doing away with picking and
piping except in cleaning up. They are also called
self-shooters. As the gate might puzzle you to
build, here are the directions:
Build a dam of sticks, stones and dirt, placing
in the bottom of it a covered box one-half the size
of your sluice boxes: place a gate in the head of
it, to be opened by lifting. Place an overflow box
on top of the dam, extending over the outside;
place a lever there also, hanging the gate on one
end of it, and a leaky box on the other, in such a i6
way that the overflow will fill the box and pull
the gate up; and when the reservoir is empty,
the water having leaked out of the box, the gate
will slip down and close the hole, raising the box
up to catch the next overflow.
Drift Mining.
Drifting is an old and useful method of obtaining the pay streak, or best portion of a bed of
gravel (which is usually, but not always, near bed
rock), and though very expensive, is often cheaper
than washing the whole bank.
The pay streak in all placer mines will be found
on what was the bottom of the channel at the
time when the greatest amount of gold was carried
in; usually in the part where big boulders are
thickest and black sand most plentiful, and is often
covered deep with a deposit containing little or no
gold, though sometimes the pay is all on the surface.
Having found pay dirt which is to be taken out
by drifting, a tunnel should be run eight or ten
feet in width and as high as the pay is thick, care
being taken to get all the pay off the bottom.
All of the boulders should be used in building a
solid wall on one side of the tunnel or drift, both
to save hauling out and to hold up the top. After
building the wall in such a way as to leave a passage about four feet wide on one side, a track
should be laid therein on which to run a car or
wooden truck, and the top cut to a convenient
height, say five to seven feet.
These drifts should be run parall
apart as they are wide, and when
tended as far as desired the pillars i
out by starting at the back end and
care not to be in the way when the t
to fall. A few posts may be used a
give the workmen warning, as the tor
1 an
d as far
are ex-
be taken
ng great
)p gt
>ts ready
j int
frrvals to
bs slowly and the posts will snap when danger begins, and
sometimes a week before. By keeping a sharp
lookout for loose boulders in the top and running
when the posts begin to break, fatal accidents
can nearly always be avoided.
In breaking ground in the drifts various tools
are used, according to conditions. If the gravel
is cemented together with lime or other -mineral,
powder may be used to great advantage, being
inserted by making a hole with a gopher bar, drills
being used when the cement is hard enough to
allow it.
A gopher bar is simply a carpenter's steel pinch
bar Wav,^ the ends bent an inch or more to one
side, and is used to make an irregular hole between the boulders.
If no cement or frost is present, a pick and a
bar are all that is needed, but the top is likely to
be very treacherous.
If the pay gravel is frozen hard and not cemented
it becomes simply a matter of warming it up past
the melting point, as powder is very difficult to use
successfully. A mixture of clay and gravel, when
frozen hard, is about the meanest stuff on earth to
either drill or blast, and very salty brine must be
used to keep the mud from freezing.
The clay cuts about the same as hard beeswax,
and when you strike the end of a round stone it
wil not cut straight with any but a diamond drill.
It' is also very tough, and a big charge of black
powder serves to tear off but a small amount,
and giant powder will not explode below 40 degrees
In drifting frozen ground the method in common use in all parts of the northern hemisphere
for melting the ice is that of building fires against
it, which is a partial success, but not altogether
satisfactory, as the fire will smother itself with
its own smoke, besides causing the top to fall if
the drift is long. Steam heat should give satisfaction if properly applied, as the writer used it with shining success for a similar purpose at the Cold Hill
mill at Quartzburg, Idaho, in January, 1894.
A large amount of frozen concentrates were to
be prepared for treatment by the Mac Arthur-Forrest cyanide process, and an old rubber garden
hose was attached to the boilers and the other end
buried in the frozen material, contained in a tank
about 30 inches deep by 10 feet square.
It was found that by moving the hose frequently
the 12-ton charge could be thawed out in one to
two hours. The amount of heat taken up by one
pound of water in being converted into steam is
nearly equal to that required to melt ten pounds
of ice, and it will warm a much greater amount of
An excellent tool for drilling frozen clay or earth,
either to insert powder or admit a steam pipe, is
a steel twist drill made by the Prospecting Tool
Company, of Stamford, Conn., for whom J. W.
Bradley, of Seattle, is the Pacific coast agent. It
will also give good service in prospecting in slate
or limestone formation, or anywhere that there is
not too much quartz or hard rock present, being
especially suited to coal mine work. Steel bar
drills must be used for getting through rock that
is very much harder than marble, unless a diamond
drill is available.
Wooden Car.
A car is often wanted in drifting, and in quartz
mining places where iron trucks and trimmings
are not to" be had. A wooden truck built as follows is better than none:
Cut two round sticks ten inches in diameter and
three feet long. Find the centre of the ends and
saw around them, leaving bearings two inches long
and two inches in diameter, dressing them true
and smooth. Cut the flange two inches farther
back, making the wheel as true as possible eight inches in diameter, two inches tread, with flanges
art inch high. Cut away the surplus wood'in the
middle of the sticks, leaving only enough for
strength. Make a box frame of plank or split
lagging three feet square, eight inches high, and
cut notches in two sides, two inches deep, for bearings, two feet apart, and babbitt them with bacon
rind. Lay a platform on top and set a tub or box
on that, tipping it off .to empty it. Lay a track
of spli£ poles, with the bark and knots trimmed
off, 22 inches inside gauge,. and it is ready for
straight ahead work.
By using only one roller and putting handles on
the frame, a very handy truck is made, to carry
twice the load of a wheelbarrow.
Cleaning the Gold.
Cleaning up is the part of mining requiring the
greatest care and attention, as many heavy and
worthless minerals are found with gold which are
often difficult to separate. The most common of these
is the black sand, consisting of iron oxide, with
many impurities. Others are lead ores, 'usually
white or bluish in color. Ores of various other
metals are also found in some places. Garnets,
rubies, sapphires and diamonds are also found
sometimes. A portion of the^old is usualy coated
with some one of the many compounds that interfere with or prevent amalgamation; and, taken
altogether, it requires a good deal of common sense
and some scientific knowledge to save the gold and
clean it well. By careful panning the greater part
of the dirt may be washed away, and the iron ore
may aii be taken out by stirring with a magnet
under water; and by sorting and blowing carefully
the other dirt may be taken out when it is dry.
Or,, if the gold is all bright and clean, it can be
quickly separated by amalgamation with mercury. To amalgamate, pour in with the heavy sand in a
pan about three times as much quicksilver as there is
gold and rub it hard with your hand, taking care
first that there is no grease present, and shaking
under water frequently. Then, by rolling it about
in the pan, you can collect it all in one lump and
slip it out into a piece of cloth, washing the sand
out or leaving it in the pan as you like.
To clean amalgam, grind it in a mortar and wash
it until it contains no sand, then put it in a piece
of clean, firm cloth or buckskin and twist and
squeeze it until all the free silver is strained out.
Tlien place it an iron retort, which has been coated
with chalk inside, wedge the cover down tight and
set it in the fire, placing the end of the pipe in a
vessel of water. When the retort has been red-hot
for five minutes, 'tap the pipe gently and take it
away.    The quicksilver will be in the water.
A small retort, suitable for reducing an ounce
or less of amalgam, may be made of a Scotch clay
pipe and a piece of soft brick. Cut a hole in the
brick so that the bowl of the pipe can be inserted
over half an inch deep, and then glaze the brick
by burning with salt if you like.
Wrap the amalgam in one thickness of paper,
put it in the pipe and cover it with the brick.
Close the joint with a little soft clay and tie a
cloth around the stem or mouthpiece, forming a
bag.    a.hen burn the brick, keeping the bag wet.
If the cover of the retort does not fit tight,
close ithe opening by putting in a thin layer of
clean, stiff clay before doing the cooking. If you
have no retort, put the amalgam in an old shovel,
a frying pan or a hollow rock, with a piece of
paper under it, and heat it red-hot, taking care not
to inhale any of the fumes, as they are very poisonous.   You can thus save nearly all the gold, but you will lose the quicksilver. Care should be
taken to heat it slowly until the water is out, or
it may explode.
Cleaning and Purifying Mercury.
If lead is plentiful, either as ore or metal, the
mercury soon becomes foul from dissolving it, and
gives all sorts of trouble, looking mouldy and
stringy and turning the gold black. To clean it,
keep it in contact with a strong solution of soda
or lye, shaking it up frequently when not in use,
changing the solution when it gets black.
Cyanide of potassium will clean it more quickly
and thoroughly in the same manner, but must be
handled with care, as it is a deadly poison, and
. will dissolve almost anything, from gold to boot
Sodium Amalgam.
A most excellent article for cleaning foul quicksilver is sodium amalgam, which, though very ex- .
pensive, is cheaper bought than homemade. It is
a mixture of mercury with metallic sodium, about
the consistency of butter, andv for use should be
first mixed with twice its weight or more of mercury. Sodium is a very light metal, obtained from
common salt, which when dropped in water, floats
and immediately begins to blaze. Burning up a
part of the water, it becomes caustic soda, and the
hydrogen released burns in the air, forming steam.
When a little sodium is mixed with a large
amount of mercury it has the effect of reducing
ail the metallic salts present, thus causing the mercury to amalgamate or adhere to any metal with
which it comes in contact, and when water is added it i>s slowly decomposed, and the caustic soda
formed combines with the lead, zinc and grease
present, making them soluble in water.
Care should be taken when using" the sodium amalgam on amalgamated plates, as it is very
liable to cause the gold amalgam to soften and
slip off, if any is present at the time.
Gold, Silver and Other Minerals.
Qold is malleable, and can be hammered into
any Shape, cold. It is insoluble, except in mixed
nitric and muriatic acid, nitric acid and salt,
cltlorine gas and water, bromide or cyanide of
potassium. It melts at a white heat, if pure, -and
more easily if mixed with silver or lead.
It is yellow, with a reddish or green tinge if not
colored by other elements.
To test it, melt it into a button, hammer it out
flat and boil it in nitric acid and water for several
minutes. If it comes out black there was silver in
it, but heating it red-hot will make it yellow and
nearly pure. Gold, and nothing else, will stand
this test;
Silver may be detected in ore in a simple way,
by roasting and crushing and then boiling in nitric
acid which has been diluted with an equal amount
of water. The boiling must be done in glass or
earthenware, as the acid will dissolve iron or copper before it will the ore.
When the acid has dissolved all the soluble metal
in the ore, pour it off carefully into another vessel,
leaving the sand and gold, and adding an equal
amount of water and -a large pinch of salt. A
white cloud will be seen if silver is present, which
may be precipitated by putting in a piece of iron.
Several things are often mistaken for gold by
the uninitiated. Among them are chalcopyrite,
or copper pyrite, which is easily crushed to a
dark green powder; iron pyrite, very hard, yields
black powder; yellow mica, very light weight,
splits in thin scales; streaks of brass from boot
nails, always on the outside of the rock; shreds
of copper and brass, from giant caps of elsewhere; ^3
and also yellow silicate of lead, called packer's
gold, which is the same weight and color as fine
*hot, and only determined by melting with borax
or crushing to powder, which makes the water
Scale of Specific Gravity.
When cleaning up a placer the variety of heavy
iiaterial found often arouses the inquiry: "What
is it?" The following approximate table of speci-
ac gravity, or comparative weights of an equal
bulk, may help you to guess what it is:
[nuium  23
Platinum   17 to 22
Ture Gold  19.3
Gold Coin  17.6
Native Gold  12 to 19.5
Mercury     13.6
Palladium   11.8
Lead   11.4
Silver  10.5
, Solder (about)  9
Cinnabar   9
Copper  '  8.8
Iron     7.7
Galena    7.6
Tin and Tin Ore  7.3
Zinc    7
Iron Ore  4to   5.5
Ruby and Sapphire  4
Garnet  3 to   4
Diamond    3.5
Quartz   2.5
Other Stone, Sand and Mica  1.5 to   3
Aluminum     2.6
Water  1 Fire Test.
Water weighs a fraction over 64 pounds to the
cubic foot, 32 cubic feet being a ton, equal to four
feet square and two feet deep.
The following fire tests may also be useful at
Iridium and platinum are not affected by any
common fire.
Gold, silver and palladium are melted at a white
heat, without loss, or change.
Mercury is volatilized, or boiled away, at a low
red heat.
Lead melts at a low heat and oxidizes rapidly,
forming a blue dress, or litarge, which, if heated
red, becomes yellow and gives off a thin white
smoke, changing again to lead if heated with soda
and carbon.
Tin melts at a low heat, oxidizing to a gray infusible slag if kept hot.   Tin ore infusible.
Cinnabar is composed of mercury and sulphur
and passes off at a low red heat, forming a very
poisonous gas.
Copper turns black, melting at a white heae,.
giving the fire a beautiful green color.
Zinc melts at a low heat, and if kept hot tinges
the flame green, volatilizing at white heat and
coating the surroundings white.
Iron oxidizes at a red heat, becoming an ore similar
to black sand, which melts to a black glass with
Galena, or lead sulphide, melts at a red heat,
giving off a blue flame of burning sulphur. After roasting it is easily reduced to lead by melting
with soda and carbon.
Ruby and sapphire are not affected by a common
Garnet is melted to a glass of the same color at
a high red heat. 25
Diamond is not affected by a common fire, but
if made hot enough, burns like coke.
Antimony passes off in thick white smoke, at a
low red heat.   .
Lead may be taken out of gold and silver by
continued fusion at a white heat on a cupel, or
cup made of pulverized bone ash; plenty of air
being supplied, the lead is oxidized to yellow litharge and absorbed by the bone ash.
Quartz Mining.
For milling ore on a (small scale on the frontier
the arrastra is the prospector's friend. It requires
more power for the work done than almost any
To test quartz or other rock for free milling
gold crush it in a mortar, or, if that is not at
hand, pound it in a tin can or on a rock, until it
is all fine enough to go through a screen, the holes
of which are one-fortieth of an inch wide, called
40 mesh. Now pan it carefully and grind the
heavy concentrates with a little mercury, washing
away the mud, until the mercury has gathered all
the gold present. Next, clean, strain and retort
the amalgam and refine the gold by boiling it in
nitric acid. The gold will then be worth about
$20 per ounce, if there is no sand in it.
Chemically pure gold, being worth $20.67 per
troy ounce, and by treating a twenty- pound sample of average ore, a very close estimate of the
value can be made, the cents in twenty pounds
equalling the dollars in a ton.
Smelting ore must be tested by assaying, which
requires more apparatus than a prospector can afford to carry. Yet tests on a small scale can be
made with a blow-pipe and a spirit lamp or candle,
and a piece of Charcoal. But that is a science of
The Arrastra. 26
other mill, but if properly handled does good
work, and can be built almost any place that
wood, stone, power and water can be had. To
build one, set a good, solid centre post in the
ground and build a tight wall of wood or stone
around it, at a distance of two to six feet, according to size desired. Lay in the ring thus made
a solid pavement of large cobble stones, with a
small gate in the wall near the top of the pavement.
Mount an upright shaft on the centre post, with
a beam overhead to steady the upper end. Put
arms in the shaft, to reach out almost to the wall,
about two feet high. Tie large stones to the ends
of the arms, so that they will drag on the pavement. Now connect whatever sort of power is
most suitable to the circumstances in such a way
that it will pull the drags around the ring about
four feet per second.
A great deal of ingenuity and judgment is often
required, to get the best results from the situation
and material at hand. Having got it in shape to
run, put in enough clay and small gravel to cover
the bottom two or three inches deep. Pour in
enougii water to> make it sloppy and run it for a
couple of hours or more to mud up all the cracks
and holes. When ready to grind ore, open the gate
and let the mud run out, adding more water if
needed. When empty close the gate, and without
stopping the mill, put in enough ore and
water to cover the bottom four or five inches deep
with a mixture about as thick as mush. Grind this
until the rocks are worn out, say four or five hours,
and then scatter it over about twice as much mercury as there is gold in it, and after grinding another hour, add enough water to make the mud
about as thick as good paste; then run slowly for
an hour to let the amalgam settle. After that is
done, open the gate and let the mud run out,
washing it over riffles with plenty of clean' water,
so that no gold may get away. Put in another
charge and repeat until the bottom    gets    worn 27
smooth. To clean up, work off the sand and mud
as clean as you can, and take out what amalgam
can be found in the crevices; then take up the
pavement and wash the rocks and all the material
between in pan or sluice box, laying another rough
bed for next time.
Base Ores.
The base ores of most importance to prospectors
are those which contain gold, silver, copper or lead,
in addition to their other elements. They are nearly always accompanied by more or less quartz, and
from one to a dozen different ores are usually found
in the same vein, being in separate crystals readily
recognised by experienced mineralogists; color,
shape, hardness and weight being the points on
which they differ when found, other differences
being shown when they are heated or melted. As
it would make this a big book to give all the details, only a few important points are given:
Gold, though usually in the state of malleable
metal, also occurs as a telluride, and it is thought
by many intelligent miners that it occurs in several
other chemical compounds also, chloride, bromide
and arsenide being most in evidence. These are
doubted by professors, however.
The most important telluride, called calaverite,
is of nearly the color and weight of brass, is soft
and brittle, and when scratched with a knife yields
a greenish yellow powder; when heated white with
borax it yields 44 per cent, of its weight pure gold.
It is very rare.
There are about seventeen other varieties of tel-
lurides, containing gold in combination with other
metals, in different quantities. They are from tin
white to black in color, are each very rare, and all
require smelting for best results.
Silver occurs metallic or native, and also in a
great variety of ores, being combined with sulphur,
antimony, chlorine, bromine, tellurium, arsenic and 28
other elements, and mixed with lead, copper, iron,
zinc and other metals. The ores of silver are of all
colors, those containing much sulphur being dark.
Chloride and bromide are of a light color, varying
from blue to white, yellow and brown, and resemble hard wax.
Ruby silver is a red ore of silver and antimony,
nearly always accompanied by a dark ore of similar nature, which shows a bright red streak When
scratched, and is sometimes called ruby silver.
Black sulphuret of silver, sometimes found in
small cavities in quartz, resembles soot very much,
and is nearly pure silver, combined with sulphur.
To test any of the above, heat the rock white
hot in a forge, with borax, and plunge in water;
beads of silver will then be visible.
Galena, the most important ore of lead, is lead
blue in color, about as heavy as iron, soft, brittle,
usually showing cubic crystals when broken, but
when very rich in silver shows no crystals, and is
called steel galena. It is a compound of 86 per
cent, metal, with sulphur, and when roasted in a
common fire gives off a blue blaze, metals to a grayish black slag and makes a hole in a frying pan
very quickly if that is used to melt it in.
Smelting Ores.
Grey copper is an ore or lead, antimony and sulphur, with a large amount of silver and copper in
it. It is gray to black in color, very soft, brittle,
and melts like galena, giving off a thick white
smoke of antimony when roasted.
Carbonate of lead is often found on the surface,
where galena will be found deeper down. It is
gray to white in color, and snaps and flies away
when roasted.
To test an ore for lead, if it is dark colored, roast
it to burn out the sulphur, and mix it after
crushing with twice its weight of baking soda and R*
carbon, which may be either sugar, flour or charcoal; melt it in a crucible or anything else you have
at hand, and if it is a valuable lead ore a button
of lead will be found in the slag, bright metallic
at first, but soon turning dark in the air. If the
button breaks on bedng, hammered out, either bismuth, antimony or phosphorus is present.
Copper occurs in a great variety of ores, and is
usually accompanied by gold and silver, making
a profitable smelting ore or rock.
Black oxide of copper is a common and very
rich ore. It is soft, friable, dull, brownish black,
often mixed with other minerals, and usually found
near the surface only. It is soluble in nitric acid,
and the solution will deposit copper on iron.
Sulpirides of copper occur in a variety of colors,
some like gold, some like lead and others all the
colors of a peacock's tail.
Other ores are carbonate, sulphate, phosphate,
silicate and several less common which are known
to miners as copper stain being green or blue.
Arsenical iron closely resembles pyrite or iron
sulphide, but is of a lighter yellow, and is sometimes called white iron. It is of little or no value,
and is a great nuisance in milling or smelting,
but it often accompanies good silver and gold rock,
detracting several dollars per ton from their value
by adding to the cost of reduction. It is most
frequently found in the neighborhood of eruptive
rock of dark color.
Zinc blende, also called black jack, is like arsenical iron in value and associations, but is often mistaken for something else. It is yellow to red and
black in color, resinous lustre, brittle and yields
brown powder when scratched.
Common Groups of Rock and Ore
The  following 'groups  of rock  and  ore  are  so
common that some take it for granted that those 30
mentioned in each group are always found associated, but there are many exceptions:
Talcose slate—Free gold in quartz, with traces
of tellurium.
Porphyry containi^ many large crystals—
Coarse free gold, much iron pyrite, some silver,
some copper, lead, zinc.
Porphyry, fine grained or dark colored—Free gold
and good concentrating ore, with some arsenic.
Porphyritic granite—Gold and silver in quartz,
v\ ith some tellurium and other metals.
Syenite—Same as above.
Gneiss—Gold, silver, copper, arsenic and other
metals, usually smelting ore.
Limestone—Lead, silver, sometimes gold.
Slate and soapstone—Coal, serpentine, platinum.
Porphyry, the most important rock formation to
a prospector, is of eruptive origin, having been
forced into its present position by volcanic forces,
being usually found in dykes between walls of
other rocks, which show more or less plainly the
effect of upheaval. It never contains mica, but
always contains crystals of feldspar, or other mineral, and may be of any color, from white, through
yellow, Ted and green, to nearly black, more or less
speckled or spotted.
jLailcose slate is distinguished from common slate
by a lustrous or glossy appearance.
Granite is a crystaline rock, consisting of quartz,
mica and feldspar, in fine or coarse grains.
For other rocks consult any standard work on
geology, or ask some old miner. The covers of this
book are too small for a dictionary.
Philosophy of Glaciers.
In all that region lying north of 37 degrees north
latitude on the American Continent some evidence
of glacial action in forming placer mines, where
such exist, is to be seen, and the farther north the
plainer the evidence and the more recent the action. 3i
A glacier is simply the ice and snow which
gathers around the mountain tops, sliding down
slowly of its own weight into* the lower regions,
where it melts or breaks off and floats away in
the sea as fast as it comes. Its* action serves to
crush and grind down its bed and carry away the
In nearly every case a moving glacier has a
stream of water under it, which serves to lubricate
it and to carry away the mud and sand produced
by its grinding the bedrock on which it moves. A
portion of the crushed material, however, is not
reached by the stream, and this is pushed and'
rolled along until a convenient pla?e is found for
it to stop, where it remains, unless cariied on by
other forces. Deposits of this sort are often seen
on the side of ridges opposite the mountain from
which a glacier has come in some previous age,
causing many to wonder how it got there.
The stream which runs under a glacier serves
quite as well for washing and concentrating as
though there was no glacier over it: hence; it is
evident that, when a glacier is grinding down a
gold bearing vein, the stream undprne^th will be
forming a pay streak in its channel, which may or
may not remain there for all time, according to
subsequent conditions.
The modern stream which follows a glacier bed
may, but often does not, follow the channel of the
sub-glacial stream, and hence there are surprises
in store for miners who have not studied the matter closely.
The crushed and washed or unwashed detritus
produced by a glacier is usually to be seen in
ridges more or less regular, one on*each side of the
bed called lateral moraines, and others between
called medial moraines; and also heaped up where
the lower end has rested, called terminal moraines,
above whish lakes are often seen.
This detritus nearly always contains a little gold,
if any is in the country it came from, but until
washed and concentrated by running streams, very rarely pays for mining. It very often covers the
rich sub-glacial pay streak, however, in such a way
that no indication can be seen on the surface, and
then, when found, old miners say: "Gold is where
you find it."
The Yukon Country as Reported.
Just at the present time the most interesting
subject connected witih mining matters, and the
one on which it is the most difficult to get reliable
data, is Alaska and the Yukon basin. Many reports, much mingled with "moonshine," are at
hand, but it is very difficult to pan it down and
save only the truth. Here are some concentrates,
however, which appear to be good, and they are
submitted to time for refining, the authorities for
most of it being rumor and reason:
There are three known belts of gold -bearing
formation crossing the northwest country, in a
direction north by west and south by east. The
best known runs from the southeast coast, near
Juneau, through and down the Yukon Valley to
Porcupine River, and no man knows how much
Another, but little known, appears to lie between the upper part of the Copper River and the
Tanana River basin.
The third, and least known, from Kotzebue
Sound, southeasterly across the western part of
Of these last two not enough even of rumor is
at hand to warrant saying anything more than
that there is gold there, which is not yet claimed or
owned Jby men or corporations.
On the eastern, or best known belt, mining has
been carried on for many years, the Tread well mine
on Douglas Island, near Juneau, having the largest
stamp mill in the world. It is also known that there
are many other large mines in that region, which
only await capital and proper management to yield
much gold.    A great deal of arsenic .is^present in the ore, which, with other base minerals, prevents
the college-bred miners, usually sent out by large
« corporations, from working it successfully, at least
until they have had the conceit taken out of them,
and by that time the company is usually broke.
The placer regions on the upper tributaries. of
the Yukon River have also been worked in a superficial way for several years, but owing to the short
summer and the enormous cost of supplies, very
little has been accomplished in the way of deep
mining or prospecting, except during the last year
or two.
The class of work that has been done there in
past years is little more than skimming, the bedrock having seldom been reached except where it
is very close to the surface.
In the Autumn of 1896 very rich gravel was discovered on the small creeks tributary to the lower
part of Klondike River, and, as the surface detritus
covering the bedrock is only from twelve to twenty
feet deep, and frozen solid, the effect will be the
opening of a new era in the development of Alaska
and the far north in general.
The region known to be rich at present, according
to best reports obtainable, is ten or fifteen miles
square, and there are all sorts of good reports as to
a much greater area, and other regions will most
likely develop well when tested.
The country rock throughout the region from
Juneau north, where gold has been found, is
metamorphic or sedimentary, much cut up with
dykes and larger upheavals of eruptive rock, slate,
limestone, diorite, andesite, porphyry, lava and
others being reported.
On the rich gulches near the Klondike the bedrock is reported to be slate, with plenty of evidence
of volcanic upheaval to be found, especially near
the summit of the divide between the Klondike
River and Indian River, where the rich gulches
head. It is also reported that there is but little
gold in the Klondike River itself.
It is also reported that the same character of rock 34
formation crosses the Stewart River near the fork
called McQuestin Creek, and that good wages have
been made skimming the low bars on the river in
that region, only the best being worked.
No report of work on the bedrock, or high bars
is at hand, nor is there any report as to> the hill
country between there and Klondike, a distance of
about 150 miles, having been prospected.
The whole region, where not timbered, is covered
wTith a coat of moss averaging six inches thick, and
the rocks are literally "out of sight."
Hints on Camp Life.
When your picks are dull and there is no forge
near, this may be worth doing: .
Build a round furnace a foot in diameter and
about three feet high, leaving a small hole at the
bottom and another four inches above, using small
rock and mud for the wall.
Make a fire inside and fill up the furnace to the
top with dry chips and blocks.
Stick your axe in the top of a stump in such
a way that you can use it for an anvil, and get
your hatchet or hammer. When the lower part of
the furnace is full of hot coals shove the point
of your pick or drill in the upper hole and do the
rest as a blacksmith would.
The Chinese have a style of bellows, or air
pump, for use in blacksmithing which can be made
almost anywhere or of any material, and is better
than none. T^o make it, make a straight box eight
or ten inches square, about three feet long, with
the inside planed smooth. Put a piston in it
and an intake valve at the closed end. A truyere
and pipe and a handle and guide for the piston rod
makes it complete.
To temper good steel, heat it to cherry red and
plunge the part you wish to harden in water, ice or
tallow, Which will make it white and brittle, while
the part above should be a dull red. Let the
heat pass into the hard part, and as it toughens the color will change, first to straw color or razor
temper, second to light blue, or knife and spring
temper, third to drab or pigeon blue, which bends
before it breaks, and fourth, black, slightly mal*
iave the temper desired, plunge it
ire not to harden it where it should
Outfit for Exploring.
A prospector's outfit for taking a first look at
a new district consists of i clothing and bedding according to the season, provisions for the trip, allowing two or three pounds per day, a frying pan,
with which to fry meat and bake bread, a couple
of cans or very light pots for boiling, tin plate,
knife, fork and cup, a gold pan, a light pick and a
shovel. It is well to remember that the lighter
your pack the more country you can examine in
a given length of time, provided your supplies are
sufficient to maintain health; a few fish hooks, and,
if game is plentiful, a light rifle or shotgun are.
worth carrying.
By building a wickiup in a dry place, just big
enough to roll under, leaving one side open and
making a log fire alongside, a very light bed is
made sufficient in ordinary weather. To build the
wickiup, set up two forked sticks about two feet
high and seven feet apart and lay a pole therein;
gather bark or sticks and moss to roof it over,
about three feet wide, using a six-inch log for the
back. Put in a few inches of dry grass or leaves
and spread your bed diner on that.   By using a lit
ers the 'neat from tin
iddle, and the 1c
ece ot camp furniture
wen feet by eight. Si
alter tent, pack cover and blanket. It should have loops sewn to it at
the corners and on the border.
To make a cot of it, lace two sides together with
a light rope and put in two poles for side bars.
Stretch it by bracing the poles apart and rest the
corners on anything handy:
A waterproof match box may be made by putting
two brass shells together of nearly the same size;
44 and 45 calibre cartridges make the small ones,
8 and 10 gauge shotgun shells the larger ones.
Recipes for Camp Cooking.
To bake prospector's bread, put a pint of flour
in the gold pan, add a pinch of salt, a teaspoonful
of baking powder, a spoonful of sugar, and mix
it well together, then add a cup of cold water, mix
and knead into stiff dough. Grease the frying
pan and get it hot, then press half of the dough
into the bottom of the pan, making it a little thinner in the centre than around the sides; set the pan
on some hot coals until a thin crust forms on the
bottom, so that it will slip in the pan; now set it
at an angle, facing the fire, putting any old thing
under the handle to hold it up, having a fire that
will turn it brown in ten or fifteen minutes, tossing
it as needed.
For hunter's bread have your flour, salt and baking powder mixed together in a sack in these proportions: Flour, 5 pounds; good baking powder,
2 ounces; salt, 1 ounce. Roll down the top of the
sack even with the flour, press the flour down with
the hand, making a hole in the middle; pour into
the hole half a pint of cold water, mix and knead
into a stiff dough, and bake by placing in thin
loaves on clean, hot rocks, or by holding it before
the fire in small lumps on a ramrod.
ice a vess(
of wate
r on 1
he fire, and
it boils put in
LOUgh   c
lean b
Bans for one
set it off
i let it
about five mi
in cold w
r until
you c
in bear your
hand 37
in them, and then rub the beans between your
hands until the hulls come off. Pour off the hulls
and water and put the beans in fresh water and
boil for twenty minutes, while you are getting
the other things ready.   Serve with fried bacon.
Mountain baked beans—Take a kettle or tin
pail, with a close-fitting cover, and fill it one-third
full of clean beans. Fill it up with water and set
near the fire to boil. Now dig a hole in a dry place
twice the size of the pot and build a hot fire in it.
When the beans have swelled and risen in the pot,
pour off the water and fill it up with fresh water,
adding sugar and salt to taste. Take fat bacon or
salt pork, cut it into strips, while the kettle is
getting hot again, and parboil it in the frying pan,
and when the pot is boiling and the fire in the hole
is burned down, put it in. Set the pot in the hole
and fill up around it with red-hot coals; you will
think the pot is going to melt, but that's all right.
Now be sure to put a bunch of green twigs and
leaves on top, two or three inches deep; green fir
brush is the best, and cover up well with hot ashes
and dirt, and lay a stone on top. Now go away
and don't touch it for four hours, and as much
longer as you like, fourteen hours being the proper
time. When you come in you will find it still
warm and juicy, if the hole was hoi, the cover green
and the lid tight. Treat your pot roast of venison
or bear the same way.
First get your bird, either chicken, duck, goose
or grouse. Draw the entrails and insert salt to
taste; also a handful of cornmeal or bread crumbs.
Fold the legs, wings and neck close, and tie them
with bark, vine or string, roll it up in sticky mud
an inch thick, and bury it deep in red-hot ashes,
leaving it there for an hour, or until the mud gets
dry and cracks open. You will then find it nicely
baked, and the feathers will come off with the
mud. 38
The making of leavened bread is an art almost
as old as, and perhaps older than history. It may
be adapted to almost any circumstances, If the
chemistry of it is understood.
To make it good, a thick paste is made of flour
and water, with such other stuff as the cook sees
fit to add, salted to taste. This paste must be
induced to ferment, which may be done in a variety,
of ways, and a part of the starch in the flour,
changed to alcohol and carbonic gas, which makes
it foam. The cause of fermentation is a microscopic vegetable growth, the germ or seed of which,
is found in a great variety of things, and is cultivated for use and called yeast; or may easily be
caught from the atmosphere in low, warm climates;
but not so easily in high mountains or very cold
regions, as it thrives and works best at 80 degrees
to #0 degrees F., and is killed at 180 degrees.
When making the paste add a little yeast, either
fresh or from the last mess; or, if you have none,
a portion of ripe raw fruit, grape or apple preferred;
or spit on it, or put in fresh blood or urine, as the
Chinese do, and set it where it will keep moderately
warm until it foams up to nearly twice its bulk,
but do not let is stand too long, or the alcohol will
become vinegar, wThich must be neutralised by adding soda or other alkali.
Next take a suitable pan or trough and put in
as much flour as you have of the yeast or paste,
making room in the centre to pour it in and mix
them. When you have them mixed, stiff enough
to handle, take it on a board, and roll and knead
it, working in all the flour you can, until it is
stiff. Then put it back in
until it cracks open. Ther
it again until it is stiff, an<
of a size to fit your pan <
inches thick. Make biscu
it to rise as before.   When
le pan and let it rise
I t
ake it out and knead
1 n
lake it up into loaves
oven, and about two
if you like, and set
is as'light as desired,
put it in a suitable 39
oven and regulate the heat to bake it brown in
about an hour.
If at any stage of the rising the fermentation
goes too far, acid will be formed and the bread
will be sour and heavy; but a little soda will
neutralise it, if well kneaded in.
A piece of the dough or a little of the paste
serves for yeast for the next time.
A handful of sugar put in at the last kneading
will make it sweet loaf or rolls.
If the paste or yeast becomes sour from neglect,
or if it is not desired for bread when it is ready
to mix, it will make good hot cakes.. Enough
soda must 'be added to neutralise the acid, which
is largely a matter of guess work based on experience and taste. If the first cake is sour, stir
in more soda.   If it is yellow, add a little vinegar.
For more extended Cooking" Recipes see the
"Alaska Cook Book" specially arrranged for Camp
Cooking*, to be had from Thomson Stationery Co.,
Vancouver, B. C.   Price 60c
Cures for Illness*
, When attacked with cramps in the bowels, which
is likely to happen as the result of exposure or
drinking ice water, or eating snow when hungry,
a y,ery good remedy for 'immediate use is Jamaica
ginger, a small vial of which is carried by many
mail carriers on snow-shoe routes.
If the cramps are not relieved with a couple of
small doses no more should be taken, as it may
cause other trouble and make a bad matter worse.
The best remedy is to get to camp as soon as possible and wrap up in a blanket and sit on a very
hot board until the pain is relieved, taking a
warm drink or two, and then go to bed.
For diarrhoea, which often results from improper
diet and other causes, a most effective and permanent cure is jack oak acorns, eaten alone in large
doses. Another, which is very effective, and always
at hand, but should not be repeated often, is this: • 40
Mix a teaspoonful of black pepper and two tea-
spoonfuls of flour with water into a paste and
aWhen your blood is too thick to circulate and
your arms or feet "go to sleep," or you feel chilled
by a fog, eat half a teaspoonful of cayenne pepper
irl a paste, or as you like it. This will thin your
blood and warm you up, but should not be taken
more than once a week.
When troubled with cold feet, damp socks or toe
jam, from too much sweating of the soles, give
your feet a warm bath and finish by rubbing them
well with snow or cold water and wiping them
dry. This will induce a healthy circulation in the
skin and close the pores. The feet should never be
warmed by a fire, except in cases of invalids, who
are not exposed to the weather and do not take
enough exercise to sweat.
When the ordinary mosquito is troublesome, gum
camphor is useful, as it is offensive and poisonous
to them.
Moisten the skin where it is exposed with tincture of camphor, which is camphor dissolved in
alcohol, and the stronger it is the better.
Bacon grease will also do some good, if the other
is not at hand, and will keep off ticks, gnats and
flies also.   Eucalyptus oil is also very effective and
Hints on Packing.
In many parts of the world domestic animals
are not available for transportation at certain seasons, and in some parts they are not at any season.
Under such circumstances it often becomes necessary to carry the load yourself, which is a tiresome job, the best that can be done with it. Nearly
all men can carry a load with greatest ease if it is
placed on their back, high up between their shoulders, and held there by straps or loops passing over
the shoulder and under the arm in such a way
that the pull comes on the breast and collar bone. 41
Many .afferent styles and shapes of pack straps
and man saddles have been invented, and used
with more or less satisfaction. The simplest of
these is a grain sack with a soft rope about four
feet long. Tie the ends of the rope at the lovver
corners of the sack, put in your load and take a
double hitch around the upper part of the sack,
close to the load as possible with the middle of the
rope, and put your arms through the loops.
A pack saddle, to be satisfactory, must be
flexible, and rest as evenly as possible on the back
and shoulders, with no extra weight over the
kidneys, nor below the short ribs.
Canadian Mining Laws.
In the British dominions all mineral-bearing
land is held to belong to the Crown. The exclusive
right to work and to use it is granted for limited
periods of time, under prescribed rules and regulations, with such fees and charges as best suits the
The different provinces are under different regulations, as seem best suited to varying conditions,
which are changed from time to time.
There is no appeals from the decisions of the Gold
Commissioner, but there are heavy penalties in the
way of forfeitures for any disregard of his commands.
A quartz claim in British Columbia or the North'
West Territory is 1,500 feet square, the corners being all right angles, and overlapping claims are
strictly forbidden.
The regulations governing placer mining prescribe claims of various sizes, according to situation
and richness of district, and are changed from time
to time to suit changing conditions.
Development work must be carried on continuously on mining claims. Absence or suspension of work for more than 72 hours, except in
cases of sickness, forfeits the claim, unless leave of
absence has been granted by the Gold Commissioner. 42
All persons employed in or around mines on
Crown lands are required to pay a license fee annually, and to keep the receipt therefor, called a
miner's certificate, in their possession.
Failure to pay the license on part of owner or
employee forfeits the owner's rights in the mine.
Free miners, meaning persons over 18 years of
age, and corporations, who have paid the license,
are permitted to kill game, cut timber for mining
and boat building purposes and to find, claim and
work mines on Crown lands.
At the present time the free miner's license in
the North West Territory, or Yukon district, is $10
per year. Notices of location must be recorded
and a fee of $15 paid.
Gulch claims may cover 250 feet of the gulch,
and other claims are in proportion.
Each alternate group of ten claims are reserved
for use and sale by the Government.
A royalty tax of 10 per cent, must be paid on
the output in excess of $2,500 per year from each
claim, the sum of $2,500 from each claim being
U. S. Mining Laws.
The following points of United States mining
law are worth taking along:
A placer claim may cover twenty acres or less,
and may be based on discovery of gold dust, stream
tin, cinnabar or other valuable mineral not in place.
All angles in the lines of placer claims shall be
plainly marked on the ground with posts or monuments of stone.
A notice shall be placed on the claims stating:
Name of claim, name of locator, date of location,
and describing boundaries and landmarks, so that
they may be readily found by other persons.
One hundred dollars worth of labor and improvements shall be expended on each claim of twenty 43
acres or less, each year. Expenditure of $500 must
be made on each claim before a patent shall be
None but citizens of the United States, or those
who have declared their intention of becoming
such, may locate or hold a claim on any United
States Government land.
Aliens may *lease mines, or other sources of
wealth, on the public domain; but by purchase do
not obtain valid title or claim thereto, unless
patent rtas first been issued to a citizen or corporation.
Quartz claims shall not be more than 1,500 feet
long on the course of a vein, or ledge, nor more
than 300 feet wide on either side thereof; nor shall
more than one claim be made on one discovery
of mineral-bearing rock in place.
A quartz claim is not valid unless mineral bearing rock is found in place.
Coal and iron ore are not subject to the laws
applying to quartz mines.
A notice of location shall be placed at point of
discovery, and shall state name of locator, name
of claim, date of location, and describe boundaries
and course of centre line.
Water rights may be obtained by posting a
notice of intention to use at the point wnere the
water to be diverted from its natural bed of course,
stating amount of water claimed, purpose for which
it is to be used, place of use, method of diversion
and name and residence of claimant; and by diverting said water within a reasonable time, according
to the amount thereof.
Non-use of a ditch or other method of diversion
for three consecutive years forfeits the water right
connected therewith; but all improvements on the
public domain are personal property of the owner.
Gbomeon Stationer? Co., Id.
Vancouver, B. C.
Iprospectors' an£> ^Bitters' Supplies, etc. THOMSON
stationers, printers,
Lithographers, etc. ■ -—,
Governing Placer Mining in the Provisional
District of Yukon, Northwest
(Approved by Order in Council of 18th Jan., 1898.)
"Free miner" shall mean a male or female over
the age of eighteen but not under that age, or
joint stock company, named in, and lawfully possessed of, a valid existing free miner's certificate,
and no other.
"Legal post" shall mean a stake standing not less
than four feet above the ground and flatted on two
sides for at least one foot from the top. Both sides
so flatted shall measure at least four inches across
the face. It shall also mean any stump or tree cut
olf and flattejd or faced to the above height and
"Close season" shall mean the period of the year
during which placer mining is generally suspended.
The period to be fixed by the Mining Recorder in
who^e district the claim is situated.
"Mineral" shall include all minerals whatsoever
other than coal.
"Joint Stock Company" shall mean any company incorporated for mining purposes under a
Canadian charter or licensed by the Government of
"Mining Recorder" shall mean the official appointed by the Gold Commissioner to record applications and grant entries for claims in the Mining
Divisions into which the Commissioner may divide
the Yukon District.
1. Every person over, but not under eighteen
years of age, and every joint stock company, shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges of a free
miner, under these regulations and under the regulations governing quartz mining, and shall be considered a free miner upon taking out a free miner's
certificate. A free miner's certificate issued to a
joint stock company shall be issued in its corporate
name. A free miner's certificate shall not be trans- g
2. A free miner's certificate may be granted for
one year to run from the date thereof or from the
expiration of the applicant's then existing certificate, upon the payment therefor of the sum of
$10.00, unless the certificate is to be issued in favor
of a joint stock company, in which case the fee
shall be fifty dollars for a company having a
nominal capital of $100,000 or less, and for a company having a nominal capital exceeding $100,000,
the fee shall be one hundred dollars. Only one
person or joint stock company shall be named in
a certificate.
3. A free miner's certificate shall be on the following form:—
Free Miner's Certificate.
Date  No	
Valid for one year only.
This is to certify that of has
paid me this day the sum of and is
entitled to all the rights and privileges of a free
miner, under any mining regulations of the Government of Canada, for one year from the	
day of. ....18	
This certificate shall also grant, to the holder
thereof the privilege of fishing'and shooting, subject to the provisions of any Act which has been
passed, or which may hereafter be passed for the
protection of game and fish; also the privilege of
cutting timber for actual necessities, for building
houses, boats, and for general mining operations;
such timber, however, to be for the exclusive use of the miner himself, but such permission shall
not extend to timber Which may have been heretofore or which may hereafter be granted to other
persons or corporations.
4. Free miner's certificates may be obtained by
applicants in person at the Department of the
Interior, Ottawa, or from the agents of Dominion
Lands at Winnipeg, Manitoba; Calgary, Edmonton,
Prince Albert, in the North West Territories; Kam-
loops and New Westminster, in the Province of
British Columbia; at Dawson City in the Yukon
District; also from agents of the Government at
Vancouver and Victoria, B. C, and at other places
which may from time to time be named by the
Minister of the Interior.
5. If any person or joint stock company shall
apply for a free miner's certificate at the agent's
office during his absence, and shall leave the fee required by these regulations, with the officer or
other person in charge of said office, he. or it shall
be entitled to have such certificate from the 'date
of such application; and any free miner shall at
any time be entitled to obtain a free miner's certificate commencing to run from the expiration of
his then existing free miner's certificate, provided
that when he applies for such certificate he shall
produce to the agent, or in case of his absence shall
leave with the officer or other person in charge of
the agents office, such existing certificate.
6. If any free miner's certificate be accidentally
destroyed or lost, the owner thereof may, on payment of a fee of two dollars, have a true copy of
it, signed by the agent, or other person by whom
or out of whose office the original was issued. Every
such copy shall be marked "Substituted Certificate" ; and unless some material irregularity be
shown in respect thereof, every original or substituted free miner's certificate shall be evidence of
all matters therein contained:
7. No person or joint stock company will be
recognised as having any right or interest in or to
any placer claim, quartz claim, mining lease, bed- rock flume grant, or any minerals in any ground
comprised therein, or in or to any water right, mining ditch, drain tunnel, or flume, unless he or it
and every person in his or its employment shall
have a free miner's certificate unexpired. And on
the expiration of a free miner's certificate the
owner thereof shall absolutely forfeit all his rights
and interest in or to any placer claim, mining lease,
bed-rock flume grant, and any minerals in any
ground comprised therein, and in or to any and
every1 water right, mining ditch, drain, tunnel, or
flume, which may be held or claimed by such owner of such expired free miner's certificate, unless
such owner shall, on or before the day following the
expiration of such certificate, obtain a new free
miner's certificate. Provided, nevertheless, ^ that
should any co-owner fail to keep up his free miner's
certificate, such failure shall not cause, a forfeiture
or act as an abandonment of the claim, but the
interest of the co-owner who shall fail to keep up
his free miner's certificate shall, ipso facto, be and
become vested in his co-owners, pro rata according
to their former interests; provided, nevertheless,
that a shareholder in a joint stock company need
not be a free miner, and, though not a free miner,
shall be entitled to buy, sell, hold, or dispose of any
shares therein.
8. Every free miner shall, during the continuance of his certificate, but not longer, have the
right to enter, locate, prospect, and mine for gold
and other minerals upon any lands in the Yukon
District, whether vested in the Crown or otherwise, except upon -Government reservations for
town sites, land which is occupied by any building,
and any land falling within the curtilage of any
dwelling house, and any land lawfully occupied
for placer mining purposes, and also Indian reser-
' vations.
9. Previous to any entry being made upon lands
lawfully occupied, such free miner shall give adequate security, to the satisfaction of the Mining
Recorder, for any loss or damage which may be 5
caused by such entry; and after such entry he shall
make full compensation to the occupant or owner
of such lands for any loss or damage which may be
caused by reason of such entry; such compensation,
in case of dispute, to be determined by a court having jurisdiction in mining disputes, with or without
a jury.
10. A creek or gulch claim shall be 250 feet long
measured in the general direction of the creek or
gulch. The boundaries of the claim which run in
the general direction of the creek or gulch shall be
lines along bed or rim rock three feet higher than
the rim or edge of the creek, or the lowest general
level of the gulch within the claim, so drawn or
marked as to be at every point three feet above
the rim or edge of the creek or the lowest general
level of the gulch, opposite to it at right angles to
the general direction of the claim for its length,
but such boundaries shall not in any case exceed
1.000 feet on each side of the centre of the stream
or gulch.    (See Diagram No. 1.)
11. If the boundaries be less than one hundred
fert apart horizontally, they shall be lines traced
along bed or rim rock one hundred feet apart
horizontally, following as nearly as practicable the
direction of the valley for the length of the claim.
(See Diagram No. 2.)
12. A river claim shall be situated only on one
side of the river and shall not exceed 250 feet in
length, measured in the general direction of the
river. The other boundary of the claim which runs
in the general direction of the river shall be lines
along bed or rim rock threQ feet higher than the
rim or ledge of the river within the claim so drawn
or marked as to be at every point three feet above
the rim or edge of the river opposite to it at right
angles to the general direction of the claim for its
length, but such boundaries shall not in any case be less than 250 feet, or exceed a distance of 1,000
feet from low water mark of the river. {See Diagram No. 3.)
13. A "hill claim" shall not exceed 250 feet in
length, drawn parallel to the main direction of the
stream or ravine on which it fronts. Parallel lines
drawn from each end of the base at right angles
thereto, and running to the summit of the hill
(provided the distance does not exceed 1,000 feet),
shall constitute the end boundaries of the claim.
14. All other placer claims shall be 250 feet
15. Every placer claim shal be as nearly as
possible rectangular in form, and marked by two
legal posts firmly fixed in the ground in the manner
shown in diagram No. 4. The line between the two
posts shall be well cut out so that one post may,
if the nature of the surface will permit, be seen
from the other. The flatted side of each post Shall
face the claim, and on each post shall be written
on the side facing the claim, a legible notice stating
the name or number of the claim, or both if possible, its length in feet, the date when staked, and
the full christian and surname of the locator.
16. Every alternate ten claims shall be reserved
for the Government of Canada. That is to say
when a claim is located, the discover's claim and
nine additional claims adjoining each other and
numbered consecutively will be open for registration. Then the next ten claims of 250 feet each
will be reserved for the Government, and so on.
The alternate group of claims reserved for the
Crown shall be disposed of in such manner as may
be decided by the Minister of the Interior.
17. The penalty for trespassing upon a claim
reserved for the Crown, shall be immediate cancel] ation by the Mining Recorder of any entry or
entries which the person trespassing may have obtained, whether by original entry or purchase, for
a mining claim, and the refusal by the Mining
Recorder of the acceptance of any application
which the person trespassing may   at   any   time make for a claim. In addition to such penalty, the
Mounted Police, upon a requisition from the Mining
Recorder to that effect, shall take the necessary
steps to eject the trespasser.
18. In defining the size of the claims, they shall
be measured horizontally irrespective of inequalities on the surface of the ground.
19. If any free miner or party of free miners
discover a new mine, and such discovery shall be
established to the satisfaction of the Mining Recorder, creek, river, or hill, claims of the following
size shall be allowed, namely:—
To one discoverer, one claim, 500 feet in length.
To a party of two discoverers, two claims,
amounting together to 1,000 feet in length.
To each member of a party beyond two in number, a claim of the ordinary size only.
20. A new stratum of auriferous earth or gravel
situated in a locality where the claims have been
abandoned shall for this purpose be deemed a new
mine, although - the same locality shall have been
previously worked at a different level.
21. The forms of application for a grant for
placer mining, and the grant of the same, shall be
those contained in Forms "H" and "I" in the
schedule hereto.
22. A claim 'shall be recorded with the Mining
Recorder in whose district it is situated, within ten
days after the location thereof, if it is located within ten miles of the Mining Recorder's office. One
extra day shall be allowed for every additional ten
mi^es or fraction thereof.
23. In the event of the claim being more than
one hundred miles from a Recorder's office, and
situated where other claims are being located, the
free miners, not less than five in number, are
Authorised to meet and appoint one of their number a "Free Miners' Recorder," who shall act in
that capacity until a Mining Recorder is appointed
by the Gold Commissioner.
24. The "Free Miners' Recorder" shall at the
earliest possible date after his appointment, notify the nearest Government Mining Recorder thereof,
and upon the arrival of the Government Mining
Recorder, he shall deliver to him his records and the
fees received for recording the claims. The Government Mining Recorder shall then grant, to each
free miner whose name appears in the records, an
entry for his claim on form "I" of these regulations,
provided an application has been made by him m
accordance with form "H" thereof. The entry to
date from the time the "Free Miners' Recorder
recorded the application.
25 If the "Free Miners' Recorder" fails within
three months to notify the nearest Government
Mining Recorder of his appointment, the claims
which he may have recorded will be cancelled.
26. During the absence of the Mining Recorder
from his office, the entry for a claim may be
granted by any person whom he may appoint to
perform his duties in his absence.
27. Entry shall not be granted for a claim
which nas not been staked by the applicant in
person in the manner specified in these regulations.
An affidavit that the claim was staked out by the
applicant shall be embodied in form "H" in the
schedule hereto.
28. An entry fee of fifteen dollars shall be
charged the first year, and an annual fee of fifteen
dollars for each of the following years. This provision shall apply to claims for which entries have
already been granted.
29. A statement of the entries granted and fees
collected shall be rendered by the Mining Recorder
to the Gold Commissioner at least every three
months, which shall be accompanied by the amount
30. A royalty of ten per cent, on the gold
mined shall be levied and collected on the gro?s
output of each claim. The royalty may be rjaid
at banking offices to be established under the
auspices of the Government of Canada, or to the
Gold Commissioner, or to any Mining Recorder
authorised by him.' The sum of $2,500.00 shall be deducted from the gross annual output of a claim
when estimating the amount upon which royalty
is to be calculated, but this exemption shall not
be allowed unless the royalty is paid at a banking
office or to the Gold Commissioner or Mining Recorder. When the royalty it paid monthly or at
longer periods, the deduction shall be made rateable
on the basis of $2,500 per annum for the claim.
If not -paid to the bank, Gold Commissioner or
Mining Recorder, it shall be collected by the customs officials or police officers when the miner
passes the posts established* at the boundary of
a district. Such royalty to form part of the consolidated revenue, and to be accounted for by the
officers who collect the same in due course. The
time and manner in which such royalty shall be
collected shall be provided for by regulations to
be made oy the Gold Commissioner.
31. Default in payment of such royalty, if continued for ten days after notice has been posted
oa the claim in respect of which it is demanded,
or in the vicinity of such claim, by the Gold Commissioner or his agent, shall be followed by cancellation of the claim. Any attempt to defraud the
Crown by withholding any part of the revenue thus
provided for, by making false statements of the
amount taken out, shall be punished by cancellation of the claim in respect of which fraud or false
statements have been committed or made. In
respect to the facts as to such fraud or false
statements or non-payment of royalty, the decision
of the Gold Commissioner shall be final.
32. After the recording of a claim the removal
of any post by the holder thereof or by any person
acting in his behalf for the purpose of changing
the boundaries of his claim, shall act as a forfeiture
of the claim.
33. The entry of every holder of a grant for
placer mining must be renewed and his receipt
relinquished and replaced every year, the entry fee
being paid each time.
34. lhe holder of a creek, gulch Or river claim may, within sixty days after staking out the claim,
obtain an entry for a hill claim adjoining it, by
paying to the Mining Recorder the sum of one
hundred dollars. This permission shall also be
given to the holder of a creek, gulch or river claim
obtained under former regulations, provided that
the hill claim is available at the time an application is made therefor.
35. No miner shall receive a grant of more than
one mining claim in a mining district, the boundaries of which shall be defined by the Mining Recorder, but the same miner may also hold a hill
claim, acquired by him under these regulations in
connection with, a creek ,gulch, or river claim, and
any number of claims by purchase; and any number of miners may unite to work their claims in
common, upon s,Tch terms as they may arrange,
provided such agreement is registered with the
Mining Recorder and a fee of five dollars paid for
each registration.
36. Any. free miner or miners may sell, mortgage, or dispose of his or their claims, provided
such disposal be registered with, and a fee of two
dollars paid to the Mining Recorder, who shall
thereupon give the assignee a certificate in the form
"o    in the schedule hereto.
37.—Every free miner shall during the continuance of his grant have the exclusive right of
entry upon his own claim for the miner-like working thereof, and the construction of a residence
thereon, and shall be entitled exclusively to all the
proceeds realised therefrom, upon which, however,
the royalty prescribed by these regulations shall
be payable: provided that the Mining Recorder
may grant to the holders of ether claims such right
of entry thereon as may be absolutely necessary
for the working of their claims, upon such terms
as may to him seem reasonable. He may also
grant permission to miners to cut timber thereon
for their own use.
38. Every free miner shall be entitled to the
use of so much   of  the water naturally  flowing ■*r\
through or past his claim, and not already lawfully
appropriated, as shall, in the opinion of the Mining
Recorder be necessary for the due working thereof,
and snail be entitled to drain his own claim free
of charge.
39. A claim may be deemed, to be abandoned
and open to occupation and entry by any person
when the same shall have remained unworked on
working days, excepting during the close season,
by the grantee thereof or by some person on his
behalf for the space of * seventy-two hours, unless
sickness or other reasonable cause be shown to the
satisfaction of the Mining Recorder, or unless the
grantee is absent on leave given by the Mining
Recorder, and the Mining Recorder, upon obtaining
evidence satisfactory to himself, that this provision
is not being complied with, may cancel the entry
given for a claim.
40. If any cases arise for which no provision is
made in these regulations, the provisions of the
regulations governing the disposal of mineral lands
other ythan coal lands, approved by His Excellency
the Governor in Council on the 9th of November,
1889, or such other regulations as may be substituted therefor, shall apply.
I (or  we) of hereby
apply, under the Yukon Placer Mining Regulations, for a grant of a claim for placer mining
as defined in the said regulations, in (here describe
locality),and I (or we) solemnly swear: —
1. That from indications I (or we) have observed on the claim applied for, I (or we) have
reason to believe that there is therein a deposit of
2. That I (or we) am (or are) to the best of
my (or our) knowledge and belief the first to observe such indications, or: —
3. That the said claim was previously granted I
to (here name the last grantee) but has remained
unworked by the said grantee for not less
4. That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that
the land is other than vacant Dominion Lands.
5. That I (or we) did on the day of
. < mark out on the ground ,in accordance in every particular with the, provisions of
the mining regulations for the Yukon District, the
claim lor which I (or we) make this application,
and in so doing I (or we) did not encroach on any
other claim or mining location previously laid out
by any other person.
* 72 hours means three consecutive days of 24
hours each.
6. That the length of the said claim, as nearly
as I  (or we)  could measure is feet, and
that the -description of this date hereto attached,
signed by me (or us) sets (or set) forth in detail,
to the best of my (or our) knowledge and ability,
its position.
7. That I (or we) make this application in
good faith, to acquire the claim for the sole purpose of mining to be prosecuted by myself (or us)
or by myself and associates, or by my (or our)
Sworn before me
this day
of 18. ...
tJcgLThis form is printed and for sale by the Thomson Stationery
Co., Ld., Law Form Publishers, Vancouver, B. C , publishers
of all kinds of Mining Forms.
Department of the Interior,
Agency 18... .
In consideration of the payment of the fee of fifteen dollars prescribed by clause 28 of the mining
regulations for the Yukon District, by	
(A. B.) of  .accompanying his (or their)  application No dated	
18...., for a mining claim in (here insert
description of locality.)
The Minister of the Interior hereby grants to the
said (A. B.) 4 tor the term of
one year from the date hereof, the exclusive right
of entry upon the claim (here describe in
detail the claim granted) for the miner-like working thereof, and the construction of a residence
thereon, and the exclusive right to all the proceeds
realised therefrom, upon which, however, the
royalty prescribed by the regulations shall be paid.
The said (A. B.) shall be
entitled to the use of so much of the water naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim,
and not already lawfully appropriated, as shall be
necessary for the due working thereof, and to
drain his (or their) claim, free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said	
(A. B.) any right of ownership in the soil covered
by the said claim, and the said grant shall lapse
and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously
and in good faith worked by the said	
(A. B.) or his (or their) associates.
The rights hereby granted are those laid down in
the afqresaid mining regulations, and no more, and
are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, whether the same are expressed herein or
Mining Recorder.
Department of the Interior,
Agency 18	
This is to certify that (B. C.)	
of has  (or have)  filed an assignment in
due form dated 18... ., and accompanied
by a registration fee of two dollars, of the grant to
, (A. B.) of of the 4P
right  to  mine in (here insert   description   of
claim) for one year from the 18	
This certificate entitles the said (B. C)
 to all the rights and privileges of the said
  (A. B.) in respect to the claim as^
signed, that is to say, to the exclusive right of
I entry upon the said claim for the miner-like working thereof and the construction of a residence
thereon, and the exclusive right to all the proceeds realised therefrom (upon which, however, the
royalty prescribed by the regulations shall be paid),
for the remaining portion of the year for which the
said claim was granted to the said (A. B.)
 that is to say, until the day
of 18....
The said (B. C.) shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water naturally
flowing through or past his (or their) claim and
not afready lawfully appropriated, as shall be
necessary for the due working thereof and to drain
his claim, free of charge.
This grant does not convey to the said	
(B. C.) any  right  of  ownership in  the
soil covered by the said claim, and the said grant
shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously   and   in  good   faith   worked   by   the
said., (B.  C.) .or his   (or their)
The rights hereby granted are those laid down
in the Yukon Placer Mining Regulations, and no
more, and are subject to all the provisions of the
said regulations, whether the same are expressed
herein or not.
Mining Recorder.
Thomson Stationery G°->Ld
Governing the issue of Leases to dredge for
Minerals in the beds of rivers in the
Provisional District of Yukon
Northwest Territories.
(Approved of by Order in Council  No.   125, of the 18th
January, 1898)
The following regulations are adopted for the
issue of leases to persons or coanpanies who have
obtained a free miner's certificate in accordance
with the provisions of the regulations governing
placer mining in the Provincial District of Yukon,
to dredge for minerals other than coal in the sub-
mergea beds or bars of rivers in the Provisional
Listrct of Yukcn, in the North West Territories:—
1. The lessee shall be given the exclusive right
to subaqueous mining and dredging for all minerals
with the exception of coal in and along an unbroken extent of five miles of a river following its
sinuosities, to be measured down the middle thereof, and to be described by the lessee in such manner as to be easily traced on the ground; and al-
s though the lessee may also obtain as many as five
other leases, each for an unbroken extent of five
miles of a river, so measured and described, no
more than six such leases will be issued in favor of
an individual or company, so that the maximum
extent of river in and along which any individual
or company shall be given the exclusive right above
mentioned, shall under no circumstances exceed
thirty miles. The lease shall provide for the survey
of the leasehold under instructions from the Surveyor General, and for the filing of the returns of
survey in the Department of the Interior within
one year from the date of the lease.
2. The lease shall be for a term of twenty years,
JPP at the end of which time all rights vested in, or
which may be claimed by the lessee under his
lease, are to cease and determine. The lease may be
renewable, however, from time to time thereafter
in the discretion of the Minister of the Interior.
3. The lessee's right of mining and dredging
shall be confined to the submerged beds or bars
in the river below low water mark, that boundary
to be fixed by its position on the first day of August
in the year of the date of the lease.
4. The lease shall be subject to the rights of all
person's who have received or who may receive entries for claims under the Placer Mining Regulations.
5. The lessee shall have at least one dredge in
operation upon the five miles of river leased to
him, within two seasons from the date of his lease,
and if, during one season when operations can be
carried on, he fails to efficiently work the same to
the satisfaction of the Minister of the Interior, the
lease shall become null and void unless the Minister of the Interior shall otherwise decide. Provided that when any company or individual has
obtained more than one lease, one dredge for each
fifteen miles or portion thereof shall be held to be
compliance with this regulation.
6. The lessee shall pay a rental of $100.00 per
annum for each mile of river so leased to him. The
lessee shall also pay to the Crown a royalty of ten
per centum on the output in excess of $15,000 00,
as shown by sworn returns to be furnished monthly
by the lessee to the Gold Commissioner during the
period that dredging operations are being carried
on; such royalty, if any, to be paid with each
6. The lessee who is the holder of more than one
lease shall be entitled to the exemption as to
royalty provided for by the next proceeding regulation to the extent of $15,000.00 for each five miles
of river for which he is the holder of a lease: but
the lessee under one lease shall not be entitled to
the exemption as to royalty provided by the next 17
two proceeding regulations, where the dredge or
dredges used by him have been used in dredging
by another lessee, or in any case in respect of more
than thirty miles.
7. The lessee shall be permitted to cut free of
all dues, on any land belonging to the Crown, such
timber as may be necessary for the purposes of his
lease, but such permission shal not extend to timber which may have been heretofore or may hereafter be granted to other persons or corporations.
8. The lessee shall not interfere in any way
with the general right of the public to use the river
in which he may be permitted to dredge, for
navigation and other purposes; the free navigation
of the river shall not be impeded by the deposit
of tailings in such manner as to form bars or banks
in the channel thereof, and the current or stream
shall not be obstructed in any material degree by
the accumulation of such deposit.
9. The lease shall provide that any person who
has received or who may receive entry under the
Placer Mining Regulations shall be entitled to run
tailings into the river at any point thereon, and to
construct all works which may be necessary for
properly operating and working his claim. Provided that it shall not be lawful for such person to
construct a wing-dam one thousand feet from the
place where any dredge is being operated, nor to
obstruct or interfere in any way with the operation
of any dredge.
10. The lease shall reserve all roads, ways,
bridges, drains, and other public works, and all
improvements now existing, or which may hereafter be made in, upon or under any part of the
river, and the power to enter and construct the
same, and shall provide that the lessee shall not
damage nor obstruct any public ways, drains,
bridges, works and improvements now or hereafter
to be made upon, in, over, through, or under the
river; and that he will substant:allv bridge or cover
and protect all the cuts, flumes, ditches and sluices,
and all pits and dangerous places at all points i8
where they may be crossed by a public highway
or frequented path or trail, to the satisfaction of
the Minister of the Interior.
11. That the lessee, his executors, administrators, or assigns, shall not nor will assign, transfer
or sublet the demised premises, or any part thereof,
without the consent in writing of the Minister first
had and obtained.
s^The Thomson Stationery Co., Ld., Vancouver,
B. C, publish all ihp Mining and Conveyancing
Forms for use in the -Northwest Territories of
Canada, among others the following are largely
used by Miners:
hundred doz
621 y£ Cap    Application   for   Grant   for
Placer Mining $ 1 00        25
626 A            Location Notice,   Post No 1 25
626 B                     "                     Post No 2 25
620 }& Cap    Bill of Sale  Mineral  Claim 1 00       25
123 Gap        Option  on   Mining Claim.. 5°
124 "           Bond for Mineral Claim  50
127 yi Cap   Mineral Claims Listed for Sale I 00       25
132 Demy     Pay Roll  Sheets 'for M ining
Companies  4 00       75
134 % Cap   Proxj Form for Joint Stock
Companies      75       *5 ———iwmmm
Vancouver. B. C.
Conveyancing Forms.
hundred doz.
Transfer of Land $ 50
Mortgage, long form  50
"     short form  50
Chattel Mortgage (to  secure
Promissory Note)  56
Chattel  Mortgage  (to secure
the sum of)  50
Lease, short form  50
Quit Claim Deed  50
Bill of Sale    |5 C!       5Q
Deed of Co-Partnership, 10c isJ»^t   I 00
Assignment   for   benefit   of
Creditors  50
Assignment in Trust  50
Assignment Chattel M'tgage 35
Agreement for Sale of Land 35
Agreement for Sale of Land
short form  25
Bond to Convey  35
Power of Attorney (gen form) 35
Power   of  Attorney    (short
form, general)  25
Power   of   Attorney   (short
form, special  25
Discharge of Chattel  M'rtge 25
"            Mortgage  25
Building  Contract,   10c  ea. I op
Notice of Sale under M'rtge 1 00        25
Affidavit for Witness  75        15
"        Attorney  75        15
"        Secretary  of   a
Corporation  75        15
560 j4 Cap    Notice to Incumbrancers ... 1 00        25
%. Cap
528 y2 Cap
54 S
" 20
, Ld.
Vancouver, B. C.
Customs Forms.
135  4 Cap
J35A    "
Fnr Dntv    B I $
"         Goods imported
from   Great Britain	
136 ]/2 Cap
137 "
Free   R 2 •	
Settler's Effects,   Free,   B 4
For Warehouse, B 5	
139      1
To Perfect Warehouse Entry
140        5
For Duty Ex-Warehouse B 7
H1       1
Free   Ex-Warehouse   B   8..'
142        "
For Export Ex-Warehouse B9
143        "
For  Removal Ex-WT.,   Bio
146A     "
Entry Outwards,   goods   tne
produce  or   manufacture  of
Canada  B n  	
146        "
Export Entry	
Entry  Outwards,   goods not
the produce or manufacture
of Canada   B 14.  .....•••»•
Bill of Sale   in Bond,   (cus
toms transfer  invoice)   B 15
149        •*■
Report Inwards, A 6	
150       M
"      Outwards,  A 7	
151        "
For Duty, spirits, D 4, excise
155 % Cap
Collector's   Warrant for De
livery of Goods ex ship. C I
156   •    "
Collector's Landing Warrant
for Bonded Warehouse,   C 2
157   i
Locker's Receiving Order, C3
"      Delivery Order, C 4
159   "
Permission Required, C 6..
Report Inwards,  Coastwise,
A 0    	
161   «
■rv y	
Report Outwards, Coastwise,
A 10	
Vancouver, B. O.
hundred doz
162 % Cap Appointment of Attorney or
Agent for making Customs
Enty, E 4	
165 }i Cap Entry Outwards for Shipping
to the Yukon Dist,   N.W.T
164 % Cap    Bill of Health	
$     75
£2Tln addition to these we publish all the Supreme
Court, Small Debt Court, and many special
Mining Forms. These forms have all been carefully prepared and may be relied on as correct and in
accordance with the Statute. See that each form
has our imprint in the corner.
Cbomeon Stationery Co., %t\,
and Calgary, Alta.  PROSPECTORS'
Thomson Stationery Co.,
Miners'Glasses—Coddington Magnifying Glasses,
six sizes, from $1.20 to $2.50. This is one of the
strongest and best makes of glasses made. We have
also a large line at from 35 cents upwards.
Compasses—Pocket size, from the cheapest to the
finest jeweled glasses, from 25c. to" $3.00.
Steel Tapes—From the small vest pocket size at
75c. to the 100 ft., 200 ft., 300 ft. and 500 ft.
aluminum plated.
Engineer's Tapes—We always have a full stock
of these and having the agency for Justus Roels celebrated Steel Tapes.
Gold Dust Bags—At 25c, 35c. and 50c. Gold
Dust and Money Belts, to be worn next the body, a
large range.
Parses—Pocket Books, Wallets, all kinds, styles and
sizes, from the cheapest to the finest.
Memorandum Books-- Diaries in all sizes,
from the vest pocket midget to the largest, and in all
grades of bindings. I111I§
The Alaska Thermometer—Is a small but
reliable self regestering thermometer to 850 below
zero, in a flat tin case. The Klondike Thermometer—Also self
registering, to 850 below zero, is packed in a hard
rubber case, and in its case is about the size of a
fountain pen or lead pencil.
Eye Protectors—In fine celluloid, or goggles in
wire frame and glass, white or colored, useful in protecting the eyes from dust and from snow blindness.
Postage Stamp Cases—In Tin and Leather
with parchment sheets for keeping stamps from
Fountain Pens—The Parker, Waterman and
other standard makes, a very large range, also the
cheaper kinds at 40c. and upwards.
Ink Powders--We put up a very fine Ink Powder
in Black or Red, to make % pint good ink, 15c.
Ink Stands—Pocket size, in wood and rubber.
Gold Scales—Finely finished Brass Scales, weight
from 1 gr. to 2 oz., $2.00;   1 gr. to 4 oz., $2.5a
Pocket Match Safes—Pocket Combs? Mirrors,
Pocket Knives, Books, etc.
Thomson Stationery Co., Xo.,


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