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A voyage round the world : which was peformed in the years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, by M. de la Peyrouse… La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, 1741-1788 1798

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         gÉ /&s y
THE YEARS I785, 1786, I787, ANDT788»
Istc. 13c. Zfc.  . VOYAGE
THE YEARS 1785^ I786, 1787, AND I788,
't eiC/ïr 1 toS
A Voyage from Manilla to California,
Emhellished ivith Eour Fine Engrwvings,
Kwfe?"- 1
FÓR   T.   BROWN,   NO.    I.   NO RTH-B R ID GE-S T RE E T)
and sold by
W. Coke, Leith\ Brash and Reid, Glasgonu% T. Hïll3
Pcrth ;   A. BROWN,  Aberdeen ;    G.   MlLNE,  Dundee;
||-    W.  Boyd,   Dumfries ;   Embleton,   Berivick on
Tweed', W. Hallgarth, jun. Soutb Shields\
and Crosby & Co. London*
1798,  ifci., ,.m^r>
Jt his little volume contains the substance
of two recent Publications ; concernin^
which the curiosity of the world has been
very powerfully excited; which are iilled
with knowledge of a species that is re-
markably fitted. to expand and illuminate
every mind ; but which are to be boughti
at an expénce that, but for the expediënt
of abridgement, must exclude the greater
number of readers from any acquaintance
with their contents..
The original work from which the Account of the Voyage of M. de la Pey-
rouse, has been extracted, is not simply a
narrative. It comprehends—the very ela-
borate papers of instructions and advice,
which were given to direct the investiga-
tions, and to guide the course, of the
French navigators,—thei Journal of La
Peyrouse, which lie had trankmitted home
for publication,—p Spanish Journal which
a VI
La Peyrouse sent to France, with his own
papers, for the sake of illustrating thé his-
tory of the South Sea Isles,—with various
extracts from the letters of La Peyrouse
himself, and of the companions of his voyage, which serve to confirm the narrative
in the prinfeipal journal, or to enlarge it
by the communication of new particulars.
Charts,aand other engravings, accompany
and illustrate the journal, and the other
Communications : And a number of nau-
tical tables close the whole, at the end.
It is true, that the Instructions with
which La Peyrouse was favoured, when
he set out on his voyage, are more elabo-
rate than any which we know to have
been given to the navigators, who were
sent upon our British voyages of discove-
ry. But, if all the science and intelli-
gence of the British Nation, had been
strained in one great effort, to produce thé
most ample and luminous papers of Instructions, which Could be given to navigators setting out en a voyage of disco-
very round the world ;   the birth from PREFACE.
such 'ari effort-Wöuld, doubtless, have been
very much superior to that wrnph France
gave to guide an  enterprize  intended to
eclipse the fame of the voyages of Cook.
... i
Except the nautical and geographical
notes by Fleurieu, no other part of these
papers is distinguished by superlative excellence. The coiïimuiHcation from the
Academy of Sciences, is, in comparison
with what was to be expected, contémpti-
bly trivial and superiiciah
LaPeyrouse's Journal itself is written
in a plain, manly manner, without much af-
fectation. lts nautical and Hydrographi-
cal merit appears to be very considerable.
But, it presents much less of new infor-
mation, than one should have expected,
concerriing the different provinces of Na-
tural History, and, in particular, concern-
ing the features of savage and barbarian
life—in the Isles of the Southern Ocean,
or on the coasts of the the Asian or the
American continent. The French voy-
agers seem to have been but ill-qualifjied
for the observation of savage or barb&rian
a 2 3=5?
manners. ... Their "mi-nds wanted j;tt.$t
prompt fertility in the invention of the
expedients suitable to every exigency in
the intercourse with savages, which Britons have ever eminently displayed in
similar expeditions. They had set out
with a theoretic fancy, that passim gentle-
ness would accomplish every thing ; and,
when this failed thern, they knew not
what to do. Their iirst misfortunes ab-
solutely unmanned their minds, and re-
duced them to act ever after with a timid
caution, which frustrated many of the best
purposes of their voyage, Where La
Peyrouse expatiates in general views, and
sets himself to reason, and to speculate in
his Journal; what he says, is, for the great-
er part, of very little value. He discovers
much of that conceited dogmatism, for
which the French character has long been
remarkable. He is far too ready to con-
clude, that, what he saw not, cannot have
been ever seen by others ; that, what his
reason cannot, at a iirst view, approve,
must be utterly absurd. A comparative
want of boldness, of fortitude, of patience^ fREFACE.
of enlargement of mind, of the energetic
spirit of unconquerable perseverance, ap-
pears, from this Journal, to have, but too
conspicuously, marked the characters of
the French navigators. The whole Nar-
rative possesses a considerable dashing óf
Gallic vanity. The amorous propensities
of the French, which have often spoiled
their fortunes, seem to have been the true
cause of one of the most serious disasters
which these voyagers met with, iil the
course of their whole expedition.
The extracts from the private corré-
spondence of La Peyrouse himself and his
companions, with their friends in France,
add little or nothing tq the information in
the Journal, but coniirm that information
by multiplied testimonies, and evince the
voyagers to have lived happily together,
to have retained a tender remembrahce
of the friends they had left in France, and
to have been, every one, vigilantly atten-
tive to his proper functions in the prose-
cution of the voyoge. X
In the Abridgement of the Account
ef this Voyage of La Peyrouse, only one
continued Narrative has been forrneto
Anecdotes of the Life of La Peyrouse | the -
substance of the Instructions whichwere
given him; the most remarkable particu-
lars from the correspondence, are involved,
in this abstracted narrative, with the tenor
of the principal Journal. It was suppos-
ed tMat, by this oeconomy, the Abridgement would be rendered more convenient
to the reader, more interesting, more le-
gitimately classical, as a composition, than
if each particular part of the original col-
lection should be abridged by itself. Of
La Peyrouse's work, the nautical matter
is far the most valuable: And, for this
reason, extreme care has been used,-not.
to mar this matter in abridging it. The
information relative to Natural Histacy,
and to human society, as being the most
generally interesting to readers of all classes, is here detailed with the amplest ex-
pansion of the matter. The speculatioim
of M, de la Peyrouse, /as being of infeüor
value, are, for the greater part, omitted. P R E F A C E.
The diseoveries made on the North-l|a<st
coast of Tartary, being singularly impoifÉ^
ant, are related at full length, with the
careful display of almost every m^Hite
The Narrative of the Voyage of the
Spanish navigator, Maurelle, is abridged
in the second of the articles which com-
pose this Kttie Volume. His ealculations of
the latitudes appear to be very inaccurate.
But, this abstract of his Narrative contains
the only account which we possess in Eng-
lish, of the intercourse of the Spaniards
with the inhabitants of the newly disco-
vered isles in the southern ocean. Maurelle seems to have acted with considera-
bly more of spirit, prudence, and fertility
of resources accommodated to the exi-
gencies of a new situation, than were ex-
ercised by La Peyrouse in his intercourse
with these savage or barbarian islanders.
The short narrative of Maurelle, throws
more light than the whole Journal of La
Feyrouse, on the manners of the people P R E F A C E.
of those remote isles, by which European
curiosity has been so strongly attracted.
The very valuable and well-written account of the voyages of Vancouver, has
been but just given to the public. It is
the work of the commander by whom the
expedition was conducted. It is to be la-
mented, that a man so accomplished should
have been called away, by a premature
death, while the last sheets of his work
were in the press, from the service of his
country. The very brief abstract of Van-
couver's narrative, which makes the third
article in this volume, will clearly evince
to the reader, the importance of Vancou-
ver's discoveries on the north-west coast
of America, and will contribute, it is hop-
ed, to diffuse wider the fame of his expedition, but cannot at all injure the sale of
the original work,—of which it is, in tiiith,
but a very meagre skeleton. Vancouver and his companions proved them-
selves to be incomparably better qualified
than the French navigators, with that patiënt perseverance, penetration, compre-
hensive sagacky, fortitude, and^ool intc^
pidity, which are necessary to the success-
ful accomplishment of any very perilous
and extensive voyage of discovery. Van-
couver appears to me, to have sufficiënt-
ly evinced the impossibility of any passage
for ships, between the Atlantic and the
Pacific Oceans, within those latitudes between which this passage has been sought*
But, I am far from beheving, that he has
traced the whole outline of the coast which
he surveyed, with the most perfect accu-
racy. He sailed over that parallel of la-
titude in which La Peyrouse places his
Port des Frdncois, without discovering its
existence. And I doubt not but there re-
mains much to be yet discovered on these
coasts by the diligence of future navigators* C O N T E N-T S.
La  Peyrouse's  Voyage.
Chapter First. Design of the voyage \ and
course to the isle of St CatherineX on the
eastern coast of South America,
Chapter Secg-nb* Voyage, observations, and
transactions, from the 6th day of November 1785, to the 8th of April 17865 in-
cludxng the course from St Catherine's to
E aster Island 5 with descriptions of St Ca-
therine's : the settlement of Conception on
the coast of Chili, &c.
Chapter Third. Narrative of the voyage con-
tinued, from their arrival at Easter Island,
on the cjth of April 1786, till their depar-
ture from the Sandwich Isles, on the ist of
June. Description of Easter Island, with
some particulars concerning the Sandwich
Isles, -
Chapter Fourth, Narrative of the voyage
continued, from the ist of June 1786, to
the begïnning of August : Including the
course from the Sandwich Isles to Port de
Francois, with lts transactions, discoveries,
and misförtunes; .   -
Chapter Fiftll Narrative of the voyage continued, from the beginning of August to the
end of September 1786 : Progress down the
N. W. coast of America, from Port de
Francois to Monterey : Dïscoveries and ob-
servations on the coast: Description of the
bay of Monterey : Astronomical observa-
tions : Sketch of the present state of the
two Calipfornias, &c.
Chapter Sixth. Narral^ve of the voyage con-
tinued, from the 24tii*of September 1786,
to the ld of January 1787. Course from
Monterey to the road of Macao,
Chapter Seventh. Narrative of the voyage
continued, from the 3d of January to the
9th of April 1787. Transactions at Ma-
cao, with a description of that place : Passage to Luconia \ and thence to Manilla :
Description of Manilla, &c.
Chapter Eighth. Narrative of the voyage
continued, from the pth of August 1787.
Course to explore the N. E. coast of China,
and Chinese Tartary : Dïscoveries in the
sea of Japan, in the channel of Tartary, on
the Tartarian coast, &.c.
Chapter Ninth. Narrative of the voyage'
continued, from the 29th of July to the 6th
of September 1787. Transactions and dis-
coveries in the Baie de Castries. Disco-
very of a Streight dividing Jesso from Oku-
Jesso. Vocabulary of the Language of
Tchoka, named by the Russians, Segalien.
Course to Kamtschatka, &.c. CONTENTS»
ChaptEH Tenth; Narrative of tfofe* tèyagè
conti nuett, from the 7Ü1 of September tö;
the ist of October 1787. Transactions hl
the Bay of Avatscha : Short account of
Kamtschafka : DepaÉrtttre upon a southerit
course, -
Chafter Èleventh.    Narrative óf thé voyage
continued,  from the end of September to
the i4th of December 4787.    Course from
the Bay of Avatscha, southward, to the Navigators' Isles.    Anchorage at thé Isle of
Maouna :  Manners of its inhabitants : Mas*
sacre of M. de Langle, with eleven persons
of the two crews.    Isles of Oyolava and
Pola :   Intercourse with their inhabitants.
Cocoa and Traitor Isles, &c.
Chapter Twelfth.    Narrative of the voyage
continued, from the 23d of December 1787,
to the end of January 1788.    Course from
the Navigators' Isles to Botany-Bay.    Account of the Island of Vavao.    Traffic with
the people of Tongataboo.    Description of
Norfolk Island, Sec.
Voyage of Don Antonio Maurelle,
Voyage of Captain George Vancoüver,
*9l X   A
JL he first family of the human race were probably
setMéd in one parfl^ular sitüaticn on the earth, in
which they lived, without any extensive know7ledge
of the rest of its surface. Their immediate poster!-
ty were dispersed by accidents, and in circumstan-
ces, which gave them no inclination to systematic,
gëographical diseovery, and which, for the greater
part, as it should seem, occasioned the different tribes
to lose the distïnct remembrance of their parent-
seats, as well as to become careless of a mutual and
geneva! communicatïon, from time to time, with one
another. Casual wanderings between the seat of
one tribe and that of another, iirst contributed to
renew that mutual intercourse of mankind whiclï
had seemed to be lost by their disperbion.   Incipier*t
A %
eommerce aided and extended this intercourse.
War and the spirit of conquest soon arose, to re-
unite various petty tribes under the dominion of one
monarch. Colonization, conducted partly on the
prirjciples of conquest, and in part, on those of eommerce, did something more to make the human inhabitants, even of widely distant parts of the world,
cquainted with one another's existence and circum»
stances. The rise and progress of science, in Egypt,
5n Greece, in Italy, formed so many different een-
tres of knowledge. The establishment of the Roman Empire comprehended air these centres within
ene great system, the several different parts of which
had a necessary correspondence with one another.
jThe irruption of barbarous conquest destroyed this
system, and c^smembered all its parts. Christiani-
ty9 under the Roman Pontiff, endeavoured again to
combine, and to civilize the world. A focus of the
knowledge of the earth and of human society, was
thus established in Europe. Crusading wars, and
the navigatïon of the Mediterranean Sea and of the
German Ocean, gradually enlarged the sphere of
this knowledge, and enhanced its spjendour. It was
spon astonishingly expanded by the navigation of the
Indian, and of the Atlantic Ocean. Piracy, eommerce, travels on land, voyages by sea, still stretch-
ed wider its compass, cleared its avenues, and brought
its most distant extremities virtually nearer together,
by facilitatïng the mutual communication between
them. Mankind ceased to be so many dïstinct hordes,
and seemed to become, again, one great family. Ava-
rjee, accident, conquest, had bitherto done all this. ROütfD    THE    WORLD.
Benevolence and scientific curiosity were, at lengtTï,
to lend their assistance. In a happy time, Georgs
the Third ascended the British throne : under his
auspices, expeditions of benevolent discovery were
sent out, to explore Jthe southern and the northem
ocean. The curiosity, the emulation of all Europe
Was awakened. France would contend with Britailt
in a career more illustrious than that of conquest.
While Lewis the Sixteenth reigned, science and
benevolence held a powerful influence in the Fren^lï
Administration. La Peyrouse was sent out, to e-
mulate and to complete, the dïscoveries of Cook,
La Peyrouse was a* naval ofEcer of great merit
and experience. He was born at Albi, in the yeat'
174 c {nHe entered, as a midshipman'{mX.o the French,
Navy, in the year 1756. His gallantry was emi-
nently distmguished in the famous naval engagement
in which the French fleet, under M. de Conflans, was
defeated, off Belleisle, by the English, command-
ed by Admiral Hawke. The war between France
and Britain ended. But La Peyrouse continued
in active service during all the interval of peace, til!
France declared war, as the ally of America, against
Britain, in the year 1778. He had, in this period,
attained to the rank of )Lieutenant ; and he was, now,
quickly promoted to the command of a separate ves-
sel. He executed with success, and not without ge-
nerous humanity to the sufferers, an enterprise on
which he was sent, with three ships of war, from.
Cape Franco!*, in the year 1782, for the destruction
of the  British settlements on HudsoiVs Bay,    H* LA    PEYROUSE'S   VOYAGE'
reputation, as a naval ofKeer, recommended hip to
the choice of the French government, as a man to
whom the care of vindieatin-g to his country, the
glory of naval, geographical discovery, mightbe üt-
ly intrusted, in the year 1785.
The French Government, ha ving projected this
expedition with.generous views of liberal enquiry
and e mulat! on in science 3 and having, with great
discernment, selected sucli an ofEcer as M. de la
'.Peyrouse, to cenduct it \ failed not to adopt every
other possible precaution to fit it for the. successful
accomplkhmeat of those objects to attain which it
was destined. Two frigates, La Boussole and
L'Astrolabe, were appropriated, as the most suita-**
ble vessels for the expedition. A very ample and
elahorate; paper of instmctiom was prepared, to spe*,
c-ify to the intended navigators, the plan of their
voyage 5 to direct their geographical and hydrogra-
phical enquiries 5 to#indicate those objects in policy
. and comnterce^ which they were to keep in view 5 to
guide them in the observation of new facts relative
to Astronomy, Natural Philosophy, and Natural
History 5 to teach them, with what min-gled,iirmness
and gentleness, it might become them to conciliate
the favour, while they should command the respect,
of the savage inhabitants of whatsoever strange isles
or continents they' might visit 5 and to enlighten
them with the best directions xvhich medieine or naval experience could suggest, for the preservation
of the health of the ship's crews, during the long
periods for which they were destined to remain at
sea. Fleurieu, a navigator of distinguished skill in
all the most important subjects of nautical and h.y- ~*
drographicalresearch, collected ïnto a series of ë^abo-
tate notes, annexed to these instructions, the ióaost cu-
rious expositions and discussions of all the most interesting, yetuncertain points, in the nautical geography
of the globe, which might be expected to have new
Kght thrown upon them by thé observations of -M.
de la Peyrouse and htsco-adjutors. The French
jtfcademy of Sciences readily suggested, in an excel-»
lent memoir, every topic in all the different sciences,
upon which the observation& and enquiries of the
voyagers might usefully turn. The eyes of all
France werê earnesfly^turned upon ah expedition
which promised much glory to the nation, and great
improvements to the sfcfencès* and arts. Every one"
was eager to make MCcontrlbution towards its suc-
cess. One communicated direcöons for new expe-
rlments upon the preservation oPfresh water for use
at sea : Another gave instructions for the collectioii
and the preservation of vegetablés? and fossils : Some
brought presents : While others' were more lavishe
öf advice. Ample stores of pfovlsïons fbr the ships*
orews,—of all those trifies oFEurfcjpèan manufacture,
which are known to be the most accej&able to sava-
ges,—of the instrunients of the different mechanic
arts,—of vegetable see"ds and plants- tö be dissemi-
nated upon remote, föreign coa&s',—of all the im-
plements necessary for the iritended scientific observations,—with even a suitablé nautical and philoso-
phical library,—were, by the cares of the French
Administration, put on board the two frigatesfor the
voyage. The British Board of LongitUde lènt, for
its use, two dipping compasses, which had been used
A.3 6
in Commodore Coók's last expedition. On board
the vessel La Boussole, were embarked to the num~
ber of about 120 persons, under the i-mmediate com-
mand of M. de la Peyrouse. The crew, and the
other persons who sailed in L'Astrolabe, composed
about an eqoal number. Astronomers, engineers,
botanists, mineralogists, draughtsmen, clock-makers?
a physician, persons eminently qualifled for all the
different plans of observation and enquiry, to be pur-
sued in the voyage, were among these two compa-
nies. M. de Langle, the friend of M. de la Peyrouse, was appointed to the command of the frigate^
L'Astrolabe. In the beginning of July, in the
year 1785, the frigates, with their full complements
of men and stores, were nearly ready to set sail from
the port of Brest.
On the ist day of August, they sailed from the
Road of Brest. On the i^th, they had reached
Madeir:A£ without experiencing. any remarkable accident. In this course, their notice was not parti»
cularly attracted by any natural appearanee, save
that lumïnousness of the sur f ace of the sea by night,
which has been often observed, in various- places,,
and is supposed to proceed from some.sma-11 phos*
phoric bodies, living or inanïmate, diffused, in infi-
nite multitude, over the waves.
At Madeira, they were eourteouslv welcomed by<
Mr Johnstoun a British merenant, Mr Murray the
British consul, and M. Montero, who had the care
of the business of the French cotisulate. From Mr
Johnstoun, M. de la Peyrouse received a handsome
present of fruits, lemon-juice, rum? and wiae.    Dm- R>0,0itD    TUK. JW.QJLL.D *
XPg three days, the voyagers enjoyed the kind and
sumpfuous hospitajitjy; of their a^tentive hosts» But,
M. de la Peyrouse had halted here only t^purchase
wine for the voyage ; which, he npw learned, inight
be had labore than one-half cheaper at Ten«&iffe«
On the lóth, th^refore,fJ^ey sailed for that isle.
In the mornïn-g of the i8tf}? as they contifuied
their course, Salvage Island appeifed within view.
Running down the ea^t side of this isle, at abQiï|
half a league distanj^e from the land, M. de la Peyrouse could perceiyft it to be bare of vegetation, and
to e&hibit at its surface nothing but heds of lava and
different marters of^yolcanic oryjin» He conceived
its coast to be so safe-jfbr s^ipping, that there might
be an hundred fathoms depth of water, wathin a
«able's length of the land. Its position they found
from their time-keepers, and from a^ronomical ob-
servation, to be in i8° 13' W. Ipagitude, in 30°
1>' i5,rN5'J|atitude.
On the i.9th of ^jgust, at three o'clock in the
afternoon, the two frigates-fpast anchor before Tene-
rïffe, in the road of Santa Crüz.- Here they were
detained ten days •, receiving on board sixty pipes
of the wine of the island, for which they had brought
empty casks. Erecting an observatory on shore,.
upon their arrivaJJ they made a number of observa-
tions to ascertain the precig^ move-ment of their different tlme-keeperSj and the.hearings of the place.
The position of Santa Cruz was found to 18°
36' 30" W. longitude, in 280 27' 30" N. lati-
141de. Their ex,perimefcfcs on the dipping compass
j^roved uncertain and urisatisfoctory in the results $ I
which they attributed to the attraction of the iron-
ore with which the whole soiï of Teneriffe is deeply
impregnated. The naturalists were not idle. M.
de la Martiniere made some botanical excursions *7
found several interesting plants ; and pérceïved the
mercuryin his barometer, which, at Santa duz stood
at 28 inches and 3 lines, to fall on the summït of *he
famous Peak, to 18 inches 4^5. lines : At Santa Crnz,
the mercury stood at 24F, in the thermometer 5 but.
on the summït of the peak, siabsided to 90. M. dé
Monneron, engineer, attempted to measure the
height of the peak, by takïng levels from its summït, down to the sea-shore. But, the obstinacy of
the muletteers whom he had employed to attend
Bim, with his instruments arid baggage, during the
Operatfon, hindered hrm from completing it: And
his notes of those steps which he had taken, have
not been preserved *. During their stay in the road
of Santa Cruz, the French voyagers experienced0
many obliging civilities from the Marquis de Bran-
ciforte, Governor-genera! of the Canary Islands.
In the afternoon of the 30th of August, the voyage was renewed. Uhwilling to touch at the un-
healthy Cape de Verd islands, M. de la Peyrouse
wished to proceed with an unïnterrupted course, to
the isle of La Trinidada. They sailed through these
calm seasj without any unpleasant accident. For a
while, they had the advantageous aid of the trade-
* Heberden's measurement of the height of the peak of Teneriffe, ma-kes it 2,409 toises; Feuillee, 2,213 ; Bouguér, 2,100 ;
.Verdun, Bordu, and Pingre, 1,904. ROIJWD    TH E VWO R LD.
winds. Solicitous to preserve the health of his
^rews, as successfully a^had been done by Cook, La
Peyrouse now made the spaccbetween the decks to
be fumisrated, and was careful to have the hammocks
taken dowm, while circumstances would permit, from
eight o'clock'in tho ;morning till sunset. By the
direction of the trade-wind, he was obliged to sajl
parallel to the coast of Africa, longer than he had
intended, at about sixty leagues distance from the
land. On the 2pth of September, and in'the i8th
degree of western abngitude, they cr^fsed the equi-
noctial line. From the Line, a S. E. wind pursüed
them as far as 200 2$' south latitude. Nor were
they able to get into the precise latitude of Trini-
dada, till after they had run about 25 leagues of
longitude, eastward from it. Man-of-war birds foliowed them, in consideratie numbers, from 8° N.
latitude, till they had proceeded 30 S. from the
-line. Their course was interrupted by none of those
calrns which some seamen fear, under the Line, iji
these latkudes. Soon after theii departure from
Teneriffe, the skies ceased to exhibit the clcar azure
of thef-temperate zones. From the rising to the
setting of the sun^-a dull hazy wMteness, somewThat
betftveen fog and clouds, conxtantly obscured the at-
mosphere,Vand contracted their visible horizon to
the compass of about three leagues. But, the
nights were radiant and serene.
At 10 o'clock in the mornïng of the i6th of Oc-
tober, they came within sight of the Isles of Martin Vas.   Nfl%iese isles are only bare  rocks.     They
^are three in number \ separated from orie ahother? LA    PEYROUSE 'S   VOYAGE
by small intervals -y and, even the largest, but about
a quarter of a league in circumference. Their
position is in 200 30' 35" S. lat. in 300 30' W.
They came within sight of the island of Trini-
dada, about sunset, on the sarae day.    At 10 o'clock
r,?xt  morning,  M. de la Peyrouse was surprised to
perceive the   Portuguese flag nying in the midst of
a small port,  at the bottom of an inlet formed  by
the S. E. point of the isle.    In the morning of the
i8th, Lieutenant de Vaujuas, M. de la Martiniere,
and Father Receveur, wTent on shore,  in a pinnace
from L'Astrolabe.      The  surf ran  so high, that,
but for the ready assistance of the Portuguese, the
boat's crew must have perished.    About two hun-
dred men were found to compose  the  Portuguese
establishment on this isle.     These had come, about
a year before, from Rio Janeiro,  to take possession
of it.    Little pleased with the curiosity of their vi-
sitants, they would not permit even the botanists to
go beyond the beach, in search of plants.    Neither
wood nor water,  was to be here procured.    The
Portuguese assisted in putting off the boat from the
strand.     And the Frenchmen returned  on board
their ship, disappjDOÏnted of every object wThich they
had sought on the isle.     Another boat from M. de
la Peyrouse's  own  ship, La Bousso/e, likewise ap-
proached the shore, under the  command of Lieutenant  Boutin.     He  sounded the  road to within
musket shot of the beach ; and found its bottom to
be rocky, with a little sand.    M. de Monneron, who
went in the boat, made an exact drawing of the port* R0UND    THE    WORLD.
M. de Lamanon observed the rocks to be composed
of basaltes, with other substances of volcanic origin.
The island of Trinidada presents to the eye nothing
but a barren rock, having, in some narrow glens
among its heights, a few shrubs and a slight appear-
ance of verdure. The Portuguese have fixed their
establishment in one of its glynns, in the south-east
quarter of the island, which spreads out into a vale
about 300 toises in width, It is rather to prevent
others from occupying it, than for the sake of any
advantage it can afford to themselves, that the Por-
tuguesse have made a settlement on Trinidada. Its
south-east point is in the southem latitude of 20°
31' \ and, by lunar observation, in the western
longitude of 300 57'. It had been, before, for a
time, occupied by the English. The Portuguese
garrison or colony are, for the present, supplied with
necessaries from Rio Janeiro.
On the ïSth of October, the frigates sailed west-
ward. From the i8th to the evening of the 24th
they went on in the same direction, in a fruitless
search for the isle of Ascencaon. M. de la Peyrouse then abandoned the search, and concluded
that no such Island had existence. But, he had ex-
plored only the space of 70 of longitude W. from
Trinidada, betwecn the S. Latitudes of 2° 10' and
20° 50'. It is probable, that, if he had advanced
about i° farther westw^rd, he would have discover-
ed the isle he sought, which does not yet deserve to
be expunged from the maps.
A violent storm assailed the voyagers on the 25th
of October.     They were enveloped in a circle of LA   PE-'Y'R Ö U S E':S   VOYAGE
h*re, about the hour of eightiftthe'evening. Light-
enhigs flashed from every poin't of the hormon'r and
2£mbent ffames óf the cöfpèrstit&ö or Wm*wiifcthe
'Wisp, stViïë&hm thé*rióint of th'è elÈGïnéfficomïiit$(Jr*
of La Boussole j and on the mast-head of L^Astro-
labe, wMch was without any electrical cbhductor,
but at no great distance from its companion. As
they proceeded, the wreather continued from this
time sr^ót-my, arid:th*ey were surrounded by. a thick
fog, till they reached the isle of St Cathérine's,
contiguous to the eastern coast of the continent of
South America. Oh the 6th of November, they
anchoréd between St Cathérine's ark! the Éfëfolföd,
in water which w-a;s seven fathoms deep, with a
bbttb'm of mu-ddy' sancL
*. HOtTND    THE    WORLD.'
„(;.- , .-?j:  ^
CHILI,   &C.
;T«E isle of St Catheriké's is, in breadth fromeast
to west, only two leagues 3 but extends in length,
from 270 19' i<i" to 270 49' S. lat%tude. ,1$ is se-
parated from the adjacent maïnland by a channel
which, at its narrowest part, cxceeds not the width
of 2CO toises. On the point of the isle which here
juts out into the channel, is situated the city of
No f tra Senora del Destero, which contains about 400
houses lodging not more than 3000 soul*, and is
the capital of the isle, in which its governor resides.
The interior surface of this isle is overspread with
forests of lofty evergreens, with an impervious thick-
ness of briars and other creeping plants, among thea:
trunks below. bnakes, of which the bite is mortal,
lurk in the thickets. Fruits, vegetables, corn, are
produced in inexhaustibie plenty, and almost spon-
taneously, by the natural fertility of the soil. The
habitations are all contiguous to the sea-sbore» A-
rounê them are jr^anted orange-trees, with other
odoriferous plants and shrubs of the most delight*
ful fragrance. The surrounding seas abound with
whales, the subjecfcs-of a hacrative fisbery. Ia^the
approach of ships to the isle, a muddy bottom, with
70 fathoms depth of wather, is found at 18 leagues
distance. From this, the water becomes gradually
«haDower to the depth of .four fathoms, at the distance
of four cables. length. from the land. The coramon
passa-g.e for vessels^-ïs, between the North point of
St- Catherine's and the islet of j4lvaredo. The best
anchorage is at half a league from Fort-Is/e, ftr-'s'ix '|
fathoms of water, with a muddy bottom, adjacent to
several convenie^ watering places on St Catherine's
and on "the continent. The sea is very heavy, and
breaks always on the lee-shore. The tïdes are very
ïrreguter, enter at both èn-ds of the channel, and rise
only three feet.
The isle of St Catherinefls was fitst ocoupied hy
fugitives from the Bramis*. About the year 1-740,
the coivrt of Lisbon established, here,' a rêgular <go-
vernment, comp rehénd ing, together with this isle,-
some part of the adjacent continent. Of th4s go-
vëïnment, the extent from North to South-, from the
»ver San Francisco to Rio Grande, is 60 lea'gttes.
Its population is estimated, perhaps under the tm&s,
at about 20,000'souïs. But, the people are indolent and poor. Nature is so bountiful, that •-tke-y
know hot those wants which are requisite to excite
man to industry. 'ft e whale-fishery is the property
oi the Crown, and is farmed by a company atJLis-
bon. About 400 whales are, every year, killed
here. But, from these, little gain is derived to the
people of St Catherines.    The produee of the i-s-h- ROUND    THE    WORED.
ery^ ©H, whalebone, and spermaceti, is sent annually
to. Lisbon, by the way of Rio Janeiro.
At the approach of the French frigates, several
alarm guns weie üred fföffct-tère different foSts. M.
de FtoerréVert, third lieatenant, or Enseigne de vaisseau,
being hnmedïatély sent «shore, found the gan ison of
the citadel, 4© men wkh a«captain commandïng'them,
all under arms. An express waptinstantly sent to«
the governor Don Francisco di Baros, in the town 5
who readily gave orders to furnish the voyagers
with whatever they wanted, at the lowest prices$
and appointed an officer to attend on each frigate,
and assist thera in their pdlfchases. On the 9th o£
November, Messrs de la Peyrouse and de Langle
tvent both on shore, with several of their officersi
They were received by the commander of the fort^
with the discharge of fifteen guns 5 which was re-
turned by an equal number from the frigtffeer La
Boussole. A boat, under the comm and of Lieu-
tenattt- Boutin, with a number of othetf gentlemen 011
board, was, on the fotlowing day, sent tö thank the
governcÉy at %he townjfe M. de la Peyrouse's ffiame,
for his attentions, which had been aireacïy found
very beneficial. HÉ reeervéd them with great pö-
Kteness, entèttluned them at <|inner, and favoured
them with some irrteredting inforntation conceniÈttgf
JÖiese parts. On thé 1gth Don Antonio de Gama,
majör-general of $ie cölony, visited the voyagers on
board their ships, and was the bearer of a very o-
bMging letter fiom his coiftmander to M. de la Peyrouse. The st»y of the voyagers in the road of St
CathéMftè,s,  wlfe protfÉcted logger than théy had.
expected, because the southerly winds and the cur-
rents were so strong, as frequently to interrupt their
intercourse with the land. Provisions were, for-
tunately, plentiful and cheap. A large ox might
be bought for eight dollars 5 a hog of 150 pounds
weight, for four dollars j two turkies, for one 5 500
oranges, for half a dollar. To procure abundance
of fishes, it was necessary only to cast and haul the
net. So benignantly hospitable were the people of
the isle 5 that, when one of the ship's boatS, bring-
ing wood, happened to be overset, they not only
risked their lives to save the sailors, but, at night,
resigned to them their own beds, and themselves
lay upon mats on the Hoor-. The masts, grapnel,
and colours of the boats, though not found till some
days after, were not appropriated by the finders, but
brought carefully on board, and restored. The of-
£cers who went out to shoot on the isle, killed several birds of beautifully variegated plumage \ among
the rest. a rol Her of a fine blue colour, and not de-
seribed by Buffon The clouded sky, and the uncer-
tainty of their stay, hindered them from making any
eonsiderable astroncmical observations. But, they
fonnd the longitude of the most northern point of
the isle, to be 490 49/ W. Here, too, they were
careful to provide themselves with orange and lemon
trees, with the seeds of oranges, of lemons, of the
cotton-shrubr Indian corn, and the other vegetables
which the inhabitants of the islands of the South
Sea, were understood to be most in want of. In
the road of St Catherine s, our voyagers could not
but make themselves very happy.    At their arrival ROUND   THE   WORLD»
in it, they found, that after 96 days sail, not a man
of them  was  sick.      Their  provisions wTere good ;
the utmost care was used to keep the air freshin all
parts of the ship } for the sake of the exercise ne-
cessary to health, the crew had been called to dance
on almost every evening, betwixt the hours of eight
and ton :  And, as they had hitherto experienced na
misfortunes,  their  spirits were still lively.     Before
their departure, ML de la Peyrouse, the commander
of the expedition, thought it prudent to give to M,
de Langle, captain of L'Astrolabe, a new and much
more extensive set of signals than they had hitherto
used 'y and they agreed, that if separated, they should
next rendezvous in the harbour of Good Success in
Lemaire's Streights f for,  they were now to enter
tempestuous seas, under a foggy atmosphere, where
new precaïitions were requisite.      Before  their  departure, they committed to of the governor,
who undertook to forward  them,  their  packets  of*
letters  for France,   addressed to the care of M, de
St Mare, the French consul-general at Lisbon.    By
break of day, on the i9th of November,  they had
weighed their anchors, and Were under sail.    In the
evening of^ the same day,  they had left  St  Catbe*
rine's, and all its surroundinsr islets, behind them.
Tifi the 28th of November, they enjoyed very
in e weathe'r. Oh that day, a violent gale of wind^
from the Eastj assailed them. It was in W. long*
430 40' S. la¥. 350 24'. M. de la Peyrouse wished
to visit the Isle €ranoe of the ihaps. On the 71b
of December, the frigates had entered that parallel of
latitude within which this isle had been said to lic.
»3 i8
Sea-weeds were seen to float by the ships ; and they
were, for several days, surrounded by birds of the
jQlbatross and Petrei species, The se as rolled moun-
taïn high around. But their ships, thoughnot swift
sailers, were well adapted to endure the billows and
the blasts. Till the 24th of December, they kept
standing upon different tacks, between the 440 and
the 450 of latitude, and in that parallel, ran down
the 150 of longitude. But, on the 2/th they aban-
doned the search y believing that the pretended Isle
Grande had no existence \ and that the indications
of the sèa-weeds and the fowls were fallacious. Yet,
there are probabilities which make this Isle Grande
not unworthy of a search by some future navigator.
The necessity of hastening on, to doublé the dreaded
Cape Hem in the least unfavourable season of the
year, perhaps hurried M. de la Peyroufe to rclin-
qwish this enquiry prematurely.- On the 2^th, the
wind settled at South West. Conti nuing, for seve-
, ral days, to blow in this direction, it obliged the
frigates to steer W. N. W. These gales ceased
with the month of December 7 and January proved
ncarly such as July is, on the coasts of Europe. The
only winds they experienced for a while, were now
in a direction from North-West to South-West y
and the changes of these winds were const.antly in-
dicated by previous changes in the aspect of the
sky. Fogs and clóuds indicated an. approaching
veering of the wind from South-West to. Wes$:y but,
within two hours, this was. always succeededby a va-
riation to the North-West. When the fogs cleared
Up,  the winds returned to the West and the South.- ROUND    THE    WORLD-.
West. In 66 days, the wind did not blow from the
Eastward, for more than 18 hours. Calm weather,.
for several days, ensued : The seas were smooth r
And the officers sailing out in the boats, shot num-
beis of the great and small albatrosses, and of petrels
of different varieties, which tlew around them, which
afforded some very acceptable meals of fresh meat to
the sailors.
On the 14A o£ January 1^7 8 6, they struck ground-
on the coast of Patagonia, in 47° 50' S. Latitude,
and in 64° 37' W. Longitude*^ On the 2ist of the
same month, they came with in sight of Cape Fair
WEATHfii.^|he north point of the riyer of Galiegos,
on the Patagonian coast. They were, at this time,
at three leagues distance from the land, in water 41
fathoms deep, and over a bottom of argitlaceous gravel. On-the a2d, at noon, they were off the Caps
of the Virgins, hearing four leagues W. The land
b low, and almost destitute of verdure. An exact*
view of it had been given/by the Editor of Anson^s
Voyagt; and its position is accurately fixed in the
Chart of Cook\s Second Vuyage* Hitherto, the lead
had always brought up mud or a mixture of small
pebbles with mud. But, when they came opposite to
Tibrsa del FuEGQ*"rtey^und a rocky bottom, and
only from 24 15030 fathoms of water, even at three
leagues of diitance from the land. On the 25th, at
2 o'clock,  they wefce.a league southward from San
DlEGO, |he WeSteïJJ pO|©t <rf LItMaIRE'S-StrEIGHTS,
At 3 o'clöojfc, thes»entered the streights j having
^doubled point San Diego, at tfyree quarters of a
league of distance    At.the point.are break* 20
ersy extending perhaps not more than a mile 7 other s,
which are seen in the qffing bevond, obliged the
voyagers to. steer to thé south-east, to avoid them.
But it was afterwards observed, that these breahers
were occasioned by currents, and'that the reefs of
San Diego were a great way off. It blew fresh
from the north \ and our voyagers approaehed with-
in half a league of the land of Tierra del Fuego.
But, as the wind was fair, and the season far ad-
vanced, M. de la Peyrouse abandoned his intention
of entering the harbour of Good Sugcess ; and hehfe
onwards, without loss of time, to doublé Case Hornv-
The island of Jüan Fernandez was the place at
which he now pürpösed to make the first halt for
the sake of réfreshments.
As they proceeded through the Streights, they
saw themselves irfevited to land, by frequent fires
kindled by the savages, who perceived them from»
the shore. They were surrounded by whales which
swam about the frigates, without alarm. No place
in the world cari affbrd a more successeful whale-
fishery than might be carried on here. Their en-
trance into the Streights was at 3 o?clock in the afilj
ternoon. Till five, they were drifted rapidly south-
ward, before the tide. At fivsy^the tide turned 5
but a strorïg breeze from the north carried them
still on, in the same direction» So mis.éy wasthë
horizon, in its eastern quarter, that they did not per-
ceive Staten La$b, the eastern boundary of the
Streights, althoügh they were within less than 5
leagues of it. They doübïed Cape Horn much
more easily than they had expected,    Their success ROUND    THE    WORLD.
tnay contrfbute to lessen those terrors in regard to
the navigation round this promêntory, wjiich the
narrative of Ansé&s Voyage has long excited among
On the 9th of Febfliary, they found themselves
opposite to the western entrance of the StreiÖ|[ts
of Magelhaens, in their course for the island of
"Jfcian Fernandez, in the South Sea. But an exami-
nation of the state of thef?'stores of water and biscuit, here fciduced them to relmquisi. their design of
▼isiting that-isle, and to alter their course for the
Spanish seftlement of Conception, on the coast of
Chili. On the morning ai Ühe 2Óth, they arrived
within sight of the isle of Moc&A, about 50 league»
south from Conception. Afraid of betng drifte^d
nortlrward^by currents. they here turned in towards
the land. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the
same day, they doubled the point of efche islanóVof
Quiojjirina. As the southerly winds wfcre, now, by
the change in their course, adverse j they were,
from this point, obliged to stand upon tack, and to
keep the lead constantly gohtg. They in vain looked
through their glasses, to discover the city of Con*
ception, at the bottom of the bay. But pilots came
on board at 5 o'clock in the evening, by whom they
were informed *, that the old city had been laid in
ruins by an earthquake in the year 1751 7 and that
a new town had been built on the banks of the ri-
ver Biobio, about three leagues inland. Frotn the
same pilots ,they received, also, the agreeable news,
that, in coiföequence of letters from the Spanish Minister, they were already expected at Conception.
At 9 o'clock in the evening, they anchored in 9 fa- ■
la   peyrouse's   voyagï
thoms depth of water, and not far from the bottom
of the bay. At 7 next morning, they weighed an-
chor 5 and, with their boats to-wing them a-bead, en-
tered the creek of Talcaguana where, at 11 o'clock
A. M. on the a^th of February 1786, they cast an-
chor in 7 fathoms depth of water, over a bottom of
black mud.
The bay of Conception is an eminently commo-
dious harbour. Its water is smooth, and almost
without a current. The tide, however, rises 6~feet
3 inches; andithe flood is at its height at 45 minutes
after 1 o'clock A-M. under the full and under the
changing moon. It is sheltered from all but thé
north winds : And these, here, blow only in the rai*
ny season from the end of May to the beginning of
October. On the south-east shore, off the viïlage
of Talcagua-na- the only settlement now in"the bay,
there is anchorage under shelter from the north-east
winds of the winter. The ruins of the old town of
Conception are still to be teen at the mouth of the?
river of St Peter, eastward from Talcaguana. In
the year 1763* the site for the new town was mark-
ed out, on the banks of the Biobio, at the distance
of three leagues inland from the rüins of the old. It
eóntaïns about 10,000 inhabitants 7 is the seat of the
Bishop and- of the Major-general, comm ander of all
the forces of the cölony 7 and possesses the e pi-s c op al
cathedral, and all the religiou* houses. The bi~
shoprick is conterminous, on one hand, with that of
San Jago, the capital of the government of Chili;
ïs skirted to the eastward by the: Cordilleras \ and
extends southward to the streights of Magelhaëns. ROUND    THE    WORLD»
But, except the island of Chiloe, and a small district round Baléivia, the whole couHstry soutri*from
the Biobio, rsMnhabited by Indians who own not the
Spanish dominion, and who are almost always at war
with the Spamards. The presen^^government is
whoï^rmilitary and ecclelltastical : But a superintendant, or éfvU governor, ^fPabout to be added to
the establishment*
The soil of the surrounding territory is prodigi-
ousry fertile. The plains are covered with aif'abun-
dant luxuriance of berbage, and with flocï&f and
herds innumerable. The increase erf* grarn is 60
fbld, The vineyards are aïtke ferttle. Great num-
ber# of oxen are every year Mlled, for the sal$É> of
the tallow and hides alone, which ö*e prëserVed and
sent tö Ibima. The climate is remarkably heafthy^
and many of the people live to an ex^tateme old age.
The commerce of this country is, however, subject
to reslrictóons-, wThtch prove exceedingifylüjutlfeus to
the general prospöèity of the inhabitants. Four or
five vessels arrive every year'CrorruLima, with su-
gar, tofe*eeo, and a few articles of J&uropean manu-
facture, the prices of which are enhanced by the
most exorbitant duties. Wheat, tallow, hides,>a
few planks, and some gold, are the only exports
with which payment can be made for those articles
of importation. About 200,000 dollars tnay be the
total vaiue of the gold annuaÖy etfïlected from the
sands of the rivers within the bishoprièk. of Conception. The inhabitants gather it b»y si&ing and wash-
ifig this sand ? and to the amounfe of half a dollar a-
day, may thus be earned by the industry of a single la  peyrouse's  voyage
person. But, the abundance of necessaries for sub-
sistence, leaves these people without excitements to
industry, which might animate them to pursue any
branch of it with perseverance and success. The
houses in the city of Conception exhibit but little
sumptuous furniture.   All the artisans are foreigners.
The most precious article of thedress of the ladies
is a plaited petticoat of a gold or silver stuff of the
old-fashioned manufacture of Lyons. Monks and
nuns are very numerous in this settlement ; and
their manners are sufhciently profligate. The com-
mon people are thievish 5 and the virtue of the
meaner women is very easy. The principal inhabitants are distinguished by all the virtues of the true
Spanish character. Balls and entertainments are
not unfrequent amóng them. The women are wönt
to cramp their feet by small shoes, like those of
China. They wear their hair, without powder,
hanging in small braids, down, their backs. Beside
the petticoat, they wear, on the body, a boddice or
corset of gold or silver stuff. Over this, are wTorn
a muslin and an woollen cloak \ the muslin cloak at
all times ; the woollen cloak only when in the streets
or the fields. '1 hese females are, in general, pretty
i and polite.
The Indians of Chili have become much more for-
midable as, than when this region was iirst
conquered by the Spaniards. Ihe horses, "oxen,
and sheep, which the Spaniards introduced, have
xnultiplied throughout South America, to immense
numbers. The Indians have become masters of flocks
and herds. They are ever on horseback, and in arms. ROUND    THE    WORLD.
They journey, with their herds, in continual excur-
sions through the deserts. They are now a nation
of warlike cavahry, like the aticient Tartars of the
north of Asia. They cover themselves with the
skins of their cattle, feed upon their milk and flesh,
and even drink their warm blood. These circum-
stances, in their altered mode of life, make it not
difficult for them to cöllect armies, even of many
thousands of men, to oppose the Spaniards.
From the Spaniards in the settlement of Conception, our navigators experienced a Warmly hospitable
reception* Scarc&tly had the frigates anchored at
Talcaguana, when M. de la Peyrouse received a
polite letter of welcome, accompanied with refresh-
ments of all sorts in great abundance, from M.
Quexada, who, in the absence of Major-general
Higgins, commanded at the town of Conception.
The first cnre of the French captain, was, to give
orders for the refitting of the vessels, and to see that
the astronomie al vjplocks and quadrants should be
carefully deposited on shore. The day following,
Messrs de la Peyrouse and de Langle, with several
of the subordinate officers and of the men of science,
set out for Conception, on a visit to M. Quexada,
and their other kind invïters. A detachment of
dragoons escorted them on their journey. They
alighted at the house of M. Sabatero, commandant
of the artillery. They were entertained with art
excellent dinner. In the evening, there was a ballv
at which the principal ladies of the town were pre»
sent, and which lasted till midnight. The French
gentlemen slept for the night in apaxtments pro<Sd- 26
la  peyrouse's  voyage
ed for them in the house of M. Sabatero, and of
some others of the principal inhabitants of the town.
On the next day, they visited the bishop, and others
of the principal citizens. The bishop they found
to be a man of uncommon merit. Major-gëneral
Higgins was absent upon an expedition again st the
Indians. Upon his return, he came instantly to wait
upon the French gentlemen at Talcaguana. M. de
la Peyrouse, soon after, gave an entertainment, in a
tent pitched by the sea-side, to an 150 of the gentlemen and ladies of Conception. After the dinner,
the compariy were entertained with fire-works and
the flight of a paper-balloon. On the following day,
the commanders gave, in the same tent, a festive entertainment to the crews of the two frigates. They
sat, all, at one table. 3 Messrs de la Peyrwuse and de
Langle at the head 7 the rest down to the lowest
saïlcr, every one according to the rank he held.
They ate out of wooden dishes : All was gaiety :
And every one feit himself far happier than on the
•day on which they left the harbour of Brest. Another entertainment given by General Higgins, at the
city of Conception, carried all the French gentlemen
thither, except those officers who were detained on
actual duty.    The dinner was sumptuous :    All the
•/ L
principal inhabitants of the city were present : Be-
tween the different cüurses, a Franciscan monk of the
company, reeïted some extemporary verses in the
Spanish language, on the happy amity then subsisting
b'etween the French and the Spanish nations. A
ball fórmed the amu'sement^of the evening, and waS
graced by the presence of all the ladies in th'éir?b%st! R.OUND    THE    WORLD.
dresSes.     Some officers  in  masks,  danced  a very
•eW W@:~
pretty ballet.     In the mean time,  the vessels were
diligently refitted 5 provisions, wood, and water,
were, with great alacrity, conveyed on board 7 and
the crew, having accompÜshed these duties before
the day on whichfthey knew that they were to sail,
obtained the agreeable permission to divert themselves for some short time, also, on shore. One of
their tia&e-keepers was here found to have lost, on
the meantnovement of the Sun, only at the rate 3*"
a-day, since their departuxe from Brest j, a differcnce
of but half a seconfl from its rate of daily movement
at J}rest,*-»-of a whole second from its movernent at
Teneriffe, Nothing but the most perfect harrx^ny
reigned between the french crews and the people
of the colony, during the wholc^tay of J^e* French
in this harbour.
On the X5th of March, M. de la Peyrouse made
the signal to prepare to saüi Contrary winds, ho5j&*
ever, detained them, till the 17Ü1. A-bout noon on
the I7th, a light breeze from the S. W^ enabled
them to leave the harbour. But, they were be-
calmed in a strongly swelling sea, before they had
advanced more than two leagues from its mouth.
During the night, they were surrounded by whales,
which, from their spiracles, ejected water on board
"the ships. But, no whale-fishery has ever been at-
tempted in these seas. On the ipth, a southerly
wind enabled the frigates to assume the direction to
the island of Juan Fernandez. They were, how-
ever, disappointed in their attempt to find that isle,
on account of the inaccuracy of those authorities tp
which they trusted, in respect to its position. On
the 23d, they were in the S. latitude of 390 28' and
according to their time-kcepers in the W. longitude
©f 850 51'. On the 24th the wind settled at Eas1
Nor did it vary 50 till they came within 120 leagues
of Easter Island, On the 3d of April, in S. latitude
;7° y and in 1010 W. longitude, the wïnds*blew
upon them from N. E. to N. W. On the 8th of
April, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, they came within sight of Easter Island. The sea was then high :
The wind blew from the North \ and for the four
preceding days, the winds had been continually shift-
ing by W. from N. to S. In the night, the frigates
kept in a parallel direction to the coast of Easter
Island, at three leagues distance from it. At day-
break, they steered for Cook's Bayt which is, of all
those in the isle, the best sheltered from winds
blowing from the East. The ishraders soon saw
their approach; and; in canoes., hastéhed out to
meet them*
ISLES. ï'-im
IN Easter Island, Qookr^ Bay7 the only har-
bour in these latitudes thatos sheltered from&he E.
and S. E. winds, is situat^^^0 11' S. Latitude,
in 1110 55' 30" W. Longitude. After doubling the
two rocks at the southern point of the isle, and coast».
ing along at the distance of a mile from the shore,
a ship comes within sight of a small, sandy er eek»
When this creek bears to it in the direction of Jg^
by S.—the two rocks beingtat the same time bidden
under the point 7 anchorage will then be found in
20 fathoms water, with a sandy bojttom, at a quarter
of a league's dii^-ance from the^hofre. Early in the
morning of thf 9th of April, the French voyagers
landed, with somewhat of military parade, iujended
to strike with awe the minds of the Islanders, who
crowTded round them. mü
The coast of the isle^ here, rises to the height ©§
about 20 feet above the level of the sea. From the
sea-beach, the surface ascends with a gentle acclivi-
ty, for about 700 or 8op toises, to the basis of the
interior huls.    This sloping plain is covered with
' f 'T*'   - *   B3       1 '""• 3°
LA   PEYR'OUSE'S   voyage
herbage fit.for the pasture of cattle 7 and over the
grass, smooth, round stones, of a considerable size,
are carelessly scattered. The isle is bare of - woed*
and without springs or streams of water. The in-
terior hills appear to have been one e the orifices of
volcanoésUong since extinguished. Scarcely a tenth
part of the, island is. under cultiyation. Thj^ coast
is not known to aboundVwith fishes. Very few fowls-
are to be.found on the isle. The. hills are eovered
with volcanic, stones. The soil is a very fërtile
mould, composed of the remains-of vege tables. At
the S. end of the island '%■ seen the crater of an extinguished volcano^lm the form of a truncated conej,
and of; extraordinary extent, depth, and regularity*
lts dépth is, at least, 800 feet : lts lower base forms
a. perfect ciTcle : lts bottom is marshy, and contains
large pools of fresh water; Around the marsh are
some plantatïons of %anana and muiberry trees. The-
coneis not only truncated, but invertedj its upper
being wider than^its under circumfërence. A great
breach appears to have been produced—of one third
in the height of•* trre whole cone, and to one-tenth
part of-the breadth of its upper circimférenee. The
earth,, and 'stony fragments-'from tlrj breach, have
fallen down towards the sea-: And 'grass has sprung
top, over the whole cone. At the bottom of the
crater, in the marsh, were seen some terns. The
uncultivated-part^of the island is eovered, up to the
tops of the hills, with a coarse grass. A few bushes
of the mimosa, the largest branches of whfch were
not more than 3 -inches in diameter?. were the only
wildligneous plants to be seen*.. ROtrND the world*-
The people appeared to'Mve dispersed m small
separate communities y each comfnunity occupying
one common habitation 5 perhaps eultivating their
division of the ground, and enjoying its fruits in.
common .5 not very attentive, it may be, to the
distinctrons of chast$ty t the purity of virgin inno-
cence,^ or the sanctity of the marriage-bed ; obey-
ihg eaci^ °ne chief 5 and depositïng the bodies of
their deacF in one common burying-place. The
whole pcpulation of the isle may be about 2000
souls. The men have resorted to the sea-shore, on
the approach of ships from Europe, in numbers so
much greater than those ofc the women by whom
they were accompanied, that some navigators have
been led to imagine the proportion between the
males and females te be very. unequal in Easter
Island. But, visitSfto the interior parts of the isle^
and to thehoslses, have. afforded reason for think»
ing, that the inequality cannot be, at all, sueh as it
was once suspected to be. They' have few or no
domestic animals. But they cultivate vegetables
for their means of subsistence, with sufficiënt neat*
ness and skill, akhough with no~verylaborious4n-
4u&try. Their fields; under culti^ation, are regular
oblongfigures* Yamsy potatoes, bananas, are the
vegetables which 1 they commonly culitvate. It is
probable that they dig holes with wooden stakes^
£nd in these drop their seed-plants. They have no
means of cooking their^vegetables with fire, for eat-
ing, otherwise thanby heating a hole in the earth f
into which t)iey then put their yams or potatoes j
coyerksg them, -with-hot earth or stones,.. and-keep* LA   PEYROUSE's    VOYAGE
ing them in t]fy state, till they are sufficiently roast-
cd, to be fit for being eaten. One of their houses,
measured by M. de la Peyrouse, was found to
be in the form of a canoe reversed : 310 feet in
length ♦, 10 feet broad 7 and, at the middle, 10
feet in height. Such a house as this, may possi-
bly form, with the addition of one or two smaller
ones, even a whole village, Pillars of lava, cut out
in a manner sufficiently ingenious and artifieial, 18
inches in thickness, and of a due height, form the
sides of these houses, and support the roof. Be-
tween these pillars of stone, are reeds, ar range d with
such skill, as to form a sufficiënt defence against
rains. Holes bored in the pillars receive the ends
of wooden poles, with which an arched roof is form-
ed. Over these poles is another thatching of
reeds. Some of their houses are subterranean, and
of the same form. They make cloth of-the bark
of the mulberry-tree. But the drought seems
to have greatly injured their plantations of these
trees. Such as still remain, are surrounded with
fences, and dó not rise above 3 feet in height. They
know not to form wells and reservoirs, to -supply
the natura! scarcity of fresh-water under which they
suffer. But they have been even seen to drink the
sea-water like the albatrosses, in a manner which
seems to say, that necessity and habit can accustom
man to every thing. Their canoes are foraned of
very narrow planks, which are only four or five feet
in length. For want of wood, they are, at present, not numerous, and must probably become still
fewer.     But they swim with wonderful stéength   ROUND    THE    WORLD.
and dexterity, even in the most tempestuous state
of the seas. They will thus go, even to the
distance of two leagues from the shore, and will, in
frolic, chuse those very places where the surf is seen
to ffreak with the greatest fofeïy. Beside their po-
tatoes, yams, and bananas, they have likewise sugar-
canes, and a small grape-Ske fruit that grows upon
the rocks on the sea-shore. They cultivate also
the garden night-sbade, for some culinary purpose,
no doubt. The island exhibits some remains of human works, which seem to bespeak it to have been
once inhabited by a numerous population, and those
more capable of magnificent designs than the present race. Terraces. are here and thère raised in a
manner sufficiently artificial. On these terraces
stand some gïgantic busts of human figures^fthe mo-
numents of ancestors, or the statues of fancied gods.
The largest of these rude bUfcts, being measured
by the French navigators, was found to be 14 feet
6 inches in height, 7 feet 6 inches in breadth across
the shoulders, 3 feet in thickness round the belly*,
6 feet broad and 5 feet thick, at the base. There is
room tó conjecture, that, in more ancient times, this
isle was covered with wood 7 and, in consequence of
the attraction whjph its woods exerted upon the
moisture of the atmosphere, was furnlshed with
springs and streams of water. In those times, its
^population might be more numerous than at present j
the system of subordination might be different 5 and
the easy condition of life, and the abundance of population, might encourage to works of art which, in
the present impoverished state of the isle,  are na*
-■* la peyrouse's  voyage
longer possible. " Or, if we may be permitted to
" make an excursion into the regions of conjecture 5
| do not the rude, colossal statues, and the subter-
| raneous habitations of Easter Island, so similar, in
% all respects, to the caverns and the colossal statues
j§ of FJephantüy of Bombay, and of other places in
" Hindoptan, bespeak at least this isle to have receiv-
| ed its first inhabijants, in whatever mode ofcoloni-
jj xation> from the regions of the l&ast, in that remote
" sera in which the uncorrupted, unsubdued Hindoo
" casts were, as yet, masters of the oriental world ?
" Can that ingenuity and dexterity in the arts,
" which the inhabitants of Easter Island, amid aü
" the disadvantages of their situation, display, have
" originated in,this narrow isle ? or is it not more
" probable, that some of the innumerable accijhtnts
" of navigation must have, at a time as ancient as
** the expedition of the Grecian Alexander into In-
| dia, conducted into these seas some voluntary
Ü fugitives, or accidental outcasts from the extreme
" eastern limits of the Asiatic continent ? Does not
" every thing concu*; to shew, that the isles inter-
*c jacent between Asia and America must have re-
!N ceived their first inhabitants from the East ? I's
" it not likely, that, whatever the Mtxicans, the
" Peruvians, and the other inhabitants of South A-
44 merica, who were found there by the Spaniards,
fj must have been of Asiatic origin ? Is it not natu-
" ral, that, in circumstances extremely unfortunate,
" the first occupiers of such a spot as Easter Island
" should be unable to transfer thither the arts of R0ÜND    THE    WORLD.
** theuMliative country, in all that perfect^on in which
44 they were there practised ?    The English colony
** at Botahy Bay, the Spanish inhabitants of Chili,
44 the Russians in Kamtschatka, the eternal necessi-
4' tïes of the nature and circumstances of man,  suf-
44  ficiently demonstrate the possibility of such a de-
" cline and degradation of the arts in their trans»
*f mission  from one  country to another.    To the
**"existence of men in a Savage state, it is not neces*
'• sary that the first parents of the race should have
44 beensavages.    Fhe accidents under which succes-
44 sive generations mast have been diffused over thé
*• earth, were sufficiënt to prodüce any given nnper-
44 fcction of knowledge and art, even by no indirect
44 deriiration from any given excellence of them."
The>e colossal statnes can have been intended only
as the images of ^ancied divinities,  or as m-mumen-
tal statues of the dead.    In the impoverished con-
dition and the declining intelligence of the present
inhabitants of Easter island,  they are content with
the erection of small pyramidal heaps of stone over
the graves of the deceased.     These pyramids are
white-washed at the upper extremity, and appear to
'serve for the same uses as the ancient terraces and
colossal images.    Such petty monuments require not
to their erection, more than one hour's work by a
| a single man.    While  the French voyagers walked
witlPsome of the natives amoing their tombs, one of
the  latter,  stretching himself  at length upon the
ground,  and,  in this posture,  raising his hands to-
wards the sky, thus endeavoured to indicate, as the
Frenchmen infer, a belief of the existence of the 36
f! i
souls of the departed after death, and of their exalta-
tion to a state of supetior blessedness abovgttiidlit*.
the^: intercourse with» their French visitors, these
panders discovered a deoeit incomparably artful,
and an incorrigib|e propensity to theft. At the mo-
ments at vsbich they were receiving the presents of
the French, and wore the air of betuig the most
kindly interested in their attentions, at those very
moments were they always thé most'jcertainly con-
triving or perpetrating some theft. They^ffered
their women for prostitütion, in a manner which
shewed t^tat they*were aware pf the value of chas-
tity as a virtue, and were basely willing to barter it
for gain. They even offered for prostitütion young
girls, under the age of puberty, whose cries shewed
their own reluctance, and whom the French, with
generous delicacy, spared from the horror of viola-
On this isle, and among these people, the French
landed, on the 9th of April in the year 1786. A
company of 400 or 500 islanders received them on
the shore with eager joy. Some wore pieces of
white or yellow stuff 7 others were naked : many
were tattooed and painted with red colours on the
face. The first care of the strangers, was, to form
an inclosure, from which a circular line of armed
soldiers, excluded the access of the natives. Presents, berieficently destined to gratify the desires of
these rude people, andto enrich thebarreness of their
isle, were then brought on shore. Meanwhile, the
numbers of the surrounding natives continually en-
creased.    Forbidden to fireupon them, the soldiers ROJUND   THE    WORLD.
found it extremely diflicult to keep them at a due
distance with the butt ends of their muskets. In-
jjumerable little artifices wrere put in pr actie e by the
Indians, in order to deceive the attention of thj|ipc
visitors, while they accomplished their thefts wkh a
-dexterity wOrthy of the most notorious thief that e-
ver prowled in Paris or London. When the women
sollcited the embraces of the Frenchj the men, in
concert, seized those moments, to rob them o£4;hefer
hats and handkerchiefs. Some, who were supposed
to possess the authority of chiefs, while they shewed a readiness to pursue the thieves, and to recover
the articles stolen, were soon perceived to pursue
them only tjbat they m^ght favour their escape. The
voyagers were not to remain for more than lohours
on the island. Messrs de la.Peyrouse and de Lan-
,gle, therefore, committed the charge of the tent,
the goods, and the saÜors and soldiers on shore, to
M. de'Escures, first lieutenant in JLa Boussole 7 and
themselves proceeded on excursions through the isle.
One party, under the command of M. de Langle,
were to penetrate as far as possibie into the interior
parts, to sow the seeds of vegetables, and to examine
the soil, plants, population, &c.-—while another, at
the head of which was M. de la Peyrouse, went to
visit the monuments, terraces, plantations, and houses, within a semi-circular space of the radius öf
ii league, round the central point at which the tent
avas fixed. The results of their observations have
been detailed in the preceding paragraph. At one
o'clock in the afternoon, M. de la Peyrouse return-
ièd to the tent.    Many thefts had been comntocd
in*hrs absence. He himself was robbed of his hat,
by an Indian who had assisted hïm in coming down
from a terrace. He made a collection of specimens
of the different lavas, the only sorts or stones in the
isle. M. de Langle likèwise re turned soon after.
*Me had wandered far into the irifërior parts of the
isle^had visfted'the volcanic crater 7 had passed near
several vöïages 7 had admired the cultfvation of the
fields 7 had sown seeds of the orange, the letfron,
and the cotton-tree, of maize, and other species of
plants, such as seemed likely to thrive in the soil
and cUfnate of this isle. The natives were suffi-
cienfly sagacious to comprehend the intention with
which these seeds were sown, and to point out to the
beneficent sowers those spots wrhich promised to be
the most favourable to their growth. Goats, sheep,
and hogs, were, at the same time, left by the French
in the isle. Concerning the goats, M. de la Peyrouse had hopes that they might survïve and multi-
'ply : he was doubtful that the sheep and hogs might
'quickly perish. In the evening of the same day,
the French voyagers went again on board their ships.
'On the day 'following, they took their departure out
of Cook's bay j stood to the northward, and sailed
along, at the distance of a league from the shore.
At two o'clock on the nth, they lost sight of the
isle,'and were about 20 leagues distant from its coast.
They were sailing to explore, first, the North
West coast of America. They steered onwards in
a northern direction. Until the I7th the wind blew
constantly from the two points of S. E. or E. S. E.
Till the wind shifted to E. N. E. the skies continu- ROtJND    THE   WORLD.
ed clear and serene. Frojn the I7th to the 20th, it
blew in this last direction. On the 20th they be-
gan to ta&e bonetas, shoals of. whiojh continued to fol»
low the frigates to the Sandvvich isles, and fonsix
weeks supplied, almost day&y, abundance for the use
, of the whole shjns' crews atjtable. After beïng 10
months at sea, and out of thmperiod only 25 days
jja port, they had not a single person sick.^a either
of the vessels : and not, one of their number fed as
yet perished either by accident or disease. Injthe
unknown seas, in which they now sailed, they I9t)k-
ed, almost every moment, with curious anxiety, a-
lound them, for some new discovery. Dagelet, the
astronomer, neglected no opportunity of making lu-
nar observations 7 and these tended still to coufirrja*
their confidence in their time-keepers. M. de Lan-
gle's observations and calculaüons were continued
with the same care, and were alike satisfactory.
The daily differences between the Longitude by ob-
servation, and the Longitude by account, shewed the
degree of that force by which the set of the currents
affected the ships course. These carried them one
degree to the S. W. at the rate of nearly 3 leagues
in 24 hours. Then changing to the E., they ran
with equal rapidij*y, till our voyagers found themselves in 70 N. Here the currents again took their
course to the westward. Whe^ the ships arrived
at the Sandwich isles, the Lpngitude by account
was found to differ nearly 50 from the Longitude by
observation : a difference commensurate with the
ïöfluence of the currents. |£e
D 2
In this course, the vigïlance of-M. de la Peyrouse
was continually awSke. He was particularly atteu»
tiv-è to aster taiii the fact of the exrstence of that
cluster of isles, wh$é%'the Spaniards pretend to have
disceverèd in these latitudes, and which they have"
namêd La Mesta, Los 'Majo%> La Dis^raciada, E-
very research and calculation, at last, conspired to
cohvincé him, that such isles have no existence dis»
tinct from that of the Sandw ich isles. It is remark»
abWthat%he Èrsgufeli navigator, Dickson, who, in-
the years 1786 and 1787, likewise sailed in these latitudes, making the same researche's, was led to draw
the same conciusion. Cook, however, the true dis-
coverer of the Sandwich isles, had neither identified
the Spanish islands with his own, nor yet exploded
them from the map. On the 7th o^ May, in 8° N.
Lat. numbers of perrels, of man-of-war birds^and of
tropic birds, began to hover round the two frigates.
Turtlès, about the same time, passed near, so that
L'Astrolabe caught two of them. Till the I4th,
the same companions continued to attend their course.
It may be, that in this part of their progress, these
voyagers passed some rock or uninhabited isle, the
haunt of these animals, without perceiving it. They
passed near the situatïons of Rocca Partida and La
Nublada, yet without coming in sight of these islandsi
After they had crossed the latitude of Rocca Partida, the birds disappeared. On the I5th of May
they were in 19® 17' N. Lat. in 130° W. Long.
Here, if any where, was the latitude of the pretend-
ed Spanish isles. Sailing down 200 leagues on this
parallel, might have been insufficiënt to explode the
fancy of their existence.     But M. de la Peyrouse
. continued his course till he had sailed over the pre-
cise  situations   in  which those islands were said to
lic 7  and at length, on the morning of the 28th of
May, came within sight of the mountains of the i-
sland of Owhyhee* white with snow.,  The hills of
Mowee, somewhat lower, soon after appeared within view.    On the morning of the 2910,, they prepar-
ed to enter the channel betweeu these |w«> isles,
The wind blew with considerable activity 7 and they
ran at the rate of two leagues an hour.    It was the
wish of M. de la Peyrouse, to explore the coast as
far as Morokinne, and to anchor near that isle, in a
station to the leeward of Mowee.     The islanders
had already marked their approach y and about 1 50
canoes were on their way from the shore, with fruits
and hogs, to trafhck with the Europeans for iron.
But the frigates found it inconvenient so to shorten
sail, that the canoes might easily overtake them*
Inthe attempt, many of the  canoes were overset ;
only 15 hogs,  with a small qtiantity of fruits, could
be procured for the üse o£»the frigates ; and the Indians and the  French sailors were for a time alike
disappointed.     It was amusing to- see huw the  Indians, when their vessels were overset; took their
hogs in their arms, and their canoes, emptied of the
water, on their shoulders 7 and thus sv&immed about
just as gaily as they had rowed.     Ha ving stee red S.
W. by W. as far as the S. W. point of Mowee, M.
de la Peyrouse then stood W*.   and N. W. to gain
the situation in which he proposed to cast anchor.
L'Astrolabe  already rode  at anchor there.    The
',| D3
% la   peyrouse's  voyage
depth of the water was 23 fathoms 7 the bottom a
very hard grey sand 7 the distance from the shore
about one-third of a league. But -this: anchorage
was very imperfectly shcltered from the v/i-nds % and
these perpetually shifted. It was necessary to chuse
a safer and more convenient situatfên. They rnov-
ed nearer to the shore •, and were obliged to delay
their landing on the isle till the day following. The
night was almost unalterably calm. At day-break,
on the following morning, they sought new anchorage in a very deep bay, N. W. from their former
station. But this proved little better than the for-
The island of Mowee is situate nearly in 2s° N.
Lat. in 1550 W. Long. Its appearance is delight-
ful. It projects into the channel in the direction of
S. W. by W. Hills tower up to a considerable e-
levation in the interior area of the isle. A narrow
slanting plain, scarcely half a league in breadth, sur-
rounds the bases of these hills '7 and descends to the
sea-beach. From the heights copious waters are seen,
almost every where, to descend in streams, of which
the course presents a variety of cascades 7 and, after
watering the numerous plantations of the natives, to
fall gently into the sea. The hills are clothed with
a rich and lively verdure. Banana trees, in great
numbers, surround the habitations : and so abundant is the population, that a space of three or four
leagues may be taken, at a first view, for one^on-
tinued village. Such is the first aspect of this|ile,
to navigators approaching at some small distance.
Nearer, the groupes begin to be broke-n and dip ets* ROUND    THE   W0R.LD»
ed 7 and objects unpleasing or uninteresting are in»
tetmingjed wit^i shose which,  more remotely seem,,
preserited but one assemblage of the beautiful and
the  strikingly  picturesque.     The soil of the isle is
wholly formed of lava and other volcanic matters
comminutedordecomposed. p[ogSj^bananas,potatoes,
are the principal objects wh^h the hugjaandry of the
natives eflÊ&sVates for their subsistence.    Of the bark
of the paperkmulbersy tree, they manufacture large
quantÏHes of cloth.    They cover the floors of their
houses with mats of a considerably ingenious texture»
Large calabashes, unjted by means of a glue capable
of resisting moisture, varnished, moulded into various
forms, and ornamented with figures which are sketch-
ed upon them in black, form one of the most elegant
and commodious articles of this people's kitchen u-
tensJisv V&he houses are(low straw-built hu^ not
unHke to those of our poorest peasants ; the roof
nearly in the form of an isosceles triangle 7 the door,
at the gahie end,  not  more than- three feet and an
half inheight 7 accessible only to a person stoopïng,
and fastened but by a single latch.    When the torre nts from the mountajjas fail, brackish water from
shallow wtóls is the only resource of the inhabitants
of Mowee for drink.    Here, as in the other islands
of the  South Sea, the delicate sanctity of female
i chastity appear.8 to be unknown and unvalued.     But
the female form is here invested with  few of the
graces or elegancies, even of rude savage beauty j
and the vertereal disease, however introduced, has
made ravages the most terrible and the most univer-
sak    The people of Mowee, with those of the other LA   EEYKOü'SE-'S   VOYAGE
Sandwich isles, have been accused of the horridprac**
tice of offering human sacrifices, to propitiate their
deities, and of delighting themselves occasionally
to feast on limbs which were once warm with humanMftfe.    The English navigators appear to have e-
stablished thsstfact, which it is so pafoful to believe,
upon eviófence too strong to be resisted.    La Peyrouse, with a gentleness and benignity, which would
gladly visdicate  human nature from the charge of
the most savage crime by which it can be degraded,
has endeavoured too ineffectually to convince us thatS
cannibalism is here  unknown.    From the kindness
of those Europeans,  by whorn they have been,  at
different times, visited, these isles have derived sup-
plies of our most valuable domestic animals \ bulls,
cows, goats, ewes and rams.   Trees from many diff!
ferent coumtries have been here planted 7 and the
seeds of the most useful vegetables sown.    Ir on, and-
the most useful implements of industry,  have been
introduced.   A subordination subsists, by which the
chiefs  and priests  enjoy an absolute power.    The
canoes framed with outriggers ; each, in the common
size,  about  24 feet in length,   1 foot broad,  1 foot
deep *  capable of holding from three to five men 7
yet  not  exceeding  50  or  60  pounds  in weight }
and employed in courses of navigation to the extent
even of 60 leagues 7 display very extraordinary in-
genuity, both in their uses and structure.    Yet the
arts, in general,  are here in a state lower than that
in which they appear in Easter Island 7 and a long
time  must, in  all  probability,   elapse,  before  the
sciences, the rectitude of moral intelligence, the R0UND    THE    WORLD.
heneticial ei vil policy, and that happy im prove-
ment of the agricultural and the mechanic arts,—-
which di-stinguish civilized mankind from savages and
barbarians,— can be established amung the native
inhabitants of Mowee or Owhyhee. In their intercourse with the French, these people showed an un-
teazing, unprovohing gentleness, an honesty little
prone to theft, a sagacious caution, and yet a fair-
ness in commercial dealing, by which they were ye-
xy advantageously distinguished from the inhabitants
of Easter Island. They were, in particular, careful,
in the sale of their hogs and fruits, not to spoil the
market by offering large qnantities, at once, to the
purchasers, but to produce hog after hog, and one
small quantity of bananas and potatoes slowly after
another, that the eagerness of the buyers, and, by
consequence, the prices, might still be kept up.
It was on the 22d of May 1766, that our voyagers
landed on this isle. They happened to come on
shore in a place towards which none of those streams
of water descended, which they had seen at a dis*
tance. Their landing was effected in foor boats y
in the two foremost of which were 20 armed soldiers
under the command of Lieutenant de Pierrevert 5
whtfe l\L de Langle, with such officers and passen-
gers as were not by duty detained on board, went in
the other two. An hundred and twesty persons,
men and women, awaited their approach on the
shore. The first case of the French, after landing,
was, to dispose the soldiers, with bayonets fixed, a-
round a space which they reserved for themiehses,
secluding iiom it all access of the Indians.    At this la  peyrouse's  voyage
these gentle people testihed neither fear, provoca-*
tion, nor surprize. Two Indians, wTho appeared to
have an authority over the rest, addressed them in
grave speeches of some length, and offered each a
present of a hog. The presents were accepted j and
in return, me d als, hatchets, and other pieces of iron,
to them inestimably preclous, were liberally bestow-
ed. The women made offer of their. favours, in
which, however, there was but little allure ment,
Having first visited the viliage, M. de la Peyrouse,,
with the gentlemen accompanying him, then made
an excursion farther into the isle, under the protec-
tion of a serjeant's guard of soldiers. The result of
their observations has been exhibited in the para--
graph immediately foregoing. They had left their
ships at 8 o'clock in the morning 7 at n in the fore-
n'oon they re-embarked in their boats 7 at noon they
arrived again on board the ships. During their absence, a chieftain, of considerable consequence, had
visited the ships 7 and had sold to those on board, a
cloak and heimet elegantly ornamented with red fea-
thers, with various articles of provision, and other
specimens of the implements of these islanders.
Strong gales now blew on them from the* south-east,
Both the frigates were forced to drag their anchors y
and it was some time before they could even hoist
their boats on board. At 5 in the afternoon, they
had weighed up their anchors. Till 8 o'clock, the
breezes blew so faintly, that their progress was not
more than half a league. The wind at last settled
in the N. E.    The frigates then took their course to R0UND    THE    WORLD*
the westward ; and passed in the middle between the
isles of Tahoo*owa and Ranai. At day-breal^,
they stretched towards the S. W. extremity of the
island of Morotoj. They entèred the open sea by
that channel which dïvides Morotoj from Wohaooj
On the ïst of June, at 6 o*clock in the evening,
they had left all these isles behind them. That
shoal of bonetas which had foliowed them for 1500
leagues, fröm the vicinity of Easter Isktnd as far as
these Sandwich isles, now disappeared. LA   PEYROUSE'S    VOYAGE
Our voyagersmow directed their course northwards.
Want of water and other suitable provïsions, soon
obliged them to kill and cure with salt the hogs
which they had procured from Mowee. On the
6th of June, when they had arrived in the 300 of
N* Lat. the winds shifted from E. to S. E. The
skies now assumed a dull, whitish aspect. It appear-
ed that the frigates had passed the sphere of the
trade winds, and that weather less favourable than
they had hitherto enjoyed, was now to be expected.
On the 9th of June, while they sailed in 340 N.
Lat. they began to be surrounded with fogs. Till
the i4th of the same month, when they had reach-
ed the 410 of N. Lat. these fogs continued to obscure the horizon. The incessant drizzling rains a-
larmed M. de la Peyrouse for the health of the.Sai-
lors. He therefore ordered stoves with burning
coals, to be placed under the half-deck and between-
the decks- •, gave out to every sailor and soldier, a
pair of boots 7 and restored the fiannel under-vests ROÜND    THE    WORLD.
and drawers, which he had made his people lay
aside, and had kept in reserve, ever since they
left the seas adjacent to Cape Horn. Upon the
fudgmerït"of the snrgeon, the re wa*4ikewiss>-secret-
ly mingled with the grog which the crews had at
breakfast, a slight infusion of Peruvian bark, adapt-
ed to produce effects considerably salutary, Without
sensibly affecting the taste of the liquor. The hap-
piest success, fortunately, attended the use of these
precautions. The formation of a corn-mill was a-
nother thing of important utility, which, about this
time, gave employment to some of the voyagers.
In their stores, they had taken on board, instead of
flour and biscuit, merely com dried in the kiln. To
convert this into meal, they possessed only instru-
ments like the querns of the Scotish Highlands.
With these, only a very small quantïty of meal could
be every day prepared 7 and to obtain- even that,
required an operose toil, which was found extreme-
ly irksome. The inventive genius of M. de Langle,
assisted by o'h&b of the saalors, who had formerly been
a miller's boy, contrived, first to adapt to their
querns, sails by which a wind-mill was produced.
Afterwards, a handle, with the mechantcal powers
of the screw7 was advantifgeoüsly preferred. Flour
was now obtained in great abundance : and this was
as much better than that which they had before been
able to manufacture, as the finest ordinary flour is
better than the coarsest common bran. On the
I4th of June, the wind changed from S. E. to W.
S. W. They were enabled to observe, in genera],
that when the winds varied only in some few degrees LA    PEYROUSE   S    VOYAGE
from W. to N., the sky became generally clear,
and the sun enlightened their horizon 7 that drizz-ling
rains were wont to fall^ while the winds varied from
W, to S. W«Js that fogs, with a moisture which
wetted every thing, witliout being perceived to fall,
accpmpanied the winds of that range of points from
S. W. by S. E. to E.
They were now advancing to a part of the American coast, which, with the exception of the port
of Nootk-a alone, was but just seen by Commodore
Cook.     One of the most useful attempts they could
make, was, to explore the tract between Mount St
Elias, and  Port  Monterey.      Unluckily, M. de
la Peyrouse could appropriate  to this  service only
two or three months.    Proceeding northward, and
approaching the American coast, they began to ob-
serve sea-weeds float by 7 the species of which was
absolutely unknown  to them.    Among these was a
head equal in size  to  an  orange, not unlike to an
onion, the stalk of •which has run to seed, and itself
terminating a stalk 40 or 30  feet in length.    Vast
3#hales, divers, wild gèese, about the same time ap-
peared   around   them.      From   these signals,   they
knew that land was nigh.     At  4 o'clock on the
morning of the 23d, the fogs, suddenly clearing a-
wayy permitted them to  discover a long range of
swow-covered mo.untalns.     Among these they could
distinguish Mount St Elias, rearing its top above the
clouds..    This dreary coast was seen  without excit-
ing those pleasi-ng  emotions  which  men ■ who  have
been long at sea are wont to  feel when  they come
first within sïght of land.    All was here desolation ROOND    THE    WORLD.
smd barrennes¥, without trees, wSbhout verdure, ex-
hibiting nought btffchuge andeendle?8^inles of snow.
From the height of the mountains, the land appefer-
ed to descend towards the  sea.    The  waves  broke
at the shore, against a perpendicïöar ledge of black
rocks, the front elevatSén of which might  be about
150 or 20ó:*&thoms.     Such  was the  appêa&aoce of
the coast seen from a distance.     Approaching near-
er, Qtifc voyagers perceived island-like  hills   c»1*er-
spread with trees, rütng  into  view in front of the
ügher ground, which  alone they had, at first, ob-
•served.      Tbe wind, however,  suddenly  chinging
from an eastern to a southern direcSicM^ the skrjfBe-
coming dark and biack on that quarter of the horizon : and they were fhus preven*^ from tafding fÏÉa*:
near and distinct survey, whiw^they wished, of^fhis
part of the coast.   At noon, from an observfctïon, and
from  thêir time-keepers, they fvüund them^et'vès to
befn 590 and 21' N. Lat. and in 1430 23' W. Lon„^
MPhe land was bidden by a tÜick  fog, döTing the
whole of the 2j;th.     On the 2Ó^i, the  weather be-
came fair 7 and at 2 o^élock^n the morning of th^èV
dayr the coast, with all its wiridings, appeared clear-
ly in*view.    A broad  level tract of lar#l extended
in front  of the   mountains,     A low point, covered
with trees, seemed to join th#£ tract, and to termi-
nate ?t a small distarice.     Conceiving that the broad
level tract,  with the lewer  woóded point by which
it seemed to be terminated, might be  an island d£~
vided by an-fcfrm of the sea from the towering mountains beyond 7 they turned their course towHtds that
poónE y and coflfinuing to souHcfc witfe the lead while
E 2 S*
la  peyrouse's  voyage
they sailed, found the least depth of the water to
be 45 fathoms, with a muddy bottom. During the
forenoon, the breezes had blown but lightly, with a
variation from W. to N. At two in the afternoon,
a calm made it necessary for the frigates to come to
anchor. Their situation, at noon, was in 590 41'
N. Lat. in 133° 3' W. Long. Boats had been dis-
patched to survey the bare channel, which was con-
ceived to lie between the aupposed island and the
continent.. Distant observation had suggested,
that the water flowed in that channel, very smooth,
and that the motion of the current was at the rate
of about half a league an hour to the S. S. W,
These indications might seem to prove 7 that if no
channel intervening, between an island and a continent 5 here was at least the mouth of some great ri-
ver. Every appearance soon concurred to foretel
approaching foul weather. The mercury had fallen
remarkably in the barometer during the last twen-
ty-four hours. The sky was now black and dark.
Fears began to be entertained for the boats, But,
about 9 o'clock in the evening, these returned in
safety. The report of the officers who had gone in
them, Messrs de Monti, de Vaujuas, and Boutin,
rather contradicted than confirmed those conjectures
which had been made, at a distance, concerning the
coast. They had found neither river nor chjannel,
but only a sort of semi-circular creek, the soundings
in which indicated 30 fathoms water, with a muddy
bottom 7 but which could afford no shelter from any
of the winds blowing between the S. S. W. and the
E. S. E. points of the compass..   The shore was co» R Otr ND    THE    WO'RL'D ï
vered with drifted wood. The sea broke upon it
with such violence, that M. de Monti, the officer
eommanding the boats, had very great difficulty i^
effecting a landing. M. de la Peyrouse, in conapli-
ment to M. de Monti, named the creek De Mon-
ti's Bay. An English voyager, Dickson, visited
this same part of the American coast in the year
following. His narrative of his voyage makes it
probable, that the conjecture of La Peyrouse was
nearer to the truth than the observations of his officers. fhe Port Mulgrave of Dickson, differs in
position but by a few minutes of Longitude and Latitude from the bay of De Monti. It should sèem
tshat the mistake of the French officers must have
artsen from their trusting too hastily to the first ap-
pearances at the mouth of the bay 7 and from their
hence neglecting to penetrate sufficiently far towards
its bottom.
Soon after the return of his boats, M. de la Peyrouse turned the course of the frigates from the
coast 7 sailing towards the S. E. under a breeze
which arose with considerable briskness from the
N. W. The wind, after many variations, blew at
last for 24 hours, strong and stendy, from the E.
The night was foggVi yet calm. On the 28th of
June in 590 19' N. Lat. in 1420 41' W. Long. the
weather became more moderate. A heavy fog now
hung upon the coast. But the mercury began to
rise in the barometer '7 and expectations of still fair-
er weather were naturally excited. The course of
the frigates was still southward along the coast. At
5 o'clock in the evening, they were but 3 leagues 54
from land, with a muddy bottom. On the 29th
they were in 59°- 20; N. Lat. in 142° 2' W. Long.
in the course of 24 hours their progress had been de-
flected 24 miles to the eastward. Even amid the
fogs, they could at intervals perceive the lów-lands
of the coast, from wh'th they had never been far-
ther than 4 leagues distant. Their soundings were
now regularly from 60 to 70 fathoms, with a muddy bottom. They supposed themselves to be but
£ or 6 leagues eastward from the Bekrings Bay of
Cook. They set their sails for the land 7 and ap-
proached it under, a very light breeze from W. S.
W. A bay seemed to open before them 7 but when
they came nearer, they could see, that what they had
supposed a bay, was nothing but the abrupt meeting
of high with low lands at the coast. They cast anchor where there was 30 fathoms depth of water,
with a muddy ground. The boats of the two frigates, under the command of Messrs de Clonard
andMarchainvi 11 e, were sent outto explorethe coast.
They found, at the mouth of a great river dïscharg-
ing itself into the sea, by two not inconsiderable
channels, a sandy bank, which iose to a level with
the water. For five or six hours^bthey sought for an
entrance into these channels. But, were shut
up by the sandy bars, agajnst which the sea broke
with such force, that it was impossible for the boats
to approach them. Beyond the. sand-banks, indeed,
within the channels, they could perceive smooth water in a bason of two leagues in length, and seven
leagues in breadth. Smoke, bespeakïng the country to be inhabited, was also seen on the shore. ROUND    THE    WORLD.
There can be no doubt, but that wWfeh appeared to
the French voyagers to be the mouth of a great ri-
ver, is the Behring's Bay of Cook. La Peyrouse
gave it the name of BEKRöajG's Rïver. It is not im-
possible, but that, sioce the French voyager ap-
proached nearer to the land than the English, the
former may be more correct, in affirming the exis-
tence of the mouth of a river here, than is the lat*
ter, when he speaks merely of a bay. From this
scène, the two frigates sailed along the land at two
or three leagues distance from it y and under alight
breeze from the W. With the assistance of their
perspective glasses they could see people on the
shore. But the sea was reverberated from the
beach in those tremenduous billows to which the
sailors gave the name of breahers ; and of which the
overwhelmïng föry rendered all landing in these
scènes utterly impossible. At noon, on the 2d of
July, in 5b0 $6' N. Lat. in 1400 31' W. Long. they
found themselves opposite to Mount Fairweather,
at two leagues distance from the land. They dis-
covered, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the same
day, at a place soméwhat eastward from Cape Fair-
weather, a retrocession of the coast, which wras gra-
dually perceived to retire inwards, so as to form a
fine bay. Töwards that bay they iramediately di-
rected their course. Three boats were dispatched
to examine it. A reef of rocks, about 300 téises
in length, with a sufficiently accessible opening at
one end, contiguous to a point of the continent, was
seen to.protect this bay from the tumultuous billow-
ings of the waves of the open sea beyond.    Within 56
this reef of rocks, the waters were calm and smooth.
Of the inlet at its one end, the depth was found to
be, in the middle, 7 or 8 fathoms; at the distance of
2:© toises from either side, 5 fathoms. The depth
within the bay was to or 12 fathoms, with a safe
bottom. Saüsfied of these particulars, by the information of the officers who had gone in tfee boats,
M. de la Peyrouse resolved to conduct the frigates
rato the bason. At 7 o'clock in the evening, they
were before the inlet j but the winds blew faintly, and
the tide was then ebbing with an impetuosity of cur-
rent, in opposition to which the ships were not able
to advance. During the night, they waited near
without casting anchor. In the morning, new observations^ made by the ofKcers of L'Astrolabe, en-
couraged them all to renew their attempts to enter.
After some diffLculties, the flowing tide carried both
the frigates into the bay ; forcing them into a position within half a pistol shot of rocks, on which almost the smallest movement farther would have
'sbattered them in pieces. They both cast anchor
at half a cable's length from the shore 7 and in three
fathoms and an half water, with a rocky bottom.
Once or twice La Boussole sjightly touched the
rocks with her keel; fottunately, however, without
suffering the smallest damage. During 30 years
experience in navigation, M. de la Peyrouse had ne-
ver seen two ships so near to being lost, and yet e-
scaping from the danger. But it was not immedi-
ately possible to move from their*present position to->
safer anchoiing ground. -R0ÜND    THE    WORLD.
After a short time, an excellent bed of sand was
found at four cables length of distance from their
first situation, with io fathoms of water over it: at
a farther distance into the bay, no bottom could be
found, even at 60 fathom*;, except at half a cable's
length from the shore, where was a muddy bottom
. under 30 fathoms water. At the bottom of the bay
was discovered an island, near which ihere was an-
chorage in 20 fathoms depth of water, with a muddy bottom. On that isle, abundance of wood lay
ready cut and carele-sly scattered along the ground.
Streams of excellent water were precipitated in ca-
taracts from the mountains. Beyond the isle, the
sea was covered with blocks of ice 7 and the entran-
ces of two extensive channels were discovered at a
distance. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the fri-
gate, La Boussole, was warped in upon the above
mentioned bed of sand. L'Astrolabe, with better
success, gained at once the anchorage adjacent ta
the isle. On the day following, a light breeze from
the S. E. enabled La Boussole, with the assistance
of the boats, to join her. To the whole bay, a bay
of which these navigators were the first discoverers,
M. de la Peyrouse gave the name of Port de Francois.
On the continent adjacent to Port de Francois,
inhabit some savage tribes, with who*e existence
and manners our voyagers had now an opportuni-
ty of becorhing acquainted : They appeared to wor-
ship the Sun. With the speeches, in their most so-
lemn transactions, was, occasionally, intermingled
a plaintive music,  not unlike to the Psalm tunes o€ LA    PEYROUSE'S    VOYAGE*
the  Chiistian worship 7 or to those  sweet melan-
choly airs, which are understood to constitute the
better part of the native music of the Scots.     Dancing to the sound sof their own voiceslikewiseaccom-
panies some of their most solemn transactions. They
[subsist partly by fishing, in part by hunting.    They
are acquainted with the use of iron 7 and have, by
various means, either in direct intercourse with Eu-
ropeans,  or by transmission through intermediate
hands, acquired considerible quantities of it.    That
amphibious animal, the sea-otter, is the constant object of their hunting pursuit.   It receives from them
the name of Shecier,    lts weight, at its full growth*,
may be about 70 pounds.    lts skin furnishes a very
valuable fur.    These savages were understood by
their French visitors, to have their habitations at
some distance on the continent, yet often to resort
to the isle nigh which the frigates lay at anchor.   A
tornb, which   some Frenchmen had an opportunity
of examining,  showed these Americans to have the
custom of burning the bodies of their dead.    The
head alone is preserved unburnt, and carefully wrap-
ped up in a number of skins.   For the monument, a
small wooden chamber is  elevated on four poles*
The head with the ashes are deposited in a coffin,
and placed within  that chamber.    The canoes, in
which these Indians adventure upon the sea, are
formed each of the trunk of a tree, hollowèd, raised
at the  sides by planks which are sewed to its bottom, having, like our boats, timbers and waies, well
executed in the woodwork, and covered over with
seal skins, sewed togethér with admirable clojseness R0ÜND    THE    WORLD.
and nicety.    In winter, while they trust to the chace
for the means of subsistence, they are o f ten unavoid-
ably ]£able to perish by famine.    In summer,  the
salmons of the rïvers form  the principal article of
their food :  and these they take with an ease and in
an abundance  which  makes it pössible for them to
be idle   and gluttonous to any degree t&ey please.
Gaming is the  frequent amusement of their indo-
lence y and they run into alïfts worst njïschiefs, with
most furious and most pensevelring ardour of passion.
To the French strangers, they displayed their morai
principles and feelings in a light   shockingly unami-
able.   They beheld distress without sympathy 7 they
robbed their benevolent visitants, the most readily,
at those very momertts, when  these  were caressiog
and loading with presents themselves and their chil-
dfl-h.    One or two of the  Frenchmen could at no
time stroll to any small dbtance on the coast, without bèing liafele to be surrounded, and  forcibly de-
prived of every thfng valuable about them, by these
rapacious natives.    A villaefe of three or four wood-
e^sheds  was observed  by our voyagers  near the
shore.     These sheds were, each, 25 feet in length,
and 15 in breadth 7 covered only on that side which
was the most exposed to the stórms,  with planks or
with the bark of trees 7  and ha vin ar in the middle a
fire, around  which   were  hung  salmons  and other
fishes to be dried in the smoke.    Each shed appear-
ed to lodge 18 or 20 petsons.    On one side sat their
women and childrën j on  the  other were  the men.
Each shed seemed to be the se at of a d'stinct society.     Each had its   own  canoe and  its  own 'chïef. LA    PEYROÜSE'S    VOYAGE
The movements and designs o F the company in every
different shed seemed to be entirely independent of
the inhabitants of the others. Citcumstances ap-
peared to indicate, that the residence of these A-
rnericans, upon this bay, was but occasförial and
temporary. They perhaps pass the summer here for
fishing 7 but in the winter retire into the interior
country to pursue the chace. Within, and around
their dweïiings, the most disgusting nastiness pre-
vailed. Theyf>repare their fishes for food, in wood-
en vessels, which, though used alike for kettle, dish,
and plate, are never washed. Being without pots
of either iron or that lapis oliaris which has been"
found in use among the natives of some of the NÜE.
parts of the American centinent, they have no means
to make water boil, save by immersing into it stones,
which they have made red-hot in the lire. Their
inethod of roasting nearly resembles that which is
practised by soldiers in a camp. In summer they
seek their food like the seals, wandering from bay
to bay. In winter they penetrate into the interior
country, and hunt the beaver and other animals.
From the tenderness of the soles of their feet, which,
tholigh always naked, are never callous, it should
seem that they travel little, except in canoeif or
with snow rackets. Their only domestic animal is
the dog, of a species, wild, carnivorous, and dan-
gerous •, in form and size not unlike to the common shepherd's dog, rarely barking, but emitting a
hiss similar to that of the iackall of Bengal. The
dress of these people is simple, yet in some particu-
lars oddly fautastic;    The head  is usually covered *OUND    THE   WORLD.
"with a small hat ofrStraw, very neatly plaited. Or,
lift some instances, two horned bonnets of eagles fea-
thers, or even'Ö&f whole head of a bear, ha ving a
wooden scull-cégrfixed to it, appear ifcstead of the
^strawAat. Some were seen to wear a sort of robe
of otfcer's skin, or of the tanned slsin of the elk, bor-
dered wgh a jingltng fünge of deers'hooves and the
beaks of birds. The cartillages of the e ars and the
nose are pierced to receive different ornaments. On
their breasts and arms theytfiks&e scars i#Hh a sharp
edged instrument, whiclrrlthey are accustomed to
whet on their teeth. With a piece of sandstone,
wrought into the form of a. tongue, they file down
•Éheir teeth to the gutns. Oéfire, soot,' and plum-
bago, mingled with jfish oil, are employed by them in
painting frightfully the face and the other parts of
the bod^r Dressed in what tkey themselves account the manner the most sumptuous and elegant,
they wear the hair flowing at fttll length, entwined
with the down of sea-fdwls, andplefftffullypow7dcred.
Some few instances of tatooing on the arms, were ob-
seifted^mong the women. Young.girls, who have not
yet attained the age of puberty, universally piercethe
under-lip, and fix in it a needie, as a constant ornament. ^When they have advanced beyond the age
of puberty, the orifice which was formed by the
needie, is enlarged, by slittïng the lower lip at the
root of the gums, for the whole wideness ox the
mouth. Into this is now inserted a soit of wooden
bowl without handles, very nicely formed, and destined to be worn as a perpctual ornament, which
«they will, at no time, even for a moment, lay aside,
, -fo
without extreme confu|ion and reluctance. The
general dress of these women is more careless .and
filthy than that of the men. Their cquntenar^es,
naturally wild and.harsh, are inexpressibly 4^-iis^n^
ed by the laceration of the under lip. Their-whoje.
persons appeared to the French strangers, to be the
most sqjjtalid and $sgusting upon eafth. Yet, a-
mong the sailorj^there'jipere not wanting some who
were so brutallysjjascivious as to solicit their favours.
They at first ^howed somewhat of coy reluctance,
and bifcted their fears of the jealousy of their men.
Presents ove/came this reluctance 7 and tjtey tric$i<
chose rather to prostitute themselves on the $pen
shore, in the face of the sun, than to retire under
the more modest concealment of the woods. It is
■ not to be dissembled, that Dixon, the English voy-
ager, who visited t^js coast, soon after M^de la
Peyrouse, has given a less disgu^ting picture of these
females. He says, that when one of them was per-
suaded to wash herself clean, her form and coun-
tenance, but for the disfigurement of the under lip,
appeared -much to resemble a handsome English
milkmaid. In stature, these people were perceiv-1
ed to differ little from their French visitors. The
colour of their -sjyri is a dark brown, not from
the birth, but in consequence of their continual e£L-
posure to the sooty na.stine-ss of their houses, an,d to
the air and rains in the open atmosphere. Their
frame .is feeble *, and the weakest of the. French sai-
lors would have been more than a match in wrest-
ling for the stoutest of these Americans, Symp-
toms of the scurvy wTere obser.ved on some of them y RÖÜND    THE    WORLD.
and the oldest personümong them was a woman who
might bè aboM* 60 years of age. They fi&n the tt*
vers, éfther by setÜng up stakes across them 7 aPd
tfc^ffrrrttirig a s^è-t of cruives 7 or else, with Unes,
to whiëh a small fis4f is ftstened as a bait, while a
latfge seal's bladder, connected Wwhfithe lirte, and
SStödf&nihg on the surfaee of the w&tfST, indicates to
theflske-rman tfhe first moment when any fish snatck*
«P*at tfhe balt below. -^hese Americans ö£ Post de
Fraix^êfe, arestdlled to spïii thvktfir of different a-
niinal$fnto a yarn, of which, with needies, they fa>
bricate a species;fcf cloth, of a texture simila-tfto that
of the tapestry öT?Europev J ©f this cloth they form
for ^errrsel^es dlbaks yiénd having contrïved to m***
termix in the fabric of the cloth, sléhder stripes of
dtrtfer-skin, they thus make thètr cloaths to resemble the finest silJ&n shag of European man%mc4*n*e.
Their ha?ÉSH and baskets of reed&Ure wrovetf3w4tli ©x-
qiitsiie skill. The ornamental designs which they
slèeteh upen these, &re in no u^pfeasïng taste. They
■flftgb ir on j they fashion" copper y they execute to-
ftfeble efójgraïvShgs of men and other animals, in
Wood and stone. They make finely polished orna-
merïfs of ^$ie serpenHine stone : They inlay boxes in
a* very elegant manner, with mother of pearl. A
dagger 7 a Wooden lance at one end, sharpened and
hardened in the fire, or perhaps pointed with inan^?
a bowand arrows, the iatter tipped with copper y are
their ordinary weaponsV" There were observed a-
mong their trinkets, pieces of yeilow amber ? which
they may possibly piek up from time to time, upon
their  own coasts,    Their canoes appeared to be in
F 2
fiüüfa 6*4-
general more than 20 feet long : 4 feet broad ; &
feet deep 7 and were covered with seah skins after
the manner of the Esquimaux. Their gaming
makes them serious and melancholy. It is played
with 30 pieces of wond *, each having, like our dicer
different marks, and of these 30 pieces, they hide 7.
Every one of the persons engaged in the game, then
plays in his turn. He whose guess comes nearest
to the number upon the 7 pieces, is 'the winner of
the stake. A hatchet, or a piece of ir on, is usually
the stipulated prize. Their music is plaintive and
melodious. The sounds of their language are rough
and harsh, ex-hibiting combinations of consonants to
which we should iind it impossible to give utterance y
and excluding the sounds of some of those letters,
which occur the most frequently in the speech of ci-
vilized Europe. Of the consonants, b, ƒ, x,j} d9p9.
Vj 1 and the liquid gfi9 could not be enunciated by
them, otherwise than very imperfectly, and with extreme difficulty. Their initiai consonants are, k9 tr
72., s, tn. None of their words begin with r. Their
terminations are, almost always, either in vowels, or
in the syllables ouls9 oulch. K is the favourité letter
in their alphabet. They have interjections expres-'
sive of pleasure, anger, and admiration. They pos-
sess but few abstract term?. Forasmuch as our voyagers coisld observe, there seemed to be a consider-
able affinity of sound between the language of the
inhabitants of Nootka, and that of these people o£
Port de Francois. The following are the principal
numerical terras of this language : R0DND* THE    WORLD.
Keirrk                    -.<&$
Keitschine .
Ten, \
Keirkrha- keirrk
Keirkhra- theirb
Keitkrba neisk
Fourteen, *
Keirkrha taakhoun
Keirkrha- keitschin e
Keirkrha- kleitouchou
Keirkrha -pet i katouchou
Eighty, :
A hundred,
ÏÏ3 66
The harbour orbay to which La Peyrouse gave the
name of Port de Francois, is situate in 58^.7' Ni/Jaatr
in 1390 50' N. Long.    Under the f uil, and under the
changingmoon, the tide here rises7-§ feet on the shorev
It is then high water at 1 o'clock.   At certain thnes,
the current of the tide moves in writh the force of
the most rapid river.    At other  times, a boat may
easily sail in direct  opposition to it*   ^^fMlere wrere
observed on the land, high water- ma*ks, at a height
not less than 15 feet  above the surface of the sea.
The climate of this coast was judged by M. é^j^la
Peyrouse to be  far milder than that of Hudson's*
Bay in the same latitude.    Vegetation is here ex-
ceedingly vigorous^-tor three or fo^months annual-
ly.    Pines were measuredby our voyagers, of which
the circümferencewas found to be 18 feet, the height
140 feet.    Almost all the pot-herrJS^of the meadows
and mountains of France appeared in-the fields.   A-
mong these were, angelica, the butter-cup, the violet, &e. ^êelery*, rounaMeaved sprrel, lupine, the
wild pea, yarrow, and endive, were likewise found
in great abundance.    Gooseberries, raspberries, and
strawberries, were plenteous in the woodsi    Alder
trees, the  poplar,   the sailow,   the hornbeam, the
dwarf willoHv,   with   different   species^Hof  briars,v
were  seen ïntermingled among the  stafcéiy pines.
Most of the plants appeared to be of species which
are common in Europe.    M. de  Martialere, in his
botanical excursions, met with/'ötVty  three   plants
that he thought new.    Trout and salmon are prodi-
giously abundant in the rivers.     Ling, thornbacks,
plaices, jietans^ and capelans7 were taken by   the ROUND   THE    WORLD.
French in the bay. Muscles, limpets, whiiks, and
coekles, were among the most remarkable shell
ftshes. From a place at the elevation of more than
200 toises aböve the le^cj. of jijie sea, M. de Lama-
non, mineralogist, took marine petrifactions in a fine
state of preservation, and of very large dimensions,
of the shell k^own by tfee name of St James1s sheli9
or th^jRoyal cloak. Bears, rn#rtins, and-j§iiuifjels,
wereefpundjky the Jyunters in thde woods. The na-
ikjes brought skins of the brown»and black bear, the
Canadian lynx, the Canadian marmot, the ermine,
the red fox, the martin, the beaver, and the little
grey .«f^uirrel. The most common, however, and
the most precious skins brougl|t by the natives, were
those^pf the sea-otter, t^e wolf, and the bear. The
horjt^öf a wiJ4egoat^fand tanned skins of, the elk,
Were also seen by the French voyagers* A water
and a musk rat were by M. de Lamanon taken alive.
The species of birds which, are not here many 7 but
the indivkjuals of each species are sufficiently nume-
roui^i&^arrows, nightingales, black-birds, and
y^jjowjjammers, filled the thickets, singing with a
deligj|tful melody. The whke-headed eagle and
the g$eat raven were seen hovering aloft in the
air* A beaaliful blue jay, with some humming
birds, atfmfiied. tjbc notice of the strangers. They
kijled a^Wug-fisher. The nests of the swallow and
$jjtt black QlSfe?>^atchQr wTere observed in the cliffs
of the rocks on the sea-shore. The only sea-fowls
seen, were, the red-footed guillemot, gulls, cor-
morants, wild-geese, and divers, of both the large
and small species.    The   deep vales among these 03 LA   PEYRÖTJSË7S   VOYAGE.
mountains, present views so frightfully picturesque?
that, were thtf£ not at this remoteNextremifjp of the'
earth, they could not fail to att£act the curïous vi-
sits of all who admire the beauties and the wonders
of external na^ire. The mountains have the8?<bases~
in the sea 7 form a sj^t of quay upon the shore>£
and thence ascend with an acclivity so rapid and
iprei|ipitous, that even the wftd goats cannot climb
them above the firsjfc two or three hundred toises of
their height. Ice and snows fi-11 the interjacent gul*
lies*, c No trees nor other plants overspread these
mountains. Gran&es and schistus compose theiiF'
strata. These are the great primitive mountains.
Secondary mountains, of inferior elevation, form the
sides of the harbonr. Of these the height is not
more than from 800 to 900 toises. Pines rise over
their sides 7 and beneath is a carpet of verduren
They are not absolutely inaccessible, yet extreme-
ly difficult to be climbêd. I he snow appears only
on their summits. The French naturalists, with
infinite fatiguc, made their way almost to the tops
of these secondary mountains. But it was in the
vales, they so'ught their specimens of the different
matters composing the strata or interspersed among
them. Ochre 7 cppraceous pyrites 7 garnets, brittle,
large, and perfectly chrystallized 5 schorl in chrys^
tals m7 granite -7 schistus; horn-stone 5 pure quartz t,
mica 5 plumbago j and coals 7 were the different mi-
nerals of which their collections exhibited specimens.
No sooner had the two frigates been fixed  at anchor near to the isle, which was mentioned above y RÖUND    THE    WORLS»
than the voyagers turned themselves to form a set-
tiement on that isle, for the time of their stay in the
harbour.     They pitched tents for their  smiths  and
sail-makers 7 and took out the casks from the holds
of the ships to be there refitted.    The   Indians had
none of their habitat JOfis on the isle.     Here, there-
fbre,   it was supposed that  their thefts might be
without quarrel or  violence, avoided.     Some  fire-
arms and artiilery were discharged iri their presence,
to convince them, that, however lenient, the stran-
gers were sufficiently powerful to repress and to pu-
nish injury.     Whatever might happen, it was deter-
mined to employ no force against the  natives 5 but,
to ex^ite the vigilance of the crews,. M. de la Peyrouse settled,  that  td^e men who suffered a loss by
the theft of the Indians, should be punished for that
negligence, by which the theft had been allowed to>
take effect.    But the   avidity and  ingenuity of the
natives, often defeated all  these  precautions.    At
one  time,  in particular, they landed from their canoes on the isle, by night y stole through the woods,
glidirigjike adders   on  their bellies, uttering not a
whisper, scarcely stirring a leaf 7 made  their way,,
unobserved, through a guard of   12  soldiers into a
tent, in w^ich Messrs  de   Lauriston   and Darbaud,.
the  officers  of the  guard, lay  asleep y took  away
the clothes of these two gentlemen from under their
pillows, without awakening  them;   and   conveyed
this booty, together with  a  musket  mounted with
silver, and a memorandum book of astronomical observations,  off  in   perfect   safety,   and   undetected.
The briaïffc'fn the mean time, carried woodandwa- LA    FÉYROUSE'S    VOYAGE
ter on board thè ships $ and different  work'ing par-
tres wTere employed in  the diligent performance of
all the necessary labours.    Messrs   de   Monneroii
and Bernizet, with an armed company of the sailors-j
and soldiers, ptoceed'ed  in  a boat to  explore "thë
bay.    They looked  with  awe at the*grand appear-^
artces which nature  exhibited  towards  its bottom.
A  bason   of   unfathómable   depth,   surrounded   by
snow-coveréd mountains  of an  elevation to wnich
the eye feared  to  ex-alt  its  gaze ; no breath of air'
rufBing the surface of these waters 7 nougnr disïurb-
ing the awefül ca lm and silence, save from time  to
time the fall of enörmous masses of ice, from those
icy pi les which s'rose amidst the mountains :   These
weré the clVcumstances  of awful sublimity, which]
here presented themselves to the imagination of the
beholders.    From tliïs bason, the  French Voyagers
wished to  penetrate farther, hoping that it might
communicate wfïn' some channels, which would con-
duct them into the interior parts  of America.    A |
Western channel cpened before them.     They enter- \
ed it $ and proceeded till their cbursè was interruptie
ed by dreadful piles of ice and snows.     An e aster n-
channel Was  with  sïniilar care   explored, and with
jüst the same success.    "Their next transactiön was
no lessthan the purchase of the isle,  on which they
had set up their observatory.     A Chief, pretending
to be lts proprietor, offered them  to mafè sale of
it.    M. de  la  Peyrouse  accepting the offer, gavW
him in payment of his righf, several ells of red clotA,
hatchets, knives, bar iron, and nails.      Possessïön
was then taken of the isle bjj^the  French with the R0UJ&D,   THE    WORLD.
wonted for^aalities. A bottle, with an apt inscrip-
tion, was buried at the'foot of a rock ; and near to
if-was lai(J a bronze medal, out of a c^llection which
M. de la Pevfouse had, for suph purposes, bxought
from France» e Almost all the objects for wrhich our
voyagers had halted in this bay, were now aqc°4U-
plishe^« No disaster had befaiïen them Not a
man of the twp ship's companies was ^is yet sick, ori
in any degree, afjjicted jvifch the ^.uryy. .TJiey
deemed themselves the most fjortunate of najrigators^
But a fatal m^sfortune was lust about to overtake
Several souujüngs of the waters^n the bajc3wer£
necessary to complete the draft of Messrs de Monne-
ron and Bernizet. To make these soundings, a number of the njfficers set out, in the pinnace of L' As-
trolabe, commanded by M. de Mjprchainvill^j in the
pinnace of La Boussole, under the orders of M.
d'Espures 7 an^n the barge belonging to La Boussole, of which M. Boutin had the command. La
Peyrouse, with a solicitude ij^e advices of whic|t
M. d'Escures could not hear JHfth patience, recgm-
mended to him and the other officers to proceed with
the utmost caution, on this little expedition. Tho'
it was to occupjr"but a fe,w hours, he even deHvered
out his orders in writing to d'Escures. The boats
setjiput at ógp'clock in the morning. A^W1 v*ftWS
as well of pleasure as of jy^structive enquirj, the
parties who went Jn them, intenc|e4 to hvi|}{t and to
breakfast under the trees. After doubling the
western part of the isle, near to wJiLph the frigates
were at anchor, the gentlemen iu the boats perceiv-
HMH *72
LA   peyrouse's  voyage
ed, that the sea broke over all the channel wThich
they were sent to expiöre, with a violence that
would make itffatally dangerous to approaxrh it. M.
d'Escures, in the pinnace of La Boussole, led the
way on one side : M. Boutin; in the long-boat be-
longing to the same frigate, foliowed him. At some
inconsiderable distance sailed the pinnace of L'Astrolabe, under the command of Marchainville. At a
quarter past seven, the two boats of La Boussole
were within two cables length of the channel. Sud-
denly, they perceived themselves to be drifted by
the ebbing tide ; and immediately, both the boats
began to retire, with all possible baste, from the
channel, and to turn away to the northward. Still,
they supposed themselves to be in no serious dan-
ger 7 since, by gaining 20 toises on either hand, they
might easily run their boats on shore. After row-
ing more than a minute, to surmount the tide, they
endeavoured, the pinnace to approach the western,
the long boat to approach the eastern shore, but
both alike without success. Again. they turned to
the north ward, to escape, if possible, the breükers
whifh threatened them. In this situation, M. Bou-
tin endeavoured to stay his boat, by dropping the
grcpnel. It did not fix on the bottom, but its cord
being unfastened at the end which remained in the
boat, it was instantly lost 7 and by its loss the boat
was happily delivered from a weight which might
have soon after proved latally inconvenient. The
pinnace, in the mean time, was involved amid the
breakers. She was drawn into the current. Those
ia the long boat quickly lost sight of her.    She was R0UND    THE    WORLD.
trverwhelmed amid the bÜlows, and was with her
nrè*wiotterly?loffit. Her fate had been perotived at
a distance by M* de Marchainville : and thé crew
of the boat of L'Astrolabe, htaarrying into the mldst'
of the danger, to aid their periifcing comrades, were
like them* unhappüy swallowed up amidst the break-
ers. A'Boutin, even after he saw himself surround-
ed by dangers almost insurmountable, was still for
some moments ready to rush in the long-boat to the
assistante oflïis friends, at the risk of «haritag theSr*
fate. But the sense of duty interposing, defeèrmin-
ed him to make evety effort in order to save the
<fefew entrusted to his command. For this purpoKÉ£
he made. his'liilors, in the interval of the breaking
o&tlie seas, to pull away with the oars to the star-
board. At 25 minutês after seven, he was fortu-
natëly oü€ of all danger. He now made the water
to be baled out of the bosft 7 and agaiaHÉirned him-
selr to discover whether his unfortunate ship-mates
might not yet survive, and whether he might not
yefearry them relief. To the southward, he could
perceive some seals and sea-weeds, the appearance
of which gave him still some faint hopes. At three
q-Uarters after 8 o'clock, the tide had «örned, and
the brèakers had ceased. Again he renewed the
féarch^ büte**till without success. Hisi^crew were
now cold, drenched with water, hüngry, and without pré^felons. Hé#had neither grapnel nor sails
for the management öTthe boat. He was therefbre
ob&ged to returüliato the bay. Some Indians, whom
hé^'pèrceived on the shore, expressed to him, by
signals, that they had  seen  the two boats perish.
G peyrouse's  voyage
Still, however, he wdétld not forego the hope, that
he might perhaps find M. de Marchainville, with the
boat of L'Astrolabe, to have returned  to the ships.
44 Have you any newis of M. de Marchainville ?"
was  his first  enquiry, the moment he aMved on
board.    S Wo," was the answer 7 and  it made bis
.dêspair  complete.     The Jisconsolate horror with
whtêh thfiHiews of this misfortuife was recftived on
board ^ihté^ftigates, mé^ be easïfer conceived than ex-
preö§ed.    ThiSewai^he first misfortu^ our^oyagers
had encojiiritered during their enterprize.    It depriv-
ed them of some of their most accomplished officers
and dearest compariions.    It had happened, after e-
very possible precaution had been employed to avert
it: For the soundings of the channel had been before made, and the force of the  breaking bittows,
on different days, observcd, with a care ^ïich makesr
it improbable, that, but for an extraordinary swell
on thÜ partfesdar day, tiie danger which proved so
fefcal, could have beefo incurred.    The Indians, in
their canoes, soon ^i$3ted the Mgates, to give ia-
formation that they hwd seen  the^Éwo boats pë&sh,
witbftut belng able to affoird them assist«nce.    The
disconsolate  strangers féaded their informeer'with
presents, and gave them to understand that he who
sbould have saved  a single man, would have been
thought worthy to be rewarded With. all therr weafaSb
«Mwsrs de Langle and De Clonard, attended by all
the officers, and a number of other peTsons, basten-
ed away to explore those parts of the coast to which
it was not improbable that some parts of the wreek
.might perchance fee t&riven.    Their search wüis vain. ROUND    THE   WORLD.
They returned without having discovered either a
single surviving man or any of the dead bodies.
The Indians, tox>, in hopes of new presents, spread
themselves round the bay, and made every possible
research; but with the same ill success. An empty
monument was erect$d to the memory of those who
had perished, by the sorrowful affection of their
surviving companions : and to the isle on wfyjch it
was rajsed, they gave the name of Cenotapü]Isle.
After some days, the Indians brought then&jsome
JEragments of the broken boats y but nothing more^
Tbe following are the names of the officers, soldièfsff
and sa Hors, who were hit in the two boats on the i$tb
ofjfuiy 1786, at a quarter after stven o^clock in the
Mesars d'Escures, de Pierrevert, de Montarnal,
Officers ;—-Le Maitre9frst pilot; Lieutot, corporal
and cocèswaia ; Prieur, Iraichot, Bolet, Henry,
Chaub, soldiers ;—all these, both officers and common men, belonging to La Boussole.
From L? Astrolabe 7—Messis de la Borde Marchainville y de Ia Borde Boutervilliers y Flassan,
Officers :-—and of these the two former were bro-
thers :—-Soulas, corpora! and cockswai* ; PhiJiby y
Julien Ie. Penn y Pierre Rabier, soldiers :—Thomas
Andrieusej Goulver Tarreau^ Guillaume Duqesnej
young men in the flower of their age, and captain^
of the tops*
The  French  voyagers were now anxious to basten
awav from a scène of so much mïsfortune.    Much
prudent  consideratiört' was  necesSary in fixing the
plan of their riext course.    They were to tracé the
outline of t'He   American coast to the southward 5
and it  walrat the   same  time  requisite  that they
should manage so, as to arrïve at Manilla about the
end of January 7 at China, in the course of Februa-
ry.     It was settled, that  they should go into har-
bour no wherebut at Monterey.      A promotión'was
made among the officers, to fill up the places of those
who had perished.    It was settled, with the consent
Of the officers and passengërs,. that the furS which
had been obtained,  should be sold at China for the
Sole benefit of the sailors 7 and M. du Fresne was,
xor that purpose, appomted supercargo.    Irithefirst
40 hours of their renevved course, the winds Blew só
fa'ïntly, that they were able to advahce only 6 leagues.
Their progress was within 3 or 4 leagues distance
from the ooast: but the weather was gloomy 7 and ftÖtJSt»   tUt   WÖRLD.
they had only an imperfect view öf the mountains
and low grounds. This coast had been before exa-
mined by Cook y and as hts* accuracy Could require
but little correction, M. de la Peyrouse was there-
fore willing to run along as rapidly as possible. He
looked in vain for the pretended mouth of the At*-
chipelago of St Lazarus of the Spani*h adöaïral
Fuëntes. ï^gs» rains, and calms, continue» from
the day on which they set sail, until noon on the 4th
öf August. They were then in 570 45' N. Lat*
and at the distance of 3 leagues from the land.
At 4 o*élock, P. M. on the same day, the fogs
cleared up, and our voyagers could perfectly distin«
guish the entrance of Cross Sound ; which seems to
form two very deep-ba^, and affords, possibly, good
anchorage for shipping. The loftiest range of snowr-
eóvered mountaföS, rising from 1300 to 1400 toises
in height, has its termination at Cross Sound. The
lands become here lowTer, st&d are to the very surn-
mits overgroWn with wöod , yet still retain a-ntt^n^
tainous character. At sunset, M. de la Peyrouse
found hkfcself opposite to the western point of Cross
Sound. The frigates continued to run along the
coast at 3 leagues of distance from ft. Fogs covered
the mountains $ bnt the lowlands were, at intervals,
distinctly visilüe, The progress was slowr, for in 24
hours they had not advanced more than jo leagues^
At day-break, on the fifth, they found themselvesi
opposite to a Cape, southward from the entgance of
Cross Sound, to which they>, gave the name of Cape
C&-Q3SV A multitude of low wooded islets now ap-
iseared before them: The middle ground exhibited
G3 78
high hills : The snow-covered mountains were no
longer seen. Approaching these islets, ti|l he could
discern from the deck the breakers on the coast, La
Peywmse djlscovered several passages of which he
thought it probable that they mig^t afford good
On the 6th-, the weather becoming some what
clearer, përmitted him to ob&erve the sun's altitude,
and hence to compa-re the true time with that which
was indicated by their time-keepers 3 They were'ia
N. Lat. 570 1:8/ 4©" ia longitude between 1300 and
1400- At 7 ki the evening they could still perceive
Mount Crillon, b e ar ing, north 66° west. Mount
St Hyacinth, bearing-nosth 78°. e ast, and Cape E-n?-.
ganno, east io° south. Cape Engannois a low land,
covered with trees, and juttkig for a great way out
into the sea^ Mount St Hyacinth rises beyondit, |
'in the form of a. tru-ncat-e-d epne, rouwfeat the topj
and elevated to the height of about 200 toises.
From the- north and south of Enganno^he coast is
bordered with islets for a space of 10 leagues.. At.
30 o'clock in the morning, they had passed all these
isles. At 6 in the evening they perceived a Gape.'.|
opposite to them, in a-N. E. direction, which ran a.
good way to the westward. To this Cape M. de
la Peyrouse gave the name of Cape Tschïrikow, .ir*.
honour to the Russian navigator of this name, who,.
in -the year 1 74r, landed-nearly on this part of the
American coast. To a large and deep Bay, lyingj
eastward behmd the Cape; Peyrouse "gave alsothe-
name of Tsöhirikow Bay. At 7 in the evening
they peixeived-a .groupe of 5 islets, un natie ed hy.for» R0UND    THE    WORLD.
mer navigators.    To these was given tjie name of
La Croyere Islands.    During the whole of the 8th
the  wind  continued to blow favouarably from the
west.    The found themselves to be in 550 39' 31^
N. Latijn T37%*j/|23" W. Long.    Manyopenings
between some considerable islands, were, in varlous
directions, vislble to them 7 but the continent wTas at
such a iüstaace as to be beyond their-sight.     This*
range of isles  begins  4 leagues  Si  E. from Cape
Tschirikow, and probably extendsiaf- far asd» Cape
ïïecto#4-:i The c»rrents near them areevery strong^
even at 3 leagues distaüce the  frigates ^tlt their in*
fluences.     In this quarter lies Port Buccarelli, so
named by Maurelle;   a Spanish  pilot,  who visited
these coasöii^ At*T^ij^cloclc in the morning of the
9thj  our voyagers,  continuiag  to  run  along at  3
leagues of distance from the lanaV approaohed the
St Casibs islesv"   Of these,  the  most considerable
lies in a direction from S. E. to  N.  W.  andis?a-
bout   2  leagues   in   circumfesenee.      Other  lower
islets He bsgrond it, farther within the channel.    Opposite to these isles, exactly at noon on the 9th, La*
Peyrouse found tómself to be in 540 48' N^L-at. in*
*3Ó°tI9/ W. Long.    A breeze arose with conaider-
able farce from the W. N. W. he endeavoured to
approach the land 7 and at half past 7 o'clock in the?
evening, was less than a league fromr the coast :  bu't-
the shore was so muchicovered with fogs,  and the*
billows  appeared to break; against it with so much,
of dangerous violence, that he soon fjpndit neces-
sary to put about,   aud  wait  for  clearer  weather0.
During the ui ght be|tween the iQth and the nth.of. 8o
la peyRöuse's voyase
August the fogs thickerted, and the winds blew with
*viölettCe.     Our tfbyagars tacked and stood off the
shore 5 they approacbed the land about day-break :
but the fogs stÖI(ttoatinued 7 and ï* WaS impossible
to obtain a sufhcieïtt^ distinct view of the  outline
of the coast.    Fof several days successively the fogs
Still continued; on the morélng of the 151b, the
weather cleared up.    They approached.the coast,
and perceived its extension to lie from N. N. E. to
S.  S. E.    They were soo»n again itttfeloped by the
fogs.   The i7th was calm thronghout the day.   Oa
the i8th, at noon, they ware within a league and a
half of the shore.    They ran alöng it at this dis*
tance, tüi a Bay was discovered, which appeared to
enter deeptfeito the coaötïy, and to whiohthey gave
the name of De la Touche Bay.    From the $$° ta
the 530 thé sea was cévered with divers, of that spe-
cies which has been named by Buffon, the macareux
ef KamSchkatka : the Golour of the body of these
fowls is blach y the beak and feet are red 5 on the
head are two white stripes rising into tufts like those
of the cockatoo.     rhese fowls never wander farther
than 5 or 6 leagu*S from the land.    On the evening
of the   19'th, while the horizon was very clear,  a
Cape was discovered, which appeated to terminate
the American coast.    To this Cape, M. de la Peyrouse gave the name of Cape Hector y beyond it
appeared 4 or 5  islets, which he denominated Ke-
kowart Isles.    The latitude of Cape Hector is in>
510 57' 20" N.  and its longitude,  according to the
time-keepers of the frigates,  in 1330 37'W.    On?
the 2ist, at. iiöon-j they were in 520 $/- -N- Lat. ia R 0 U 1*D    THE    WORLD.
133°^' 31" W. Long. and they here sounded, without being able to find any bottom. The breadth of
the gidp^i, wdrich they perceived to intervene between
.fiape Hectorjand an isle, the farthè-st to the 'Sefrljfrof
the new groufty to which they gave theiname of Cape
FLèuaiÈa\, appeared to be aboutsgo leaguesa&aBeyoiid
trub group of Mes, was the Continentr&perceived.
Jtsprimitive mountains, covered over with-snow^dèa-
titut-e of wood, and towering up einttoeiÈfly peaks,
seemed to lie more than 30 leagues backward, at
their points of highest elevaties, fïita thSSiinte^dr
courttfy. In comparison with these mountaitdf onljr
inferior hills had been seen from C#ös^ Sound,'tbus
<üar along the coast. Advancing onwards, the$r
passed nigh seveTal clusters of isles jftupon whiefo,
howrever, not a bush nor shrub was to be seen. sB*
these «clusters was given the name of Sartïne Isles.
Having passed these isles, they again stood toward
the continent 7 they could not now distinguish the
tops of the mountaint, but very distinctiy saw the
1owt lands.
On&the 25th, our voyagers continued to psoceed
eastward towards Nootka Sound. They had before
observed the Woody Point of Cook to be precisely
m 500 4' N. Lat. and in 130° 2§' W. Long. a posi-
jfe||«jBssunewhat different from that assigned to it by
Cook. A thick fog obscured from their view the
land of Nootka.; On the 28th, at 5 o'clocfc'win the
eweningpthey found themselves opposite to Cook^
Breakers Point. ,: Qgt, the ist of September, at
noon, they came wifhin #ight ef a point or cape
whicbjjbore N. N« £• ff^m them about ten leagues. ;
la  peyro-use's   voyage
The land extended eastward y but the fogs covcr-
ed. all its projécting parts. The currents upon
these coasts run strong $ and the frigates had fre-
quently to make their way through whirlpools.
Thèy continued to sail along the coast, in circum-
stances nearly similar to those which have been de-
tailed, till they came into 420 58' 56" N. Lat. 1270
5' 20" W. Long. Here, at about a league-s distance
from Cape Blanco, they observed rune little rocky
islets opposite to them, to which they were induced
to give the denomination of Neckar's Isles. Pro-
ceeding along the land at three or four leagues distance, they could perceive only the tops of the
mountains rising above the clouds. Continuing to
stecr to the southward, they found the skies less
clear than in the more northern latitudes, A vol-
canoe on the top of a mountain, barning with a very
lively fiame. attracted their notice, as they sailed
on. On the 8th of September, the atroosphere
cleared up, and they could again discern the distant
tops of the mountains 7 but the weather became
continually wcrse, and fogs contiuually impeded
their eadeavours to explore the outline of the coast.
They knew themselves to be near to the Bay of
Monterey y they approached- within a league of
the shore, and could very distinctly se e the billows
breaking upon it. They were now actually within
Monterey Bayy but the haziness of the weather made
it still impossible for them to recognise the Spanish
settlement. At 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the
i4th of September, they came within sight of Fort
Monterey, and perceived two three masted vesseis ROUND    THE    WORLD.
lyïngtn the road y adverse winds obliged them to
come to an anchor at the distance of two leagues
from the shore. But, on the day following, they
approached within two cables length of the land,
and cast anchor in water which was twelve fathoms
deep. This they were enabled to do by the direction of pilots, who, during the nïght, had been sent
out to theniTrom the shore. In the whole course
Trom Port de Francois, even amidst the thickest fogs,
rune two frigates had always sailed sufficiently near
to be able "Sb hail one another, till they came to the
bay of Monterey.
New Year Point, to the North,  the  Point of
Cyprus, to the South, form the Bay of Monterey: lts
breadth between these two poïnts is about 8 leaguesy
it descend   nearly 6 leagues eastward into the coun-
t £ry y and is bounded  at its  bottom by low sandy
grounds.    N. and S. from  the  bay, the lands are
high and wooded.     Under the full and the chang-
ing moon, the flowing tide is at its height,  at half
past   one   ó'clock.       As    the   bay  is   very   open,
1 fnqPcurfent in  it  is nearly imperceptible.    Whales
spb¥t in  it  ra   prodigious   numbers,   surround   the
! ^mips witR-^rhe  greatest   familiarity, and   spout out
1 «Éfeams  of water, which  infect,the  air  with their
nöfêöme   stench.     Fogs continually overhang these
CöarSsf'j ^fid occasion difficulty m the approach to a
smn*e whlcn   would  othe'rwise   be   very   easily and
sWély^accessiole.     Pelicans, birds  which  never go
■ÉJTther tfnah 5 or 6 leagues from  the  land, are nu*
mirbus in this bay.
1A   lieutenant-colonel, the   Spanish   governor of
the   Californias,   has   his   residence   at   Monterey.
il   |
z 84
la -peyrouse's  voyage
HijLgovernment extends over a territory ngt less
than 800 leagues in circumference. Yet 282 Spl-(
diers of Spanish cavalry are the only persons actual-
ly subject to its authority. This small military force
is distributed into garrisons occupying 4 or 5 different forts, and into detachments of four or five men
t$> every one of five and twenty parishes, into which.
the whole territory is sub-divided. About 50,000
wandering Indians are easily kept in awe by this
small military force : but of those Indians, nearly
io,coo have embraced the Christian religion, Lo-
retto, the only presidency of Old California, is on
the eastern coast of this pëninsula *, its garrison con-
sists of 54 dragoons. There belong to it 15 mïs-
sions or parishes, of which the duties are performed
by Dominican friars. The long apostleship of the
Jesuits, and the Franciscans, has converted and col-
lected together about 4,000 Indians in these 15 parishes. Of the Northern California, St Diego, the
oldest settlement, was first established on the qth
of July 1769. Monterey, now the capïtal of the
two Californias, is an establishment not older th&nl}
the year 1770. The Road. of Monterey, was, indeed, before known, and occasionally visited by the
galleons from Manilla. The following are the names
of the surrounding missions, and of the presidencies
which have since been established in these parts.
It is, however, proper, first to observe, that the
Spaniards give the name of Presidency to any fort
situate in an infidel country, whether Africa or A-
merica. ROUND   the   world.
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These missions and presidencïes are supported at
a great expence, for the purpose of civilizing the
Indians. The regular clergy, to whose management
they have been intrusted, are understood "tb discharge their respective functions with the greaxè^Ê
piety, alacrity, and fidelity. But the Indians are
treated by them rather as children than as persons
of mature understanding. In the churches are IÉf|
hibited paintings of heil and of heaven, such as seeni
to be adapted powerfully to strike the senses of a
rude and simple people. The men and women are
assembled tó church, to work, and to all their exer-
ci§es, by the sound of a bell •, wrhile one of the Fa-
thers still conducts and directs them%' Fetters, the
stocks, the strokes of a whip, are so many nvÉ&es of
punishment 'to which their religious and moral de-
lïnquencies are, by these their spiritual fathers, sub-
jected. Seven hours in the day are allotted to la-
bour, two hours to prayers. A new convert, from
among the heathen Indians, if once received into the
society of these christianized Indians, is never again
suffered to make his escape 7 but, upon any such at-
tempt, never fails to be pursued, hunted out, and
brought back to condign punishment. The Chris-
tian Indians are óbliged to rise with the sun *, an
hour is then dedicatecï to the services of mass and
prayers. A breakfast of barley meal awaks them
at their icturn from the service. It is boiled in waterM the Indians give this food the name of atole;
and, thcugh it be unseasoned with either butter or
salt, are extremely fond of it. It is prepared in
three  large kettles in  the middle  of the  square." 1
The family of every difFerent hut sends a vessel
made of bark, to receive its portion of the mess y
that which remains on the bottom of the kettles, after all the families have been served, is distributed
to those of the children who best repeat their les-
sons from the catechism. After consuming three
quarters of an hour at breakfast, the Indians betake
themselves to their labours for the day. Some go
to plow the ground in the fields with oxen 7 others,
to dig in the gardens 7 the women manage trie af-
fairs of the households, take care of their children,
parch and grind into meal the different grains. At
H^on, the hour of diftaer i& amiounced by tb#-8ourtd
of the bell 7 the Indians now again receive their
portions out of a quantity of food w7hich has been
prepared for them'in common 7 their usual dinner
dish is named by them poussole, and differs from that
which they had to breakfast, only in being thicker,
and in having com, maize, pease and beans, inter-
mingled in it. . At 2 o "doek they return from their
meal to their labour. Their work now continues
till the hour of 4 or 5 in the evening. They then
attend evening prayers nearly for an hour. A new
distribution of' atole, forms their supper 7 and the
day thus closes. Under the missionaries are ap-
pointed caciques,. or magistrates, from among the Indians themselves 7 but these are passive instruments
in the hands of the ecclesiastical rulers, whose pro-
vince extends to little else but the infliction of punishment. Rewards are occasionally bestowed 5
which consist in extraordinary distributïons of nesh-
©r of meal.    The men are often-permitted to hunt;
J?i'' 2~ «8
-    T-.    *>
and fish, each for his own private use. The women
rear fowls round their hüts y and are wont, very
properly, to give their eggsto their children. dThe
fowls, the clothes, the little articles of housebdd
furniture, are the property respectively of the>j[$n-
dians who possess them.~ . These people have no o-
ther doors to their huts than simple bundies of straw.
Yet no instances of the ft-•have ever oceurred among
them. The uneonverted Indians are polygam-
ists. Embracing Qhristianity, thorefore, they must
sacriiice whatever may be the supposed advantages
of that licentious mode of intercourse with the fe-
jaale sex. The missionaris act as vigilant guardians
of female virtue. An hour after supper, they shut
uv, under lock and key, all the young girls who are
above nine years of age, and all the married women
whose husbands are absent duiing the dayl: the ma-
trons superintend the conduct of the young girls.
"Violations of chastity, from time to time, take place,
in spite of all these precautions. The dress even of
these converted Indians is still extremely simple :
the riehest wear a cloak of otters skin, which covers the loins, and descends below the groin j those
who are poorer and more lazy, have only a small
cloak of rabbits skins to cover their shoulders, with
a piece of linen cloth, with which they are supplied
by the missionaries, to hide their nakedness. j Some
indeed have hats of straw, very neatly plaiteij '7 e$he
women wear cloaks of imperfectly tanned dee^skin,
which may be occasionally made into a small bodice
•with sleeves 7 besides this they wear no other appareï,
except a small apron of rushes, and a petticoat of stags^ ROUND    THE    WORLD.
skin falling down to the middle of the leg.    The
■srMair of both men and women is cut off at four or five
Affiches frodfeMtfee roots.    The Spaniards, who, in the
first formation of these settlements,  were actuated
sölely by motives of piety, have more recehtly Jearh-  i
ed,  from the publication of the voyage of i Cook,
that they may become highly valuable in.a commercial point  of view, on account  of the  furs'which.
they  are adapted to  furnish,   and for which China
presents a  ready market.     New  California is as'
yet  entirely unprovided with  colonists,. unless  we
should  account such   a few straggling Spanish'sol-
diers, who have married Indian women.-   Yet, if less
distant  from  Europe, ^California  wouldbe foundx
not less inviting than Virginia,  to  emigrants  from
^ïÊurope.    In time,  its vicinlty to Asia may favour
it-'-as much in respect to colonization,  as the N. E.
coasts of America have been favoured by their ad-
jacency to Europe.    The missiónaries, to whom the-
inhabitants of these parts owe their religious civili-
zation, are almost all Europeansr    The Franciscans
have a college at Mexico.    A part of the mission'
own the authority of the commandant of Monterey :
$phe rest are subject to the viceroy of Mexico.   The
Spanish Government allows the sum of 400 piastres -
to each missionary y and  their number'is fixed at
>,$8bto for each p'arish.     Thé college of Mexico, how-
ever, nevèr sends hither actual money, but only the
valüe in commbdities,  wax candles for the church,
chocolate, sugar, oil, wine, and linen for girdies to
the Indians- .  The salary of the  Spanish Governor
©f California is 4000 piastres y- that of the Lieute-
S H3 m
f '9'öl
nant Governor 450 5 that of the Captain-Inspector
of the 283 cavalry distributed in the two Caliphor-
nias, is 2000 *, each soldier of the Cavalry has 217-
pïastres, yearly, for his arms, horse, and whole sub-
siitence. These were the principal observations
which the French voyagers were enabled to make
concerning the Spanish colonization of the two Ca-
lifornias, and concerning the conditïon of those Indians who have been persuaded the re to embrace
Christianity, and to submit themselves in peace to
the government of the Spanish missionaries.
The Wilder, uncontroverted Indians, display some
of those virtues and talents peculiar to the savage
character, -which their converted brethren appear to
have lost. They draw the bow with inimitablë
skill y and will biing down even the smallest birds*
with unerring aim. One of these Indians will fix
upon his own the head with the horns of a stag y |
will walk on all fours 3 brouse the grass y and by
this and other practices, so deceive herds of these
animals, that they shall, without alarm, permit him
to approach near enough to kill them with his ar-
tows. Maize was the only origïnal object of the
lndian agriculture in these parts. Hunting and
fishing have been, and still continue to be, the grand
resources upon which these Indians depend for the
means of subsistence. The independent Indians live
distributed in rancberies, or villages. They are ad-
customed to paint their bodies red in ordinary life,
but black, when they are to 'appear in the guise of
mourning* The ties of consanguinity are little
acknowledged by them*    The children quit their R0UND     TH E    WORLD.
father's hut as soon as they have acquired strength
to procure the means of subsistence for themselves.
jOJheir father, by whom they have been restrained,
and harsMy treated, is soon forgotten by them y or^
if remembered, remembered only with aversron.
Their mother, their relation to whom they knew
only from her tenderness, is longcr and more kindly
remembered. These independent hordes are often
at war among themselves : But they respect the
Spanish missions. An wooden bow, strung with
the sinews of an ox, withvarrows pointed with a
sharp flint, are their ordinary weapons. As in Canada, they scalp the vanquished in war, and pluck
out their eyes, to be preserved as precious memo--
rials of the victory. If they happen to slay on the
field of battle, an enemy w7hose extraordinary prow-
ess they have been long accustomed to dread, the
furious joy of victory will, in such a case^ sometimes
prompt them to quaff his blood, and devour his
mangled limbs. Yet, they are hot accustomed to
make an ordinary practice of éating in cold blood,
eeither the priso'ners whom they take, or the mame--
less dead whom they slay in wT-ar. Of their own
dead they burn the bodies, and deposite the ashes
in rude funeral monuments. The takenia and
toussi, are the two games wThich employ their leisure y and to these they are addicted with passionate
fondness. The former is played- with a small hoop,
through which it is endeavoured to rnake eertain
suitable sticks pass, while it rolls round a smooth
space of ten square toises on the ground. The tous-
siï% plaved bv hiding a piece oj wo-od in the hands 92
la  peyrouse's   voyage
on the oné side, while the other party in the play
guèsses how the piece of wood is disposed of.
Beads, the favours of the women, and whatever else
they possess of value, are the prizes of these games.
The language of these people is far from being,
known in all the copiousness of its phrases, or the
analogy of its structure. It is rather from the con-
fêèrted Indians, than from the wild natives, that we
derive what knowledge is to be obtained of it. The
Achastliéns, and the Ecclemachs, the two tribes
inhabiting near Monterey, speak each a different lan~-
güage. The language of the converted Indians in
the missions, is cofitlpounded out of both these two.
Their abstract terms are scanty. Their epithets"
for the qualities of moral objects^ are almost all
borrowed from thé sense of taste. They distinguish
xthe plural from the singular number. They vary
their verbs throu-gh several different tenses. Their
substantives are much more numerous than their ad-
jectives. Th'ey never use the labials. f, b, nor the
JÊïtter A?. The dipthong óé% appears in more than'
half their words. Their most common initial consonants are, / and k. None of them can easily count,
otherwise th'an upon their fingers; beyond the number five.
The  following are the numerieal terms of the»
.AcHastliens :
Outite ROUND    THE    WOR^tü.
Ouiougpia sakhen
The following are the numgrical têrms of
Ecclemachs :
0uilef  >M
Here foliow a few other wordsxof the same language.
Friend,  fÉp
To dance,
Skull,      '..
No,      jpe
* 94
No country in th« world is more abundant than
California, in game and fish of every description.
The thickets and plaiüs abound with small grey tuf-
ted partridges, fat and finely fiavoured, and which
appear commonly in companies of three or four h\xé§
dred together. Sparrows, tit-mice, speckled wood
peckers, end tropkabirds, are found in prodigious
numbers, in the woods. Hares, rabbits, and stags,
are very common. Seals and otters are found in
great numbers y and to the northward, there are
multitudes of bears, foxes, wolves, and wild cats,
killed in the winter. Among the birds of prey, are,
the white-Ijeaded eagle, the great and small falcon,
the goss-hawk, the sparrow-hawk» the black "vui-
ture, the gtpat owl, and the raven. A bee-eater,
which has been supposed to be peculiar to the old
continent, was here killed, and stuffed by the French
ornithologists. Wild ducks, the grey and white
pelican with yellow tufts, different species of gulls,
cormorants, curlieus, ring-plovers, small sea-water
hens, and herons, are seen on the ponds and on the
sea shore. The ioii is wonderfully fertile. Fari-
naceous roots and seeds of all kinds afford a rrmst a-
bundant increase. The crops of maize, barley,
corn, and pease, are to be equalled only in Chili.
The medium produce of corn is from 70 to 80 for
one 7 the extremes are 60 and 100. Fruit trees
have not yet been introduced in any considerable
number or variety.   The most prevalentforest trees R0UND    THE    WORLD.
are the stone-pine, cyprus, evergreen oak, and the
occidental plane<tsee, The fbrests are clear of un-
der~wood, and exhibit, under the shade of the löfj^r
j^Sfces of which they are composed, a verdant carpet
of grass. Vast savarmahs areinterspersed among the
forestsv The rivers are not numerous 7 and were it
not for the moisture of the atmosphere, the face of
the ground might perhaps prove too aridfor vegetUf
It was in the ewening of the i4th of September,
that the two frigates cast anchor off Montere^ in
viewof the presidency and of the ships in the road, and
at the distance of about two leagues from the shore.
At 10 o'clock, the captain of a corvettè^inthe road,
came, in his long boat, to the ship ofilvl. de Ja Peyrouse, and offered to pilot the frigates into the por%*.
At 10 o'clock on the next morning, the frigates
Weighed anchor, and proceeded into the?Jtoad, 'tA$
noonj they cast anchor in a safe situatïon within the
road, and werev saluted with a discharge of 7 guns
from the Spanish vessels which they found in it.
M. de la Peyrouse, without delay, dispatched an offreer to the governor of Monterey, with an open letter to the viceroy of Mexico of which M. de la Peyrouse was the bearer from France. M. Fages, commandant of the fort of the two Galifornias, had already feceived orders to treat the French voyagers,
whenever they should arrive, with every possible de-
monstration of civility and respect. Oxen, roots,, and milk, were immediately sent on board
the French ships in great plenty. There was a sort
of contest between the commandant of the fort and
■ >g6
tle captains of the two Spanish vessels ïnlthe fröad,
who should show the most kindness to the FrencfMv
Only jfor the oxen, sneep^rand corn, which were
wantedlfor.tfeesisnppl^iöi^öïships^ could M.-€h«Hv
Peyroiuscfipdrevail with theiè kind entertainers to accept any peonnia^- eomriensation. RootSy gre&ns,
milk, fowls, and itSÜê assistance of all the labourers
of the garrison, in procurïng wood and water, were
eagerly afforded to the French navigators, withotö;
pricei->; The house and servants of M. Fages were,
dwing their stayr^entirely at their disposal. The
missiönaries from the neighbourhood, politely came
to invite them to dine with them, and to acquaintj
themselves with the rules of the management of-the
missions. Accepting tlnVinvitation, they rode^with
great pleasure to St Charles-, at the distance of two
leagues from Monterey 7 they were there received
by the missiönaries with solemn hospitality. In the
church, at their meals, at their labouiPs, in every ob-
vious mode of exposition, the converted Indians
were presented to their observation. M. de Lan-
gle, pitying their difhcult and imperfect mode Öï
working their grain into meal 7 made thUm a presénTf
of his mill 7 which is likely to prove one of the highf!
est benefits that could be conferred upon them 7 for
"fey means of it four women may now perform the
same quantity of work which formerly required the
toil of an hundtféd. The soldië¥s of the presidency
made themselves exceedingly useful to our voyagers*
during their stay at,Monterey. M. de la Peyrouse,;
with the permission of the commandant, presented
them with a piece of blue cloth.    To the mïssiona.
K ' Rt>ÜWD    THE    WORLD.
fies for the use of the Indians in their missions, he
sent coverlids, stuffs, beads, tools of iron, with a
variety of other little articles, the remains of what
had been distributed at Port de Francois. The gar-
dener belonging to the frigates, gave to the missiönaries some potatoes of Chili, in a state of very perfect 'preservation, which are Hkely to prove here-
after of great utittty to the inhabitants of this re-
gion. The French botanists no sooner got on shore,
than they set themselves, with the most diligent ac-
tivity, to enlarge their collections. But the season
was too far advanced y the plants were no longer in
flower, and their seeds were dispersed over the
ground. The common wormwood, the sea worm-
wood, southernwood, mugwort, the Mexican tea,
the golden rod-of Canada, the Italian starwort, mil-
foil, deadly night-shade, spurrey^ and water-ra^nt,
were the only remarkable plants observed in the
fields round Monterey. From the garden$*they ob-
tained a great abundance of pot-berbs 7 and particu-
larly such quantities of pulse as were no" where else to
be met with. The mineralogists were far from be-
ing very fortunate in their researches. Alightiar-
gillaceous stone, with some resemblance of marie y
blocks of granite, concealing in their veins some specimens of crystallïzed feld-spar ; with some rounded
fragments of porphyry and granite 7 were the only
very remarkable fossils they could find : except only some superb haliotes, each of which might be Q
inches in length by 4 in breadth y there were no o-
ther remarkable shells to be seen. On the south
and east coas^s of old California, indeed, are oystefs, <$| LA-   PEYRÖUSÉ's    VOYAGE
the pearls of which- yield not in size or beauty £gs
those of Ceylon or Bassora. The astronomers be-
longing to the French expedition, were, at the Sïme
Ume, «fffigenily att«ntive to their duty. M. Dage*
let, taking hl! tjjüadrant^bn shore, endeavoured to
determme, with the greatest accuracy, the latitude
of "Monterey, which has been already menüioned ;
and no observations which the shortness of their stay
would permit him to make, Was neglected. On the
ëVening of the 22d of September,—-wood, watéf^
dry and fresh provtsions, wrthrwhatever other sup-
Jrlies our voyagers here sought, had been taken on
board. Trfèy bade farewel to their kind hostsv^On
the 23d, the winds were ad verse 7 but on the 24th,
$iey were enabled to sail with a fair western brèeze.
CHAPT E ft     S I XT'H.
De^arting from the western coast of America, the
French navigators were now to steer across the great
Western Ocean, as far as China.    The se as through
which they were to sail, were ksown only to the
Spamards, and even to them but imperfectly.    The
Spaniards have long been satis&ed to sail in one single tract in their voyage from Acapulco to Manilla^
lying within a space of 20 leagues between the 13°
and the  140 of Latitude 7 while, on their return,
they run nearly in the parallel of 400, by the aid of
western winds., which are in these seas very common»
But new dïscoveries were the object of the voyage
of the French navigators: and it of consequence be-
came them to shun frequented tract» with the same-
care with which merely trading navigation strives to
pursue such tracts.   Only, the necessity of reaching
China about the end of the year, made it requisite
for them to keep within the zone of the -trade-winds»
M. de la Peyrouse, therefore, resolved to direct his-
course to the southward,  as far as to the island of
Nostra Senora de la  GoRTA, which "geographers
have described as existing in the 280 of N. Lat.
Calms and adverse winds detained them yet for
two days longer within sight of Monterey* -   But?
I 2 100
the wind soon became fixed at N. W. and tne frigates wTere then permitted to reach the parallel of
289. '*ïl|ieir first progress was very fortunate. To
the N. W. winds, succeeded others from thé N.9E,
whiöh gave'them hopëfe of quïckly reaching the re-
gfen of the trade-winds. On the iSth of October,
however, the winds again changed to the westward y
and they continued, for eight or ten days, to blow,
without any considerable variation, from that quar-
ter. The weather was, in the mean time, tempest
tuous and rainy : there was constantly much mois-
ture between the decks-j and M. de la Peyrouse be*
gan to be greatly alarmed, lest, in these unfavoura-
ble circumstances, the crews of the frigates should
be attacked by the scurvy. On the ^7th of Octa-
ber, they reached the meridian on which they wish-
ed to proceed. Nothing gave any signal of the vi-
cinity of land, except some sand-pipers of two different species, whieh were caught on board L'Astrolabe. But these were very lean, and might pos-
sibly have come fpom the Sandwich Isles, from which
they were net now more than 120 leagues distant.
Nofisle of Nostra Senora de la Gorta was here to
be seen. The French navigators strove now to approach the tropic, in order to meet with the trade-
winds, and in hopes that the temperature of the tro-
jiea.! chmates, would prove the most favourable to
the health of the ship's companies. On the ^d of
ï^ovember, in 240 4' N. Lat. in i6^° 2' W. Long.
noddies, man-ofwar-birds, and terriSj hovered a*4
bout them in great numbers. These fowls seldoac^
fly far from land.    On the 4th, accordingly, the RO VN D    TH E    Wgf£ £•!&
frigates came within sight  of an island which bore
W. from them, for 4 or 5 leagues.     At 5 o'clock in
the morning of the  5th,  being only 5 leagues from
the island, they sailed to reconnoitre it.     It is a ve-
rytsjmall isle 7 about 500 toises in length^ not more
than 6c in its elevation above the level of the sea*
No tree is seen on it y but its top is cövered with lu-
xugj-ant grass^    The barren part of the rock is whit-
ened with the dung of sea-föwls.    Other spots, which
are^neither verdant, nor covered with this dung, ap*
p£$r. re4**i  lts  extremities are perpendicular likerar
wall y and the sea breaks all around, with a violencC
which seems to render it in&ccessibJé.    Our naviga*
fors sailed round it, at the distance c*f one-third of ^
league, and took a very exact plan of its    lts latitude was deteimined  by  M. Dagelet to be in 23**
3*$(  Mi y its  longitude,  in   ëMP  52'.    It   received
Üom M. de la Peyrouse the name of Isle Neckar»
T-hV S.   E.   point presents a small ridge of rocks»'
wh%h seems? to extend for about two cables length y
andrthis is the only part which breakers do not make
it^Cessiblé^s^öunding as  they passed near to this
pohstpthe Ffsench navigators were surprïsbd to find
aebottom of broken-shells,  undet Only £5 fathomP
deep of water.   . It should seem that Isle Néckar vWï
bntethe summit of a much more considerable island,
of which the  softer rita'terials have been gradualr^'
washed away by the se#€  Over a space of 10 milè#*
fromt$ie above mentioned ridge of rocks, no othe¥
bottom7 than corai%nd%rokw,shells was to be found o
BeyonlUthe extremity ofttat space, our navigators, 102
sounding with 130 fathoms- of line, could find no*
bottom at alk
1 he weather was now rainy, with>fbequent tran-
sient blasts of wind,     At sun-set, how7ever, and at
other times, when  the face  of the  sky would  for
some moments clear  up, the horizon would open
around, for a space of 10 or 11 leagues.    Sea-fowlsv
still continued to hover around them, in flights of.
several hundreds together, and  moving in  various
directioris, w^hich made  it impossible  to ascertaiu,
with precision, to  what quarter they went.    The
moon irradiated the nights with a lustre which tempt-
éd our navigators to steer on, though with a motion
somewhat slower than during the. day.    While they
were thus advancing, they perceived, towards half
an hour past one  o^clock in the  morning, breakers
at two cables length a head oï the ships.    They
sounded, and found nine fathoms water, with a rocky
bottom.    Soon  afterwards, the sounding indicate$
ten fathoms,—twelve fathoms.    In  about a quarter
©f an hour, however, they got no ground with sixty
fathoms.    They had escaped a danger the most terrible to which navigation can be  exposed.      For
-nearly an hour afterwards, they percei^èd the con*
i&hüation of the breakers».    They held their course
westward 7 and within three hours, had lost sight of
them.    Desirous to aseertain, beyond a. doubt, the
existence of that sunken rock upon which they had
been  near to perishing y they   agam turned their
^feurse in the morning y returned within  view of
':it 5. perceived an islet of split rock, the diameter of
which ïöigbfc; be about 50 toises y in ks height, f^m R0UND    T.BE:.3ft'ORLD»:
■20' to 25 fathoms.    That islet fbrmed^thegN. W»
extremity of a reef Of rocks extending more than
4nle&gues to the S. E.    It  was on the  S. E. point
öf the reef, that our navigators  had  been exposed
to; the cfeanger ©f perishirtg-     Between  theislet and
the S. E.  breakers,; were three  sand-banks, raised
not more than four feet above the level of the sea.
These were parted from  one  another by a  sort  of
greenish water, w^iich did not seem to^be a fathom
deep.      Rocks, level with  the   water,v surrounded
that shoal as a circular inclosure y and, on their ex-r
terior sidevs, the  sea  broke  with extreme violenceé
Of the northern part of these rocks, our navigators*
could obtain only a  bird's eye view from the mast-
head.    Perhaps  it  may run  in  that  direction to a
farther extent than it appearedto them to do.     Its
length, from S. E. to N. W. is 4 leagues 7 its geographical situation, estimated  from. its only visible
Ipart, is  in   2$a 45' N. Lat. in 1680 io; W. Long. |
It lies 230 20' N. W. from Isle Neckar.    It is not'
safe to approach it nearer than  at the distance of 4-
leagues.    The  French  navigators named it, on ac*
e^ount of the danger to which they had been exposed by coming too near to  it, Basse  des  Fregates*
•^Francaise.    It will be of infinite importahce X9 future navigators^ who shall have  occasion to sailinr'
this course, that the existenee and the ex-tent of tjlis
ledge of rocks-have been thus accurately ascert^n-
^èd, and made known* %$&
Our navigators now directed  their course to the
:iW. S. W.    In this  direction,  they had  reason to-
hope that they might the soonest End land,    They 104
erossed the tract of Captain Clark, at 179   of E.
Long. en the i6th of November.    They had hoped
that they should now fall in with  the trade-winds.
Yet, for some time longer, they had varyin^^vinds,
shiftimg chieftv between S. W. and N. E., contrary
to what the experience of formeer navigators had led
them to expect.    At 2 o'clock in the afterno^n of
tlie i4th of December, they reached the Marianne
Islands.    In the latter part of their progress hither,
they had in vam attempted  to discover the   Miray
Desert, and  Garden Islands of the  common maps^.
Finding, however, no  such isles, they  concluded,.
perhaps too hastily, that  they must  have  no- real
existence.      Among  the   Marianne   Islands,   they
found Assumption Island to have its true position in
19° 45/N. Lat.  in  an J430 I5'JL Long.    Its cir-
cumference cannot be more than 3 leagues.    Imagi-
nation cannot conceive the existence of a place more
horrible in the aspect.    It seemed  a  perfect conejr
of whick the surface was black as coal, to the heig^fci
of 40 loises above the level of the sea.    A few  cq*É
coa nut trees appeared in a hollow of about 4Q^$G%gij
aes, in which they were in some measure shelteredg
from the east wind.     There, was   the   only plac^
wheréit seemed possible  for ships to anchor :,and
the^anchorage at;that part, was- for  a quarter of a
league, a bottom of black  sand under water thif^p
fathoms deep.    The Astrolabe here anchored.    La.
Boussole was prevented by an accident, from com»-
iag to anchor.    The boats of the two frigates were
sent on shoje.  Langle, with^
Messrs Boutin. De la Martiniere, Yaujuas,   Pre- 'lel
vost,   and  Father  Receveur.      They  landed,   not
without   extreme   difüculty.     The island  appear-
edV^to  them  a thousand times  more  horrïd than it
had, at a quarter of a league's distance, seemed to
be.    It presented ravihes andprecipices^which had
been  formedëby torrents  of lava 5 and were bor-
dered   by   some   few   stunted   cocoa  trees,   ammst
which grew some creepïng plants, matted together
in   a  manner  that   made  it  almost   impossible   to
walk among them.    About  an hundred coce-a nuts
were picked up under the trees.    But the difEculty
of the way was such, that fifteen or sixteen persons
were employed from nine in the morning till noon,
in bringing these on board the boats.    The summït
of the e one forms, as it should seem, the  crater of
this volcanïc isle.     Around its sides, the lava has
strearnëd down,  and has become solid as it cooled.
A cloud hid the highest point from the view of the
French navigators.    But a smell of  sulphur, which
,it emitted to the distance of half a league out at sea,
induced them to think that its  volcanic  fires  were
not yet entirely extinguished, and that its last erup-
tion might have happened at no  great  distance  of
time backwTard.     No human inhabitants,  no quad-
rupeds, seemed to have as yet chosen these desolate
scènes for a place of refuge.      Ou the   shore   were
some large  crabs.     At the  anchorage   were seen
three or four noddies.    M. de Langle killed on the
islê a bïrd of a black colour,  not unlike to our Eu-
ropean black-bird.   In the hollows of the rocks, were
foünd some very fine shells.    A collection of plants,
and among these three or four different species of ic6
Banana trees, which M. de la Peyrouse had not
elsewhere seen, were brought on board. The only
fishes which the French navigators saw here, wer£
the red ray, the small shark, and a sea serpent, a-
bout three feet in length, and three inches in thick-
ness. About two p'clok in the afternoon, the boats
returned to the ships, after having been exposed tO«
considerable dangers.
About three o'clock they renewed their course,
proceeding W. N» W. in a direction at three or four
leagues distance from Mangs,—^another of this group-
of isles which bore to them N. E. by N. Had it
not been for the delay it would have occasioojgil, M«
,de la Peyrouse could have wi$hed te-have ascertain-
ed the precise situation of Uracas, the most north-
ern of the Marianne isles : but hisarrangements would
not leave him time to accomplish this object. As
they advanced, innumerable birds hovered around
them. Among these, the man-of-war-bird and the
noddy were the most common. Gulls, terns, and tro-
pic birds, likewise appeared in the crowd. In the
channel between the Mariannes and the Philippines,
the breezes were strong, the sea ran high, and our
navigators were constantly driven southward by the
currents. La Boussole was now, for the first time,
observed to admit some water 7 and, upon examina-
tion, several of her seams were found to be almost
entirely epen* On these, however, it was impossi-
ble to work, till the frigates should arrive in the
road of Macao. On the 28th of December, our
voyagers came within sight of the Bashee island4».
They passed at about a league's distance from the RÖÜND    THE    WÖ&LD.
two most northern islets or rocks of this group. Of
these two, the smallest is half a league in circum-
ferenee ; and there appeared to be on its east side a
good deal^of gra"ss: lts west longitude, iixed from
the medium of more than sixty lunar observations,
is 1190 41' j its north latitude in 2ie 9' 13". From
these isles, our navigators continued their course to
China. On the first of January 1787, theyvhad ap-
proached so near to the Chinese coast, that their
soundings indicated a bottom under sixty fathoms
depth of water. Next"day they wrëfe surröunded
by Chinese fishing boats, which fished by draggïng
over the bottom with very long nets, that could
not be hauled up in less than two hours. On the
2d of January, the frigates cast anchor to the north-
ward of the island of Ling-ting. On the 3d, passing through a very beautiful, but apparéntly little
frequented channel, they were conducted by Chinese
pilots into the road of MAcao, where they cast an-
CH AP. xc8
At Macao, our voyagers expected a favourable reception from the Portuguese : They approached the
town : and M. Boutin was sent on shore to announce
their arrival to the governor. He failed not to
make every offer of all the assistance in his power,
A Malay pilot, sent from him,> conducted them to
the anchorage of Typpa. At day-break on the 4th,
they proceeded towards that anchorage 7 at eight
o'clock in the morning, they weré at five miles N.
W. from the town of Macao, upon a muddy ground,
under three fathoms and a half depth of water.
They cast anchor 'along side of a French armed vessel,
which was commanded by M. de Richery, ensign in
the Navy •, which had been sent to cruize on these
eastern coasts, for the protection of the French trade.
It may be naturally conceived, that our navigators
had infinite pleasure in meeting, after so long an absence, with a ship's company of their countrymen.
They were, however, very painfully disappointed,
in not finding at Macao those pacquets of letters
which they had expected. It unluckily happened,
that, out of two ships which alone had sailed from RGMT^D    THE    WÖULD.
France, to arrive. this season, at China, one had
missed its'passage : and on board this one, they now
Eroppds^d that their letters might have been put. ||
Afeer their ships were safely moored, Messrs de
Ia Peyrouse, and De Langle, went on shore to thank
the Portuguese governor for the favours he had already shown them. He received them with as
much kindness as if he had been their feliow-coun-
I   -   .
tryman 5 begged them to use his house as their
own 7 and introduced them to his wife, a young and
ïovely, Portuguese lady from Lisbon, who, speak-
ing French with great facility, acted as interpreter
between her husband and the French captains. This
lady, Dona Maria de Saldagna. had, about twelve
years before, married M. de Lemos, at Goa. Very soon after their marriage, M. de la Peyrouse
had happened to be introduced to her in that city.
He was now proud to find, that she recollected him
as an old acquaintance y and had pleasure in seeing
her children, whom she presented to him. Every
accommodation which our voyagers desired, and
which it was in the Portuguese governor's power to
bestow, was readily supplied to them during the
wrhole term of their stay in the road of Macao.
The settlement of Macao was bestowed by the
Chinese emperor, Camhy, upon the Portuguese, in
gratïtude for the service which they rendered him,
by destroying, in the isles. adjacent to Canton, the
pirates wrho infested these seas, and ravaged all the
Chinese coasts. But, its original privileges are no
Jonger duly respected. The Chinese, insolent and
.^jppressive  to  all the  Europeans  wdao trade  with uö
them, are particularly so to the Portuguese. Mï*
cao stands at the mouth of the river Tigris, in 22?
12' 40" of N. Lat. in 1110 19' 30" E. Long. Its
road, at the entrance of Typa, has sufficiënt depth
of water for the reception of a 64 gun ship. Ships
even of seven or eight hundred tons burden, can
enter half laden into its port below the city. A
fortress of two batteries defends the entrance of
the port. Threë other small forts, mounted in &YÈ
with 30 guns, guard the southern part of the city
from the cnterprises of the Chinese. A contiguous
mountain, which commands the circumjacent country, appears to have had once a fortress on its sum-
mit, which must have been impregnable. But the
fort has been suffered to fall into ruins •, and a church
has been built there instead óf it. Two citadels,
of which the one mounts 40, the other 30 guns,
defend the land-side of the Portuguese possession ot
Macao. The limits of the Portuguese domain
extend scarce a league from the city. They are,
at that distance, bounded by a wall which a Manda-
rin, with a few soldiers, guard. The Portuguese
town and territory are subject to the occasional vi-
sits of this Mandarin 7 and whenever he enters it,
the Portuguese are expected to salute his approach
with the discharge of five guns. Yet, he may not
sleep on the Portuguese side of the wall. Twenty
thousand souls may be the whole number of the
population of Macao. Of these, an hundred are
by birth Portuguese *, about two, thousand, Portuguese Indians 7 two thousand, Carrre slaves. the do-
mestic servants of the  Portuguese 7 thi rest, Chi-' .ROUND    THE    WORLD.
fiese,. artizans, or merchants. The Portuguese,-
whether of Indian.or European birtli, cherish a
pride wThich teaches them rather to starve or beg,
than employ themselves in the practice of the me-
chanic arts. A governor, asenate composed of
three vercadore, with the governor presiding over
them, two judges of orphans, the agent for the city, and a treasurcr of the customs, discharge the
principal functions of the Portuguese government
of Macao. All these niagistrates are nominated by
the viceroy ©f Goa. The sertate have the suprème
superintendence of the revenues of the city, The
judges of orphans have the charge of the property of
minors, the nominationof tutors and guardians,with the
ricffit of decision in,all discussions respecting thesuc-
cession toestates: There is,however,arightof appeal
to Goa, from their sentences. The agent of the city
acts as the medium of communication betweenthe twtf
..governments of Portugal and China. He receives,
and transmits to their respective governments, the
reciprocal complaints of the two nations- He is
the only person in the government of Macao, that
is not removeable out of office at the pleasure of the
viceroy of Goa. The garrison of Macao consists
of 180 sea-poys, and 120 militia. The soldiers are
armed with staves 7 their officers, indeed, wear
swords, but dare not draw them against a Chinese.
The service of the guard consists in forming night
patroles. Yet, if any of them should surprize a
Chinese robber breaking into a house, and should
kill him 7 the luckless soldier would be delivered
qvcx to the Chinese gövernor, and would be hanged
K 2
r» ÏI2
in the middle of the market-place. THe appear-'
ance of the city of Macao is very pleasing. Super-
cargoes belonging to the different European compa-
nies which trade to the East, are obliged to pass
their winters here, and occupy the best houses in
the town. Several of these supercargoes are men
of distin£üished worth and intelligence. The emo-
luments they enjoy, enable them to live in consïde-
rable lutxury and splendour. They compose all to-
gethér a very agreeable society 7 the French expe-
rienced from them a very kind and hospitable fecèp-
tion. ■ M. Elstockenstrom, principal secretary for
'the Swedish East India Company, treated them
with the kind ness of an old friend, ór ratjïer of a
fe-ilow-country man, zealous for the glory of their .
country: He obligingly undertooktoselltheir peltry,
and to remit the produce to the Isle of France.
The commerce of the Chinese with Europe, of the
transactions of which a part are carried on at Macao, amounts to fifty millions annually 7 of these,
two-fifths are paid by the Europeans, in silver.
Payment is made for the rest in English cloth,
Batavian or Molucca tin, cotton from Surat and
Bengal, opium from Patna, sandil-wqod and pepper
from the coast of Malabar : looking-glasses of the
largest dimensiofts, Geneva and English watches,
coral, fine pearls, and a few other articles of Euro5-'
pean produce, are also among the goods accepted
by the Chinese. Now, the only Chinese goods
which the Europeans purchase with all this wealth,
are black and green teas, some chests of raw silk,-
and an inconsiderable quantity of china-ware.    Yet mmtm
With such haughtiness do the Chinese conduct themselves in the management of a commerce which is
jj to them so lucrative, that it may, with truth, be
said, that there is not a single cup of tea drunk in
Éurope, which has not been the cause of humilia-
tl^n to those who purchased it at Canton. sÉjjj
The French voyagers had every reason to be sa-
tisfied with their reception,  and with the kindness
which they experienced during their stay among the
Portuguese,  and the  other  Europeans,  in  Macao.
J£h& Chinese raandarin demanded nofhing for their
stay in the road of Typa.    But a knavish purveyor,
who undertook to furnish them with provisions, and
imposed upon them so enormously, that they  were
obliged after five or six  days  to  dismiss  him,  had
been comp'elled, as they understood, to share his pro-
fits with the government.     From the period at which
they discharged this purveyor, their own commissary
yjor provisions went daily to market, as in any town
of Enrope :  and by this management, they contriv-
ed to make the total expence of awhole month, less
than that of the first week had been.     But, this ceco-
inomy was probably not very plea-sing to the Chinese.
The temperature of the elimate, m the road of Typa,
beïng exceedingly variable, the  French  navigators,
during their stay in it, w>ere almost all affect e d with
severe colds accompanied with fever.     They found
the  value   cf furs  to be not above a tenth part of
what it was when Captains Gore and King arrived
at Canton.     The English had since spoiled the market, by the eagerness of their endeavours to süpply
it,     Ir was now irnpossible  to^ obtain more  than *^4
twelve or fifteen piasters, for stich a fut as Would
have brought an hundred piasters in the year 1780.
The whole stock which our navigators had brought
from the N. W. coast of America, amounted to the
number of a thousand skins : These a Portuguese
merchant had purchased for nine thousand and five'
hundred piastres. But when the money wTas to be
paid, he made pretences tö recede from his bargaiiï,
of purpose, as was supposed, to obtairt the furs still
cheaper Rather than submit to the impositiort'
which this man meditated, the French commanders
thought proper to deposit their furs at Macao, under the care of their Swedish friend above mention-
êd, fur sale at some future opportunity. Their ob-
servatory wras erected at Macao, in the convent of
the Augustines : and, from a medium of several
observations of distances between the sun and the
moon, they were enabled to fix the eastern longitude of this city, at lil0 19' and 30". They, at
the same time, found their time-keepers to have
been of late more deranged than at the first, in their;
Having flnished all their transactions at Macao 5
they .left it on the ^th of Fèbruary, at 8 o'clock in
the morning, with a north wind. The crew of each
frigate was now augmented with six Chinese sai-
lors, taken on board to supply the loss of those whó
had perished at Port des Francois. Sailing without
a pilot they foliowed a common course, and pras ed
to the southward of the great Ladrone Island. The
north winds at first enabled them to stand to the
eastward.     Soon after, these came round to the Ui. RÏ)UND    THE    WORLD.
11 ƒ
5. E. They passed on the leeward of the Bank de
Prata?, which had been inaccurately laid down in
all the charts, save that by Captain King, in the
account of Coök's thïrd voyage. Variable winds
hïndëred them from following always the precise
course which they had planned out for themselves,
but on the I5th of Fèbruary they reached the island
of Luconia, in the latitude of i8° 14'. Here they
were disappointed of falling immediately in with
the monsoon winds, as they had expected. From
various causes, they did not, till the i9th of Fèbruary, advance more than a league a day. The
winds becoming at length more favourable, they
sailed along the Illico coast, at the distance of twó
leagues from it. In the port of Santa Cruz they
saw a small two-masted vessel, which they supposed might be taking in rice for China. None of the
hearings of our voyagers were here found to agree
with the chart of M. Dapres. On the 2öth they
doubled Cape Bulinas. On the 2ist, they came in
sight of Point Lapones, bearïng I£. from them ex-
actly in the windas eye. In the afternoon,the wind
suddenly shifted to E. S. Ei , and they directed
their course between Marivelle Island and the
isle of La Monha. After some unsuccessful at-
tempts to enter the north ch-mnel, they were obliged
to come to an anchor in the Port of Marivelle, where
■there wras eighteen fathoms depth of water over a
muddy bottom. i his port is sheltered from all but
the S. W. winds y and its ground is so good, that
even these will scarcely drive a ship lying here, fron»
-ks anchorage^
A short stay in the Port of' Marivelle, for the
purpose of procuring woöd, gave the French voyagers an opportunity of acquiring some knowledge of
this isle 7 their attempts to procure some fishes, by
hauling the line, were unsuecessful, on account of
the rocks, and the shallowness of the water near the
shore. They picked up, to enrich their collection
of shells, some cur^ous specimens of that which is
named the thorny wood cock. On shore, they came
to a village consisting of about forty houses. The
foundations of these houses were raised about four
feet from the ground. Their walls and floois were
of Bamboo, and their roofs were covered withleaves.
They ascended by ladders. They have mueh the
Sppearance of bird-cages suspended in the air. Thef
whole materials of such a house would, most pro-
bably, not weigh more than two hundred weight,
A large ruinous edifice of hewn stone, with twobrass
guns at its windows, was observed in the front of
the principal street. That house had been the a-
bode of the curate, the church, and the Fort, till in
the year 1780, the Moors from the isles to the south
of the Philippines burned the village^ demolished
this fortress, and carried almost all the inhabitants
of the place away as captives. The colony has been
ever since in a state ©f decline. The lands are
overgrówn with w7eeds 7 and there are few tame
animals. A young ox, a small hog, and about a
dozen fowls, w7ere all that the French voyagers could
-|mrehase here. The curate, a young mulafto ln-
4ian, inhabited the ruinous stone building. His
whole furniture consisted of a few earthen pots, and ÜÜ^SB
KfOUftD    THE    WORLD.
3 paltry bed. About two hundred persons com-
posed, as he informed our voyagers, the whole num,-
ber of his parishioners* These are liable to be
continually alarmed by the piratical descents of the
Moors, from whom they flee in trepidation to the
woods. By these Moorish pirates, the trading boats
which sail these seas, are liable to be continually
harassed. They sail in very light rowing boats y
so that it is extremely difficult either to escape or
overtake the swiftness of their movements. The
next in authority after the curate, among these vil-
iagers, is an Indian officer named alcade, who alone
has the honour of carrying a silver-headed cane.
Such is his authority over the Indians, that none of
them dared to sell the smallest article to the French
strangers, until he had granted his permission, and
even fixed the price. This officer is likewise the
sole vender of tobacco. He sells it on account of
the government 7 and the poor Indians buy and con-
sume it with extreme fondness. At the house of
the curate, the French navigators saw three small
antelopes, which did not exceed the size of a large
rabbit 7 and of which the male and the female seemed exactly a stag and a hind, in miniature. - These
the curate intended for presents to the governor of
Manilïa. Some beautiful birds, with plumage va-
riegated with the most lively colours, attracted the
notice of the French sportsmen in the woods. But
the forests were impenetrable, on account of the
twining shrubs which filled up the spaces amidst the
trunks of the tall trees. They purchased in the
vÜlage some turtle doves, which having on the mid-
1 *iS
die of the breast a red spot, exactly similar to a
wound given ojr the cut of a knife, have hence ac-
quired the denominatïon of stabbed lurtle doves.'
After passing the greater part of a day in making
such observations as these, on shore, on the island of.
Marivelle : the French navigators went in the even-
ing on board their ships, and preparedto renew their
voyage on the next morning. From a Spanish ship
in the port, M. de la Peyrouse obtained an öld In-
dian for a pilot, who agreed for 15 piastres to con-
duct him to Cavite. On the ajth, at day-break,
they sailed through the southern channel. While
the Indian pilot continued to carry them away to the
scuthward, he had very nearly occasioned the frigates to run a-ground on the Bank of St Nickolas .
They"v-found that Dapres"s Chart, though far from
exact, was much more to be trusted than such a
guide. Their course was but for 7 leagues 7 and
they spent three days upon it. At last, on the 28th
of February, they came to an. anchor in the Bay of
Manilla, and in the Port of Cavite, in 3 fathoms
depth of w?ater, over a muddy bottom, and at two
cables length from the town.
They had not been long at anchor before Cavite,
when an officer of I high rank arrivedfrom Manilla
to invite them thither. But the favourable circum-
stances in which their ships lay at anchor, iuduced
them to decline his invitation. M. Boutin accom-
panied this officer on his return to Manilla, in order to wait upon the go ve r nor- ge n er al in name of
the French commander, and to request the governor
tp give orders that the French might be furnished
>*v   ROÜND   THE   WORLD*
With whatever supplies they wanted, before the 5th
day of April. M. Boutin experienced the most po-
ïite receptïon from the go->ernor-general 5 and thè
most positive orders were issued föt the furnishing
of the supplies whieh he required. A letter from
thé goverhor-general tó the commandant of Cavite,
authorised the latter to permit the French navigators to hold free intercourse with thè shore, and to
procure from it every requisite assistance and con-
venience. From this time, they expérienCed the
most obligïng hospitality from the inhabitants of Cavite. Their intercourse with the shore was very
frequent and very agreeable. Houses for repairing
their Sails, salting their provisions, building twro
boats, erecting their observatory, and lodging their
Naturalists and Engineers,—-were furnished with a
hospitable readiness and a happy accommodation,
which they should hardly have experienced, even in
any port of Europe. M. Bermudès, commander in
the,Port of Cavite, paid the most assiduous attention
tö all their wants and wishes. On the 2d day after
their arrival at Cavite, the two French captains,
with several of their officers, sailed in their boats to
visit the city of Manilla. They were entertained
by the governor at dinner 7 he then sent the captain
of his guards to cofrduct thenl to the houses of the
Archbishop, the Intendant, and the other principal
officers of the government, resident in Manilla*
They would have been exceedingly incommoded by
the excessive heat, had not M. Sebir, a French mer-
chant, politely sent them his coach to conduct them
«n the different visits whieh they had to pay in the
Jk 120
town. At Manilla, M. de la Peyrouse saw M^QTo-
bias, once governor of the Mariannes, whose cha-
racter had been honoured by Raynal with such
praises, that his countrymen were excited to abhor
him as an unbeliever ; and even his own wife, a wo-
man madly fanatical, sued out a divorce against him,
on account of his infidelity. The French officers
could not but in gratitude pay a visit to their oblig-
jng countryman, M. Sebir. They found him to be
a man of a very enlightened understanding, and an
excellent heart. He had come to Manilla with
hopes of finding here commercial advantages, of
which he already saw himself disappointed by the
prejudices against strangers, and the despotism of the
administration. At 6 o'elock in the evening, the
French gentlemen returned to their boats 5 and a-
bout eight, they were again on board their frigates.
In circumstances so advantageous, they were encóu-
raged to overhawl their rigging, and to make the
most thorough repairs.upon every thing about their
ships, that wanted reparation. To prevent any in-
convenience from the tardiness of the merchants
who had undertaken to furnish them with flour, biscuit, and other stores,—M. Gonsoles Carmagnal,
Intendant of the Philippines, obligingly inspected the
progress of the workmen, and hastened every thing
as if he himself had been personally concerned in
the success of the expedition of the French yoyagers.
Nor did the kindness of this gentleman rest here :
He made the French Naturalists accept a multitude
of valuable specimens from his rich collections of
the curiosities of the Philippines.    He assisted them R O ÜN D    THE    WOR LD.
in p roe uring money for bïlls of exchange to the a-
mount of 10,000 piastres, which M. Elstockenstrom
|had,   by this time,  authorised theni to draw upon
him on account of their otter-skins/ which had been
Ie ft for sa! e -tmder his charge. Th/s money was now
distributed among- the saïlors, as Had been formerlv
promised to them. The climate ©f Manilla proved
less hotspitable to our' voyagers tfian wëre its inhabitants. The exoèssive heats proved unfavourable
to the health of the ships compi^^es, in general.
Several of the sailors were attacked with colics.
Messrs de Lamanon and Daigremont, who were ill
with dysenterles when they arrived in the port of
Cavite, became continually wörse while on land
there. M. Daigremont died on the 25tb. day after
his arrival. M. Lamanon, with difficulty, escaped*
On the 28th of March, the French voyagers had fi-
nished every labour that they intended to executc
at Cavite. The salting of their provisons they had
performed themselves, upon the plan of procedure
recomraended by Commodore Cook. While they
were preparing to depart, they were informed of the
arrival in Canton River, of two French ships of war;
ha Resokttion, under the command x>f M. d'Entre-
casteaux 7 and La Subtiie, commanded by M. Ia
Croix de Castries. These gentlemen were upon a
voyage, of which the astronomie al observations must
hereafter prove highly beneficial to the navigation
of these seas. The frigate La Subtile soon after
jóined our navigators in the Bay of Manilla, and
brought dispatches to M. de la Peyrouse. But no
private letters were as yet received from France.
l p~1
From on board La Snbtile, a supply of an ofncei'
and four men to each of the frigates belonging to
this expedition, was received, for the purpose of
making up the loss they had suffered at Port de
Francois. M. de Saint Ceran being in a very de-
clining state of health, took the opporWraity of de-
parting in la Subtile for the Isle of France. After
our voyagers were in almost all respects ready to sail,
the coming on of Passion-week occasioned delays in
particular articles, by which they were obliged to
defer their departure to Easter-Monday. During
the stay at Cavite, M. Dagelet, the astronomer, had
enjoyed great advantages for his astronomicai obser-
vations •, and he failed not to avail himself of them.
He was enabled to deterraine the E. Long. of Ca-
TOte to be in uS° 50* 40", and its N. Lat. in 140
29' 9". Before their departure, M. de la Peyrouse,
with M. de Langle, went to thjank the governor-
general for the attention he had shown to the expe-
diting of their affairs. They waited also on the intendant j to whom their acknowledgments were not
less due. After this, they were hospitably enter-
tained, for two days longer, at the house of M. Se-
bir, from which they took occasion to visit whatever
was most remarkable in the cnyiroris of the town of
Manilla. '    Kwj$?'.
The following are the principal observations which
the French navigators had opportunity to make on
the state of Cavite and Manilla, during their stay
in these parts.—Cavite is situate 3 leagues S. W.
from Manilla. It was formerly more considerable
and flourishing than at present,    lts principal inha-
bitants now are, the commandant of the arsenal, a
contador, a commandant of the town, two lieuten-
ants of the port, 150 soldiers with their officers in
garrison. The rest of the townsmen are mulattoes
or Indians, to the number of about 4000, who live-
partly in the city, and partly in the suburb of St
Roch. Here are three convents, each occupied by
only two ecclesiastics. The parishes are two in
number. An handsome house, which belonged for-
merly to the Jesuits, is now appropriated to the use
of the Royal Commercial Company. The whole
town, in truth, has more the air of an heap of ruinsy
than of the capital of a province, - The port, how-
ever, inspected by M. Bermudès, is in a much better state. He has established admirable discipline
and order in those works which are carried on in it*
The work-houses are the same as in the arsenals of
Europe $ the workmen are Indians.——The City o£
Manilla, with its suburbs and immediate invirons,
is of great extent. Of 38,000 persons, the who}©-
number of its inhabitants, not more than 1000 or
1200, are Spaniards. Mulattoes, Chinese, and Indians, make up the rest. Even the poorest of the
Spanish families, keeps at least one carriage. A
beautiful river, flowing by Manilla, divides itself, in
its progress, into several different channels, of which
the two principal fall into the famous lake of Ba-
hia. That lake lies at the distance of 7 leagues
backward into the interior country, amidst an emi-
nently fertile territory, and is bordered by more
than 100 Indian villages. Manilla stands on the very shore of the  Bay wjiich b e ars its name.    This
K 2 f
Bay is more than 25 leagues in circumference. The
river, which passes by Manilla to pour its waters in*
to this bay, is navigable as far upwards as to the lake
of Bahia. The markets of this city afförd all the ne-
cessaries of lifein thegreatest abundance 7 but, on ac-
account of the restraints upon the freedom of trade,
the prices of all goods of European manufacture are
here enormou^y high. Of the Phllïppïnè Isles, in-
genera], it must be owned. that the Spaniards do not
appear duly to understand and cultivate their im por-
tance. These isles are peopled by no fewer than
3,000,000 of inhabitants, of which Luconia alone
contains about one-third part. Neither in their bo-
dily nor mental powers, do the natives appear to
yield at all to our Europeans. They practise both
Vhe agricultural and the mechanic arts, with abundant dexterity and skill. The Spaniards, indeed,
speak of them with contempt. But their vices seem
rather to be produced by the government under
which they are enslaved, than to be the retults of
their native character. The hopes of gold were
the first motives which induced the- Spaniards to oc-
cupy the Philippine Islands. These, howerver, have
been but very poorly gratified. Süperstition next
sought its harvests, in the conversion of the native
inhabitants of these isles to the Catholic religion.
Considerable success attended its endeavours, and
an extravagantly severe penitentiary discipline was,
in consequence, established among the converts.
The Catholic penitent s of Manilla might of ten vie
with the Indian Faquirs, in the severity of the discipline to  which they voluntarily submit.     The R0ÜND   the  world»
spontaneous abundance of nature encourages these
people to indulge in an indolence, which they con-
nect with their piety, by flocking in great numbers
to languish out life in monastïc retieats. The government adopts no wise nor generous measures, to
kindie up among its subjects the spirit of active ex-
ertion. Sugar has been occasionally sold here for
less than an half-penny a pound y and rice has been
suffered to rot unreaped upon the ground. Severe
ecclesiastical tyranny here cramps and depresses t]ie
human powers. Yet the peasants wear an air of
happiness, which is rarely to be seen in the hamlets
or villages of Europe. Their houses are
fruit trees, which grow without culture 7 and they
appear remarkably neat. The head of every fami-
ly pays a very moderate tax, of only five re als and
an half, in whieh is included the tax to the church^
as well as that to the king. The bishops, canons,
and priests, enjoy but moderate stipends, which are
paid to them from the government. No people int
the world are more passionately fond of tobacco
than the inhabitants of these isles. Even the children begin in very infancy to use it. Scarcdy a'
man or woman is to be seen at any moment, through-
out the whole day, without a se-gar in the mouth»
The Island of Luconia affords the best tobacco in
all Asia. Every peasant cultivates the plant a-
round his own house. It is exported hence into
every part of India, by- those foreign vessels which
have permission to land at Manilla* But the ava-
rice and inhamanity of the government have lately
imposed a- tax, and prohibitory restrictions, which Z25
L A   P^t'R Öü'S'E   S    VOYAGE
threaten to blast all the little happfness that the
people of these isles have continued, till this time, to
enjoy. Cotton, indigo, sugar canes, grow here spon-
taneously, in great abundance. Under proper care
and cultivation, the spices of the Philippine Isles
would probably not yield to those of the Moluccas.
A new company for the comraerce of these isles, has
been lately erected by the Spanish government.
The great object of Spain, in respect|to the trade
between Manilla and the ports of the Indian conti*)
nent, is, to procure through this channel, for the
use particularly of hfer American colonies, and even
of the parent country, those articles of use or lux-
ury, which are the^ proper produce and manufacture
of India and China. For this end, there is a fair
held at Manilla, which is open to the Indian nations
only. To this fair, the goods for sale are indeed
brought under Indian names *, but they are always*
English property, and are sold on account of English
merchants. Some Spanish settlements subsist pre-
éariously, and in no very flourishing state, on those
islands which lie south ward from Luconia. The
isles of Mindanao, Panay, and Mindooro, are inha»
bited by Malays, whose piratieal depredations are
extremely troublesome to the Spaniards and their
Indian subjects. They take many captives in their
piracies, which are frequently purchased from them
for slaves, by the very commanders of the Spanish
militia which has been formed to oppose their de-
scents. At Samboangan, in the island of Mindanao,.
is a Spanish garrison of 150 men, whose commandei*
is also governor of the isle.    The other isles have XOUND    THE    WORLDf-
only a few villages, protected by petty batterïes,
and by a milithr under the command of the Alcades.
Nature appears in its most enchanting beauty in the
neighbourhood of the city of Manilla. A simple
Indian village, or a house in the European style,
surrounded by a few trees, will there present a view
more interestingly picturesque than the most mag-
nificent palaces of Europe. Very little artificial
embellishment has been attempted in these scènes.
A spacious house on the water's edge, with conve-
nient baths, and shaded only by a few fruit-trees,
is the most sumptuous habitation that even opulence
here requires. The Spaniards are universally accustomed, immediately after the Easter holidays, to
retire from the town, to spend the hot part of the
season at their country-houses. A single Mexican regiment of infantry, consisting of 1300 effective men,
composes the whole garrison of Manilla in the time
of peace. The fortifications have been lately strength-
ened and enlarged, under the direction of M. Sauz,
a very able engineer. Here are, beside the garrison, two companies of artillery, consisting of 160
men, with officers 7 130 dragoons *, and a battalion
of 1200 militia, who are all Chinese of half blood.—
uch was the principal information which the French
navigators obtained at Cavite and Manilla.
CHAP< 128
&C, &C.
When the French voyagers were just about to sail
from the port of Cavite, they received a farewell
visit from their friend M. Bermudes, who assured
them that the N. E. Monsoon would not yet, for a
month, make that change which was necessary to
render their sailing prosperous, in their destined
course. But they were impatient to proceed, and
flattered themselves with the hope of a lucky excep-
tion for this year, such as might duly favour their
wishes. On the $th of April, they sailed with a
fine breeze at N. E. Small variations of the winds
allowed them to get speedily to the northward of
the island of Luconia: but they had hardly sailed
round Cape Bujador, when the wind steadily settled
at N. E. On the 2*1 st of April, they reached thé
island of Formosa. In the channel between that isle
and Luconia, they met with some very violent currents occasioned probably by irregular tides. They
were, on the 22d of April, about 3 leagues distant,
E. by S. from La may Island, which is at the S. W» ROUND    THE    WORLD.
point of Formosa. The sea here rolled in very
high billéws : Our voyagers were led to think,
that they might proceed more easily northward, if
they might approach nearer to the Chinese coast :
Under the N. N. E. winds, they steered to the N.
W. In the middle of the channel, in 22° 57' N.
Lat. and in ii6°4l' E. Long. they found, upon
sounding, a sandy bottom, under 25 fathoms depth
of water : In 4 minutes, the depth of the water was
dirninished to 19 fathoms : A short time after, the
line indicated onïy 12 fathoms. They were at this
time more than 30 leagues distant from the Chinese
eoast. Very properly jud^glng, therefore, that
this shapowness of the water indicated the presence
of a sand-bank not yet laid down in any of the charts y
they tarned their course again toward the island of
Formosa. Finding the irregularities of the bottom
ïBMl to continue 5 they cast anehor, and halted tÖL
the morning. In the morning, no breakers were
seen around them"5 and tfcéy renewed their course toward the continent of China. They were again in a
short time alarmed by a shallowness of the water, and
inequalities of the bottom, stuallar to those which
they had before observed. To get beyondthe sphere
of this danger, they turned their course to the opposite point of the compass, S. E. by E. After running in this manner six leagues over an unequal
bottom of rock and sand, in a depth of water vary-
ing from eleven to twenty four fathoms, they at
length found their soundfcngs begin to indicate gra-
dually deeper and deeper water, till at last, about
ten o'clock in the evening,  at the distance of about 130
-B  V
twelve leagues from the point from which they re-
verted their course, they could find no bottom. The
bank, of which they thus ascertained the existence,
has its S. E. extremity in 22° yJ N. Lat. and in
1170 3' E. Long.
They were now carried towards the entrance of
the Bay of Old Fort Zealand, on which stands the
city of Taywan, the capital of the isle. The Chinese colony of Formosa was, at this time, in a state
of revolt y and an army of twenty thousand men had
been sent, under the command of the Santoq of
Canton, to reduce them to their duty. Desirous to
learn news- of this war, La Peyrouse came to an
anchor a little westward from that bay, in water of
the depth of seventeen fathoms. But, it afterwards:
occurred to his reilection •, that there'might be dan*
ger in sending boats on shore, while the ships were
at such a distance out at sea y and that, to a very
considerable distance from the shore, the channel of
the bay was, according to the old accounts of the
Dutch, too shallow to be safely accessible to the
frigates. He attempted, therefore, only to accost
some of the Chinese fisbing-boats which were frequent around him, and to obtain from them the information which he wanted. With d.fficulty, he
prevailed with one man to come on board *, who sold
them some fishes at his own price, but could not,
for the want of signs or speech mutually intelli-
gible, c.ommunicate any news to satisfy their curiosity. Fires, which might be signals of alarm, were
seen on the shore. But, it seemed probable, that
the Chinese and the rebel ar mi es were, at this time* RÖUND    THE    WORLD.
upon some different part of the coast.     Sailing, on
the next day, ten leagues nor&ward, our navigators
ctme within sight of these armies,  at the mouth of
n great river, in 23° 25' N. Lat.     Opposite to the
mouth of this river, in thirty seven fathoms of water,
over a muddy ground, the frigates cast anchor.    At
the same place lay the Chinese fleet, consÜting of a
great multitöde of vessels.J   Before day,  our voyagers were obliged,  by the badness of the weather,
to weigh anchor, without having gained that knowledge which they ardentïy desired,  conceHöShg the
designs and movements of the warlike force before
them.     Standing from the shore, with topsails and
courses  close reefedy M.   de Peyrouse  hoped, that
he might doublé the   Pesuadore  Isles,  by keeping
the ship's  head  to the N. W.,  before a N. N. E.
wind.     To his astonishrrient,  at nine o'clock in the
morning, several rocks, making apart of that groupe
of isles, were seen before them,  in the  bearing of
N1. N. W.    The biltows rolled so high, and so tem-
pestuous,  that the breokers from these rocks were
not to be cKstinguished from them.    They now tack-
ed and stood towards Formosa.    In this continuation
of their course,  they found  the channel, between
Formosa and the isles N. E. of the Pescadores, not
to exceed four leagues in breadth.      Perceiving it,
at length,  to be impossible,  that they should  suc-
ceed in  accomphsMng  their  course   through   this
channel,  before the change o£ the  monsoon 7 they
were  induced  to  direct  their progress towards the
most southern of the Pescadores, beaming W. S. W.
with the purpose  of passing to the  Eastward of 132
la  peyrouse's voyage
Formosa. Thfêy sailed along, parallel to the Pes-
cadoreëf, at two leagues of distance from them.
These isles extend southward, ££ least as far as
230 25'. Thj^y are merely an assemblage of rocks
in almost every possible diversity of shapes. Five
of them are of moderate elevation, like sandy downs,
but without trees. One exhil&ts as perfect a re-
semblance to the tower of Cordouan, at the mouth
of the r|ver of Bourdeaux, as if it had been hewn
out with hands. The Dutch, when masters of Formosa, fortified the port of Ponghotj, one of these
isles : The Chinese, at present, mamtain in it a gar-
rison of five or six hundred Tartars. Sounding
several times where^he water wa$/i considerably
smooth, under the shelter ofifliese isles, they found
a sandy bottom, with remarkable inequalities of
Soon after, they directed their course E. S. E.,
of purpose to pass into the channel between Formosa and the Bashee Islands. Next day, they
experienced a violent but transient blast of wind.
Rains, such as are to be equalled only betwTeen the
tropics, accompanied the winds. Lightnings, with-
incessant flashes, from every point of the horizon,
inflamed the skies, throughout the night. One
loiid buirsting clap of thunder was, alone, heard.
The wind was at N. W. during this whole night:
The elouds flew towards the south-west : A fog,
which hovered low over their heads, foliowed the
impulse of the lower currents of air, alone. It
seemed as if some crisis of nature were threatened :
and our navigators were, therefore, induced to stéer ROUND    THE    WORLD.
to a distance from the sh#re. During thé next day,
they were detained in a dead calm, in tjie middle
of the channel between the Bashce Islands, and
those of Botol Tabaco-xïma. Of this channel, the
width may be sixteen leagues. Enabled by the
winds to approach the isle of Botol Tabaco-ximaj
they could distinctly perceive three villages on its
southern coast. A canoe seemed to bend its course
towards them, from the shore. The S. E. point
of the isle is in 2i° 57' N. Lat. in 1190 3^ E.
Long. The only bay in-5the island, being open to
the S. E. winds, which our voyagers had now the
most to fear 5 they w ere hence deterred from making anj^attempt to land. No bottom was to be
found by the soundïngs of the frigates, even at theJMf
nearest. approaches to Botol Tabaco xima. The isleS
may be about four leagues in circumference. It is
separated by a chaftnel of half a league, from an
tfcaiahabitable rocky islet, the surface of which displays some shrubs, witji a little grassy verdure,
From the sea-shore, for two-thirds of its elevation,
1 Botol Tabaco xima, presents a territory clear of
wood 7 in many places cultivated 7 furrowed, here
and there, with the channels of torrents which are
occasionally precipitated from the mountains. The
superior one-third of the elevation of the isje, is co-
vered to the very summït, with trees of the largest
size. Three considerable villages, seen by the
French navigators, within the space of a league,
seem to bespeak this isle to be not scantily peopled.
In clear weather, Botol Tabaco-xima may probably
be seen at 15 leagues distance \ but it is often sur-
i|| 134'
la  peyrouse's  voyage
i -  s
rounded by fogs which must conceal it from the
mariner*s view.
Our voyagers, after passing this isle, had to continue thèfr course amid an  archipelago of islands^
Which was hitherto known'to  the  geographers  of
Europe, only from a letter of the missionary father
Gaubil. ï-jfei that letter, he  speaks with but little
aCcuracy concerning the kingdom of Liqjjeo, and
its six-andi^hirty islands, from the  information  off
the King of Llqueo's ambassador at Pekin.    Every
degree of vigilance and caution was, therefore, to
'IfêVXSHied, in advanckig through this track.    On
the 5th of May, at i o'clock in the morning, they
came within sight of an island bearing from them
N. N. E.    They sailed along its western coast, at
half a league's distance from the shore.   No bottom
could be found by their soundings here.    Fires, in
several places, and herds of oxen grazing on the
sea-shore, soon evinced to them that this isle was
Snlrabited.     Canoes  came to visit them  from t)%0
shore.    But, after the  curiosity of the  persons in
those canoes had brousht them within  musket-shot
of the frigates, their distrust made them flee awray
with great  celefity.    The  show of presenti, with
friendly shouts, and gestures, at length won two o-
ther canoes to co-me aiongsiêe the frigates.    To the
persons in these, presents  of a piece  of nankeen,
and some medals, were offered 7 whieh were recei-
ved with expressions of gratitude.    When about to
come on board the  French vessels, they,- with so-
lemn gesture, placed their hands on their breasts,
and then rai-ed their arms  toit^ards  the  sky *, and
the repetition of these  gestures  by  the   French,
seemed to inspire them with new confidence. Still,
bowever, they could not divest themselves of a djf«
fidence W&ich wa$*4trongly expressed in their coun-
tènances. They are not, by nafeion, either Chinese
or Japanese. In their aspect, they seem to partake
of the cxterior character of both these two different
races of people. Their canoes were hollowed trunks
of trees 3 and they did not row them with the dex-
terity of a people accustomed to live chierly at sea.
Each wore a dagger with a golden handle. They
wore the hair tucked up, andfastened onthecrown
of the head with a golden pin. Their clothes were
asWrt and a pair of co*toti drawers. Their isle. is
ftot more   than three or  four  leagues  in  circumfe-
rence 7 nor is it probable that the whole number of
the inhabitants exceed four or five hundred. Kumi
is the ancient name of the isle.    lts position is in
24* 33' ^. ^at' 'm 12°° 5^' E. Long. On the
chart of Father Gaubil^ the Kumi Isles are a groupe
of eight 7 and of these, it is the most western which
the- Frerieh navigators now saw from their ships.
The other seven isles to the eastward, were re-
moved beyond the sphere of their horiaon. From
what Gaubil says of the great island of Liqueo, it
seems probable that Europeans might ther$£nd a
favourable reception > and that they might open a
commercial intercourse with its inhabitants, not
less adv^feitageous than that with Japan.
The Indiftns of Kumif ?reconciled  to  the French
by their presents, and their gentle demeanoar, had-
returned on shore, to  bring  them fresh provisions.
Bpt, a fair wind arising, encouraged our navigators
L 2 ,toto,. 136
to continue their course, without awaitïng these
good people's renewed visit. They pioceeded
northward with all their sails set 7 and, at sunset,
had entirely lost sight of the isles of Kumi. 'At day-
break, on the following morning, they came, first,
within sight of an island to the N. N. E. and then
of several rocky islets farther to the east. The
isle is round, woody, steep on all sides, and most
probably uninhabited. It may be about 2 leagues
in circumference. Another isle, of equal size, si-
milar form, a surface alike wooded, but of inferior
elevation, appeared, soon after, in view. Between
these isles were seen nVe intetjucent groupes of rocks,
with numbeiless sea fowls flying around. To the
former of these isles, M. de la Peyrouse gave the
name of Tiaoyu-su j to thelatter, that of Hoapinsu j
both adopted from the chart of Father Gaubil.
Tiaoyu-su liesjn 250 55' in 121° 17*4 Hoapinsu in
2y 44' N. Lat. in 1210 14' E. Long. At length,
qur voyagers had left behind them the archipe-
lago of the Lies of Liqueo \ and entered the more
spacious sea between China and Japan. Thl^
were anxiously desirous to enter the channel of
Japan, before the 20th of May. But, thick and
constant fogs ; winds, if not adverse, yet blowing
always faintly, and subsiding often into a dead calm *,
'violent currents : and tides incessantly varying in
their direction) rendered their course along the north
coast of China, so very difBcult* that, without relin-
quishing their previous airangementa ia respect to
time. they could not make that minute nautical sur-
vey of these parts, which, for the interests of navi-
gation, is very earnestly to be  desircd,     In the ml
eourse of io or 12 days sailing, only one day was
clear. On it, they saW an islet situatë in 300 45'
N. Lat. in 1210 26' E. Long. But fogs quickly
obscured the sky anew 7 and they could not ascer-
tain any thing conceiiaftng the position of this isle in
rclation to the corrÖbént. Oh the I9th of May, after a fortnight of cafans and fogs, the horizon ex-
panded around them for several leagues 7 the wind
settHng in the N. W. began to blow wrth consider-
able force 5 but the sky cotftmued to present still
#t!u11, whitish aspect. i*he BVench navigators now
directed their course Nï E. by E. towards the island of Quelfaert. On the 2ist, this%le appeared within their view* A fair day enabled them to
determine, from lunar observation, that its position
is in 330 14' N. Lat. in 124°!5' E. Long. Its as-
peet is exceedi&gly interesting : in the middle of thü
fslé, towefs up, to the elevation of about 1000 tcises,
a peak wtitóh is visible at tine distance o£**ï8 or 20
leagues : from the decks, with the aid of their pèr«
spective glasses, our voyag4Krs cöuld diècern thé
fields to be even mibutely sabditöded by inclosures i
the luxuriant crops, and the varying colours of cul-
tj|jation, likewise met and delighted the eye. On
this isle, at that time onder the dommion of the
King of Corea, was wrecked, in the year 1635, a
Dutch ship, named the Sparrow-hanbËfè* lts crew
escaped the rage of the billows, ofily to be doomed
to jJerpetnal servitude among the inhuman people,
o» whose shotés they were cast. After a captiv^l*5
of 1$. yöars, during which they had suffered much
cruel treatmtnt, some of these unfórtanate captïves?
L3 133
contriving to seize a bark, escaped in it to Japan,
from which they made their way, first to Batavia,
and afterwards to Amsterdam. Two canoes were
seen to come off from this isle. But they wére pró-
bably sent, rather to watch, than to hail the French
frigates : for they came not up to them.
Our voyagers still advanced.    They passed east*-
ward from the N. E. point of the island of Quel-
paert.    Every hour they sounded ; and the depth
continued to  vary from 60 to 70 fathoms.    In.N»
Lat. 350 iy E.. Long. 1270 7' they feil in with the
most nor them of a cbain. of rocks,  more than 15
leagues distant from the continent of Corea.   Their
hearing, is nearly N. E. -and S. W.    On the day following, Corea appeared within  view y a range of
rocks or islets,   running  along  before  it.     Two^
leagues south from these islets, the depth of^he-
soundings was from 30 to 35 fathoms, with a muddy bottom.    The sun, piercing through the fogs, e-
nabled them, happiiy, to take excellent observations
of the latitude and longitude 7 observations of so*
much the gr e at er importance, because the Jesüits,
during their prosperity, as missiönaries in the Chinese'
empire, were the only persons that had, as yet, made
any Communications concerning the geography or
hydrography of these parts, to the inhabitants of
ÏUirope.    In the night of the 2^th, the French navigators passed the Streight of Corea.    The nighte
was clear y the winds blew with considerable brisk--
ivess from the S, W. and a great swelling of the sea>
came from the north.    They sailed on easily before:
the wind*, at the rate. of two knois an hour ; wishinS; R0UND    THE   WQRL
to asojgrtairt, after day-break, the accuracy of those
observations which they had made during the evening, that they might g}ye every re<juisite degree of
correctness to their chart  of the   Streight.    They
sounded every half hour.    Having approached within 2 leagues of the coast  of Corea, they then held
on their course,. in a direction parallel to it.     Corea
is divided from Japan by a channel 15 leagues broad 7
but narrowed,  for a part ©X its extent,  by groupes
and reefs of rocks.     On the tops nf the mountains
of Corea,  were  seen fortresses perfectly simÜar to-
those  of Europe..    The adjacent country is barren
and hilly 7 and unmelted heaps of snow  were per»
ceived in certain pits and gullies among the angular
j>un«tónns of the hills.    Yet, the dwellings are numerous.    Frequent junks or shwnpans, with matted-
sails, like those of China, were observed sailing on
the coaslj.^   Some boats came out, apparently for the
pjarpose of examining the appearance and the move*
ments of the  French frigates 7   but returned into»
port) wifchout having eome sufficiently, near, to hold
any converse with them.    The  2Óth proved one of
the finest days which our navigators experienced in
their whole voyage 7 yet the mercpry in the barometer subsided to 27 inches and 10 lines.    At mid-
aighf^'the wind a-i$§red from S. to-N«.J&$Fblew, iru*
mediately after the change,. with eonsiderahle vio-
lence 7 the sky beca^ae blaak and dark. 7 and it be-
came nec#ssary for the frigates to alter their course
to a feitber . distance.  from tbist shore,   than that-at
which  thny had  for some time saijtd.     The onljjj*
fbrehoding indication which- nature had given- oi m
this change,   consisted in tórrid  vapours, such as*
might have issued from the mouth of an oven, W^iich
were feit by the men at the mast-head,  passing,   as
it were, many pufil of wind,  each sa£ceeding
another, after an interval of half a minute»-   On the
27thi, the frigates approachêd to within 3 leagues of
the continent 7 and,  in spite of the viölence of the
north wind,  they  were able to gaïn a little tofphe
northward 7 while the  coaSt  of Corea was seen to
bend away before them, to the N. N. W.    M. de
la Pesttouse  now judged it necessary to direct his^
course towards the S.  W. point of the isle of Ni-
phon.    The exact position of Cape  Nabö,  the N.
W. point.of this isle, had been before ascertained by*
Captain King.   An equally satisfactory fixiög of the
situation of its opposite extremity, would put an end
to the uncertainties and conjectures of geógraphers-
concerning the form of these coasts.     On the iSth^
our navigators disopvered, in  370 2/  N.  Lat. in
129° 2' E. Long. the north-east  point of an isle^
which  received,  in honour  of the astronomer by
whom it was first perceived,  the name of Isle Da-
gelet.      They sailed roünd it, at a mile'shiistance
from the shore 7 and sounded,  as they sailed, without finding a botton*.    Afesoat was then sent, under
the command of M. Boutin, to carry the soundings
to the very beach.     Nearly at the edge of a surf
which  breaks on the  coast,  at the distance o£.an
hundred toises from the island, he found bottom under twenty fathoms depth of water.     The island is
about thiee leagues in circumference.     A rampart
of bare rock, rising over the billows, with an abrupt R0UND    THE    WORLB.
and precipitbus elevation, enjfarcles lts vfhole out-
fi'ne,- except only seven small sandy creeks, which
are accessïble to boats. From the very brink of
the shore to its extreme height, it is overgrown with
tlfll stately trees, fitted to farnish the most excellent timber. In the creeks, our navigators saw
some boats of Chinese construction, on the stocks,
They supposed, that the workmen might probably
have fled into the woods, at their approach. Other
wOTwmen were seen by them, upon turning rourd a
jföint, to flee into the woods from a second dock-
yard. Had not the opposition of strong currents
prevented 7 M. de la Peyrouse would gladly have
gone on shore, to explore the isle, and to convince
those good people that they had notjemg to fear
from the French.
On the 30Ü1 of May, favoured by the winds now
fixed at S. S. E., M. de la Peyrouse endeavoured to
approach the coast of Japan. But, the contrariety
of the winds rendered the attempt so difncult$ that
nnthing but its extreme importance could have hin-
dered him from abandoning it almost immediately.
On the 2d of June, in 370 38' N. Lat. in 1320 10'
E. Long. two Japanese vessels passed within sight
of them 7 one of these, so near, that they could dis-
tinctly mark the appearances of things on her decks.
Her crew, consisting of twenty men, wore blue gar-
ments made in the fashion of cassocks : She might
be of about an hundred tons burtben : She had a
single mast, which seemed to be formed of a number of smaller mast trees, united by means of cop-
p£T$|oops and wooldings ; Her sail was linen, with f 142
its breadths not  sewed,  but laced togcther *, very
large 7 and accompanted with tvjojibs and a sfirit-
saii:   A smafó gallery, three feet broad, projected
firom each side of the, vessel 7 and extended, for5»
bout two-thirds of her length, from the stern, along
the gun wale :   She had,  on  her  stern, projecting
beams, which %ere painted green : The boat placed
athwart hêcbowï, exceeded, by seven or eight¥eet,
the breadth of the vessel.     It is probable, that such
vessels as these are ïntended only for sailing on the
coasts, and in the fairest season of the yean5 and that
the Japanese have stouter vessels for braving the
wintry  storms, in more distant se as.     So near didJ
the French navigators pass to this vessel, that they.
could re mark the expretsion'la the countenances of
the persons on her decks : lt indicated nelther fe«e^
nor östonishment.     The Frenchmen hailed her, as
she passed 7 and the Japanese failed not to  make
answer.     But, their languages Were   reftiprocally
unkftown 7 so that mutual converse was impossibllH
between them.     ^he Japanese vessel had a small.
whfte flag, on which were some words written verlffe
callyS$; lts name was on a^ort of drum which stood
beslde the ensign-staff.
On the morning of the 4tü*ï>f Jurie, in 1330 17'
E. Long. in 370 13' N*&!§»3ft% the French voyagers
intagined, with some uncerfainty,that they saw land:
But the weather was dark and stormy : Their horizon was contracted within a quarter of a league 7
and the winds blew with a violence which made it
impossible for them to halt, till they might ascer-
tain whether it were indeed land that they had seen*
" ROUN^D    THE    WO.RIkDw
In the course of this day, no i«£w*r than seven Chi*
nese vessels, masted like the Japanese bark above
describcd, but of a sLrueture better adapted to strug-
gle with stormy seas, passed within sight of the
French frigates. They had, every one, three black
bands in the concave part of the sail 7 were each of
about thirty or forty tons burthen 7 and had crews
pf eight men, each. They ran close to the wind, with
their larboard tacks on board, and their heads to the
W. S. W.  % %     - ÉÉv-^i
Oifcthe 6ih of June, our iia^igatoas arrived within sight of Cape Noto aixithe island of Jootsï-sima,
which are parted by a channel about five leagues ia
wideness.    They were six leagues from land :   but,.
the  clearness  of the weather enabled them to dis*-
tinguish  the  trees,  rivers,   and   hollows   upon   it.
Rochyislets, spreading with many irregularities, from
the very water'i edge to tfee course of the frigates,
hindered these from approaching nearer to the shore.
Their soundings here indicated, under sixty fathoms
<jf water, a bottom of rock and coral.      They ran
along the coast of Jootsi-sima *, and had  still  the
same soundings.    This isle haa an agreeable aspect,
is well wooded, is narrow in its ciacumference, and
of a flat surface.    Ordptiarj^dwelliag-houses 5 some
more considerable edifices \ a castle-looking struc--
tate; and some post* with cross>-beams at the upper
extremity *, attracted our voyagers' natie e from the
isle, as they sailed along.    Fogs again surtounded
them, as they left Joota-sima.    But, they had hap-
pily   ascertained,  with   accuracy,  some remarkable
hearings, the knowledge of which must be of the 144
greatest use to Geography, and especially to all future navigators in these seas. Cape Noto, on the
coast of Japan, appears, from their observations, to
be in 370 26' N. Lat. in 1330 34' E. Long«# JooLs^.
sima, in 370 51' N. Lat. 1330 20' Longj^ the most
southerly point of the island of Niphon, in 370 18'
N. Lat. in 13^° 5' E. Long.
The opposition of strong, unvarying south winds,
hindered M, de la Peyrouse from ascertaining, ac-
cording to his earnest desire, the situation of the
most southern and the most western points of the
island$>f Nipmon. Under the impulse of these same
winds, he turned his course to the N. W". and they
attended his progress to within sight of the coast of
Tartary. On the 1ith. of July, the frigates reach-
ed this coast. Next day, in a clear, serene atmos-
phere, the mercury in the barometer feil to 27
inches, 7 lines. The point of the coast which our
navigators approached, was exactly that at which
Corea is separated from Mantchou Tartary. Its
elevation is such, that it was éasily visible at the
distance of twenty leagues out at sea. Mountains, |
at least six or seven toises in height, are the first
objects which here discover themselves to the eyes.
Within four leagues of the land, bottom was found
under an hundied and eighty fathoms depth of water. A league from the shore, the depth of the
water was still eighty four fathoms. No vcstiges
of culture, or of human habitation, were to be seen
upon this coast. Trees and verqVure the
sides of the mountains : on the s urn mits appeared
srtow in inconsiderabie  quantity.    Hoping .to find I
more convettient anchoringgröbnd ; the French voy-
agertldid nor halt here to examine the coast, btft
held on their course 7 sailing in the finest weathcij
and under the most serene skies they had kf&wn,
since their departure from Europe. On the 1 2th,
tbe *3th, the i4th, they continued to make their
nautical and astronomical observations with the
great est success. On the evening of the i4th, they
were becalmed and invokred in a thick fog, in the
latitude of 440 N. Here have geographers hitherto fixed their pretended Streight of Tessoy. But,
our navigators were now 50 ofLongjIarther westward
than the longitude assigned. 30 are, therefore, to
be here cut off from the continent of Tartaijr, and
to be added to the channel between Tartary and the
islands northern from Japan. This abscission from
the continent, and this expansion of the channel,
will, of course, annihilate the Streight of Tessoy,
The i5th and the i6th were obscured with fogs»
On the i6th, the fogs presented themselves in the
illusive forms of mountains, precipitous vales, tor-
rent-worn channels, and all the appearances of a
continent, or island 7 from which they were, for some
hours, induced to fancy, that they had at last en-
tered the streight of Tessoy. But, as evening came
on, they saw this fancied land to vanish away. It
was soon entirely dispersed in air j and not a rack
remained behind. On the I7th, i8th, i9th, they
were still surrounded by fogs 7 and in this state,
could not ventare to proceed, with any degree of
celerity. In N. Lat. 440 45', M. de Monti went,
in a boat, from on board the Astrolabe, to exfflore
M 146*
a bay which they saw open before them, and in
which they had hopes of finding shelter. In that
bay, he found, at two leagues distance from land,
an hundred and forty fathoms depth of water. A
quarter of a league from the shore, the depth was
forty or fifty fathoms. The frigates approached the
shore. But, thick fogs made it again necessary for
them to stand off] for fear of running into unseen dan-
.gers. About 8 o'ciock next morning, they discern-
ed a flat-topped mountain, to which, that it might
be recognised by future na*vigators in these latitudes,
M. de la Peyrouse gave the name of Table-mountain. The territory adjacent to the coast, was co-
vered wkh trees and verdure, indicating the great-
est fertólity of soil. But all was desolate, still, and
silent. Nothing was to be seen, that could bespeak
the coast to have been ever oceupied by human inhabitants. On the 23d, our voyagers entered a
bay in 45°.i3' N. Lat. 1250 9' E. Long, in which
they found, at a cable's length from the shore, a
sandy boltom, under six fathoms water. The tide
rises in this bay five feet. It is high water at fuiï
and change, at 8 hours, i$ minutes. The flux and
reflux, do not alter the direction of the current, at
the distance of half a league from the shore. To
the bay, our navigators- gave the name of Baie de
Since they left Manilla, they had not been on
land. These coas-ts alone had not been before illus-
trated by the dïscoveries of Cook. They were
therefore impatientto land, for the purposes of both
disco very'and refreshment. Five small creeks form
•the outline of this bay or roadstead.    Hills,  over- RÖ-aND    THE    WORLJS.
growawHh trees, part those from on e another. AH the
shades of lively green variegate the trees and the herb-
age. Bearsand stags were seen from the ships to wan-
der quietly along the sea-shore. Roses, red and yellow
lillies, all the meadow-flowers of France, were seen
by our navigators after they landed, to enamel, in
rich profusion, the plains, de$ivities, and vales.
Pines covered the summits of the mountains : half
way down, were oaks, of which tbe sizeand strength
diminished, as the descent approached the sea-
shore : willows, birches, maples, borde red the ri-
vers and rivulets. On the skirts of the forestS,
were apple and medlar trees, with dumps of hazles.
Traces of the visits, if not of the permanent habitation, of men, were every where to be seen.
Some places displayed the remains of ravages by
f*re. And in a corner of the wood, were observed
some shedi whieh must have been erected by hun-
tere. Baskets, framed of the bark of the birch-tree,
and rackets for walking on snow, lay, here and
ther% scattered about, A shooting*party came, in
three boats, fiom the two frigates. Three young
fawns were the only animals they slew. The long
grass, and the danger from venomous reptiles,
whieh might lurk in it, making it impossible for
them to proceed far iawards through the country y
they were, in a manner, confined to the sandy flats
on the sea shore. Impelled by their pajgion for
hunting, M. de Langle, with some ot^er officers,
and some of the naturalists* endeavoured, with little success, to penetrate through the morasses and
fbrests.    But, the grass and underwpod were stij^
Mz gii'jji.HL—'«■-' —
inaccessible : Nor would the bears and stags present themselves to their eager pursuers. In fishing,
these voyagers were more successful. Cod-fishes,
harp-fishes, trouts, salmons, plaice, herrings, were
taken with the utmost ease, and in éne greatest a-
bundance. Vegetables, such as nature presented
in profusion, on the shore, being added to these y
some very wholesome and delicious meals were thus
furnished out to the ships9 companies. Amidst
their fishing, they discovered, on the bank of a ri-
vulet, a Tartarian tomb standing beside the ruins
of a small house, which were well nigh buried in
the grass. Curiosity prompted them to open this
repos tory. In it, lay the bodies of two persons,
side bjrside. The heads were covered, each with
an under-cap of taffeta : The bodies were wrapped
in bear's skins, which were fastened round them
with a gitdie of the same : From the girdle were
suspcnded several different copper trinkets, and
some small Chinese coins : Blue beads were scat-
tered within the tomb : There were also ten or
twelve different sorts of silver bracelets, weighing
each ten penny-weights : And these, our voyagers
afterwards learned to be pendants for the ears. A
small blue nankeen bag, filled with rice ; a comb,
a wooden spoon, aa axe, a kaife, a hatchet of i-
ron, were likew^Se among the articles with whicV
this tomb was garnished. None of all these things
was, as yet, in a state of decomposition. The
structure of the tomb was, a small hut, having its
walls formed of the trunks of trees, and covered a>
bove, with the bark of the birch-tree.  Careful not to ROÜND    THE    WORLSt
violate this repository of the remains of the deceas-
ed 7 the French strangers religiously restored every,
article to  its fermer sïtuation, after they had exa-
röined it \ and {hen covered up the tomb,  as it was
before. The articles of Chinese manufacture bespeak
these  Tartars to  have   a regular intercourse with
China.    From the presence of the bag of rice in the
tomb, it may be inferred that they believe the dead
to survive the close of the present life, and to remak»)
subject, in the world of spiijts, to those bodily wants-
which they experienced in their human existence.
The plants were here the same as in France, at least,
without  any variation very interesting to  botany*
Slate, quartz, jaspef* violet porphyry, small cr-ysta$s><
aaiygdaloid,  were the mtfneralogical specimens pre*
sented in the beds of the rivers.    Iron ore appears
here, only as an oxyde, the colouring matter of dï$U
ferent stones : No other metals, in any form, could
be here discovered.     Ravens,  turtle-dovesf quaife^.
wag-taïls, swafiows, fly-catchers, albatrosses, gulls,
puffins, bïtterös, wild-duckf, were the land and sea-*
fowls whieh the French voyagers observed on this
coast.    Broken mussel-shells, bernacles, snail-shells,
purpurse, were the only specimens of co«ichology
seen on the beach*     Beiag the first European vis**
tors of these shores,  M.  de  la  Peyrouse  and  his
companions would not leave the scène, without de-
positing in the  earth various medals brought from
France for sudfei$**es, as  well as a bottIe inclosing
an inscription of the date of their arrival*
On the morning of the 2Jt\i, they again set sail y
and proceeded before a soefeh wind, at the distance
1    fÏM 3   .1     1 IJO
of two-thirds of a league from the coast, distrnguïsh-
ing, as they went along, even the mouth of every small
rivulet. About 11 o'clbck in the evening of the
29th the wind*shifted to the north j and they were
obliged to make a tack eastwardi?** They were now
in 460 30' N. Lat. The coast, which they still saw
through fogs, was nowT lower 7 and the land was di-
1 vided into hills 01 moderate height. On the ist of
July, being involved in a thick fog, so near to land-
that they could hear the breaking of the surf upon
the shore 7 they were obliged to cast anchor in thir-
ty fathoms depth of water, with a bottom of broken
shells and mud. Fogs continued till the 4th, to hinder their observations. But they had, in the mean.
time, the consolation of taking a great quantity of.
cod-fishes and oysters^ which very agreeably diver-
slfied the provision of their tables. A great bay,.
into which a river, fifteen or twenty fathoms broad,
was seen to disembogue its wraters, opened before:
our navigators on the morning of the 4th of July„
A boat from each frigate was immediately sent to
examine it. The territory on the coast was foundv
to be nearly the same as that at the Baie de Ternai,
"Vestiges appeared, which bespoke this scène to have
been recently visited by some wandering hunters»
Branches cut from the trees, with some sharp-point-
ed instruments, lay on the ground, with their leaves
slfil unwithered. By the side of a small cabin were
two eik-skins, skilfully stretched out to dry, upon
small pieces of wood. The cabin or hut beside
which these were found, had every appearance of
being a temporary abode for hunters.    Our voya* N
gers took away one of the elk-skins, bat Ie ft, in"
stead of it, hatchets and other iron instruments,
much more valuable, as they believed, to its own*
exs. The boats returned. The name o£.?Baie de
Sitefrein was imposed on this bay by our navigators.
Since it presented nothing particularly interesting,
to invite their stay, they soon renewed their course,
and still advanced to the northwTard. The Baie de
Suffrein is situate in 47 ° 51' N. Lat. in 1370 23'
E. Long.
I Advancing along the coast, they made occasional
use of the dredge, and procured with it a variety. of
oysters, and other shell-fishës* To the oysters were
often attached that little bivalve shell-fish, whieh
the French name poulette, and which- on the coasts
of Europe, is often found in a state of petrifaction.
Large wbelks, sea-hedgehogs of the common sort,
star-fishes, holothuriae, and very small pieces of
beautiful coral, were also among the captures with
the dredge. Turning their course gradually from
the coast of Tartary, they aow strove to cross the
channel, towards where geographers had taught
them to expect to find the lands of Jesso and Oi^a
Jesso. Proceeding with this view, they soon discovered an island, apparently of great extent, which
formed with Tartary an opening of 300. They
were then in 480 35' N. N. Lat. They next direeV
ed their course to the S. E. This eastern land, very different in its aspect from Tartary, exhibited to
vicwe nought but barren rocks, with pits of snow,
and having an apparently volcanic character. To
the loftiest of their summite, M* de la Peyrouse 152
gave the name of Peak Lamanon, in compliment to-
M. Lamanon, who, in the character of a mineralo-
gist,  accompanied the expedition.    Fogs and obstinate southerly winds, exceedingly incommoded our
voyagers,  in the navigation of the  channel.    At
noon, on the nth, the weather cleared up y and a
very exteneive hoffeoa iarmediatety opened around
them.    On the evening of the   12th  of July, the.
southern breezes dying awTay, permitted them to ap*
proach the land.     Some islanders were seen running
from the shore,  to hide  themselves in the woods.
Without delay, one of the commanders, with some
of the principal persons from on board both frigates,
went on shore in the  boats.    On the  shore,  they
quickly came to two small houses which seemed to
have been but newly abandoned  by their inhabitants 7 for the fires were not extinguished, the furni-
ture remained,  and there was a blind litter of puppies, whose dam was heard to bark for them, from |
the woods.    The French navigators benignantly de-
posited several hatchets and other instruments of i-
ron, with glass-beads, and various other articles, for
presents to conciliate the good-will of the  people
when they should venture to return from the woods.
The great net or seine was then hauled, and at o nee'
were taken more salmons than might have sufficed
for the consumption of the ships' companies during a
whole week.    Our voyagers were about to return-
on board their ships, when seven. of the natives were
seen to land from a canoe on the shore,Tand to come
up, without f e ar or wonder,  into the very midst of
the strangers.  Among these seven, were two old men R0UND    THE    WORLD.
with long white beards, clofhedln a stuff made of
the bark of trees. Two wore dresses of blue quilt-
ed nankeen. Others had only a long robe, fastened
on the body with a gïrdle and a few buttons. Their
heads were bare, except that two or three wore a
simple band of bear's skin. The face and the crown
of the head were shaven. The hair behind, was cut
to the length of ten or twelve inches. They wore
boots of seal-skin, skilfully formed and sewed,rafter
the Chinese fashion. Bows, pikes, arrows tipped
with iron, were their arms. Their manners were
strikingly dignified and solemn. To the eldest,
there was great reverence shown by the rest. A
sort of mutual engagement to meet next day on the
shore, passed between them and M. de Langle.
On the following day, the French, with M. de la
Peyrouse himself at their head, repaired again on
shore. The following is the general result of all
their observations upon the country and its inhabitants. They were soon met, in the creek, by one
and twenty of the natives. Presents, especially of
iron and stuffs, were offered and accepted by the
Tartars, at the very opening of the interview.
These understood, as well as the French, the value
and the diversities of the metals y preferring silver
to copper, copper to iron, &c. Three or four of
them had pendent ear-rings of silver, adorned with
blue glass-beads. similar to those which bad been
discovered in the tomb at the Baie de Tjbrnaie.
Their other ornaments were of copper. They had
pïpes, and steels to strike fire with, which seemed of
Chinese or Japanese manufacture.     By signs, they 54
la  peyrouse's   voyage
informed the French, that their blue nankeen, their
beads,  and  their  steels,  were  proeured  frcm  the
Western country of the Mantchou Tartars.    Observ-
ing the Frenchmen to  hold  in  their hands,  paper
with a pencil, to write upon it :   They guessed the
intention, and, with  a benignant attentfon,  endeavoured, of their own accord, assiduously to explain
whatever objects they supposed the strangers might
be the most curious to be informed about.      They
seemed sufficiently desirous to obtain hatchets anóf
stüffs.      But,  they maintained,  in  all their intercourse with the French,  a dignity and  sanctity  of
raanners, far superior to any indications of rapacious
avidity, and to every, even the most trivial act of
theft.     Not a single salmon would they piek upt,
without permission, from among thousands, the produce of the fishing of the French, which lay se at*
tered on the beach.    Understanding, that the strangers desired to obtain from them, descriptions of
thesr own country, and of Mantchou Tartary 7 they?
sketch ed, on the ground,—and even, with the pen-
cils of our navigators, upon paper,—the figure óf
their own isle, which they named Tchoka,—-adjacent
to it, a streiga$,-—beyond the streight, the Continental territory of the Mantchou Tartars.    South from
thek own isle, they represented another to exist,
beyond an intermediate streight through which the
French ships might readily pass.    On the continent
of Tartary, they represented the river of Segalien
pouring its waters into the channel between Tartary
and Tchoka, in a position somewhat southward from
the most northern point  of  the  opposite isle  of ROUND   THE   world.
Tchoka.       From   ïndïcations  w7hich these  people
communicated, the French navigators  rnferred the
most northern extremity of the isle of  Tchoka, to
extend about sixty-three leagues to the northward of
the station in which their ships then lay at anchor.
By the same sagacious and communicative Savages,
our voyagers were informed, that,  to  procure  the
foreign commodities  which they wore,  these savages were wont to sail for  a  certain  length  up  the
river Segalien,   and there to meet  the   Tartars, by
Itrafficking with whom they obtained these  articles
of importation.    All this information was, unavoid-
ably, to a great degree, uncertain.    Büt, such as it
was, it sufficiently merited the attention of M. de
la Peyrouse and his companions.     A loom was pro-
Icured from these people,  which she wed   what   pro-
gress  they had made in the manufacture of cloth..
lt nearly resembled those of Európe.    Cloth of the
bark of the  willow-tree   is   woven  in such looms,
with a shuttle, by the inhabkants of Tchoka.    They
examined, with a sagacious curiosity, the texture of
the  stuffs   which  were  presented  to   them  by the
French y and seemed to be consïdering,   how far it
resembled, or differed from, that e f their own manufacture.    They do not cultivate the ground 7 yet,
fail not to avail themselves of its spontaneous produce.     In their huts were found many roots of the
yellow lily or saranna of Knmtschatka, which they
appeared to have dried for their winter's provision y
as als o the roots of garlick  and  of angelica.      Of
their form of government, our voyagers could discover, during their short stay, only that they treat f
their old men with a respect which seems to confer
upon them all the authority of patriarchs. Their
stature does not commonly exceed five feet five inches : Their countenances present regular features,
and an agreeable expression : Their personal figure
is stout and handsomely proportioned. They per-
mitted the French to draw their pictures y but,
would not suffer them to measure the dimensions of
their bodies. Perhaps, they might look upon the
proposal to measure them, as an attempt to make
them the subjects of some magical operation. Their
women, they kept carefully hid from the sight of
the strangers. Our voyagers could purchase from
them no more than two marten-skins. A few skins
of bears and seals were seen, fashioned into clothes.
Each of them wore on his thumb a large ring made
of ivory, horn, or lead. Like the Chinese, they
preserve their nails on their fingers to a great length:
Like them, they salute by kneeling and prostrating
themselves on the ground : They likewise sit on
mats, and eat with small sticks. They may perhaps
be a colony of Chinese origin, whose ancestors have
?w and e red hither, at some very remote sera in ancient
times. Among them, the French voyagers met with
two Mantchou Tartars, who had come hither for
some commercial purpose, about a fortnight or three
weeks before. These men readily^conversed with
the Chinese sailors belonging to the French frigates.
Their garments were of grey nankeen, like those of
the cooties or streetporters of Macao. Their hats
were of bark, and pointed. They wore the Chinese penticc or tuft of hair.     They reported their ItODND    TtfE    WORLD.
dwellings to be eight days journey up the river Se-
galien. • iProm their reports, as well as from other
eircumstances, M. de la Peyrouse was led to infer
the coast of this part of Asia to be almost entirely
uninhabited, from the limits of Corea in the 420
N. Lat. as far as to fche river Segalien in the
53° or 54° ^- Lat. The cabins or huts. of the
inhabitants of Tchoka, are of wood y over this, a
covering of the bark of the birch-tree 5 then, a co-
vering of timber ; above all, a thatching of dry
straw, similar to that on the cottages of our peasants:
The door is in the gable-end, and ve*y low: The
hearth is in the raiddle of the floor, and has a correspondent opening in the roof: Immediately around
the hearth, are little banks or floors of earth, rising
eight or ten inches high : The whole inside of the
hut is spread with mats : That-cabin which served
as the model of this descriotion, stood amM a thiek—
et of rose-trees : These shrubs were in flower, and
exhaled the most delicious odours : But, these
were more than overcome by tfié stench of fish-oil,
and other putrid sabstances which filied the hut,
•wad poisoned the air, all around it. It seemed cu-
rious, that a bottle of sweet-scented water, when
presented to one of the old men, affected his sense
"of smelling with a disgust, at^east as strong as that
with which the noisome smell of the fish-oil was
'perceived by the French. They had tobacco in
large leaves, and of very excellent quality 7 and
they seemed to be eternal smokers : but snuff they
could not endure. This bay was, in honour of M.
de Langle, named the Baie de Langle.
N ïiS
la  peyrouse's  voyage
On the I4th of July, the  signal for sailing  was
given *, and they prepared to leave this bay.    Till
the I9th, they were surrounded with perpetual fogs.
In the morning of the I9th, they saw, athwart the
mists, the land of Tchoka, from  N. E. by N. as
far as E.   S. E.    Having continued to  run along,
till two o'clock in the afternoon, they then dropped
anchor in water twenty fathoms deep, over a gravel-
ly bottom, at the distance  of two miles from the
shore, and westward from a fine bay.     The  fog af.
terwards dispersed 7 and they were  enabled to  de-
termine the hearings of the  place-where they had
cast anchor.     It  is  situated in  48° 59' N. Lat. in
1400  32'  E.  Long.    They named  the  bay, Baie
d' Estaing.     Their boats went ashore, at 4 o'clock
in the  afternoon.    About an hundred paces from
the sea-shore, were found ten or twelve huts, con-
structed of the  same  materials as the huts in the
Baie de Langle 7 but larger, and  divided each into
two apartments, of wThich the  inner contained the
furniture, and  seemed to be the ordinary abode of
the family, while the other was entirely empty, and
seemed to be apppopriated for the reception of stran-.
gers.    Two of the women were accidentally met by
the French  officers 7 and were terribly alarmed at
the rencounter.     Sketches of their figure and coun-
tenance were,   however,   drawn by M.   Blondela.
Their eyes were small 7 their lips large -, the upper
lip, painted  blue, or tattooed.j   the  legs, naked •,
the   body, cover e d  with a long linen-shift; their
hair, lank and uncurled , and the upper part of the
head not shaved, as  on the men.    The  islanders,
6t  the   first   landing  of the   gentlemen   from  thè
French   boats, were  assembled  round  our canoes,
which were laden  with  fishes  dried in the smoke.
The crews of the  canoes were, as  the Frenchmen
learned, Mantchou Tartars, who  had come hither
from the banks of the river Segalien, forfthe purpose of purchasingin trade, the dried fishes.   Those
geographical details which our voyagers had obtain-
ed. at  the  Baie de Langle, were, by these  people,*
confirmed.    A  sort of circus, surrounded  with  a
palisade of rude  stakes, was   observed in one part
of the terrÜory adjacent to the huts.    On the top
of each stake was the skcleton of a bear's4iead 7 and
the bones of bears were scattered around the scène.
The circus, and the trophies erected on its pallisade,
might probably be intended  to perpetuate  the me-
mory of atchievements accomplished  by these people in hunting the bear, with which, since they want
üre-arms, they must, Of necessity, contend in close
fight.    Salmons were found to be the most common
prey of these people in their fishing.    They dry the
fish for sale to  the  Mantchou  Tartars ; but take
out  and  throw away the head, the taH, and the
back-bone.    After loading the  Tartars with presents, the Frenchmen, at eight o'clöck in the evening, returned on board their ships.   Next day,—the
20ta,—the  frigates renewed their voyage.      They
sailed along the coast, at  a  league's distance from
the land.  A thick fog surrounding them about seven
o'clock in the  evening y they were induced to cast
anchor in water thkty-seven fathoms deep, over a
*iüöttom of mud and small flat  stones.    The coast
N2- i6o
ir    J
was here more mountainous-: Neither fire nor hut
was to be seen : Ten cod-frshes were caught, the first
our voyagers«had found, sinee they left the coast of
Tartary. M. de la Peyrouse concluded from this
last incident, that they were now not far distant
from the Tartarian coast '7 and he hoped, that, keeping close to the coast of Tchoka, he should soon be
able to reach that streight, the existence of which
he had eonfidently inferred from the information of-
the islanders. The frigates, therefore, sailed on,
never at a greater distance than two leagues from
the island. As soon as the fogs cleared up, our.
navigators had a perfect view of the channel. In
the latitude of 500 it grew narrower, till it was at
last contracted to the small expanse of thirty leagues..
In the evening of the 22d, they ca^t anchor in thirty-se ven fathoms water, with a muddy bottom, and
at about a league's distance from land. This anchorage was opposite to the mouth of a small river,,
three leagues north from which, appeared a very remarkable peak,. which had its base on the sea-shore,
and, on whatever side it might be seen, presented
still the most perfect regularity of form at its sum-
mit. Its sides were riehly covered with trees and
verdare. In compliment to the botanist of the
voyage, M. de la Peyrouse named it, Peak. laMar-
tiniere. It was thought proper, here, to send boats
ashore,.for the purpose of ascertaining whether this.
part of the coast were inhabited. M. de Clónard
went with four armed ships. To the surprize of
those who had remained behind in the ships, he re-
t-urned in the evening with all the boats filled witlsL ROUND    THE    WORLD.
Salmons. He had landed at the mouth of a rivulet,
not exceeding four fathoms in breadth, nor a foot
ia depth. Its bed was so entirely covered with
salmons, that the sailors, with their sticks, killed,
in an hour, twelve hundred of them. Only two or
three deserted huts were to be seen. Three trees
were of larger dimensions, than in thte more south-
ern bays : Celery and cresses grew, in abundance,
on the banks of the rivulet: Juniper- béfpeies grew-
around, in immense profusion. The French bota-"
nists made here an ample collection of rare plants.
Crystallized spars, and other curious stones", bat no*
metallic ores, were brought away by the mineralo-
gists. Firs, willows, oaks, maples, birches, and
medlar-trees, fill the foresfé*v' Gooseberries, straw-
berriesy. and rasp-berries, were Hkewise amazingly
plentiful. Cod-fishes were, at the same time, taken
in great numbers, by those who ha4£ remained on
board the ships. To the rivulet which had afford-
ed such plenty of salmons, M. de la Peyrouse gave-
the name of Salmon-brook..
Renewirig their voyage, they sailed along, as bei*
fore, at a small distance from the shore of the isle.
On the 23d, they were in 500 54' N. Lat. and nearly in the longitude in which, from the Baie de Lan-
gle, they had, without vaAation, sailed. A few huts
appearing here and there, upon the shore, indicated
this part of the isle to be not destitute of lnhabitafitsv£
A bay, which was obser^ed in the last metttioned
latitude, received from our navigators the name of
Baie de la Jonquiere, but did not appear to merit
that they should particularly exploié it,    They wiere
m 102
now extremely impatient to ascertain, whether or
not the pretended Streight of Tessoy,  were merely
the streight dividing the island of Tchoka from the
Continental territory of the Mantchou Tartars.   The
soundings, began, as they advanced,  to be almost e-
qually shallow,  at some considerable distance from
the coast of Tchoka, as when the frigates were very
near to that isle.    On the 24th, in the course of
three hours progress, the  depth of the water was*
found to decrease from twenty-four to eighteen fathoms.    The attempt to obtain a greater depth, by
steering westward towards the middle of the chan--
nel, proved fruitless».    M. de la Peyrouse, upon this,^
determined to traverse the whole channel twice,—jj
from east to west, and from west tó ea^t,—in order to*
discover whether there were not deeper water to be.
found in the progress northward , and whether there-
were not a particular channel,  similar to that of a»
river, for the streight.    In the evening of the 26th,,
they came to anchor on the. coast of Tartary.    NextJ
day, they sailed N.  N. E. towards the middle of
the channel*, had both coasts in view at once 7 and
found the depth to decrease,  in the progress north--
ward, at the rate of three fathoms a league.    M. de:
la Peyrouse was anxious to. explore the streight still
much more thoroughly.    But the southern winds,
prevailed in this channel,  with such a settled mon-
soon-like steadiness, and with such an agitatine force.
upon the seas, that any attempt to advance much
farther in this course to the northward,  appeared
likely to subject the frigates to extreme danger of
very, embarrassing delay,   or  even of shipwreck. K.0UND    THE    WORLD»
The weather, too, begaa to become stormy, aai?
the billows of the sea to roll more tempestuously,.
than they had hitherto done, in this channel. The
ships could not, in these circumstances, hastily pro-
ceed farther. But Messrs Boutin and de Vaujuas,
officers equally distinguished for discernment and
prudence, were sent out in the boats, to explore the.
channel, and to make the requisite soundings, to the
northward. M. Vaucjuas, who set off at 7 o'clock,
was absent till midnight. He sailed a league northward, beyond which the state of the sea and the
weather would not permit him to proceed. At his
farthest distance from. the frigates, his soandings indicated only six-fathoms depth of water. M. Boutin had returned before hirn, without making any
discovery. Immediately after the return of M.
de Vaujuas, it was found necessary for the frigates
to revert their course. At day-break, they>$veigh-
ed anchor with much difficult toil, and with a break-
ing of the capstane, by which three of the seamen
were severely wounded. The violence of the winds
and the fary of the waves, rendered their progress,*
fór a short time, both laborious and dangerous.
Some slight variations of the winds from S. to S.
W. and to S. S. E. soon took place, howevcr, in a
manner favourable to them *, and, in tweatyfour
hours, they made five leagues. In the evening of
the 28th, they found themselves at the opening of
a bay on the coast of Tartary. Want of wood and
water suggested the propriety of here halting and
going on shore for supplies. At five o'clock, they
cast anchor at the N. point of this bay, in water e- 164
LA  peyrouse's  voyage
leven fathoms deep, with a muddy bottom. Boats
were soon sent out: a Tartar village was descried y
cascades of limpid water were perceived •, and four
wooded islets were observed to shelter a road, where
the frigates might ride at anchor, in perfect securi-
ty. At eight o'clock, on the next morning, the
frigates were conducted to the botföm of the bay y
and Were brought to rest at anchor in water six fa*-
thoms deep, with a muddy bottom.
No sooner were the frigates moored, than both the
French commanders prepared to go on shore. They
appointed the long-boat to take in water y the barge,
to bring the wood which was wanted, from the shore y
the small boats, to be at the command of Messrs
Blondela, Bellegarde, Mouton, Bernizet, and Pre**
vost junior, while they should make a survey of the
bay j the yawls, which drew little water, to be used in
fishing salmons in a small river abounding with them y
the pinnaces to be ready for carrying themselves and
the scientific gentlemen a-shore, to superintend the
different works, and to explore the territory conti-
guous to the coast. i The astronomical apparatus
was, wTithout delay, set up, on an islet which they
named Isle de L'Observatoire 7 and Messrs Da-
gelet, Lauriston, and Darbaud, immediately applied
themselves to make the requisite observations for
the correction of their time-keepeis, and for ascer-
taining the different hearings. These observations
soon shewed the present anchorage of the frigates to
be situate in 310 26' N. Lat. in 1390 41' E. Long* 166
la  peyrouse's voyage
The time of high-water, at f uil and change, was at
ten o'clock : the greatest rise of the tide, at these,
periods, was for five feet eight inches above the ordinary level of the sea : the current ran at the rate
of at least half a-knot an hour. The bottom of the
bay is muddy. Approaching the shore, the depth
of the water is gradually diminished from twelve to
five fathoms. To three cable-lengths from the
shore, the coast is surrounded by a flat, which
mak es it difncult to land, even in a boat, when the
tide is low. Extensive beds of sea-weeds, too, a-
mong which the water is but two or three feet deep,
oppose another troublesome obstacle to those who
attempt to land from boats. But this bay affords
certain shelter from the storms of winter \ and the
French navigators thought it to be, of all that they
had vislted on the Tartarian coast, the only one that
was truly worthy of 'the name of Bay, They namj
ed it, Baie de Castries.'
Our voyagers had no sooner landed, than interviews took place between them and the rude natives
of the adjacent country. The chief or patriarch of
the horde, with some others of the inhabitants, re«
ceived M. de la Peyrouse upon the beach. That
venerable savage saluted the strangers by prostra-
tion, according to the Chinese ceremonial, and ther
conducted them to see his wife, his children, ni;
daughters-in law, and grand-daughters, in his hut
The Frenchmen were there invited to sit down on s
mat which was respectfully spread for them y and t<
partake of a dish of grain with salmon, which waj
made ready for their entertainment.     These gooc R0-UND    THE    WORLD.
people made tjieir visitors to understand, that they
were themselves of the nation of the Orotchys y
iand that some stranger Tartars, who had recently
arrived in four canoes, were of the Bitchys 7 a tribe
inhabiting at some not very considerable distance
south wTard.
The Orotchys inhabïted a vïllage,  consisting of
four cabins or huts, of a structure consïderably solid
and durable.    Trunks of fir-trees, laid at full length,
and neatly cut at the angles, formed the walls:  A
frame of not unskilful workmanship supported the
roof:  The roof was covered with the bark of trees.
Within,  there was, in the middle of the dwelling,
the hearth with the fire, and corresponding to them,
in the roof,  a hole for the emission of the  smoke :
Around the walls  were wooden benches:   There
wras no commendable degree of cleanliness to be re-
marked here, any more  than in the cabins on the
island of Tchoka.    The four cabins were inhabited
by as many  different families, which  appeared to
live together in great harmony, and with the most
perfect, mutual confidence.      Every hut was  sur-
rounded with  a stage for the  drying of salmons.
These  are first cleaned;   then,  for three  or  four
days, smoked round the fire j after this, put on the
poles of the stage, in the open air, and left to dry
to the hardness of wood, in  the  heat  of the  sun.
With such exalted, moral sanctity, do these good
people respect the distinctions of property 7 that the
French navigators soon exposed their goods, unguard-
ed, on the shore, in the midst of the Tartar huts, without the smallest fear óf theft, and without a single in- Wht
I :!
I li
f; |i|
la  peyrouse's   voyage
stance of even the most trivial loss.    The Orotchys
pursued the fishery in the river, at the same iiime
with the  French strangers.     It was with extreme^
disgust the Frenchmen beheld them e at, with the
greatest avidity, in a raw state, the snout, the gills,
the small bones, and the skin of the salmons, as they
caught them.    Of these parts, the salmons are usu-
ally thus cleared by the fishers, in the catching.
What of the skin in particular,   remains when fishes
are brought to the houses, is very eagerly sought
out, and devoured raw, by the women.    Those rings
which the inhabitants of Tchoka were observed to
wear on the thumb, are intended for the protection
of the thumb while the salmons are stripped with a
sharp knife, the edgQ of which often strikes against
the ring.     Beside the huts which stood at the very
landing-place where the  French  navigators   came
ashore •, they saw, on the opposite side of the bay,
another village, consisting of eight huts, situate at
the edge of a wood.    At a small distance above this
last village,  were perceived three Yourts or sub-
terraneous houses,   having an  exact  similarity  to
those of Kamtschatka, which are described by Cook.
Contiguous to the village,  were  observed several
tombs of a structure superior to that of the houses.
Bows, arrows, fishing-lines, and in general whatever
is most precious among the possessions of these people, appear to be deposited with the dead bodies ia
the tombs.    Within each monument, were three or
four biers of not inelegant workmanship, ornament-
ed with brocades,  and other Chinese stuffs.     Al- ROÜND    THE    WORLD.
though this village seemed to be but a temporary
winter abode 7 yet the houses were filled with the
dresses and implements of the people ; skins, snow-
shoes, bows, arrows, pikes, &c. These generous-
minded savages, without alarm, saw, from the opposite side of the gulph, while the French entered
their dwelllngs. and even descended into their tombs.
The French, knowing and reverencing this noble-
minded confidence of their hosts, scrupulously with-
held their hands from injuring or carrying off the
smallest of those articles which they were thus un-
mistrustfully permitted to examine. These people
are also wont to pull up and to dry for use, as winter'food, the roots of the -saranna, and some other
plants. The bodies of the poorer dead are exposed
on biers in the open air, on a stage of some elevation, with their dresses and implements of hunting
and fishing, hung around them. There appeared
no reason for thinking that these hordes owned any
other form of government than the simply natural
and patr'archal. They are a feeble race 7 and their
features are remarkably different from all those forms
to which we are wont to attach the idea of beauty.
The middle stature among them, rise-S not to four
feet ten inches. Their bodies are lank 7 their voices,
thin and faint, as those of children y their cheek-
bones, high 7 their eyes, small, bleared, and standing diagonally in the sockets. They have thè
mouth, large y the nose, flat 7 the chin, short, and
almost beardless 7 their skin, of an olive colour, and
sufficiently varnished with smoke and oil. Both
men  and  women  suffer the hair to grow to a great
O ...»,.f
LA   PEYROUSE'S   voyage
length : The men binding it up, as is common a*
mong us •, the womën wearing theirs loose upon the
shouldërs. The labours of the women are confened
to the catting ahd sewing of clothes for themselves
and the men, the management of their children, the
curing of fishes for winter stores. The chitóren
are, to the age of three or four years, suckled atthe
breast. The women appeared to enjoy considerable
fnfluence over all the transactions of the men. No
bargains would the latter conclude With their French
Msitants, without haring first obtained the conseiïte
©f their wives. The copper trinkets, and the penden t silver ear-rings, are, properly, the ornaments of
the wives and daughters. A waistcoat of nankeen,
or of dog-skin, or fish-skin, cut into the shape of a
waggoner's frock, is the common dress of the me$
and boys. When this garment reaches below the
knees, no drawers are worn with it. If the waistg*
coat be shorter, drawers, in the Chinese fashio$|e
and reaching so low as to the calf of the leg, are in
this case, worn. In winter, they wear, all, seal-skia
boots. At all times, and of whatever alge, tHejr
wear a ïëathern girdle, from which are suspended-*^
a small bag with tobacco, a steel to strike fire, and%'
knife in a sheath. The women, differing somewhat
in dress from the men, wrap themselves in a largè
nankeen roke, or in a robe of salmons skin, tanned
with a skill that makes it very fit for this use. The
salmons, of Whïéh the skins are thus tanned, are
taken only in winter, and weigh from thirty to forty
pounds. The robe reaches to the ancle-bone, and
is there bordered with a fringe of small copper'or- R0UND    THE    WORLD.
ftamentffié Of the religion of this people, no monu-
ments nor indications could be discovered by the
French navigators, except some rudely carved fi-
gures of children, arms, hands, legs, which were sus.-
pended from the roofs of the huts, and greatly resembled the votive offerings at the Roman Catholic
chapels. They seemed to look upon their Frenchf*
ipaitants as sorcerers 7 so that they must have some
notions of a nsalignant, supernatural power, which
may be communicated and exorcised for the purpose
©f injuring mankind. Instead of grasping greedil^
at the presents which were offered to them 7 they
rather shewred a delicate and high-spirited reluctance to accept such presents. 'They seemed to
expect them to be offered with a respectful polite-
ness, such as might not humble and wound the spirits
of the receivers. Gifts offered to their children,
gave innnitely greater delight to the parents, than
such as were presented to themselves. M. de la
Peyrouse, caressing two little children in one of the
huts, gave them, in the presence of their parents, a
piece of rose-coloured nankeen : The father ima^e*
diatffy going out, returned with his most beautiful
dog, and intreated the French commander to accept
ja|$a : J§fhen M. de la Peyrouse refused the present y
the father made his children, who had received the
nankeen, to put their hands upon the dog, and to
]fcfy their benefactor to take him. This little tran-
saction^indicates a tendemess and generosity of sentiment, ^jRch as could not easily be excelled by the
^rtue^fipCjf a civilized people.. Their dogs,—the
wolf dog,—are of middle  size, very strong,  very
o i    te 1|2
gentle and docile, and apt to be yoked, like those
of Kamtschatka, in small, light sledges. From the
stranger Bitchys whom the French navigators here
found trading with the Orotchys, information was
obtained, that the streight between the Tartarian
cqntinent and the island of Tchoka, becomes, at
length, in a situation considerably northward from
that whence the French frigates had reverted their
course, a dry sandy bank, absolutely without water.
After this, M. de la Peyrouse abandoned every design with respect to this gulph, save that of explor-
ing the southern limits of the island of Tchoka.
The naturalists, in the mean time, were assiduous in
the study of the mineralogy of the coasts and the
islets of the Baie de Castries. The islets are com-
posed of trapp, grey basaltes, and red lava, both
compact and porous. No volcanic craterês were,
however, discovered 7 and the eruptions were, there-
fore, inferred to have been very ancient. Several
erystallizations wTere found among the volcanic mat-
ters. No new species were here found by the bo-
tanists The strawberries and rasp-benies were
still in flower : the gooseberries were beginning to
turn red : Celery and cresses were not plentiful.
Foliated oysters of a black and vinous colour 7 beau-
tiful whelks 7 pectines 7 small common mussels •, with
different varieties of the Kima-cockie, were found by
the conchologists. Water-hens, wild ducks, cor-
morants, guillemots, black and white wag-tails, a
small undescribed fly-catcher of an azure blue co-
lour, were among the fowls shot by the hunters»
The individuals of all these species, were,
but rare. They appeared not in flocks, but solitary
mournful, and drooping. The martin and sand-
martin were the only species of birds which appeared to be here in their proper element, and natural
residence. It is probable, that, to a certain depth,
the earth remains here frozen, even during summer.
The temperature of the streams never exceeded 4'
of Reaumur's thermometer. In the open air,' the
mercury stood at 13°. These people are utterly
strangers to the practice of agriculture. Yet, they
are föntf of vegetable substances, and collect the
*wïid bulbous roots for their winter's provisions. . In
genius^art, and industry, as in vigour of bodily con-
stitution, they are greatly inferior to the inhabitants
ofTchoka, pi
°ön the 2d day of August, the French frigates
sailed with a fair western wind, from the bottom of
*fnè Bay de Castries. This wras soon after changed
for southern winds. They wished to run along the
coast'of the continent, till they should come within
"öght of Peak Lamanon. The weather, hitherto fa-*
vourable, became, on the 6th, éxceedtngly incle-
ment. The tempestous rolling of the billowrs, to-
gether with adverse breezes from the south, obliged them to sail with all their sails expanded, and
with extreme caution, lest they should be carried
backwards, or hurried into sudden danger. The
barometer feil as low as to twTenty-seven inches five
lines. A thousand circumstanees conspiring, ren-
dered their'. progress extremely dangerous and a-
larming. Northerly winds, however, came at last
to their relief.    In the evening of the £th, the fri*
'   "' o 3      f     f *74
gates had, by the assistance of these winds, reaehed
the latitude of the Baie de Langle.    A bank, afford-
ing very regular soundings, was found to extend opposite to this bay, for ten leagues, from north to
south, and, at the same time, to run out, for about
eight  leagues  westward.      Proceeding  along  the
coast, at two leagues of distance from it, they saw,'
to the south-west,  a small low-lying isle, between
which and Tchoka was formed a channel about six
leagues wide.    This isle received the name of Isle
Monneron, in honour of M. de Monneron, who was
engineer for this expedition.    A peak, at least ten
or twelve hundred toises in height, was shortly after
observed; and it received from our voyagers,  the
name of Peak de Langle.    lts position is in 450 15*
N. Lat.    The southern point of the island of Tchoka or Segalien, was next discovered : it was found to
lie in 450 57' N. Lat. in 1400 34' E. Long. in length
from north to south.    The isle of Tchoka,  which |
thus terminates, is one of the greatest in the world.
It is this same isle which has been otherwisa knowa
by the name of Oku Jesso.    Chicha, divided from
Tchoka by a channel which is bat twelve league*
in breadth. is the Jesso of the Japanese •, and its ex-I
tension southward, is bounded only by the Streight |
of Sangaar.    The Kürile  Isles  lie farther eastward 5 and between these isles, on the one side, and.
the-two Jessos, or Chicha and Tchoka, on the c~.
ther, is com preher. de d that which has been denomi*.
nated the Sea of Jesso, and coramunicates with the
Sea of Ochotsk.    At Cape Crillon, the inhabitants/
of the island of Tchoka, fox the first time, ventures! ROUND    THE    WORLD.
to visït the French navigators on board their ships.;
At their first coming on board, they betrayed some
fears 7 which, however, were almost imraediately
changed for extreme confidence. They acted with
the same freedom, as if among their best friends 5
saté dowm in a circle on the quarter-deck, and gay-
ly smoked their pipes. This confidence of theirs
was, by the French, encouraged and rewarded with
presents of iron instruments, beads, silks, tobacco,
and nankeen. Tobacco and brandy were soon per-
ceived to be the articles which they prized the
most. The figures of these islanders are stout and
wTell-proportioned 7 their features are regular 7 théir
beard reaches to the breast 5 their arms, neck, and
back, are covered with hair. Their middle stature
seemed to be about an inch lowrer than that of the
French. Their skin is tawny as that of the nations
on the coast of Barbary. Their manners were
grave and dignified. But they shewed much more
of avaj^^ja^ less of gratitude, than the Orotchys
of the fflw? de Castries. Their dresses are all the
workmanship of their own hands. Their huts and
furniture display no inconsiderable neatnéss and ele-
gance. They extract the oil of the whale, by cut-
tkig the carcase into small pieces, exposing these
pieces to putrefy on a slope before the sun, and re-
ceiving the oil, as it runs from thei|>putrefaction, in-
to.7essels of bark or seals skin conveniently placed.
It'isconiy on the eastern side of the island of Tchor
kasjUthat whales appear. Though their modes of
iife he So nearly similar to those of the Tartars on
the continent,  it is not impossible but they may be 176
la peyrouse's  voyage
a race of people descended from some very different*
origin.     They appeared to  possess a  considerable
geographical knowledge of this isle, and the opposite   continent r And  their  information  confirmed
those conelusions  which our voyagers had beforif
been led to make.    Concerning Cape Crillon, how-
ever, our voyagers might have been led into a fata!
error,   if they had too hastily believed what they
understood to be the communieation of their insulair
friends.    The canoe being to these people their only mean of measurement and comparison *, they arejf
apt to regard a cove, that affords reception for* M
ree or four canoes, as a vast harbour, and to represent a fathom of water, as a depth almost immea-
surable. M. de Vaujeas, who had gone to verify
the communieation of the savages concerning Cape
Crillon, returned before night, with a large quan-
tity of salmons, and some articles which he had received from the natives, in barter. He had found
the houses farnished with a comparatüe sumptuous-
ness, and ornamented within, with large wrnished
vessels of Japan. The contiguity of Chicha ena-
bles these people to obtain articles of Japanese ma-
nufacture in exchange for their whale oil, much
more readily than can their more northern neigh-
bours. At the approach of evening, the islanders
left the ships, with a promise to re-visit them next
morning. They returned with some salmons, a sa-
bre, and a linen dress, in exchange for which, they
obtained knives and hatchets. They would gladly
have persuaded our voyagers to doublé Cape Cril- R0UND    THE    WORLD.
Ion, and enter the gulph of Aniva, or rather a bay
in it, to which they gave the name of Tabouoro.
A light breeze from the north-east, enabled our
voyagers again to sail. Doubling Cape Crillon, they
perceived from the mast head, a rock or islet, a-
bout four leagues S. E. from 'the rocky point of the
cape 7 and distinguished it by. the name of La Dan-
gereuse. It is level with the surface of the water,
and may probably be covered when the tide is at
its height. They sUered to the leewardoï this rock,
and went round it, at a league's distance. They
had, at this distance, regular soundings in twenty-
three fathoms depth of water. Their progress now
crossed the streight between Chicha and Tchoka,
which has very properly been named La Peyrouse's
Streight. They found Cape Aniva to be very
correctly placed in the maps of the Dutch naviga-
tois who formerly visited these seas. On the ïjth,
they.were, by astronomical observation, and by
their time-keepers, in N. Lat. 460 1/ in E. Long.
1420 57'. They saw no land, and could find no
bottom. The sky was, on the i6th and *7th, grey,
and thickly obscured by fogs. The wind changed to the
east; and our navigators making a tack to the south,
'Jj§|f* a clear view of Staten Island. On the icjth,
CApe Troun, to the southward, and Cape Uries, S,
E. by E. appeaied in sight. On the ioth, they
saw  Company's Island, and  through fogs reconnoi-
tred the Streight of Uries. Company's Island,
iybcmg ^Jich they ran, at three or four leagues of
Mistance, appeared to be barren, destitute of ver-
dure, and uninhabitable.    Somê clefts in the white- x?S
coloured rocks, were  at first mistaken for snoi4^ï
but afterwards more accurately distinguished.     To
$be N. E. point of this isle, our navfgators gave thé*
name of Cape Kastricum, in honour of the snip
by which it was first discovered.    Beyond it, thejÊ
could perceive three ©r four islets *, and northwardJ
a large channel, which seemed to divide Company's*
Island from the Kuriles*    Fogs made it impossible
for them to-continue their course  on the 2istj the
22d, and the 23d.    On the  24U1, the  25U1, and
the 26th, the same fogs stift prevaiied 7 and our navigators were  obliged to continue   tacking among
these isles.    On the 29th the weather cleared up 7
and they again discerned the summits of the mountains. They descried Mareckan Isle, the mostsouthw
ern of the Kuriles.    From N. E. to S. W. its lengde
is-afeo^t ten leagues.   A high Jatting rock terminates
each of its extremities : In its- middle  rises a peak,
that,  at a distance,  seems to contain the orifice of a
voleano. The northerly winds pre valling, determined
our navigators to sail out by the channel which lies
southward from Mareckaa.    Dwring the nigh# they?
crowded sail, in order to re ach the  entrance of the
channel.     At  day-break, they descried the  Southwest point of Mareckan,-distant at about two leagues
to the south east.    To this poiat was gi>yen the name
of Cape Rollin, in honour ol M. Rollin,  the  sur-
geon of the expedition.    They were left, for some
short time, in a dead calra,    But, the  current fof^
tnnately drove them towards;the middle of the channel 7 and they advanced, in this way, about foujfcs
leagues eastward.     The  breadth of the channel? R0-U3SD    THE   WOJULD.
theyfocertainly found to be about fifteen leagues;
The winds at last settled at E. N. E. and they en-
Ifired the channel by clear moon light. It was
named by them Canal de la Boussole ; and they
thought it the fhiest that was to be found among
|he Kurile Isles. At midnight, the sky was again
obscured by clouds ; and the next morning was
veiled in thick fogs. At six in the evening, while
the fogs still continued, they tacked towards the
land. The fogs were still thick. TowTards midnight, the shifting of the wind to the W. enabled
the French frigates to stand to the eastward, while
they waited for the return of morning. The sun
was twice visible durïng the morning. The fogs
then returned with equal thickness, as in the pre-
ceding day. M. de la Peyrouse, in consideration
that the season was far advanced, was now at last
feiduced to abandon the design of exploring the nor-
thern .Kuriles, -and t© bend his course towards
Kamtschatka. He therefore stood IL. N. E. Till
the 5th of September, the fogs still obscured their
*4ËXuting $his progress, they had time- to compare
and to examine in a more particular manner, their
respecHtve observations concerning the natural his-
tüffy of the new lands which they had visited, and
the state of society in them. The seas of Tartary
which they explöred, though the limits of the old-
jQfêmhabited continent, had been utterly unknown to
löè&ropeans. The Jesuits could never communïcate
a$V de&liïslve information concerning the eastern part
'mtf'the Chinese empire.    Such of them as travelled
into Tartary, were never permitted to approach the
sea-shore. The emperor always prohibited every
person from sailing to the northward of his dominions : And it was supposed that this northern region
of Asia concealed riches, which its lords were anxi-
ous to hide from the avarice of strangers. From the
observations of the French navigators, it has appeared, that the northern coast of East Tartary is as
thinly inhabited as that of North ' America. lts
mountains and the river of Segalien have cut it off,
except at the sea-coast, from being explored by the
Chinese or the Japanese. Its inhabitants are pecu-
liarly distinguished, alike from the Mantchou Tartars, and from the islanders of Jesso, Oku-Jesso,
and the Kuriles. The river of Se gallen is the ge-
neral receptacle of its waters. The whole number
of the people inhabiting in the tract from the 4 2° of
North Latitude, as far as to the Baie de Castriesf
would certainly be over-rated at three millisms.
The,river of Segalien, not far removed beyondthis
bay, is the only channel of passage to the interior
co mme re e of the country, The inhabitants of jesso
and Oku-Jesso, are all well acquainted with the existence of the river of Segalien. The adventures
of commerce, however, advance up it, but for eight
or ten days journey.' The marshes which surroand
the mouth of the river, ptobably exclude the Tartars with their flocks, from all residence near it.
The ancient narratives of the Jesuits, have represented this coast as the scène of a pearl-fishery-: |
But the French navigators did not any where find
nearls of such beauty, or in such numbers in the
shells of the oysters which they dragged up, as that
they could deteimine any thing concerning the rea-
lity(of thgstt piece of information.      No permaneatly
inhabited villages were seen on the coast.      Bears,
jbinds, faivns, were perceived feeding in a tranquillity,
Ifiuirshewed these scènes to be little frequented by
mankind, on the coast of the BArE de Ternaie.     A
tomb, with the remains of some burnt trees, were the
only things indicating this reglon to be,   at  all, the
resort of human inhabitants.    The Baie de Suffrein
Was  equally  desolate.    Nor did the whole popula-
tion of the Baie de' Castries  appear to exceed five
and twenty or thirty persons,      Flint,  chalcedony,
calcareous spar, zeolite, porphyry, several beautifu!
crystals andancrustations of volcanic origin, with a
^j-versity of other matters,  such as are often found
amid the lavas of extinguished  voïcanoes y but no
metallic substances :—were found on these coasts by
the mineralogists attendant on the  French voyage.
Tchoka  or  Oku-Jesso,  presents a coast still more
fertile in vegetation  than the opposite continent of
Tartary :    Yet,   the vegetable  kingdom   furnishes
but a comparatïvely  small proportion  of the  sub-
sistence  of its  inhabitants,—only the  roots of sa-
ranna and of garlic.     Even hunting seems to yield
but   an  inconsiderable   part   of   their   provisions :
t,heir dogs refused flesh, but devoured fish'with the
most voracious eagerness.    The skins of elks and
bears,  forsrning a part of the dress of these people,
seem to bespeak, that they are wont to kill these a-
i^aaals^fn the chace.     It is,  probably, in winter a-
|j|Be, that they attack them with their arrows, when
> KI
1 r82
the animals are the most, feeble and helpless.   They
are likewise wont to take them by snares, into whicït*
the animal is enticed by a bait, in catching atwhichÉ
he moves a trigger.  by which an arrow is discharg-
ed, that gives him his death's wound.    The islanders
appeared proud of the scars which they had received in combatting with  bears.    Their canoes were
hollowed trunks of the fir-tree, and appeared capa-
ble of containing seven or eight persons.    These
slender vessels, rowed with very light oars, are era*
ployed by their possessors in voyages to the distance
of two hundred leagues,—from the southern extre-
roities^of Jesso and Oku-Jesso, as far as to the river
of Segalien, in 33° N. Lat.    The winds, followftng
*the direction of the channel,  produce no sue& upon
the shore *, in consequence of which, it becomes easy
to land in all the creaks :  and the canoes, in thejjp
long  voyages,   are. every   evening   run   a-gronnd.
Crossing from one  island to  another,   they   seize
always the season of a perfect calm.     At other
times, their progress is always within the distance
of a pistol-shot from the  land.     Salmons,  to  be
caught at the mouth of every rivulet, afford thera
subsistence :    They   erect   cabins   wherever   they
stop, strike fire with a steel, fljnt, and tinder, and
dress their provisions according to  their ordinary
domestic  practice.    Sometimes, they form with a
couple of oars and a garment, a sort of rude ma$t^
and sail.    Very small canoes, such as contain not
more than two men, are used for fishing in the sma&
rivers, and are pushed about, in shallow water, with
junall sticks instead of poles.—The marmers oa tke
coast of Tartary, are very nearly the same as ïn
Tchoka 7 but, the French voyagers thought, they
could perceive the existence of a distinction of ranks
among the islanders, which did not meet their ob-
servation on the continent. There was, in every
one of the canoes of the islanders, one man with
whom the rest did not eat nor converse, and who,
if not a slave, was certainly inferior to the rest in
Kink. The commerce of their whale oil, and the
frequency of their intercourse with the Japaneséy
have conferred on the people of Jesso and Oku-
Jesso, an opulence which does not appear among the
Bitchy sand the Orotchys.—-Images were seensuspen-
ded from the roofs of the huts, in the Baies de Cast"
tfies, and de Crillon. At the Baie de Crillon, the chief
of a canoe, receiving a bottle of brandy from M. de
la Peyrouse, poured some drops from it into the
sea, as a libation to the deity whom he worship-
pcd, before he wouldr himself, presume to taste it.——
It is not lik«ly, that the Europeans will ever be
tempted to frequent these seas on account of those
small quantities of skins, dried fishes, and whale-
otl, which alone they afford for commerce. The
French navigators humanely declined the purchase
©f the dried salmons which the people of these coasts
had provided for their winter provisions, lest, part-
ing with these, the good folks might be reduced to
peuish by famine, amid the storms of winter. No
sea-otters were here to be seen 7 nor did the natives
appear to have any particular knowledge of the existence of such an animal, or of the value of furs.
The sea-otteris indeed most probably to be found
P 2 f ff4
LA   PÈYROüSE'S    V O Y A'G e
cnlyin the eastern part of the northern Kuriles.-*-
Peak de Langle, being more than twelve hundred
toises in height, and in clear weather, visible at the
distance of forty leagues, is an excellent land-mark
for the southern coast of the newly discovered channel of Tartary. "The Russians, though not the dis-
eoverers of this channel and its adjacent isles, are
likely to profit the most by the discovery 7 for they
will, hereafter, in all probability, carry on a great
navigation in the sea of Ochotsk, and establish art,
science, and an abundant, civilized, population, in
these regions, of which the solitudèis, at present,
scarcely enlivened by a few hordes of wandering
Tartars. It is impossible now to ascertain by what
progress these northern extremities of the Asiatic
coasts received their population. Butit may easily
be conceived, that when the adjacent continent wTas
once peopled, some of those innumerablë accidents
to which the fortunes of mankind are subject,
could not diffuse a few fugitives or adventur-
ers, even. into regions so remote and comfortless.—>
The following is the most ample Vocabulary of the
language of the island of Tchoka, which the French
navigators were, during their short stay on the
coast, able to collect.—Their pronunciation is gut-
tural, yet soft, resembling that of persons wTho have
the defect in articulation, of speaking thick.
^be principal parts of the human body
Chy, The eyes
Tara, The eye-brows
^uechetau, The forehead
Etou, The nose ROUND    THE    WORLD.
The cheeks
The mouth
The teeth
The tongue
The chin
The beard
The ears
The hair
The nape of the necfe
The back
^Tapiftn ehimf.
The shoulder
Hacts souk9
The arms    |||
The f ore-arm
The wrist
The hand and finger s
Tchouai pompèf
The thumb
Khouaime pompe,
The fore figner
K/noche kia pompt
},   The middle finger
Oh sta pompe,
The fourth finger
Para pompèy
The little finger
The fore and upper parts
of the breast
The nipples
The belly
I|LThe private parts of the man
The private parts of awoman
The buttocks
The thighs
The knees
The ham or bend of the
The legs
The calf of the leg
pj mm- m    e;. LA   PEYROUSE7S    VOYAGE
The ankles
The upper part of the foot
The heel t e
The sole of the feet
The great toe
Tassou pompeam, The second toe
Yassouhapompeam,Th.& middle toe
Tassouam, The fourth, and the little toe
Kama pompeam
Names of a diversity of other objects.
The  great island which theyTin-
Another less general name for the
same isle
An island or people,  south from
Tchoka j
A people of Tartary, dwelling on
the river Segalien, N. W. from?
The sea
KdianiyOtKahani, A ship
Hocatourou, A canoe
A thole of a canoe
Oars or paddies
A small vessel with ahandle, which'
is made of birch-bark, andis used in drinking, and in emptyjngr
the canoes of water
A wTooden scoop or shovel, forcmp-
tyïng the canoes of water
A very long, strong, yet narrow lea-
thern strap, used in fastenihg ca*-
noes ROUND     THE    WORLD.
Hai\ e
The bench of a canoe
An iron hatchet,—imported by the
Mantchou Tartars
A great lance of tempered iron,—
likewise imported by the Mantchou Tartars
A bow
Common arrows tipped with ïron?
smooth or barbed.    M. T.
Forked arrows, tipped with*lroH.
M. T.
Blunt wooden arrows
A large cutlass.    M.  T.
Matsirainitsi and
Makiri, A small knife in a sheath, which
bangs from a leathern girdle round
the body.    M. T.
A  name  for  a  French knife in  a
sheath |lj
A large thumb-ring of iron,  lead9
wrood, or the sea-cow's tooth
A sewing needie
A cravat or handkerchief
A hat or bonnet
The skin of thè sea-calf, made Into
a long, loose great coat m
A loose great coat, very skilfully
made of the bark of the birch-
A large great-coat of dog-skin
A  coarse   stuff  shirt,   ornamented
with an edging of nankeen. i8S
Small, round-headed, waistcoat buttons of brass.    M. T.
Buskins of skin, sewed to the shoes
Shoes ia the Chinese fashion, ter mi-
nating in a point,   which bends
A leathern bag, with foar twisted
horns, which is hung as a pouch,
at the girdle
Ear-rings,   consisting,  each, com-
monly of six or eight blue beads*
M.T.        ;|'     1- |^g.!   1Ï
Single blue beads.    Blue is the fa-
vourite colour of all these people
Hieraichtchiram, A large and strong mat, on which
they sit or lie down to sleep
Achkakaroupè3   A screen in the shape of a fan, which
the old men wear to protcct their:,
eyes from the sun
The fire %>
A dog
A musket
A bucket for drawing water, shaped
like ours, but made of the bark
of the birch tree
Ouachka, Fresh water
€hichepo> Sea-water
Abtka9 Small cord
Sorompêy A large wooden spoon
Chouh&U} A copper kettle.    M, T.
Nissy, A rod or pole
Poubau% A hut or house
Nintou, ROUND    THE    WORLD.                         l8p
The houes, the hamlets
The plain on which stands the ham*
let or village
A river running across the plain
The sun
Hour ara,
The firmament
Hourara haüne
, The clouds
The wind
The cold
The season of snow, winter
A stone
Wood, the trunk of a tree
^s sieheché,
Plank of fir
Bark of rough birch-trees, in large
Moss, a plant                                    ||
Pastures, meadows
Smallage, wild celery |jj
The wild rose-tree
The dog-rose,   or blossom of the
A sort of tulïp
Pech Koutou,
The plant angelica
A bird, the singing of a bird
A bird's feather
The jackdaw
A small common swalloW
Agull   '   "Il                      :    .
A common fly "|p
The common kima cockle
The mother-of-pearl oyster
m xgo
la peyrouse's  voyage
Fishes in general, also a species of
A variety of the carp
A fishbone
The roes, eggs, and air*bladder of
fishts, which are broiled and pri»M
served in heaps
A few common words*
He, hi,
That cannot be, I will not
Who ? what ? what is it ?
Tap, Tape,
This, that
Come" hither
To eat
To drink
To lie down, to snore
Et ar o%
To sleep
Toubi Schampè,
Tchinchi Schampè.
| Nine
Tea                        to R O U N D    TH E   W O R.I. D»
Tcbinobi kassma7
Toubi kassma,
Tohel kassma,
Thebi kassma,
Aschnebi kassma,
Thambi kassma,
Arouambi kassma,
Touhi Achampi kassma9
Tchinebï schampt kassma,
Houamptbi kassma,
Houampebi kassma tchineè ho,
Thè houampè touch-ho,
Aschnè houampè taich ho,
Tou ascbnè houampè taich-ho,
Fifty       :§j
An hundred
These islanders were not observed either to dance
or sing. But, with a sort of musical instrument
formed of a stalk of celery or euphorbium, they
were heard to play some plaintive, wild notes, resem-
bling the softer tones of a trumpet.
Amidst this recollection of these novel appearan-
ces, in the varied condition of social life, which had
been presented to their observation on the eastern
coasts of Tartary r> the French navigators ad vaneed
on theif voyage towards Kamtschatka. At six o'clock in the evening of the 3th of September, they
were within sight of the Kamtschatkan coast. The
mountains which they first observed, were those of
the volcano northward from St Peter and St Paul.
The aspect of the whole coast was hideous. Nought
met the eye, but rocks, on which, even in the beginning of September, the snowTs as yet remained un- 102
thawed.    On the day following, the weather contSÉ
rrued clear.    They stood to the northward : and, at
the bases of the mountains crowned witheternal icê,
saw a ground  richly carpeted with lively verdure,
and shaded by tufts and thickets of trees.    In the
evening of the 6th, they reached the entrance of the
bay of Avatscha, or St Peter and St Paul.    The
fire in the  Russian light-house upon  the  eastern
point of the bay, being sheltered from the winds only by four boards, could not be kept burning during
the night.    Our voyagers, therefore, delayed entering the bay, till the hour of two o'clock in the afternoon of the following day, which w7as the 7th of
September.    The governor came out, in his canoe,
for the space of five leagues, to meet them.    From
Jiim they learned,  that their arrival had been long
expected 7   and  that  the   governor-general  of all
Kamtschatka had letters for them, and was expected to arrive within five days,  at the settlement of
St Peter and St Paul.    Scarcely had our navigators come to anchor at the bottom of the bay, when
the vicar of Paratounka, with his wife and children,-
already celebrated as the kind acquaintance of the
illustrious  Cook,-—?were seen to come eagerly on
1    •
Ere the French voyagers could enter the station at
which they intended that the frigates should be, during their stay in this harbour 7—the toyon, or native
chief of the village, with several others of its inhabitants, came out to visit them. Offers of such presents as these good people had to bestow, and of
such services as they were qualified to perform, were
warmly made by them, and were accepted by the
French navigators. Müskets were lent, and pow-
der and shot "were supplied to these friendly natives y
and the French obtained from their cares, abundance
of wild fowl, during the whole time of their stay In
the harbour. Lieutenant Kaborof, governor of the
harbour of St Peter and St Paul, and commander
•of a military force of a serjeant and forty Cossacks,
which'was there stationed \—was unwearied in his
kind attehtions to the strangers 7 nor were his soldiers slow to imitate his benevolent example. This
gentleman instantly proposed to send a messenger
to Mr Kasloff-Ougrenin, governor-general of Ok-
hotsk and Kamtschatka, who was then at Bolche-
«letsk, with whatever dispatches M. de la Peyrouse
should wish to be so forwarded,    M, de Lesseps, a *94
companïon of the French voyage, acted as interpre-
ter between the French and the Russians 7 and was
now employed tb write a Russian letter, in the name
of M. de la Peyrouse, to Mr Kasloff. M. de la Peyrouse, at the same time, wrote to the same gentleman in French. The Cossack messenger was tin»
stantly dispatched, as the bearer of these letters.
In the mean time, our voyagers were enteitained
with every possible attention of honourable hospi-
tality by Mr Kaborof, and the other inhabitants of
St Peter and St Paul. Mrs Kaborof, the lieutea-
ant's lady, was ever ready to offer them tea, and all
such other refreshments as the country commonly
afforded. Nor could Messrs de la Peyrouse and de
Langle avoid accepting, from her generosity, a few
valuable skins of sables, rein deer, and foxes. Every
one, indeed, was ambitious to make them presents.
Ournavigators,however, failed not, amply tocompen-
sate the kindness of their hosts, by presents adapted
to be very serviceable in that climate. For the ac-
commodation of the astronomers of the voyage, the
most convenient house in the village was, at the
first hint of request, appropriated, with the greatest
alacrity, by Mr Kaborof.. Guards and guides weye
sent to accompany the naturalists in their excursions
to explore the interior country. Messrs Bernizet,
Mpnges, and Rece.veur, thus accompanied, went \o
vïsit a voleanpj.the smoke of which, and sometimes
its flame, were seen from the harbour of Avatscha.
Their guides, believing that, in any attempt to
aseend the volcanic mountain, human beings must
nnavoidably perish amid the smoke, would attend ROUND   the   world.
the Frenchmen only to the base of that mountains
and it was under this express condition they set out.
ilpa forest, at six leagues distance from the village,
was their first halt for rest. The intermediate territory was irregularly overspread with birches, pines,
and other trees or éhrubs. Berries of various sorts,
and of every different shade of black and red, offered an agreeable refreshment to the travellers, on
their way. At sunset, the tent was pitched, and a
fire kindled with great quickness, and with the utmost attention to prevent the fire from communicat-
ïbg itself to the surrounding trees. In the morning,
the party again proceeded. The guides, according
to their agreement, stopped at the foot of the volcanic mountain, at the line beyond which vegeta-
tion ceased to ascend. Here they arrived not soon-
er than three o'clock in the afternoon of the second
day of their expedition. Having reposed themselves, during the night, the French gentlemen, on
the morning of the third day, ascended, alone, towards the volcanic crater. The mountain appeared
to be composed of lavas, varying only in densïty or
porosity. On the summit were found gypseous
stones, with sulphur in crystals, less beautiful than
those of the, peak of Teneriffe. The shorls, and
other stones, were in general less beautiful, than
those specimens of the same which arè found near
ancient volcanoes. Among others which the French
naturalists brought back, were some tolerably good
specimens of the chrysolite. The horizon on the
summit of the mountain was not more than a musket-
shot in diameter y save that once, it opened and dis-
<L*        I 190
covered to them the bay of Avatscha, with the frigates diminished to the eye, by distance, to the st700.
of small canoes.     On the cdge of the  crater,  the
mercury in  the barometer subsided to nine teen in~;
ches, eleven lines, and two tenths of a line y while
in the barometer on board the frigates, it itood at
twenty seven inches, nine Unes, and two-tenthi of a
luie.    On the summit of the volcanic mountain, the
mercury in the thermometer was two degrees and a
half under the fr.eesing point; but at the water-sideJ
there was a di&erence of no less than twelve degree%
from this temperature.    To calculate the elevation
of the mountain, therefore, from the indications of
the barometer, it should seem to be more than fif-
teen hundred toises above the level of the sea.   Fogs
unfortunately frustrated the views of the  French
naturalists, who had ascended so far to éxamine the
volcanic crater.  Returning to their tents below,they
found that their guides had already considered them
as persons who had thrown their lives away 7 had
said prayers for the rest of their departed spirits 7 and
had drunk a part of the brandy which was left under
their care.    The ensuing night was distinguished by
an exeessive fall of snow, in consequence of which
every idea of more particularly exploring the limits
of the volcano,was abandoned 7 and the naturalists,
with their guides, returned in all possible  haste t©|
the village.—The casks were, in the mean time»;!
filled with water y and the bolds of the frigates, withi
wood, and with hay for the tame animals which our
voyagers expected here to receive from the govero I
nor-general.    Of all their own live stock, they had R0UND    THE    WORLD.
but one sheep now surviving. Unluckily the Kamt-
schatkans have been hitherto extremely negligent
in regard to the multiplication of tame cattle a-'
mong them 7 although there is such a luxuriance of
grass, in the southern part of this peninsula, that,
with the care of building barns for the reception of
hay, and cow-houses for the lodging of the cattle
themselves, during the months of winter, cattle
might soori be rendered as plentïful here as even in
Ireland. But, the chace of the wild animals, and
file capture of the salmons, which, in immense profusion, enter their rivers, appear to them, far easïer
means of procuring subsistence. The Russian and
Cossack soldiers follow the example of the native
Kamtschatkans. Only the lieutenant and the ser-
jeant had small gardens filled with turnips and
potatoes. The rest are content with the roots of
wild plants, and wkh the berries, from which they
prepare conserved sweetmeats and agreeable drinks
for the use of winter. The French voyagers were
pleased to have it in their power to Süpply their
kind entertainers with a goöd quantity of the seeds
of some of the most valuable Eur-opean pot-herbs,
In their hunting excursions through the country, the
strangers looked ea-gerl-y for bears, deer, and atgali y
but could find neither beasts nor birds of game, ex-
eept a few ducks, or rather teal. The friendly
Kamtschadales, however, brought them, during their
stay, four bears, an elkT a rein-deer, with a large
quantity of divers and other wild fowls. Abun-
dance of salmons, berrïngs, small cod, and plaice,
•were, at all tiraes,  and with the utmost ease, to be
Q.3I -      f m 198
taken in the bay. A few barrels were salted for fa*
ture use.-—M. Kasloff at length arrived 7 bringing
with him various specimens, particularly of the mi-
neralogy of the country, for the inspection of the
French naturalists. His address and manners were
those of a polité, accomplished, European gentleman. On the day after his arrival, he, with Mr
Schmaleff, commander of the Kamtschadales, and
the good vicar of Paratounka, dined with M. de la
Peyrouse, on board La Boussole. He was received,
as he came on board, with a salute of thirteen'guns.
He brought no letters for our navigators. He greatly4
regrettedhisinability tosupply them,before*thetime
öf their intended departure, with more than seven?
heads of black cattle. On the day following, he dinedï
on board L'Astrolabe, where he was received with
the same honours. He would accept no paymentfor
the oxen which he brought-.- On the day following,
he entertained them on shore, at a ball, to which all
the women of the village, both Kamtschadales and
Russians, wTere invited to meet them. The dames^
both Kamtschadale and Russian, were dressed in
silk-stuffs, and wore, in particular, silk handker-
chiefs bound round their heads. The Russian dances
werè accompanied with very pleasing tunes. The
dances of the Kamtschadales resembled the writh-
ings of persons suffering under convulsions. A sort
of mournful cry, with diffieulty elicited from the
the breasts of the performers, is the only music with
which these dances are accompanied. In the midst
of the ball, arrived a carrier from Öehotsk, the
bearer of a large trunk, containing packets of letters- ROTJND    THE   W0RLJ5V
for the strangers. The ball was interrupted. The
Frenchmen were delighted with the news which
they received. M. de la Peyrouse, in particular,
was pleased to find himself promoted to the rank of
Commodore. Mr Kasloff eagerly congratulated
him upon his new honours 7 and kindly celebrated
the eveat, by a discharge of all his artillery.—Pro»
visions were furnished to our voyagers, during their
stay In the harbour, by the joint exertions of all the
people of the village. A Kamtschadale sledge, two
royal eaglesj and a great number of sable-skins, were
among the presents which the generosity of Mr Kasloff would oblige the French commanders to accept.
The narrative of Cook's third voyage, was almost
the only thing of value, which his grateful guests
could prevail with him to accept in return for so
many favours. The unfortunate Ivaschkin, men-
tioned by Cook with respectful compassion for
for distresses, was still a resident in Kamtschat-
ka. When a youth under the age of twenty,
he happened to utter, in the imprudent gaiety
of a convivial party flushed with liquor, some
expressions disrespectful to Elïzabeth the then/
reigning empress of Russia. For this trivial indis-
cretion, all his subsequent life wTas to be consigned
to ignominy and wretchedness. He was the son of
a noble farnily, an officer in the guards, very hand-
some in his face and person. His nostrils were slit y
the severe corporal punishment of the knout was in-
fiicted upon him y and he was banished for life,. to
the distant extremities of Kamtschatka. After
pore than fifty y e ars of exile, he obtained, not many
'm- £oor
years sïnce, a pardon from the Empress Catherïne.
But it came too late. He chose rather to continue in the snowy desarts in which he had pined out
au his better years, than to return to a scène where
he should no longer find a friend, and which would
renew the painful remembrance of his youthful in-
discretion, and of the unjust corporal suffe ring and
disgrace with which it had been punished. He had
been educated at Paris y and still knew as much
French, as made him not incapable of conversation
with the French gentlemen. Yet, shame for the
ignominy to wThich he had been unjustly subjected,
made him, for some days after his arrival with Mr
Kasloff, to hide himself from their presence. Mr
Kasloff, who treated him with a kindness that was
highly adapted to soothe his mind under its sorrows,
prevailed with him, at last, to shew himself to the
French. The obliging attentions of M. de la Peyrouse, rendered him fond of their society. He received, with the warmest gratitude, those presents
which they eagerly bestowed, to soften, as much as
possible, the hardships of his condition. He point-
ed out to them the grave of M. de la Croyere, a
Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, who,
on his return from a Russian expedition to explore
the coast of America, in whichhe had engaged as
astronomer and geographer, died here, in the year
3741. They placed over the grave of their fellow-
countryman, an inscription on copper, commemorat-
ïng his character and his death. Over the grave of
the English navigator, Clarke, they likewise erect-
ed a similar inscription on a plate of copper y as that ROÜND   THE    WORLD.
with which he had been honoured by his fellow-
voyagers, was only inscribed with a peneil upon a
piece of wood. Mr Kasloff promised to erect, without delay, a monument lesi perishable, and which
should be more worthy of two such ülustrious men»
M. de la Croyere had married at Tobolsk y and his
pqsterity still redde there, in a situation of comfort
and respect* ÉgÉ
Mr Kasloff was familiarly acquainted with all the
particulars of the voyages of Behring, and Tchiri-
kow. These formed the subjects of frequent con-
versation between him and his French guests. He
thence took occasion to infbrm them, that he had
left Mr Billings at Ökhotsk, building two vessels
for the farther prosecution of the Russian dïscoveries in the northern seas.„ But there were difEcut-
ties to be surmounted, which would still too long
retard' the expedition of Billings. Mr Kasloff was
of opinion, that it might have been better for the
Russian government, to have sent him out from
some port of the Baltic.
Our navigators were permitted to take a plan of
the bay of Avatscha. They presented to Mr Kasloff, an elegantly finished drawing of it. A draw-
ing of the Ostrog, and a box of acids for the ana-
lysis of mineral waters, were, also, among their presents to him. He was not unskilled in the sciences
of chemistry and mineralogy.. But his first atten-
tions were given to the improvement of those arts,
whichiwere to furnish to the people of his government, the immediate necessaries of subsistence. The
soil promises tb produce, if not wheat,  at least a*
«5 JU £02
tA peyrouse's voyase
bundant cropsof rye and barléy.    Potatoes, butf^
few years since  introduced from Irkoutsk,   were
seen to thrive surprizingly in several fields.    Mr
Kasloff had determined to adopt mild, yet vigorons
means, for obliging all the inhabitants of this territory, Russians, Cossaks, and Kamtschadales, totürn
their attention to agriculture.    A new, mixed race
is arising from the frequent intermarriages of Russians with  Kamtschadales.     These  are  likely to
prove more laborious than the  Russians, less  un^
couth in form than the Kamtschadales.    The small-
pox, in the year 1769, swept away three-fourths of
the latter 7 reducing  their number to fewer than
four thousand,     The new people,  who are  springing up, are likely to prove more susceptible of civi-
lization than their ancestors.    Already, have they
begun to abandon their subterraneous yourts, and to
build for themselves isbas, or wooden houses, in the
manner of the Russians.    These isbas resemble the
cottages of the peasants in the middle and the south
of Europe y are warmed to an excessïve heat, by a
brick-stove 7 and are divided into three small rooms.
Those who do not yet possess isbas, spend the winter in balagans, which stand like pigeon-houses, oéi
tfee top of posts, twelve or thirteen feet high 7 are
covered with thatching 7 and are entered by ladders
which afford no very secure footing.    The Kamfe*!
schadale women already dress   almost entirely in
the manner of the Russians.    The Russian languagerx
prevails in all the Ostrogs.    The Russian govern^
ment, although despotic, is here administered with
the greatest mildness.    The taxes which they Ievp ROOND    THE    WORLD.
©n the Kamtschadales, are so lïght, that the produce
of even half a day's hunting, is sufficiënt to defray
the tax for a whole year. The quantity of specie
in dbculation among these people, is, in proportion
to their numbers, far from inconsiderable Their
fers bring a very high price. An otter-skin is worth
l^rty roubles at the village of St Peter and St
Paul 7 skins of black-fqxes, being extremely rare,
are sold for more than an hundred and twentv rou-
blejs, oCach. The skins of the white and the grey
fox, vary from two to twenty roubles. To open a
fcraffic for these skins, the English, in the year 1786*,
sent a small vessel to Kamtschatka, the property of
a commercial house in Bengal, and commanded by
a captain Peter. Mr Kasloff permitted the English
to solicit permission for this commercial intercourse,
in a memorial which he transmitted for them to the
Court of Petersburgh, But the very vessel which
brought the proposals, was afterwTards wrecked on
Copper island 7 and the design has not been prose-
cuted farther.
As to climate and prodüctions, Kamtschatka may
be compared to the coast of Labrador, adjacent to
the streights of Belle isle. The Kamtschadales appeared to M. de la Peyrouse, to be the same race
of people with the inhabitants at the Baie de Castries,
In personal form, the resemblance is considerable :
in mildness and probity, there is a perfect agree-
ment between the two hordes. The bay of Avat-
SchajKq^erkaps. the finest in the world. Its entrance
L naarrow^ it.s bottom is muddy, and affords excellent
anchoring-ground.    On the eastern and on the wes- '204
la peyhouse's voyage
teïtóside, it has two vast harbours, in which all the
ships of both the French and the British Navy might
find shel&sk? The avers of Avatscha and Paratounka enter the bay, but are barred up with sand-
Jianks4 whieh render Jahem acccssible only when the
tide is attiigh water. .On a tonguC of land curioas-
ly interjected, stands the village of St Peter and St
iPaul. Behind the villa ge, is a .smallport, in which
-ihree or foar vessels may very convenkntly be ca^
anchor for the winter. This bason is, at itséntrance,
but twenty five toises wide. On its shtore Mr Kasloff intends to mark out the foundations of a new
city, which may, one day, become the capital of
^KLamtschatka, and the centre of a great trade with
^(Shina, Japan, America, and the Philippine isles. A
-number of small streams, and a small lake*of fresh
water, are near, to supply the new*town with this
article of primary necessity. Already has Mr Kasloff issued orders which promise to unite the other
Kamtschadale ostrogs with that at St Peter and St
Paul. The Kamtschadales have been converted,
without violence or persecution, to the Greek re-
•Ügion. The present vicar of Paratounka is the son
cf a Kamtschadale father by a Russian woman. >His
manner of praying and teaching has in it an expression of feeling which proves very engaging to his pa-
^ïtshioners. His wife, daughter, and si&acr, wecbthe
best dancers among the women. He edpiously
sprtüklled the/Ülrench gentlemen with holy walcr.
and made them-tóss the cross which was carrifcdoby
his clerk. His usual residence is at Paratounka.
As he had come to S&Peter and St Paul, only.-iïbr ■R0ÜND   THE   WOftLD.
the plirpose ©f visiting ©ar voyagers^ his pesidenee^
there, wts in a teat > and his altar was in the open
air. He is vicar also ©f the Kuriles isles, which he
is wont to visit annüally. The Russians number
twenty one of these isles ; and^ rejecting their an-
deat nanies, dislingüish them as No. i. No. 2. &c.
From the report of the vicar, the French naviga-
$©?s underöood the isle of Mar eek an to be No. 21.
©f the Rnssians. Of the twenty one m£ the Ku*iles.
iales which belong to the Russians, only four are,
aceeerdïng to the account of the vicar of Paratounka,
i-fthabited. These are Nos 1. 2. 13. 14. Nes 13.
and 14. have, both., the same inhabitants-^who pass
the sjummer months on No. 13. the winter months
©n No, 14% The others are only visited occasion-
ally, for the sake of hunting the otters and foxes,
which are their ordinary occupants. The currents
run very strong between these isles, especially at
the entrances into the different channels. A canoe,
or. as the Russians name it*—baidar, is the only vessel in w'hich the vicar of Paratounka is accustomed
to perform his annual voyages. He believes, that
he must, several times, have perished, had it not
been for the miraculeus virtuë of his cassock and his
holy water» The four inhabtted isles do not con*
£ain, in all, above fourteen hundred persons. The
bodies of these islanders are hairy. They preserve
their beards long, and live wholly upon the produce
•of their fishing and hunting. They are humane,
hosp-itable, and docile. For these last ten years,
they have been unable, in consequence of the great
•dim-inutio-n of the numbers of their otters, to pay the £Q$
ivonted tribute to the Russian government. The
sojuthern and independent inhabitants of the Kuriles,
sometimes bring a few of the commodities of Japan
to be exchanged for peltries, with the people of the
isles subject to Russia.
Before he should leave Kamtschatka, M. de la
Peyrouse resolved to dispatch M. de Lesseps,
through the Russian dominions, to Trance, with the
journals of tho^e parts of his voyages, which he
Ij^ad already accomplished. The rapid approach
cu; winter warned our voyagers to take their departure from Avatscha. On the 29th of September,
they were ready to sail out of that harbour. Mr
Kasloff honoured them with a farewell visit y and
for the last time dined on board. M. de Lesseps,
whose society they could not forego without regret,
iemained with Mr Kasloff, to carry the dispatches
lipme to France. A mutual discharge of cannon from
the frigates,, and from the batteries, was among the
last formalities of the adieus between the French
navigators and their kind Russian hosts,
The following are the only other facts concerning
Kamtschatka, which M. de la Peyrouse has thought
fit to insert in the narrative of his voyage. This
peninsula was first discovered by the Russians, in
the latter part of the seventeenth century. Their
first expedition against the independence of its inhaJ
bitants, took place in the year 1696. In the year
1711, the Kamtschadales, for the first time, agreed
to own the Russian dominion, and to pay a si en der
tribute of three hundred skins of sables, two hund-
r-td skins of red or grey  fcxes,  with  a few otter- RO-UND    THE    WORLD.
skins.    A military force of about four hundred sol-
jdÜérs, with a suitable proportion of officers,  is per-
manently maintained in this country, to support the
Inthority of the Russian government, and to collect
the revenue.    The form of the government of this
Jrrovince has been several tïmes changed.      In the
year" 1784,   Kamtschatka was reduced into the con-
dition of a province dependent on the   governmentT
of Ökhotsk :   And Okhotsk itself is subject to the
l3f*rsdiction of the suprème civil courts of Irkoutsk,
Tllié'Ostrog, or Kamtschadale village of Bolcheretsk,
XJ^ronce the capital of Kamtschatka,   and the resi-
dence of a superior military officer.     A serjeant, of
thé name of Martinof,  has now the principal  corrr-
xnand at Bolcherets-k :    At the Ostrog, or village of
St "Peter and St Paul,   Lieutenant Kaborof is  the
commandant: Major Elieonojf CQmm-a.xids at Nijenei-
Kamtscuatka, or the Ostrog; of lower Kamtschatka :
Verknei, of'upper Kamtschatka,  is under the corn-
mand of serjeant  Afomayrff.      These  several com-
maaders are independent of one another, and imme-
diately  responsible  to   the  governor   of   Okhotsk,
alone.     There resides also in this country, an officer
Avho has the title of Inspector of the Kamtschadales,
and whose duty is, to protect these natives from the
oppression of the military government.      His rank
is^tfiat of Major in the army.     From Kamtschatka,
tne Russians have undertaken various adventures of
mertantile navigation,  and have fitted out different
voyages of discovery to explore the northern coasts
of America.    The Aleutian isles y these isles eastward from Kamtschatka,  which are  known by the
R  2 £©$.
name  of Oonalashka '7 and  all the  adjacent isles
lying southWard from  this peninsula •, were,  first»
discovered by Russian navigators sailing from Kamt»
sehiatka.   Okhotsk is the seat of the mercantile spirit
and capital, by which navigation for the fur-trade
is carried on  in  these  seas.     The   vessels  usually
employed in this navigatien-, are from five and forty
to fifty feet in length, have but a single mast,  are
manned by crews of forty or fifty men, each, all of
whom are at least not less expert as hunters than as
seamen.     They depart from- Okhotsk in the mon$f|p
of June, kass usually between the point of Lopatka
a$d No. i. of the Kuriles, steer eastward, and continue to roam about from island to island, till they
have bought or procured, by their oWn hunting, a
number of skins of otters and óther animals, sufficiënt to defray the whole expeneè of the adventure^
and t© aüord to the merchants proprietors, a pront
©f cent. per cent. upon that exptnce.    The captains
of these trading vessels, receive orders from the go*,
vernor of Okhotsk, to oblige the natives, in all the
isles which they visit, to own the dominion of the
Russian  Emperor.     A revenue-ofEeer frequently,
accompanies these trading expeditions,  to  collect
whatever tribute the islanders can be persuaded to
payi   It was proposed to send a missionary, by whose
endeavours all the unconverted islanders  might be
brought to embrace  the  Christian faith.     In tl|&
ports lil which they winter, tjjte trading jjunters nef
cessarily   found  temporary   estabÜshments.      Bufr*
Russia has  not yet fixed any permanent scttlemesfc-
eastward from Kamtschatka.-—Kiatcha, on the com ROUND    THE    WORLD.
fines between the Chinese and the Russian dominions, is the staple for the sale of the Russian furs
to the Chinese. Furs, to the amount of 750,000!'.
Sterling a-'year, have, till lately, been bought and
sold at that market.—In the year 1787, no fewer
than five and twenty vessels, manned with crews of
which the whole number might amount to one thou-
sattd men, Kamtschadales, Russians, and Cossaks,—-
sailed eastward in quest of furs 7 to find which, they
would disperse themselves along the American coast,
from Cook's river to Behring's island. On their
return, these trading vessels sometimes enter the
bay of Avatscha, and then, after some delay, pro-
cfeed to Okhotsk. The navigation of the sea of
Okhotsk, later in the year than the end of the montli
of September, is prohibited by a very |audable,
imperiaj decree, on account of the winter-hurrieanes
by which it is infested. The bay of Avatscha i§
Kever shut up by ice, and always affords shelter for
ship ping.—In Kamtschatka, the winter is less se-
vere than at Petersburgh 7 vet snow and hoar-frost
come on, with great severity, in Kamtschatka, as
early *as the 20th day of September. Against the
cotd, the R.ussian and Kamtschadale inhabitants óf
thecountry, are protected by.the thick skins which
form their clothing, and by the heat of their habitat
tions-, 'Which are warmed by stoves to the tempera-,
ture of 280, or even 30° above the f ree zing point"
The degree of heat wfiicn is- constantly kept up 'm
these dwellinsrsl' was indeed such, that the French
tófigatèis  could not end ure it,  without dange^pf
•mm W: ■*' m 13    UU0-1   "
m I
ïmmedlafêe surTocation.-**-The use of the hot bath is
familiar to the people, in this regóön.    In the vtiK
lage of St Peter and St Paul, Wê-re two public baths»
The 'bath consists of a very low roonl, m the mi#*l
die öf which is an oven, constructed wilhöafll^ément^
and heated in the same marnier as a b&têer's oven*-
lts roof is arched.    It is surrdunded by rówS of seats
for the bathers, disposed like those in an am^ithe-
atre.    Water, warmed by the fire to a boiling heat,
is continually, during the bathmg, cast against the
roof, and is fchüs ineessantly converted into steam y
in which state, it excites the most profuse perspira-
tion in the bathers on the seats, who are exposed to*
its action.    Preferring d©gs to rein-deer, för the use
of drawing their sledges ;  the Kamtschadales are
thus hindered from breeding hogs, sheep, rein-deer,
horses, or oxen '7 all which animals their dogs would
devour, while they are young.    Their draught-dogs-
are fed chiefly with fish, and receive their meals—
Only at the end of the day's journey.    By enquiring:
from Mr Kaslöffx the French voyagers learned, tha^
the Russians had indeed seen the north end of the
island of Tchokay from the mouth of the river Amu|jl
but knew nothing more concerning it.    The English chart of the bay of Avatscha, is good.    Bnt*
iwo banks, situate E, and W. from the entrance into this harbour, may occasion some danger \ and
these are to be avoided—only by keeping two in-
sulated rocks on the E. coast, open with the lighfi>
house point, and by shutting in with the west coast, #
large rock on the larboard hand*    M. Dagelet's oh»  rfciw
The north wind, shifting to west, as our voyagersj
were majkinff their way out of the bay of Avatscha,
rendered it impossible for them to survey,  as they,
had intended,  the Kurile isles, as far as Marec^an^
They therefore took a course in their progress, in,
which they might cross the parallel of 370  20'.. N.
Lat. in the Longitude of 1650 7 a situation in which
geographers have placed a large, rich, and populous
isle, which the Spaniards are said to have discQvêr-^
ed in the year  1620.    At midnight, between the.
XAth and 15tli of October, they reached the latitude,
of 370 20'.    Flights of ducks, fowls which never fly.
far from land..    The weather was clear.    -Every degree of vigilance was employed, yet no land was tol
be seen.   The island which was sought, probably lies
farther southward.    In their progress eastward from
its pretended position, the French navigators óbsery-l
ed two small birds 5 and, in the same evening, a tur-J
tle passed beside the ship.    On the day following, a R0UND    THE   WORLD.
bird, smaller than an European wren, perched on the
main-top-sail yard-arm 7 and another flight of ducks
passed by. Yet, no island was, in these latitudes,
discovered. Perhaps M. de la Peyrouse might
have been more successful, if he had chosen ratner
to run down the parallel of latitude 36^ 30'. A
seartlan unfortunately feil overboard from the As-
trolabe, and wTas lost, during this search. On the
iSth and ic/th, signs of the near vicinity of land still
continued to be observed. But when they reached
JJ50 of E. Long. all such signs disappeared.  SB
On the 22d, at noon, M. de la Peyrouse, aban-
domng this. search, directed the frigates to assutne a
souirherly course. The billowS swelled so high, and
rölled with so much violence 5 that, at one time, in
toe course of this day, the jolly-boat, though lashed
to the gangway, was washed off, and more than twenty tons of water were thrown on board. Frequent
signs of the vicinity of land—but nothing more—
were seen. The French navigators were now,
théïefore, to look- for their next discóveries in that
vast field, of from 12° to J «° from north to south,
aria of 1400 from east to west y where the ancient
tracks óf Quiros, Mendana, Tasman, &c. are, in eV
very direction, crossed by those of modern navigators 7 and where isles are scattered in the öcea%
just as stars in the milky-way ©f heaven. On the
23a Jbf Ociober, there blew from the southward a
strong gale, by which the frigates were not a little
distürbed ih^&éir course. Until they reached the
3Ötn parallel of latitude, on the 29th of October, the
winds wére extremely inconstant, and the sèa was
■ ft
A. i.'
always very much agitated. A passage so suddert,.;;
from the extreme of heat to that of cold, did not
An! to affect, rather unfavourably, the health of mósË
of the persons on board both the frigates. But the |
disorders thus occasioned, were slight, and were not
followed by any serious ill consequences. On the
'ïst of November they found themselves in 2ó° 27'
N. Lat. in 1750 W E. Long. Carlieus, plovefsj
and other hirds which are not wont to venture, 'ifË
their flights, to any great distance from land, were
seen hovering, in great numbers, round them. The
•weather was distinguished by a fogginess of the at-
mosphere, and by frequent and violent blasts of
wind. Yet, the horizon clearing up in all quarter.*,
except towards the south 7 the probability of the
existence of land in that quarter, was, hence, naturally suggested. Perhaps, they might pass some flat
rock that escaped their observation, and which future navigators may at length detect. The indlca-
tions óf land ceased, as our voyageis continued their
progress. The sky became at length so serene, that
they could find the longitude, by lunar observation,
Several doradoes, and two sharks, which they now
caught, formed a very agreeable 1 egale amidst the
salted dishes, to the use of which, under a burning
sun, they found it not at all pleasant to be confined.
At length, they reached the tropic. Fairer skies
and a wider horizon now gratified their view. Birds,
such as never wander far from land, were every
day seen by them *, yet still nought but the waters expanded around. On the 4Ü1 of November,
in 230 40' N. Lat. in 1750 58' 47" W.  Longitude, ROUND    THE    WOULD.
they caught a golden plover, which was so fat, that
it could not have been long distant from land. On
the 5th they crossed their own track from Monterey.
On the 6th they crossed the track of Captain Clarke
from the Sandwich isles to Kamtschatka. The
biflows swelling high, made their progress suffi-
.éiently difficult. A few flying fishes were the only
creatures of the fish-genus, which came in their
way. On the pth, they passed the southern point
ofthe shoal orf 'at of Villa Lobos, according to the
position assigned to it in the charts of M. de Fleu-
rieu. But, appearances led M. de la Peyrouse to
helieve, that, if such^a shoal exist, its situatïon must
be farther westward. The sea became gradually
smoother, and the winds less violent. From the
:irae at whieh the frigates reached the 10 of N.
«atitude, it rained almost incessently during the
day. The hygrometer had, at no time since their
departure from Europe, indicated the presence of a
larger proportion of moisture, in the atmosphere.
The noxious oppressiveness of the air, joined to the
bad quality of their provisions, were found to relax
tne strength and impair the health of the ships' com-
paiues.     To obviate these evils as much as possible,
sÜp3to        '&$§& .
e Ja Peyrouse ordered coffee to be daily served
ÉS^the sailors, madejiis ship to be dried and
véi^ilatedQ)etween the decks, and obliged the crews
to keep their linens clean by using'rarn-water to wash
em. On the 6th of November, they caught eight
onetas: an agreeable refreshment to the whole com-
patiies ofrthe ships, as w7ell officers as common men.
About th^ ijth, when our voyagers had reached the
5° of N. Lat. the rains and storms eeased, and the
motion of thexbUlows became less tempestuous.   The
weather was now serene, till after the Frernch navigators had passed the equator, on the 2ist of November.     On the 23d they caught two  sharks  which
afforded two meak to the crews, an$ishot a eurlieu,
which was very lean, and. very much fa^igued.   Nod-
dies, manof-war birds, terns, «wad tropie-fe^f^Li.^ie-
gan t© hover in increas^ng numbers around th^ra,
while $hey advanced into the seuthern hejaftisphere.
JLn the 2° of soutbeurn latitude, the breeze by whieh
they ha4 been for some  time impelled, desested
*hem 7 and only light airs from N. to W. N. W.
sucoeeded.    Afraid ©f being driven to the leeward
of the Friendly Isles, ©ar navigators availed them-
•selves of these ai*s t© gaift a little easting, * Some
sharks and sea-bkds were, in the mean time, taken,
and were used at table,  as a very agreeable change
of food, amid the leng use of salted provisions.. ,A
heavy sea setting in from the west, made their pro--
gress, about fchis time, extremely laberious.    Their
cordage, rotten by long exposure, was coaifcantly
breaking.    Blasts of wind, and heavy falls of rafcj^
«came on, to ineomraode their pregress,  till the 2d
of December, at which time they were in io° 50' of
Southern latitude.    The winds then became gentier,
and the skies more serene.    They passed over the
position in whieh Byron has placed those which he
calls the  Isles   of   Danger,   without  discovering
aught but sea.    Next day, they found themselveh$|
ii° 34' 47' S. Lat. in 1700 7' 1" W. Long. the vé
ry parallel in wThich quiros has placed haseisLAND o R O t>N D    THE    W O 'Wb ©.
the HAndsoMe Natïon. But the wind was adversé
to their running down that parallel, for the purpose
of descrying the island. Availing themselves,
therefore, of the western breeze, which now blew,
they steered for the Navigators' Isles, so named
by M. De Bougainville. At three in the afternoon of the 6th óf' December, raey arrived within
sight of the most eastern of these isles. They passed through thé channel between the great and the
MalF" isles which M. de Bougainville left on the
"'Séfïöiern side of his traèk. [Mi noon, in mid-chan-
nel, and at a milè^ distance from the shore,' they
found their latitude to be 14° 7' S.
They had seen dwellings on one side öf the isle,
and a company of Indians seated in a circle, under
some cocoa-nut trees. Yet the Indians launched
no canoes, nor did  they even follow the course of
the frigates along the shore.    The island rises with
jn abrupt ascent,  to the 'height of about two hundred fathoms above the 'level of the sea.    The houses are situate in the 'position of about half way up
v the ...ascent i     Some. small plantations, as was supposed-, of yams, appeared near the houses'.    At length,
five canoes set out from the shore,  and approached
the station of the ships :  eleven others came from a
^different part of the isle.     Having paddled several
siflmes around the ships, with an ai$©f distrust, they at
^aasfcofïered to eta&hange a few cocoa-nuts for those ar-
^isiölesüof traffic which the French navigators present-
'ièdató them.     Theft and fraud were the most strik-
ïngnfea;£ures in their conduct.    After recelving the
prj&e^.>as many of them as could,  strove to run oS9
Vi>J. 2l8
ia feyrouse's voyage
without deliyering the article sold.    As no botton^
could be found in the channel, even with a line of
an hundred fathoms, and at less than a mile's distance from the land 7 they renewed their course, in
order to doublé a point, beyond which they had
hopes of finding more safe and sheltered anchorage,
But, there, the eastwind raised a strong surf and;the
coast was begirt with reefs of rocks.    A dead calm-
of the winds, accompanied with a prodigious swell-
ing of the waves, threatened, for some moments, to
subject the two frigates to the danger of running^
foul of one another.    A few light airs happily aris-
ing, soon delivered them from this jeopardy.    In
the mean time, an old chieftain approaching, addres-
sed them in a' long harangue,  and held out in hjsto
hand a branch of the kava plant.    The narrativesj
©f former navigators had taught them tointerpret
this,  as a signal of peace.    They pronounced the
word, tayo, meaning friend, and threw to him a few
pieces of cloth.    The winds at length enabled them
to leave the region of calms.     The islanders, in
their  canoes,  sailed along-side the frigates.    Our
voyagers could remark, that these canoes, being Ha»^
ble to be overset every half-hour, would be useless
to any but persons, who, like these islanders,  areS
wont to swim almost as if water were their native!!
element.    The middle stature of these people apV^
peared to be  about five feet seven inches.    Their'
colour is nearly similar to that of the natives of the.,
coast of Barbary.    Only twp women were observed among the crowd.    Of these,  neitljjer was rgft
raarkable for beauty or delicacy of features\jmfr
the yoiinger had, on her leg, a shocking ulcer. Several of the men had large ulcers, and an apparently inciplent leprosy upon their persons. None o£
them exhibited a pleasing cast of countenance. TwT©
amö'ng these men had their legs, not only covered
with ulcers, but even swollen to the size of their
bodies. JfThey approached without fear, although
unarmed. They went away , and were supposed
to have gone, not to return. In the afternoon,
Itowever, they again came out to traffic. A few
fowls, a hog, and a turtle-dove of singular beauty ^
were now obtained from them. Its body was white y
ïfs head, of a beautiful purple colour 7 its wings,
green 7 its breast,' chequered, like the leaves of a-
nemony, with red and black spots. It was tame,
and would eat from the hand and mouth of any per-
son offering to feed it. It could not be long pre-
served alive 7 and after its death, its feathers quick-
ly lost all the splendid beauty of their coïours. M.
de Langle purchased from the Indians, two dogs ;
wdiich, being killed and roasted for the table, proved excellent eating. It appeared remarkable, that,
though capable of workmanship so ingenious, as that
which appeared in the structure of their canoes y
these people rejected the hatchets and other instru-
nients of iron, which our voyagers offered in exchange for fresh provisions. Glass-beads were pre-
ferred by them to all the stuffs, and to every sort of
hard-ware, which were offered. Among other things,
procured from them, wras a wrooden vessel, containino*
cocoa-nut oil, shaped like our common earthen pot,
and fashioned in a manner which no European work-
.-..* &20
man could execute, otherwise than with a turning
lathe. Their stuffs are of a less ingenieus texture,
than those of Easter Island and the Sandwich Isles.
Their ropes are round and twisted, like our watch-
cbains: their mats are indeed very fine.
As this isle afforded little to their wants, the
French navigators soon continued their courseriwest-
ward 7 and crossing a channel, which they fcggad to
be much broader than it is represented in the chaït
of {Bougainville, approaehed the coast of the island
of Maouna. While they were yet at the distance ©f
three leagues from its shore, two or three came a-
longside the frigates, with hogs and fruit, whieKij
'Were eagerly^ exchanged for beads* Approaching
to within half a league of the shore, they perceived
it to be surrounded with a reef of coral, on which
the sea broke with great violenee. In the creeks,
formed by various projections of the coast, there
was room, as it seemed, for the reception of their
barges and Ipng-boats. At the bottom stood villages. A multltude of canoes, with hogs, cocoa-
nuts-, and other fruits, soon came out} and, for glass-
toys, furnished the frigates with abundance of fresh
prC^sions. Water was seen to fall in cascades from
the summits. of the mountains, and to pass bygte
different vülages into the channel, AHured bjjfc&o
many advantages, the French navigators bmught
^feheir vessels to anchor, afe$he distance of a.-jai$}$
from the sh©re,-in thirty fathoms depth.ol^^ef^^.-
ver a bank ofirotten sheljs, with a very -littl^fQgajU
IniAhis situatÜÉai^ihowever, tjfc^^e^-pro^eted only from theeastecly winds f but the ro/^dst€s4^f^h\ R.OUND    THE    WORLD.
in all other respects, s© bad, that the frigates, to
the great anxiety of their masters, rolled as if they
had been in the open sea.
'Next morning, the two commanders determined
to make the utmost haste in procuring what they
Wanted from the isle, and to set sail in the afternoon*
By the dawn of day,_ the islanders came around the
frigates, in no fewer than two hundred canoes laden
with fresh provisions. Axes, cloth, and every ar-
ticle of trafBc, save beads, were still disdained by
the#§£ ' One part of the crews were employed to
manage this trafHc, and to repress the forwardness
with which the islanders urged themselves upon the
shi^s 7 while the rest filled the boats with empty
casks, and prepare^ to go ashore for water. Messrs
de Clonard and Colinet, commanding the boats of
La Boussole,—*-with Messrs de Monti and Bellegarde, conducting those of L'Astrolabe,—set out,
at five o'clock in the morning, for a bay which was
about a league distant from the station of the ships.
M, de la Peyrouse, för purposes of observation and
enquiry, folio wed, almost immediately, in his pinnace y
and M. de Langle, in his jolly-boat, made an exeur-
sion to another bay about a league beyond the watering place. The creek to which the long-boats repair-
ed for water, was large andeommodiousj all the boats
remained afloat, at low water, within a pistol-shot
of the beaeh. The fresh water wras easily proeured,
and was excellent in its quality. A line of soldiers,
posted between the beach, and that crowd of natives
which gatheredsiröund, were easily able to maintain
good order.    The natives, men, women, and ebild^
if-   -1      W-   «'s' 1
lil 222
ren, suffered themselves to be persuaded tc£èit down?
under  a grove  of eocoa-trees, at a small distance
from the boats.     Pigeons, parrots, and other fowls,,
hogs, and fluit, were eaVerly offered to sale.      The
women, of whom some were handsome,  made offer
of their favours to  all who had beads to pay for
them.     The women at last found little difÜculty in
breaking through the line of the  French soldier^
i Confusion was beginning to arise.    But, some of the
Manders, who seemed to be Chiefs, happily interfer-
ing, restóred order by an alert use of their  sticks.
One of the natives, who had snatched a mallet from
the stern of the boat, and had aimed with it several
blows at the baefe and arms of some of the  sailorS£
was, by the command of M. de la Peyrouse, seized^
and cast to swim about in the sea.     The natèves in
general,  being talier and stouter built men than the
Trench,  seemed to look upon their visitors with a
certain degree of contempt.    To impress them with
more respectful notions of the  power that he was-
able to exert against them, M. de la Peyrouse purchased  three pigeons,  made them to be tbr own up>
in the air,  and shewed the  multitude, how easily
they could be brought to the ground by the unseen
impuls e of a bullet shot from a pistol or a musket.
While the casks were filled with water, M. de la
Peyrouse proceeded to visit a charming village, at
the distance of about two hundred yards from the
beach. It stood in the midst of a spacious grove of
fruit-trees. The houses of the village were arrang-
ed in a circle which might be an hundred and fifty
toises in diameter. The area which they inclosed?
was carpeted with a rich verdure? arjd shaded by ROUND    THE    WORLD.
trees. Women, children, and old men, gathered
round the illustrious stranger, and invited him to
enter the houses. He entered one which appeared
as if it were the dwelling-house of some chief. Mats
of extraordinary üneriess and freshness, were spread
on the fïooT : The Hoor itself was coraposed of small
pebbles, and raised about two feet above the common level of the ground. Among other articles of
furniture, M. de la Peyrouse remarked, with sur-
prize, a cabinet of lattice-work, such as could not
have been more elegantly executed at Paris. The
building terminated in an ellipsis, the curve of which
could not have been more handsomely fashioned
under the direction? of any European architect. A
row of pillars, at equal distances of five feet from
one another, formed a cogaplete colonnade round
the whole. The pillars were formed of the trunks
of trees, handsomely wrought; And between them
hang mats, the cords of which were adapted to move
them up and down, at pleasure. The roof of the
house was coyered with leaves of the cocoa-palm-
The soil of this isle is fertile without culture 5
and the elimate such render clothing little ne-
cessary. The bread-fruit, the cocoa-nut, the banana,
the guava, and the orange tree, grow here spontane-
tsiely, and in the greatest abundance. Dogs, hogs, and
iïdwls, fed upon the superEuous plenty of these fruits,
afford a sufficiënt variety of rich and delicate animal-
food. The wants of these people are consequently
fe\^L j Iron, and instruments of direct utility, they,
there&re, disdained y and accepted only beads, ob- 224
jects of faneiful decoration. More than two huna-
ted wood-pigeons, with a number of beautiful par*
toquets and turtle-doves, were among the animals
©btained from them. These fowls were all tame,
and shewed these islanders to have made a greatet
progress than the inhabitants of the Sandwich Isles,
in the domestication of the winged part of the crea-
tïon. Had it not been for the ferocious expressïon
in their countenances, and the scars ©n their bodies 7
it would have been natural to conclude, that a people, seated amidst external circumstances so propSI
tious, must live in perfect innocence, felicity, ana
During this visït, some trivial quarrels arose a-
mong individuals of the French and individuals from
among the islanders : but, no gèneral disagreement
took place. An island er had attempted to snatch
away the sabre of M. de Monneron; but, having
pulled off, unwittingfy, the scabbard, ran away,
affrighted, at sight of the naked blade. Others
threw stones at M. Rollin, the surgeon-major to the
expedition. A general turbulence, inhospitality of
«pirit, and insubordinatïon to their chiefs, were
plainly seen to be very distinguishing features in the
character of these people. But, the prudenCe and
patience of the French avoided aH extrémities. A-
bout noon, the Frenchmen Ie ft the isle, and returned
in their boats, on board the frigates. These were
«urrounded with canoes. Seven or eight of the
islanders were on the qnarter-deck of La Boussole.
And these people were behaving here with a bold-
jecss,   a  rudeness, and a   turbulence, exceedingly R.OUND     THE    WORLD.
troublesome. One of the men on the quarter-deck,
was pointed out as a chief. His authority had contri*-
buted already somewhat to restrain the petulance of
the rest. Some presents were offered to him 5 and
the power of the French fire-arms was exhibïted before him, but without excitiog his admiration, or
impressing him with awe.
Orders were now given for the frigates to weigh
anchor and get under sail, But, M. de Langle, having been greatly charmed with the scène at which
hehad landed y desired, with great earnestness, that
the frigates should stand off and on at a league's disi,
tance from the shore, tül he might, with a party,
revisit that bay, and procure an additional quantity
$f fresh-water from the limpid streams which pour-
ed into it. M. de Langle had a very strong par-
tiaiity for water fresh from the stream or fountain,
as being much more salutary to those who should
use it, than water which had been long preserved
in barrels on board a ship. Provisions, too, were
here to be obtained in an abundance in which they
coujd'scarcely be expected, elsewhere. Five hund-
IfsfeJ10^' a grea* number of fowls, a large quantity
"gefruit, had been procured at the trïvial price of a
£èw glass-beads, With great reluctance, on account
©f the disorderly conduct of the islanders, M. de la
jP^yxp&se?agreed to await till M. de Langle should
acc^mpJishiis purpose. During the night, the tw©
fögafes luDvered under sail, at a small distance frorh
tj^ shoce of the isle. At day-break, there succeed-
e^ arcalm, after a stormy and uncertain night.     A-
entle breeze from the N. W*
Ê?8i!&ró&£ o'clock, ajg 2l6
enabled them to advance the frigates again nearer4
to the alle. At eleven, they were within a league
of it. Two boats from La Boussole, with the barge
and long-boat of L'Astrolabe, were, without delaj^
sent ashore, under the command of M. de LangïeFf
and having on board Messrs de Lamanon, CoÜnet,
Vaujuas, Ie Gobien, de la Martiniere, Lavaux, Re-
ceveur, with a number of such of the common meff!
out of both crews, as had begun to be affected withx
the scurvy, amounting, in all, to sixty-one persons.
Six swivels were mounted upon the long-boats •, and
the men were armed with cutlasses and muskets.
Great numbers of canoes, in the mean time, came
around the ships for the sake of traffic •, and the
people wore, in their countenances and manners, an
air of gaiety and confidence, which tènded to remove
every suspicion of hostilities to be offered from them.
At a quarter after one o'clock, the boats reached
the shore. What had been supposed a capacious
bay, was found to be but a creek full of coral rocks,
and presenting no accessible passage, save a winding
channel of five and twenty feet in width. WithftB
that channel the boats had but»three feet of wTater«
The long-boats ran a-ground. The barges were
kept a-float, by being hauled to a considerable distance from the beach. The tide was now at ebb.
It had been in nood, when this scène was, on the
preceding day, examined by M. de Langle. Dis*1
appointed in regard to the state of the bay, Mr oei
Langle would have returned immediately to the
creek, without accomplishing his fiÜI" pur pose,—•
had it not been for the gentleness and order which ROUND   TTIB   WORLD.
appeared to distinguish the natives, in the offers
which they now made, to trade with the French-*
men, as well from the boats as at the ships. He
sent the water-casks on shore. The soldiers wére
arranged in two lines, to protect an avenue of pas-;
sage between the wateringrplace and the sea-beachis
tfëater was, without delay, taken in j and the casksf
being filled, were successfully conveyed on board
the boats. But, in the mean time, the numbers of
tlu? natives $fho surrounded the Frenchmen at theaife
task, w^re prodigiously augmented. Petfcjk thefts"0
aUempts to seize, by open force, what they couht1
not secretly steal; with various acts of wanton in-
solence and mischief 7 began to bespeak the con-
tempt of the natives, as well for the strength and
numbers of the Frenchmen, as for the laws of benevolence and hospitality. A brisk traffic still went
on: and the favours of the women were, with e-
nough of wanton eagerness, both offered and accept-
ed. The islanders insensibly proceeded, on the
shore, to assail the strangers with showers of stones 5
while others of them, entering the water, attempted
to seize and pillage the boats. Tct^soothe the inso-
lence and rapacity of the natives, a few beads were
distd^tóted to some few of them, who appeared to
possjss a superior authority among the rest. Those
who were overlooked in the distribution, became,
f©r.thisj ^so much the more outrageous. M.. de
JL^angl^ was on board his boat 7 and th^tfire-arms
were ready to be ^ischarged. But, reluctant t©
proceed to e^&emities^which should occasion an
effusion ©f bloqd y he deelined the use ©f the fire- LA   PEYROUSE -S   VOYAGE
arms, till, at least, the whole party shouldhave come
on board the boats. The natives saw them all enter their boats, without offering any fatal violence.
But when they saw the boats shoved off from the
beach, and were aware, that the strangers, with all
their beads, had almost escaped unpillaged, and
without having transacted, at this time, any e onsi-
derable trafflc , their rapacity and rage were then
raised to the utmost height. They threw stones,
rushed in great numbers into the water to stay the
l^oats, and made a serious and desperate hostile at-
tack upon the French sailors. Orders were given
to oppose them with a discharge of musquetry, and,
at the same time, to use the utmost expedition in
remoöng the boats beyond their reach. A few of
tSè islanders feil. But the prodigious supeiiority
of their numbers 7 their nearness to the boats 7 their
great strength and dexterity in hurling those huge
stones, which they employed as their missile wea-
pons 7 together with the surprise and confuslon of?
tjve French y made it impossible for these to resist
the onset of the inhospitable islanders, without suf-
fering themselves in the skirmish. M. de Langle,
with the master ©f arms, and the caltenter belong-
ing to his ship, were beaten down from the bow of
the leng-boat3in which they stood 7 and were the
first who feil. M. de Langle perished under the
fury of the assailants 7 the two who feil with him,
Were suffe-red to escape. The islanders, in a few
minutes, made themselves masters of the'two boats
which were the nearest to the beach. Eleven'IÉ
thers of the boats' crews perished with M. de LaU
I—"Tv  ko.£jto^-tto
gle. Among these was the unfortunate^M. de Lamanon, naturalist to the expedition. While the islanders busied themselves in plundering the long-
boats, which they had seized j the surviving
Frenchmen threw overboard the water-casks which.
had been conveyed into the two barges 7 and all
found means to escape, although the long boats
were lost. Having in vain torn up the seats of
the long boats, in search of the riches which they
supposed to be hidden in them 7 the islanders
turned themselves to attack the barges, when thev
saw them move off with difflculty. A discharge of
fire-arms killed a few of them; and, ere the rest
could approach, the barges Were beyond the reack
of their pursuit. It was five o'clock in the evening
when the survïvors came on board the ships, with
news of the disaster which had eut off their compa-
nions. Numbers of the natives weie at that time
around the ships in canoes ; and it was not without
extreme difflculty that M. de la Peyrouse could re-
stram the soldiers and sailors, on board the frigates,
from  taking  sudden   vengeance  for the murder of
o o
their slaughtered comrades, by the destruction of
all the canoes arouhd them. One of the islanders,
who happened to be on the quarter-deck, was arrest e d, and, for a time, detained in irons, but was
suffere d, next day, to make his escape, by Ie apin g
overboard. Amidst their indignation for the fate
of their companions, M. de la Peyrouse, with his
officers, and the whole ships' companies, would wil-
Ikigly have innicted signal vengeance on the perfi-
dious islanders 5   but it  was impossible to anchor
T 130
Within a gunshot's distance from the village •, and
when all cïrcumstances had been duly considered,
it was thought more prudent to forego the desired
revenge, than to incur new inconvenience or danger.
On the following day, some ©f the islanders had e-
ven the audacity to venture out, towards the shipt,*
in their canoes, with hogs, pigeons, and cocoa-nuts
for barter. When their offers of this traffie were
rejected, they then accosted the French with sp©*£
-tive raillery. Sjv"ith diffieulty, la Peyrouse suppres-
sed his indignétion, and wTould not suffer them to be
iired upon. Other canoes came out, seemingly wkh?
hostie purpose, to join them. A shot then fired
from a blunderbuss, taught them to respect the
range of the French fire-arms. And they all fled,
With one accord, to the shore. Beside these of the
French who had lost their lives in the affray with
the islanders, twenty others were wounded. Afflic-1
tion of the deepest and most poignant charaeter,
reigned, for some time, on board the frigates. At
last, on the i4th, they steered away from the fatal,
inhospitable shores of Maouna.
The persons  whom   they  had  here  lost,   were
Messrs de  Langle,  post-captain and commander |*|
Tves Humon,   John Rede/leg, Franc is Eerret,  Laum'
rence Robin,  and a Chinese, se amen j all belonging
.to L'Astrdlabe.
Messrs De Lamanon, naturalist; Petem^Tal^^
gunner 7 Andrew Roth and Josepb Rayes, qwarfeeaa-ï
gunners, from La Boussole.
On  the   i4th   of  December,   départingevfrom
tfye fatal ceasjt of Maouna, the French navigator&i
m R0UND    THE    WORLD-
took their course across a channel nine leagues, in.
wideness,  towards  the  spacious  and fertile isle ©f.
Oyolava.    At  the distance of three leagues from.
irs^Jtf.   E^ poiaÊ,  they  were surrounded by a ggeat
multitude o^jOyolavan canoes,  which were laden,
for barter, with bread-Jruit, cocoa-nuts, bananas, su-
gttb.canes,  pigeons, hogs,  Sec.     In dress,  features,
and tallness of stature,  the  people of Oyolava so
nearly the resembled those of Maouna, that, at s^ght
of^am, the^dignation of the French sailors for the
&8pcof théir murdered companions was  awakened
anew*    M. de la Peyrouse, however, quieted tho&efr
«fn^ry enarotions which had almost prompted his peo-
pje to hostilities, at the first sight of the  Oyola-
vsans.    A commerce of exchange commenced,  and
W83 ripirr;ed on with great briskness,  and with mu-
t aal.satisfaetion-,  between the French and the" islanders.    In the course of it,  the  French were more
cafeful than they had hitherto been, to repress, by
tfaftents, and even by blows, every attempt at theft,
^fêaud, or vgitJjfence, on the part of the natives : and-
this  conduct  was  attended with good effects.     In
thfè^rfternoon, the frigates approached a part of the
isle, iwhich presented the largest village,  perhaps,
that is to be seen in all the'islands of the South Sea.
*&£98d$!l8 of houses irregularly scattered over a very extensive and gently inclining plain 7 and ascend-
irrg even upwards to the very summit of the moun-
taia^ which  rises beyond the plain,  and retirjeg io-
wards to the middle of the isle.     TIjfe smoke hover-
mgdver the village, seemed as if it rosé from some
great city.    The people,  who came out in thè ca-
T 2 J332
\iMM   .f   *ftH^/*^A*
la  peyrouse's   voyage
noes, w;ere entirely unacquainted with iron.    A single bead was, to them, preferable to a nail six inches
long, or to an hatchet.     Some of them had agr^eea-
bfe features.    Their hair was bound umwith a sort
of .green ribband, and adorned with flowers.    Th^f j
form wras handsome 7 and every thing in their whqfjf
aspect bespoke sweetness of temper, and gentleöess,
of mannèrs.   The billows broke all around the beach
with a violence which made itnot safely acces^ble
on. the north-side of the isle.    In the dusJ^jof the e-
vening, the canoes had retired 7 and the French navigators sailed onwards, still at no great di&tan§iti
from,the coast of the isle.     A dead calm prevailed
during the next day,  with frequent flashes of light-
ning, which were foliowed bv thunders and safns.
It seemed probable, that, on this day, the people,'gf
Oyolava had received notice of the late unhappy e-
vents at Maouna.    On the i7th, when the frigates
came -over-against the island of  Pola,  no  canoe*
came out to visit them : and from this, i*&was con-
cluded, that the people of Pola had likewise feeën
informed of the quarrel at Maouna, and were afraak
of suffering from the resentment of the  French, ii£
%bey should put themselves within their power.   IW>
Ia is a beautiful isle, somewhat smaller than Qys$s&
va,  from wrhich it is separated by a channel,  only
four leagues in wideness.    In the channel are^two
islets *,   one of which  is  covered with woed.,  a^*
perhaps occupied by some inhabitants.    The q©rrtji£
coast of Pola is inaccessible to shipping :.. Bat after
doubling its western point,  the mariner will enter a
smpoth sea, which may probably afford excellent]
_ R0UND    THE    WORLD.
O -5 -V'
toad-steads. These isles are ten in number 7—Opoun,
Leone, Fanfouè, Maouna, Oyolava, Caiuassè, Pola,
Sitika, Ossamo, and Overa. The relative hearings
M these diffelent isles, the French navigators coulcï
Dot, Trom théülnformation of thè natives, satisfacto,-5'
■Hiy* ascertain. Opoun, the most southerly, is in
pf0 f S. Lat. in 1710 27' 7" W. Long. It has
been supposed that these are the same isles which
Were discovered by Roggewen, in the year 1721,'
aSl<OT)y him denomïnated Beauman's Islands. But
evéry cÏT^mistance led^VI. de la Peyrouse, and his
companiotfsf to regard this supposition as groundless,
and té^consider them as islës unkno#n to European
laVvigators^Till the voyage of Bougainville.
JiThe fïatives of these isles are a rémarkabïy tall^
Pöbustfland well-proportioned race of men. In
comparison with the Freneh navigators,, they seem-
ëd'Tö be, just such as Danish horses are, in compa-
fêj^Sr'with those of France. They are naked 5 but
hiave the body painted or tatoosed in a manner that
gives them the appearance of having clothes. Om*
their loins they bind a girdle entwined'of sea-weeds.
They wear the hair long, and twisted round the head.
Ttiey are exceedingly ferocious and quarrelsorne,
l*he farms of the women are tall, slender, and not
t&igraoèful. But, among all whom the French navigators saw, there were not more than three wdiom
tne^- *éould consider as being truly beautiful and
H¥riasbm'e'! Their sMmers are, in the high est and
rtfb'it disgust mg dé gr e e,' wanton andimmodest. The
tnrW'teauties, w?ho attracted the notice of the stran-
gers",' were re'adily prostitated to their lust,    Of a
1 *34
la  peyrouse's  voyage
basaltic stone, these people form tools for working
in wood, which, even in comparison with the Euro-
pean Instruments of iron, are far from contemptible.
Some wooden dishes were óbtained from them, ïn,
exchange for glass beads, the polishing of which
was not at all less perfect, than if it had been ef-
fected With an European turnmg-loom. The mats,
and some paper-stuffs, which these people manufac-
Müure, are exceedingly beautiful, and of a very inge-
nious texture. Their language appears to be af par-
ticuiar dialect of that which is spoken in the Society and in -the Friendly Isles. A pers on from the
pr-ovince of Tagayan, in the north of the island of
Luconia, understood, and explained to the French
navigators, in whose service he was, most of the
words which he heard spoken at the Navigators'*
Isles. From this fact, it should seem that these
people are, by descent, Malays 7 and the language
which they speak,—the Malayan. Among from
fifteen to eighteen hundred, whom the French -voyagers saw, to the number of about thirty seemed to
be chiefs. These endeavoured to ex-ercise a sört
of authority, but were very carèlessly obeyed'.
They have been very properly named by'M> de Bou.
gainviïle, Navigators. They scarcély ever per forn
any change of place, otherwïse than by water,j a-nc
in 'their canoes. Their villages are sknated- -oi
creeks, close oh the shore. And they have no in
ternal roads from one to another of them. AU o
these isles, which the French voyagers visked^-wer
covered, to the very tops of the interior hills, wit
fruit-trees.   Wood-pigeons, tuttle-doves, paxroquetj R0UND    THEt»WORLD.
biackbirds, partridges, of very beautiful and sif^g|Ê*
las   varieties,    were   very   numerous   among   these
wotids.    About  ihe houses were great number^ ^f
Mme wood-pigeons.     Their canoes have outrigger^
and  are  generally  of a  size  incapable  to contain
more than five or six persons 7 th&ugh some indeed
$&M\ admit to the number of fourteen.    Their course
is not exceedingly rapid 7  under sail, net more than
fesen knots~a.n hour 7 rowing, such, that they could
M%% keep way with the French frigate,, sailing at the
jpate of only four miles an hour.     Sometimes two of
stjfrese canoes are joined into one, by means^f a trans-
verse  piece   of, wTood,   in .which is put a step to receive a mast.    The sails are of matting,  extended
by a sprit.     The sweep-net, and the hook and line,
are their only instruments for fishing.     Their baits
are of mother-of-pearl and  of  white   shells,   very
skilfully wrought.     The baits are in the form of a
rffying fish, and have a hoek of tortoise-shell attach-
|-ed,to them,  which is of sufficiënt strength to drag
©ut- a tunny, boneta,  or dorado.     These isles se era.
•£o:be all of volcanic origin.     On the beach appear-
-:,ed so stones,  but pieces or lava,  basaltes,  or coral.
|-Ifu-,aii- the» ©reeks, the sides are usually filled up with
j^oral, which leaves in the middle just a narrow channel, sufficiënt to admit the canoes to pass and repass,
L:Thesecanoes are so liglxt, as to be easily borne, one
f§ q~; the;. should e r s of two men.     Nor are they usual-
clyi'iléft in the water,  but deposited under the shade
-Ojfytrjees.: near the dwellings.    No situations can be
tomore agreeable  than  those of the villages in these
IMes.-iÉThe houses stand-on the banks of streamlets
#\\\ S&
descending%om the hills, under the shade of §ié&&
trees, by the sides of pafch-ways leading into the interior parts of the isles.    Each house is sufficiently
spacious to lodge even several famiÜes.   *^Ftiey have*
meveable doors ©r windows, which are let down to
exclude the sun, aa&Ö pulled up, on the oppositie sidej
to  admit the  fresh breezes.     Hogs, dogs, fowls,
. birds, and fishes, furnish a rich abundance of anfenal
food to tke inhabitants of these isles.    The cocoa^
^te guava, the banana-tree, with anotfeer tree whic$£
bears a chesnut-like fröat, that is roasted for eaftf
ing, supply an abundance of wholesome fruits.     Su-
gar-Canes, of an inferior quality, grow spontaiiéously
on the banlbs of the rivers.     In Maouna,  Messrs
Martïniere and  Colignon made a short "%otanical
excursion.    But the natives exacted a glass-bead
for every plant they gathered^ and, even underrtéfii£
condition, would hardly permit them to bring off
^what they collected, in safety.    Clubsf arrow-like
lances, and stones which they were skïlled to throw
with great force and dexterity, were the offensive
weapons of these people.    The population of these
isles is prebably very considerable in proportïon to
thélt extent.    Maouna, Pola, and Oyolava, are eer**
t$$t¥ïy among the most bea&tiful of all the isles of
tbfc Southern  Ocean.    M.  de la Peyrbuse would
^ladly have gone aimore on Pola.    But, after ^ch
experiehce of the'-rnhospitable temper of the natives"}'*
$$would have been Imprudent to send aifNjp p
the créWs ashore, unarmed }' and so strong wéiê stil
the resentments of the  sailors, that going dn lahoe
with arms in their hands, they hifdry could havè^iftS* ROUND    THE    WORLD.
frained from employing these against the islander^
even without new provocation. For this reason,
M. de la Peyrouse resolved not again to cast anchor,
till he slfcguld reach Botany Bay.
After sailing along the western coast of Pola, the
French navigators lost sight of land. They endeavoured to sail in a S. S. E. direction. An E. S. E.
wind, at first, opposed their progress, lts shifting,
however, soon suffered them to make way agreeably
toytheir wishes. On the 20th they came within
sight of a round isle, precisely S. from Oyolava, and
about forty leagues distant from it. On the day
following, they arrived within two leagues of its
coast. Two other isles were now also deserled, to
the southward 7 which plainly. appeared to be the
Cocoa and Fraitor Islands of Schouten. Cocoa
Island towers up to a great elevation, in the form of
-^sugar-loaf. It is nearly a league in diameter 7
and trees cover it up to the very summit. A channel, of about three leagues in breadth, intervenes
between this and Traitor's Isle which is low and
flat, with only one hill of moderate height in the
middlf- A channel, about an hundred and fifty fa-
th&ms wide at its mouth, intersects this isle into
two parts, so that it is properly two isles, not one,
as has been hitherto fancied. The weather was un-
fa^Oiiirable , and no canoe came out immediately
froraj+Jraitor's Island. The frigates hovered near,
duri^g,theevening : at eight o'clock in the morning,
they approached to within two miles of the bottom
of a sandy bay. About twenty canoes soon left the
shore, and approached the frigates.     They were la-
den» for barter, with excellent cocoa-nuts, and with
a few bananas and yams.     One brought a heg, with
a few fowls.    The people appeared plamly t&.hav#
had   no   previous   acquaiatance   with   Europeans.
They  approached without  fear pr  suspiciou,   and
jr^adily excfcanged their provisions for beads,  nails,
and different pieces  of iron.    They had every one
tw© joints cut off from the little finger of the left-
hand.    In other respects, their aspect and manners
differed little from those of the people of the Navi*
gators'' Isles.    Their stature was, however, lower,
and thfeir form less robust.    The French navigators,
in their intercourse with these Indians, thought pmptf t
per to act with more of spirit and vigo^wt* than they
had hitherto  shown.    They repressed every act of
theft or iniustice, would not suffer their;vistors tfdt
cerne on board,  and shewed what power their arms
gave them, -to punish every act of hostility or fraad*
On the  23d, at noon,  while they were trafficking
with these Indians,  a sudden blast from the W.   S.
W. dispersed the canoes, oversetting many of them,
but without occasioning any serieus misehiëf to ibosejj
who sailed in  them,,    Although the weather was..'
thus unfavöuaable, yet the French voyagers fsdled:
not to -make-the circuit of the isle, and to survey all
its poiats,.   ; At four in the afternoon, they renewed
their progressj  steering S. S, E. of pur pose to ex&ac:
mine such of the Friendly Isles to the north of IJb:
namoo-ka, as had been left u-Bexplored by Cook.. ROUND    THE    WORUA
FOLK . JSL AN©»    <Scc
Atstormy night sueceedkig thé day ©^ their depaT-j
tuara; from. Traitor's Island, retarded and endangered
thïSB^ir-ogress.    Such of the crew as had begun to feel
an incipient scurvy,  now suffered exceedingly from*
the rnoisfcure in the atmosphere.    A man of the name
o&üDavid, the gua-room cook, d*ed of a seorbutic
droptyk   Molasses and spruce-beer, are considered as
the most efficacious preserva&ve against scurvy.     In
th^se hot climates, the companies continued to drink
these articles at the rate of a bottle a-day to each
peapm, with half a pint of wine, and a small glass of
brandy, greatly diluted wifch water.     The hogs oh-;
tained from Maouna, proved but a transient resource.
They could neither be salted nor preserved alive.
On this account, fresh perk was, few: a while, served
©utj-etwice a-day, to the crews.    And, while this last-
ed^aBothöiStwellings of the legs, and the other symp-
toms a£«c.uon^began to d^appear.    The N. N. WLe
winds foliowed them  beyond  the  Friendly  Isles y
were   always  accompanied with rain y and blew as
hard as the western gales on the coast of Britanny.
I 24°
On the 2^th of December, they discovered the
island of Vavao.    Its western point bore precisely
W. at noon, when their latitude was  i8° 34'.    lts
existence was known to Captain Cook  only from
the report of the people of the other Friendly Isles.
It is almost equal in extent to   Tongataboo 7   and
being of loftier elevation, is more copiously supplied
with fresh water,    This isle had been before seen
by the Spanish Captain Don Antonio Maurelle.    It
is surrounded by a number of other isles, by whieh
the number of the Friendly Isles, origiiially made
known by the English, is almost doubled.    Maurelle made this discovery in the course of a voyage
from Manilla to Chili, in which he was induced to
enter these latitudes in search of westerly winds.
He called Vavao, with its surrounding islets, the Islands of Majorca :  to Happaee, and the islets lying
around it, he gave the name of the Islands of Gal-
ves.    The names employed by the natives themselves, have been preserved in the map of the French
navigators.    On the 27th the French frigates were
at a small distance W. N. W. from Vavao.    During the night, they advanced so far, that,  on the
morning,  they could see the Magura of Maurelle,
at the distance of twelve or fifteen leagues eastward.
Towards noon,  on the same day, they were at the
entrance of that part of Vavao in which Maurelle
had anchored.    It is formed by small isles, ha vin
between them narrow, but very deep passages,
affording entire shelter against the winds blowinw
from the  qffing.    Many circumstances invite-d oür]
voyagers to come to an anchor here ? but rèfiection R0ÜND   THE   WOR£.f>.
upon^ü&e daogers to whieh they mighj^^^kposbjè',
édËÉe rapacity of the natives,  detèrfcuined them
eagainfcjtHt.    Ne eanoes came from the is4e to traflie»
aThe weather wa#ijhreatening,  and already stormy*
-Giti navigators, therefore, boti£P away for theiisfinjL
hof Latte,  at rê&?enty leagues distance.    The nign£
which ensued,  was  dreadful wjt^i pitchy darkhess
and storras.    When day returned, the storms were
rather heightened than allayed»    The frigates were
now steered f£ within two leagues oP'the island of
Latte.    Bu^'here, befeu*e any canoe could come out,
ttaeVsails were so mifeh overpressed by a blast, that
oua?navigators were compellêd to steer aW$r5wr the
isles of KAoïvand Toofoa.    They passed near these
isles, but were, at firlst, prevented by the mists front
j|fs$$vering them.    At five o'clock in the evening,
4fee weather-éAiecame fair 7 and Kao was discerned
risjpg with a lofty conical elevation.     Through the
nigh&  our navigators continued to hover near these
;^tó#fsh jAfc-sun-rise, on the following morning,  both
Kao and Toofoa were clearly seen.     Passing vn&Si'
jgjiydf a league of Toofoa, the French voya^èls per-
§$&$$, alisd^p  be  uninhabited.      It is precip!|öusly
Ujlja^t^lsfous ; about four leagues in circumference y
and .woo^e-d up to its summit.    It is probable that
1^ people  of Tongataboo,  and the other Friendly
|sj§$, may often resegrt hither in the summer, to cut
dft-ï^-ftr^ood, and construct their canoes : since none
g.u.| %^^^afing trees grow uporiöthe isles which
|]^y70$j{habit.    A.s  our voyageis  passed  near the
s^gre o^^JiJs^bl^iïjthey could discover several'slides
^j^a^fjaed planes, destined for the'Jmrpose of ad-
't 242
LA   peyrouse's  voyage
mitting the trees cut above, to roll easily down the
declivity to the sea shore.    They next continued
their course towards the two small isles of Hoonga-
tonga and Hognga-happaee.    Looking back upon
Kao and Toofoa, these isles seemed to them as u-
nited, so that Kao formed the summit of Toofoa.
3£ao is about three times as high as Toofoa 7   its
summit may seem the peak of a volcano : its base
is apparently less than two miles in disteeter.    Towards noon they arrived within sight ofttthe two
isles of Hoonga-tonga and Hoonga-happaee.||j>Near
to these is a very dangerous reef of roséks, two
leagues in extent,—in  direction, nearly H. by W.
and S. by E. having its northern point five leagues
N. from Hoonga-happaee t, its southern poiné>three
leagues  N.  from   Hoonga-tonga ^---formihg, .I^Md-
the twTo isles, a streight three leagues broaxlf and
not laid down in the charts of any former navigators.    Its hreakers were seen, by the French voyagers, to r'ise mountain-high,  as they sailed along at
a league's distance to the westward.    Hoonga-tbn-;
ga and Hoonga-happaee are uninhabitable roeks, sol
high as to be  visible  at fifteen leagues  ditfcance?.*s
Their form changes every moment to the view,  as
you advance towards, or retire from, them.    Tha^d
seemed to be,  each, less than half a league in cir,-.
curnference..   A channel,  a league broad,—anftifru
the duection of E. N.  E. and W.  S. W.-diiaèés,
them from  one another.   They lie ten lëaguesa^
from the low isle  of To%S&-aboo.    This isJe^wasi
seen by our navigators on the 3ist   of'---December.
Only the tops of its trees were at first visible paamé R0UND    THE    WORLD.
these appeared, as if they had their roots in the waters.     As they approached,  the   land  appeared to
rise for about twTo fathoms  above  the   level  of the
sea.    With a  northerly wind,  the frigates steered
for the southern coast of this isle.     They found it
to be approachabde, without danger, to the distance
of only three musket-shots.     Close on the shore, the
sea was seen to break with great fury.     Beautiful
orchards,  and trees skïrting fields of charming ver-
dure,  appeared  over  the  whole interior surface of
the isle.     Not a single hill was to be seen y all was
flat,  as the surface of the sea in a calm.    The huts
of the natives were scattered over the fields, not col-
lected into  villages.     Seven  or eight canoes were
soon; launched  out from the isle,  and  bent their
course toward the ships.    But they were ill navigat-
ed-y and-  though the water was smooth, could not
come cfc>se tffcthe frigates.    At the distance of eight
or ten fathoms, the islanders leaped overboard from
their canoes,  and  swam to the French ships.    In
their hands $hey held cocoa-nuts, which they very
honestly gave in exchange for hatchets,  nails,  and
other bits of iron.    Mutual confidence,  to a very
high degree, soon took^place between these islanders
and the  French voyagers,    A young man among
the former, saying, that he w7as the son of Feonou,
cbtained,  on thi%account,   various  presentSL^jvith
which he appeared to- be exceedingly gratified. Jtïe
urged x/|Jie   strangers to  come  to  an anehor^atthe
;slmre of the isle j  promïsing that they should there
obtain   pró^isj^)ns  in  great   abundance.     These  islanders, in general, were noisy, but without that fe-
U.2- 244
la  peyrouse's  voyage
rocity which Marked the manners of the natives of
the Navigators'Isles. They are inferior, also, in
sïze and vigour, to the people of the Na^gators'
Isles. They appeared to possess no arms but patow-
patows; and these were so small, that several: ©f
them which the Frenchmen boueht, werghed nat
more than one-tMrd of the weight of a patow-patow
from Maouna. These people, as well as these of
Cocoa and Traitor Isles, are wront to cut off tw©
joints from the little finger, in teken of sorrew for
the loss- of near relations. All the intercourse between the Frenchmen and the peopïe of Tongatabö©
Was confined to a single visït. The refresfem?ents
obtained. were very slicht. The astronomkal ob-
ïtrvations which were here made by M. Dageïet,
coincided nearly with those of Cook.. 0n theaJ$6
of January, hopeless of obtainiag here a sufficiënt
supply of provisions, our navigators resolvéd to continue their course, without farther delay, towards
the. W. S. W. and to proceed to Botany BÉy, by
a track which no navigator had as yet pursaed. The
wind, however, sfiifting from N. t© W. S* W. ©*•
Uhged them to stretch sotrthward. On the morning of the 2d of January 1788-, they pëiétivecNhë
Isle óï P*ïlstaart, the discovery of Tasnmn% Ifs
greatest breadth is a quarter of a league. Itsth'
stee^^öö its north east side are a few trees : it^ëa%
onljlBSIl^ a retreat for'aquatic birds. Its Mtitudfc
w.asfföutï4-?t)y M. Dagelet to be 22P 22' S$ For
three days, the French frigates were detainetf*t*y
cal$|f*withm sight of this isle. On thé? 6th, the
'trade-winds arose from the east 7  the skie^-were ROUND    THE    WORLD.
darkenerjl^ and the billows began to roll tempestu-
ously high. These breezes, accompanied with heavy rains, and an obscure horizon, continued to blow
till the 8th. Steady and strong breezes then arose
from the north-east to the south-east; the weather
became dry 7 and the sea was excessively agitated.
When they had passed the latitudes of all the isles,
|^e winds resumed-their regular course. Thé tern-
perature of the air became now also colder. On
the i3th they arrived within sight of Norfolk. Island, and of two other islets lying contiguous to its
southern extremity. Approaching its coast, they
found the water sufficiently smooth 7 and were
therefore induced to cast anchor in twenty-four fathoms depth of water, over a bottom of hard sand
and coral. Close upon the shore of the isle, the sea
was seen to break with fury. M. de Clonard was
therefore sent out to discover, whether the boats
might net find safe shelter behind some of the rocks
which skirted the coast. He stood towards a sort
of inlet between two poïnts at the northern extremity of the . N. E. coast of the isle. But a surf,
breaking on the rocks, .was soon found torender
that inkt inaccessible. Thev coasted along- within
half a musket-shot from the shore, for the space of
half-a-league, but still without finding a single spot
where they might land. A natural wall of lava.was
seen J<psurround the isle. The lava appearing to
have flowed from the summit of the mountain, to
have ©ooledSm its> 4e'§cent, and to have formed a
,«$©rt of roof, ^projecting several feet over the coast
of. the isle.    Even if they could have landed, yet,
if   lelee u.3; .      '■' f m
■■ &i6
it would have been impossible to penetrate into the
interior parts of the isle, otherwise than by stemming
some rapid torrents, which had formed ravines for the
space of fifteen or twenty toises. Beyond these natural barriers, pines, and a rich and verdant herbage,
covered the face of the isle. From the ship, M. de
la Peyrouse anxiously watched with his telescope the
progress of the boats. At the fall of night, seeing
that they had found no fit place for debarkation, he
made a signal to recal them. Soon after^brders
were given for the ships to get under way. A sigfi'
nal from L'Astr-oIabe, at this time, gave the alarms
that she was on fire. A boat was instantly dispatch-
©d to the assistance of the people on board her. But
happily before the boat had proceeded half way, a
second signal from L'Astrolabe, gave notice that
the fire was-extinguished. A box of acids, and o-
ther chemical 1'quors, had, by taking fire spontane-
ously, oceasioned the alarm.. That box being thiown
overboard, removed the danger.
Norfolk Island lises abruptly for about seventy
or eighty toises above the level of the sea. Its^
pines seem to be of the same sort as-those of New-
Galedönia and New-Zealan'd. Of the cabbage-
bearing palmsx which Cook found on this isle, there
Were none seen by the Frenëh navigators. It is
üninhabited, save by sea-fowls^ p^rticularly tropï&gj;
birds with long red feathers •, boobies- and gulls
were likewise seen upon upon great numbergy
To the northward, the eastwa|d, and perhaps alj
around this isle, there extends^a bank of sand, ovém
which the depth of the water is; but betren twenty
and thirty fathoms.    Some red-fish were caught by
our voyagers overagainst this isle,  which  afforded
them an excellent repast.    At eight o'clock/in the
evening, ffhey resumed their course y  sailrng, first,
W.   N.   W.   afterwards   bearing  away   gradually
S. W. by W.    The bottom was found, by frequent
soundings, to be even y and the water became  continually deeper in proportion as  they receded from
the land.    At eleven in the evening, they were ten
miles W. N. W. from. the most  northern point ©f
Norfolk Island, and could find no bottom  with a
line of sixty fathoms.     The wiittl was at  E.  S.  E.
with frequent darkening blasts, in the intervals between which, the sky was tolerably clear.    At day-
break, they held with full sail towards Botany-Bay,
from Whieh they were not now more than three hundred leagues distant.     In the evening of the   I4th,
they soönded with a line of two  hundred fathoms,
without finding bottom.     The  wind continued t©
blow from E. S. E. to N. E. till they came within sight of New Holland.    On the J7th, in 310 28?
S. Lat. in 159°* 15' E. Long. they were  suarrouhd-
ed^by flocks of gulls, which led them to suspect the
vicinity of some rock or island.     These   birds  foliowed them to within eighty leagues of New Holland 7 and had probably come from some üninhabited island which  our voyagers had  passed without
observJng it.    Within eight leagues of Botany Bay
they at last  found   bottom under  ninety fathoms
depth of water, after having, every evening, sound-
ed without success, with a line"of two hundred fathoms, since their departure from the coast of Nor* 2&
folk Island. On the 23d of January, they arrived
with sight of Botany Bay^The land is not of any
extraordinary elevation 7 and is scarcely vlsible be-
yond the distance of twelve leagues out at sea. In
their near approach to the Bay, they met with currents by which they were continually drifted south-
ward from their reckoning. Oii the 24th they plied
for the whole day to windward, in sight of the Bay,
without being able to doublé Point Solander. This
day, they-perceived an English fleet at anchor in
Botany Bay 7 and could discern its colours and pen-
dents. At nine on the morning of the 2Óth, they
dropped anchor in seven fathoms water over a bottom of grey sand, abreajl of the fecond bay. An
English lieutenant and midshipman came on board,
as they entered the mouth of the channel 7 informed the French commander, that they were sent by
C\ptain Hunter, comraanding the Sirius English
fiigate j and making offer of every service which
Captain Hunter^s circumstances could permit him
to render them. Deserters from the English set-
tlement,. which was at. this, time just forming under
Go vernor Philips, after wards gave the French no
«mail trouble.
The.English having gone from Botany Bay to
Port Jacksjn, M de Ia Peyrouse halted for some
tjimejin that bay. A sort of intrenchment witjj
paüisades was formed on shore, for the purpose ©;
securing.the French during their stay, from the mis
chievous attacks of the natives. These people threv
spears at them, after receiving their presents anc
caresses.    It was the deterrnination of the Frenci ROUND   'THE    WORLD.
commander to sail from Botany Bay on the i5th of
March 1788 7 and he had hopes of arriving, in the
month of December, at the Isle of France. M.
de Clonard was here advanced to the command of
L'Astrolabe. From this station were transmitted
home the last letters and journals which have been
received in France from the unfortunate La Peyrouse,  and the companions of his voyage.
Every thing concurs to persuade us, that they
have, all, perished by shipwreck. No accounts
have been obtained concerning them. Captain
jBoWen, in December 1791, on his return from Port
Jackson to Bombay, perceived, on the coast of New
Geörgia, in the eastern ocean, the wreek ofa ship
which he judged to be of French construction, float-
ing upon the waters. From the signs of the natives,
he learned that European ships had touched on
their coast 7 and he perceived, in their hands, several articles of iron and glass-ware. The only ships
known to have navigated these seasr are—-those of
Bougainville,—the Alexander,—»the Friendship of
London,—those of La Peyrouse,-—and that of Cap-
|#a£n Bowen. As the rest are known not to have
been wrecked in these seas 5 the only inference
which remains, is 7 that the wreek which Captain
Bowen saw, must have been the wreek of the ships
of La Peyrouse. This is the only probability which
we posséss concerning the fate of this great naviga-
tè¥%a&his companionsi^^
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Manilla, the capital of the Philippine Islands, to
San Blaz, on the western coast of Mexico ; which
was performed in the years i78i and ijzt, by the
Spanish Frigate La Princesa,
IN the month of August in the year 1781, the
Prïncësa frigate was fïtted out by the governor of
Manilla, for an expedition of which the design was
kept secret. The command was intrusted to Do»
Antonio Maurelle 5 and he received, at the same
time, a sealed packet, which he Was ©rdered not
to open, tili he should be ten leagues of distance out
at sea, from the port of Cavite. He put to sea on
the 241b of August. Ön the 25th, at the prescrib-
ed distance from Cavite, he opened the packet 5 and
found it to contain instructions directing bira to repair to the port of Sisiran, on the eastern coast of
Luconia, and there await the farther orders of Government. Adverse winds and calms soon inter-
vened to retard his progress. While he wrought to
windward, a current from the point of Escarseo,
carried the vessel backwads. On the 29th, at two
o'clock in the morning, he was obliged to cast anchor near that point. On the 30th, at half after
three in the morning, the wind changed to the west,
with a degree of violence which drove the frigate
from her anchors. At length, with great difficulty,
and with the loss of some anchors and cables, -the
point was doubled.    At eight o'clock, on the even- £©2
voyageSfrom manilla
ing of the 3ist, they came to anchor under Beitel?
of the island of Tiaco.    On the ist of September,
they proceeded on their course.    About six o'clock