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A voyage round the world, performed in the years 1785, l786, 1787, 1788 by M. de la Peyrouse: abridged… La Pérouse, Jean-François de Galaup, comte de, 1741-1788 1801

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     Voyage round the World.
1785,    1786,    I787,    I788,
M. de la PEYROUSE:
Abridged from the Original French Journal of
M. de la Fkyr: use,   winch was lately pubiifhed by
M.   Milet-Mureau.   in  Obedience to
an Order from the French Government*
■ # 'pM
A Voyage from Manilla to California,
Voyage \ and Difcoveries
Sold by him at No. 20, Uni^-Street :
Thomas and Anbrews, Newbuit-Stmet ; bt E. an*
£. Larxin. Wm. P. and L. Blake, W. Pxijiam,
A**X>  C.  BiNCHAM,    CoRNHlLt.
180*.  PREFACE,
-&- HIS  little volume contains   the fubflance of
TWO recent PUBLICATIONS ; concerning which
the curiofity -of the world has been very powerfully
excited ; •which are filed with knowledge ofafpe*>
cies that is remarkably ftted to expand and illumi"
note every mind\ but which are to be bought at an:
expence thatt but for the expedient @f abridgment$
tnt'Jl exclude the greater number of readers from:
any acquaintance with their contents.
1he original work from which the Account of
the Voyage of M. BE LA PEYROUSE, has been:
extracted, is notfimply a narrate.     It comprehends—the very elaborate papers of i&ftructions
and advice, which were given to direcl the inveJM-*
gations, and to guide the courfe of the French nav-
igators-*~tbe journal  of La Psyroufe, which ^Pp
had tranfmitted' home for publication-—-a Spanifh.
I journal which La Peyronie ■ fent to France', with]
f}is own papers, for the fmUC of illuftraiinz$$Mt?.hif'>
tory of the South Sea Ijles—with various extracts
from the letters  of La Peyroufe  him/elf  and 'of
,$$? companions of his voyage, which ferve to confirm the narrative in the principal journal, or i»
enlarge it by the communication of new particulars.
Gh0rir, ami other engravings, accompany and illuf
j^tetfe journal, and the oth£t\ communications ; IV
And a number of nautical tubhs chfe thenvbole, at
the end.
It is true, that the INSTRUCTIONS with which
La PEYROVSE was favoured, when hefet out on
his voyage, are mare elaborate than any we know i&
have been given to the navigators,, who were fent
upon our Britifh voyages of difeovery. But, if all
the fcience and intelligence of the Britifh Nationy
had been fir ained in one great effort, to produce th#
mofl ample and luminous papers of INSTRUCTIONS, which couldhe given to navigators fetting
out on a voyage of dijc&very round the worldV the
birth fromfuch an effort mmtld, doubilefs, have-
been very much fuperior to that which France gcive
to guide an enterprize intended to eclipfe the fame of
the voyages of Coox.
LaPeyrouses Journal itfelfis written in
* plain, manly manner, without much affectation.
fThe amorous propenfties of the French, which have
iften fpoiled their fortunes, Jeem to have been the
true caufe of one of the mofl ferious difaflers which
thefe voyagers met with, in the courfe of their-
whole expedition^
The EXTRACTS from the private CORRESPOND
JDENCE of La Peyroufe himfetf and his companions, with their friends in France, add little or
nothing to the information in the Journal, but coth-
firm thai information by multiplied teflimonies, and
evince the voyagers to have lived happily together,
jfo have retained a tender remembrance of the friend*
they had left in France, and to have been, every onet
vigilantly attentive to their proper functions in the
profecution of the voyage.
In the Abridgement of the Account <f
this Voyage of La PEYROUSE, *ny one continued
narrative has been formed.    Anecdotes of the Life of PREFACE*,
I £*- ^Peyroufe^the fubfanc^of the AnflruBion^
which were given him *, the moft remarkable particulars from-the correfpondence, are involved in this,
abflrafled narrative, with the tenor of the princi*
pal Journal. It was fuppofed that, by this cecono*
my, the ABRIDGEMENT would be rendered more
convenient to the reader, more inter efing, more legitimately clafjical, as a compofttion, than if each
particular part of the original collection fjould be
abridged by itfelf. Of La Peyroufe's work, the
nautical matter is far the mofl valuable :, And, for
this reafon, extreme care has been ufed, not to mar
this matter in abridging, it. The information relative to Natural Hifiory, and to hutnan*fociety, as
being the moff generally interefling to readers of all
claffes, is here detailed with the amplef expanfwn
of fbe matter. The fpeculations of M. de la Pey~%
r.ouje,as being of inferior value, are, for the greattr-
£art, omitted. The dfcoveries made on the North"
Fajl coafl of Tartary, being fngularly important^
are related at full length, wtih the careful difplay
of almofl every minute particular. -
ihe Narrative of the  Voyage of the Spanifh
navigator, MAURELLE, is abridged i% /^fecond
of the articles which compofe this little  Volume*
His calculations of the latitudes' appear to be very.
inaccurate*M But, this abjlracj of his Narrative
contains the. only account which we pojfefs in Eng~
glifh, of the inter courfe of the Spaniards with the
inhabitants  of the newly  difcovered ifles  in the
fouthern ocean.     MAURELLE feemsto have acted
&vith confderably more of fpirit, prudence, and fertility of refources accommodated to the exigencies of
>4 newfituation,than. were exercifcd by La Peyroufe
H& J0™ inter courfe with thefe favage cr barbarian
■jAifitets*.   Thefhort narrative of MAURELLE,
A-a- -ft     r
throws light on the manners of the people of thofe
remote ifes, bfZvhich European curiofty has beenf*
flrongly attracted.
il:  The very valuable and well-ivritten account of
the voyages   of VANCOUVER,   has been  but jiff
given to the public.    It is the work of the commander by whom the expedtthn was Conducted.    It if
to be lamented, that a man fo accotnpliffjid fhould
have been called away, b\ a premature death, while
the taftfheets of his wo fk were in the Prefs. from
thefervice of his country.    The very brief abjiraB
of Vancouver's Narrative,   which makes   the
third article in this volume, will clearly evince fo
the reader, the importance of VANCOUVER'S dfcoveries on the   north-vuefl coqfi of America, and
will, contribute, it is  hoped, to diffufe wider the
fame of his expedition, but cannot at all injure the
male of the original work—of which it is, in truth%
but a very meagre fkeleton.     VANCOUVER and his
companions proved themfelves to be qualified with
that patient perfeverance, penetration comprehenfve
fagacity, fortitude and coot intrepidity, which are
neceffary to the fuccefsful acconiplifhment of any very  perilous lqWd   exfefifeve  voyage   of difcovery.
Vancouver appears to me, to haveJefficiently evin-
etdthe impofftbility of anypaffageforjhips, between
the Atlantic and the pacific Oceans fptithin thole latitudes/ between whiciithis paffage has been foUgbt.
But, lam far from believing, that he has traced
the whole outline 6f the  coaft which he furveyed,
with the mofl perfect attUr a cy. He failed over that
.parraUel of latitude in which La Peyroufe places
his Port des Francois, withoutl&fcovi ring its ex-
ijfence.    And I doubt not but there remains much fo
be yet difcovered on fhefe coafs by the diligence df
future navigators* |ir NARRATIVE
OF    A
Voyage of Difcovery*
%&. fee la IS^groitfo
De/tgn of the Voyage ; and courfe to the Iffe of St*
Catharine's) on the Eafiern Hoqfi of South
HE flrft faintly of the humai* *ace were
probably fettled in  one  particular fituation on
the earth, in which they lived, without any ex-
tenfive  knowledge of the reft  of its furface.
Their immediate pofterity were difperied by accidents, and in circumftanccs, which gave thenv
no inclination to fyftematic,geographical difcov-
ery, and which} fey the greater part, a* it fliould
feem, occafioned tse different tribes to lofe the
diftinclr remembrance  of their parent-feats, as
well as to become carelefs of a mutual and ger>*
era! communication,from time to ffcne, with one
another. Caftul wanderings between the feat of
one tribe and that of another, iirii contributed fi..'
to renew that mutual intercourfeof mankind
which had feemed to be ioft by their diiperlionj
Incipient commerce aided and extended this in^
tercourfe. War and the fpirit of ^©nqueft foon
arofe, to re-unite various petty tribes under the
dominion of one monarch. Colonization, con-
dueled partly on the principles of eonqueft, and
in partj on thofe-of commerce, did fomething
more to make the human inhabitants, even of
widely diftant parts of the ^worid, acquainted
with one another's exiftence and circumftanccs.
WtiQ rife and progrefs of fcience, in Egypt, in
Greece, in, Italy, formed fo many different centres of knowledge. plThe eftabKfLment.of tho
Raman Empire comprehended all thefe centresi
within one great fyftem, the feveral different!
parts of which had a necefiary correfpondence
with one another. The irruption of barbarous*
eonqueft deftroyed this fyftem, and difmemberedi
all its parts. Chriftianity, under the Roman
Pontiff, endeavoured again to combine, and toi
civilize the world. A focus of the knowledge
of the earth and of human fociety, was thus
eftablimed in Europe. Crufading wars,.and the
navigation of the Mediterranean Sea and of th«
• perman Ocean, gradually enlarged the fphereof
this knowledge, and enhanced its fpleifdour. It
was foon aftonifhingly expanded by the navig*
tionof the Indian, and of the AtlanticfOccan.
Piracy, commerce, travels on land, voyages by
fea,ftill ftietehed wider its compafs, cleared its
avenues, and brought its molt diftant extremities virtually nearer together, by facilitating thei
mutual.communication between them. Mankind
ceafed to be fo many diftinel hordes, andfecmed
to become again, one great family. Avaj$ce, as* ROUND THE WORLD.
|ddent, eonqueft, had hithertogdone all this*
j| Benevolence and fcientific curiofiry were, at
length, to lend their afliftar.e^ In chappy time
George the Third afcended the, Britifh
throne : under his aufpices,expeditions "of benevolent difcovery were fent out to explore the
fbuthern and the northern ocean. T&eci&ioutfi;
lire emulation of all Europe was awakened*.
France would contend with Britain in a career
more iifuftric us than that af eonqueft.- \ybilffi
lit wis the Sixteenth reigned, fcienee and
benevolence held a powetlul influence in the
French Admintft;ration. La Peyrouse was* fenfc
out, to emulate, and to complete the difcoverks.
of. Cook.
hA Peyrouse was a naval officer of great
merit and experience.    He was born at Albi, m
the year  1741.    He entered, as a midshipman*
Into the French Navy, in the year175^.    His
gallantry was eminently diftinguifhed in the fa*
mous naval engagement  in which the French
fleet under M. de Conflans, was defeated, off
Beileifle, by the Englim, commanded by Admiral
Hawke.    The war between France and Britain
ended.    But La Peyrouse continued in active
fervice during  ail the   mterva|i>ef peace,  till
France declared war, as the ally of America*
againft Britain,in the year  1778.    He had, in
this period,  attained to the rank of Lieutenant j
and he was, now, quickly promoted to the $©m~
lnand of a feparatc veffel.   >He executed with
fuccefs, and not without g^iero&s humanity ta
the fufferers, an enterprife on which he was fent,
with three fhips of war, from Cape Ftancois, in?
the year 1782, for the deftruction of the BritiiH
fettiements oa Hudfon's Bay. '^is reputation, JO
as a naval of5eer,recommended Mm to the choice
of the French government, as a man to whom
the care ofmndicating to his country, the glory
of naval, geographical difcovery, might be fitlyj
intrufted, in the year 1785.
t The Ffench  Government, having projected
tjiis expedition with generous views  ofejiberat
inquiry and emulation in fcienee; and having,;
with great discernment, fele£ted fuch an officer
as M. de la Peyroufe, to conduct it; faileifefiot
to adopt every other pofiibfe: precautipgi to fit it
for the fuccefsful   accomplifhment of thofe objects to attain which it was deftined. ^fTwo frigates, La Boussole and L'Astrolabe, were
appropriated, as the mod fuitable veffels for the
expedition.    A very ample and elaborate paper
of infiructions was prepared, £9 fpecify to the intended navigators, the plan of their voyage ; to
direct their geographical and hydrographical inquiries j. to indicate thofe objects in poiky and)
commerce, which they were to keep in view; to
guide them in the observation of. new fa-£bs re-
latlve to Ajironomy,  Natural  Phijofophy, and
Natural  Hiflory  ;   to teach them,  with what
mingled Sfcmnefs and gentlenefs,it might beeorne
them to conciliate the favour, while they fhould
qorhmzud the rcfpe6t, of the fa"vage inhabitants
of wha'tfoeser ft range iiles or continents they-i
might yifit ; and to enlighten  them .with  the?
beft directions which medicine or naval expend
ence could fugged, for the prefentation of the^
health of the ihip's crews, during the long periods for which they were deitined to remain at
fei.    FjLEURlEU,  a navigator   of  diftinguiibedJ
{kill in all the moft important fubje&h of ii.utkJ
aland hydrographieal refearcfc, collected, into;a gOUNB THE'WOIWHR*
&ries of elaborate notes, annexed to thefe infiructions, the moft curious expositions  and diieuf-
lions of all the moft interefting, yet uncertain
points,in the nautical geography of the globe, whLh
might be expected to have new light thrown vpon
them by the obfervations of M. de la Peyrouse
and his co-adjutors. The French Academy of Sciences readily fuggefted, in  an excellent memoir,
every topic in  all the dirrereit fciences,  upon
•which the obfervations and inquiries of the vov-
agers  might   ufefully tarn.    The eyes   of all
France were earnestly turned upon an expedition which promifed much glory to the nation,
.and grealMmprovem'e'nts to the fciences and artft
Every one was eager to make his contribution
towards its fuccefs.    One communicated directions for new experiments upon -the prefervaticrx
of frefti water for ufe at fea : Another gave in*
itruclions for the collection and the prefervatfon
•of vegetables and   foifils : Some  brought pre-
ieirts * While others were more lavffh of advif^
Ample ft ores of provifions for the fhip's'crey^
.©falLfhofe trifles of European   panufactur^
, which are known to be #e moft -acceptable to
favages—efcthe' inftruments of  the different
mechanic arts—of vegetable feeds and plan^
/to be.diffeminated  upon remote," foreign coafts
—s-of ail the implements neceffary for the intended fcient&ic obfervations—with even a fuitable
nautical and philofophical library*—were, by the
^ates ofthe French Adminiitration, put en boarl,
the two ii%ates  for the -voyage.-''The Britifh
Board of Longitude Wkt, for its ufe, two dipping
compaffeSjwhich had been ufed in Commodore
\0qqxl3 laft expedition. If On board the veffeJ El
£o«ssolE|. awere embarked to the number of f I
titt  r
about j 20 perfons, under the immediate command of M. de la Peyrouse. ^Phe crew, audi
the other perfons who failed in V %strolabs|
compofed about an equal number. Aftronbmers,
engineers, botanifts, mineralogifts,draughtimeaii
clock-makers, a phyfician perfojas eminentlyi
qualified for all the different plans of obfervatioaj
and inquiry, to be purfued in the voyage, were
among thefe two companies. M. de Langle, thei
friend of de la Peyrouse, was appointed to the|
command of the frigate L'astrolabe. In the
beginning of July, in the year 17.85, the frw
jfates with their full complements of meman4i
ffe&res, were nearly ready tofet fail from/the port
#f Breft.
On the 1 ft day of Auguft, they failed from
the Road of Breft. On the 13th, they had!
fcached Madeira, without experiencing any rcn
tnarkable accident. In this courfe, their notice
'was not particularly attracted by any natural appearance, favc that luminoufnefs of the furface
of the fea by night, which has been often observed, in va-Rousf^aees, and is fuppofcdto proceed from forne frnall phofphoric bodies, living,
or inanimate, diffufed, in infinite multitude,
over the waves.
At Madeira, they were courteously welcomed
by Mr. johnftoun a Britifh merchant,Mr. Mur-
jay the British conful, and M. Montero, win
Jbad the care oi the bufinefs of the French consulate. From Mr. Johnftoun, M. de ia Pcyroufe
received a handfome prefent of fruits, temon-
juice, rum, and wine. During three days, thei
voyagers enjoyed the kind and fumptuous hofpi-
talityof their attentive hofts But, M. de hi
Feyroufe bad halted here only to purchaie win» GROUND THE WORLD.
for the voyage 5 which, he now learned, might
be had more than one half cheaper at Teneriffe.
On the 16th, therefore, they failed for that ifle\
In the morning of the 18th, as~they continued their courfe, Salvage Ifland appeared within
view. Running down the eaft fide of this ifle,
at about half a league' diftance from the land,
M. de la Peyroufe could perceive it to be bare of
vegetation, and to exhibit at its furface nothing
but beds of lava, and different matters of volcanic origin. He conceived its coaft to be fo
fafe for {hipping, that there might be an hundred fathoms depth of water, within a cable's
length of the land. Its pofition they found from
their time-keepers, and from aftronomical obfer-
vation,to be in 1$ deg. 13 rnin. "WUongitude, in
30 deg. 8 min. 15 fee. N. latitude.
On the 19th of Auguft,at three o'clock in the
-afternoon the two frigates caft anchor before
Teneriffe, in the road of Santa Cruz. Here
they were detained ten days ; receiving on board
fixty pipes of the wine of the ifland, for which
they had brought empty cafks. - Ere&ing an ob-
fervatory on more, upon their arrival, they made
a number of obfervations to afcertain the precife
movement of their different time-keepers, and
the bearings of the place. The pofition of San--
taCruz was found to be in B de. yjm.^o fec.W.
longitude,in 28 deg. 27 min. 30 fee.^N. latitude.
Their- experiments on the dipping compafs
proved uncertain and tmfatisfactory in the
refulrs ; which they attributed to the attraction of the iron-ore with which the whole foil
of Teneriffe is decpfy impregnated.-||The hat-
uralifts were not idle: M.*de la Martiniere
Biade fome botanical excursions : found feveral
mterefting plants 5 and nerceived the mercury
I hi!
in his barometer, which, at Santa Ciuz ftood at
28 inches, and 3 lines, to fall on the fummit of
the famous Peak, to 18 inches j|| lines: At
Santa Cruz the mercury ftood at 24-ir, in the
thermometer; but on the fummit of the pe*ak,
fubfided to yd. M. de Monneron, engineer,
attempted to meafure the height of the peak, by
taking levels from its fummit, down to the fea-
fhore. But, the obftinacy of tthe muletteers j
whom he had employed to attend him, with his ,
inftruments and baggage, during the operation,
hindered him from completing it : And his
notes of thofe fteps which he had taken, 'have
not been preferved.* During their ftay in the
road of Santa Cruz, the French voyagers experienced many obliging civilities from theMarquis
de Branciforte, Governor-General of the Canary
In the afternoon ef the 30th of Auguft, the
voyage was renewed. Unwilling to touch at
the unhealthy Cape pe Verd ifiands, M. de la
Peyroufe wiihedto proceed with an uninterrupted
courfe, to the ifle of La Trinidada. They failed through thefe calm feas, without any unplea--
fant accident. For a.while, they had the advantageous aid of the trade winds. Solicitous
to preferve the health of his crews, as fuccefsful-
ly as had been done by Cook, La Peyroufe now
made the fpace between the decks to be fumigated, and was careful to have the hammocks taken
down, while circumftances would permit, frorar:
eight o'clock in the morning till funfet. By the
direction of the trade-wind, he was obliged to
tail parraliel to the coaft of Africa, longer than
a*. Heberlen's meafur-ement of the height of the peak ofTen-
erife, makes it 2409 titles ; FeuJi)te; a iy. Bov.^uer, j
Verdun, DonJa.-anU-tfmgre, 190^, ROUND THE WORLD'
- ifie had intended, a{ about fixty leagues diftance
from the land^ta Oij the 29th of September, and
in the 18th degree of weftern longitude, they
croffed the equinoctial line.*#Frcm the line, a
S.E.wind purfued them as far as 20 d. 25m.fcuih
latitude. ' Nor were they able to get into the
precife latitude of Yrinidada, till after they had
run about 25 leagues of longitude,eaftward from
it. Man-of-war birds followed them, in confid-
erable numbers, from 8 degf. N. latitude,till they
had proceeded 3 deg. S. from the line. Their
courfe was interrupted by none of thofe calms
which fome feamcn fear, under the Line, in
thefe latitudes. Soon after their departure
from Teneriffe, the Ikies ceafed to exhibit the
clear azure of the temperate zones* From the
rifing to the fetting of the fun, a dull hazy
whitenefs, fomewhat between fog and clouds,
conftantly obfcured the atmofphere, and con-
tracked their vifibie horizon to the compafs of
about three leagues^mBut, the nighfe were radiant and ferene.
At 10 o'clock in the morning of the i&th of
October, they came within fight of the Ifles of
Martin Vas. Thefe ifles are only bare rocks.
They are three in number; feparated from one
another, by fmall intervals'; and, even the largeft,
but about a quarter of a league in circumference.
Their pofition is in 20 deg. 30 min. 35 fee. S. lat~
in 30 deg. 30 m.-W. long.
They came within fight of the iiTand of Frix- j
idada, about funfet, on the fame day. At 10
o'clock next morning, M. de la PeyrotNfe was
furp'rifed to perceive the Portuguefe flag flying in
Jrjiemidft of a fmall port, at the bottom of an"in-
mjt.formed by the S. E. point of the ifle.% In
tfeniQ&aing of the 18th,Lieu tenant deVaujuas> i6
LA peyrouse's vovage
M. de la Martiniere, and Father Recevenry.
went on more, in a pinnace from L'Aftrolabe.
The furf ran fo high, that, but for the ready
aftiftance of the Portuguefe, the boat's crew>
muft have perifhed. About two hundred men
were found to compofe the Portuguefe eftablifti-
ment on this ifle. i Thefe had come, about a year
before, from Rio Janeiro, to take poiTefiion of it.
Little pleafed with the curiofity of their viGtants,;
they would not permit even the botanifts to goi
beyond the beach, in fearch of plants. Neither
wood nor water, was to be here procured. Thei
Portuguefe affifted in putting off the boat from
the ftrand. And the Frenchmen returned on
board their fhip, difappointed of every obje€i
which they had fought on the ifle. Another
boat from M. de la Peyroufe's own fhip, La
Bouffole, likewife approached the fhore, under
the command of Lieutenant Boutin. He founded the-road to within mufket fiiot of the beach 5
and found its bottom to be rocky, with a little
fand. M. de Monneron, who went in the boat*
made an exacl: drawing of the port. M. de La-
manon obferved the rocks to be compofed of ba-.
faltes, with other fubftances of volcanic origin.
The iiland of Trinidada prefents to the eye
nothing but a barren rock, having, in fome nar-
tow glens, among its heights, a few (hrubs and a
flight appearance of verdure. The Portuguefe
have fixed their eftablifhment in one of its
glyns, in the fouth-eaft quarter of the iilandi
which fpreads out into a vale of about 3«o toilesl
an width. It is rather to prevent others from occupying it, than for the fake of any advantage it
can afford to themfelves, that the Potugiefisf
have made afettlement onTrinidada. Its foutheaft
point is in the fouthern latitude of 20 d. 31 m, ; ROUND THE WORLD.
and, by lunar obfervation, in the weflern longitude of 3od. 57m. It had been, before, for a
time; occupied by the Englifh. The Portuguefe
garrifon or colony are, for the prefent, fupplied
with neceffaries from Rio Janeiro.
On the 18th of October, the frigates failed
weft ward.' From the iUthto the evening of the
24th they went'on in the fame direction,-in a
fruitlefs fearch for the ifle of AscencaonJi M.
de la Peyroufe then abandoned the fearch, and
concluded that no fuch ifland had exiftence.
But, he had explored only the fpace of 7d. of
longitude W. from Trinidada, between the S.
Latitudes of 2d. icm. and2od. 50m. fo is probable, that, if he ha9 advanced about id. farther
! weft ward, he would have difcovered the ifle he
: fought, which does not yet deferve to be expunged from the maps*
A violent ftorm affailed the voyagers on the
25th of October* They were enveloped in a
circle of fire, about the hour of eight in the
evening. Lightning fiafhed from every point of
■ the horizon : and lambent flames of the corpo-
■fanto ox Will-with-the-wifp, fettled on the point
of the electrical conductor of Xa Boufible ; and
on the maft-head of L'Aftrolabe, which was
Iwithout any electrical conductor, but at no great
diftance from its companion. As they proceed-
fed, the weather continued from this time ftormy,
jand they were furrounded by a thick fog, till"
Ithey reached the ifle of St. Catharine's, contiguous to the eaftern coaft of the continent of
South America.. On-the dth of November, they
anchored between St. Catherine's and the mainland, in Irwater which was feven fathom^
dceD, with a bottom of muddy fand,
T B 2 15
ill I
Voyage, Obfervations, and Tranfactions, from thei
Sixth Day of November 1785, to the Eighth oj\
April 1 "jr&d J including the Courfe from StA
Catharine's to the Eafter-lfi.and 1 with JDefcrip-
tions of St. Catharine's % the Settlement of Con A
ception on the Coafi of Chili, &c.
HE ifle of St. Catharine is, tn breadth
from eaft to weft, only two leagues ', but ex-j
tends in length from 2 7d. 19m. 10 fee. to 27m.
4Qm.S.latitude. It isfeparated from the adjacent]
main land by a channel which, at its narrowed i
part, exceeds not rhe width of '200 toifes. On
the point of"the ifle which here juts out into
the channel, is^ fituated the city of Nofira Senora
del Defiero, which contains about 4*© houfes lodging not more than 30©© fouls, and is the capital
of the ifle, in which its governor refides. The
inferior iurface of this ifle is overfpread with
fore ft s of lofty evergreens, with an impervious
thicknefs of briars and other creeping plants,
among their trunks below. Snakes, of which
the bite is mortal, lurk in the thickets. Fruits,
vegetables, corn, are produced 4n inexhauftible
plenty, and almoft fpontaneoufly, by the natural
fertility of the foil. The habitations are all contiguous to the fea-fhore. Around them are
planted orange-trees, Swith other odoriferous
plants and fhrubs of the moftdelightful fragrance.
•The furrounding feas abound with whales, the'
fubjects of a lucrative fifhery. In the approach
of mips to the ifle, a muddy bottom, with 70 fathoms depth of wrater, is found at [ 8 leagues
diftance.   From this, the water becomes gradu- ROUND THE WORL&.
ally fhallower to the depth of four fathoms, at
thediftance of four cable's length from the land..
The common paffage for veffels, is, between the
North Point of bt. Catharine's and the iflet of
Alvaredo. The beft anchorage is at half a league
from Fort Ifle, in fix fathoms of water, with a
muddy bottom, adjacent to feveral convenient
[watering places on St. Catharine's and on the
•continent. The fea is very heavy, and breaks always on the lee-fhore. The tides are very irregular, enter at both ends of the channel, and rife
mly three feet.
The ifle of St. Catharine's was firft occupied
iby .fugitives from the Brazils.    About the year
1740, the court of Lifbon eftablifhed here,a regular    government,    comprehending,  together.
with this ifle,fome part of the adjacent continent.
Of this government, the extent from North to
outh, from the  river San Francifco to Rio
jGrtande, is 60 leagues.    Its population is efti-
In'ated, perhaps under the truth,at about 20,000
■fouls.    But, the people are indolent and poor,
jfature is fo bountiful, that they know not thofe
[wants which are requifite to excite man to in-
iuftry.     The  whale-fifhery   is the   property^
)f the  Crown,   and is   formed   by a  company at Lifbon.    About 400 whales,   are, every
jrear, killed here.    But, from  thefe, little gain
s derived to the people of St. Catharine's.    The
produce of the fifhery, oil, whalebone, andfper-
naceti, is fent annually to Lifbon, by the way of
Rio Janeiro.
At the approach of theFrench frigates, feverat
ilarnj guns were fired from the different forts.
M. de Pierrevert, third lieutenant, or Enfeigne de
wiffeaity being immediately fent afhore, found Q£X
the garrifon of the citadel, 40 men with a captain commanding them, all under arms.. An ex-
prefs was inftantly fent to the governor Don
Fran cifco di Baros, in the town ; who readily
gave orders to furnifli the voyagers with whatever they wanted, at the lowed prices ; and appointed an officer to attend on each frigate, and.
aflift them in their purchafes. On the 9th of
November, Mefirs. de la Peyroufe and de Lan-
gle, went both on fhore with feveral of their
officers. They were received by the commander
of the fort, with the difcharge of fifteen guns *,.
which was returned by an equal number from
the frigate La Bouffole. §fA boat.under the com-
mand of Lieutenant Boutiny with a number of
other gentlemen on board, was, on the following
day, fent to thank the governor, at the town, in
M. de la Peyroufe's name, for his attentions,
which had been already found very beneficial.
He received them with great politenefs, entertained them at dinner, and favoured them with
fome intereftinn: information concerning thefe-
parts* On the 13th Don Antonio de Gama,
major-general of the colony, vifited the voyagers onboard their fhips, and was the bearer of a
verv obliging letter from his commander to M..
de la Peyroufe. The ftay of the voyagers in.
the road of St. Catharine's, was protracted longer than they had expected, becaule the fouth-
erly winds and die currents were fo ftrong, as
frequently to interrupt their intereourfe with
the land.^>Provifions were, fortunately, plentiful and cheap A large ox migkt be bought for
eight dollars ; a hog. of a 150 pounds weight,
Jor four dollars; two turkeys for one 5 5ae,or-
anges,,'for half a dollar.    To procure abundance ROUND THE WORLD.
of fifhes, it was neceffary only to caft and haul
the net. So benignantly hofpitable were the
people of the ifle ; that, when one of the (hip's
boats bringing wood, happened to be overfet,
they not only rifked their lives to fave the failors,
but, at night, refigned to them their own beds,
and themfelves lay upon mats on the floor. The
mails, grapnel, and colours of the boats, though
not found till fome days after, were not appropriated by the finders, but brought carefully on
board, and refiored. The officers who went out
to fhoot on the ifle killed feveral birds of beautifully variegated plumage;, among the reft a rol-
lier of a fine blue colour, and not defcribed by
Buffon. The clouded fky, and the uncertainty
| of their ftay, hindered them from making any
confiderable aftronomical obfervations. But,
they found the longitude of the moft northern
point of the ifle, to 0^49 deg. 49 min. W. Here,
too, they were careful to provide themfelves with
j orange and lemon trees, with the feeds of oranges, of lemons, of the cotton-fhrub, Indian corn,
and the other vegetables which the inhabitants
of the iflands of the South Sea were underftood
to be moft in want of. In the road of St. Catherine's, our voyagers could not but make themfelves very happy. At their arrival in it they
found, that after 96 days fail not a man of them
Was lick. Their provisions were good ; the ut-
moft care was ufed to keep the air frefh in all
parts of the fhip •, for the fake of the exercife
neceffary to health, the crew had been called to
dance almoft every evenmg, betwixt the hours
of eight and ten § And, as they had hitherto experienced no misfortunes, their fpirits w.ere ftili
lively.**Before their departure, M. de la Pey- W:
roufe, the commander of the expedition, though*
it prudent to give to M. de Langle, "captain os
L'Aftroiabe, a new and much more extenfive fet
oT fignals than they had hitherto ufed ; and they
agreed, that if Separated, they mould next rendezvous in the harbor of Good Succefs in Le-
maire's Streights ; for, they were now to enter
tempeftuous feas, under a foggy atmofphere,
where new precautions were requifite. Before
their departure they committed to^the care of
the governor, who undertook to forward thensj
their packets of letters for France, addreffed to
the care of M. de St. Mare, the French conful-
genernl at Lifbon. By break of day, on the
19th of November, they had weighed their anchors, and were under fail. In the evening ofi
the fame day, they had left St Catharine's, and'
all its furroundingTflets, behind them.
Till the 28th of November, they enjoyed very fine weather. On that day, a violent gale of
wind from the Eaft, affailed them. It was in
W. long. 43 deg. 40 min. S. lat. 35 deg. 24
min. M. de la Peyroufe wifhed to vifit the Isle
Grande of the maps. On the yth December,:
the frigates had entered the parallel of latitude
within which this ifle had been fail to lie. Sea
weeds, were feen to float by the (hips ; and they
were, for feveral days, furro. nded by birds of
the Albat^ofs and Petrel' fpecies. The feas ro!I«-
ed mountains high around. But their fhips,
though not fwift failers, were well adapted to
endure the billows and the blafts. Till the 24Mi
of December, they kept (landing upon different
tacks, between the 44 deg. and 45 deg. of latitude, and. in that parallel, ran down the 15 deg*
of longitude.    But, on the 27th they abandoned ROUND THE WORLD.
e fearch ;   believm*£$h,at the pretended Ifie
'ande had no exiflence ; and that the indica-
;>ns. of the fea-weed and the fowls were lalla-
|)us.    Yet, there are probabilities which make
,3 Ifle Grande not unworthy" of a fearch by fome
jtu/e navigator.'    The neceility of hafteriing
•, to double the dreaded Cape Horn in the lealt
[favourable feafon of the year, perhaps hurried
de la Peyroufe to relinquifh this inquiry pre-
Lturely.     On the  25th, the wind fettled at
;uth Weft.     Continuing for feveral days to
w in this direction, it obliged the frigates to
er W. N. W.    Thefe gales ceafed with the
>nth of December; and January proved near-
fuch as July is, on the coaft of Europe.    The
ly winds they experienced for a while, were
vv in a direction from North-Weft to South-
eft ;   and the changes of thefe  winds were
aftantly indicated by previous changes in the
tect of the fky.    Fogs arid clouds indicated an
broaching veering of the wind from  South-
eft to Weft ; but,within two hours, this was
fays fucceeded by  a variation to the JSForth-
sft.    When  the fogs cleared up, the winds
urned to the Weft and the South-Weft.    In
days, the wind did not blow from C\z Eaft-
rd  for   rrpre than  eighteen   hours.     Calm
lather, for feveral days, enfued :   The feas
re fmooth : and the officers fai&ip out in the
its fliot numbers of the great and fmall alba-
(Tes^and of  petrels of   different  varieties,
ich flew-around them, which afforded feme ve-
acceptable meals of frefh meat to the failors.
3n the   14th  of January 1786, they  ftruck
und on*the coaft of Patagonia, in 47 deg.
min. S. Latitude, and in 64 deg. 37  min, 24
W.  Longitude.     On  the   21 ft  of  the  fame
month, they came within fight of Cape Faib
Weather, the north point of the river of Galled
gos, on the Patagonian coaft.    They were, at thisj
time, at three leagues diftant from the land, in
water 41 fathoms deep, and over a bottom of argillaceous gravel.     On the 22d, at noon, they
were off the Cape of the Virgins> bearini
four leagues W.    The land is low, and almofti
deftitute of verdure. An exact view of it had beeni
given by the Editor of Anfon's Voyage ; and its
pofition is accurately fixed in the Chart of Cook's
Second Voyage.     Hitherto, the lead had always
brought up mud or a mixture of fmall pebbles
with mud.     But, when they came oppofite to
Tierra del Fuego, they found a rocky bottom, and only from 24 to 30 fathoms of water,
even at three leagues diftance from  the   land.
On the 25 th, at two o'clock, they were a league
fouthward from" San Diego, the weftern poinj
of Le Maire's Streights,j^ At 3 o'clock, thej
entered the ftreights ;   having doubled point
San Diego, at three  quarters of a league did
tance from it.     At the point are breakers, ex4
tending perhaps not more than a mile ; othersi
which are feen in the offing beyond, obliged thq
i voyagers to fteer to the fouth-eaft, to avoid themj
But it was afterwards obferved, that thefe hreaki
ers were occafioned by currents, and that th®
reefs of San Diego were a great way off.    It
blew frefh from the north ; and our voyageta
approached within half a league of the land of)
Tierra del Fuego-
But as the wind was fair, and the feafon falB
advanced, M. de la Peyroufe abandoned his i-nlg
tendon of entering the harbour of Good Suc^ ROUND THE WORLD.
cess; and hel#onwards,,without lofs of time,
to double Cape'Horn. The ifland of Juan Fer-
nandes was the place at which he now purpof-
|ed to make the firft halt for the fake of refrefu-
As they proceeded through the Streights, they
[faw themfelves invited to land, by frequent fires
[kindled by the favages, who perceived, them from
[the fhore.     They were furrounded by whales
which fwam about the frigates, without alarm.
No place- in the world can.afford a more fuc-
[cefsful whale fifhery than might be carried on
here.    Their entrance into the Streights was at
3 o'clock in the afternoon.^ Till five, they were
[drifted rapidly fouthward, before the tide.-ffaA.t
[fiveV^he tide turned ; but a ftrong breeze from
[the north carried them ftill on, in the fame direction.    So mifty was the horizon, in its eaftern
[quarter, that they  did not perceive Staten
Land, the eaftern boundary of the Streights,
[although they were within lefs than 5 leagues of
It.    They doubled Cape Horn much more eafily
fhan they had expected.     Their . fuceefs may
hontribute  to leffen thofe terrors in regard to
jhe navigation round this promontory, which
fhe narrative of Anforis Voyage has long excited
imong feamen.
On the 9th of February, they found them-
elves oppofite to the weftern entrance of the
Jtreights of Magelhaens, in their courfe
or the ifland of Juan Fernandez, in the South
>ea. But an examination of the ftate of their
lores -of water and bifcuit, here induced them
o relinquifh their defign of vifiting that ifle,
Hid to alter their courfe for the Spanifh fettle-.
tent of Cqncbp#ion, on-the -coaft of Chili.
j •
On the morning of the 26th, they arrived within fight of the ifle of Mocha, about 50 leagues
fouth from Conception.    Afraid of being drifted northward by currents they here turned in towards the land.    At 2 o'clock in the afternoon
©f the fame day, they doubled the point of the
ifland of Quiqjjirina.    Asithe foutherly winds
were, now, by the change in their courfe, adrl
"v,erfe ; they were, from this point,  obliged to
fiand upon tack, and to keep the lead confantly going.    They in vain looked through their piaffes,
to difcover the city of Conception, at the bottom '
of the bay.     But pilots came on board at five
o'clock in the evening, by-whom they were informed, that the old city had been laid in ruins
by an earthquake in the  year 1751 ; and that
a new town had been built on the banks of the
river Biobio, about three leagues inland.    From
the fame pilots, they received, alfo, the agreeable
news, that, in confequence of letters from the
ISpanifh Minifter, they were already expected at
Conception.    At nine o'clock in the evening,!
they anchored in 9 fathoms depth of water, and
not far from the bottom of the bay. fiAt 7 next
morning, they weighed anchor -, and, with their j
boats towing them a-head, entered the creek of
Talcaguana where at 11 o'clock A. M. on the
24th of February, 1786, they caft anchor in 7I
fathoms depth of water, over a bottom -of black
The bay of Conception is an eminently commodious harbour.    Its water is fmooth, and aid
moft without a current.     The tide, however^
rifes fix feet three inches ; and the flood is-, at its
height at 45 minutes after 1 o'clock, A. M. unJ
der the full and under the changing moon.    It ROUND THE WORLD.
is fheltered from all but the north winds : And
thefe, here, blow only in the rainy feafon from
the end of May to the beginning of October.
On the fouth-eaft fhore, off the village of Talca-
guana, the only fettlement. now in the bay, there
is anchorage Under (belter from the north^eafl
winds of the winter. The ruins of the old
town of Conception are ftill to be feen at the
mouth of the river of St. Peter, eaftward from
Talcaguana. In- the year 1763, the fite for the
new town was marked out, on the banks of the
Biobio, at the dktance of three leagues inland
from the ruins of the old. It contains about
10,000 inhabitants ; isthe feat of the Bifhop and
of the Major-general, commander of all the forces of the colony ; and pofTeffes the epifcopal
cathedral, and all the religious houfes. The
bifhoprick is conterminous, on one hand, with
that of San Jago, the capital of the government
of Chili; is fkirted to the eaftward by the Cordilleras ; and extends fouthward to the (freights
of Magelhaens. But, except the ifland of Chi-
loe, and a fmall diftrict rour-d Baldivia, the whole
countrv fouth from the Biobio, is inhabited by
Indians who own not the Spanifh. dominion,
and who are almoft always at war with the Span-*
iards. The prefent government is wholly milir
tarv and ecclefiaftical*: But a fuperintendant, or
civil governor, is about to be added to the e-ftab-
The foil of the .furrounding. territory is pro-
digioufly fertile. The plains are covered with
an abundant luxuriance of herbage, and with
flocks and herds innumerable. The increafe
of grain is 60 fold. The vineyards are alike'
fertile. ^Great numbers of oxen are every year J%    |p:j
* 1 tlS'f t.
killed, for the fake of tallow and hides alone,
which are preserved and fent to Lima. The cli-
mate is remarkably healthy; and many of the
people live to an extreme old age. The commerce" of this "country is, however, fubject to II
reflections, which prove exceedingly injurious
to the general profperity of the inhabitants.
Four or five veffels arrive every year from Lima, with fugar,tobacco, and a few articles of
European manufacture, the prices of which are
1   by   the   moft   exhorbitant    duties.
CU iicti J *_ t ti
Wheat, tallow, hides, a few planks,  and feme
gold, are the only exports with which payment I
can be made for thofe articles of import?tion.
t 200.600 dollars may be
liv» total
of the gold annually collected from the fands of
the rivers within the bifhoprick of Conception.
The inhabitants gather it by lifting and jwafhing
this fand ; and to the amount of half a dollar
a day, may thus be earned by the mduftry of a
fingle peribn. 'But, the abundance of neceffa-
ries for fubfiftence, leaves thefe people without
excitements to induftry, which might animate
them to purfue any branch of it with perfever-
ance and fuccefs. The houfes in the city of
Conception -exhibit but little fumptuous furniture.    All the aftifans are'foreigners.
The moft precious article of the drefs of the
ladies is a plaited niticoat of a gold or filver
(luff of the old-fafhioned manufacture of Lyons.
Monks and nuns are very numerous in this fet-
tlement ; and their manners are fufBciently
profligate. The common people,are thievifh ;
and the virtue of the meaner women is very ea-
fy. The principal inhabitants are diftinguifhed
by all theWirtues of the true Spanifh character. bJ
Balls and entertainments are not. unfrequent
among them. The women are wont to cramp
their feet by fmall fhoes, like thofe of China.
They wear their hair, without powder, hanging
in fmall braids, down their backs. . befide the
petticoat, they wear on the body, a boddice or
corfet of gold or filver (luff. Over this, are
worn a. muflin and a woolen cloak •, the muk
.lin cloak at all times ; the woolen cloak only
when in the ftreets or the fields. Thefe.females
are, in general, pretty andr polite..
The Indians, of Chili-have become much more
formidable as enemies, than when this region
was firft conquered by the Spaniards... The horf-
es, oxen, and fheep, which the Spaniards introduced, have multipUodthroughout South America, to immenfe numbers*. ^The Indians have
become mafters of flocks and herds. They are
ever on horfeback, and in arms. They journey,
with theuaherds,in continual excurfions through
the djefarrs. They are now a.nation\of warlike
cavalry like the ancient. Tartars of the north of
Afia. They cover themfelves with the fkins of
their cattle, feed upon their milk and flefh, and
even drink their warm blood. Thefe circum^
(lances, in their altered mode of life, make it not
difficult for them to collect a/mies, even of many, thoufands of men, to oppofe the Spaniards.
From the Spaniards in the fettlement of Conception, our navigators experienced a warmly
hofpitable reception. Scarcely had the frigates
anchored at Talcaguana, when- M. de la Peyroufe received a polite letter of welcome, accompanied with refreshments of all forts in great
abundance, from M. Quexada, who, in the ab*>
fence of Major-general Higgins, commanded at
• #
the town of Conception.    The firft care of tKei
French captain, was to give orders for the refitt-j
ing of the veflels, and to fee that the aftronom-
ical clocks and quadrants fhould be carefully de-j
pofited on  fhore.     The day following, Meffrs.
de la  Peyroufe and de Langel, with feveral ofj
the fubordinate officers and of the men of fcienee, fet out for Conception, on  a vifit to M.j
.Quexada, and their other kind inviters.    A detachment of dragoons efcorted them on theirs
journey.     They alighted  at the hcufe of MJ
Sabatero, commandant of the artillery.    They
were entertained with an excellent dinner.    In)
the evening, there was a ball, at which the principal ladies of the town Were prefent, and which |
lafted till midnight.     The Trench gentlemen
flept for the night in  apartments provided for
them in the houfe of M. Sabatero, and of fome
others of the principal inhabitants of the town.
On the next day they vifited the bifhop, and others of the principal citizens.    The bifhop they?
found to be a man of uncommon merit.    Major-general Higgins was abfentupon an expedition againft the Indians.    Upon his return, he
came inftantly to wait upon-the French gentlemen at Talcaguana.     M. de la Peyroufe, foon
after, gave an entertainment, in a tent pitched
by the fea-fide, to an hundred and fifty of the
gentlemen and ladies of Conception.    After the
dinner, the company were entertained with fire-
works  and the flight of a paper-balloon.    On
the  following  day,   the  commanders gave, in
the fame tent, a feftive entertainment to the
crews of the two frigates.    They fat, all at one
table *, Meffrs. de la Peyroufe and de Langel at.
the head \ the reft: down to the lowed Jailor, ROUND THE WORLD*
every one according to the rank he held. They
ate out of wooden difhes : All was gaiety : And!
every one felt himfelf far happier than on the
day on which they left the harbour of Breft.
Another entertainment given by General Hig-
jgins, at the city of Conception, carried all the
French gentlemen thither, exeept thofe officers
wtio were detained on actual duty. The' dinner was fumptuous : Ail the principal inhabitants of the city were prefent : Between the different courfes, a Francifcan monk of the company, recited fome extemporary verfes in the
Spanifh language, on the happy amity then fub-
fifting between the French and the SpanifiV nations. A ball formed the amufement of the
evening, and was graced by the prefence of all
the ladies in their bed dreffes. Some officers in
mafks, danced a very pretty ballet. In the
mean time, the veffels were diligently refitted;
iprovifions^wood, and water, were, with great
alacrity, conveyed on board ; and the crew,
having accomplifhed thefe duties before the
day on which they knew that they were to
fail, obtained the agreeable permiffion to di*
vert themfelves for fome fhort time, alfo, on
fhore. One of their time keepers was here
found to have loft, on the mean movement
of the fun, only at the rate of 3 J (ec^ a*day,
jftnce their departure from Breft ; a difference of but half a fecond from its rate of
Idaily movement at Breft—of a whole fecond
from its movement'at Teneriffe. Nothing but
the moft perfect harmony reigned between the
French crews, and the people of the colony,
(during the whele ftay of the Frencji in this
harbour. J
la peyrouse s voyage
On the 15 th of March, M. de la Peyroufe
made the fignal to prepare to fail. J^Contrary
winds, however,.detained them, till the 17th.
About noon, on the 17th, a light breeze from the
S. W. enabled them to leave the harbour. But,
they were becalmed in a ftrongly fwelling fea,
before they had advanced* more than two,
leagues from its mouth. During the night,
they were furrounded by whales, which, from
their fpiracles, ejected water on board the (hips.
But, no whale fifhery has ever been attempted
in thefe feas. On the 19th, a foutherly wind
enabled the frigates to affume,the direction to
the iflan^Jof Juan Fernandez. They were,-
however, difappointed in their attempt to find
that ifle, on account of the inaccuracy of thofe
authorities to which they trufted, in refpect to
its pofition. On the 23d, they were in the
South latitude of 39 deg. 28 min. and accords
ing to their time-keepers in the Weft longitude
of 85 deg. 51 min. On the 24th the wind fettled at Eaft 1 Nor did it vary 5 deg. till they
came within 120 leagues of Eafier Ifland. On
the 3d of April, in South latitude 27 deg. 5
min. and in \o \ deg. Weft longitude, the winds
blew upon them from N. E. to S. W- On the
8th of April, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon,
they came within fight of Eafter Ifland. The
fea was then high.: The wind blew from the
North ; and for the four preceding days, the
winds had been continually- fhifting fey Weft,
|om North to South. In. the night, th^|>|rig-
ates kept in a parallel direction to the coaft of
Eafter Ifland, at three leagues diftance from
it.    At day-break, they (leered for Cook's Bayt ROUND THE WORLD..
which is, of all thofe in the ifle, the beft (hel-
tered from winds blowing from the Eaft. The
iflanders foon faw their approach ;" and, in e»$?
noes, haftened out to meet them.
—^°"^-~°^Hitflffirf-i-M'1---f m
CHAP.     III.
Narrative of the Voyage continued', from their ar-\
rival at Eajler  I/land, on the ojh of April,
1786,//// their departure from the Sandwich
Ifles, on the \fi of June.    Defcriptton of Eafier
If and, with fome particulars  concerning  thei
Sandwich Ifles.
J[N Easter Island, Cock's Bay, the only harbour in thefe latitudes that is (heltered from thei
£afl and South-Eaft winds, is fituate in 27 deg.
11 min. South Latitude, in in deg. 55 min.
30 fee. Weft Longitude. After doubling the
two rocks at the fouthern point of the ifle, and
coafting along at the diftance of a mile from the
ihore, a (hip comes within fight of a fmall,-
fandy creek. When this creek bears to it in
the direction of Eaft by South, the two rocks being at the fame time hidden under the point -r
anchorage will then be found in twenty fathoms
water, with a fandy bottom, at a quarter of a
league's diftance from the fhore. Early in the
morning of the 9th of April, the French voyagers landed, with fomewhat of military parade,
intended to ftrike with awe the- minds of the lfl-j
anders, who crowded round them.
The coaft of the ifle, here, rifes to the height
of about twenty feet above the level of the fea.
From the fea-beach, the fur-face afcends with a
gentle acclivity, for about 700 or 8co toifes, to
the bafis of the interior hills. This (loping
plain is covered with herbage fit for the pafture
of eattle ; and over the grafs, fmooth, round
ft ones, of a confiderable fize, are carelefsly fca% ■ROUND THE WORLD.
t ered.     The ifle is bare of wood, and without
fpringsor firearms of water.    The interior hills
appear.^b have  been once the orifices of volca-
noes longfince extinguiihed.=   Scarcely a tenth
part of the ifland is under cultivation.   The coaft
is not known to abound with fifties.    Very few
fowls are to be found on the ifle.    The hills are
covered with volcanic ftones. .The foil is a very
fertile mould, compofed of the remains of vege-
tables.;||».At the South end of the ifland is feen
the crater of an extinguished volcano, in the form
of a truncated cone, and of extraordinary extent,
depth, and regularity.    Tts depth is, at lea ft,
800 feet: Its lower bafe forms a perfect circle :
Its bottom is marfhy, and contains large pools
of frefh  water :   Around the marfh  are fome
plantations of banana and mulberry trees.    The
cone is not only truncated, but inverted ; its upper being wider than its under circumference.
A great breach appears to have been produced,
of one third in  the height of, the whole cone,
; to one tenth part of  the  breadth of its upper
circumference. | The earth, and ftory fragments
from the breach, have fallen down towards the;
fea :. And grafs has fprung up, over the whole
cone.   At the bottom of the crater,in the marfh,
; v/ere feen fome terns.     The uncultivated part
, of the ifland is covered,  up to the tops of the
hills, with a coarfe grafs. &A few bufhes of the
! mimofa, the largeft branches of which were not
: more than three inches in diamater, were the on-
l.y wild ligneous plants to be feen.
The people appeared to live difperfed in fmall
feparate communities ; each community occupying one common habitation ;- perhaps cuffir
mating their diyifion of the ground, and enjoy- LA PEYR0USE S VOVAGX
krgiits fruits in^pommon ; not very attentive,-*!
may be, to the diftindtions of chaftity, the purity
of virgin innocence, or ^e fan&ity of the marriage-bed; obeying each, one chief; and depositing the bodies of their dead in one commfHI
burying-place. The whole population of the
ifle may be about 2000 fouls. The men have
reforted to the fea-(hqre, on the approach of
(hips from Europe, in numbers fo much greater
than thofe of the women by whom they were
accompanied, that fome navigators have been
led to imagine the proportion between the males
and females to be very unequal in Eafter Ifland.
But, vifits to the interior parts of the ifle, and to
the houfes, have afforded ireafon for thinking,
that the inequality cannot be at all, fuch as it
was onee fufpected to be. They have few or
no domeflic animals.^But^tiaey cultivate ^egita-
bles for their means of fubfiitence, with fufficient
neatnefs and (kill, although with no very lalori-
©us induftry. Their fields under cultivation,
are regular oblong figures. Yams^potatoes^j
bananas, are the vegetables which they commonly cultivate. It is probable that they dig holes
ivith wooden*ftakes, and in thefe drop their feed-
plants. They have no means *>f cooking their
vegetables with fire, for eating, otherwife than
by heating a hole in the earth •, into which they
tfeen put their yams or potatoes ; covering them
with hot earth or ftones, and keeping them in
this ftatey tilLthey are fufficiently roafbed, to be
fit for being eaten. One of their houfes, measured by M. de la Peyroufe, was found to be in
the form of a canoe reverfed 31© feet in length ;
-10 feet broad; and, at the middle, 1© feet in
&^ht|f$ttch a houfe asthismay po/Sbly form, ROUND THE WORLD.
with the addition of one or two fmalier ones,
seven a whole village.    Pillars of lava, cut out
in a manner Sufficiently ingenious and artificial,
18 inches in thicknefs, and of a due -freight,
from the fides of thefe houfes, and Support the
roof.    Between thefe pillars of (lone, are reeds,
arranged with fuch (kill, as to form a fufficient
defence againft rains.    Holes bored in the pillars reoeive the ends of wooden poles, with which
an arched roof is formed^! Over thefe poles is
another  thatching  of  reeds.     Some  of their
lioufes are Subterranean, and of the fame form.
They make cloth off&e bark of the mulberry-
tree.    But tfae drought Seems tofrave greatly injured their plantations of thefe trees.    Such as
Hill remain, aue tarrounded with fences and do
a«i©t rife above three feet in height.    They-know
notfeowto form wellsand refervoirs,1 to fupply the
natijfeal Scarcity of freflswater under which they
Suffer.    But they have been even feen to drink
the fea water like the Albatroffes, in a manner
which feems to fay, that neceflity and habit can
accuftom man to every thing.    Their canoes are
formed of very narrow planks^ '"which are only
4 or 5 feet inlength. ^For want of wood, they are,
at prefent, net numerous, and muftprobahibbe-
come ftiil fewer.    Butithey fwim with wonderful ftrength and dexterity, even in the moft tem-
peftuous ftate of the Seas.    They will ifrus go,
even to the diftance of two leagues from the
more, and wiH, in frolic, isltbofe thofe very places where tlie Surf is feen to-bseak with the great-
aiftifury.    Befide their potatoes, yams, and bananas, they have lu\ewMe*lugar-canes, and a fmall
grape-like fruit that grows upon the rocks on the
feavfhore.    ^hey cultivate alfo the*garden nigst*
made, for  fome culinary  purpofe,  no  doubt*-
The ifland  exhibits fome   remains  of human
works, which feem to befpeak it to have been
once inhabited by a numerous population, and
thofe more capable of magnificent defigns than
the prefent race.    Terraces are here and -mere
raifed is a manner fufficiently adSficial.    On
thefe terraces ftand fome gigantic bufts of human figures, the monuments of anceftors, or the
flatues of fancied gods.     The largeft of thefe
xude bufts, being meafured by tltb French navigators, was found to be  14 feet 6 inches in
height,  7  feet 6 inches in breadth acrofs the
ihoulders, 3 feet in thicknefs round the belly, 6
feet broad and 5 feet thick, at the bafe.    There
is room to conjecture,' that, in  more ancient
times, this ifle was covered with wood; and, in
confequence of the attraction which its woods
exerted upon the moifture of the atmofphere,
was furnifhed with-Springs and dreams of wat&r.j
In thofe times, its population might be more numerous than at prefent ; the fyftem of fubordi-
nation might be different ; and the eafy condition of life, and the abundance of popul&ton,
might encourage to works.of art, which, in the
prefect impoverifhed date of thoifie, are no longer poflible.    <c Or, if we may be permitted to
*« make anexcurfion into the regions of conjec-
sl ture ; do not the rude, coloffal (latues,  and
» the fublerraneous habitations of Eafter Ifland,
B fo fimilar, in all refpects, to the caverns and
« coloffal flatues of Ekphanta, of Bombay, and
ti the other places in Hindofi&n, befpeak at lead
« this ifle to have received its firft inhabitants,
fl in 'whatever mode of colonization, from the re-
•«; gions of the ead, in that remote sera in wkkS ROUND THE WORLD.
' the   uncorrupted,   unfubdued   Hindoo calls
* were, as yet, matters of the oriental world ?
* Can that ingenuity  and dexterity in the arts,
* which, the inhabitants of Eafter Ifland, amid
s all the difadvantages of their fituation, difplay,
s have originated in this narrow ifle ? Or is it
c not more probable, that Some of the innume-
* rable accidents of navigation rnuft have at a
< time as ancient as the expedition of the Gre-
( cian Alexander into India, conducted into
1 thefe feas fome voluntary fugitives, or acci-
{ dental outcafts from the extreme eaftern lim-
4 its of the Afiatic continent ? Does not every
f thing concur to fhew, that the ifles interjacent
j between Alia and America mud have receiv-
1 ed their firft inhabitants from the Eaft ? Is
c it not likely, that the Mexicans, the Puruvi-
' ans, and the other inhabitants of South Amer-
c ica, who were found there, by the Spaniards,
'muflhave been of Afiatic origin | Is it not
fnatural, that, in circumstances extremely uh-
f fortunate, the firft occupiers of fuch a Spot as
c Eafter Ifland mould be unable to transfer thith-
* er the arts of their native country, iii all that
F perfection in which they were there pradtifed ?
The Englifh colony at Botany Bay, the Span-
i fli inhabitants of Chili, the Ruffians .in Kamtf-
chatka, the eternal necefiities of the nature
and circumftances of man, fumciently demon-
ftrate the poffibility of fuch a decline and degradation of the arts in their tranfmiflion from
one country to another. To the exiftence of
men in the favage (late, it. is not neceffary that
the firft parents of the race fhoulu have been-
Savages. The accidents under which fuccef-
five generations muft have been diffufed over 4<3
" the earth, were fufficient to produce any gv&4
Ci en imperfection of knowledge and art, even
" by no indirect derivation from any gisen excel-
" lence of them." Thefe colloffal flatues can
have been intended only as the images of fancied divinities, or as monumental flatues of the
dead. In the impoverifhed condition and the
declining intelligence of the prefent Inhabitants
of Efther Ifland, they are content jfiith the erec-
tion of fmall pyramidal heaps of ftone over the
graves of the deceafed. Thefe pyramids are
white wafhed at the upper extremity, and appear to ferve for the fame ufes as the ancient
terraces and coloffal imagc£!is§?Such petty moi*-
uments require not to their erection, more than
one hour's work by a Single man. W&ile the
Fiench villagers walked with fome of the natives amoftg their tombs,one of the latter,ftretch--
ing himfelf at length upon the ground, and, in
this pOfture, raifing his hands towards the iky,
thus endeavoured tofmdicate, as the Frenchmen
infer, a belief of the exiftence of the fouls of the
departed after death, and of their exaltation to
^rftate of Superior bleflcdnefs above. In their
intercourfe with their French vifitors, thefe ift-
anders difeovered a deceit incomparably artful,
and an incorrigible propensity to theft. At the
"moments at which they were receiving the pre-
fents of the French, and wore the air of being
the moft kindly interefted in their attentions, at
thofe very moments were they always the mod
certainly contriving or perpetrating fome theft.
They offered their women for proftitution, in a
manner which (hewed that they were aware of
the value of chaftity as a virtue, and were bafely
willing to barter it for gain.    They even offered &OUN© THE WORLD.
far proftitution yon&g girls, under the ageof puberty, whofe cries (hewed their own reluctance,'
and whom the French, with generous delicacy,,
fparecbfrorn the horror of violation.
On t|iis ifle, and among thefe people, the'
French landed, on the 9th of April, in the year
1786.      A company of 400 or   500 iflanders
^jggpeived them on   the fhore  with  eager joy*
Some wore pieces of white or yellow fluff; oth~
ers were naked : many were tattooed and painted with red colours on the face, i The firft care
of the ftraagers, was, to form an inclofure, from
^Jiich a circular line of armed foldiers excluded
the accefs of the natives.    Prefents, beneficient—
ly deflated to gratify the defires of thefe rude,
people, and to enrich the barrennefs of their ifle,
were then brought on fhore.    Meanwhile, the.
numbers ©f the ftirrounding natives continuaU|r?
encreafed.    Forbidden to fire upon them, the foldiers found it extremejy difficult to keep them at
a due diftance with t;.e butt ends of their muf-
kets.    Innumerable little artifices were put in-
practice, hy the Indians, in order to deceive the
attention of their vifitors, whHe they accomplifti--
ed their thefts with a dexterity worthy1 ofthe mod
notorious thief that ever prowled, in. Paris ?©rf
London.    When the women Solicited* the- embraces of the French, the men, in concert, feizeda
thofe moments, to rob them of their hats and-
handkerchiefs*    Some, who  were fuppofed to-
poffefs the authority of chiefs, while they (hewed a readinefs to purfue the thieves, and to recover the articles dolen, were foon perceived to
purfue them only thst they might favour their
efcape.     The voyagers were not to rematn for.
more than ten hours on jfre ifland.   Meffrs. de Ja; 4-2
Peyroufe and de Langel, therefore, committed
the charge of the tent, the goods, and the Sailors
and foldiers on fhore, to M. de'EScftres, fi^fe
lieutenant in La Bouffole ; and themfelves proceeded on excurfions through the ifle. One
party, under the command of M. de Langel, were
to penetrate as far as poffibJe in the interior parts,
to fow the feeds of vegetables, and to examine
the foil, plants, population, &c—while another, at the head of which was Pf. de la Peyrofefe,
went to vifit the monuments, terraces, plantations, and houfes, within a femi-circul^F fpace of
the radius of a league round the central point at
which the tent was fixed. The remits of $*eir
obfervations have been detailed in the preceding
paragraph. At one o'clock in the afternoon, M.
de la Peyroufe returned to the tent. Many
thefts had been committed in his abfence. He
Ivtmfelf was robbed of his bat, by an Indian who
had aflifted him in cc^rnsj^dd^n from a terrace.
He made a collection of lpecimens of the different lavas, the only forts of flones in tibe ifle.
M. de Langel likewife returned foon after.#fie
had wandered far into the ififterior parts of the
ifle ; had vifited the volcanic crater; had paffed
near feveral villages ; had admired the cultivation of the fields ; had fown feeds of the orange, the lemon, and the cotton-tree, of maize,
and other fpecies of plants, fuchjts feemed likely
to thrive in the foil and climate of this ifle. The
natives were Sufficiently fagacious to comprehend the intention with ^fech fhefe feeds were
fown, and to point out to the beneficent Sowers'
thofe fpots which promifed to be the mod ftpfe
vourable to their growth. Goats, (heep, and
hogs, were, at the Same,|inie left by the Frenei r^
in the ifl&^j. €fcncerning- the goats, M. de la,
PeyrouSe had hopes thai$ they might Surviye and
multiply ■&£ he was doubtful that the fheep and
[Jhogs might quickly peilfli. In the evening of
the fame day, the French voyagers went again
on board their fhips. On the day following,
they took their departure out of Cook's bay ;
flood to the northward, and failed along, at the
diftance of a league from tfee fhore. At two
o'clockfeon the nth, they loft fight of the ifle,
and were about 20 leagues diftant from its coaft.
They were failing to explore, firft, the North
Wed coad of America. They deered onwards
in a northern direction. Until the 17th the
pjnd blew cotidaritly from the two points of S.
E. or E. S. E. ' Till the &ind (hlSed toE. N. E.
the fkies continued'clear and Serene. From the
17th to the $©th, it blew in this lad direction.
On the 20th they began to take bonetas,
fhoals 48? which continued to follow the frigates to the Sandwich ifles, and for fix
weeks fuppiled, ahnod daily, abundance fox
the &fe of the whole Hiip's crews at table. After being 10 months at fea, and out of this period
only 25 days in port, they had not a (ingle per-
fefr4ftfcn either df■■ the veflels : and not one of
their number had as yet perifhed either by accident or difeafe. In the teiaaown (eas, in TSK&ich
mey nowifeiled, they looked almod every mjm
ment with curious anxiety, around them, for
fome new difeovery. Dageiet,llie adronomer,
neglected no oppoirtflfiity of making the lunar
bblervatfiOfis, and thefe tended dill to confirm
Hieir confidence in their time-keepers. M. de
LanoePs ob^erv^ons and calculations were con*-
inued with the fame care, mi were alike fati^ 44
factory. The daily differences betweeffi the
Longitude by obfervatioi^l and the Longitude
by account, (hewed the degree of that force by
wfrich the fet of the currentssaffected the flitpfe-
courfe. Thefe carried them one degree to the
S. W. at the rafe^Rneariy 3 k&gue#in 24 hours.
Then changing to the E. they ran with equal rapidity, till our voyagers'found themfiiives in 7
deg. ife Here ihe currents again took their
courfe to the weftward.fl When the (hips ainriv*
ed al the Sandwich ifles, the Longitude by ac->
count was found to differ nearly 5 deg. from the
Longitude by obfervation : a difference com-
menfurate with the influence of Ae cu^ents.
In this courfe, the vigilance of M. de la Peyroufe was continually awake. He was pat&cu-
larly attentive to afcertain the fact of the exift-
ence of that cluder of ifles, which the Spaniards
pretend to have difcovered in thefe latitudes,
and which they have named La Mesa, Los Ma*
jos, La Disgraciada. Every refearch and calculation, at lad, confpired to convince him, thai
fuch ifles have no exiftence diftin£t from that of
%e Sandwich Isles. It is remarkable that the
Englifh navigator, DkkfonV who, in the yean
r 7 86 and 1787, likewife failed in tferife-latitiades
making the fame refearisbes, was led to draw tjrij
fame conclufion. Cook, howeveiJthe true dif
coverer of the Sandwich Ifles, ha^ neither iden<
lined the Spanifh iflands with his own, nor ye
expl-dcd them from tile map. On the 7th o
May, in 80 deg. N; Lat. numbers of petrcfe, o
man-of-war birds, and of tt^pic birds, began &
Sover. round the two fftgatosi Turtles, abou
die fame time, paffed near, fo that L, Aftpolabf
caught two of them.   Till the 14th, the fam; ROUND T<HE WORtDi
OO-mpanions continued to attend their courfe.
pltfnay be, that in this part of their progrefs,
thefe voyagers paffed fome rock or ujjfnhabited
ifle, the haunt of thefe animals, without perceiving it. They paffed near the fitua^ons of Roc*
ca Partida and La Nublada, yet without
coming in fight of thefe iflands. After they
had croffed thei latitude of Rocca Partida. the
birds difappeared. j|?On the 15th of May they
were in 19 deg. 17 min.$J. Lat. in 130 deg. W.
Long. Here, if any where, was the latitude of
the pretended Spanifh ifle%. Sailing down 200
[leagues.on this paralle«y$night have been infuf-
aieient £© expiode the fancy of their exiftence.
jBu.t M. de la Peyroufe confjnued his courfe tifl
he had failed over the precife fituations in which
thofe iflands were faid to lie ; and at length, on
the morning of the 28th of IjjSay, came within
fight of the mountains of the iflands of Owhy-
■HEE, white with fno]%^|3?he hills of Mowee,
ifomewhatfctiower, Soon after appeared within'
w$ew. On the morning of the 29^ they prepared to enter4lhe channel between thefe two
ifles. The wind blew with confiderable activity ; and they ran at th^ate o^lwo leagues an
hour. It was the wifj&fof M. de la Peyroufe,
to explore the coaft as far as Morokinnr, and
to anchor^Bear that ifle, in a flation to the leeward oSiMowRE. The 4$anders had already
marked their approach; and about 150 canoes
were on their way from the fhore, wjth fruits
and hogs, to traffick with the Europeans for iron.
Bat the frigates found it inconvenient fo tojhor-
\pen faiktf&iiiX the canoes mighti^eafily overtake
them. In. the attempt, many of the canoes wene
overfet; only 15 hogs, with a fmall quantify of m ■!.
fruits, could be procured for the&ife of the frigates : and the Indians and the French failors
were fir a time alike difappoihted. It was amu-.
Sing to fee how the Indians, wl|fn their veffels
were overfet: took their hog&in their arms, and.
their canoes, emptied of the water, on thcj^j
Shoulders ; and thus fwimmed about juft as<gai|tf
as they had rowed. Having (leered S. W. by
W. as far as the S. W. point of Mowee, M. de
la Peyroufe then food W* and N. W. to gain the
fituation in which he propofed to cad anchjipsj
L'Aftrolabe already rode at anchofdtfrere. The*
depth of the water was 23 fathoms ; the bottom
a very hard grey fand ; the diftance from thei
Shore about one third ofa league. But thfi^an-
chorage was very imperfectly fheltered from the
grinds ; and thefe perpetually Shifted. It wasj
neceffary to chufe a fafer and more co^enienti
fituation. They moved nearer to the fhore ; and
were obliged to delay their landing on the iile<
till the day following. The night was almod
unalterabiyj^alm. At day-break, on the fcllotN
mg morning, fehe^r fought new anchaioge in a
very deep bay, N. W. fromiBhe|P«formetf&ationv
But this proved little better than the former.
The ifland of Movjee is Jttiiaste nearly in 21
Aeg. N. Lat. in 15 5 deg. W* Longjfc Its appeal!
iilice is djetightfbl. It projectsinto the channel
in tfce direftion of S. W. bj^W. Hills towec
up to a considerable elevation in.the interior anei
of the ifle. A narrow ilanting plain, Scarcely
half a league in breadth, furroEradstfre bafes of
thefe hills ; and defcends to the fea-*beach. Froia
the heights copious waters are feen, almoft every where, to defcend in dreams, of which t&fe|
courfe preSents a variety of cafcades ; and, after ROUND THE WORLD.
Watering the numerous plantations of the natives., to fall gently in*© the fea.    The hills are
clothed with a rich and lively verdure.    Banana
trees, in great numbers, Surround the habitations : and So abundamfls the population, that a
Space of three or four leagueijmay be taken, at a
firft view, for one continued village.    Such is
the firft afpedt  of this ifle,  to navigators  approaching at fome fmall diftance.    Nearer the
groupes begin to be broken and didperfed -; and
-Objects Unpleafing or unintereftkig are intermin-
j gldoJWitlpthofe which, more remotely feen, pre-
I Seoted but one affemblage of the beautiful and
the drikinglSjp picturefque. The foil of the ifle is
wholly formed  of lava and other vofcanic mat*
pttfs comminuted or decompofed.     Hogs, ba-
| nanas, potatoes, are the principal objects which
the hufbandry of the natives cultivate for their
fubfiftence.    (ffl the bark of the paper-mulberry tree, they manufacture large quantities of
lekftlfci They cover the  floors of their houfiii
with mats of a confiderably ingenious  texture,
Large calabafhes, united by means ofa glue capable of refifting moifture, varnifhed, moulded
I into various forms, and ornamented with figures which are  fketched  upon them in black,
■ form one of the mod elegant and commodious
| artieles of this people's kitchen utenfils.    The
hoaies are low flraw-feiilt huts, not unlike to
rthofe of our pooreft peafants ; the roof nearly in
the form of an ifofodes triangle; the door, at
the gable end, not more than three feet and an
half in height; acceffible only to a perfon (loop-
ling, and fattened but by a fitigle latch.    When
the torrents from tke mountain^ fail, brackift
F water from (hallow wells is the only refit^rce of MM
the inhabitants of Mowee for drink.    Here, as
in the other iflands of the South Sea, the defi*j
cate fan&ity of female chaftity appears to be un-i
known and unvalued.    But the female form is
here invefted with few of the graces or elegancies, even of rude Savage beauty ; and the venj£*J
real difeafe, however introduced, has made ravages the moft terrible and the moft univerfal.
The people of Mowee, with thofe of the other
Sandwich ifles, have been accufed of the horrid
practice of offering human facrifices, to propitiate their deities, and of delighting themfelves
occafionally to feaft on limbs which were once
warm with human life.    The Engljfh navigators
appear to have eflablifhed this fa£l, which it is
fo painful to believe, upon evidence too ftrong
to be refided.    La Peyronie, with a gentlenefsi
and benignity, which would gladly vindicate human nature from the charge of the mod^Savage
crime by which it can be degraded, has endead
voured too ineffectually to convince us that can-
nibalifm is here unknown,.    From the kindneli|
©f thofe Europeans, by whom they have been, at
different times, v&ted, thefe ifles have derived^
Supplies of our moft valuable domedic animals ;
bulls, oows, goats, ewes and rams.    Trees from
many different countries have&een here planted;
and the feeds of the mod ufeful vegetables fown.
Iron, and the mod ufeful implements of  induf-
try, have been introduced.     A fubordinStiojl
fubfifts, by which the chiefs and prieds enjoy an
abfolute power.    The canoes framed wkh out-}
riggers ; each, in  the  common fize, about 24j
feet in length, 1 foot broad, 1 foot deep 5 capa-j
ble of holding from three to five men ; yet not!
exceeding 50 or 60 pounds in weight \ and cm- ^TW
ployed 4n couffes of navigation to the extent
even of 6© leagues,; difplay very extraordinary
ingenuity, both in their ufe and ftrudture.   Yet
the arts, in general, are here in a flate lower than
that in which they appear in Eafter Ifland ; and
a long time muft, in all probability, elapfe, before the Sciences, the rectitude of moral intelligence, the beneficial civil policy, and that happy
improvement of the agricultural  and the mechanic arts—which diftinguifhed civilized mankind from favages   and barbarians—can be ef-
I tablifhed among the native inhabitants of Mo-
I M?ee *>r  Owhyhee.    In their intercourfe witji
the French, thefe people fhowed an unteazing,
unprovoking gentlenefs, an  honefty little prone
to^theft, a Sagacious caution, and yet a fairnefs
in commerciaLdealing, fry which they were very
advantageoufly  diftinguifhed from the inhabitants of Eafter Ifland.    They were, in particular, careful, in the fail of their hogs and fruits,
not to Spoil the market by offering large quantities, at once, to the purchafers, but to produce
hog after hog, and one fmall quantity of bananas
and potatoes flowly after another, that the eager-
nefs of the buyers, and, by confequence,  the
> prices, might ftill bekept up.
It was on the 22d of May 1786, that ourvoy-
l-agers landed on this* ifle.    They happened to
come on (hore in a place towards  which none
of thofe dreams of water defcended, which they
jfrad feen at a didance.    Their landing was ef-
i fectcd in four boats; in the two foremott of
which were 2© armed Soldiers under the com-
jmandof Lieutenant de Pierrevert, while M.
! de Langle, with fuch officers and pafTengers as
were not by duty-detained on board* went in the So
other two. An hundred and twenty perfons,
men and women, awaited their approach on the
fhore. The firft care of the French, after land-.
ing, was, to difpofe the foldiers, with bayonets
fixed, around a fpace which they referved for
themfelves, fecluding from it all accefs of the
Indians. At this thefe gentle people teftified
neither fear, provocation, nor furprize. Two
Indians, who appeared to have an authority over
the reft, addreffed them in grave fpeeches of fome
length, and offered each a prefent of an hog. The
prefents were accepted ; and in return, medals,
hatchets, and other pieces of iron, to them in-
eftimably precious, were liberally bellowed. T he
women made offer of their favours, in which,
however, there was but little allurement. * Having firft vifited the village, M. de la Peyroufe,
with the gentlemen accompanying him, then
made an excurfion farther into the ifle, under
the protection of a ferjeant's guard of foldiers.
The refult of their obferval ions has been exhibited in the paragraph irnmediately foregoing.
They had left their Ships at 8 o'clock in the
morning ; at 11 in the forenoon they re-embarked in their boats ; at noon ihey arrived again
.onboard the (hips. During their abfence, a
chieftain, of confiderable confequence, had vifited the (hips; and had fold to thofe on board, a
cloak and helmet elegantly ornamented with red
feathers, with various articles of provifion, and
other fpecimens of the implements of thefe ifl-
anders. Strong gales now blew on them from
the fouth-eaft. Both the frigates were forced
to drag their anchors; and it was Some time before they could even hoifl their boats on board.
At | in the afternoon, they had weighed up their ROUMD-THE world.
anchors.    Till 8  o'clock, the breezes blew fo
faintly, that their progrefs was not  more than
half a league.    The wind at laft fettled in the
N. E.    The frigates then took their  courfe to
the weftward; and paffed in the middle between
the ifles of Tahoorowa and Ranai.    At daybreak, they flretched towards the S. W. extremity of the ifland of Morotoj.    They entered the
open fea by that channel which divides Morotoj
from  Wohaoo.     On   the   ift of June,   at 6
o'clock in the evening, they had  left all  thefe
|ifles behind them.    That fhoal of bonetas which
rliad followed them for 1500 leagues, from the
I vicinity of Eafter Ifland as far as thefe Sandwich
I ifles, now disappeared. , .       a 52
Narrative of the Voyage continued, from the rfi. of-
June Iy8d, to the beginning of Augufi jjj including the Courfe from the Sandwich Ifles to Fort
de Frangois, with its Tranfactions, Dif coveriesy
and Misfortunes.
^TJR voyagers now directed their courfe
northward.    Want of water and other fuitable
provifions, foon obliged them to,kill and cure
with fait the'hogs which  they had procured
from Mowee.    On the 6th of June, when they
had arrived in the §o deg. of N. Lat. the winds
fhifted from E. to S. E.    The fkies now affum-
ed a dull, whitifh afpe£l. igtt appeared that the
frigates had pafled the Sphere of the trade-winds^
and that weather lefs favourable than they had
hitherto enjoyed, was now to be expected.    On
the 9th of June, while they failed in 34 deg. N.
Lat. they began to be furrounded with fogs.
Till the 14th of the fame month, when they had
reached the 41 deg. N. Lat. thefe fogs continued to obfcure the horizon.    The inceffant drizzling rains alarmed M. de la Peyroufe for the
health of the  failors.      He  therefore ordered
ftoves with burning coals, to be placed  under
the halfirdeck and between  the   decks ;   gave
every failor and Soldier a pair oS boots : and re-*
flored the flannel under-veils and drawers, which
he had made his people lay afide, and had kept
in referve, ever Since they left the feas adjacent
to Cape Horn.    Upon the judgment of the fur-
geon, there was likewife Secretly mingled with
i the grog which the crews had at breakfaft, a
flight infufion of Peruvian bark, adapted,!© P£0- •    .;
duce effects eonfiderably Salutary, without fen-
fibly affeCling the tafte of the liquor. The hap-
piefl fuccefs, fortunately, attended the ufe of
thefe precautions. The formation of a corn-
mill was another thing of important utility,.
which, about this time, gave employment to
fome of the voyagers. In their (lores, they
had taken on board, inftead of flour and bifcuit,.
merely corn dried in the kiln. To convert this
into meal, they poffeffed only inftruments like
the querns of the Scotifh Highlands. With
thefe, only a very fmall quantity of meal could
be every day prepared ; and to obtain even that,
required an operofe toil, which was found extremely irkfome. The inventive genius of fade Langle, affifted by one of the failors, who
had formerly been a millar's boy, contrived,
firft to adapt to their querns, fails by which a
wind-mill was produced. Afterwards, a handle,
jwith the mechanical powers of thefcrew, was
jadvantageoufiy preferred. Flour was now obtained in great abundance: and this was as much
better than that which they had before been able
to manufacture, as the fineft ordinary flour is
better than the coarfeft common bran. On the
14th of June, the wind changed from S. E. to
W. S. W- They were enabled to obferve,, in
general, that when the winds varied only in fome
few degrees from W. to N. the fky became generally clear, and the fun enlightened the horizon ; that drizzling rains were wont to fall,
while the winds varied from W. toS. W. : that
fogs, with a moifture which wetted every thing,
without being perceived to fall, accompanied the
winds of that range of points fromS. W*byS*
£. to £.
fl 54
They were  now advancing to a part of: tiieJ
American coaft, which, with the exception of
port of Nootka alone, was  but juft  feen by
Commodore Cook.    One of the moft ufeful at»
tempts they  could make, was, to explore the
tracl between Mount  St. Eli as,  and Port- I
Monterey.     Unluckily, M.   de la Peyroufe
could appropriate to  this fervice only two or
three months.    Proceeding northward, arid approaching the American coaft, they began to ob-
ferve fea-weeds float by  by ;   the   fpecies of
which was abfolutely unknown to therm Among
thefe was ahead equal in fize to an orange, not.,
unlike to an onion, the (talk of which has run
to feed, and itfelf terminating a flalk 40 or 50
feet in length.    Vaft whales, divers, wild geefe,.
about the fame  time appeared around them.
From thefe   fignals, they knew that land was -
nigh.    At 4 o'clock on the morning of the 23d,
the fogs, fuddenly clearing away, permitted them
to difcover a long range of fnow-covered mountains.      Among  thefe   they   could  diftinguifiV
Mount St.Elias, rearing its top above the clouds.
This dreary coaft was feen without exciting thofe
pleafing emotions which men who have been
long at lea are wont to feel when they come fird':
within fight of land.    All was here defolationv^
and barrennefs, without trees, without verdure,
exhibiting nought but huge and endlefs piles of
mow.|§From the height of the  mountains, the
land appeared to defcend towards the fea.    The
waves broke at the fhore, againft a perpendicular ledge of black rocks, the front elevation of
which might be about  15© or  206  fathoms.
Such was the appearance of the coaft feen front
a diftance.    Approaching nearer, cur voyagers ROUND THE WORLD.
perceived iflands like hills overfpread with trees,
lifing into view in front of the higher ground,,
which alone they had, at firft, obServed. The
wind, however, Suddenly changing from an eaftern to a Southern direction, the fky becoming
dark and black on that quarter ei the horizon :
and they were thus prevented from taking that
near and diftinct furvey, which they wifhed, of
this part of the coaft. At noon, from an obfer-
vation, and from their time-keepers, they found
themfelves to be in $q deg. 2* min. N. Lat. and
in 143 deg. 23 min. W. Long. The land was
hidden by a thick fog, during the whole of the
25th. On the 2©th, the weather became fair ;
and at 2 o'clock in the morning of that day, the
coaft, with all its windings, appeared clearly in
view. A broad level tract of land extended in
front of the mountains. A low point, covered
with trees, feemed to join that tract, and to terminate at a fmall diftance^ Conceiving that the
broad level tract, with the lower wooded point
by which it feemed to be terminated, might be
an ifland divided by an arm of the fea from the
towering mountains beyond ; they tut^||d their
courfe towards that point; and continuing to
found with the lead while they Sailed, found the
leaft depth of the water to be 45 fathoms, with
a muddy bottom. During the forenoon, the
breezes had blown but lightly, with a variation
from W. to N. At two in the afternoon, a calm
made it neceffary for the frigates to come to anchor. Their fituation, at noon, was in 59 deg.
41 min. N.. Lat. in 133 deg. 3 min. W. Long.
Boats had been difpatched to furvey the bare
channel, which was conceived to lie between the
Suppofed ifland and the continent*   Diftant ofe^ 56
fervation had fuggefted that the water ftowed-in
that channel, very fmooth, and that the motion
of the current was at the rate of about half a
league an hour to the S. S. W. Thefe indications might feem to prove; that if no channel
intervening, between an ifland and a continent;
here was at leaft the mouth of fome great river.
Every appearance foon concurred to foretel approaching foul weather. The mercury had fallen remarkably in the barometer during the laft
twenty-four hours. The Iky was now black
and darkjl Fears began to be entertained for
the boats.|L But, about 9 o'clock in the evening,
thefe returned in fafety. The report of the officers who had gone in them, Meffrs de Monti,.,
de Vaujuas, and Boutin, raSher contradicted
than confirmed thofe conjectures which had
been made, at a diftance, concerning the coaft.
They had Sound neither river nor channel,
but only a Sort of Semi-circular creek, the Soundings in which indicated 30 fathoms water, with
a muddy bottom ; but which could afford no
Shelter, from any of the winds blowing between
the S. S. W>and the E. S. E. poiatsof the com-
pafs. The more was covered with drifted wood.
The fea broke upon S& with fuch violence, that
M. de Monti, the officer commanding the boats,
had very great difficulty in effecting a landing-
M. de la Peyroufe, in compliment to M. de
Monti, named the creek De Monti's Bay.
An Englifh voyager, Dickfon, vifited this fame
part of the American coaft in the year following*!* His narrative of his voyage makes it probable, that the conjecture of La Peyroufe was
nearer to the truth than the obfervations of his.
officers.     The Port Mulgraye of Dickfon? ROUND THE WORLD.
differs in pofition but by a few minutes of Longitude and Latitude from the bay of De Monti.
It fhould feem that the miftake of the French
officers muft have arifen from their trufting too
haflily to the firft appearances at the mouth of
the bay ; and from their hence neglecting to penetrate fufficiently far towards its bottom.
Soon after the return of his boats, M. de la
Peyroufe turned the courSe of the frigates from
the coaft 'r failing towards the S. E. under   a
breeze which arofe with confiderable brifknefs
frcm the N. W. The wind, after  man^ variations, blew at laft for 24 hours, ftrong and ftea-
i dy, from the E. The night was foggy, yet calm.
I On the 28th of June in 59 deg. 19 min. N. Lat.
in 142 deg. 41 min. W. Long, the weather became more moderate.    A heavy fog now hung
; upon the Coaft.    But the mercury began to rife
in the barometer ; and expectations of flill fair-
\ er weather were naturally excited.    The courfe
of the frigates was ftill  Southward along the
coaft.    At 5 o'clock in the evening, they were
but 3 leagues from land, with a muddy bottom*.
Onthe 29th,they were in 59 deg.  20 miakN.
Lat. in 142 deg. 2 min. W. Long, in the,.c6urfe
' of 24 hours their progrefs had been deflected 24
miles to the eaftward. Even amid the fogs, they
could at intervals perceive the low-lands of the
I coaft, from which they had never been farther
; than 4 leagues diftant.     Their foundings were
now regularly from 60 to 70  fathoms, with a
muddy bottom.    They fuppofed themfelves to
j be but 5 or 6 leagues eaftward from the Behr-
ing's Bay of Cook.    They fet their fails for the
; land ;   and approached it  under a very  light
breeze from W. sfw.    A bay feemed to open 58
before them ; but when they came nearer, they
could fee, that what they had I fuppofed a bay,
was nothing but the abrupt meeting of high with
low lands at the coaft. They caft anchor where
there was 30 fathoms depth of water, with a
muddy ground. The boats of the two frigates,
under the command of Meffrs. de Clonard and
Marchainville, were fent out to explore the coaft.
They found at the mouth #f a great river discharging itfeif into the fea, by two not incon-
fiderable channels, a fandy bank, which rofe to
a level with the water. For five or fix hours,
they fought for an entrance into thefe channels.
But, both were fhut up by the Sandy bars, again ft
which the fea broke with fuch force, that it was
impoffible for the boats to approach them. Beyond the fand-basks, indeed, within the channels, they could perceive fmootli water in a ba-
Son of two leagues in length, and feven leagues
in breadth. Smoke, befpeaking the country to
be inhabited, was alfo hen on the fhore. There
can be no doubt,, but thap which appeared to
the French voyagers to be the mouth of a great
river, is the Behring's Bay of Cook,JJ La Peyroufe gave it the name of Behring's River*
It is not impoffible, but that, Since the French
voyager approached nearer to the land than the
Englifh, the former may be more correct, in
affijiming the exiftence of the mouth of a river
here, than is the latter, when he fpeaks merely
of a bay. From this Scene, the two Srigates
Sailed along the land at two or three leagues
diftance Srom it ; and under a light breeze
from the W. With the affiftance of their per-
fpective glaffes they could fee people on the
I fhore.    But the fea was reverberated from the ROUND THE WORLD.
bleach in thofe tremenduous billows to which
the Sailors gave the name of breakers ; and of
which the overwhelming fury rendered all landing in thefe Scenes utterly impoffible. At noon,
on the 2d of July, in 58 deg. 36 min. N. Lat.
in 140 deg. 31 min. W. Long, they found
themfelves oppofite to Mount Fairweather,
at,two leagues diftance from the land. They
difcovered, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon of the
fame day, at a place Somewhat eaftward from
Cafe Fairweather, a retroceffion of the coaft,
which was gradually perceived to retire inwards,
fo as to form a fine bay. Towards that bay
they immediately directed their courfe. Three
boats were difpatched to examine it. A reef
of rocks, about 300 toifes in length, with a fuf-
ficiently acceffible opening at one end, contigu-
©us to a point of the continent, was feen to protect this bay from the tumultuous billowings of
the waves of the open fea beyond. Within
this reef of rocks, the waters were calm and
fmooth. Of the inlet at its one end, the depth
was found to be in the middle, 7 or 8 fathoms ;
at the diftance of 20 toifes from either fide, c
fathoms. The depth within the bay was 10 or
12 fathoms, with a fafe bottom. Satisfied of
thefe particulars, by the information of the-.of-
ficers who had gone in the boats, M. de la Peyroufe refolved to conduct the frigates into tn£
bafon. At 7 o'clock in the evening, they were
before the inlet: but the winds blew faintly,
and the tide was then ebbing with an impetuofi-
ty of current, in oppofition to which the (hips
were not able to advance. During the night,
they waited near without calling anchor. In
the morning, new obfervations, made by the of- SmSijilj;   \i
m f
ficers of L}Aftrolabe, encouraged them all to rfc-
new their attempts to enter.    After fome diffi-|
culties, the flowing tide carried both the frigates]
into the bay ; forcing them into a pofition within half a piftol (hot of rocks, on which almoftj
the Smalleft movement Sarther would have fhat-1
tered them in pieces.    They both caft anchoij
at half a cable's length from the more ; and in]
three fathoms and a half water,   with  a rocky!
bottom.    Once or  twice La Bouffole flightlji
touched the rocks with her keel; fortunately,
however, without fuffering the fmalleft damage.]
During 30 years experience in navigation, MJ
de la Peyroufe had never feen two (hips fo near!
to being loft, and yet efcaping from the danger.]
But it was not immediately poffible to move >from|
their prefent pofition to fafer anchoring ground.
After a fliort time, an excellent bed of fand
was found at four cables length of diftance from!
their firft fituation, with 1© fathoms of water
over it: at a farther diftance into the bay, no
frottom could be found, even at 60 fathoms, ex-j
cept at half a cable's length from the  fhoreJ
"where was a muddy bottom under 30 fathoms
water. At the bottom of the bay was difcovercdj
an ifland, near which there was anchorage in 20
fathoms depth of water, with a muddy bottom.
On that ifle, abundance of wood lay ready cut)
and   carelefsly   Scattered  along   the   groundJ
Streams of excellent water were precipitated inj
cataracts  from  the mountains.     Beyond   the
ifle, the fea was covered with blocks of ice ;
and the entrances  of two  extenfive channels
were difco\;ered at a diftance.    At 4 o'clock in
the  afternoon, the frigate,  La  BouffoJe, was
'warped in upon the above mentioned bed of ItOUND THE WX)KLD.
fand. L'Aftrolabe, with betterJfticcew, gained
at once,the anchorage adjacent tb the ifle. On
the day following, a light breeze from the S. E.
enabled La Bou&Ie, with theaffiflance of the
boats, to join her. To the whole bay, a bay of
which thefe navigators were the firft difcover-
ers, M. de la Peyroufe gave the name of Port
be Francois.
On the continent adjacent to Port de Francois, inhabit fome Savage tribes, with whofe'ex-
iftenee and manners our  voyagers had now an
opportunity of becoming acquainted : They appeared to worfhip the Sun.    With the Speeches, in their moft Solemn tranfadtions, was, occasionally, intermingled a plaintive mufic, not unlike to the Pfalm tunes of the Chriftian wor-
Ship ; or t© thofe fweet melancholy airs, which
Blare nnderftood to conflitute the better part of the
native mufic of the Scots. Dancing to the founds
of their own voices likewife accompanies fome
of their moft folemn transactions.    They  fub-
-fift partly by fifhing, in part by hunting.    They j
are acquainted with trte ufe of iron ; and have,
by various means, either in direct intercourfe
with Europeans, or by tranfmiffion through intermediate hands, acquired considerable   quantises of it.    That amphibious animal, the fea-
otter, is the conftant object of their hunting
purfuit.    It receives from them  the name of
Skecter.    Its Weight, at its full growth, |snay be
about 70 pounds.    Its fkin furmfhes a very valuable fur.    Thefe Savages were underftood by
their French vifitors, to have  their nabitations
at Some diftance on the continent, yel often to
refort to the ifle nigh which the frigates. Jay at
jonchor;   A tomb* which Some Frenchmen had 6a
an -opportunity of examining, . mowed thefe
-Americans to have the cuflom of burning the
the bodies of their dead.ff The head alone is
preferved unburntj and carefully wrapped up in*
a number of fkins. For the monument, a Small
wooden chamber is elevated on four poles. The
head with the afhes are depofited in a coffin, and
placed within that chamber. The canoes, in
which thefe Indians adventure upon the fea, are
formed each of the trunk of a tree, hollowed,
raifed at the fides by planks which are Sewed fiji
its bottom, having, like our boats, timber and
wales,well executed in the woodwork, and covered over with Seal fkins, fewed together with;
admirable clofenefs and nicety. In winter,
while they truft to the chace for the means of
fubfiftence, they are often unavoidably liable to
perifh by famine.-Min Summer, the Salmons of
the rivers form the principal article of their food:
and thefe they takewith eafe and in an abundance
which makes it poffible for- them to be idle and
gluttonous to any degree they pleafe.H Gaming
is the frequent amufemc^t of their indolence ;
and they run into all its worft mifchiefs, with
moft furious and moft perfevering ardor of paf-
fion. To the French ftrangers, they difplayed
their moral principles and feelings in a light
mockingly unamiable. They beheld diftreijjjj
without Sympathy; they robbed their benevolent vifitants, the moft readily, at thofe very moments, when thefe were carefling and loading
with prefents themfelves and their cnildren.
One or two of the Frenchmen could at no time
(troll to any diftance on the coaft, without being liable to be furrounded, and forcibly deprived of eyery thing valuable about tjiem^ by ROtfND THE WORLD.
tnefe rapacious natives.    A village of three <ffi
four wooden fheds was obferved by our voYa-t
gers near the fhore. | Thefe (heds were, each, 2'ca
feet in length, and 15 in breadth; covered only
on that fide which was the moft cxpofed to the
ftorms,vwith. planks or with the bark of trees;
and having in the middle a fire, around which
iwerehung Salmons and other fifties dried
in the Smoke.    Each fhedappeared to lodge 18
or 20 perfons.    On one fide fat their women
and- children ;   on  the other were She men.
[Eacjg fhed feemed to be the feat of a diftinct Society.    Each had its  own  canoe   and its owna
chief.    The movements and defigns of the company in every different fhed feemed to be entirely
independent, of the inhabitants of the others.
C4rcumftances appeared to indicate, that the re-
ifidence pf thefe Americans, upon this bay, was
ibikt occafibnal and temporary.     They perhaps
ipafs the fummer here for fifhing; but in the winter retire  into  the  interior country to   purfue
I the chace.    Within and around their dwellings,
the moft difgufting naftinefs prevailed.    They
prepare their fifties for food,  in wooden veffels,
^which, though ufed alike for kettle, difh, and
[plate, are never warned.-    Being without pots of
either iron or that lapis ollaris,.which has been
found in ufe among the natives of fome of the
N. E. parts of the  American continent ;_^i^ev
have no means to make water boil, fave by if||/
merfing into it flones, which  they  have made
red-hot in the fire.    Their method of roafting
nearly refembles that which is practifed by foldiers in  a camp.    In  fummer they  feek   their
food like the feals, wandering from bay to bay.
In winter they penetrate into the interior conn- LA ^EYROUSE's VOYAGE"
try, and hunt the beaver and other animals.
From the tendernefs of the foles of their feet,
which, though always naked, are never callous,
it mould feem that they travel little, except hi
canoes|t)r with Snow rackets^ Their only do-
medic animal is the dog, of a Species wild, carnivorous, and dangerous; in form and fize not
unlike to the common fhepherd's dog, rarely
barking, but emitting an hifs fimilar to that of
t^e jackall of Bengal. The drcfs of thefe people is Simple, yet in fome particulars oddly fan-
taftic. The head is ufually covered with a
Small hat of draw, very neatly plaited. Or, in
feme inftances, two horned bonnets of eagle's^
feathers, or even the whole head of a bear, having a wooden fcull-eap fixed to it, appear inftead
of the draw hat. Some were feen to wear a
Sort of robe of otter's (kin, or of the tanned (kin
of the elk, bordered with a jingling fringe of
deers hooves and the beaks of birds. The car-
tillages of the ears and the nofe are pierced to
receive different ornaments. On their breads
and arms they may make fears with a fharp
edged inftrument, which they iare accoftomed
to whet on their teeth. With a piece of fand-
ftone, wrought into the form of a tongue, they
file down their teeth to the gums. Ochre, foot,
and plumbago, mingled with fifli oil, are employed by them in painting frightfully the face
and the other parts of the body.^ Drefled in
what they themfelves account the manner the
moft fumptuous and elegant, they wear the hair
flowing at full length, entwined with the down
ofTea-fowls, and plentifully powdered. Some
few inftances of tattooing on the arms, were observed among the women.    Young girls, who: ROUND THE WORLD.
Ifitve not yet attained the age of puberty, u»:iiver«i
fally pierce the under-lip, and fix in it a  needle, as a conftant ornament.    When . they have •
advanced beyond the age of puberty, the orifice
which was formed by' the  needle, is enlarged,
by flitting the lower lipat the root of the gums,
for the whole widenefs of the mouth.    Into this
is now inferted  a fort of wooden bowl without
handles^ very nicely formed, and deftined to be
worn as a perpetual ornament, which they will, ,
at no time, even for a moment lay afide, without extreme confufion and reluctance.     The
general drefs of thefe women is  more carelefs-
and filthy than that of the men.    Their countenances, naturally wild and harfh, are inexpreW;
fibly disfiguered by the laceration of the under
lip. Their whole perfons appeared to the French
ftrangers, to be the moft Squalid and difgufting
upon earth. %Yet, amori£ the Sailors there were
fome who were fo brutally lafcivious  as   to Solicit their favours.    They at firft fhowed Somewhat of coy reluctance, and hinted their fears of
the jealoufy of their men.g^ Prefents overcame
this reluctance; and they then chofe rather to
proftitu'te themfelves on the open fhore, in the
face of the fun, than to retire under the more
modeft concealment of the woods.    It is not to
fre diffembled, that Dixon, the Englifh voyager,
who vifited this coaft, foon after M. de la Peyroufe, has given  a   lefs  difgufting   picture of
jthefe females. | He fays, that when one of them
Iwas perfuaded to wafn herfelf clean, her form
and countenance, (but -for the disfigurement of -
the under lip,) appeared much  to  refemble a
iiandfome Englifh milkmaid.    In flature, thefe i
beople were perceived to differ little from their J
Fa m
French vifitors.    The colopr of their fkin is a
dark brown, not from the birth, but in confe-
qnence of their continual expofure to the Sooty
naftinefs of thejf houfes, and to the air and rains |
in the open atmofphere.    Their frame is feeble ;
and the weakeft of the French failors would have
been more than a match in  wreftlinjj for the
flouteft of thefe Americans.    Symptoms of the
fcurvey were obferved on fome of them ; and
the oldeft perfon among them was a woman who \
might be about 60 years of age.    They fifh  the
rivers, either by fetting up flakes aerofs them ;
and thus forming a fort of cruives ; or elfe, wirtf-
lines, to which a fmail fifh is faftened as a bait,,
while a large feal's bladder, connected with the
line, and Swimming on the furface of the water,
indicates to the fifherman the firft moment when
any fifh  matches at the bait below.      Thefe
Americans of Port de Francois, are  (killed to
fpin the hair of different animals into a yarn, of
which, with needles, they fabricate a fpeeies of
cloth, of a texture* fimilar to that of the tapeftry
of Europe.    Of this cloth they form for themfelves cloaks ;   and having contrived* to intermix in the fabric of the cloth, (lender ftripes ©£
otter-fkin,  Utey  thus make their cloaths to re-
femble the fined filken fbag of European manufacture^ Their hats and bafkets of reeds are:
woy«n wg|i exquifite Skill.  The ornamental de-p
figns which they (ketih upon thefe, are in no.
unpltfafing tade.    They  ferge iron; they fa«;
fhion copper ; they execute tolerable engravings
of men and other animals, hi  wood and doner
They caake finely polifhed ornaments of the Serpentine done : They inlay boxes in a very ele-^
gant manner, with mother of pearlyA dagger 5 \ ROU^D WE WORLD.
a wooden lance at one end, (harpened and hardened in the fire, or perhaps pointed with iron ;
a bow and arrows, the latter tipped with copper ; are their ordinary weapons. There were
obferved among their trinkets, pieces of yellow
amber; which they may polfibly pick up from
time to time, upon their own coafls. Their
canoes appeared to be in general more than*30
feet long ; 4 feet bread; 6 feet deep; and were
covered with feal-fkins after the.manner of the
Efquimaux. Their gaming makes them feri-
ous and melancholy. It is played with 30 pieces of wood ; each having, like our dice, different marks, and of thefe 30 pieces, they hide 7.
Every one of the perfons engaged in the game,
then plays in his turn. He whofe guefs comes
neared to the number upon the 7 pieces, is the
winner of the dake.J|An hatchet, or a piece of
iron, is ufually the ftipulated prize. Their mufic is.plaintive and melodious. The founds of
their language are rough and harfh, exhibiting
combination^ of confonants to which we (liould
find it impoffible to give utterance » and excluding the founds of fome of thofe letters* which
occur the mod frequently in the Speech-of civilized Europe J§:Of the confonants, byf> x,j, d, p9
v9 /and the liquid gn^ could not be enunciated
by them, otherwife than very imperfectly, and
with extreme difficulty. Their initial confonants are, k, t,n, f, m. None of their words
begin with n. Their terminations are, almoft
always, either in vowels, or in the tj^llables outs",
aulch. K is the favourite letter in them alphabet^ They have interjections expreffive of plea-
Sure, anger, and admiration. They poflefs but.
few abftwt terais.   ForaSmuch as our voya- mw
gers could obferve, there feemed to be a considerable affinity of found between the language of
the inhabitants of Nootka, and that of thefe people of Port de Francois. The following are the
principal numerical terms of this language :-
-v Five,
Thirty, j
STakatouchou r
Keirk rha-neifk
Keirk rha-kettjchine
Keirk rha-kleituchou
Keirk rha~netfkatouchou
Netfkatouchrha •
An hundred,
The harbour or bay to which La Peyroufe gave
thenamejjf Port.ijie Francois, is fituatein 58 ROUND THE WORLI># #£
I deg. 37 i|$n. N. Latitude, in 130^ deg. 50 min.
N. Longitude. Under the full, and under the
changing moon, the tide here rifes §| fee^
on the fhore. It is then high water at one
o'clock. At certain times, the current of the
tide moves in with the forceof the mod rapid river ; at other times, a boat may eafily fail in direct
oppofition to it. There were obferved on the
i^pdjhigh water marks, at a height not lefs than
1 c feet above the furface of the fea.    The cli-
Imate of this coaft was judged by M. de la Peyroufe to be far milder than that of Hudfon's bay
in the Same latitude. Vegetation is here exceedingly vigorous, for 3 or 4 months annually.
Pines were meafured by our voyagers, of which the
circumference was found to be 18 feet, the height
140 feet. Almoftallthe pot-herbs of the meadows
and mountains of France appeared in the fields.
Among thefe were, angelica, the butter-cup, the
violet, &c. Celery, round leaved forrel, lupine,
the wild pea, yarrow, and endive were likewilfe;
found in great abundance. Goofeberries, rafp-
berries, and (Irawberries, were plenteous in the
woods. Alder trees, the poplar, the fallow, the
hornbeam, the dwarf willow, with different fpe*
|l£es of briars, were feen intermingled among
the flately pines. ||Moft of the plants appeared
to be a fpecjies which are common in Europe.
|M.;yle Martiniere, in his botanical excurfions,
met with only three plants which he thought
new. TrOut and Salmon are prodigiqufly abundant in the rivers. Ling, thornbacks, plaices,
■ftetms, and capelans, were taken by the French
|in the bay. Mufcles, limpets, whilks, and cock-
pf$flwere among the moft remarkable (hell fifh-
From a place at the elevation of more than
les. 7o
20© toifes above the level of the fea, M. de Lafc
manon, mineralogift, took marine petrifactions
in a fine ftate of prefervation, and of very large
dimenfions, of the (hell known by the name.of
St. Jamefsfhell, or the Royal cloak. Bears, martins, and fquirrels, were found by the hunters in
the woods. ;|The natives brought fkins olnhe
brown and black bear, the Canadian lynx, the
Canadian marmot, the ermine, the red fox,- the
martin, the beaver, and the little grey fquirrei.
The moft common, however, and the moft precious fkins brought by the natives, were thofe
of the fea-otter, the wolf, and the7bear. The
horn of a wild goat, the tanned ficins of the
elk, were alfo feen by the French voyagers. A
water, and a mufk rat were by M. de Lamanon
taken alive. The fpecies of birds which are riot*
here many ; but trie individuals of each fpecies
are fufficiently numerousitl'Sparrows, nightin-
gales,black-birds, and yellow-hammers, fifled the
thickets, finging with a delightful melody. The
white-headed eagle and*- the great raven were
feen hovering aloft in the air. A beautiful blue
jay, with fome humn|iftg birds, attracted the notice of the ftrangers. They killed a king-fifher;
The nefts of the fwallow and the black oyfler-
catcher were obferved in the cliffs of*f the
rocks on the fea-fhore. The only lea-fowls
feen, were, the red footed guillemot, gulls,
cormorants, wild .geefe, and divers, of both the
large and fmall -fpecies. The deep vales amon#i
thefe mountains, prefent views fo^frightfully pic-!
turefque, that were they not at this remote extremity of the earth; they could not fail, to at*-
tract the furious vifits of all who admire the1
beauties and the wonders of external nature. ROU^fD THE WORLD.
The mountains have their bafes in the fea; form
a fort of quay upon the fhore ; and thence af-
cend with an acclivity fo rapid and precipitous,
that even the wild goats cannot climb them
above the firft two or three frundred toifes of
their height. Ice and fnow nil the interjacent
gullies. No trees nor other plants overfpread
thefe mountains. Granites and (chiftus com-
pofe their ftrata. Thefe are the great primitive
mountains. Secondary mountains, of inferior
elevation, form the fides of the harbour. feOf
thefe the height is not more than from 80© to
oca toifes. Pines rife over their fides ; and
beneath is a carpet of verdure. They are not
abfolutely inacceffible, yet extremely difficult to
be climbed. The fnow appears only on their
fummits. The French naturalifts, with infinite
fatigue,'anade their way almoft to the tops of thefts
Secondary mountains. But it was in the vales
they foughttheirfpecimensof the different matters
compofing the ftrata, interfperfed among them.
Ochre ; cupraceous pyrates ; granites, brittle,
large, and perfectly chryftaiized ; Schorl in chryf-
tals; granite ; fchiftus; horn-ftone; pure quartz,;
mica ; plumbago ; and coals; were the different minerals of which their collections exhibited Specimens.
No Sooner had the two frigates been fixed at
anchor near the ifle, which was mentioned
abo|e > than the voyagers turned themfelves to
form a Settlement on that ifle, for the time of
their, day in the harbour. They pitched tents
for their fmiths and fail-makers ; and took out
the calks from the holds of the (hips to be there
refitted. The Indians had none of their habita-
tions'on the ifle. Here, therefore, it was fup-
pofed that their thefts might be without quarrel lw-
or violence, avoided. Some fire-arms and attn>
lery were difcharged in their prefenee, to convince them, that, however lenient, the ftrangetl
were fufticiently powerful to reprefs and punifK
injury. Whatever might happen, it was deter-f
mined to employ no iorce againft the natives ;
but, to excite the vigilance of the crews, M. d£
la Peyroufe fettled, that the men who fuffered a
lofs by the theft of the Indians, fhould be purm
ifhed for that negligence^ by which the theft had
been allowed to take effect. But the avidity and
ingenuity of the natives, often defeated all thefe
precautions. At one time, in particular, they
landed from their canoes on the ifle, by night ;
dole through the woods, gliding like adders on
their bellies, uttering not a whifper, Scarcely
dining a leaf; made their way, unobferved,
through a guard of 12 foldiers into a tent, in
which Meffrs. de Lauridon and Darbaud, thfl
©fficers of the guard, lay afleep ; took away the
clothes of thefe two gentlemen from under thei|
pillows, without awakening them ; and conveyed this booty? together with a mufket mounted
with filver, and a memorandum book of adrw
nomical obfervations, off in perfect Safety, and
undetected. The boats, in the mean time, car*
ried wood and water on board the (hips ; and
different working parties were employed inth(
diligent performance of ah* the neceffary labours^
Meffrs. de Monneron and Betnizet, with an ar«$
ed company of the failors and foldiers, proceed
ed in a boat to explore the bay. They looked
with awe at the grand appearances which naturt
exhibited towards its bottom. A bafbn of unfathomable depth, Surrounded *by Snow covered
mountains of an elevation to which the ey< ROUND THE WORLD.
feared to fexalt its gaze ; no breath of air ruffling
the furface of thefe waters ; nought difturbing
the awful fcalm and filence, Save from time to
time the fall of enormous maffes of ice, from
thofe icy piles which arofe amidft the mountains : Thefe were the circumftances of awful
Sublimity, which here prefented themfelves to
the imagination of the beholders.    From this
bafon, the French voyagers wifhed to penetrate
farther, hoping that it might communicate with
fome channels, which would conduct them into
the interior parts of America.    A weftern channel opened before them.    They entered it; and
proceeded till their courfe was interrupted by
dreadful piles of ice and fnow.     An  eaftern
channel was with fimilar care explored, and With
juft the fame fuccefs.    Their next tranfactian
was no lefs than  the purchafe of the ifle, on
[jvhich they had fet up their  obfervatory.     A
Chief pretending to be its proprietor, offered
| them a fale of it.     M.  de  la  Peyroufe  accepting the offer, gave him inpayment of his
jright, feveral ells of red cloth, hatchets, knives,
bar iron, and nails.    Poffeffion was ttien taken
j of the ifle by the French with the wonted formal-
S$ies.    A bottle, with an apt infeription, was hurried at the foot of a rock ; and near t© it was
daid a bronze medal, out of a collection which
M. de  la Peyroufe   had,   for Such  purpofes,
brought from France. pAlmoft all  the objects
for which our voyagers had halted in tfrrs bay,
[were now accomplifhed.    No difafter had befallen them.     Not a man of the ffeip's companies
was as yet fick, or, in any degree, afflicted with
the fcurvy.     They deemed themfelves the mod
. '74
^fortunate of navigators. But a fatal misfortune
was jud about to overtake them.
Jjg} Several foundings of the waters in the bay
were neceffary to complete the draft of Meffrs.,
de Monneron and Bernizet. To make thefe
foundings, a number of the officers fet out, in
the pinnace of L'Aftrolabe, commanded by M.
de Marchainville j in the pinnace of La Bouf-
fole, under the orders of M. d'Efcures ; and in
the barge belonging to La Bouffole, of which
M. Boutin had the command. La Peyroufe,
with a folieitude, the advices of which M. d'Efcures could not hear with patience, recommended to him and the other officers to proceed withi
the utmod caution, on this little expedition.
Though it was to occupy but a few hours, he
even delivered out his orders in writing to d'Efcures. The boats fet out at 6 o'clock in thfj
morning. With views as well of pleafure as of
indructive inquiry,the parties who went in them
intended to hunt and to breakfad under the
trees. After doubling the wefteijn part of the
ifle, near to which the frigates were at anchor, the gentlemen in the boats perceived, that
the fea broke over all the channel which they
were fent to explore, with a violence that would
make it fatally dangerous to approach it. Mj
d'Efcures, in the pinnace of La Bouffole, led the
way on one fide : M. Boutin, in the long boat
belonging to the fame Frigate, followed him.
At fome inconfiderable didance failed the pinnace
of L'Adrolabe, under the command of Mar-
chainvfte. At a quarter pad Seven, the two
boats of La Bouffole were within two cable's
length of the channel. Suddenly they perceived themfelves to be drifted by the ebbing tide ;| ROUND THE WORLD.
and immediately, both the boats began to retire,,
with all poffible hade, from the channel, and to
turn away to the northward. Still, they fuppof-
ed themSelves to be in no Serious danger ; fincey
by gaining 20 toiSes on either hand, they might
eafily run their boats on (hore. After rowing
more than a minute, to furmount the tide, they
endeavoured, the pinnace to approach the weft-
ern, the long boat to approach the eadern fhore,
but both alike without fuccefs. Again, they
turned to the northward, to efcape, if poffible,.
the breakers which threatened them. In this fituation, M. Boutin endeavoured to flay his boat,,
by dropping the grapnel. It did not fix on the
bottom, but its cord being unfaft#ned at the
end which-remained in the boat, it was inftant-
ly loft, and by its lofs the boat was happily delivered from a weight which might have foon
after proved fatally inconvenient. The pinnace,
in the mean time, was involved amid the break—
my|§She was drawn into the current. Thofe
in the long boat quickly loft fight of her. She
was overwhelmed amid the billows, and was
wTith her crew utterly loft. Her fate had been
perceived at a diftance by M. de Marchainville :.
and the crew of the boat of L'Aftrolabe, hurrv-
ing into the midft of the danger, to aid their
perifhing comrades, were like them unhappily
Swallowed up amidft the breakers. Boudin,
even after he faw himfelf fur rounded by dangers almoft infurmountable, was flill for fome
moments ready to rufh into the long-boat to the
affiftance of his friends, at the rifle q£ fharing
their fate. But the fenfe of duty interpoSng,,
determined him to make every effort in order
to fave the crew entrufted to his command- 76V
For this purpofe, he made his failors, in the interval of the breaking of the feas, to pull away I
with the oars to the fiarboard.WAt twenty five
minutes after feven, he was fortunately out of
all danger. He now made the water to be baled out of the boat; and again turned himfelf to
difcover whether his unfortunate fhip-mates
might not yet furvive, and whether he might not
yet carry them relief. To the fouthward, he
could perceive fome feals and fea-weeds, the appearance of which gave him flill fome faint
hopes. At three quaTters after 8 o'clock, the
tide had turned, and the breakers had ceafed.
Again he renewed the fearch ; but dill without
fuccefs. j His crew were now cold, drenched
with water, hungry, and without provisions.
He had neither grapnel ncr fails for the management of the boat. He was therefore obliged to
return into the bay. Some Indians, whom he
perceived on the fhore, exprefled to himj by fig-
nals, that they had feen the two boats perifli.
Still, however, he would not forego the hope,
that he might perhaps find M. de Marchainville,
with the boat of L'Aftrolabe, to have returned
to the Ships. 1 Have you any news of M. de
Marchainville ?" was his firft inquiry, the moment he arrived on board, g No," was the an-
fwer, and it made his defpair complete. The
difconfolate horror with which the news of this
misfortune was received on board the frigates^;
trmj be eafier conceived than exprefled. This
was the firft misfortune our voyagers had en->
countered during their enterprize. It deprived
them of fom£ of their moft accomplifhed officers
and deareft companions. It had happened, after
every poffible precaution had been employed to ROUND THE WORL0.
avert it: For the foundings of the channel had
been before made, and the force of the breaking
| billows, on different days, obferved, with a care
; which makes it improbable, that, but for an extraordinary fwell on this-particular day, the danger which proved fo fatal, could have been incurred. The Indians, in their canoes, foon vifited
|the frigates, to give information that they had
feen the two boats perifh, without being able to
afford them afli(lance. The difconfolate (hangers loaded their informers with prefents, aad
! gave them to underdand that he who (liould
have faved a (ingle man, would have been thought
worthy to have been rewarded with all their
wealth. Meffrs. de Langel and De Clonard, attended by all their officers, and a number of other perfons, hadened away to explore thofe parts
of the coad to which it was not improbable that
fome parts of the wreck might perchance be
driven. Their fearch was vain. They returned without having difcovered either a fingle Surviving man or any of the dead bodies. The Indians,
too, in hopes of new prefents, fpread themfelves
round the bay, and made every poffible refearch;.
but with the fame ill fuccefs. An empty monument was erected to the memory of thofe who
had perifhed, by the forrowful affection of their
furviving companions : and to the ifle on which
it was raifed, they gave the name of Cenotaph i
Isle. After fome days, the Indians brought
them fome fragments of>he broken boats; but
nothing more.
3"he following are the names of the officers, fol--
ebers, and failors, who were lofi inythe two boats
on the- 13th of July, 1786, at a quarter after
feven o'clock in the morning.
G* la peyrouse's VOYAGE
Meffrs. d'Efcures, de Pierrevert, de Montar-
nal, Officers : Le Maitre, firflpilot % Lieutot,
corporal and cock/wain ; Prieur, Frichot, ^Bo-
let, Henry, Chaub, foldiers ; All thefe, both
officers and common men, belonging to La
" From VAfirolabe ; Meffrs. de la Borde Marchainville ; de la Borde Boutervillers ; Flaffan,
Officers : and of thefe the two former were
brothers : Soulas, corporaland cockfwain ; Phil-
iby, Julien le Penn, Pierre Rabier, foldiers .•
Thomas Andrieufe, Goulver Tarreau, Guilla-
ume Duqefjie, young men in the flower of
their age, and captains of the tops. ROUND the world.
CHAP.   V.
Narrative of the Voyage continued, from the beginning of Augufl to the end of September, 1786;
Progrefs down the North Wefl coafi of America,
- Prom Port de Frangois to Montery- :•—Difcove-
ry and Obfervations on the Coafi ;—Defcription
of the Bay of Montery :—Afironomical Obfervations :—Sketch of tne prefent. State of the tw*
JL HE French voyagers were now anxious to
haden away from a Scene of fo much misfortune.
Much prudent confideration was neceffary in fixing the plan of their next courfe. They were
to trace the outline of the American' coad to the
fotithward ; and it was at the fame time requi-
fite that they fhould manage fo, as to arrive at
Manilla about the end of January; at China, in
the courfe of February. It was fettled that they
fhould g© into harbour no where but at Monterey. A promotion was made among the officers, to fill up the places of thofe who had per-*
iftied. It was fetitled, with the confent of the
officers and paffengers, that the furs which had
been obtained, fhould be fold at China for the
fole benefit of the Sailors; and M. du Frefne was,
for that purpofe, appointed fupercargo. In t^e
firft 48 hours of their renewed courfe, the winds
blew fo faintly, that they were able^o advance
%nly 6 leagues. Their progrefs was within 3
or 4 leagues didance from the coa(t*f||But the
weather was gloomy and they had only an imperfect view of the mountains and low grounds.
This coad had been before examined by Cook ;
and as his accuracy could require but little cor- So
rection, M. de la Peyroufe was therefore willing.,
to run along as rapidly as poffible.j|He* looked-;
in vain for the pretended mouth of the Archipe^
lago of St. Lazarus of the Spanifh admiral Fu-
entes. Fogs, rains, and calms, continued from
the day on which they fet fail, until noon on
the 4th of Augud. They were then in 57 deg.
4$ min. N. Lat. and at the didance of 3 leagues
from the land.
At 4 o'clock, P. M. on the fame day, the fogs
cleared up, and our voyagers could perfectly dif-
tinguifh the entrance  of the Crcfs   Sound 21
which feems to form two very deep bays, and affords,  poffibly, good anchorage for (hipping.
The loftied range of fnew-covered mountains,
rifing from 1300 to to 1400 toifes in height, has
its termination at Crofs Sound.    The lands become here lower, and are to the very fummits
overgrown with wood ; yet dill retain a moun^ j
tainous character.&At funfet, M. de la PeyrouSe .
found himfelf oppofite to the wedern point of
Crofs Sound.     The frigates continued to ruai
along the coad at 3  leagues   diftance from it..
Fogs covered the mountains ; but the lowlands
were at intervals,^ diftinctly vifible.    The pro*-
grefs was flow, for in 24 hours they had not ad- .
vanced more than 10 leagues.    At day-break,
on the fifth, theyibund themfelves oppofite to a
(£ape, Southward from the entrance of Crofs
Sound, to which they gave the name of Cape
Crofs. J-A multitude of low wooded iflets no^Bs
ajmeared before them : The middle ground exhibited high hills: The fnow-covered mountains
were  no  longer  Seen,* Approaching thefe iflets, till he could difcern from the deck the break--
ers o» the .coad, La Peyroufe difcovered feveral * ROUND THE WORLD.
panages of which he  thought it probable that
they might afford good roadfieads.
T0h the 6th, the weather becoiB|ilg Somewhat
clearer, permitted him toobServethe Sun's ahfc"
tude, and hence to compare the true time  with'
that which was indicated by their time keepers :
They were in North Latitude 57 deg.  18 min.
I40 fee. in Longitude between 130 deg. and 140
deg.    At  7 in the evening they could ftfll perceive Mount Crillon, bearing north 66 deg. weft.
Mount St. Hyacinth, bearing north 78 deg. eaft,
and Eriganno,  eaft 10 deg. fouth.     Cape En-
;gann© is a low land, covered with trees,  and
jutting a great way out into the fea.    Mount St.
Hyacinth rifes beyond it, in theform of a truncated cone, round at the top, and elevated to the
freight of about 20© toifes.    From the north and
fouth of Enganno, the coaft is bordered with iff-,
ets for a fpace of 10 leagues.    At 10 o'clock in
[the morning, they had paffed all thefe ifles.    At
6 in the evening they perceived a CapeoppouW
to them, in a northeaft direction, wnScfc ran a
good way to the wcftward.     To this cape M.
de la Peyroufe gave the name of Cape Tfchiri*
kow, in honour to the Ruffian navigator of this*
name, who, in the year 1741, landed nearly on
this part of the American coaft.    ir£fy a lar^e
anddeep Bay, lying eaftwaffd behind the Cape,
Peyroufe "gave alf© the name of Tfchirikow Bay.
: At 7 in the evening they perceived a groupe of
\f iflets,  unnoticed by former navigators.     To
thefe was given the name of La Croyer's Iflands.
During the.whole of the 8th the wind continued
to blow favourably from the weft.    They found
themfelves to be in  55 deg. 39 min. 31 fee. N.
Lat. in 137 deg. 5 min. 23 fee, W. Longitude.
I w
Many openings between fome considerable ifl-j
ands, were, in various directions, vifible to them $£j
but the comment was at fuch a diftance as to be
beyond their fight.    This range of ifles begfias 4
leagues South Eaft from Cape Tfchirikow,  and
probably extends as far as to Cape Hector.   The
currents near them are very ftrong, even at 3
leagues diftance the frigates felt their influence.
In this quarter lies Port Buccarelli, fo named by
Maurelle, a Spanifh  pilot, who vifited thefe
coafts.    At 7 o'clock in the morning of the oth,
our voyagers, continued to run along at 3 leagues
diftance fiom the land, approached the St. Car-
lofs Of thefe, the  mod confiderable lies
in a dire^on from S. £. to N. W. and is about?
2 leagues in circumference.    Other lower iflets j
lie beyond it, farther within the channel.  Oppo-j
Site to thefe ifles, exactly at noon on the 9th, La
Peyroufe found himfelf to be in 54 deg^48 min..,
N. Lajitude, in 136 deg. 19 min. W. Long.    A
breeze arofe with  confiderable force from the
W. N.  W.  he endeavoured to approach the
land; and at half pad 7 o'clock in the evenings
was lefs than a league from the coad: but the^
4fihore was fo much covered with fogs, and the
billows appeared to break againd it wijtfr fo much-
dangerous violence, that he foon found it neceffary to put about, and wait for clearer weather.
During the night between the 1 oth and the 11 th
of Auguft Jjhe fogs  thickened and the winds^
blew with violence.     Our voyagers tacked and
flood off the (here ;   they approached the Jand|
about day-break :   but the fogs dill continue
ed and it was impoffible to obtain a fufficiently
diftin£k view of the outline of the coaft.     For
feveral days fucceffively, the fogs dill contuwp round the world.
8 J
ed; on the morning of the 15th, the weather
cleared up. They approached the coaft, and
perceived its extenfion to lie from N. N. E. to S.
S. E. They were foon again inveloped by the
fogs. The 17th was calm throughout the day.
On the 18th at noon, they were within a league
andu^i half of the (hore. They ran along it at
this didance, till a Bay was difoovered, which
appeared to enter deep into the country, and to
which they gave the name of De la Touch Bay.
From the 55 deg. to the 53 deg. the fea was covered with divers of that fpecies which has been
named by Buffon, the macareux of KamfchkatRa :
the colour of the body of thefe fowls is black ;
the beak and feet are red ; on the head are two
white (tripes rifing into tufts like thofe of
the cockatoo. Thefe fowls never wander farther than 5 or 6 leagues from the land. On the
evening of the 19th, while the horizon was very clear, a Cape was difcovered, which appeared
to terminate the American coaft. To this Cape,
M. de la Peyroufe gave the name of Cape Hector ; beyond it appeared 4 or 5 iflets, which he
-denominated Kerowart Ifles. The latitude of
Cape Hector is in 51 deg. 57 min, 2© fee. K.
and its longitude, according to the time-keepers
of the frigates, in 133 deg. 37 min. W- On
the 21 ft, at noon they were in 52 deg. 1 min. N.
Lat. in 133 deg. 7 min. 31 fee. W. Long, and
they here founded, without being able io find
any bottom. The breadth of the gulph, which
they perceived to intervene between Cape Hector and an ifle, the fartheft to the S. E. of the
new group, to which they gave the name of
Cape Fleurieu, appeared to be about 30 leagues.
Beyond this group of ides, was the Continent 1611!
perceived. Its primitive mountains, covered
*$ver with fnow, deftitute of wood* and towering
up int© lofty peaks, feemed to lie more than 3©
^leagues backward, at their points of higheft cleg
vation, into the interior country. In comparison with thefe mountains, only inferior hills had
• been feen from Crofs Sound, thus far akf g thei
coaft. Advancing onwards, they paffed nigh
feveral cluftcrs of ifles ; upon which, however £
not a bu(h nor fhrub was to be feen. To thefe*
clufters was given the name of Sartine Ifles.
Having paffed thefe ifles, they again ftood toward the continent ; they could not now diftin-
guifh the tops of the mountains, but very dif-
itnctly law the low lands.
On the 25 th, our veyagers continued to proceed eaftward towards Nootka Sound. Thea|
had before obferved the Woody Point of Cook
to be precisely in 50 deg. 4 min. N. Latitude,
and in 13© deg. 25 min. W. Longitude, a pofi-f
tion fomewhat different from that afligned to it
fry Cook.    A thick fog obfeured from their view*
tbe land of Nootka,    On the 28th, at 5 o'clock
in the evening, they found themfelves oppofite
to Cook's Breakers Point.    On the  id, of September, at noon, they came within fight of a point
or cape  which bore N. N. E. from them about
ten leagues.'  The land extended eadward ; bu|
the fogs covered all its projecting parts.     ThJ
cufijAits upon thefe coafts run drong ; and the 1
frigates had frequently to make their way througnj
whirlpools.   They continued to. fail along th<T
coaft, in circumftances nearly fimilar to thofe
which have been detailed, till they came into 42
-deg. 5S min. 56 fee. N. Latitude, 127  deg»fj[
min. 20 fee. W. Longitude.   Here, at abo]^t : MPVXD THE W0RLB. S<
league's diftance from Cape Blanco, they obferved nine H$tle rocky iflets oppofite to them, to
which they were induced to give the denomination of Neckar's   Ifles.     Proceeding along the
(land at three or four leagues diftance, they could
(perceive only the  tops of the   mountains   ri-
fing above the clouds.     Continuing   t©  deer
to the   fouthward,  they  found the fkies lefs
clear than in the more northern  latitudes.    A
volcano on the top of a mountain, burning with
a very lively flamej^|tra£ted their notice, as they
failed on.    On the 8th of September, the atraof-
Iphcre cleared up, and they could again diScern
[the didant tops  of the   mountains ;  but. the
weather became continually worfe, and fogs con-
[tinuaUy impeded their endeavours to explore the
outline of the'coad.    They knew themfelves to
be near to the Bay of Monterey; they approached within a league of the (hore, and could very
(didinctly  fee   the   billows breaking   upon  it.
They were now actually within Monterey Bay ;
but the hazinefs of the weather made it dill impoffible for them to recognize the Spanifh Settlement.     At 3 o'clock in the afternoon of the
54th of September, jhey came within fight of
port Monterey, and perceived two three-mad-
I?d veffels lying in the road 5 adverfe winds oblig-
wtthem to come to an anchor at the didance of
wo leagues from the fhore.    But, on the day
tallowing, they approached within two cable's
length of the land, and cad anchor in water
lir!ncfr was twelve fathoms deep.  This they were
jnabled to do by the direction of pilots, who,
Iluring the night, had been fent out to them from
he fhore.     In the whole courfe from Port de
francoisj even amidft the thickeft fogs, the two
a xto
frigates had always failed diffidently near to be
able to hail one another, till they came to the bay
of Monterey.
New Year Point, to the North, the Point of
Cyprus, to the South, from the Bay of Monterey : Its breadth between thefe two points is
about 8 leagues ; it defcends nearly 6 leagues
eaftward into the country ; and is bounded at its
bottom by low fandy grounds. N. and S. from
the bay, the lands are high and wooded. Under
the full and the changing moon, the flowing tide
is at its height, at half pad one o'clock. As the
bay is very open, the current in it is nearly imperceptible. Whales fport in it in prodigious
numbers, furround the (hips with the greated
familiarity, and fpout out dream? of water,
which infect the air with their noifome denchJ
Fogs continually overhang thefe coads ; and
©ccafion difficulty in the approach to a fhore
which would otherwife be very eafy and fafely
accedible. Pelicans, birds which never go farther than 5 or 6 leagues from the land, are nun
merous in this bay.
A lieutenant-colonel, the Spanifh governor of
the Californias, has his refidence at Monterey.
His government extends over a territory not lef$
than 8oo leagues in circumference. Yet 281
foldiers of Spanifh cavalry are tfre only perfons
actually Subject to its authority^' This Small
military force is didributed into garrifons occupying fouT or five different forts, and into detachments of four or five men t© every one of
five and twenty parilhes, into which the whole
territory is fub-divided. About 50,000 wandering Indians are eafily kept in awe by this
fmall military force; but of thofe Indians, near. ROUND THE WORLD.
iy 10,000 have embraced tfre chridian religiotf.
Loretto, the only prefidency of Old California,
is on the eadern coad of this peninfula; its
garrifon con fids of 54 dragoons. There belong
to it 15 millions or parifhes, of which the duties are performed by Dominican friars. The
longapodlelhip of the Jefuits, and the Francif-
cans, has' converted and colle&ed together
about 4,000 Indians in thefe 15 parifhes. Of
the northern California, St. Diego, the olded Settlement, was fird edabliftied on the 6th of July,
1769. Monterey, now the capital of the two
Californias, is an edablifhment not older than
the year 1770. The road of Monterey, was,
indeed, before known, and occafionally vifited
by the galleons from Manilla. The following
are the names of the furrounding miffions, and
of the prefidencies which frave fince been edab-
JSflbed in thefe parts. It is, however, proper,
iird to obferve, that the Spaniards give the name
of Prefidency to any fort fituate in an infidel
country, whether Africa or America*  ROUND the world.
Thefe millions and prefidencies are fupported
at a great expence, for the purpofe of civilizing
the 1 ndians. The regular clergy, to whofe management they have been intruded,, are under-
ftood to difcharge their refpectiveifun£tions with
the greated piety,, alacrity, and fidelity. But
the Indians are treated by them rather as children'than as perfons. of mature underflanding.
In the churches are exhibited paintings of hell
and heaven, fuch as feem to be adapted powerfully to drike the fenfes of a rude and fimple
people. The men and women are affembled to
church, to work, and to all their exercifes, by
the found of a bell; while one of the Fathers
dill conducts and directs them. Fetters, the
docks, the drokes of a whip, are fo many modes
of punifliment to which their religious and moral delinquencies are, by thefe theit Spiritual fathers, fubjectedJk Seven hours in the day are allotted to labour, two hours to prayers. A new
convert, from among the heathen Indians, if
once received into fche Society of thefe chridian-
ized Indians, is never again differed to make
his efcape ; but, upon any Such attempt, never
fails to be purfued, hunted out, and brought
back to condign punifliment, The Ghridian
Indians are obliged to rile with- the fun ; an
hour is then dedicated to the (ervices of mafs
and prayers. A breakfaft of barley meal awaits
them at their return from the Service* It is boiled in water;: the Indians give this food the name
©f atole; and, though it be unfeafoned with either butter or fait,, are extremely fond of it. It
is prepared in three large kettles in the middle of
the fquare. The family of every different hut
fends a yeffel made of bark, to receive its porT
tion of the mefs; that wlach remains on tftesf
bottom of the kettles, after all the families have
been ferved, is difltibuted to thofe of the children who bed repeat their leffons from the cate-
ehifm.Jf After conSuming three quarters oS an
liour at breakfaft, the Indians betake themfelves
to their labours for the day. Some go to plow
the ground in the fields with oxen; otfeers, to
dig in the gardens ; the women manage the affairs of the houfeholds, take care of their children, parch and grind into meal the different
grains. At noon, the hour of dinner is announced by the found of the bell; the Indians now
again receive their portions out of a quantity of
food which has been prepared for them in common ; their ufual dinner dim is named by them
pouffble, and differs from that which they had to
breakfaft, only in being thicker, and In having
corn, maize, peafe and bea»s, intermingled in
it. At 2 o'clock they return from their meal to
their labour. Their work now continues till
the hour of 4 or 5 in the evening. They then
attend evening prayers nearly for an hour. A
new didributicn of atsle, forms their Supper ; and
the day thus clones. Under the miflionaries are
appointed -caciques, or ma-giftrates, Srom among
f&e Indians themfelves ; but thefe are paffive in-
ftruments in the hands of theecclefiadical rulers,
whofe province extends to litle elfe but the infliction of punifhment. Rewards are occafion-
ally bedowed; which confid in extraordinary
'didributions of fiefh or of meal. The men are
©ften permitted to hunt and fifh, each for his
©wn private ufe. Tfoe women rear fowls round
their huts * and are wont, very properly, to
give their eggs to their children.   Ifre fowfs^ fwlMfl
the clothes, the little articleffef houfefrold furniture, are the property refpectively of the Indians who poffefs them. Thefe people have no
other doors to their huts than fimple bundles of
draw. Yet no indances of theft have ever occurred among them. The unconverted Indians
are polygamifls. Embracing Chriliianity, therefore, they muft facrifice whatever may be the
Suppofed advantages of that licentious mode of
intercourfe with the female fex.^l^The miffiona-
ries act as vigilant guardians of female virtue.
An hour after fupper, they (hut up, under lock
and key, all the young girls who are above nine
years of age, and all the married women who(e
hufbands are abfent during the day: the matrons fuperintend the conduct of the young
"girls. Violations of chaftity, from time to time$
take place, in fpite of all thefe precautions. The
drefs even of thefe converted Indians is dill extremely fimple : the riched wear a d©ak of otters (kin, which covers the loins,-and defcends
below the groin; thofe who are poorer and
more lazy, have only a fmall cloak of rabbits
fkins to cover their fhoulders, with a piece of
linen cloth, with which they are Supplied by the
mrfltOnaries, to hide their nakednefs. Some indeed have hats of draw, very neatly^aited; the
women wear cloaks of imperfectly tanned deer-
lkin, which may be occafionally made into a
fmall bodice with fleeves ; befides this they weaf
no other apparel, except a fmall apron of ruflies,
and a petticoat of dag's fkin falling down to the
middle of the leg. The hair of both men and
women is cut off at four or five incjies from thST
roots. The Spaniards, who, in the firft formation of thefe Settlements, were actuated folety 92
by motives ofJjtety, have more recently learned,
from the publication of the voyage of Cook, that]
they may become highly valuable in  a commercial point of view, on account of the fursl
which they are adapted to furnifh, and for which
China prefents a ready market.     New California is as yet entirely unprovided with colo-
nifts, unlefs we fhould account fuch a few draggling Spanifh foldiers, who have married Indian]
women.    Yet, if lefs didant from Europe, Cali-
fornia would be found not lefs inviting than Vh>|
ginia, to emigrants from Europe.    In  time, its
vicinity to Afia may favour it as much in ref-
pect to  colonization, as the N. E. coafts of
America have been favoured by their adjacency
to Europe.    The miffionaries, to whom the inhabitants of thefe parts owe their religious civilization, are almoft all Europeans-    The Fran-
cifcans have a college at  Mexico.    A part of
the miffion own the authority of the comman-J
dantof Iffonterey :. The red ate Subject to the
viceroy of Mexico.    The Spanifh  Government I
allows the fum of 40opiadres to each miffionary;
and their number is-fixed at two  for each par
rifli.    The college of Mexico, however, never
fends hither actual money, but only the value in
commodities, wax candles for the church, chocolate, fugar, oil, wine, and linen for girdles to
the Indians..   The Salary of the Spanifh Governor of California  is 4000 piadres; that of the
Lieutenant Governor 450 ; that of the Captain-
Infpe&or. of the 283 cavalry diftributed in the
two  Californias, is   2000; each foldier of the
cavalry has.2:»7 piadresi yearly, for  his  arms,
horfe, and whole fubfiftence..   Thefe were the
principal obfervations which the. French voya^ ROUND THE WORLD.
gets were enabled to make cone^Sng the
|Spanifh colinizatfon of the two CaUforntaS) and
concerning the condition of thofe Indians who
have been perfuaded there to embrace Chriftian*
ity, and to Submit themfelves inpeace to the government oSthe Spanifh miflionaries.
The wilder, unconverted Indians, dhlplay
Ifbme ©f thofe virtues and talents peculiar to thp
Ifavage character, which their converted brethren
appear to have loft. They draw the bow with
Illimitable fkill; and will bring down even the
ifmalleft birds with unerring aim. One of thefe
Indians will fix upon his own the head with the
horns of a flag ; will walk on all fours ; broufe
the grafs; and by this and other practices, fo
deceive herds of thefe animals, that they ftiallj
[without alarm, permit him to approach* near
[enough to kill them with his arrows. Maize
Iwas the only original object gof the Indian agriculture in thefe parts. Hunting and fifhing
have been, and (till continue to be, the grand
jrefources upon which theSe Indians depend f6r
trhe means of fubfiftence. The independent Indians live diftributed in rancheries, or villages.
They are accuftomed to paint their bodies red
in ordinary life, but black, when they are to appear in the guife of mourning. ^Tm^tees of con*
fanguinity are little acknowledged by them.
The children quit their father's hut as ^on as
they have acquired ftrength to procure the mea#s
of fufiftence for themfelves. Their father, by'
whom they have been reftrained, and hardily
treated, is Soon forgotten by them ; or, if remembered, remembered only with averfion.
i Their mother, their relation to whom they knew
©nly fromhertendernefsjis longer and more kind* LA PEYROUSE ^VOYAGE
ly remembered. Thefe independent hordes are
often at war*among themfelves : But they ref-
pect the Spanifh miffions. A wooden bow,
ftrung with the finews of an ox, with arrows
pointed with a ffiarp flint, are their ordinary
weapons.^: As in Canada, they Scalp the vanquished in war, and pluck out their eyes, to be
preServed as precious memorials of the vie*|
tory. If they happen to lay on the field of batlj
tie, an enemy whofe extraordinary prowefs they
have been long accu domed to dread, the furious joy
fcfvi&ory, "#§1 in fuch a cafe, Sometimes prompt
them to quaff his blood, and devour his mangled,
limbs. Yet, they are not accuftomed to make
an ordinary practice of eating in cold blo©d%
cither the prifoners whom they take, or the
namelefs dead whom they flay in war.ff'Of their
own dead they burn the bodies, and depofit the
afhes in rude funeral monuments. The takerfia
and toufffi, are the two games which employ
their leifure ; and to thefe they are addicted with'
paffionate fondnefs. The former is played with
a fmall hoop, through which it is endeavoured
to make certain fuitable dicks pafs, while it rolla
round a fmooth fpace of ten Square toifes on the
ground. The toufft is played by hiding a pieces
of wood in the hands on the one fide, while the
other party in the play gueffes how the piece of
wood u difpofed of. Beads, the favours of the
women, and whatever elfe they poffefs of value,
are the prizes of thefe games. The language
of thefe people is far from being known in all
the copioufnefs of its phrafes, or the analogy of
its ffcructure. It is rather Srom the converted
Indians, than Srom the wild natives, that we derive what knowledge is to be obtained of '8fc ROUND TEE WORLD.
The Achastliens, and the EccLEMACHS^the
two tribes inhabiting near Monterey, Speak-each
a different language. The language of the converted Indians in the miffions, is compounded
out of both thefe two. Their abftract terms are
Scanty. Their epithets for the qualities of moral obje£ts, are almod all borrowed from the
fenfe of tade. The^diftinguifli the plural from
the fingular number; They vary their verbs
through (everal diffetent tenfes. Their fub-
dantives are .much more numerous than their
[adjectives. They never ufe the labials,y, b, nor
the letter x. The dipthong ou, appears in more*
than half their words. Their mod common initial confonants are, /and k. None of them
can eafily count, otherwife than upon their fin*
gers, beyond the number five.
The following are the numerical terms of the
Achastliens :
One, Moukala
Two, Outis
Three, Capes
Four, Outite
Five, Is
Six, Etesake
Seven, Kaleis
Eight, Ouloufmafakhen
Nine, Pak
Ten, Tonta
The following are the numerical terms of the
One, Pek
Two, Quluch
Three, Oullef
Four, Amnahon
Five, Pemuca $6
StXj | Pekolana
Seven, Houlakoalans
Eight, Houlefala
Nine, Kamakoualane
Ten, '%M\     Tomoila _•-
Here follow a few other words of the famei
Friend,   •
To dance,
No country in the world is more abundant
than California, in game and fifh of every description. The thickets and plains abound
with fmall grey tufted partridges, fat and finely
flavoured, and which appear commonly in companies of three or four hundred together, Sparrows, tit-mice, Speckled wood-peckers, and tropic birds, are found in prodigious numbers, ini
the woods. Hares, rabbits, and dags, are very
common. Seals and otters are found in great
numbers ^.and to the northward, there are multitudes of bears, foxes, wolves, and wild cats,
killed in the winter. Among the birds of prey^]
are, the white headed eagle, the great and fmall
falcon, the gofs-hjiwk, the Sparrow-haw E, the
black vultere, the great owl, and the raven. A
free-eater, wfrickfras been fuppofed to be |>ec«- ROUND THE WbRLJr.
liar to the   old continent, was here killed, and
duffed by  the  French   ornithologifts.     Wild
ducks, the grey and white pelican with yellow
tufts, different fpecies of gulls, cormorants, cut^
lieus, ring-plovers, fmall Sea-water hens, and herons, are Seen on the ponds and on the fea-fhore.
The  Soil  is   wonderfully fertile. a^Farinaceous^
roots and Seeds of all kinds afford a mod abundant increafe.     The  crops  of  maize, barley,
corn, and peas, are to be equalled only in Chili.
The medium produce of corn is from 70 to 80 for
one ; the extremes are 60 and 1 o®,    Fruit trees
have not yet been introduced in any confidera- .
ble number or variety.    The moft prevalent for-
eft trees are the  ftone-pine, Cyprus,  evergreen
oak, and the accidental plane-tree.    Th^lppefls
are clear of under-wood, and exhibitionder the
(hade of the lofty trees of which they are com-
pofed, a verdant carpet of grafs.    Vaft  Savannahs are interfperfed among the forefts.    The
rivers are not numerous; and were it not for
the moifture of the atmofphere, the face of the
ground might perhaps .prove too arid for vegetation. |J£q
It was in the evening of the 14th of Septem^;
ber, that the two frigates call anchor off Monterey, in view of the prefidency and of the fhips
in the road, and at the diftance of about two
leagues from the fhore. ^At  10 o'clock,  the
captain of a corvette in the road, came, iti his [
jlqpg boat, to the fhip of M. de la Peyroufe, and
[offered to pilot the frigates into the port. ^ At
I'o ©'clock on the next morning,  the frigates
weighed Anchor, and proceeded into the road.
At noonJSlfrey eaft anchor in a fafe fituation
[within thlraoad, and were Saluted with a dSRr. $%
charge .of 7 guns from the Spanifh veffels whicfr
they found in it. M. de la Peyroufe, withouM
delay, difpatched an officer to the governor of
Monterey, with an open letter to the viceroy of
Mexico, of which M. de la Peyroufe was the
hearer from France. M. Fages, commandant
of the fort of the two Californias, had already
received orders to treat the French voyagers,
whenever they fhould arrive, with every poffible
demonftration of civility and refpect. Oxen,
roots, greens, and milk, were immediately fenj|
board   the   French fhips in great plenty.
There was a fort of conteft between the commandant of the fort and the captains of the two
Spanifh veffels in the road, who fhould (how the
moft kindnefs to the French : Only for the oxen, fheep, and  corn, which were wanted  for
the fupply of the fhips, could M. de la Peyroufe
prevail with their kind entertainers to accept
any pecuniary compenfation."  Roots, greens,
milk, fowls, and the affiftance of all the labourers of the garrifon,inprocurringwood and water,
were eagerly afforded to the French navigators,
without price. ^The houfe and fervants of M.
Fages were, during their flay, entirely at their
difpofal.    The miffionaries from the neighbourhood, politely came to invite them to dine with
them, and to acquaint themfelves with the rules
of the management of the millions.    Accepting this invitation, they rode with great pleafure
to St. Charles, at the diftance of two leagues
from Monterey; they were there  received by
the miffionaries with Solemn hofpitality.    In the
church, at their meals, at their labours, in every
obvious mode of expofition, the .corverted Indians were prefented to their obfervation.   M. ROUND THE WORLD.
de Langle, pitying their difficult and imperfect
mode of working their grain into meal, made
them a prefent of his mill; which is likely to
prove one of the higheft benefits that could be
conferred on them ; for by means of it four women may now perform the fame quantity of
work which formerly required the toil of an
hundred. The foldiers of the prefidency made
themfelves exceedingly ufeful to our voyagers
jduring their flay at Monterey. M. de la Peyroufe, with the permiffion of the commandant,,
prefented them with a piece of blue cloth. To
the miffionaries for the ufe of the Indians in
their millions, he fent coverlids, fluffs, beads, tools1
of iron, with a variety of other little articles^
the remains of what had been diftributed at
Port de Francois. The gardener belonging to
the frigates, gave to the miffionaries fome potatoes of Chili, in a (late of very perfect preservation, which are likely to prove hereafter of great
utility to the inhabitants of this region. The
French botanifts no Sooner got on fhore, than
they fet themfelves, with the moft diligent activity, to enlarge their collections. But the
feafon was too far advanced ; the plants were
no longer in flower, and their feeds were difper-
fed over the ground. The common wormwood,
the.fea wormwood, fouthernwood, raugwort,
the Mexican tea, the golden rod of Canada,.
the Italian flarwort, milfoil, deadly nightshade,
fpurrey, and water-mint,, were the only remarkable plants obferved in the fields round Monterey. From the gardens they obtained a great
abundance of pot-herbs : and particularly fuch
quantities of pulfe as were no where elfe to be
met with.     The mineraloofifts were far from- 100
being very fortunate in their reSearche$ f, 4J8
light argillaceous ftone, with Some reSemblance
of marie ; blocks of granite, concealing in their
veins fome Specimens of cryflalized feldTpar ;
with fome rounded fragments of porphyry and
granite; were the only very remarkable foffils
they could find : except only fome fuperb haliotes,
each of which might be q inches in length by 4
in breadth; there1 were no other remarkable
melis to be feen. On the fouth and eaft coafts
of old California, indeed, are oyfters, the pearls
of which yield not in fize or beauty to thofe of
Ceylon or Baffora. The aftsonomers belonging,
to the French expedition, were, at the fame
time, diligently attentive to their duty.' M. Da-
gelet, taking his quadrant on fhore, endeavoured to determine, with the greateft accuracy, the
latitude of Monterey, which has been already
mentioned : and no observation," which the
fhortnefs of their flay would permit him to make,
was neglected. W On the evening of the 22d of
September—-wood, water, dry and frefh provi-
fions, with whatever other fupplies our vova-
gers here fought, had been taken on board.
They bade farewell to their kind hofts. On
the 23d, the winds were, adverfe; but on the
24th, they were enabled to fail with a fair wef-
tern breeze. ROUND THE WORLD.
| CHAP.  VI.       M
Narrative of the Voyage continued, from the 24th
of September 1786, to the 2d of January 1787.-
Courfe from Monterey to the Road of Macao.
EPARTING Srom the weftern coaft/of
America, the French navigators were now to
deer acrofs the great Weftern ocean, as far as
China. The feas through which they were to
fail, were known only to the Spaniards, and even
to them but imperfectly. The Spaniards have
long been Satisfied to fail in one fingle tract in
their voyage from Acapulco to Manilla, lying
within a fpace of 20 leagues between the 13
deg. and 14 deg. of Latitude ; while, on their
return, they run nearly in the parallel of 40 deg.
by the aid of weftern winds, which are in thefe
feas very common. But new difcoveries were
the object of the voyage of the French navigators : and it of confequence became them to
mun frequented tracts with the fame care with
which mere ly, trading navigators drive to;pur-
fue fuch tracts. Only, the neceffity of reaching
China about the end of tne year, made it requi-
fire for them to keep within the zone of the
trade-winds. M. de la Peyreufe, therefore, re-
fblved: to direct his courfe to the fouthward, as
far as to the ifland of Nostra Senora de la Gor-
taj which geographers have defcribed as exift-
ing in the 28 deg. of N. Lat.
Calms and adverfe winds detained them yet for
2 days longer within fight of Monterey. B ut the
wind foon became fixed at N. w. and the frigates were then permitted to reach the parallel
©f 28 deg;   Their firft progrefs was very form--
1   2 102
nate. To the N. W. winds fucceeded others
from the N. E. which gave them hopes of quickly reaching the region of the trade-winds. On
the 18th of October, however, the winds again
changed to the weftward ; and they continued,
for eight or ten days, to blow, without any confiderable variation, from that quarter. The
weather was, in the mean time, tempeduous
and rainy : there was condantly much moifture
between the decks ; and M. de la Peyroufe ber
gan to be greatly alarmed, left, in thefe unfavourable circumftances, the crews of the frigates
fhould be attacked by the Scurvy. On the 27th
of October, they reached the meridian on which*
they wifhed to proceed. Nothing gave any fig-
nal of the vicinity of land, except fome Sand pipers of two different fpecies, which were caught
on board L'Aftrolabe. But thefe were very.
lean, and mighf poffibly have come from the
Sandwich Ifles, from which they were not now
more than 120 leagues di#ance. No ifle of
Noftra Senora de la Gorta was here to be feen.
The French navigators ftrove now to approach
the tropic, in order to meet with the trade winds,
and in hopes that thejternperature. of the tropical climates, would prove the moft favourable
to the health of the fliip's companies. On the
^d of November, in 24 deg. 4 min. N. Lat. in
16 deg. 2 miii. W. Long, noddies, man-of-war-
birds, and terns, hovered about them in great;
numbers. Thefe fowls Seldom fly far from
land. On the 4^ accordingly, the frigates
-came within fight of an ifland which bore W„
from them, foj* 4 or 5 leagues. At 5 o'clock,
m the moraing of the 5th, being only 3 leagues
from the ifland, they failed to reconnoitjsdt.   It ROUND THE WORLD.
is a very fmall ifle ; about 50© toifes in length:;,
not more than 60 in its elevation above the level
of the fea. No tree is feen on it; but its top
is covered with luxuriant grafs. The barren
part of the rock is whitened with the dung of
fea-fowls^g. Other fpots, which are neither verdant, nor covered with this dung, appeared red;
[Its extremities are perpendicular like a wall ;
and the fea breaks all around, with a violence
which feems to render it inacceffible. Our nav*
igators failed round it; and at the diftance of one-
third of a league, and took a very exact plan of
it. Its latitude was determined by M. Dagelet
to be in 23 deg. 34 min. N. its longitude, in 166*
deg. 52 min. It received from M. de la Peyroufe the name of Isle Neckar. .TheS. E.
point prefents a  fmall  ridge  of rocks,  which
1 Seems to extend for about two cable's length ;
and this is the only part which breakers do not
(make inacceffible. Sounding as they pafied
near to this point, the French navigators were
furprized to find a bottom of broken (hells, under only 25 fathoms deep of water. It fhould
feem that Ifle Neckar is but the fummit of afc
much more confiderable ifland, of which the
fofter materials have been gradually waftied
away by the fea. Over a fpace of i© miles from
the above mentioned ridge of rocks, no other
bottom than coral and broken-fhells was to be
found. Beyond the extremity of that fpace, our
aavigators, founding with 150 fathoms of line,
could find no bottom at all.
The weather was now rainy, with frequent
:ranfient blafts of wind. At fun-fet however,,
land atjjother times, when the face of the fky
would for fome moments clear up, the horizw IOJ1
would open around, for a fpace of 10 or 1:
leagues.     Sea-fowls  dill  continued  to  hovei
around them, in flights of feveral hundreds together, and moving in various directions, whicl
made it impoffible to afcertain,  with precifion.
to what quarter they went.   The moon irradiatec
the nights with a luftre which tempted our navigators to fleer on, though with a motion Somewhat flower than during the day. Jr While thej
were thus advancing, they perceived,  toward*
half an hour paft   one o'clock in the morning,
breakers at two cable's length a head of the fhips
They founded, and found nine fathoms water
with a rocky  bottom.    Soon  afterwards, the
founding indicated ten fathoms ; twelve fathoms
In about a quarter of an hour, however, the]
got no ground with Sixty  fathoms.    They hac
efcaped a danger the  moft  terrible to whi<|
navigation can be expofed.    For nearly an houi
afterwards, they perceived the continuation oi
the breakers.    They held their courfe weft ward;
and within tfrree hours, had loft fight of then!
Desirous to afcertain, beyond a doubt, the ex
iftence of that funken rock upon which they hac
been near to perifhing ; they again turned thei:
courfe in the morning; returned within view oi
it; perceived an iflet of fplit rock, the diametel
of which might be about 50 toifes ; 'in its height
from 20 to 25 fathoms.    That iflet formed thi
N. W. extremity of a reef of rocks extendinj
more than 4 leagues to the S. E.    It was on the
S. E. point of the reef, that our. navigators ha4
been expofed to the danger of perifhing.    Between the iflet and the S. E. breakers, were three
fand-banks, raifed not more than (our feet abovt
the level of the Sea.   TheSe were parted fron ROUND THE WORLD.
one another by a fort of greenifh water, which
did not feem to be a fathom deep. . Rocks, level with the water, Surrounded that fhoal as a
circular inclofure : and, on their exterior fides,
the fea broke with extreme violence. Of the
• northern part of thefe rocks, our navigators could
l©l)tain only a bird's eye view from the maft-
head. Perhaps it may run in that direction to
a farther extent than it appeared to them to do.
Its length, from S. E. to N. W. is 4 leagues;
its geographical fituation, eftimated from its only vifible part, is in 23 deg. 45 min. N. Lat. in
168 deg. 10 min. W. Long. It lies 23 deg. 20
min. N. W. from Isle Neckar, It is not Safe
to approach it nearer than at the didance of 4
leagues. The French navigators named it, on
laccount of the danger to which they had been
expofed by coming too near to it, Basse des
JFregates FRAi*CAis^.Jpt will be of infinite
importance to future navigators, who fliall have
pccafion to fail in this courfe, that the exidence
and the extent of this ledge of rocks have been
thus accurately afcertained, and made known.
Our navigators now directed their courSe to
the W. S. W. In this direction, they had rea>-
Con to hope that they might the Sooned find land.
They croffed the tract of Captain Clark, at
179 deg. of E.Long, on the roth of November. They had hoped that they fhould now
fall in with the trade-winds. Yet, for fome
tfme longer they had varying winds, fhifting
fmiefly between S. W. and N. E. contrary to
what the experience of former navigators had led
[hem to expect. At 2 o'clock in the afternoon
bf the 14th of December, they reached the Ma*
manxe Islands.   Jn the latter part of their io6
progrefs hither, they had in vain attempted to
difcover the Mir a, Defert, and Garden Iflands of
the common maps.    Finding, however, no fuch
ifles, they concluded, perhaps too haftily, that
they muft have no real exiftence.    Among  thei
Marianne Iflands, they found Assumption Island to have its true pofition in 10 deg. 45 mi5|
N. Lat. in an 143 deg. 15 min. E. Long.    Its
circumference cannot be more than 3 leagues^
Imagination cannot conceive the exiftence of a
place more horrible in the afpect.    It feemed
a perfect cone, of which the furface was black-
as coal, to the  height  of 4©   toifes above the
level of the fea.    A few cocoa   nut  trees ap-i
peared in a hollow of about 40 toifes, in whicfrj
they were in fome meafure fheltered from thei
eaft wind.    There, was the only place where it
feemed poffible for (hips to anchor : and the anchorage at that part,  was, for a quarter of a
league, a bottom of black fand under water thirty fathoms deep.    The Aftrolabe here anchored.    La Bouffole wa& prevented by an accident,
from coming to anchor.    The boats of the two
frigates were fent on fhore.    In them went M.
de Langle, with Meffrs. Boutin, De la Marti^
mere, Vaujuas, Prevoft, and Father Receveur;*]
They  landed  not without extreme   difficulty.
The ifland appeared to  them a thoufand times
more horrid than  at   a quarter  of. a league's
diftance, . it  feemed  to be.    It prefented ravines  and precipices which had been formed
fry torrents of lava; and were bordered by fome
few ftunted cocoa trees, amidft which grew fome
creeping plants, matted  together in a manner
that made it almoft impoffible to walk  among
them.     About an hundred  cocoa nuts were ROUND THE WORLD.
picked up under the trees. But the difficulty
of the way was fuch, 'that fifteen or fixteen
perfons were employed from nine in the morning till noon, infringing thefe on board the
boats. The fummit of the cone forms, as it
mould feem, the crater of this volcanic ifle.
jAround its fides, the lava has dreamed down,
3-nd has become Solid as- it cooled. A cloud
pid the higheft point Srom the view of the French
navigators. But a fmeil of Sulphur, which it
emitted to the diftance of half a league out at
|ea, induced them to think that its volcanic fires
|were not yet entirely extinguifhed, and that its
Jarft eruption might have happened at no great
pittance of time backward. No human inhabitants, no quadrupeds, feemed to have as yet
bhofen thefe deSolate Scenes for a place of refuge.
|On the fhore were fome large crabs. At the
[anchorage were feen three or four noddies. M.
de Langle killed on the ifle a bird of a black colour, not unlike to our European black-bird. In
[the hollows of the rocks, were found fome very
[fine (hells. A collection of plants, and among
[chefe three or four different fpecies of Banana
trees, which M. de la Peyroufe had, not elfe-
where feen, were brought on board. The only
fifties which the French navigators faw here,
were the red ray, the fmall (nark, and a fea fer-
pent, about three feet in length, and three inches in thicknefs.* About two ©'clock in the af-
rernoon, the boats returned to the fhips, after
Slaving been expofed to confiderable danger^.
About three o'clock they renewed their courfe,
proceeding W. N. W. in a direction at three or
ibur-league's diftance from Mangs, another of
fajs group of ifles which bore to them N. E, by
L ioS
N.   Had it not been for the delay it would have
o ccafioned,   M. de   la  Pevroufeyciruld  have
wifhed to have afcertained the precife fituatioaT
of UracaIs, the moft northern of^the  Marianne4
ifles ; but his arrangements would not leave him
time to accomplifh this object.    As t&ey advan-»*
ced, innumerable   birds hove red  around'then!
Among thefe, the man of-war-bird and the nod-;
dy were the moft common.    Gu^ls, ternsj and
tropic birds, likewife appeared in the crowd. In
the channel  between the Mariannes  and the
Philipines, the breezes were ftrong, the fea
ran high, and our  navigators were constantly
driven fouthwardby the currents.    La Bouffole
was n©w, for the firft lime, obferved to admit
fome water ; and, upon examination, feveral of '
her feams were found to be almoft entirely open.
On thefe, however, it was impoffible to workj
till the frigates fhould arrive in the road of Macao.    On the 28th of December,   our voyagers
came within fight of the Basmee ifland.     They
paffed at about a league's diftance from the two
moft northern iflets or rocks of this group.     Of
thefe two, the fmalleft is half a  league in circumference 5 and there appeared to be on its
eaft fide a good deal of grafs: Its weft longitude,
fixed from the medium of more than fixty lunar
obfervations, is 119 deg. 41 min. its north lati- .
tudein2i  deg. 9 min.   13 fee.     FrOm thefe
Ifles, our navigators continued their courfe to
China.    On the firft of January 1787, they had
approached (o near to the Chinefe coaft, that
their foundings indicated a bottom under fixty
fathoms depth of water.    Next day they were
Surrounded by Chinefe fifhing boats, which fifh-
ed by dragging over the bottom with very long  I
* '
C H A ^ VII.
Narrative afth^Jroyages4fi^ntinued,from t$e $d of
January to the oth of\$dpril, 1787.-   Trsgfactions at Macao, with a Defcriptiofi of that Place z\
JPaffage to Luconia : and thence Jo Manilla A\
Deferipiiou of Manilla, &c*
A 1 I II
jfjJT Macao, our voyagers expected a favourable reception from Ihe Portuguefe : They  approached the town 4 and M. Boutin was Sent on'
ihore to announce their arrival to the governocl
He failed not to make every offer of all the afliftn
ance in his power.    A M&Iay  pilot, fent from\
Siim, conducted tfre'ftTto the anofrotage ©f Typ-
j»a.    At day-break on the 4th, they proceeded;
towards tliat anchorage ; at eight o'clock in the
morning, they were at five miles N. W.  from!
the townof Macao, upon a muddy ground, under three fathoms and a fialf depth of water,
They cad anchor along fide of a French armed
veffel, whi*fr was commanded by M. de Rich©
ry, enfign m the Navy ; which had been fent to
cruize on thefe eaftena coads, for the protection
of the French trade.    It may be naturally conceived, that our navigators had infinite pleafure
in meeting, after fo long an  abfence,  with a]
Chip's company of  their  countrymen.    They!
were, however, very painfully difappointed, in
not finding at Macao thofe pacquets of letters
which they had expected.    It unluckily happened, that, out of two (hips which alone had failed
from France, to arrive, this feafon, at China,
•one had miffed its paffage : and on board this
one, they now fuppofed that their letters «nght
have been put. ROUND THE WORLD.
Softer their fhips were fafely moored,. Meffrs.
lie la Peyroufe, and De Langle,  went on (hore
to thai&the Portuguefe .governor for tfre favours
he had akeady fhowm them.   He received them
with as much kindnefs as if he had been their
[fellOn^ountryman ; begged them to  ufe  his
[houfe as their own : and introduced fchftsfc^fchis
[wife, a young and  beautiful Portuguefe lady
[from, 'Ijifbon, who, fpeaking French with great
Ifeeilit^l acted 3j8 interpreter between  her huS-
band and,the Frend^aptainsv    This lady, Do*-
[na Maria de Saldagna, had, about twelve years
ibefore^^nanied M.  de Lemosr at Goa. .'Very
foon after their marriage, M. de la Peyroufe had
[happened to be introduced to helsin that city.
;He wasnow proud to? find, fehat (he recollected
&im as an old ac^e4mtance^>an4had^plcafure
'in-feeing-her ch^klren, wlnlm (he  presented, to
Jasm.    Every accomrnoj&ation wfticly! our voya-
Igers de fired, and which it was in the Portuguefe
governor's power to bellow,, was readily fuppli-
ed to them during the whole term of their day
in the road of Macao.
Tho fcfctlement of Macao was bedewedby the
Chinei^empferor, Camhy,upon the Portnftuefe,
in gratitude for the fervice, which they rendered
him, by deilroying, in the ifles- adjacent to Canton, the pirates,who frifefled thefe feas, and ravaged all the Chjnefe coaits^But, its Original
privileges are no longer duly reflected. The
Chinefe, infolent and- ©ppreflive to all the Europeans who trade with them, .are particularly fo
to the Portuguefe^' Macao ftand$J$the mouth
of the river Tigris, in 22 deg. 12 rflin.4©fec. of
N. Lat&in 111 deg. 19 min. 3Qjyfec. S« Long.
Its road, at the entrance of Typa, has fuifrfient 112
tfa    •
4epth of wategpfor the reception of a 64. gun
feip. Ships even of feven or eight hundred tons
burden, can enter?i»!f laden into its port below^
the city, A fortrefs of two batteries defends
the entrance of tfce port. Three other fmall
forts, mounted in all with 30 guns, guard the
Southern part ©S the city from the enterprifesOT
the Chinefe. A contiguous mountain, which
commands the circumjacent country, appears to have had once a fortrefs on its fummit,
whick muft have been impregnable. But the
fort:has been Suffered to Sail into ruins ; and a
church has been built there in (lead of it. ^Pwo
•citadels, of which the one mounts 40, the other ■
30 guns, defend the land-fide of the Portuguefe
poffeflMi of Macao. The liMits of the Portuguefe domain extend Scarce a league from the city. They are, at the diftance, bounded by a
wall which a Mandarin, with a few foldiers,
guard. The Portuguefe town and t#ritory ace
Subject to the occafional vifits of this Mandarin ;
and whenever he enters it, the Portuguefe are
expected to fahite fits approach with the discharge of five guns. Yet, he may not deep on
the Portuguefe fide of the wall. Twenty ffcou-
fand Souls maybe the whole number of the population of Macao. Of thefe, an hundred are by
birth Portuguefe ; about two thoufand Portuguefe Indians; twb thoufand Caffre flaves, the
• dome die Servants oS the PortugueSe; the reft,
ChineSe artizans, or merchants. The PortugueSe, whether oS Indian or European birth,
cherifh a pride which teaches them rather to
ftarve or beg, than employ them Selves in the mechanic arts. A governor, a Senate compoSed of
three vercadore,   with the governor presiding D T«E WOR&Efc
over them, two judges of orphans, the agenjfcfor
the *city, and a treafarer of the cuftoms, difcharge
^.tfre pri£§i§^l functionsp£$feePortuguefe gove^t—
ment of Macaft*^ All thefemafriftratesare nom-
inated bywthe y|ceioy of Goa. The fenate have the
jfupreme Superintendence of the revenues of the
i^jty. The judges ©f orphans have the charge of
the property of minors, the nomination of til-
tors and guardians, with the right of decifion
in all difcuffions r^fpecting, the fucceffion to estates : There is, however a right of appeal to
Goa, from :4hehr fentences^ The agent of the
city acts as the mediam of communication be-
,$fflee-n the twfe governments of Portugal and
China. He receives, and tranfmits to their ref-
pe6ijv^governments, the reciprocal complaints
of the two nations. He jj^ the. only perfon in
the government of lyiacao, that isfiot removea-
ble out of office ajgthe pleasure of the viceroy of
Goa. The garrifon of Ma$ao con Sifts of 180
fea-poys, and 14$ militia. TJIl© -fb]d}fg|b-are
armed with flakes; their officers^ }ndeed, wear
jp^rords, but dar^e not draw tfrem againft a Chi--
nefe. The Service of the g#ard confifts in for--
t&ing J9Jghtprtroles^*Yet, if an^of them fhould
furprize a Qyjuefe robber b*eajfcing»smto a houfe-,
and fhould kil^um ; the lucklefs foldier would-
be delivered over to the-Chipefe governor, and
would be hanged in the middle of the markfi|K
;rface. The appearan^of the cit^-^Macao is
:T:||^.plea|ing^ Supercargoes belonging to the
. different European companies which trade to the
Eaft, are obliged to pafs tlie winders here, and
occupy the bed houfes in-»e town. Seveial of
thefi$ fupercargoes a^-?men of diftinguifhed
worjfr and intelligence.   The emoluments they
K W 11-4
If I
enjoy, enable them to lifce in confiderable luxu^
ry and Splendor. They *?eompofe altog^riberf
a very agreeable feciety ; the French experienced from them a vety kind and hofpitable reception. M. Elftockenftrom, principal Secretary
mHihe Swedifh Eaft India Company, treated*
them with the lindnefs of an old friend, ©r rathM
er of a fellow-countryman, sealous ffljf the glory of tipir country : He obligingly undertook t©
Sell their peltry, and to remtt^the produce to*
the Ifle of France. Ifre commerce of the Chi-
nefewithlpurope, of the tranfactions of which
a pjrfrt are carried on at Macao, amounts to fifty millions annually; of thefe, two-fifths are
paid by the Europeans, in filver.^ Payment is
made for the reft in English cloth, Batavian or
Molucca tin, cott©n from Surat and Bengal,
©phwn from Patna, fandil-wood and pepper from
the coaft of Malabar t lookfeg-glaffes of the
largeft dimenfions, Geneva and Englifh watches, coral,fine pdarls, and a few other articles of
European produce, are alfo among the goods
accepted by the Gtfaefe. Now, the only Chi-
nefe goods which the Europeans purchafe with
all this wealth, are black aad green teas, feme
cheits of raw (ilk, and an inconfiderable quantity of china-ware. Yet with fuch haughtinefs
do the Chinefe conduct themfelves in the management of a commerce which is to them fo lucrative, that it may with truth, be faid, that there
is not a fingle cup of tea drank in Europe, wtiich
has not been the caufe of humiliation to thofe
who purchafed it at Canton.
Ifre French voyagers had every reafon to be
Satisfied with their reception, and with the
kindnefs which they experienced during their ROUN^THE w"ORLEk.
2 IS
ftay among the Portuguefe, and the other Europeans, in Macao.    The ChineSe   mandarin de-
manded noting for their flay in the road of
Typa.jjkBut a knavifh purveyor who undertook
4Kjj» futiifli  tfeem with provifions, and impofed
upon them fo enormoufiy, that they were ofefeged
after five or fix days to difmiSs him, had been
compelled, as they underftood, to fhare his prowls wi|jb|i« government.    From the period at,
|which they 4"charged this purveyor, their own
commiflary for provisions went dajfy to market,
aS'lnlany town of Europe : and by this management, they contrived to make the total expence
of a whole month, lefs  than that of the  fitffl
(week had been.    But, rfrU ©economy was probably not very pleafing  to the Chinefe.    Th&
temperature of the climate, in the road of Ty-
|pa, being exceedingly variable, the French navigators during their (fey in it, were almoft all affected with fevere colds accompanied wit&fe-
jver.    They found the value of furs  to be not
above a tenth part of whatit.wa? when Captains
Gore and King a|Sfiv©d at Canton.     The En-
feliffr had fince fpoiited  the market, by the ea-
gernefs offeheir endeavours to Supply it.    It was
kow impoffibfejto obtain more than twelve or
fifteen piafters, for fuch a fur as would  have
brought an hundred piafters in the year 1780.
The whole flock  which  our   w&^igators had
brought from  the N. W.  coaft- of Amelia
(amounted to the number of a  thoufand fmtisi
[f&efe  a Portuguefe merchant lftfd pi&chafed>
for nine thoufand and five hundred piaftres. But
when the money wai£%© be paid, he ma"de pre- .
tences to recede from hit bargain, of tjfi'rpofe, as
|wa&t&ppOf«d^ 4o ©btaljj- the furs' !U&. cheaper* LA PEVRSUSE SyVOYJilGE~
Rather than Submit to the impofition which
this man meditated, the French commanders
thought proper to depofite their furs- at Macao^
under the eare of their Swedifh friend above
mentioned, for fale at. fome future opportunityi
Their obfervatory was erected at Macao, in the
convent of the Auguftines i. and, horn a medi<-
um of feverial obfervations of distances between
the fun and the moon, they were enabled to fix
the eaftern longitude of this eity, at-.jf I deg.
I p min. and 30 fee. Theyi at the fame time,
found their time-keepers to have, been of late
more deranged than at the firft, in their move*-
ments- < .
Having finifhed all their trafifactions atMacaid
they left it on the 5 th of February, at £ o'clock
in the morning, with a north wind.    The crew
of each frigate was now augmented with fix Chi*,
nefe Saj$ors,taken on board to Supply the loSs of
thoSe who had perifhed at Porte de Francoiss.
Sailing without a pilot they followed a common
courfe, and paffed to the Southward of the great
Ladrone Ifland.  . The north winds at firft enin
bled tfrem to ftand to the eadward.    Soon aftav)
thefe came round to the ■ E. S. E.    They paffeoa
on the leeward of the Bank de Prat as, wfrielq
had been kiaccuratelyJaid down in all the charts*
Save that by Captain HSfig, in  the account of
Cook's third-voyage*.   Variable winds hindered
them froni" following.always the parecife courfe
which they had plantedout for themfelves, but
on the 15th of February they reached the ifland
of Luconia, in the latitude of 18 deg.   14 mina
Here they were difappoi&ted of .falling ^mediately in with the mpnfoon winds, as they.hadox.-r
pe&ed.   From various caufes, they did~no]yt$i.] ROUND THE WORLD.
a si
the 19th of February, advance more than a league
a day. The winds becoming at length more fav
vourable, they failed along the IlljcS' coad, at
the didance of two leagues from it. In the
port of Santa Cruz they faw a fmall two-mafH-
ed veffel, which they fuppofed-might be taking
in rice for China. None of the bearings of our
voyagers were here found to agree with the
[Chart of M. Dapres. On the 20th they doubled
Cape Bulinas. On me 21 d, they came in fight
of Point Lapones, bearing E. from them exactly in the windys eye. In the afternoon, the
wind fuddenly (hifted to E, S. E. and they directed their courfe between Marivelle Islanb
and the ifle of La Monha. After fome unfuc-
cefsful attempts to enter the north channel, they
were obliged to come to an anchor in the Port
of Marivelle, where there was eighteen fathoms
depth of water over a muddy bottom. This port
[is iheltered from all but the S. W. winds ; and
its ground is fo good, that even thefe will Scarcely drive a (hip lying here from its anchorage.
A fhort day i.^the Port of Marivelle, for the
purpofe of procuring wood, gave the French
voyagers an opportunity of acquiring fome
knowledge pf this ifle; their attempts to procure
fome fifties, by hauling the fine, -were unfuccefs-
ful, on account of the rocks, and the (hallownefs
of the water near the (hore. They picked up*
Roenrich their collection of (hells, fome curious
fpecimens of that which is named the thorny
wood-cock. On (hore, they came to a village
confiding of about forty houfes. The foundations of thefe houfes were raifed about four feet
from the ground. Their walls and floors were
[of Bamboo, and their roofs were covered with II
leavesS'They afcended%y ladders. Th^rtett'
much the appearance of b»l-cages fufpended i#
the air. The whole materials of--/ftfoh a houfe,
would, moil probably, not weigh more than two
kindred weig&tffv'A large ruinous edifice of
hewn ft©ne,. with' two brafs gifts at its windows*
was obferved. in the front of the principal ftreeti.'
That houfe had been the abode of the curate, the
:ehureh, and the fort, till in the year = 3780* the
Moors from the ifles t© the fouth of itlfe PMlip*
pines burned the "village, demoKfhed this^fori
trefs, and carried aim oft all the inhabitants of
the place away as captives. The colony has 1
<been ever fince in a (tare of decline. The lands
are overgrown with weeds ; and there are few
fame animals. A young ox, a fmall hog, and
about a dozen fowls, were ail that the French
voyagers could purchafe here. The curate, a
young mulatto Indian, inhabited the ruinous ■
ffeofte building. His whole furniture confifted
of a few earthern pots, and a paltry bed. A«>
bout two hundred perfons compofed, 23 he informed our voyagers, the whole number of l*is:
parifhonerfc.! rThefe are liable to be continually
alarmed by the piratical defcents of the Mcorl,
from whom they -flee in trepidation, to the*?
woods. By thefe Mcorim pirates, the trading
boats which Sail thefe fens^ are liable to be con*-
tinually harraffed. They fail in very light
rowing boats,; fb that itfis extremely difficult
either to efcapoa or overtake the fwiftnefs $ I
their movements. The nex-tain-'; authority after
the curate, among thefe villagers, is an Indian
©fficer named alcade, who alone has the honour
of carrying a filver headed cane. Such is his
authority over the Indians, that none of them. -RO&ND THE WORLD.
■dared to feltitfre *4fftal&jj| ar^te to the French*
ikangersfTOitil he h&d grgMed his permidion,
and^fven fixed tbe*Jprice. Thssofhcer is like-
wife the fole vender of tobacco. He fells it on
account of the government; and the poor Im
dian3 buy and confume it :v^h extreme fonft*
•tiedjf*' At the houfe of the curate, the French
navigators Sawlfliree fmall^utetepes, which did
not ex^ed the fize of a large rabbity and of
which the msl<ifetnd the female feemed exactly
a flag and a hind, in miniatureJf! Thefe the cu-
irate intended for prefents to the governor of
Manilla. Soiisrbeautiful birds, with plumage
variegated with the moft lively colours, attracted the notice of the Frenchr'Jpsaltfmen in the
woods. But the forefts were impenetrable, on?
account of the twining flm&bs which filled up
bhe fpaces ansidft the tpfcks of the tall trees.
pfrey pui^afecfeisHthe village-Some turtle dOy^,
Iwhich hav4«g on the middle of tike bread a ti$L.
foot, exa6j$v Similar to a wound given by the cut
of a knife, have hence acquired the denomination of fiabbed turtle doves. *$&$:■
After paffing theagreater part of a day in snaking- fuch \ obServatibns as thefe, on the W&
ind of ^larweMe ; the French ^navigators went
in theovening on board their fhips, and preparing to renew their voyage on the next morning.
From a Spanifh (hip 4tt.theport,- M. delaPey-
rouSe obtained an old Indian for a pilot, who
agreed for-15^piadres' tooondu^^tkn to Cavite.
On the 2$?t|ipat day-break^rthey failed through
fehefou^ierai cbannei; :df?3ule the Indian pilot
continued to carry them away to the fbuthward,
l*e had veirytfie^arfy occafioned afee frigates to rune
aground on the -Bank of St. Nicholas.   They F230
found that Dapres's Chart, though far from ex-
act, was much more to be truded than fuch a
guide. Ifreir courfe -was but for 7 leagues^
and they fpent three days upon it. ftAt laft, on
the 28th of February, they came to an anchor ia
the Bay of Manilla, and in the Port of Cavite,
in three fathoms depth of water, over a muddy
bottom, and at two cable's length from the towM
They had not been long at anchor before Ca-*-
vite, when an officer of high rank arrived from
Manilla to invite them thither. But the favour-*
able cirucmftances in which their fhips lay at
anchor, induced them to decline his invitation.
M. Boutin accompanied this officer on his retain to Manilla, in order to wait upon the governor-general in name of the French command-
er, and to requeft the governor to give orders
tkat the French might be furniihed with whatever Supplies they wanted, before the 5th day o£
April. M. Boutin experienced the moft polite
reception from the governor-general; and the
moft pofitire orders were iffued for the furni(h-
ing the fupplies which he required. A letter
from the governor-general to the commandant
©f Cavite, authorized the latter to permit the
French navigators to hold free intercourfe with?
the (hore, and to procure from it every requifite
afiiftance and convenience. From this time,
they experienced the moft obliging hofpitality
from the inhabitants of Cavite. Their intercourfe with the fhor»was very frequent and ve-:-
ry agreeable. Houfes for repairing their fails,
faking their provifions, building two boats, erecting their obfervatory, and lodging their Natural-
ids and Engineers ; were furniihed with an ho£<
pitable readinefsand a happy accommodation^ &0^f|fP THE WCH|L;E!«
which theyl&ottld hardly feveexperienced, eve^
in any port of Europe.     M. Bermudes, cot&i.
maratermathciPortof Cavite, paid the moft^ai-
£duous attention t©aall their wants and whiles.
On the 2d day after their arrival at Cavite, the
tw© French captains, with feveral of their offi-
«q&rs, failed in their boat* to vifit the city of Manilla.     They were entertained by the governor
at dinner; he then fent the captain of his-guards
to conduct them to the houfes of the Archbyh-
I op, the Intend ant, and the other princj^ft officers: of the government, refident in  Manilla,
pBiey would have been exceedingly itw^anm©^-
[ed by the exceffive heat, had nk M. Sebir, a
French Merchant, oolitely Sent them his coach
to conduct them on the different vifits which
kieyfrad to pay in the town.     At Manilla, M.
d^la Peyroufe Saw M. IF©bias,once governor of
the Mariarmes, whoSe character had been fron-
|©UTedby Raynal with Such praiSes, that his conn-
teamen were-excked to abhor him as an unbeliever i and even his own wiSe, a woman mad%
fe?ia*icalf«ted out a divorce a^aind him, on account ©S his infidelity.     The French ©fficers
■could not but in gratitude pay a vl'fit to their
^gmg co6*itryi«an, M. Sebir.    They So and
him to be a mam of a verjfcienlightened under-
ppidiirg^ and an excellent heart.    Hefradeome
:o Manilla with hopesfoS finding here commer-
'timl advantages,,: of whicfr,frealready Saw himfelf
|ikappointed by the prejudices againft ftrangers,
ind thedeSpotiSm ofathe admiriftfcration.    At 6
bfciock in the evening, the Jrench gentlemen re-
tarried toitherr >boats y  a*m\ abo& eight, they
ivereagain'onboard'their frigates.    In.eircum-
(tauces So advantageous, they-^yere encouraged LA PEYROUSE S VOYAGE
fooverhawl their rigging, and to make the mod
thorough-repairs upon every thing about their
ihips, that wanted .reparation.    To prevent any
inconvenience from the  tardinefs ofllhe merchants who had undertaken to furnifh them with
flour, bifcuit, and other (lores.;   M. Ganfoles
•Carmagnal, Intendant of the Philippines, obligingly infpected  the  progrefs of the workmen,
*nd haftened every thing as if he himfelf had
freen perfonally concerned in the fuccefs of the
Expedition of the French voyagers.   .Jtfor did
the kindnefs of this gentleman reft here: Hp
rnade the French Naturalifts accept.a multitude
«of valuable fpecimtns from his rich coBec^kmf
of the curiofitiesof the Philippines.    He afiided
Aem in procuring money for bills of exchange
to the amount of i©,co© piaftres, <wfricfr M. El-
dlockendrom had, by ^tfris time, authorized them
-to draw uporifrim on account of 4heir otter-(kins
-which ha<} been left for Sale trader 4»s charge.
-This money was now o^idrmuted among the fai-
3©rs, as had freen formerly promifed to them.
The climate of Manilla proved lefs hofpitable to
*our voyagers than were its inhabitants.     Thei
exceftive heats proved unfavourable to the health
of the .fhips companies, in general.    Several of
the failor-s were attacked with cholics.    Meffrs.
de Lamanon and Dalgremont, who weraili w^t|
xiyfenteries when they arrived in the port of Ca
Wire, became  continually worfe while ©n la
there.   - M.'Daigremont died on the 25 th day |
after his arrival.    M. Lamanon, with difficulty!
efcaped.    On the ^28th of March, the French
voyagers had finiifhed every labour that they intended t© execute at Cavite.    The faking ci
their pnmfions, they had performed themfefctSf •>.
upon the^lanof prcfsdure^reeommended  by
Commodore Cook.    While they were preparing
to depart, they were informed of the arrival in
Canton I&ver, of-two French (hips of war ; La
Rfblution, under the command of M.  d'Entre—
j eailcaux ; and La Subtile, commanded by M. la
j Croix de Cadries*    Thefe gentlemen were upoiv
! a voyage, of which the aftronomical obfervations-
i mult   hereafter prove highly beneficial to the
j navigation of thefe feas.    The frigate La Subtile
foon after joined our navigators in the bay of
I Jllanilla, and brought difpatches to M. de la Pey-
\ roufe.    But no private letters were as yet received from France.    From on board La Subtile, a
| tfroply of an officer and four men to each of the
Irrigates belonging  to this expedition, was re--
oeived, for the purpofe  of making up  the lofs-
ihey hjs(d fuffered at Port de Francois^     M. de
Saint Ceran being in a very declining date of
health, took the opportunity of departing in la
Subtile for the Ifle of France^After our voyagers were in almoft all refpects ready to fail, ther
coming on of Pauion-week occafioned delays in
particular articles,, by which they were obliged
to defer their departure to Eader-Monday. During the day at Cavite, M. Dagelet, the adrono-
mer, had'enjoyed great advantages for his aftronomical obfervations ; and he failed not to avail
himfelf 06 them.   'He was enabled to determine
the E. Longitude of Cavite- to be ill 118 deg. 50
min. 40 fee. and its N. Lat. in 14 deg. 29 min.
9 fee.     Before their departure, M.t de la Peyroufe, with M. de Langle,  went to thank the
governor-general for the attention he had (hewn
to the expediting of their affairs.    They waited
'fdfo on ttte intendant; to whom their acknowl^- tz4
edgemcnts were not lefs due. After fhh,ihtf
were hofpitably entertained, for two days longer, at the hoiife of M. Sebir, from which they
tookoccafioMto vifit whatever was mod remark-*
able in the environs of the town of Manilla.
The following are the principal obfervatictis
which the French navigators had opportunity to
make on the date of Cavite and Manilla, during
their day in thefe parts.    Cavite is fituate three
leagues 3. W. from Manilla.    It was for me rival
more confiderable and  flourifhing  than at pre*!
fent.     Its principal inhabitants   now- -are, th$
commandant of the arfenal, a eontador, a com- i
mandant of the town,   two  lieutenants of  then
port, 150 foldiers with their officers in garrifetfl7
The reft oi the townfraen are mulattoes ©r Ii£"
dians, to the number of  about 400©, who  live
partly in the city, and  partly in the  fufrurb of
St. ICoch.    Here  are three converts, each g©J|
cupied by only two ecclefia flics.   The parifhes are
two in number.      An  handfome freufe, which
belonged formerly to the jefuits, is now appro-;
priated to the ufe of the Royal Commercial Comv
pany.    The whole town, in truth, has more the
air of an heap of ruins, than of the capital of a
province.'! The port, however, infpected by M.'
Bermudes, is in a much better d.Tie.    He has'ef^
raolifhed admirable discipline and order in thoSe
works which  are carried on in it.^PThe work-
houfes are the fame as in the arfenals of Europe ;
the workmen are  Indians.     The City of Ma**
nilla, with its fuburbs and immediate invirons^
is of great  extent.     Of 38,000 perfons,  tkjf£
whole number of its inhabitans, not more than
1000 or 1200, are Spaniards.    Mulatloes, Chi*
ftefe, and Indians make up the red.   '$ven the ROUND THE WORLB;
pooreft of the Spankli families, keeps at lead
one carriage. A beautiful river flowing by Manilla, divides itfeif, in its progrefs, into feveral
^iffiajrent eh^ji^els, of which the two principal
fall Into the famous lake ofBahia.. That lake
dies at the diftance of 7 leagues backward into
the interior country, amidft an eminently fertile
territory, and is bordered by more than 100
^jgdian villages, ^lijanilla flands on the very
ifeore of the Bay wfrieh bears its name. This
Bay is more tfr^n 25 leagues in circumference*
The rigtr, which paffes by Manilla t© pour its
waters into this bay, is navigable as far upwards
as to the lake-of Bahia*. The markets of this
city afford all the neceffaries of life in the great-
eft abundance ; but, on account of the reftraints
upon the freedom of^rade, the.prices of all goods
of European manufacture are here enormoufly
high. Of the Philippine Ifles, in general, it mud
frc owned, that the Spaniards do notappear dui]£a
to underftand and cultivate their importance.
Thefe Ifles are peopled by no fewer than
3,oo©,ooo of inhabitants, of which Luconia
alone contains-about one-third part. Neither
in their bpdily nor mental powers, do the natives
appear to yield at all to our Europeans. They
•tgffactice both the agricultural and the mechanic
arts, with abundant dexterity and (kill. The
Spaniards, indeed, fpeak of them with eontempt.
But their vices feem rather to frf produced by
the government under which they are enflaved,
than to be the refults of their native character,.
The hopes of gold were the firft motives which
induce^the Jkianiards to.occupy tj^e Philippine
Iflands. Thefe, however, have been but very
poorly gratified,"    Superftition next Sought -it*'* n6
Iiarvefts, in die converfion of tfre native inhabitants of tfrefe Ifles to the Catholic religion£>C©n-
fiderable fuccefs attended its endeavours, an4bi#$?
extravagantly Severe penitentiary difcipiine, was,
in confequence, eftabliihed among Ae converts.
The catholic penitents of Manilla might often
vie with the Indian Faquirs, in the feverity of
the difcipiine to which ifhey voluntarily fubmit.
The foontaneous abundant of nature encoura-1
ges thefe people to indulge in an  indolence,
which they connect with their piety, by flocking
in great numbers to lt$guifh out life in monaftiie^
ref reats.     The government adopts no wife nor
generous meafures, to kindle up among its fub-
je&s the Spirit of active exertion.     Sugar has I
been occasionally fold here forlefsthan an half-penny a pound ; and rice has beeaibffered to rot un-
reaped upon thegrou&d.  Severe eccfefiaftieal t^Ml
fanny here cramps and deprefles the human
powers.    Yet the peasants wear afn air of hap*:
pineft, which is rarely to be feen in the hamlets
or villages of Europe.    Their houfes are (haded
by fruit-trees, which grow  without culture ;
and they appear remarkably neat;    The head of
every family pays a very moiJerate tax, of only I
five reals and an half, in which is included toil
tax to the church, as well as tlfafc to the king.
The biihops, canons, and priefts, enjoy but mod*-,
©rate ftipendsf whfch are paioVto them from thea
government.    No people in the world are more
paflSonately fond ©f tobacco than the inhabitants
of thefe illeS. Even children begin in very infancy
to ufe it. Scarcely a man or woman is to be Ceefil
at any molten* throughout the whole day without
a fegar in the mouth.   The Ifland of Luconia
affords the bed tobacco in all Afia*    Every pea*- ROUND THE WO&CDi
fant cultivates tiie plant around his ownhoufei
11 is exportecfcfrenee into e*e*y part of f tf$iy by
thofe foreign veffels which ntfve pettflifion to
land in Manilla. But the avarice and inhumanity wthe government have lately impofed a tax,
and prohibitory reftfi&ions, which threaten
to blait all the'#ttte happeneSs that the people
of thefe ifles have continued, fill th4£rti|riejtd
enjoy. Cotton, indigo, fogar canes, grow here*
jfpontso6sdu^yi m groat ab^d*nce^C^tfti^^ffro-
per care and cultivation thefpices of the Philip-
pine Ifles would probably not yield to thofe of the
Moluccas. A ft4W company for we commerce of
thefe k&es, has been latef^ere&ed by tfreSpalftifh
government. The great ©meet of Spain, in re-
fpect to tile trade^tiftween Manilla^iffed the ports
©f the Indian cormnent|^^^pr©ciftre tftfreugh
thi^lifoamiel, for the ufe particularly of her A-
*n£#ican colonies, and even of the pane^couni
try,^Rofe articles of-uf#or lutfity, wh&h are
the proper produce and m'anufacturMof India
and China. F©r^is end, there* is a fair held at
Manila, whic&isopen M the Iriltian nations ©n-
ly^ftlfTo this fair,$ltejgo©ds :for fale are indeetf
brought mider^fid^an names ; but they are always Engfifh property* and are fold ©&-account
of yE'#fl&&* metfclrtnts. Some S#ltmflv fettled
meiits fubfid precariously, ahd in no very flour*,
ifhing'ftate, on^hefc iflands which lie foutfrward
froovLueonia. The ifles of Mindanao, Panay,
and $BndoorO, are inhabited fry Malays, whole
f>i¥attefrl depredations are etftremely troubleforrie
the Spaniards and  their   Indian   fubjeetsv
They take many cajitivisHirtheir piracies, which
are frequently purchafed from them for (laves,
by the very eommanders of the SpanHh mifitia t£%
whj^h hasbeen fastened to cppofe their defcentH..
At Samboangan, in the ifland of Mindanao, is a
Spanifh garrifbn of 150 'men, whofe commander
k alfo governor, of the ifle.     The other ifles have
only a few villages, protected by petty batteries,
and by a militia under the command oft^e AL
cades.|s|:Nature appears in its mod enchanting;
beautyijn the {neighbourhood of the. city .of Ma*
nilla.    A fimple Indy^tnyillageKor a the
Eurppean^-dyle^furroundeidfjby a few trees, will'
there prefent a view more interedingly^ictur*
efque than the moft magnificent palaces of Europe.     Very little artificial embellifUment has
been attempted in thefe Scenes.      A   fpacjous
froufe on the waters  edge,   with convenie^
baths, and (Haded only, by a few fruit-tree^ is thfe|
moft: fumptucus habitation  that even opulence
here requires*    The Spaniards are univerfally ac<-
cuftomed,    immediately  after the  Lafter holidays, to retire from-5^j^|own, to fpend the,hot
part of the feafon at. their country-hooifl.    A
Single Mexican regimen^ of Infafitry, confiding.
1300 effective men, compofe the whole garrifc#j
©f Manilla in the time of peace.    The fojtifica-
tioashave been lately ftrengthened and enlarged,
under the direction of M. Sauz, a yfs^f able engineer..   Here are, befide the garrison, two companies of. arjglery, confifting of 16© men, with
officers ; 150 dragoons ; and a battalion ©f 1200
militia,. who  are  all   Chinefe   of half blood.
Such was the principal  information which the
French navigators obtained at Cavite and Ma-
nilla.iS ROHtfD THE WOifeLDi
chap, viir:
Narrative ofi- the Voyage continued from the pth
jjtff Augitfl, 1787. '
Cqurfe to explore the North Eaft Coafi of Chirtq^
and Chinefe Tartary ; Difcoveryin 'the Sea of
japqh*in the Channel of Tartary, on the Tfajp-
'tarean Coafi^Xsfc. &c.
HEN the French voyagers were juft
about to fail from the port of Cavite, they received a farewellTifit from their friend M. Bermudes,
|s$io affured|j£hem that the North Eaft Monfoon
would not yet for a month, make that change
wfrij^b wasrnoegffary to render their failing prosperous, in their deftined courfe. |&But they were
impatient to proceed, and flattered themfelves
widjftjae hope of a lucky exception for this year^
fuch as might duly favour their wifhes. On t|fitf
pth of April, they failed with a fine breeze at Nv
E. Small variations of the tfinds allowed theml
to get fpeedily to the northward of {the ifland of
Luconia : but they had hardly Sailed round Cape
Bujador, when the wind fleadily fettled at N. E.
On the 21ft of Apri^they reached the ifland of
Formofa. a In the channel between that ifle an4
Luconia, they met with fome very violent currents, occafioned^probably by irregular tides.
PJiey were, on trie 22d of April,-about three
leagues distant, Eaft by Soutfe from Lamay Ifland, which is at the South-We ft point of For-
jnofa. The fea here rolled in very high billows:
Our voyagers were led to think, that they m%ht
proceed more eafily northward, if they might
reproach nearer to tjie Chinefe coaft :. Under,
iheN. N. E. winds, they fleeted to the North fe.
We*t.    In the middle of the dhannel, in 22 deg*-
57 min. North Latitude, and in   n6 deg.  41
min. Ead Longitude, they found, upon founding, a fandy bottom,  under 25  fathoms depth
of water :   In four minutes, the depth of the
waterwas diminifhed to 19 fathoms:   A  (horn
time after, the line indicated only  i-2 fathoms*:?
They were at this time more~thah 30 leagues
diftant from the Chinefe coaft.    Y*ry properly
judging, therefore, that this fhallownefs of  the j
water indicated the prefenee of a Sand-bank not
yet laid down in any of the charts ; they turn- 1
ed their courfe again toward the ifland of For-
mofft.    Finding the irregularities ©f the bottom
Rill to continue, tfrey cad anchor,; and" hahed I
rill the morning.    In the morning, no breakers
were feen around them ;   and they renewed?: J
their courfe toward  the continent   of China;.
They were again in a fhort time alarmed fry a
malfownefs of the -Water, and inequality of  the
bottom, Similar to thoSe which they had before
©bServed.     To get beyond the Sphere of this
danger, they turned their courfe to the oppofite
point of the compafs. South Eaft by Eaft.    Af§
ter running in this manner fix leagues  over an-
unequal bottom of rock   and fand,  in a deptha
©f water; varying from  eleven to twenty  four-t
fathoms,  they at-length found their Soundings-j
begin to indicate gradually deeper and deeper
water till at laft, about ten o'clock in the evening, at the diftance of about twelve leagues"
from the point from which they reverted tfieird
courfe, they could find no bottom.a   The bank,;
of which  they thus afcertain ed the exifteuce^,
basils South Eaft extetmity in 22 deg. 52 min*. •ROUND fflE WORLD.
North Latitude, and in 1-17 deg* 3 min. Ead
L ongitude.
They were now carried towards the entrance
m the- Bay of QjQ5> Fort Zealand, on which
Hands, the city of Taywan, the capital of the ifle.
The Chinefe colony of Formosa was, at this
pme, in a date of revolt; and an army of twen-
[ty thoufand men had been fent, under the com-
mand of the Santoq of Canton, to reduce them
to thgir duty. Deiirous to learn news of this
•war, La Peytoufe xarae to an anchor a little
[wedward from that bay, in water ©f the depth
of feventeen fathoms. But, it afterwards oc-
curred;to his reflection, that there might be
danger in fending boats on (hore, while the
mips were at fuch a didance out at fea; and
that, to a very confiderable diftance from the
iftiore, the channel of the bay was, according to
the old accouts of the Dutch, too (hallow to
|fre fafely accefTible to the frigates. He-attempted, therefore, only t© accod fome of the Chinefe fiihing-boats which were frequent around
•him, and to obtain from them the information
which he wanted. With difficulty, he prevajjj-
•ed with one man to coine on board ; who fold
them fome fifties at Lis own price, but could
[not, for the want of figns or fpeech mutually intelligible, communicate any news to fatisfy their
curiofity. Fifes, winch might be fignals of
alarm, were fsenon<|he fhore. , But, it feemed
Improbable that the Chinefe and the rebel armies
were at this time, upon fome difierent#art of the
coad. Sailing, on the next day, ten leagues
•northward, our navigators came within fight of
thefe armies, at the mouth of a great river, in 33
tteg. 25 rmm .N. Lat.   Oopofite to the mouth «jf dLA'feYROU&'s VOYiM3E
4£p&~i&cr,   ii^ibrrty feven  fathoms   of water, over a muddy ground, the frigates cad an-
4&or.    At the fame place-lay the Chinefe fleet,
<©m!fting of of veffels. *?&©->
fore day, ourvoyagers wer$*ebliged, by -the bad-
nefe kfi the weather, to weigh anchor,  without
having gained that knowledge which they ardently defired, concerning the defigns and movements of the warlike forcefref ore them.    Standing from the fhore, with topfails dttd^courfes cloffi
reefed^M. de la Peyroufe hoped, that he miglita
double the «Pescadore Isles, by  keeping the
fhip's head to the N. W. before a N. N. I»:
wind. ^IVnis aftonifhment, at nine o'clock in
the morning, Several rocks, making a part of that
group of ifles, were feen before them, in the
hearing of N..N. W.    The billows rolled  fe
high and fo tempeftuous, ik&t the breakers from
thefe rocks were not to be diftinguifhed frem
them.    They sow tacked zndfiood towards Foi>
raofa.-'j5n this continuation of their courfeythey
found the channel, between Formofa and  the
ifles$J.E. of $>e Pefcadores, not to exceed four
leagues ;n breadth.    Perceiving k, at iengtir1 to
be impoffible, that they mould Succeed in accomw
fMifhlng | their courfe through tfris chan ne^' fre-
fore! ther change of: the monfoOn; they were induced todireet their progrefs towards the mod
Southern of the Pefcadores, bearing Wy$»iW.
w-itfr the purpofe of paf&ng to the Eaftward of
Formofa^TfreJ failed along, parallel to the
Pefcadores, at  two leagues of diftance froni
them. '
1 Thefe ifles extend' fouShward, at leaft as far
as *3 deg. 25 min. ^Fhey are merely an affem-
fcfeg£-©f rocks in almo^ every peffrble djver$ty rBfiVB1© *BS'WOTSfcO#
jOf fhapes.   Five of them a#e o£&o4erate elev&-
•jtion^like Sandy dewns,' butieitfrout t$ees. |§Cme
^exhibits afeperfec\arefemblancet© the tower ©f
-Qbr^Duan, :afethe mouth of-tit rive#f$©urdeai*x,
asif it-had been, hewn out *#thj frauds.   The
^Duteh, when mafters ef Iteaimofa, > fortified. tfre,
port of P©jNGHOUj?one ©frhsfo&les: Tfre.Chi-
mefe, at-prefent, maintain in it a|garrifon of five
or fix hundred Tartars,  r*Souridr9g feveral times
^iwfrerethe water was considerably Smooth, under
the fhelter of £hefe:ifles*:they>$aund a Sandy bottom, .with remavkahle^neqoaihaes of d&j&h.
a: Sooni^a^as, they^/dteeteEathetti courfe E.-S.
:E. of purpofe to: pafsflfinto the; channel between
IFormoia and?theiBiSHefc;:iSLANDS.    Next day,
jthey experienced a vielentfrut tr^nfient blaft of
'windi0Rains, fuch as.areto be equalled only
rbetween the tropics, aceompaaiied   the winds.
Lightnings, with-inceftant:rfiafhes, v£fom  every
point ofthehorizon,-inflamed the fkies, throughout i*he night.    0n& loud burfting clap of thun-
nler was, alonejlwrard.    The wind was at N.jW.
during thSs: whole rnght: ; The clouds flew to*
wards she fouthwweft : A fog, whJ*Bfr: hovered
low over their heads, followed tfre impiilfe ofethe
40wer currents of air, alone.    It feemed as if
Tome (Crifis-of nature were* threatened ; and our
navigators were, therefore, induced to deer to a
<diftancefrom$he^mdte.   Diuring:Ae next day,
Jtfrey wenE?jdetaifted in a deadjealm^aa the middle
of *he   cfrannel    between   the ...Bafliee   Iflands,   and  thofe   of Botclt T«bac0»x3[ma.
Of ^vis cfrannel,  the -wedth  may be  fixteert
leagues. :En^bftedabyi^heiwiniistQ approach $ie
|flevofiBotol Tobaco-xkna, they could da^ct-
**1y perceive&ree Ullages, on its vfouthern coaft* *Jf4
■t ■tfT:
A canoe Seemed  to bend its  courfe  towards
them, from the fhore.    The S. E. point of the
ifle is in 21 deg. 57 min. N. Lat. in 119 deg. 32
min. E. Long.   ?&e only bay in the ifland, bm
ingopen to the S. E. winds, which  our voyagers had now the mod to fear: thejr were hence
deterred from making any attempt to land.   No
bottom was to be Sound by the foundfrigs of the
frigates, even at their neared approach to Botol
Tobaco-xima.    The  ifle  may  be   about four
leagues in circumference^Jt is feparated by a
channel of half 2l league j from an uninhabitable
Tocky iflet, the Surface of winch difplays fome
fhrubs, with a little graffy verdure.    From the
fea-fhore, for two-thi^hvoi its elevation, Botol
Tabaco-xima, prefents a territory clear of wood ;
in many places cultivated ; furrowed, here and
there, with the channels of torrents which are
occasionally precipitated  from  the mountains.
The fuperior one-third of the elevation  of the I
ifle, is covered to the very fummit, with trees on
the larged fize.     Three confiderable villages)!
feen by the French navigators, within the fpace 1
of a league, feem to befpeak this ifle to be not
Scantily peopled.    In clear weather, Botol To-J
baco-xima may probafrly be feen at 15 leagued!
diftance ; but it is, often furrounded   by  fogs
which mud conceal it from the mariner's view.
Out voyagers after palling this ifle, had to
continue their courfe amid an archipelago of
iflands, which was hitherto known to the geographers of Europe, only from a letter of the
miffionary father Gaubil. In that letter, he
Speaks with but little accuracy concerning the
Mngdom of Liqueo, and its ijjk-and-thirty Iflands, from the information of the King of Li- }ROUKD THE WORLD.
qileo's ambaffador at Pekin.' Every degree of
vigilance and caution was, therefore, to be exerted, in advancing throUgh this track. On the
5th of May, at 1 oolock in the morning, they
came withiirgfigfrt of an ifland bearing from
them N. N. E. They failed along its weftern
coaft, at half a league's diftance from the fhore.
No bottom could be found by their foundings
here. Fires, in feveral places, and herds of oxen grazing on the fearfhore, Soon evinced to
them that this-ifle was inhabited. Canoes came
to vifitthem from thtfvfhore. But, after the cu-
riofity of the petfbns in thofe canoes had brought
them within mufket-fhot Of the frigates, their
jlifeuft no^de them flee away with great celerity. The (how of prefents, with friendly (bouts,
and geftures, at length won two other canoes to*
come alongfi^e the frigates. To the perfons in
thefe, prefents of a piece of nankeen, and fome
medals, were offered ; which were received with
cxpreflSons of gratitude; When about to come
on board the French veffels, they, with folemn
gefture, placed their hands on their breafts, and
then railed their arms towards the fky ; and the
repetition of thefe geftures by the French,
feemed to infpire them with new confidence.
Still, however j. they could not diveft 0iemfelves
of a diffidence which was flrongly exprefled in
their countenances. They are not, by nation,
either Chinefe or Jnpanefe. In their afpect,
they Seem to partake of the exterior character of
both thefe two different races of people. Their
canoes were hollowed trunks of trees ;- and they
did not row them with the dexterity of a people accaftomed to live chiefly at fea. Each
wore a dagger  with a golden  handle.   They LA, PEY<RWSSf$ VOYAXSB
wore theirhair&cked upland? fadened on the
©rows* of the head with a golden pis. Their
clothes were a fhirt and a pair of cotton draw-
<S5^#Th<Si ifle is net morethan three^or four
leagues ia^tjfscumierence ; norgfe/it probable
tfrat the wfeofe number - of the inHafriitants ex -
ceed fourortJrVe hundred. ^!KuM*i¥dieancienii
name of tfreHffe. 4ts: pofition is iij?24 deg. ^jj
min. N. Lat. in 120 deg. 50 min. E. Long. On
the chart of Fa&br GaubiL/Ihe Kcmi Ifles are 3
group of eight; and of thefe, it is the moft weftern whieftp the French navigators now Saw llbnt
their fhips. The other Seven ifles to the eaft-^
ward, were removed beyond the fpfiere of their
horizon. From what Gaubil Lays of the great
ifland of Liqueo, it feems probable that Europeans might there find a favourable reception jjg; a*€$
that they might open a commercial witercourfe
With its inhabitants, not lefs advantageous than
that with Japan.
The Indies of Kumi, reconciled to the Uteenek
by their prefents, and theit gentle deroeano'tV
had returned on fhore, tobri^them frefh pro-f
virions. But, a fait wind arifing, encouraged
our navigators to continue their courfe, without
awaiting thefe good people's renewed vifiu
1 hey proceeded northward with all their fails
f&: and, at funfet, had entfeely loft fight of the?
ifles of Kumi. At day-break, on the folloWfrig;
morning, they came, firft, within light of art
ifland to the N. N. E. and then of feWral rocky
iflets farther to the eaft. < The ifle is round,
woody, deep on all fides, and mod probably uninhabited, k may1 be about two leagues in cu&
€!tfmferenoe. Another ifle, of equal fize, fimi-
far ferm, a fuwaee ali&e wooded, but of inferior ROUND THE WORLD.
elev^ion, appeared, foon after; in view. Between thefe ifles were feen five interjacent groups
of rocks, with numberlefs fea-fowls flying
around. To the former of thefe ifles, M* de la
Peyroufe gave the name of Ti-aoyu-su ; to the
latter,.thatof Hoapinsu ;. both adopted from the
chart of Father Gaubil, TiaouyuTu lies in "2$
deg. 5:5 min. in 121 deg* 17 min~ Hoapinfu in
25 deg..44 min. $£ Lat. in 121 deg.. 14 min. jp.
Long. At fength, our voyagers had left behind
them the archipelago of-the ifles of Liqueo; and
entered the more Spacious fea between China and
Japaniji They were anxioufly^ defirous to enter
the channel of Japan, before the 20th of May.
But, truck and, eonftant fogs; winds, if not ad-
verSe, yet blowing always fainfly, and fubfiding
often into a dead calm ;; violent currents-.;, and
tidesf&oceffantly varying in their direction ; rendered their courfe along the north coad of China, fo very difficult, that, without relinquifhing
their fprevious arrangements in refpect to tinle^
tliey could not make t]aat minute nautical furvey
of thefe partsr whieh^fcthe intereds of navigation, is very earneftfylo be defired. In the courfe
of 10 ©r 12 days failing, only one day was clear.
On it, they faw?an iflet Situate in 30 deg. 45, min.
N. Lat. in 121 deg. 26 min. E. Long. But
fogs quickly obfcured the fky anew ; and they
could not afcertain any thing concerning the
pofition of this ifle in relation to the continent.
On the 19^1 of May, after a fortmght of calms
and fegs, the horizon. expanded around them for-
feveral leagUes&c the,;wlB4lifettling in the N". W.
began to blow with confiderable force ; but the
fty continued to prefent dill a dull, whitifh af-
pe&.     The French navigators now di?r$£teo/-
their courfe N. &. by IU; towards ^|^aft&**ll
Qtosepaery.    OniAe 21ft, this ifle appeared,
within their vies*.    Afalrday eoafeled them tol
4etermi»e, from ItfRa^obferv-aftiOn, tfrat its pofition is in 33 deg. 14 mtm *N. Lat. in i%$ deg»|
15 min. E. I|i0ng>||4ts afpe£l*4s exeeednlgly in-
tserefting: in the middle of this ifle, towers up J
to the elevation of "about lOfefo toifes, a peak.
xsSiich is  viable ^at fthe diftance of <*8 or 20
leagues : ^rfrfi* me decks, with the aid of their
perfpeetive '^afles, o^r ^ojage'rs could difcern
tfrc fieWsv*to be ^even ' mmutet^fubdivided by
mciofures : the^xtti&«fc-Crops, and the vary*]
ing colours of cultivation, likewife met and delighted theey^# On tl««|f*Bfe, at fhfefctime under the dominionof ^e  ^Miing of •'€aOrea,  was
wreckedy"i?i the fttffr ^3 5* a^Dutch ffrip, nam-|
ed the Sparpow-hawM.    Irs crew efcaped the
rage of the fril lows,' ©tflyto be doomed to perpetual fervitude among the inhuman people, on
wfrofe^hore they wereCad.     Alter a captivity
of i'8 years, during which -they had  Suffered
much cruel treatment, Some Of thefe [tflifortu-
nate Ca^ti^es, •€ont^-i^-to^i;ze a bark, Scaped
liurt 2© Japan, from whidh they made their way^:
fed:to Batavia; and^a$^wa¥cfc to Amfterdam.
5Bwo canoes were :feen>tO come off from this hie.
felt they were probably fent, T-afcher to watcfrj
than to hail the French frigates : for they came
not up to >them.
^Our voyagers ftSlt-adVin^Si'' ^ey -paffed!
eaftward from the^N. |L po&Rf*©f the ifland of
Qoelpaert. ■ Eve#-frourrmey founded; and^tfre
depth eonrimred tova*y from* <To to-yd fathdrn&l
In N. Lat. 35 deg. re min. 'E. Long, ign deg*
bv-min.-they Mliti^frfrtfre*mod northern olM HOUND THE WORLD.
icfrain of rocks, more than ^leagues diftant from*
jthe^ontinent of Corea.   Their bearing-hnearly
N. E. andS.W.    On the day following, Corea-
appeared within view; arrange of rocks or iflets,^
[cunning along before it.    Two  leagues fouth,
prom thefe iflets, the depth of tlhe foundings was
pom 30 to 35 fathoms, with a muddy bottom.
Sle fun, piercing through   the fogs,   enabled
Hiem, happily, to take excellent obfervations of
die latitude and longitude:; obfervations of fo
much, the greater importance, becaufe the Jesuits, during their profperity, as miffionaries in
the Chinefe empire, were the only perfons that:
pad, as.yet, made anyrcommunications-concern-
mg the geography or hydrography of thefe parts^*
to the inhabitants-of  Europe.   ;Itt the niglst of
Ehe  25 th, the  French   navigators pafted  the
Sfreight of Corea.    The  night was clear; the ~
winds-blew with confiderable^rifknefs from the:
$•. W. and a great Swelling of the fea came from*
the north, ^ney failed on- eafily before then,
wind, at the rate of two knots anfrour ; wHhing,;
to afcertain, after day-break, the accuracy of
thofe obfervations which they had-made during;
the evening, that-they might give every requi-
fite degree of corredtnefs to their chart ofi^he
Straight.    They founded every half hour. Having approached within z leagues of th%,coad of
Corea,they then held on their courfe, in a direction parallel to it.    Corea is divided from^
Japan by a channel 15 leagues- broad; but narrowed, for a part of its -extent, ;by groupesand
reefs of rocks.    On $ie t&gfcof the mountains
bM^orea, were feen fortrefles perfectly  (rmilar
toj thofe ©f Europe.    The adjacent country is
barren sami hilly; and unmelfed heaps of insw £4°
wesT perceived in certain pits, and gullies among;
the angular junctions  of the hills*     Yet,thei
dwellings  are numerous* .   Frequent junks  or
fhampans, with matted fail% like thofe of China,
were obferved failing on the coaft.-^ Some boats I
came oui,.apparently for the purpoSe ofexamin-j
ing the appearance and the- movements of the
French frigates ; but returned into port, with-l
out having come fuflfciently near, to  hold any
converfe with therm    The 26th proved one of
the fined days which our navigators experienced]
J C? A
in their whole voyage ; yet the mercury in thei
barometer   fubfided  to  27 inches and 10 line$
At midnight, the wind altered, from S. to N.   It]
blew, immediately after the change, with eonfid-
erable violence; the fky became black, and.dark ;|
and it became neceffary for the frigates to-alter
their courfe to a farther didanee from thefhore,
than that at which they had for fome time failed.
The only foreboding indication which nature had
given of this change, confided in torrid vapours.
Such as might have iflued from the mouth of an/
oven, which were felt by the men at the mad-l
head, pafnng, as it were, in fo many puffe of
wind, each Succeeding another,.after, an interval
of half a minute.   On the 27th, the frigf$es ap«*
proached to within 3 leagues of the continent
and in fpite of the violence of th& north  wind,!
they were able to gain a little to the northward y
while the coad of Corea was feen to bend away
before them, to the N. N. W.. ;.M. de la-Peyroufe now judged it neceffary to direct his courfe
towards the S. W> point of the ifle of NiPHOif*
The exact pofition of Cape Nabo, the N. WJ
point of this ifle, had been before afcertained by
Captain King,    An equally fatisfactory .fixing- o£
the fituation of its oppofite extremity,'weald put mO&&D THE WCHSLB.
an end to the uncertainties and conjectures of/
geographers concerning the form of thefe coaftfc*.
©h the 28th our navigators discovered., in 37*
deg. 2^^mimN..Lat. in 12$. deg. 2 min. E. Long,
the north-ead point of an ifle, which received,
in honour of the aftron©mer by whom it wa#
[fird perceived,, the name of Isle Bageletv.
They failed round it, at a mile's diftance from-
the fhore ; and founded, as they failed* without
finding a bottom. A boat was then fent, un-<
der the command of M, Boutin, to carry the
foundings to the very beach. Nearly at the
ledge of a furf which breaks on the coaft, at the
diftance ©f an hundred toifesfrom the ifland, he
found bottom under twenty fathoms depth of
water. -jThe; ifland is about three leagues in circumference Jf A rampart of bare rocks, -rifing
over the billows, with an abrupt and precipitous elevation, encircles its whole out-line, except only feven fmall fandy creeks, which are
acceffibie lo boats. From the vet*y brink of the
iiore to its extreme height, it is^overgrown witfc
tall (lately trees, fitted to furnim the mod excellent timber^In the creeks, our navigators
faw fome boats of Chinefe condructign on the.
Socks. Theviuppofed, that the workmen might
probably have fled into the woods, at their ap-.
preach. Other workmen were feen by them,
Upon turning round upon a point, to flee into
the woods from a fecond dock-yard. Had not
the opposition of ftr©ng currents prevented,
M. de la Peyroufe would gladly have gone on
fhore, t© explore the ifle, and to convince thofe
good people that they had nothing to fear from
the French.
-  On the 30th of May, favoured by the wind* LA PEYROUSE'&sHdYAGR
now fixed at S. S. E. M. de la Peyroufe endeavoured to approach the coaft of Japan;H But, the
contrariety of the winds rendered the attempt fo
difficult, that nothing but its extreme importance could have hindered him'fforri abandoning
it almoft immediately. On the 2d of June, in.
37 deg. 38 min. N. Lati4n;i32 deg. 'i©;roin. E^
Long, two Japanefe veffels paffed within fight of
them ; one of thefe, fo near, that they could'
diftinctly mark the appearances of things on'her1
deckp. Her crew, conSfting of. twenty men,
wore blue garments made inthefafliion of caf-
focks : She might be of about an-hundred tons
burthen: She had a fingle malt, which feemed
to be formed of a number of fmaller mad-trees*,
united by means of copper hoops and wool-
dings : Her fail was linen, with its breadths not
fewed, but laced together; very large ; and ac-*
companied with two jibs acd a fprjtfail: A
fmall gallery, three feet broad, projected from
each fide of the veffel ; and extended for about
two-thirds of her length from the item, alorigh
the gunwale She had, on her item projecting^
beams, which were painted green : The boat!
placed athwart her bonus exceeded, by Seven ofi
eight feet] the breadth of the veffel. It is. probable, that fuch veffels as thefe are intended only for failing on the coafts, and in the faired
SeaSon of the year; and that the Japanefe have
^ftoutcr veffels for braving the wintry dorms, in
more diftant feas. Senear did the'French navigators pafs to this veffel, that they could remark
tfreexpreflion in the countenances of the perfons
on her decks : It indicated neither fear noradon-
ifhment.|pThe Frenchmen hailed her, as (he
pined; and the JapaneSe failed not to make an* &OUND THE WORLD.
ifwer. But, their languages were reciprocally
unknown ;.. So that mutual converSe was impof-
[fible between them.. The Japanefe veffel had a
[Small.'.white 'flag, on which were Some words
written vertically..- Its name was on a fort of
drum which ftood befide the enfign-ftaff.
On the morning of the 4th of June, in 133
[deg.  17   min. E. Long, in 37  deg.   13 mini N.
Lat. the French voyagers imagined, with fome
[uncertainty, that they Saw-land: But the weather was dark and ftormy :   Their  horizon was
;ontracted within a quarter of a league ; and
[the winds blew with   a violence which madea£
impoffible for them to halt, till they  might afcertain. whether it were indeed land that they
had feen.    In the courfe of this day, no fewer
than Seven Chinefe veffels, malted like the Ja-
aanefe bark above defcribed, but of a ftructura
setter adapted to ftruggle with ftormy feas, paffed within fight of the French frigates.J They
pad, every one, three black bandsain the..concave part of the fail ; were each of about thirty
br forty tons burthen ; and had crews of eight
inen, each.    They ran clofe   fo the wind, with
\heir larhoard tacks on board, and their heads to
\heW.S. W.
On the 6th of* June, our :havigators arrived
vithin fight of Cape Not© and the ifland of
lOOTSi-siMA, which are parted by a channel
tbout five leagues in widenefs. They were fix
eagues from land: but, the clearnefs of the
feather enabled them to diftinguifh the trees,
ivers, and hollows upon it. Rocky iflets,
breading with many irregularities, from the very
prater's edge to the courfe of the frigates, hinder-
fd thefe from approaching nearer to the fhow§ la.#eyr©u$e's v-qs&ge
&$ieir -^founcSngs here indicated,  u»8er fixfj
fathoms of svater, 3a .bottomofrrock and coral.
iHiey ran along the  coaft of Jcotfi*&na ; and
■Lad dill the fame foundings^^This ifle^fras 'an
agreeable afpeet, is welLwooded, is narrow in
its circumference, and of aflat furface.    Ordi-
a^eary dwelling houfes : afome more  confiderable
^edifices; a cadlc looking ftmcture ; and Some
.jpods with crofs-beams at the upper extremity 4|
-attracted our voyagei's notice from the ifle, as
^hey failed along.    Fogs again furroundedthem, ]
iasthey left Joot&frma.    But, they hadifrstppillj
ascertained, wkh  accuracy,  Some remarkable,
-frcarings,ihe knowledge of which mud beof the
;greated ufe to Geography, and efpe-©ally -to all
future navigators in thefe feas.   Cape Noto, on
the coad of Japan, appears, from their observations, to be in 37 deg. 26 min. N. £*at. in  13M
•-deg. 34 min. E. Long. Jootfi-fima, in 37 deg*|
51 min. N. Lat. 135  deg. -2© mm. Long. thef
mod Southerly pointof the ifland of >Niphon, in
37 deg. 18 min. "N. Lat. in 135 deg. 5^ian. E.
Long. ys|
Tji© oppofition of drong, unvarying fouth
«rinds, hindered M. de la Peyroufe from afcer-^
taining, according to his earned defire, the fitu4
ation of me modaouthern and the mod weftern i
points of the ifland of i^phon^   "tinder >tfre im*j
pulfe "Of tfrefe fame winds, he turned his ^courfe
to tfreiN. W. and they.attended his progrefs f&a
within fight of the coad of :Tartary.    On the
nth of July, the frigates reached this coaft.
Itfextday, in  aaelear, ^Serene atmofphere, vthe
mercury in the barometer fell to 27  mcfres,' 7
lines. tjpEhe point ofithe coad which ©nr navigators approached, was exacljyc that ^tf^wfrilfe mm
Corea is Separated from Mantchou Tartary.
Its elevation is fuch, that it was eafily vifible at
-the didance of twenty leagues out at fea. Mountains, at lead fix or feven toifes in height, are
the fird objects which here difcover themfelves fo
the eyes.    Within four leagues of the land, bottom was found under an  hundred and eighty
fathoms depth of water.    A league from the
fhore, the depth of the water  was dill eighty
fuur fathoms.    No vediges  of culture,  or of
Imman habitation, were  to be feen upon this
coaft.    Trees and verdure covered the fides of
; the mountains': on the fummits appeared Snow
|in   inconfiderable   quantity.    Hoping  to   find
more convenient anchoring ground, the French
i'Voyagers Hid not  halt   here  to   examine  the
coad, but held on their courfe ; failing in the
; fined    weather,   and  under the mod Serene
\ Ikies they had known, fince their departure from
Europe.    On the 12 th, the 13th, the 14th, they
continued to make their nautical and aftronom-
\ ical observations with die greateft fuccefs. JlfOn
the^evening of the 14th, they were becalmed and
iInvolved in a thick fog, iri  the latitude of 44
; Atg. N.    Here have, geographers hitherto fixed
itheir pretended Streight  of Tessoy.    But,
jour navigators were now 5 4eg. of Long, farther wedward than the longitude affigned.    t
deg. are, therefore, to be here cut off from the
continent of Tartary, arid to be added to tho
channel between Tartary and the iflands northern from Japan.    This abfciffion from the con-
Itiaent, and this expanfion of the channel, will,
of courfe, annihilate the Streight of Teffoy. The
15 th and the 18th were obfcufed with fogs.  On
the Wk, the fqgs prefented themfelves in the
alhifive forms of mountains,  precimtous, vales,
torrent-worn channels, and all the appearances
of a continent, or ifland; from which they were,
ior fome hours, induced to fancy,that they had
at lad entered the Streight of Teffoy.    But, as
evening came on, they faw this fancied land to,^
vanifli away.    It was foon entirely difperfed in J
air; and Rot a rack remained behind.     On the
17th, 18th, 1 oth, they were dill furrounded by
fogs ; and in this date, could not venture to's
proceed, with any  degree of celerity.    In Nj
Xat. 44 deg. 45 min.   M. de Monti went, in a
boat, from  on  board the.Aflrolabe, to explore
a bay which they faw open frefbre them,  and
in which they had hopes of finding (belter.     In
.that bay he found, at two leagues diftance from
land, an hundred and -forty fathoms depth of
water.    A quarter of a league from the (hore,
the depth was forty or fifty fathoms.    The frig-1
ates  approached the fhore.    .But, thick fogs^
made it again neceffary for them to fiand off, for
fear of running into.unfeen  dangers.     About-
8 o'clock next morning, they difcerned a flat-
topped mountain, to which that it might be re-
cognifed by future navigators in thefe latitudes,;
M. de la Peyroufe gave the  name of Table-
.JVlouNTAiN.     The  territory adjacent   to   the]
coad, was covered with trees and verdure, indicating thVgteated fertility of foil.   ,But all was j
defolate, (till, and Silent.   ^Nothing was to be
feen, that could befpeak the coad to have  beeni
ever occupied by human inhabitants.    On the;
23d, our voyagers entered a bay in 45 deg. 13 j
Hiin/N. Lat. 125 deg. 9 min. E. Long, in which
ithey found, at a cable's length from the ffrorcj m
I a'Sandy bottom, under fix fathoms waten    The
kide rifes in this bay five feet.    It is high water
at  full  and change, at 8   hours,   15 minutes.
The-flux and reflux, do not alter the direction
. of the current, at the diftance of half a league
from the fhore.    To the bay, our navigators gave
: the name of the Bay de Ternai.
Since they left Manilla, they had not been on-
iland.    Thefe coafts alone had not been befere'
jiHuftrated by the difcoveries of Cooler     They
were therefore impatient to land,: for the pur-
pofes of both difeovery and refrefhment.     Five*
I Small creeks form   the outline of this  bay or
roadftead.     Hills*.overgrown with trees, part'
Ltfiofe from one another.    All the fhades of live- •
ty green variegate the trees and the herbage.
Bears    and   flags  were feen   from   the   fhips'
to wander quietly   along the fea-fhore.     Rotes,   red   and   yellow   lillies,   all   the  meadow-flowers  of'  France,    were   Seen   by    out*
navigatorsafter they landed, to enamel, in rich
profufion,   the  plains^   declivities,   and vales.
Pineseovered the fummits of the mountains:
half way down,  were oaks, of which the  fize
and ftrength diminifhed, asthe defcent approached the fea-fhore : willows, birches, maples, bordered the rivers and rivulets.    On the fkirts of
the forefts,   were apple and medlar trees, with
clumps of hazles.     Traces of the vifits, if not
of the permanent habitation, of men, were every where to be  feen.     Some places- difplayed
the remains of ravages by fire.     And in a corner of  the wood, were  obferved  fome flieds
which   muft  have been  erected  by   hunters*
Bafkets, framed of the bark of the  birch-tree,,
and.rackets for walking on itiow, lay, here and' LA PEYROUSE'S VOYAGE
there Scattered about. A fho©ting-party came,.
in three boots, from the two frigates. Three
young fawns were the only animals they flew.
The long grafs, and the danger from venomous
reptiles, which might lurk in it, making it impoffible for them to proceed far inwards through
tlje country ; they were in a manner, confined^
to the fandy flats on the fea-fhore. Impelled by
their paflion for hunting, 1$. de Langle, with
Some other officers, and fome of the naturalifts,
endeavoured* with little fuccefs, to penetrate
through the moraffes and forefts. But the grafs
and underwood were (till inacceffible : Nor
would the bears and dags prefent themfelves to-
their eager purfuers. In fifhing, thefe voyagersj
were more Successful. Cod-fifhes, harp-fifhes,
trouts, falmon, plaice, herrings, were taken with
the utmod eafe, and in the greated abundance-
Vegetables, fuch as nature prefented in profusion, on the (hore, being added to thefe; fome
very wholefcme and delicious meals were thus'
furnifhed out to the (hip's companies. Amidd
their fifhing, they difcovered, on the bank of a
'tivuIeP, a Tartarian tomb ftanding befjde the ruins of a fmall houfe, which were well nigh buried in the grafs. Curiofity prompted them to
open this repofitory. In it, lay the bodies of
two perfons, fide by fide. The heads were covered, each with an under cap of taffeta : The
bodies were wrapped in bear's fkins, which were
fadened round them with a girdle of the fame 3
F;rom the girdle were fufpended feveral different
copper trinklets, and fome fmall Chinefe coins :
Blue beads were fcattered within the tomb :
'lliere were alfo ten or twelve different forts of
filver bracelets, weighing each ten penay-weight: ROUND THE WORLD.
And thefe, our voyagers afterwards  learned to !
be pendents for the ears.    A fmall blue nankeen ;
bag, filled with rice, a comb, a wooden fpoon,>
an axe, a knife, a hatchet of iron, were likewife
among the articles with which  this tomb was
garnifhed. None of all thefe things were, as yet,
in a ftate of decompofition.     The ftructure of
the tomb wasa fmall hut, having its walls formed-
of the trunks of trees, and covered above, with
the bark of the birch-tree. '& Careful not to violate this repofitory of the remains of the decealr ■'
ed, the French  drangers religioufly   reftored
every article to its former fituation, after they •
had examined it; and then covered up the tomb
as it was before.    The articles of Chinefe manufacture befpeak thefe Tartars to have a regular
; intercourfe with China.-   From the prefence of
. the bag of rice in the tomb, it may be inferred
that they believe the dead to furvive the clofe
of the prefent life, and to remain fubject in the
world of fpirits, to thofe bodily wants which
they experienced in their human exidence.  The
plants were here the fame as in France, at lead, ,
without any variation very intereiting to botany.
Slate,   quartz,   jafper,   violet porphyry, fmall
chryftals, amygdaloid, were the mineralogical
fpecimens presented in the beds of the rivers.
Iron ore appears here, only as an oxyde, the colouring ,matter j of different ftones :   No other
metals, in any form j could be here dif covered.
Ravens, turtle-doves, quails, wag-tails, fwallows,
fly-catchers, albatroffes, grills, puffins, bitterns,
wild-ducks, were the land and Sea-fowls which
the French   voyagers obServed on this coaft.
Broken muScle-fhells, bernacles, fnail-fhells, pur- ;
pune, were the only Specimens of conchology
N 21 I JO
Seen on the beach. jflBeingt^e firft European
vifitors of thefe fhores, M. de laPeyroufe and!
his companions would not leave the fcene, without depofiting in the earth various medals
brought from France for fuch ufes, as well as a
bottle inclofing an inf. ription%f the d^.te of their
On the morning of the 2*$fh, they again fet
fail; and preceded before a fouth wind, at the j
diftance of two-thirds of a league  from the
coaft, diftinguifhing, as they went along, even
the mouth of every fmall rivulet.     About i-r
o'clock  in the evening of rthe 29th the wind*
Shifted to the north ; iand they were obliged to
make a tack eaftward.    They were now in 46
deg. 50 min. N. Lat.     The coaft, which they
ilill faw thro ugh fogs* was now lower ; and the
land was divided into hills of moderate height.
On the 1 ft of July, being^ involved in a thick fog,
fo near to land that they could hear the breaking'1*
of the furf upon the fhore ; they were obliged
to cad alienor in  30 fathoms  depth of water,?
c%ith^fettorn of broken fhelJs-tfnd mud.     Fogs
continued till the 4th, to hinder their obfervations. %But they^had, in*the mean time, the'consolation of taking a great quantity of cod«ififi?es*
and eyfters, wnlcn very-agreeably diverfified the-
provifion of their tables.     A great bay, into
which a river, fifteen cr twenty fathoms broad,
was feen to difembogue its waters, opened before ourriavigators on the morning of the 4th of
July.    A boat-from each frigate wasimmedi^
ately fent to examine it.    The territory  on the
coad was found to be nearly the fame as that at
the Bate de Tcrnai.    Veftiges appeared, which
$efpoke tfris; Scene tohavebeenreccntlyvifttedby ROUND t3tE WORLD.
fome wandering hunters.  Branches cntfrorn.the
trees by fome fharp-pointed mdruments^ lay on
I the ground, with their leaves dill unwithered.
By rfrte fide of a fmall cabin, were two elk-fkins,
(ftcilfully dretched out to dry, upon fmall pieces
of wood.    The cabin or hut befide which thefe
were found, had every appearance of being a
[temporary abode for hunters.     Qur isoyagers
took away one of the elk«fkins,but left^indead of
it, hatchets and other iron inftruments, much more
valuable as they believed, to its;©wners. Tfreboats
returned.^ The name of Bate de Suef«jein was
impofed on this bay by our navigators.*^Since
it prefented nothijBg particularly intereding, to
[invite theife-day, tlrey foon renewed their couaffe,
and dill advanced to the norlfeward. ■■; The Baie
-de Suffrein is Situate in 4'jndeg. 51 min. N. -Lat.
['in 157 deg. 25 min. E. Long.
Advancing, along the coaft,.they made occa-
fional ufe oithe'Sriedge, and procure©>iW#th it a
:variety of oyders,-and other (hell fifties.    To"the
oyfters were often  attached£that little bivalve
j'fjiell-fffh, wiiicfr ihe FrenA name pqulette, and
rwfricfr, on the coad of Europe, is often found in
a date of i$etrife&i©n.     Large whelks, fea-
ifredgifrogsof the common foi*, dar*fill*es, hol-
fothuria?, and very fmall pieces of beautiful coral,
were alfo among the captures witfrthe dredge.
Turning their courfe gradually fromthe coad of
I Tartary, they now drove to crofs $he channel,
towards where geographers had ta*ghta^iem £°
expect to find the lands of Jess© and Qfttf j«s-
so.    Proceeding with thfe view,  they &£n dif-.
j covered  an ifland, apparently of great e»te»t£
which formed with Tartary an opening of 3®
deg.   ffrey were tfren m ^4$ deg. -35 negn.ifc L A PE YROUSE^S VOYASE
Lat.    They next directed' their courfe to- the S'i
IL   This eaftern ^Jand, very different in its aiV
pect from Tartary, exhibited to view nought but
barren rockSj^^h pits of fnow, and having an
apparent volcanic character.    To theJoftieft of
their fummits, M. dela Peyroufe gave the .name
of Peak Lamanon, in compliment to M. Lamanon, who, in the character of a mineralogift, ac^j
companiecl the expedition.    Fogs and obftinate
foutherly.winds, exceedingly incommoded our
voyagers, in the navigation of the channel*^ At
noon, on the i ith; the weather cleared up ; and•
a very  extenfive, horizon immediately  opened
around them;    On the evening of the 12th of
July, the Southern breezes dying away, .permit-;
ted them to approach the land.    Some iflanders
.were feen running from the fhore, to hide themfelves in the woods.    Without delay, one of the
commanders, with  fome of the principal  per-|
fons from on  board both frigates, went on (here
in the boats.|it On the (hore, they quickly came
to two fmall. houfes which'feQgied to have been
but newlyaabandonecbby their inhabitants ; for
the fires were not extioguifhe4tf thejjurniture remained, and there was a blind litter of puppies, .
whofe dam was heard to bark for them from the I
woods.    The French navigators benignantly de-
pofited feveral hatchets and other inftruments of
iron, with glafs beads, and various other articles,
for prefents ? to conciliate the good-will of the
peoplerwhen they fhould venture to return from I
the woods,     The great net oe^feine was then *
haled, and at once were taken- more Salmons than ;
would have fu diced for the confumption of the
(hip's companies  during a whole week.     Our
voyagers..-wore, about, to return onboard their PfiHi
flaps, when Seven of the natives were feen to-
! knd from a canoe on the (hore, and to come up^
without fear or wonder, into the very midft of
the ftrangers.    Among thefe  Seven, were two
©Id men  with long white  beards, clothed  in a,
ftutT made of the bark of  trees.     Two wore
dreffes of blue quilted nankeen.    Others haa on
along robe, fattened on the body with a girdle
[and a few buttons.    Their heads were bare, ex-
leept that two or three wore a fimple band of
bear's fkin.    The face and the crown of the head,
[were (haven.    The hair behind, was cut to the
[length of ten or twelve inches.     They wore
boots of feal-fkin, Skilfully formed and Sewed,,
after the Chinefe fafhion.    Bows, pikes, arrows
tipped with iron, were their arms.    Their man-
ers were ftrikingly dignified and fblemn.    To
[the eldeft, there was gteat reverence (hewn by,
the reft.    A fort of mutual engagement to meetr
Inext dav on the fhore, paffed between them and,
IM. de Langle.
On the following day, the French, with M„
ide la Peyroufe himfelf, at their head, repaired
again on  (hore.    The following is the general
refult of all their obfervations upon the country
and its inhabitants.    They were foon met, in the
creek, by twenty-one of the natiyes.    Prefents,
efpecially of iron  and (tuffs, .were  offered and
laccepted by the Tartars, at the very opening ofa
Ithe interview.     Thefe underftood,  as well as
the French, the value and the diverfities of the
[metals;   prefering filver to copper, copper to
iron, &c.    Three or four of them had pendent
ear-rings of filver, adorned with blue glafs-beads,
Ifimilar to thofe which had been difcovered in the
1 tomb at the Baie de Ternai.     Their other ©r« m
- naments were of copper.    They had pipes, ancT:
deels to ftrikefiie with, which feemed of Chinefe-
orjapannefe manufacture." By figns, they informed the French, that theirbiue nankeen, their-
beads, and their fleets, were procured  from the
weftern country of the Mantchou Tartars.    Ob-
ferving the Frenchmen to hold in  their hands
paper with a pencil,  to write  upon it   ;   they
gueffed the intention, and,, with a benignant attention, endeavoured, of their own accord, af-
fiduoufly to explain whatever objects they iup-
PG^d t?)e ftrangers might be the moft curious to
Ke iiftformed about.     They, feemed fufn^ientljH
defirous to obtain hatchets and fluffs.    But they-
maintained, in  all  their interconrfes with the||
French, a dignity and fanctity of manners, faljl
xuperior to any indications of rapacious avidity,
and to every, even the moft trivial act of theft.
^ot a Single Salmon would they pick up, without*
permiffion, from among ^ofands, the produce
of the fifhing of the French, which lay fcattcred*-
on the beach.     Underftanding, that the ftrangers delked to obtain from them,de(criptions of
their owiffcountry, and of Mantchou Tartary ;
they (ketched, on   the  ground, and even, withi^
the pencils of our navigators, upon  paper, the:
figure of their own ifle,  whim they  named-
Tchoka ; adjacent to it, a ftreight-; beyond the
ftreight, the continental territory of the  Mantchou Tartars.    South from their own ifle, they
reprefented another to exift, beyond an intcrme}!
\Hate ftreight thro ugh. which the French (hips
might readily pafs. On the continent of Tartar
ry, they reprefented the river of Segalien, pouring its waters into the channel between Tarta||
and Tchoka,. in a pofition fomewhat Southward ROUND .'IjiE.'.SBfiRLD.
from the raoft^prthern .point of the oppofite ifle
of Tchoka.    From indications which thefe people communicated, the French navigators inferred the moft northern extremity of the ifle of
Tchoka, to extend about -fixty-three leagues to
the northward of the ftation in which their fhips
then lay at anchor.     By the fame Sagacious and
.Communicative Savages, our  voyagers we're informed, that, to procure the foreign commodities which they wore, thefe favages were wont
to fail for a-certain length up the river Segalien,
andthereto meet the Tartars, by trafficking with
whom they obtained thefe articles of importation.    All this information was, unavoidably, to
a gre-at degree^.uncertain.     But, fuch as it was,
it fufficiently merited the attention of M. dela
Peyroufe and  his "companions.     A loom  was
procured Srom thefe people which (hewed what
progrefs they had-made in the manufacture of
cloth.     It nearly refembltd  thofe of -Europe.
Cloth of the bark of the willow-tree is woven in
Such looms, with a Shuttle, by the inhabitants of
Tchoka.    They examined, with a Sagacious cp-
riofity, the texture of the fluffs which, werepre-
' fen ted to them _by the French; and feemed to
fre confidering, how far it refembled, or differed
from, that of their own manufacture/:dThey do
not cultivate the ground *■% ye£,fail not to avail
themfelves of its fpontaneous,produce^. Intheir
huts were found many roots of the yellow lily or
faranna of Kamtfchatka, which-they appeared fo
"have dried for their winter's provifiori \ as alfo
the roots of garlick and of angelica.     Of their
form of government,  our voyagers, could  discover, during their fhort flay, only that they heat
their old men with a reSpeci which Seems tocojEh
3ferTUpon them all the authority of patriarchs.
Their ftature does not commonly exceed five feet
fiveUriches : Their countenances prefent regular features, and an agreeable exm*effion : Their
perfonal figure is itout and handfomely proportioned.     They permitted the French to draw
their pictures ; but, would not differ them to
*rneafure the dimenfions of their bodies.     Perhaps; they might look upon the propofal to mea-
fure them as an attempt to make them the fub-
jects of fome magical operation.   Their women,
they kept carefully hid from the  fight  of the
ftrangersK 1&ur Voyagers could purchafe from
i'tkfli no mojfe than two marten-fkins.     A few
fkins of bears and'^feals were feen, fafhioned into
clothes.    Each of them wore on his   thumb a
large ring made of ivory,  horn, or lead.     Like
the Chinefe, they preferve their naite on their
ringers to a great length : Like them, they Salute
by-kneelmg and proftrating themfelves on thei
ground : They likewife fit on mats and eat witha
afmall fticksl^ They may perhaps be a colony of
Chinefe origin, whofe anceftors have wandered
hither, at Some very remote seraln ancient times.
Among them, the French  voyagers^net  with
^wo Mantchou Tartars, who had come  hither
for fome commercial puTpdfe, about a fortnight
or three weeks before.    Thefe men readily con-
yerfed with the Chinefe Sailors belonging to the
French frigates.    Their garments were of grey*
nankeen, Kke thofe of the coolies or ftreet^or-.
ters ©f Macao.    Their hats were of bark, and
pointed.    They wore the Chinefe pentfec or tuft
of hair.    They reported their dwelling to be
eight days journey up the river Segalien.    From
^e^'reporu,a^wellasfrdto other circumftaQ R#>fD TH&'WORfife
(fefe$iM. de la Peyroufe was led to infer the coad
of this part of  Afia to be almoft entirely uninhabited, from the limits of Corea in the 42 deg.
«N. Latitude, as far as to the river Segalien in the
55 deg. or 54 N. fc&H$de.   The cabins or huts
-of the inhabkant^f Te%©ka, are of wood; Over
this, a covering of the bark of the birch-tree ;
then a covering of timber ; above all, athatching
of dry draw, fimilar to that on the cottages of
ourjpeafaffts : The doorls in the gable-end, and
very low : The heartfr is in the middle of the
floor, and has a correfpondent opening in the
roof : Immediately around the hearth, are little
banks or floors of earth, rfrmg eight or ten inch-
fes*ftigh: The wBtie infide of  the hut is fpead
I *with mats :   That cabin which fCrved as the
!*model of this deferi^tiOn, ftood amid a thicket of
|*r©fe-trees : Thefe flirubs were in flower, and e±-
|dbaled the moft  delicious odours :   But,  thefe
'were more than overcome bj£tfre (tench of the
filh-oil, and otfrer putrid (uhftances wliifch "filled
plfrehut, and poifoned the air, all around it.   jtt
l^feemed curious, that^a bottle 0$ fweet-Scented
water, when prefented to one oS the old men,
^affected his fenfe of fmelfcig with a mfguft, at
leaft as flrong as that with which /me noifeme
|fmell of the fifh-oil was perceived by the lien ell*
[They had tobacco iff Urge leaves, and of very ex-
cellent quality ; and they feemed  to be eternal
Smokers : but fnuff they could not endure.   TIJjs
fray was, in honor of M. de Langle, named the
[Baie de Langle.
On the 1.4th of J^* the fignal forffiling was
[given; and they prepared to leave this bay.
Till the roth, they were furrounded wMi perpetual fqgfs   la1 the morning of tire ioth; they
lilMf *58
faw, athwart the rn^ts, the land of Tchoka,
from N* E. by N. as far as E. S. E. Having continued to run along, till two o'clock in the afternoon, they then dropped anchor in water 2©
fathoms deep, over a gravelly bottom, at the
diftance of two miles from the fhore, and weft-
ward from a fine bay. The fog afterwards dif-
perfed ; and they were enabled to determine
the bearings of the place where they had cad
anchor. It is fituated in 48 deg. 59 min. N.
Lat. in 140 deg. 32 min. E. Long, They named the bay, Baie d'Eftaing.|LTheir boats went
.afhore, at 4 o'clock in the afternoon. About
an hundred paces from the fea-fhore, were found
ten or twelve huts, conftructed of the Same materials as the huts in the Baie de Langle ; but
larger, and divided each into two apartments, of
which the inner contained the furniture, and
feemed to be the ordinary abode of the family,
while the other was entirely empty, and feemed
to be appropriated for the reception of ftrangers.
Two ©f the women were accidentally met by
the French officers j and were terribly alarmed
at the rencounter. Sketches of their figure and
countenance were, however, drawn by M. Blon-
dela. Their eyes were fmall ; their lips large ;
the upper lip painted blue, or tattooed ; the legs
naked ; the body covered with a long linen Shift;
their hair lank and uncurled ; and the upper
part of the head not fhaved, as on the men.
The iflanders, at the fird landing of the gentlemen from the French boats, were affembled
round our canoes, which were laden with fifties
dried in the fmoke. . The crews of the, canoes
were, as the Frenchmen learned, Mantchou Tartars, who had come hither from the banks of the ROUND THE WORLD.
river Segalien, for the purpofe of purchafmg in
trade, the dried fifties.    Thofe geographical de«^
fails which  our voyagers had obtained at the
Baie de Langle, were by thefe people, confirmed.    A fort of circus, furrounded with a palli-
fade of rude flakes, was obferved in one part of
the territory adjacent to the huts*     On the top
of each flake was the fkeleton of a bear's head ;
and the bones of bears were Scattered around the
Scene.    The circus and the trophies erected on
its pallifade, might probably be intended to per-'
petuate the memory of atchievements accom-*-
plifhed by thefe people in hunting the bear* with
whitfr, fince they wait fire-arms, they mud, of
neceffi-ty, contend in clofe fight.    Salmons were
found to be the mod common prey of thefe people in their fifhingva   They dry the fifh for fale
to the Mantchou Tartars ;   but take  out and
throw away the head,   the tail,   and the back-
■ Ibne.    After loading the Tartars with prefetrtsir
the Frenenmen, at eight o'clock in the evening,
returned on board their fhif>s.     Next  day,  the
20th, the frigates renewed their voyaged     They
failed along the coad, at a league's diftance from'
the land.    A thick fog furrounding them about
feven o'clock in the evening ; they were indu*
ced to cad anchor in water 37 fathoms deep,
over a bottom of mud and fmall flat Aones.   The
acoad was here more mountain© us -^Neither fire
nor hut were to be feen ; ten cod-fifties   were
caught, the firft our voyagers had found, fince
they left the coad of Tartary.     M. de la Peyroufe concluded from   this; lait incident,  that
they were now not far didant from the Tartarian coad ; and he hopedv that, keeping clofe to
the coad of Tchoka, he ftiould Soon be able to
O.NMH i6o
reach that dreight, the eu^denee of which fre&
had confidentially inferred from the itt/brni^on
of the iftanders.    The frigates, therefore, failed
©n, never at a greater diftance  than two leagues
from the iltand.    As Soon astfre fogs cleared up,.,
our navigators had a perfect view of the channel.    Iff tfre latitude of 5© deg. it grew narrower, #1 it was at lad contracted to the fmall ex-
panfe of thirty leagues.    In the evening of the
22d, they eaft anchor in 37 faihoms water, with
a muddy bottom, at about a league's didance-
from land, tfris anchorage was oppofite  to the
mouth of a fmall river, three leagfces nottfr from;
which, appeared a very remarkable peak, which
had its bafe on the fea-(hore, and, on whatever-
fide it might be feen, prefented (till the mod
perfect regularity of form at its fummit.     Its?
fides were richly covered with trees and verdure.
In compliment to the botanid of the voyage, M.
4« ht Peyroufe named it Peak la Martiniere.    Ifr
Was thought proper/here, to fend boats afhore,.
for the purpofe ofafcertaintng whether this part-
of the coad were inhabited.     M.  de  Clonard
went with four armed fhips.    To the furprize*
of thofe who had remained behind in the*mips*
he returned in the evening with all the boats filled with Salmons.   He had landed at the mouth of
3 rivulet, not exceeding four fathom& in breadth,
nor afoot in depth.  Its bed was fo entirely covered with falmons,  that the failors* with their
fticks killed in an hour more than 120© of them..
Only two or three deferted huts were to be feen*;
Three trees were of larger dimenfions than in
the more fouthern bays : Celery and creffes grew
in abtmdance on the banks of the rivulet : Ju*
toper-berries grew around^ in immenfe profu-» !«if!
fion.    The French botanid made here an ample
collection of rare  plants.     Cryftallized Spars**
and other curious (tones* but no metallic ores,.,
were brought away by the mjneralogifts.    Firs,
willows,  oaks,   maples, birches, and  medlar-
trees, fill the forefts.    Goofeberries, ftrawber-
ries, and rafpberries, were likewife amazingly
plentiful.    Cod-fifhes were, at the fame time,
taken in great numbers, by thofe who had remained on board'the fhips.     To  the rivulet
which had afforded fuch plenty of Salmons, M.
de la Peyroufe gave the name of Salmon Brook.
Renewing their voyage, they failed along, as*
before, at a fmall diftance from the fhore of the
ifle.    On the 23d, they were in 5© deg. 54 min.
N. Lat. and nearly in the longitude in which,,
from the Baie de Langle, they had, without va-
riation^failed.    A few huts appearing here and
there, upon the (hore, indicated this part of the
ifle to be-not deftitute of inhabitants.     A bay,
whichwasbbfervedinthe lad: mentioned latitude,
received from our navigators the nameof Baiede
la Jonquiere, but did not appear to be fo important  that* they  fhould  particularly, explore ifc?>
They were now extremely impatient to afcertain,,
whether or not the-pretended ftreight of Teffoy,
was  merely the ftreight dividing the ifland of
Tchoka from the continental territory of the
Mantchou Tartars.     The foundings began, as
they advanced, to be almoft equally fhallow, at-
fome confiderable  diftance from the   coaft of
Tchoka, as when thev frigates were very near to
that ifle.    On the 24th, in the cpurfe of three •
hours progrefs, the depth of the water was found
to decreafe from 24 to  18 falhoms.    The attempt to obtain a greater depth, by fteering.
Ox l6*2
^weftward towards the mid<&e of  the channel,. I
proved fruitlefs.    M. de la Peyroufe, upon this,
determined to traverfe the whole channel twice,
from ead to weft, and from wed to ead, in order to difcover whether there were not deeper*
water to be found in the progrefs northward ;
and whether there were not a particular channel fimilar to that of a river for a dreight.    In
the evening of the 26th, they came to anchor*
on the coad of Tartary.    Next day they foiled
N. N. E. towards the middle  of the channel 51
had both coafts invieWat once ; and found the
depth to decreafe, in the progrefs northward, at
the rate of three fathoms a league.    M. de l&
Peyroufe  was  anxious to explore the dreight
dill much more thoroughly.    But* the Southern
winds prevailed in tins channel with Such a Settled' monSoon-l&e fteadinefs, and  with Such an
agitating force upon the feas, that any attempt
to advance much farther in this- eourfe to the
northward,    appeared   likely   to   Subject   the
frigates to extreme  danger ©S vdy embarraf-
fing de&y, er even of fhipwreck.    The weathery
• too, began toUbecome dormy, and the billows ofr
the Sea to  roll more tempeftuoufly, tlian they^
had hitherto done, in this channel.     The fhips
could not ki^hefe circumitances, haftily proceed
farther.     But Meflre. Boutin and de Vaujuas,
officers   equally diftinguifhed for difcernmenf
and prudence, v/ere fent out in the boats, to ex-<
plore  the channel, and  to make the requifite^
Soundings,  to   the northward;     M. Vairinas,
who fet off at 7 o'clock, was abfenttill midnight.
He failed a league northwardj beyond Which the
date of the fea and the weather would not per-^
mit him to proceed.     At his fartHeftdiftance ROUND THE WORLD.
from the fBgates, his foundings indicated only
fix fathoms depth of water. M. Bou&i had returned before him, without making any difcove-
ry. Immediately after the return of M. de
Vaujuas, it was found neceffary for the frigates
to revert their courfe. At day^break, they weighed anchor with much difficult toil, and with a
breaking of the capfane, by which three of the
Seamen were Severely wounded. The violence
of the winds and the fury of the waves, rendered their progrefs, for a fhort time, both laborious
and dangerous. Some flight variations of the
winds- from S. to S. W. and to S. S. E. foon
took place, however, in a manner favourable to
them ; and, in 24 hours they made five leagues.
In the evening of the 28th, they found themfelves at the opemr%©f a bay on the coaft of
tartary. Want of wood and water fuggefted
the propriety of here halting and going on ihore
for fupplies. At five o'clock, they cad anchor
at the N. point of this bay, in water eleven fathoms deep, with a muddy: bottorm Boats were
foon fent out: a Tartar village was defcried ;
cafeades of limpid water were- perceived ; and
four wooded iflets were obferved to (belter a
road, where the frigates might ride at anchor, in
perfect fecurity. At eight o'clock, on the next
morning, the?rigates were conducted to the bottom of the bay ; and^Sivere brought to reft at anchor in water fix ,fatfroms deep; with a muddy
bottbrn. 1.6-4
cka*. ix.
Narrative of the voyage cotitinued, from the 2$th
of July to the 6th of September, 1787. Tranf-
aclidns and Difcoveries in the Baie de Cafiries.-
Difcovery of a Streight dividing Jeffofrem Oku-
jfejfo. Vocabulary of the Language of Tchoka%
named by the Ruffians, Segalien. Courfe to
Kamifchatka, is'c.
O fooner were the frigates moored, thart-
both tfre French commanders prepared to go on
fhore.    They appointed the long-boat to take in
water; the barge, to bring the wood which was-
wanted, from the fhore; the fmall boats to be|
at.the command of Meffrs. Blondela, Bellegarde,
Mouton,  Bernizet, and Prevoft junior, while
they fhould make  a  furvey of  the bay ;    the
vawls* which drew little water to  be ufed in
fifhing,Salmons in a fmall river abounding witha
them ;.the pinnaces,:, to be ready for carryings
themfelves and the Scientific gentlemen a-(hore,
to fuperintend the different works, and to ex*
plore theJ^xviioTy contiguous to the coaft.- The
aftronomieal apparatus was, without delay, fet
up, on an iflet which they named Hie de L'Ob-
fervatoire ; and Meflrs. Dagelet, Laurifton, and
Darbaud,. immediately  applied  themfelves to
make the^jequifite obfervations for the correc-v
tion off trssir time-keepers, and for afcertaining
the different bearings.    Thefe obfervations foon
fhewed the prefent anchorage of the frigates to
be fituate in 51 deg. 26 min. N. Lat. in  139
deg. 41 min. E. Long.   The time of high-water^
2tfull zn&cb&nge, was at ten o'clock : the great*
oft rife of the tide, at tfre Se periods, was for five 4m
feet eight inches above the ordinary level of the
fea : the current run at the rate of aifieait half
a*knot an hour.    The bottom of the bay is muddy.     Approaching the fhore,  the depth of the*
water is gradually diminifhed from twelve to five
fathoms.    To three cables-length from the fhore,
t&e coaft is furrounded by a flat, which makes it-
difficult to land, even in a boat, when the tide'
I is low.     Extenfive  beds  of   fea-weeds,  too4
among which the water is but two or three feee
[deep, oppofe  another  troublefome obltacle  to
[thofe who attempt to land from boats.    But this*
[bay affords certain fhelter from the dorms o£
winter ; and the Frencfrnavigators thougfrt ittc*
I be, of all that they had vidted on the 'Fasftarian
coad, the only one that was truly worthy tto,
I name of Bay,     They named it Baie de C&M&
I TRIES. * PPti$
Our voyagers had no Sooner landed, than inker views took place between them and the uifede
(natives of the adjacent country.    The chief or
patriarch of the honde, with fome others of the*
[inhabitants, received  M. de la Peyroufe upon
the beach.    That venerable lavage falutcd the
ftrangers by proftration, according to the Chinefe ceremonial; and then conducted them to
ifeenis wife, his children, his daughters-in-law,
and grand-daughters, in his hut.    The French-
[men were there invited to fit down on a mat;
which was refpectfutty fpread fer tfrfem ; and t©a
[partake of a diili of grain with- felmon, wfiich
[was made ready for their entertainment.   •f£frefe
good people made their vifitors to underftaiwj^,
Fhat they were themfelves of the nation of the
Orotchys ; and that fome dranger Tartars, who
bad recently arwed in four canons, were of the-' 166
Bitcmys ; a tribe inhabiting at fome not very I
considerable diftance Ifcathward.
The Orotchys inhabited a village, confiding
of four cabins or huts, of a dructure confidera-|
bly folid and durable.   Trunks of fir-trees, laid
at full length, and neatly cut at  the  angles,
formed the walls:   A frame^ of not  unfkilful
workmanftip fupported the roof: 'Bke roof was
covered with the bark entrees.    Within, there
was, in the middle of the dwelling, the hearth
with the fire, and correfponding to them, in the
roof, a hole  for the emiffion  of the frnoke :
Around the walls were wooden benches :  There |
was no commendable degree of cleanlinefs to be
remarked here, any more than in the cabins on?
the ifland of Tchoka.^ The four-cabins were inhabited by as many different families, which appeared to live together in great harmony, and
with the mod perfect, mutual confidence.   Eve*
ry hut was (unrounded with a dage for the drying of falraonsJIrThefe are fird cleaned ;   thenr
for three or four days, fmcked round the fire ;,
after this, put on the poles of the dage, in the
©pCn air, and left to dry to the hardneis of wood,
in the heat of the fun.    With fuch exalted, moral fenctity, do thefe good people refpect  the
didin&ions of property, that the French navigators Soon expofed their goods, unguarded, on
the (hore, in the midd of the Tartarhuts, without the fmalled fear of theft, and without a (ingle indance of even the mod trivial lofs.     The
Orotchys purfued the fifliery in the river, at the-
Same fine with the French drangers.     It was*
with extreme diSgud the  Frenchmen   beheld
them eat, with the greated avidity, in a raw date,
the Snout, the gills, and the Small bones* and ROUND THE WORLD.
thefkin of the Salmons, as  they caugh#them.
Of thefe parts, the Salmons are*«fually thus cleared
by tfre fiihers, in the  catching.    What of the
Skin   in   particular,  remains   when   fifties  are
brought to the  houfeSj is very eagerly  fou^pIV
out, ^nd devoured raw, by the tromen.    Thofe
rings which the inhabitants of Tchoka were obferved to wear on the thumb, are intended for
the protection of the thumb while the falmons
are dripped with a (harp knife, the edge of which
often drikes againd the ring.    Befide   the huts
which flood at the very landing-place where the
French  navigators came afhore, they  faw on
the oppofite fide of the bay,  another village
confiding of eight huts, fituate at the edge of a
wood.    At a fmall didance above  this lad village, were perceived three Yourts or fubterra-
neous houfes, having an exact fimilarity to thofe
of Kamtfchatka, which are defcribed by Cook*
Contiguous to the village, were obferved feveral
tombs of a dructure fuperior to that of the houfes.    Bows, arrows, fifhing-lines,  and in general whatever is mod precious among the poffef-
fions oS theSe people,  appear  to be depofited
with  the dead bodies in the tombs.    Within
each monument, were three or Sour biers of not
inelegant workmanfhip, ornamented with brocades, and other ChineSe duffs.    Although thii
•village Seemed to be  but a temporary winter
abode ; yet the houSes were filled with the dreS-
fes and implements oS the people ; (kins, fhow-
ihoes> bows, arrows, pikes, &c.    TneSe generous-minded Savages, without alar®, Saw Sroni
the  d|>p©j5te  fide oS  the gulph,  the   French
enter  their dwellings,  and  even  deScend  in-
jto their tomb$£i The French, .knowing and *iM
his noble-Handed confidence   of
their hods, fcrup&ioafly. withheld their hands
from injuring or carrying off the fmalleft of thofe
articles which they were  thus unmiftru ft fully
peraak^d to examine.     Thefe people are all©
$U©nt to 4ml 1 up and dry for ufe, as winter food, I
the roots ofthe^ranna, and fome other plants.
The bodies of the poorer dead are expoied on
i^ers in the ©pen air, on a ftage of fome elevation, with their dreffes and implements of hunt,
Jag and fifhing, hung around them.    There appeared no reafou for thinking that thefe hordes
owned,-an v other £&m of government thafiithe
'•Amply natural and patriarchal.    They are a fee*
©le race ; and their features are remarkably different from all thofe forms to which we are
wont to attach the idea of beauty.    The middle ftature among them, rifes not to four feet ten
inches.    Their bodies  are  lank ; their voices*
thin and faint, as thofe of children ; their cheek*
bones, high; their eyes,  fmall,  bleared, and
ftanding diagonally in the fockets.    They have
the mouth, large ;   the  nolo, flat;   the chin,
fhort, and almoft beardlefs ; their (kin, oi an
olive   colour, and Sufficiently  varnidied   with
fmoke and oil.    Both men and women fuSer
the hak to grow to a great length : The men
frindiog it up, as is common among us*! the w©*_
men wearing theirs looSe upon the (boulders*
The labours of the women are  confined to the
cutj^ag and fewingof cloths for themfelves and
the men, the management of their children, the
curing of fifties for winter dore^gl The children
are, to the age.4f {three or four years, fuclfled at
the bread.   The Women appeared to enjoy considerable influence over all the transactions of ROUND  THE WORfife. ltj|f'
•<fre men.    No>jbargalns would the latter conclude withtfreir French vfrfitants, without having
fird obtained 'the content of th©k*wives.    The
•copper  trinkets,  and the  pendent  filver earrings, are, properly, the ornaments of the wives
and daughters.    A waidcoat of nankeen, or of
■d©g-(Wfe, ©r fifh-^kin, cut into the (hape of a
•waggoner's frock^fe the common drefs of the
men and boys.     Whefl^jtfejs  garment reaches
below the knees, no drawers are worn with it.
If the Waiftcoat be fhorfer, drawers, in the.Chi-
nefelafhion, and reaching So low as to the calf
of the leg, are in this cafe, worn.    In winter,
Kthey wear, all, Seal-fkin boots.    At aH  times*
kand of whatever age, they wear a leathern girdle, from which are fufpended—a fmall  bag
with tobacco, a deel to drike fire, and a knife
4h a (heath.    The women,  diflering fomewhafe
in drefs from the men, wrap *tl*eMfelves in a
large nankeen roke,: or -in a  robe  of falmon's
"&tn, tanned wMi a ffelll that makes it very fit
for this ufe.    *0he falmons, of whicn1* the fkins
are thus tanned, are taken only in winter, and
weigh from thirty to forty pounds.    The  robe
reaches to the ancle-bone, and inhere border©^
with a fringe of fmall copper ornameri^iiM'Of
the religiofi of this  people, no monuments^hor
[indications could be difcovered  by the*f!rench
!navigat©rsyfeS©ept feme rudely carved figures ©f
(children, arms,  hands, legs, which were fuf-
feendedSrom the roofs of 4fre huts, and greatly
refemfrled the votive  offerings at the Roman
I Cathode chapels.    They Seemed to look upon
[their French vifitants as forcerers ; fo th^rFthey
Jmiidhave fomenotionsOf a malignant, ffrperna-
|turalfower,wfr«^rtoy be c©im»#»ieated a&4
ily 170
exercifed for the pwrpofgijgf injuring mankind.
Jndead  of grafping  greedily  at  the   prefents ^
which jsvere offered to them,  they rather fhow-
ed a delicate and high-fpirited reluctance to a<^-;
cept  fuch  prefents.     They  feemed to expect
them to be offered with a refpectfiil politenefs,
Sueh as might not humble and wound the fph>
its oS the receivers.    Gifts offered to their children, gave infinitely greater delight to tHe parr
ents, than fuch as were prefented to themfelves. I
3M. de la Peyroufe, carefling two little children
in oneof the huts, gave them, in the prefence of ;
their parents, a piece of rofe-coloured nankeen^
The father immediately going out, returned witfrj
fris mod beautiful dog, and intreated the Frenckjj
commander to  accept him: When M.  de la
Peyroufe refufed the  prefent; the father made
his children, who had received the nankeen,  to
put their  hands upon the dog, and to beg their
benefactor to take hirm$|aThis little traufaction
indicates a tendernefs and generofity ©f lenti-*
inent, Such as could not  eafily be excelled by
the virtues of a civilized people.    Their dogs,
the wolf dog,  are ©f middle fize, very drong,''
very gentle  and docile, ancfr apt  to be yoked,
like thofe of Kamtfchatka, in Small, light fledges.'
From the dranger Bctchys whom the French
navigators frere  found trading with the Orot-i
chys, information was obtained, that the ftreight
between the Tartarian continent and the ifland
of Tchoka, becomes, at length, in a fituation
considerably northward  from that whenoethe
French frigates had reverted their courfe, a dry
fandy bank, abfolutely without water. After^ius,^
M. de la Peyroufe abandoned every defign with
jqg^a to this jgnlph, Save .that of exploring the ROUND THE WORLD^
fbuthern limits of the ifland of Tchoka.    The;
naturalids, in the mean time, were afliduous in
the dudy of the mineralogy of the coads and the
' iflets of the Baie de Cadries.     The iflets are
compofed of trapp, grey bafaltes, and red lava,\
both compact   and  porous.    No volcanic cra-
| teres were, however, difcovered ;: and the erup-
i tions were, therefore, inferred to have been very
[ancient.     Several   crydalizations  were found
\ among the volcanic  matters.    No new fpecies
I were here found by the botanlfts.    The draw-
berries and rafp-berries were dill in flower : the
i goofberries were beginning to turn red : Celery
i and evades were not plentiful*     Foliated oyfler3
| ©fa black and vinous colour; beautiful whelks ;
pedtines ; fmall common muscles; with different varieties of the Kima-cockJe, were found by
(the conchologids.      Water-hens,   wild-ducks,
cormorants, gmllemots, black and white wagtails, a fmall undefcribed fly-catcher of an  azure
blue colour, were among the fowls  Snot by the
hunters.    The individuals of all thefe fpecies*
i were, however, but rare.    They  appeared not
in flocks, but Solitary'mournful, and drooping,
The martin and Sand-martin were the onlySpe-
icies of birds which appeared to be here in their
proper element, and natural  refidence    It is
probable, that, to a certain depth, the earth remains here frozen, even during fummer.     The
itemperature otfthe dreams never exceeded 4.
deg. of Reaumur's thermometer.    In the open
air, the murcury ftood at  15 deg.    Thefe peo-
; pie are utterly drangcrs to the practice of agriculture.    Yet, they are fond of vegetable fub-
I fiances, and collect the wild bulbous roots for
tfreir winter's provifions.    In genius, art, and ?72
iisludry, as in vigour of bodily conftkution,
they are greatly inferior to the inhabitants of
On the 2d day of Auguft,- the French frigates
failed with a fair wedern wind, from the bottom of the Bay de Cadries. This was foon af*f
ter changed for Southern winds. They wifhed
ro'run along the coad of the continent, till they
mould come within fight of Peak Lamanon.
The weather, hitherto favourable, became, on
the 6th,.exceeding!y inclement. The tempedu-
nus roHing of the billows, together with adverfe
breezes from the South, obliged them to fjailwitl^
all their Sails expanded, and with extreme cau*
tion, led they fhould be carried backwards, or
Jmjrried into Sudden danger. The barometer
fell as low as to twenty-Seven inches five linesw
A thouSand circumftances conSprring, rendered^
their progrefs extremely dangerous and alarming. Northerly winds, however, came at lad to
their relief. In the evening: of the oth, the fri-
gates had, by the affidance of thefe winds, reached
the latitude of the Baie de Langle. A band, afr
fording very regular foundings, was found tq
extend oppofite to this bay, for ten leagues, from
north to fouth, and, at the fame time, to run
out, for about eight leagues weftward. Pre*;
ceeding along the coad, at two: leagues of difs£
tance from it, they faw, to the fouthwed, afmsiP
low-lying ifle, between which and Tchoka was?
formed a channel about fix leagues wide, This
ifle received the name of Isle Monneron, in
honour of M. de Mbnneron, who was engineer
for this expedition. A peak, at lead ten or
twelve hundred toifes in height, was fhortiy after obferved ; and it receivedfromr#wr voyagers, JHH
the name of Peak, de Langle. Its portion is-
in 45 deg. 15 min. N. Lat. The fouthern point
of the Ifland of Tchoka or Segalien, was next
difcovered : it was found to lie in 45 deg. 57
min. N. Lat. in 140 deg. 34 min. E. Long, in
length from north to fouth. - The ifle of Tchoka,
which thus terminates, is one of the greated in:
the world. It is this fame ifle which has been
otherwife known by the name of Oku Jesso*
Chicha, divided from Tchoka by a channel
which is but twelve leagues in breadth,-is the
^esso of the Japanefe ; and its extenfion fouth-
ward, is bounded only by the Streight of San-
GAR. The Kurile Isles lie farther eadward;
and between thefe ifles, on the one fide, and the
two Jeffos, or Chicha and Tchbka,on theother,is
comprehended that which has been denominated
the Sea. of Jeflb,,,and communicates with the
;,Sea of Ochotsk. At Cape Crillon, the inhabitants of the ifland of Tchoka, for the fird
time, ventured to vifit the French navigators 011
board-their fhips. At their firft coming on
board, they betrayed fome fears; which, however, were almoft immediately changed for extreme confidence^ They acted with the Same
freedom,, as if among their bed .friends: fate
down in a circle on the quarter-deck, and gayly
fmoaked their pipes^J This confidence of theirs
was, by the French, encouraged and rewarded
with prefents of iron inftruments, beads, Silks,
tobacco, and nankeen,^ Tobacco and brandy
were foon perceived to be the articles which they
prized the moft. v !The figures of thefe iflanders
are (tout and well-proportioned; 'the features
are regular; their beard reaches to the bread ;
their arms, neck, and back, are covered with
m r/4
hair. Their middle dature feemed to be about'
ati inch lower than that of the French. Their
fkiri is tawny as that of the nations on the coaft
d^Barbary^l'Their manners were grave and
dignified. But they fhewed much more ©f avarice, and lefs of gratitude, than the Orotchys
of the Baie de Cafiries. Their drefles are a^tffe.*
'workmanfhip of &eir own hands. Their huts
and furniture difplay no inconfiderable neatnefs
and elegance. They extractrfie oil of^he whale,
If'cutting the carcaSe into Small pieces, exposing theSe pieces to putrify on a jflepe before the
fun, and receiving the oil, as it runs from their
putrefaction, into ve'flefs of bark or feal (kfrU&
conyenientlyt|placed. It is only oft the eadern
fide of the ifland of Tchoka, that the whales
appear. Though their modes of life frfefo near-
]y fimilar to thofe of the Tartars on the continent, it is not inipoflible but they may be a race
©f people defcended Srom fome very different
©rigin. They appeared to poflefsVa confidetable
geographical knowledge of this ifle, and the oppofite coflKfrient: And their information confirmed thofe conclufions wpich our voyagers had*
before beenieo' to make. Concefitmg Cape Crif-
len,however, our voyagers might frave been le$
into a fatal error, if theyhao* too hadiry believed*
w$mt they finderdood to be the communication
of their infular friends. The canoe being to
thefe people their only mean of meafurement *
and comparifon ; they are apt to regard aoove,
tijataffords reception for but three or four ca-, as a Vad harbour, arid to reprefent a fathom
of water, as a depth aimed irameafurabfe. M.
de Vaujeas, who had; gone to verify the communication oftSe Savage's concerning Cape Crillon, ROUND THS W0&£1>.
retwied hef&re night, with a large quantity of
Salmons, and fomearticles wfrich he had* receiv-
led from the natives, in barter.    He had foundi
jttie houfes furnifhed with a comparative fumptu-f
oufuefs, and ornamented within, with large var-
nifhed veffels of Japan.      The  contiguity of
Chicha enabled thefe people to obtain articles
of Japanefe manufacture in exchange f©r their»
whale oil, mueti more readily than can theiiv
more nortfrern neighbours.     At the approach-
of evening, the iflander© left the fhips, with av
ipromife to re-vifit them next morning.    They^
returned with Some Salmons, a Sabre, and a linen*
drefs, in   exchange   for-which,   they obtained*
knives and hatcfcets.    They would gladly have
perfuaded our voyagers to double Cape Crillon,,
and enter the gulph of ANiVAV©r rather a bafir
in it, to which they gave the name of Tabouo*
A light breeze from the north-ead, enabled!
but: voyagers againjj to  fail.     Doubling  Caper
Crillon, they perceived from the  mad-head, a
rock, or iflet, about four league* S. E. from the
roeky point of the  cape; and diftinguifhed itfc
by the name of La Dangerelusb.    It is level!
with the furftee of the water, and may proba^-
BIy be covered iwfren the tide is at its height.
Whey fieered to thei leeward of this  rock* amlfe
went round it, at a league's didance«#They&;
Had,.at this diftance, regular foundings in. twenty three-fathoms-deplh of waters   Thei^. progrefs now croffed-the^ftroight between^®ika and*
ifihoka, which has very properly:* been named
La pEYROusB'e^STRELQHi^ Tfrey^oundCAPE
Aniva to be very corve&ly- placed in the maps-
of the^Dutcfr: navigators- who* formerly vifiteck LA PEYROUSE*S#OYACE
tfrefefeasv On the i£th, they were, by adron-
©mical obfervation, and by their time-keepeiSM
in N. Lat. 46 deg. 9. min. in E. Long, 142 deg^
57 min. They faw no land, and could find no
bottom- Tfre fky was, on the 16th and 17th,,
grey, and thickly obfcured by fogs. The wind
changed to the ead ; and our navigators makipg^
a tack to the fouth, had a clear view of Staten
Ifland. On the 19th, Cape Troon, to the fiipth-
ward, and Cape Uries, S. E. by E. appeared in
fight. On the 2cth, they faw Company's Ifland, and.tfrrough fogs reconnoitered the Streighfei
©f Uries.- Company's Ifland, along which they
ran, at three or four leagues of diftance,\ appeared to be barren, deditute ©f verdure, and
uninhabitable.. Some clefts in the white-co—
loured rocks, were at- fird midaken for fnow,
but afterwards more accurately didinguifhed-
To the N. E. point of this ifle, our navigators,
gave tfre name of Cape Kastricum, in honour
of tfre (hip by which it was fird difcovered. Beyond it, they could perceive three or four iflets ;.
and northward, a large channel, which feemed.
to divide Company's Ifland from the Kuriles.f
Fogs made it impoffible for them, to continue;
their courfe on tfre 2id, tfre 22d, and tfre 23 d..
On the 24th, the 25th$and 26th, the fame fogs'
dill prevailed; and our navigators were obliged-
to continue tacking- among-.thefe ifles. On the
2ath,,rhe weather cleared up ; and they-again*
difcerned the Summits of the mountains. They>
defcried Mareckan Ifle, tfre mod fouthem of
tfre Kuriles.. FromN. E> to S. W. its length is
about ten leagues. A high jutting rock terminates each of its extremities : In its middle rifes
apeak, that at a diftance, feems to contain the* R*)UNE> TJTE WQRM><
orifice of a volcano.    The northerly winds pr%g
vailing, determined our navigators to fail out b$j
the channel which lies" Southward from Marec-
|kan.    During the night they crowdedfaii^.m order to reach the entrance of the channel^^fe
day-break, tfrey deferred the foutfrwed point of
[tylareckan, dHlant at about two leagues to tfrj&
[feufch-ead.    To tfrjs point was given the name
[of Cape Rollinv in honour of M. Rollin, the
furgeon of the expedition.    They were left, for
fome fhort time, in a dead calm.    Bur^ the current fortunately drove them towards the middle
of the channel; and they advanced, in this way>-
about four leagues eadward.    The breadth of
the channel, they certainly found  to be about
[fifteen leagues.    The winds at lad fettled a&
E. N. E. and they entered the channel by cleans
moon light.    It was named by them Canal de.
la Boussole ; and they thought it to be tfrei
fined that was to be found among the Kurile
Ifles.    At midnight, the fky was again obfeiired
ot clouds ; anckthe next morning,was veiled in.
kfrick fogs.    At fix in the  evening, wfrile tfe$}
fogs (till  continued,  they tacked towards the
[land.    The fogs  were dill thick.      Jjfcwards
[midnight, the Shifting of the wind to the W. enabled the French frigates to dand to tfre eaft-
[ward, while they waited for the retur^of morn-;
ling.    The fun was twice vifible   dlging; tfre
morning^The fogs then returned wiffe;equal
khicknefs as in the preceding day.    M. de la
PeyrouSe, in confideration that the Seafon was
far advanced, was now at lad induced to abandon the defign of exploring the northern Kur-
I ifles, and to  bend his conrfe  towards Kfcrot-
ffiihatka.   He therefore/W,E. N. E.   Till the 178
5th of September, tfre fo|s dill obfcured their
During this progrefs, they had time to compare and examine in a more particular manner,
their reSpective obfervations concerning the natural hidory ©S the new lands which they had*
Vifited, and the date of focietv in thern^ The
feas of Tartary which they expl©red, though the
limits of tfre olded  inhabited  continent,  had/
been utterly unknown to Europeans.    The Je-
Suits could never communicate any decifive information  concerning  the eadern  part of the
Chinefe empire.    Such of them as travelled into
Tartary, were never permitted to approach the
fea-fhore.    The emperor always prohibited every perfon from failing to the northward of his
dominions:   And   it was fuppofed   that  this
northern region of Afia concealed riches, which
its lords were anxious to hide from the avarice of
ftrangers.    From the obfervations of the French
navigators, it has appeared, that the northern
coad of Ead Tartary is   as thinly inhabited a%-
^hat ©f North America.    Its mountains and the
i#gr of Segalien have cut it off, except  at the
fea-coad, from being explored by the Chinefe
or the Japanefe.    Its inhabitants are peculiarly didinguifhed, alike from the Mantchou Tartars, an£ from the iflanders of Jeffo, Oku-Jeff©,
and the Kuriles.    The river of Segalien is the
general receptacle  of its waters.    The whole-
number of the  people  inhabiting in the tract
from the 42 deg.  of North latitude, as far as to'
the Baie de Cafiries, would certainly be over-rated at three millions.    The river of Segalien
not far removed beyond this  bay, is   the only
channel of paffage to the interior commerce of -ROUND THE WORL&.
theipountry*^ The inhabitants of Jeffo and Oku-
Jeffo, are all well acquainted with the exiftence
of the river of Segalien.     The adventures of
commerce, however, advance up  it,   but for
eight or ten days journey.^The raarfhps which
Surround the mouth of the river, probably e|£
elude the Tartars with their flocks, from all residence near it.    The ancient narratives of the
Jcfuits, have reprefented this coad as the fcene
of a pearl-fiftiery :, But  the French  navigators
did not any where  find pearls of fuch beauty,
or in fuch numbers in the fhells of the oyfters
which they dragged up, as that they could determine any thing concerning the reality of that
i piece of information.    No permanently inhabited villages were feen on the coai\ Bears, hinds,
fawns, were perceived feeding in a tranquility,
that fhewed thefe Scenes to be little frequented
by mankind, on the coad of the Baie deTernaie.
A tomb, with the remains of fome . burnt trees,
were the only things indicating this region to be,
at  all, the   refort of human inhabitants.    The
Baie de Suffrein was equally defolate.    Nor did
the whole population of the Baie de Cajlries appear to exceed five and twenty or thirty gerfons.
LFimt, chalcedony, calcareous fpar, zeolite, porphyry, feveral beautiful cry dais and incruftations
of volcanic origin, with a diverfity of other mat-
ters^iuch as are often found amid the lavas of
extinguished volcanoes;  but no metallic  Sub-
dances ; were  found  ©n  thefe coafts by the
mineralogifts attendant on the French voyage.
Tchoka or Oku-Jeffo, prefents a coaft ftill more
fertile in vegetation than the oppofite continent
of Tartary ; Yet,  the vegetable kingdom fugi;
fifties but a comparatively fmall proportion of
*a iBo
ttie fubfiftence of its inhabitants, only the roots
of faranna and of garlic.    Even hunting feemsl
to yield but an inconfiderafrle part o#rfreit provisions : jg^heir dogs refnfed flefli, but deveiteed
fifh with the moft voracious eagernefs.    *ilid
fkins of elks arid bears, forming a part of the
tlrefs of thefe people, feernto befpeak, that they
are wont to kill thefe animals in the chace.    It
is, pr©bafrly, in winter alone, that they attack
them with their arrows,- when the animals are
tfre moft feeble and frelplefs.    They are Tike-
wife wont to take them by Snares, into which thd
^animal is'enticed by a bait, in catching at -which
lie moves a trigger by which an arrow is discharged, that  gives  him  his death's wound.    The
efflanders appeared proud of tfre fears which they
«frad received in combating with bears.    Theiri
canoes were hollowed trunks of tfre fir-tree,
•and appeared capable of containing feven   or
ieight perfons.    Thefe "Sender veffels rowed with
very light oars, are employed by their poffeflbrs
in  voyages to  the  diftance  of two hundred
leagues, from the Southern extremities of Jeflb |
and Oku-Jenb^as far as to the river of Segalien,
in 33 deg. N. Lat.    The winds, flowing the
"direction^f the channel, produce no fttff upon
ithc,-*fiiore; in consequence of wfuchyli becomes
. eafy to land in arFtfre creeks : and the canoes,
Sit their long voyages, are every evening run a-
~ground,    Croffing from "one ifland to another,
^tfrey feiie always the feafon of a perfect calm.
■ ?£kt other times, their progrefs is always within
W^diftance of a piftol-ioot from the land.    Sal-
ifiiOns, to be caught at the mouth of every rivulet, Afford them fublidence: They ere£t cabins
-wierever tfrey flop,  ftrike fire with  a fteel, ItOU&D THE WORLD,
-Stilt, and tindeji and drefs -ti|eir provifibns according to   their   ordinary domeftic  practice*!
Sometimes, they form witK a.fpuple of oars and
a garment, a fort of rude mait and fail.  Vew.
Small canoes, fuch as contain not more than two
risen, are Ufed for fifhing  in  the Small rivers,
and are pufhed about in (hallow water, with
■rmali (licks inftead of poles.    The manners on
the coad of Tartary, are very nearly the fame as
|iri Tchoka; but, the French voyagers t|i|)ught>
the^ could perceive the exiftence of X difllmction
|t>f ranks among  the  iflanders, which did not
meet their observation on the continent.    There
|'<was, in every one of-the Canoes of the iflanders',
one man with whom the reft  did not eat nor
i cOnverfe, and wh©£ if not a flave, was certainly
| Inferior to the red in rank.    The commerce of
their whale oil, and the frequency of their inter-
courfe with the Japanefe, have conferred on the
people   of Jeffo and   Oku-Jeffo,   an opulence
Lw3neh does not appear among the Bitchys at&l
the  Orotchys.—Images were   Seen Sufpended
from the rOofs of the huts, ifi-the 'M'aies de Cafi-.
-ries, and de Criilon.    At the Baie de Crillon, the
chief of a canoe, receiving a bottle of brandy
from M. de la Peyroufe, poured fome  drops
from feinto the fea, as a libation to the  deity
• 'whom he wor (hipped, before he would, himfelf,
[■pre fume to tafte it.Mft is not likely, that  the
L&ropeans will ever be tempted to frequence thefe
-Season account of thofe fmall quantities of fkins,
! dried fifties, and whale-oil, which alone they afford  fdr commerce.     The French navigators
humanely declined the purchafe of the dried
Salmons which the people of the% coafts had
^ovided for their winter provifions, left, parting
' 18.2
,A peyrouse's voyage
with thefe, the good folks might be Jjjjduced toA
perifh by famine, amid the dorms of winter^ No
Sea-otters were here t<a be feen ; nor did the
natives appear to have any particular knowledge
©f the exiftence of fuch an animal, or of the value of furs. jThe fea-otter is indeed moft probably to be found only in the eaftern part of the
northern Kuriles. Peak de Langle, being more
than twelve hundred toifes in height, and in clear
weather,vifible at the diftance of 4oleagues,isan
excellent land-mark for the fouthern coaft of the
newly difcovered channel of Tartary. The Ruffians, though not the difcoverers of this channel
and its adjacent ifles, are likely to profit the moft
by the difcovery; for they will, hereafter, in all
probability, carry on a great navigation in the
Sea of Ochotsk, and eftablifh art, Science, and
an abundant, civilized, population, in thefe regions, of which the folitude is, at prefent,
Scarcely enlivened by a Sew hordes of wandering
Tartars.. It is impoffible now to afcertain by
what progrefs thefe northern extremities of the
Afiatic coafts received their population. But it
may eafily be conceived, that when the adjacent
continent was once peopled, fome of thofe innumerable accidents to which the fortunes of mankind are fubject, could not fail to diffufe a few
fugitives or adventurers, even into regions fo re-
-mote and comfortlefe. The following is the moft
ample vocabulary of the language of the ifland ©f
Tchoka, which the French navigators were, du-;
ring their (hort flay on the coaft, able to collect.
Tjheir pronunciation is guttural, yet foft, refem*
blkig that of perfons who have the defeat in articulation,, of fpeaking thick. round the world.
Tke principal Parts of the human Body
Chap a,
Tap in ehin,
Tchouai pompe
Khouaime pompe,
Kmoche kia pompe%
Obfia pompe
Para pomp})
Am be,
Tongue a
Ears j
Nape of the neck
Shoulder j
Arms p||-
Wrid. 'Si ., i
Hand and fingers
Fore finger
Middle finger
Fourth finger^
Little finger
Fore  and upper parts
of the bread
Privateparts of the man
Private parts of a woman
Buttocks   I
m 18*4
♦ Aimaitfi,
Kama pompe am,
laf/bu pompeam,,
Tqff&u ha pompeam.f
Ham or bend of the
Calf of the leg
Upper part of the foot
Sole of the feet
Second toe
Middle toe
Fourth, and the little
Names of a Diverfity of Other objeBs.
^/z,or Kahamh A (hip
The great ifland which they
Another lefs general name
for the fame ifle
An ifland or people, fouth,
from Tchoka
A people of Tartary, dwel-;
ling on the river Segalien,
N. W. from Tchoka
The fea
A canoe
A thole of a canoe
Oars or paddles
A fmall veffel with a hanJ
die,  which  is  made  of
birch-bark, and is uSed in
drinking, and in empty-
the canoes of water *
■ fcoutfrj f#E nfd&i'b*
Matfrainitfi  and
A Wooden 'Scoop or (hovel*
Sor emptying the canoes
of water
A very   long, ftrorig,  yet
narrow   leathern    draj?,
ufed in fadening canoes
The bench of a'canoe
An iron hatchet, imported
by the Mantchou Tartars
A great lance of tempered
iron, likewife imported by
the Mantchou Tartars
A bow |||
Common arrows tipped withf
iron, Smooth or barbed.
M. T. ||
Forked arrows, tipped withs
iron.    M. T.
Blunt wooden arrows.
A large cutlaSs.     M. T.
A Small knife in a (heathy
which hangs Srom a leathern girdle round the body/*
m. t. m
A name Sor a French kniSe
in a fheatfr &   y|
A large thumb-ring oS iron,
lead, wood, or the Sea--
cow's tooth |p||
A Sewing needle
A cravat or handkerchief
A hat or bonnet
The (kin of the Sea-calf^
||f made into a long,, looSe
A looSe great coat, very fkil-
fully made of the bark of
the birch tree
A large great-coat of dog-
A coarfe duff (hirt, orna-'
merited with an edging of
i>mall, round-headed, waift-
coat buttons of brafs M.
Bufkins  of (kin, Sewed tot
OchfsPi                ■<
the (hoes
Shoes in   the  Chinefe \ fa
shion, terminating in a
point, which bends up
A leathern bag, with four
twitted horns, which is.
\ '.'; ! 1
hung as a pouch, at the
Ear-rings,  cenfifting. each,, v
commonly of fix of eight
blue beads.   M. T.
Single blue beads.   Blue is
the favourite colour of all..
thefe people
A large and ftrong matj on
whicll they fit or lie down
to flecp
A Screen in the fhape of a
fan,, which the old men,
wear to protect their cjfl^
from...the fun
The fire
A dog
-41 ROU N I> T Wk W0&L%g
warn    M
\ Nioupouri,:
Hourara, haun&&
Tebairouha^ f|||
m wmL •.■'
£h feheeM*
Pech KoutQU)
A muftet
, A bucket for drawing water,
fhaped like oursj^litmade
©f the bark of the birch
Fre>(h, water
Small cord
A latge wooden fpooatv •
Adoeoper kettle. M, T ?
A rod or pole
A hut ©r houfe
The h©ufe, the hamlets^
Thj& plain on which ftand&
the hamlet or is^tge
A river running acrofs the
plain m
The firmament?
Thj&eiouds        M
The wind
The cold
The. feaSon of fnow,. winter-
Ac done-
Wood, the trunk fofta tree
Plank or fir
Bark of rough birch-trees, in
large pieces
Mofs,,a .plant
Pailures, meadows
Smallage,wild celery
Theawilt^roSe-1 ree
athe dog-role, or bloffom of
the roSe-tree
A Sort of tulip
The plant angelica
mm Tftta,
ffe, hi%
flouaka, '
Ta~fi,   J|
^ap, Taper
A bird, the finging of a birp
SJkA bird's feather
The jack daw
A fmall common Swallow
A gull
A common fly
The common kima cockle
The mother-of-pearl oyder
Fifties   in   general,  alfo  a
Species of barbel
A variety of the carp
A fifh bone
The   roes,  eggs,  and  aij9
bladder  of nfhes, which
are broiled and preferved
in heaps
A Jew common Words*
;iYes >jiii   "'■ '
That cannot be, I will not
Who I   what ?   what is \$M
This, that
Come hither
To eat
To drink
To lie down, to Snore-'
To fleep
■   v   '" V  One   ■   ~ '
Toubi Schampe,
Tchinchi Schampe,
Tchinobi kaffma.
Toubi kaffma,
Tohel kaffma,
Ynebi kaffma,,
Afchnebi kajfmay    vjifL
Thambi kaffma,
Arouambi kaffma,
Touhi fchampg kaffma,
Tchlnebi fehampi kaffma,
Houampebi kajfr^q^
Houampebikqffma tchi/iee ho,
ITne houampe touch-ho,
Afehne houampe taich ho, ^
Tou afcbns houampe ta'whho.
An hundred
Thefe iflanders were not obferved either to
dance or fing. But with a Sort of mufical e^.
ftrument formed of a, jft;|lk ©^celery or euphoifc
biam, they were heaj;4 to p^yi?fora.e ptaintiveb,
wild notes, refemb^ng the: fofter tones of a
[ trumpet.     [jjgjj|
Amidft this recolleipion of thefe novel ap-
l pearances, in the varied con^ipn ©f Social life,
I j^iich^had been prefen,ted to their ©kfervation
Ion the eaftern coafts of Tartary; the Frenejr
I navigators advanced on their voyage towards
Kamtfchatka. At Six ©.'dock in the evening
of the 5 th of September, they were in fight of
the Kamtfcatkan coaft. The mountains which
they firft obferved, were thofe of the volcano
northward from St. Peter   and  S t. Paul.    Thd
afpect of the whole coaft was hideous.    Nougni
met the eye, but rocks, on which, even in the]
beginning of September,  the Snows  as ye| remained unthawed.    On the day following, thei
weather continued  clear.    Ihey ftood  to the
northward : and, at the bafes of the mountains
crowned with eternal ice, Saw a ground richly
carpeted witftlivcly verdure, and fhaded by tufts
and thicket's of trees.   In the evening of the 6th,
they reached' the entrance of the bay of Avatf-I
cha, or St. Peter and St. Paul.    The fire in the|
Ruffian light-houfe upon the eaftern point of the|
bay, being (heltered from the winds only by four
boards, could not be kept burning during the
night,wOur voyagers,  therefore,  delayed entering the bay, tilljthe hour of two  o'clock  in
the afternoon of the fpliowing day, which was
the 7th of September.* tithe governor came out
in his canoe, for tile fpace of five leagues, to
meet them. y|; From him they learned, that their
arrival had long been  expected ; and that tjie|
governor-general of all Kamtfchatka had letters
For them, and was expected to arrive within
five days, at the Settlement of St. Peter and St.
Paul.    Scarcely had our navigators come to anchor at the bottom of the bay, when the vicar of
Paratounka, with his wife and children, already
celebrated as the kind acquaintance of the illufri
trious Cook, were feen-Jt©  tome  eagerly on
CH A P.  X.
YNarrative of the Voyage continued, from the "jth-
of September to the if of Oclober, 1.787;   Tranf-
aclions in the Bay of Avatfcha :  Short Account
of Kamtfchatka : Departure upon a Southern
J[_jRE the French voyagers could enter the
fltation at which they intended that the frigates
fhould be, during their flay in this harbour ; the
\toyon, or native chief of the village, with feveral
pthers of its inhabitants, came out to vifit them.
Offers of fuch prefents,as thefe good people had
|p beftow, and of fuch fervices as they were qualified to" perform,  were warmly made by them,
fend were accepted by the French navigators.
Mufkets were lent, and powder and (hot were
iupplied to thofe friendly natives ;   and  the
French obtained from their cares, abundance of
Ivild fowl, during the whole timecf their (lay in
the harbour.    Lieutenant Kaborof, governor of
[he harbour of St. Peter and St. Paul, and com-
joriander of a  military force of a ferjeant and
lortvCoffacks. which were there (tationed; was
[inwearied in his kind  attention to  the (tranters ; nor were his foldiers flow to imitate bis
benevolent example.    This gentleman inftantly
Iropofed to fend a meffenger to Mr. Cafloff Ou-
forenin governor-general of Okhotfk and Kamtf-
fchatka, who was then at BoJcheretfk, with whatever difpatches M. de la Peyroufe fhould wifh
o be fo forwarded.    M. de Lefleps, a compan-
fon of the French voyage, acted as interpreter
between the French and the Ruffians ; and was
now employed to write a RtBIian letter, in thfc
name of M.'de la Peyroufe, to Mr. Kail off.    M.
de la Pevroufe, at the Same time, wrote to the"
feme gentleman is, French.    The Coffack meS-
Senger was inftantly difpatched, as the bearer of
thefe letters.    In the  mean time, our voyagers
were entertained with every poffible attention
of honourable hofpitality by. M. Kaborof, an&
the other inhabitants of St. Peter and St. PauL
Mrs. Kaborof,'the lieutenant's lady,  was ever
ready to otter them tea, and all fuch other re-
ffefhments as the country commonly afforded-.
Nor could Meffrs. de la Peyroufe and de Langle
^avoid accepting, from her generofity, a few* valuable fkins of fables, rein dear, and foxes.    Ev-
ety one, indeed, was ambitious to make them
prefents. Wt3iir navigators, however, failed not,
amply toCompenfate the kindnefs of their holts,
by prefents adapted to  be very Serviceable in.
that climate.     For the accommodation   of the
aftronomers ©f the voyage, the moft convenient
houfe in the village was, at the fird hint of re-
crueft, appropriated, with the greated ^alacrity,
by Mr. Kaborof.    Guards and guides were fent
to accompany  the naturalids  in  their excursions to explore the interior country.    Meffrs.-;
Bbrnizet, Monges, and Receveur, thus accompanied, went to vifit a volcano, the  fmoke of
which, and fometimes the flame, were feen from
the harbour Of AvatSsha.    Their guides, believing that, in any attempt to afcend the volcanic
mountain, human beings mud Unavoidably per*
i(h amid the fmoke, would attend the Frenchmen only to the bafe oS that mountain ; and it
was under this exprejs condition they Set out.
In a fored, at fix leagues diftance ftoftithe v41* .-RQ&KD THE WORLD.
flage, was their firft halt for red^i The intermediate territory was irregularly overfpread with
birches, pines, and ©ther trees or flsrubs.    Ber-
]ries of various forts, and of every different (hade
|©f black  and red, offered an agreeable refrefh-
Jment to the travellers, on their way.    At fun-
[fetjthc tent was pitched, and afire kindled with
jgreat quicknefe, and with the utmod attention
to prevent the fire from communicating itfelf to
the (unrounding trees.    In the morning, the party again proceeded.     The guides, according to
[ their agreement, dopped at the foot of the vol-
jcanic mountain, at the line beyond which vegetation* ceafed to afcend.    Here they arrived not
Ifooner than.three o'clock in the afternoon of the
fecond day of their expedition.    Having repofed
themfelves, duringthe night, the -French gentlemen, on the morning of the third day, aScended,
alone, towards the volcanic crater.    The mountain appeared to be compofed lavas, varying only in denfity or porofity.    On the Summit were
[found gypfeous dones, with Sulphur in crydals^
[lefs beautiful than thoSc ©f the peak ©f Tene-
priffe.    The fhorls, and other dones, were in general lefs beautiful, than thofe fpecimensof the
lame which are found near ancient volcanoes.
I Among   others  which the  French naturalifts
■brought back, were fome tolerably good fpeci-
|mens of the cryfolite.    The horizon on the fum-
Imit of the mountain was not more than a muf-
ket-lkot in diamater ; Save that once, it opened
and dHeovered to them the bay of Avatfcha*
hwith \%e frigates diminifhed to the eye, by distance, to the fize of fmall canoes.   On the edge
of the crater, the mercury in the barometer fub-
I'fided to nineteen inches, eleven lines, and two
in 194
tenths of a line; while in the barometefc on
borad the frigates, it dood at twenty-feven inches, nine lines, and two tenths of a line. On
the fummit of the volcanic mountain, the mercury in the thermometer was two degrees and a
half under the freezing point : but at the water-
fide, there was a difference oS no leSs than twelve
degrees from this temperature. To calculate
the elevation of the mountain, therefore, from
the indications of the barometer, it fhould feem
to be more than fifteen hundred toifes above the
level of the fea. Fogs unfortunately frudrated
the views of the French naturalifts, who had af-
cended fo far to examine the volcanic crater.
Returning to their tents below, they found that
their guides had already confidered them as perfons who had thrown their lives away ; had faid
prayers for the reft of their departed Spirits ;
and had drank a part of the brandy which was
left under their care. The enfuing night was
diftinguifhed by an exeeflive fall of fnow, in
confequence of which every idea of more particularly exploring the limits of the volcano, was
abandoned ; and the naturalids, with their
guides, returned in all poffible hade to the village. The calks were, in the mean time, filled
with water ; and the holds of the frigates, with
wood, and with hay for the tame animals which
our voyagers expected here to receive from the
governor-general. Of all their own live flock,
they had but one (heep now furviving. Unluckily the Kamptfchatkans have been hkherto
extremely negligent in regard to the multiplication of tame cattle among them ; although there
is fuch a luxuriance of grafs, in the louthem
part of this peninfula, that, with the care of ROUND THE WORLD.
building barns for the reception of hay, and cow-
houfes for the lodging of the cattle themfelves,
during tfcuf months of winter, cattle might foon
be rendered as plentiful here as even in Ireland.
But, the chace of the wild animals, and the caj&-
• tureof the frlmons, which, in immenfe profu-
fion, enter their rivers, appear to them, far eafi-
er means of procuring fubfiftence.   The Ruffian
and Coffack foldiers follow the example of the
native   Kamtfchatkans.     Only  the  lieutenant,
and the fergeant had fmall gardens filled wfth.
turnips and potatoes.  * The reft are content with
the roots of  wild plants, and with the  berries,
from which they prepare conferveo? fweetmeMs
and agreeable drinks for the ufe of winter,    "(Be
French voyagers were pleafed to have it in their
power to fupply  their kind entertainers with a
good quantity of the  feeds of  fome  of  the
moft valuable  European  pot-herbs.     In their
hunting  excurfions through  the  country, the
ftrangers  looked eagerly  for bears,  deer, and
argali; but could find neither beads nor birds
of game, except  a few   ducks, or rather teal.
The friendly Kamtfchadales, however brought
them, during  their  day, four bears, an elk, a
rein-deer, with  a large quantity of divers and
other wild fowls.    Abundance of falmons, herrings, fmall cod, and plaice, were, at all  times,
and with the utmod eafe, t© be taken in the bay„
A few barrels were falted for future ufe.    M..
Kafloff at length  arrived ; bringing with him
various fpecimens, particularly of the mineralogy Of the  country,  for the infpection of the
French naturalifts.    His  ad.trefs and manners
were thofe of a polite, accomplifhed, European
gentleman.     On the day after hia arrival,j he,
with Mr. Schmaleff, commander of the Kamtf£-I
ehadales, and the good   vicar of Paratouuka,
dined with M. de la Peyroufe,©n board La Bouffole.    He was received, as he came on board,
with a Salute of 13 guns.    He brought no lette|sj
for our navigators.     He  greatly regretted his
inability to Supply them, before the time of their
intended departure, with more than feven hea§U.j
©f black cattle.    On the day following he dined
©n board L'Adrolabe, where he was received
with the fame honours.    Pie would accept no
payment for the oxen which he brought.     On
the day following, he entertained them on fhore*
at a ball, to which all the women of the village,
both Kamtfehadales and Ruffians, were invited
to meet them.    The dames, both Kamtfchadale
and Ruffian, were dreffed in filk-duffs, and wore,
in particular, filk handkerchiefs bound  round
their heads.   The Ruffian dances were accompanied with very pleafing tunes.   The dances
of   the Kamtfehadales    refembled the writh-
ijigs of perfons  differing  under  convulfions.
A fort oS mournSul cry, with difficulty elicited
from the breaits oS the performers, is the only
mufic with which thefe dances are accompanied.
In the midft of the ball, arrived a carrier from
Ochotfk, the bearer of a large trunk, containing
packets of letters for the flrangers.     The ball
was interrupted.    The Frenchmen were delighted with the news which they received.     M. de
3a Peyroufe, in particular, was pleaSed to, find
himfelf promoted to the rank oS Commodore.
Mr. Kafloff eagerly congratulated him upon his
new honours; and kindly celebrated the event,
by a  diicharge of all his artillery.    Provisions
were furnifhed to cur voyagers during thejr day ROUND TH'E WORMS*.
in the harbour, by the joint exertions of all the£
people of the village.    A Kamtfchadale fledge,-
jjp© royal eagles, and a greats-umber of fable-
ikins, were among the prefents which the gene-
rofi^ of Mr. Kafloff would oblige the French
commanders to accept.    The narrative of Cook's
third voyage, was almoft the only thing of value, which his grateful guefts could prevail with
him to accept  in return for; fo many favours.
The unfortunate Ivafchkin, mentioned by Cook
with refpectful companion  for diftreffes, was
dill a reiident in Kamtfchatka.   When a youth
under the age of twenty, he happened to utter,
In the imprudent  gaiety of a convivial  party
flufhed with liquor, fome expreffioos difrefpect-
ful to Elizabeth the then reigning Emprefs*t>£
Ruffra.     For  this trivial  indifcretion,   all his*
fubfequent life was to be configned to ignominy'
and wretchednefs^ He was the fbn of a noble
family, an officer in the guards, very handfome
in his face and perfon.    His noftrils were flit ;.
the Severe corporal punifliment m the knout was
inflicted upon him ;   and he was baniflied for
Tife, to the diftant extremities of Kamtfchatka.
'After more than fifty yearsfof exile, he obtained,
not   many  years  fince,   a  pardon-  from the
•Emprefs   Catharine.     But it came  too; late.
"He  chofe rather  to  continue   in: the  fhowy
defarts in which he had pined out alf*J4#$etter
years, than to; return to a fcene where h#mould
no longer find a friend, and which would'renew
:the painful remembrance of his youthful indiscretion, and of theunjuft corporal differing .atft£
-difgrace with which it had been puntlhed;    He
'Sad been educated at Paris ; and itill knew as-
much French, as made him not incapable o£:
mm   - r^ i§i
i A peyrouse's vqyagi
converfation with the French gentlemen.    Yer^t
fhame for the ignominy to which he had been
unjuftly fubjected, made him for fome days ajfte&f
his arrival with Mr. Kafloff, to hide himfelf from
their prefence.     Mr. Cafloff, who treated bina^
with a kindnefe thatvfias highly adapted to Sooth
his mjnd under hisyforrows, prevailed with hhr?,a
at lad, to fhew himfelf to the French.    Thea
obliging attention of 3Vf. de la Peyroufe, rendered him fond of their Society.    He received, with
the warmeft gratitude, thofe prefents whi^i they
eagerly beftowed, to fofien, as much as poffible,
thehardfhips of his condition.    He pointed out,
to them the grave of M. de Ja Croyere, a Mem*
\S of the Royal Academy of Sciences, whq, on
his returnfrom a Ruffian expedition to explore
the coaft of America, in which he had engaged
as aftronomer and geographer, died here, in the
year 174-flt   They placed over the grave of their
fellow-countryman, an  infcription on copper,
commemorating his character and  his deaths
Over the grave of t%$ Englifh navigator, Clarke,
they likewife erected a fimila* infcription on a
plate of copper; as mat with which he had been,
honoured by his fellow voyagers, was only inscribed with a pencil on a piece of wood.     Mm
Kafloff promJJed to erect, without delay, a monument lefs peri(hable,and which fhould be more:
worthy of. two fuch illuftrious men.    M. de la-,
Croyere had married at Tobolfk ; and his po£*
terity ftilrrefide ^e^e, in a fituation ©f comfort
and refpect.
Mr. Kafloff wa^familiarly acquainted with all
the particulars of the voyages of Behricg, and
Tchirikow. |Thefe formed the fuijects of frequent converfation between Him and his French
guefts. He theoce took oceafi'on to inform them, JlOUNfr THE WORLD.
t^affce had left Mr. Billings at Okhotfk, building two veffels for the further profecution of the
Ruffian difcoveries in the northern feas. But
there were difficulties to be furmounted, which
would itill too long retard the expedition of Billings. Mr. Kafloff was of ^inion,lhat it might
have been better for the Ruffian government^
to have fent him out from\f©me port of the
Our navigators were permitted to take a plan
©f the bay of Avatfcha. They prefented to Mr,
Kafloff, an elegantly finifhed drawing of it. A
drawing of the Oftrog, and a box of acids for
the analyfis of mineral waters, were, alfo, among
their.prefents to him. He was not unfkilled iri;
the Sciences of chemiftryand mineralogy. But
his fird attentions were given to the improv&V
Hient of thofe arts, which were to furnifh to tjjp;
people of his government, the immediate nece||^
Sariesof Subfidence^^The foil promifes to produce, if not wheat, at lead abundant crops of
rye and barley^Potatoes, but a few years fince;
introduced from Irkoutfk, were feen to thrive
iurprifingJy in feveral fields. Mr. Kofloff hatf*
determined to adopt mild, ^yet vigorous means,
for obliging all the inhabitants of this territory,
Ruffians, Coffacks, and Kamtfehadales, to turn
[ their, attention to agriculture. A new, mixed
race is arifing Srom the Srequent interrnai riages
of Ruffians with KamtSchadafes. TheSe are
Hktly to prove more laborious than the Ruffians,
leSs uncouth in form than the Kamtfchadftles,
The fma^Ppox in the year 1769, Swept away
three fourths of the lattet; reducing thepnum*.
ber to fewer than fouTr thoufand. The new people, who are Springing up, are liUely to^proye
more SuScepible of civilization than their ance£
tors.     Already  have  they  begun to  abandon
theirSubterraneousyourts,and to build forthem-
* Selves ifbas, or wooden houfes, in the manner of
the  Ruffians.    Thefe ifbas, referable the cottages of the peafants^i the middle and the foufh
of Europe ; are warmed to an exceffive heat,'by
a brick-ttove ; and are divided into three Small
rooms.     Thofe who do not   yet  poffefs ifbas.
Spend the winter in  balagans, which  dand like
pigeon-houfes, on the  top of pods,  twelve or
thirteen feet high ; are covered with thatching ;
and are entered by ladders which afford no very
Secure footing^The Kamtfchadale women already drefs almod entirely In the manner of the
Ruffians.   _The Ruffian language prevafiY in ad
the Ofirogs.    The Ruffian government, although
defpotic, is  here adminidered with the greated
mildnefs.    The  taxes which they  levy on tMei
Kamtfehadales, are fo light, that the produce of
even half a day's hunting, is Sufficient to defray
the tax for a whole year.    The quantity of fpe-s
eie in circulation among thefe people, is, in proportion to their numbers, far from inconfidera-
ble.    Their  furs bring a very high priced An
©tter-fkin is worth  30 roubles at the village of
St. Peter and St- Paul;, (kins of black-foxes, being extremely rare, are fold for more than 120
roubles, each.     The (kins of the white and the
grey fox, vary from 2 to 20 roubles.    To open
a traffic for thefe fkins, the Englifh, fn the year
1786, fent a fmall veffel  to Kamt&hatka, vthe
property of a commercial houfe in Bengal, and
commanded  by a captain- Peterjg Mr. Kafloff
permitted t|e Englifh to Solicit permi&on Sor
this commercial intercourse,.in a memorial which ROUND THE WORE®.
he tranfmitted for them to the Court of Peterk
burgh. -But the very veffel which brought the
propofals, was afterwards wrecked on Copper
Ifland ; xand the defign has not been profecuted
As to climate and' productions, Kamtfchatka
may be prepared 11 the coad of Labrador, adjacent to the dreights of Belle-ifle. The.. Kamtfehadales appeared to M. de la Peyroufe, to be
the fame race of people with the inhabitants at
the Baie de Caftries. In perfonal form, the re-
femblanceis confiderable : in mildnefs and probity, there is a,perfect agreement between the
twq hordes. The bay of Avatfcha is perhaps
the fined in the world. Its entrance is narrow;
its bottom is muddy^ and affords excellent anchoring ground. On the eaftern and on the
wedern fide, it has two1 vad harbours, in which
all the (hips of both the French and the British
Navy might find fhelter. The rivers of Avat£»
cha andParatounka enter the bay, but are barred
up with fand-banks, which render them accefli-
ble only when the tide is at high water. On a
tongue of land curioufly interjected, dands the
village of St. Peter and St. Paul. Behind the
village, is a fmall port, in which three or four
veflels may very conveniently be at anchor for.
the winter. This bafon is, at its entrance, but
25 toifes wide. On its fhore Mr. Kafloff intends to make out the foundations of a new city,
Which may, one day, become the capital of
Kamtfchatka, and the centre of a great trade
with China, Japan, America, and the Phillip-
pine Ifles. A number of fmall dreams, and a
Small lake of frefh water, are near, to fupply t|e
fiew town with this articSfof primary neceffifff.. LA PEYROUSE S
Already has Mr. Kafloff iffued orders which pro-
mife to unite the other Kamtfchadale oftrogs
with that at St. Peter and St. Paul. The Kamtfehadales have been converted, without violence
or perfecution, to the Greek religion. The
prefent vicar of Paratounka is the Son of a Kamtfchadale father by a Ruffian woman. .His manner of praying and teaching has in it an expref-
fion of feeling which proves very-engaging to his
pariihioners. His wife,daughter,and fitter, were
the belt dancers among the women. He copi-
oufly fprinkled the French gentlemen with holy
water, and made them kifs the crofs which was
carried by his clerk. His ufual refidence is at
paratounka. As he had come to St. Peter and
St. Paul, only for the purpofe of vifiting our
voyagers ; his refidence there, was in a tent ;
and his altar was in the open air.| He is vicar
alfo of the Kuriles ifles, which he is wont to vifit
annually. The Ruffians number 2 r of thefe
ifles ; and, rejecting their ancient names, diftinguifhed them as No. i.No. 2. &c. From t&t
report of the vicar, the French navigators un-
derftood the ifle of Mareckan to be No. 21. of
the Ruffians. Of the 21 of the Kuriles ifles
which belong to the Ruffians, only four are, according to the account of the vicar of Paratounka, inhabited. Thefe are Nos. 1. 2. 13. 14.
Nos. 13. 14. have both the fame inhabitants—
who pafs the fummer months on No. 13. the
winter months on No. 14. The others are only vifited occafionally, for the fake of hunting
the otters and foxes,* which are their ordinary
occupants. The currents run very ftrong between thefe ifles, efpecially at the entrances^jbfe)
the different Channels.    A canoe, or, as the JJ&f*
fians name it, baidar, is the only veffel in which
the vicar of Paratounka is accuftomed to perform his annual voyages. He believes, that he
mutt, feveral times., have perifhed, had it not
been for the miraculous virtue of his caffock and
his woly water. The four inhabited ifles do not
contain, in all, above 140© perfons. The bodies
of thofe iflanders are hairy. They preferve their
beards long, and live wholly upon the produce
©f their fifhing and hunting. They are humane,
hofpitable, and docile. For thefe laft ten years,
they have been unable, in confequence of the
great diminution of the numbers of their otters,
to pay the wonte*d tribute to the Ruffian government. The Southern and independent inhabitants of the Kuriles, Sometimes bring a few of
the commodities of Japan to be exchanged for
peltries, with the people of the ifles Subject to
Before he fhould leave Kamtfchatka, M. de la
Peyroufe refolved to difpatch M. de Leffeps>
trough the Ruffian dominions, to France, with
the journals of thofe parts of his voyages, which
lie had already accomplifhed. The rapid approach of winter warned our voyagers to take
their departure from Avatfcha. On the 29th
of September, they were ready to fail out of that
harbour.#Mr. Kafloff honoured them with a
farewell vifit ; and for the laft time dined on
board. M. de Laffeps, whofe Society they could
not forego without regret, remained with Mr*
Kafloff, to carry the difpatches home to Francis
A mutual difcharge of cannon from the frigates,
and from the batteries, was amOIHg the laft for-
*nalities of the adieus between the French nayM
gators and, their kind Ruffian hods. LA PEYROUSE S VOY,
The following are the onjj other facts cott*-
cerning Kamtfchatka, which M. de la Peyroufe
has thought fit to infert in the narrative of his
voyage. This peninfula was firft difcovered by
the Ruffians, in the latter part of the 17th century. Their fird expedition againd the independence of its inhabitants, took place in the year
1696. In the year 1711, the Kamtfehadales,
for the fird time, agreed to own the Ruffian dominion, and to pay a (lender tribute of 300. (kins
©f fables, 200 (kins of red or grey foxes, with a
few otter (kins. A military force of about four
hundred foldiers, with a fuitable proportion of
officers, is permanently maintained in this country, to fupport the authority of the Ruffian government, and to collect the revenue. The form
of the government of this province has been fev-
3^1 times changed. In the year 1784, Kamts-
chatka was reduced into the condition of a province dependent on the government of Okhotfk i
4fead Okhotfk itlelf is fubject to the jurifdiction
of the fupreme civil courts of Irkoutilc. The
Oflrog, or Kamtfchadale village of Bolcheretfk,
was once the capital of Kamtfchatka, and the
refidence of a fuperior military officer. A Sergeant of the name Martinof, has now the prin*
cipal command at Balcheretfk: At the Oflrog,
or village of St. Peter and St. Paul, Lieutenant
Kaborof is the commandant: Major Ellewoff
commands at Nijenei-Kamtfchatka, or the Qf-
trog of lower Kamtfchatka : Verknei, or upper
Kamtfchatka, is under the command of Sergeant
Momayeff. TheSe Several commanders are independent of one another, and immediately re-
fponfible to the governor of Okhotfk, alone.
There refides alfo in this country, aa officer wha &OUND THE-WORLD.
pSs the title of Infpeclor of$he KamffchaMales*
and whofe duty is, to protect thefe natives from
$he oppTreffion of the military government.    His
rank isfthatof Major in the army.    From Kamr>
Schatka, the Ruffians have undertaken various
Adventures of Mercantile navigation, and have
^p$ted out different voyages of difoovery to explore the northern coaft of America.    The £^
eutian ifles ; thofe ifles eaftward frorn Kamtfchatka, which are known by the name of Oonal-
afhka ; and all the adjacent ifles lying fbuthward
||om this' peninfela ; were firft discovered by
fcuffian navigators Sailing from  Kamtfchatka.
Okhotfk is the jfcat of the mercantile Spirit and
capital, by which navigation for the |ur trade:\%..
carried on in thefe feas.     The  veffels ufually
employed in this, navigation, are from 45 to 50
feet in length, have but a Single mad, are manned by crews of 40 or 50 men each, all of whom
are at lead not lefs expert asjwmters than as fea-
'■pien.    They depart from Okhotfk in the monrj
of June, pafs ufually between the point ©f Lo-
patkaand No. 1. of the Kuriles, deer ead war^
and continue to roam about  from ifland to ifland, till they have bought or;proc«red, by their
$wn hunting, a xrumber of 3kins of otters an$.
^her animals, fu$cienjifo defray the whole er>
pence of the adventure, and to afford to the
Ifcjnerchants proprietors,   a profit of   cent, f/jjf
cent,   upon -that expence.     The Captains   of
fhefe trading veffels, receive. Orders from  the
,/governor of Okhotfk, to   oblige the natives,
•an, aU the  ifles which they vilt, to own the
dominion of the Ruffian JJniperOr.    A revenue
aofficjEr fr*ga^ntly accompanies thefe trading expeditions, to c^Mectr whatever tribute^he -9bQ«
hi lo6
♦lerstan be perfuaded to pay. It was propefed
^$o fend a miflionary, by whofe endeavours all
ihe unconverted iflanders mi£ht be brought to
embrace the chridian faith. Jn the ports %'
-w3iich they winter, the trading hunters neceflari-
ly found temporary eftablimments. But} Ruf-
fia has not yet fixed any permanent Settlement
eaftward Srom Kamtfchatka. 'Kiatcha, on the
confines between the Chinefe and the Ruffian
4omaia©ns, is the stapjle for the fale of the
Ruffian furs to the Chinefe. Furs to the amount
of #75©,ocol. Sterling a-} ear, have, till lately,
ibeen bought and Sold at that market. In the
year 1787, no Sewer that 25 veffels, manned
wflh crews ofwThich the whole number might
amcuntto i©oo men, Kamtfehadales, Ruffians,
iand Ceffacks, Sailed eaftward in qued of furs ;
to find which, they would difperfe themfelves
4jtong the American coad, from Cook's river to
Behring's iflands On their return, thefe trading
veffels Sometimes enter the bay of Avatfcha, and
then, after Some delay, proceed to Okhotfk. The
navigation of the iea of Okhotfk, later in the
year than the end of the m©nth of September,
is prohibited by a very laudable imperial decree,
on account of the winter hurricanes by which it
is infeded. The bay of Avatfcha is never 0>«M£|
up by*ce,and always affords fhelter for Chipping.
In Kamtfchatka, the winter is lefs Severe than at
Pfcterfburgh ; yet fnow and hoar-froft come on,
#iih great Severity, in Kamtfchatka, as early as
the 2©thdayof September. Againd the cold,
the Ruffian and Kamtchadale inhabitants of the
cov ntry, are protected by the thick (kins which
form theirclothing, and by th^heat of their habU
-Jftrions, jjHiich are warmed by doves to ffcetent- ROUND THE WORLD,
perature of 28 deg. or even 30 deg. above ther
freezing point.    The degree of heat which is
condaatly kept up in thefe dwellings,was indeed
fuch, that the French navigators could not endure it,   without danger of immediate fuffoca-
tion.    The ufe of the hot bath is familiar to the
people, in- this region.   In the village of St. Pe-
ter and St. Paul, were two public baths.     The
bath confifts of a very low room, in the middle
of which is  an oven, constructed without cement, and heated in the fame manner as a bakers oven.    Its- roof is arched.    It is furrounled
by rows of feats for the bathers, difpofed like:
thofe in an amphitheatre.    Water, warmed by
the fire to a boiling heat, is continually,, during
the bathing,  cad againft the roof, and is thus
inceffantly  converted  into deam ;   in  whiclv
ftate, it excites the mod prof ufe perfpiration §§|
the bathers on the feats, who are expofed to it>
action.    Preferring dogs to rein-deer, for the ufe
of drawing their fledges ; the Kamtchadales are
thus hindered from breedingjiogs, fheep, reindeer,  horfes, or oxen ; all which animals their
dogs would devour, while they are young.  Their
draught dogs are fed chiefly witfefifh, arid receive their  meals, only at the end of the day's-
journey..    By inquiring from Mr, Kafloff, the
. French voyagers learned, that the Ruffians had
indeed feen the north end of the ifland of Tchoka, from the  mouth of the  river.Amur, but
knew nothing more concerning it.     TI
lifh chart of the bay of Avatfcha, is good
1 Eng-
two banks, fituate ead and wed from the entrance into this harbour, may occafion fome
danger ; and thefe are to be avoided, only by
keeping two infulatcd rocks on the E. cozftyopm
with the light-hgufe point, and hyfhutting in with
the W. coafi, a large rock on the larboard hand.
M. Dagelet's obfervations fix the hdufe of lieutenant Kaborof in 53. deg. 1 min. N. Lat. in 156*
deg. 30 min. E. Long. The tides are'very regular. It is high water in the bay, at half £>aft$|>'
o'clock, P. M. The rife, at full and change, is
four feet. B?i       i#
' Narrative of the Voyage continued% front the entfi
of' September to the   14th of Deeetmer 1787.
Courfe from the*Bay of Avatfcha,  Southward
to'the Navigatdrs' Ifles : Anchorage at the Ifie
of Maouna'M Manners,   of  its   Inhabitants :
Ala/facre of M.  de Langle, with eleven  Per-*'
Jons of the tixro crews : Ifles of Oyolava and Pc~*
la: Inter courfe with their inhabitants :' Cocoa*
and Traitor Ifles, ||jff
HP     InII tM      ;J%-       Vlll
HE-north wind, fnifting to weft, as our*
voyagers were making their- way out of the bay
of Avatfcha, rendered-it impofliole for them to
furvey, as they had intended, the Kurile ifles, as
far as Mareckan.    Thev therefore took a courfe
!lh'tl|eir progrefs, in which they might crofs the-
parallel of 37 deg. 20 min. N. Lat. in the Longitude of 165 deg. a fituation in which geographers have placed a large, rich, and   populous -
ifle,  which the Spaniards are laid ta».have discovered in the year   1620*    At midnight, between the 14th and 15th of October, they reached the latitat)? of 3^7 deg., 20. min.    Flights of -
duck*, fowls which never fly far from land. The
weather wa^ clear.    Every degree of vigilance
was employed, yet no land was to be feem   The
ifland which was  fought, probably lies farther
Southward.    In t{ieir progrefs eaftward from its
Pireteiided-poiltion,  the French navigators ob^
ferved two Small- birds ; and, in the fame- even?;
ing, a turtle  gaffed  the fhip.J,; On the
day following, a b#;d, Smaller than an&urop^an.
wren, perched on the main-top-fail yard-arm |||§-'
and anot^sg flight of ducks paffed by.    Yet,*n^ -
J$   Si
■•fcp 2IO
jifland was, in thefe latitudes, (Jifcovered.
'Jhaps M. de la Peyroufe might have been more
Succefsful, if he had chofen rather to run down
the parallel oS latitude 36" deg. 30 min. A
Seaman unfortunately Sell overboard from the
Aftrolabe, and was loft, during this Search. X)n
the 18th and 19th, figns oS the near vicinity of
land ftill continued to be obServed. But when
they reached 173 deg. of E. Long, all fuch figns
On the 22d, at no©n, M. de la Feyfoufe, a-
bandoning this fearch, directed the Srigates to
sffurhea Southerly courSe.^The •'billows^relied
ib high, and rolled with So much violence; that*
at one time, in the courfe of this day, the jolly*
hat though lafhed to the gangway, was warned
off, and mote than twenty tons ©f water were
a*^ 4
f#own on board. Frequent figns of the vicinity of land, but nothing more, were feen. The
French navigators were now, therefore, to look
for their next discoveries in that vaft deld, oF
from 13 deg. to 15 deg. from north to fouth,
and of 140 deg. from eaft to weft ; where the
ancient tracks of Quiros, Mendana, Tafman^
&c. are, in every direction, eroded by thofe of
modern navigators, and where ifles are Scattered*
in the ocean, juft as (tars in the milky-way ©f
heaven. On the 23d of October, there blew
from the Southward a ftrong gale, by wmch the
frigates were not a little difturbed in their courfe.
Until they reached the 30th parallel oflatitude,
on theX;2Qth of October, the winds were extremely incondant, and the fea was always very
much agifaled. A paftage So fudden, from the
extreme of heat to that oS cold, did not fail to
affpi^rather unfavourably, the Iiealth of mod ROUND THE WORL&.
of the perfons on board both the frigates.    But
the diforders thus ©ccafioned, were flight, and
were not followed by any few&us ill consequences.     On the   id of November they   found
themfelyes in 26 deg. 27 min. N. Lat. in  175,
deg. 38 min. E. Long.    Curlieus, plovers, and
other birds which are not wont to venture, in
their flights, to any  great diftance Srom land,
were feen hovering,  in great numbers, round
them.    The weather was diftinguifhe&byafog-
ginefs of the atmofphere, and by  frequent and"
violent blads of wind.    Yet, the horizon clearing up in all quarters, except towards the fouth 5
the probability of the exiftence of land in * that;
quarter, was, hence, naturally fuggeded.     Perhaps, ^hey might pafs fome flat rock that efca-
"ped their observation, and wfiich future navigators may;a§*%ngth detect.    The indications of
land ceafed, as  our  voyagers continued their
progrefs.    Tflie (ky became at length So Serene,
that they could dntfcthe longitude, by lunar observation.    Several doradoes, and two (harks,;
whaefcthey now caught, formed a very agreea<*
4>le regale amidd the falted difhes, to me ufe of
which, under a burning fun, they found it not
•at all pleafant to be confined.
At length they reached  the tropic,   fairer
ikies and a wider horizon now. gratified their
Birds, fudi as  never wander far from
'land, were every day feen by them; yet ftill
efought but the waters expanded around. Oft
^he 4th of N©vember, m 23 deg. 40 min. N.
*Lat. in 175 deg. 48 ^a» 47 fee. W. Longitude,
they caught a golden plover, which was fo fat,
ft could not have been long diftant from land.
Qn the 5 th they eroded their  own ttack from LA PEYHOUSE'sgOYAGE
Monterey.    QAthe6th they croffed the traclc^f
-Ijlaptain Clarke from the Sandwich Iflesto Kamtfchatka.    The billows Swelling high, made^their
progrefs fufficiently difficult, J A-few flying fifties were the only creatures of the fifh-genus,
which, caise in their way.    On  the 9th,  they
paffed the fouthern point of the SHCiL or fiat of
Villa Lobos, according to the pofition aligned
to it in the charts of M. de Fleurieu. § But, appearances led M. de la Peyroufe to believe, that
if £u£h a fliqal exift, its fituation mud be farther j
weft ward.    The fea became graduall^jOmoother,.j
and the winds lefs violent.    From   the time at
which the frigates reached the  10   deg. of N.
Latitude, it rained almoft inceilantly during the
.day.    The hygrometer.,had, at  no time fince;
their departure from Europe, indicated the pre-
fence of a larger proportion of moifture,,in the
atmofphere.    The noxious opprefiivenefs of the
air, joined to the bad quality of their pr©v4fio#is,
were found to relax the ftrengfch and-impair the
health of the. fhips'  companies^   Ta obviate
thefe evils as much as poffible, 3Y£ del a. Peyroufe ordered coffee to  be daily Served out to*
the Sailors, madehj^. fhipto be dried and ventU
lated between the decks, and obliged the crews-
to keep their linens clean by. ufing rain water to*
wafhthem.    On  the 6th. of November,   they
caught, eight bonetas ;   an  agreeable  refrefh-
ment to the whole companies of the (hips, as
well officers asMjjommon men*- _ About- the 15th,
when our voyagers^ had reached the 5- deg.-; ofr
N. Lat. the trains aud.dopms - ceafed, and the
motionof the billows became lefs tempeduotis*
The  weather was   now ferene,  till after th^l
French navigators had gafled the equator^oii tl|#* ROtXNSfof THl£wXJRLI>.
2id of November.    On the^p3d  they caught
two fharks which afforded two  meals to the
crews, and fhot a curlieu, which was very lean^
and very much fatigued.    Noddies,man-of-war
birds, terns, and tropic-birds, began to hover in
j increafing numbers around them, while they advanced into the fouthern hemifphere.    In the z
deg. of fouthern  latitude, the breeze by which
I they had been for fome time impelled, deferred
them ; and only light airs from N. to W. N.
W. fucceededi|| Afraid of being driven to the
leeward  of the Friendly  Ides, our navigators
availed themfelves of thefe airs to gain a little
leading.    Some (harks  and  fea-birds were, in
the mean time, taken,  and  were ufed  at table, as a very agreeable change of food, amid
Wie long ufe of falted provifions.    A heavy fea
\fttting in from the wed', made t&eir psogrefs^
Jtlbout this  time,  extremely laborious.   Their
I cordage, rotten by long expofure, Was condantly
breaking.    Blads of wind, and heavy falls ©£
rain, came On, to incommode their progrefs, tiH
rfhe 2d of Dec. at which time they were in 1© deg.
50 min. of Southern latitude. The winds thenbe-
| came gentler, and the fkies more Serene.   They
[ palled over Che pofition in which Bjron has placed thofe which he calls the Ifles of Danger,
Mfifcoyering aught but fea. Nextday, tJiey found
[themSelves in 'ii deg. 34 min. 47 fee. S. Lat. in
170 deg. 7 min. £ fee. W. Long, the very parallel in which Qiiiros has placed his I#and of
|i5ie Handsome Nation.    But the wind was
feverfe to their running down that parallel, for
jthepurpofe of deferying the ifland.    Availing
themfelves, therefore, of the weftern breeze^
which nowfetew* they deered fotljhe JJaviga-
m «■§
tors' Ifles, fo named by M, de Bougainville. A$
three in the afternoon of the 6th of December^
they arrived within fight of the mod eaitern of
thefe ifles- They paffed through the channel
between ,the great and the Small illes-which-$gj
de Bougainville left on the Southerr* fide ©f hu
track. At. noon, in mid-channel, and 4 at a
mile's diftance from the fhore>they found theix
latitude to be 14 deg. 7 min. S.
They had feen dwellings on one fide of the
ifle, and a company of Indians. Seated in a circle,
under Some cocoa-nut trees. Yet the Indians
launched no canoes,, nor did they even follow
the courfe of the frigates along the fhore. 4 the
ifland rifes with an abrupt afcent, to the height
of about tw© hundred fathoms alcove the level
of the fea. The houfes are fituate in the pofition ofabout fialf way up the afcent. Some
fmall plantations, as was fuppofed, of[*yams, a|JH
peared near the hqjifes. At length, hve canoes.
fet out from the fhore, and, approached the fta>
.tion of the fhips: eleven others came fsorn a
different part of the ifle. Having paddled feyg-
raf times around the (hips, with an air of didruft,
they at lad -offered to exchanger a few cocoa-
•nntsfor thofe articles of traffic which the French
navigators prefeiated to them. Theft and fraud
were the mod ftriking, features in their conduct.
After receiving the price, as many of them as
could, drove to run off, without delivering the
article fold. As no bottom could be found in
the channel, even with a line of an hundred fathoms, and at lefs. than a mile's- diftance from
the land ; they renewed their courfe, in order to
double a point, beyond which they had hopes of
finding more Safe and iheltered anchorage. But*
there,'me ead wind raifed a ftrongy^r/yandthe
gcoaft was begirt with reefs of rocks. A dead
calm of the winds, accompanied with a prodigious Swelling of the waves, threatened, for
jibrne moments, to furbje£t the two frigates to the
danger of running foul of one another. A few
light airs happily arifing, Soon delivered them
prom tins jeopardy. In, the mean time, an old
chieftain approaching, addreffed them in a long
harangue, and held out in his hand a branch of
the kava plant. The narratives of former navi-
jgaf^rs had taught them to interpret this, as a
ifignai of peace.* They pronounced the word,
wyo, meaning friend, and threw to him a few
pieces of cloth. The winds at length enabled
rhem to leave the region of calms. The iflanders, in their canoes, failed along-fide the frig--
ares. Our voyagers could remark, that thefe
[Canoes, being liable to be overfet every half-
jhour, would be ufelefs to any-but perfons, who,
mke thefe iflanders, are wont to fwim admoft as
if waiter were their native element. The middle ftature of thefe people appeared to be about-
five feet Seven inches. Their colour is nearly
(MBar to that of the natives of the coaft of Bar-
pary. Only two women were obferved among
the crowit. Of thefe* neither was remarkable
for beauty or delicacy of features; and the youn-j
gerffaid, on her leg, a locking ulcer. Several
jef the men had large ulcers, and an apparently
incipient kprofy &rpon their. perfons.^N©ne of
ptm'^Sbifefiled a1]^safing cad of countenance.
ttwo among thefe men had their legs, not only
covered with ulcers, but even fwollen to the fize
|cf tjieir todies,  ff&hey approached withjput c&6
fear, although  unarmed^ They  went away 5
and were fuppofed to have gone, not to return.
In the afternoon, however, they again came out.
to traffic.    A  few fowls, a hog, and a turtledove of Angular beauty,   were  now obtained
from them.    Its body was white ;   its head, of
a beautiful purple colour; its wings, green ; its
breaft, chequered, like the leaves of anemony,
with red and black fp©ts.    It  was tame,  and.
would eat from the hand and mouth of any per-
fon offering to feed it.    It   could not  be long
preferved alive; and after its death, its feathers
quickly loft all the Splendid beauty of their colours.    M. de Langle purchafed from the Indians, two dogs ; which, being killed and roaft-
ed for the table, proved excellent eating.    Jj|
appeared remarkable, that, though capable of
workmanfhip fo ingenious, as that which appeared in the ftructure of their canoes; thefej
people rejected the hatchets and other indru-
ments of iron, which our voyagers offered in ex-|
change for frefli provifions.    Glafs-beads were!
preferred by them to all the dufis, and to every
Sort of' hard-ware, which were offered.   Among
other things* procured from them, was a wooden J
veffel, containing cocoa-nut oil, draped Hke out *
common earthen pot, and faftiioned in a manner which no European workman could execute,
otherwife than *with a  turning lathe.     Their
duffs  are  of a lefs   ingenious texture, than
thofe of Eafter Ifland and the Sandwich  Ifles.
Thur ropes are  round and twilled, like our
watch-chains :   their  mats   are   indeed   very
As this, ifle afforded little to their wants, the ROUND THE WORLD.
French navigators  Soon cong^jpto^-their courfe
wedward; and crofting a c-.annel, which they
found to be much broader than it is reprefented
in the chart  of Bougainville, approached the
Ijppaft of the ifland of Maouna.     While  they
were yet at the diftance of three leagues frompjts
(hore, two or tjiree came alongfide the frigates,
with hogs  a.ndTruit,  whkch  were eagerly ex-
jyehanged  for beads.'   Approaching  to within
^lalf.a league of the (hore; they perceived it to
be furrounded with a reef of coral, on which the
^fea broke with great violence.    In   the creeks,"
. formed by various projections olihe coad, there
was room, as it feemed, for the reception of
their barges and long-boats,    .jit  the   bottom,
ftood villages,,     A  multitude of canoes, with
[ hogs, cocoa-nuts, and other fruits, foon came
Out} and, for glaCs-toys, furnifhed the frigates
with  abundance of frcfh  provifions.     Water
was feen to fall m cafcades from the fummitsof '
the mountains, and |jp pafs /from the different
villages into the channel. ^Allured by fo many
advantages, the French navigators brought their
veffels to anchor, at the diftance of a mile from
the (hore, in thirty fathoms depth of water, over
a bank of rotted (hells, with a mry little coral.
Sn-t^^ilt^tion, however, they were protected
i/Only from the eafterly winds ; but the road/lead
was, in all other refpects, fo bad, that the frigates, to the great anxiety of thetrmaftei's, rolled
as  if they had been in die open fea.
Next morning, the two commanders deter-
minedSo  make the utmoft haftem procuring
wliat tiey wanted from the iu^, and tQ/fet fall in
J-ae afternoon. ~3y the j|awnj^ ^day, the iflanders came around the frigates, in no fewer than LA PEYROUSE I VOYAGE
two hundred canoes laden withfreih provifions.
Axes, cloth, and every article of traffic, fave
beads, were ftill difdained by them.     One part
of the crews were employed to manage this tra** i
fie, and to reprefs the forwardnefs with wmch
the iflanders urged themfelves upOh* the fhips;
while the reft filled the boats~with empty calks,
and prepared to go afbore for water.    Meffrs. de
Clonard and Colinet, commanding the boats of
La Bouffole, with Meffrs. de Monti and Belle-
garde, conducting thofe of L' Aftrolabe, fet out,
at five o'clock in the morning, for a bay which
was about a league diftant from the ftation of
the fhips.    M. de la Peyroufe, Sor purpoSes of
©bfervation and inquiry, followed  almoft  immediately, In his pinnace; and M. de Langle,
in his jolly-boat, made an excurfion  t© another
"bay about a league beyond the watering place.
Tlie creek to w4iich the long boats repaired for
water, was large and commodious ; all the boats
remained afloat, at low water, within a piftol-
Ihot of the beach.ft The frefh water was eafily
procured, and wa6 excellent in its quality^? A
line of foldiers, polted between the beach, and
that crowd of natives which gathered round,
were eafily able to maintain good order.    The
natives, men, women, and children,  differed
themfelves to be periuaded to fit down under 4
grove of cocoa-trees, at a fmall diftance from
the boats. , Pigeons, parrots, and other fowls,
hogs, and fruit, were eagerly offered for Sale.
The women, of whom Some were harfdfome,
made offer of their favours to all who had beao*s
to pay for them.    The women at -lad found
little difficulty in breaking through the line of
French Soldiers.   Confufion was beginning'to ROUND THE WORLD.
arife. But, fome of the ifl^>ders, who feemed
to be chiefs, happily interfering, re (tor ;£-order
by an alert ufe of their flicks One of the natives, who had matched a mallet from the item,
of the boat, and had aimed with it feveral blows
at the back and arms of fome of the failors,
was, by the command of M. de la Peyroufe,
feized ; and cad to fwim about in the fea. The
natives in general, being taller and ftouter built
men than the French, feemed to look upon their
vifitors with a certain degree of contempt. To
imprefs them with more refpectfiiL notions of
the power that he was able to exert againit
them, M. de la Peyroufe purchafed three pigeons, ordered them tobe thrown up in the air, and
(hewed the multitude, how eafily they could be
brought to the ground by the unfeen impulfe of
a bullet (hot from a piftol or a mufket.
While the cafks were filled with water, M.
de la Peyroufe proceeded to vifit a charming
village, at the diftance of about two hundred
yards from the beach. It dood in the mid it of
a fpacious grove of fruit trees. The houfes o£
the village were arranged in a circle which might
be an hundred and fifty toifes in diameter. 'Flier
area which they inclofed, was carpeted with a
rich verdure and fhaded by trees. Women,
children, and old men, gathered round, the il«
luftrious dranger, and invited him to enter the *
houfes. He entered one which appeared as if
it were the dwelling houfe of Some chief. Mats
of extraordinary finenefs and freihnefs, were
fprcad on the floor : The floor itfelf was composed of fmall pebbles, and railed about.two feet
above the common level of the ground. Among
other articles of furniture, M. de la Peyronie re- q$o
marked, with furprize, a cabinet of litttl&wdfE^
fuch as could not have been more elegantly executed at Paris. The building terminated in an
cllipfis, the curve of which could not have been
more handSomely fafhioned under the directicns
of any European architect. A rOw of pillars,
at equal diftances of five feet from one another,
formed a complete colonade round the whole.
The pillars were formed of the trunks of trees,
handfomely wrought: And between them hung
mats, the cords of which were adapted to move
them up and down, at pleafure. The roof of
the houfe was covered with leaves of the cocoa-
The foil of thisVffle is fertile without culture ;
and the climate fuch as to render clothing little
neceffary. The bread-fruit, the cocoa-nut, the
banana, the guava, and the orange tree, grow
here fpontanecufly, anrf'til; thei greateft abundance. Dogs, hogs, and fowls,, fed upon the
Superfluous plenty of thefe fruits, afford a fuffi-
cient variety of rich and delicate animal-food.
The wants of thefe people are confequently
few. Iron, and inftruments of direct utility,
they, therefore, difdained ; and accepted onlf^
beads, objects of fanciful decoration.?f More
tbfan two hundred wood-pigeons, with a number of beautiful parroquets and turtle-doves,
were among the animals obtained from them.
Thefe fowls were all tame, and fhewed thefe
iflanders to have made a greater progrefs than
the inhabitants of the Sandwich Ifles, in the do-
meftication of the winged part of the creation.
Had it not been for the ferocious expreftioh in
their countenances, and the fears On their bodies,
it would have been natural to cdnclude, that a ROUND TK& WORLD.
people, leafed amidft external c|tcumftances- fo*
propitious, mutt live intellect innoce nee, felicity, and beneficence'^j
During this vifit, fome trivial quarrel^ arofe
among individuals of the French and individuals
from among the iflanders ^but^tio general disagreement Jfeook place.     An   iflander had attempted to fnatch awayj&e fabre of M. de Mon-
neron ;. but, having pulled off, unwittingly, the
Scabbard, ran away, affrighted, at fight of the
naked blade.    Others threw (tones at M. Rol-
lin, the Surgeon-raajor to the expedition^ A=
general turbulence,- inhofpitality of fpirit, and
infubordination to their chiefs, were plainly Seen?
to be very diftihguifhing features in the character of^thefe people.    But,-the prudence and
patience of the French avoided all extremities.
About noon, the Frenchmen left the ifle and returned in  their boats, .on board the frigates.
Thefe were furrouiided witkeanoes.    Seven or
eight of the iflanders were on the quarter-deck *
of La Bouffole.    And thefe people were behav-
5Ing here with a boldnefs, a rudenefs, and atuifijpa
bulence, exceedingly troubjefonie.    One of the-'
men on the quarter-deck^ was pointed out as a
chief.    His authority had contributed already.
Somewhat to reftrain the petulance of the  re&:
Some prefents were offered to hirxi1^ and the
power of the French fire-arms was exhibited be*,
fore him Jput without excising his admirationyor
imprefiing him with awe. ,   MSBS^P!
Ordersf.w€r^fo°w given for the frigates to
weigh anchor md get under fail. But, M. de
Langle, having been greatly charmed with the
Scene at which he had landed ; defired, with
greatearneitnefs; that the frigates fhould fiandf t%%
off antkfpn at a league's diftance from the fhore,
^till he^might with a paity, revifit that bay, and
procure an additional quantity of frefh water
from the limpid dreams which poured into it.
M. de Langle had a veiy (trong partiality for
'water fredi from thefttcam or fountain, as being
"much more falutary to thofe who mould ufe it,
tnan water which had been long preferved in
barrels Oh board a (hipv|£ Provifio'ns, too, were
sfheVe to be obtained in an abundance in which
mfey could Scarcely be expected, elfe^vhere.
Five hundred hogs, a great number of fowls, a
large quantity of fruit, had been procured at the
trivial price of a few glafs-beads. With great
r©ie€tance, on account of the diforderly con-
ielfrct of the iflanders, M. de fe Peyroufe agreed-
to await trU M. de Langle fhould acccm|$rm hit;
purpofe. During tfce night, the two frigates
hovered under fail, at a fmall drftance from the
{hereof the ifle. At day-break, there fucceeded
a calm, after a ftormy and uncertain night. About
nine o'clock, a gentle breeze from the N. W.
enabled them to advance the frigates again nearly to the ifle. At eleven, they were ^ktthin a
league of it. Two boats from La BoodTole, widil
fc "barg^Nrnd tong-boat of L'Aftrolabe, Were,
'dphoutoejay, fent afhore, under tfie command
of M. de Langle, and having on board Meffrs.
l!e Lamanon, CoHnet, Vaujuas, le Gobien, dt
la JftattMcte, Lavaux, Receveur, with a number of fuch of the common mch out of both
c$ews, as hfa*l begun to be affected with the
f^trrvy, amounting, in all, to fixty-cne perfonK^
Six fwiveFs were mounted uponyine long-ooats*
and tfyc men were armed with cmiaSes and
roufkc&v    Gifet numbers of canoes, in the ROUND THE-WORLD.
mean time, came around the fhips for the fake
of traffic; and the people wore, in their coun--|
tenances- and manners, an air of gaiety and com-
fidence, which tended  to remove every fufrnh
ci©n of hostilities to be offered fr6m them.
At a quarter after one o'clock, the boats reached the Shore.    What had been fuppofed a capacious bay, was found to be but a creek full of
Coral rocks, and prefenting noacceffible paffage,
feve  a winding channel of 25   feet in width.
Witnin that channel the boats had but three
feet of water.     The long-boars^ran a-ground.
The barges-were kept a-float, by being hauled
to a confiderable diftance Srom me beach.   The
tide was now at ebb^'rlt had been in flood, when
this Scene was, on the preceding day, examined
l>y M. de Langle. f§Difappointed in regard to the
date of thebay, M. de Langle would havereturn-
ed immediately to the creek, without aceompliih-
"ftig his firft j^alFpofe, had it not been for thejgen-
tlenefs and order which appeared to didinguifh
the natives, in the others which they now made,
to trade  with  the  Frenchmen, as well frojfc
the boats as at the fhipsJrHe fent the water-cafks
on (hore.     The Soldiers were arranged in two
lines, to protect an. avenue ofJfcaffage between
the watering-place and thfe fea-beach.    Water
Was, without delay taken in ; and thMcafks be-}
ing filled, were fecCefsfully conveyed on boar da
the boats."   But, in the mean time, th^ numbers of the natives who furrounded the French-
linen at their tafk, were prodigioufly augmented
Petty thefts; attempts to%ize, by open force,,
what they could not fecretly Ileal y with various acts Of wanton infolence arid mifehief^began to befpeak the content: of t&e nativef,as
WtH for the ftrengthuntf&mbersoithe Frendi-
men, as fcr%the^laws of benevolence and hofpv
taiity. . A brifk traffic dill went on ; and the favours of the women were, with enough of wari-
ton eagernefs, both offered and accepted. The
Iflanders iufenfibly proceeded, on the fhore, to
affail the ftrangers wirh fhowers of dones ; while
others of them, entering the water, attempted
to feize and pillage - the boats. To ico&ie the
infolence and rapacity of the natives, a few
beads were didributed to fome few of them, who
appeared to poffefs a Superior authority among
the reft. Thofe who were overlooked in the
diftribution,   became, for  this,  fo  much  the
M. de Langle was on board
more outrageous.
his boat,;: and the fire-arms were ready to be
difchargedf.    But,  reluctant to proceed to extremities,  which mould oecafion an efiufion of
bood ; he declined the ufe of the fire-arms, till,
at lead, the whole party fhould have come on;
board the boats.    The natives faw there all en*-
ter their boats, without offering   any fatal violence. i^JBut when they faw the boats moved off
from the beach, and were aware, that the drangers, with ail their beads hadalmoft efcaped un-
pillaged, and without having-tranfa£ted, atthis
time, any confiderable  traffic;   their- rapacity
and rage were then raifed to the utmod height*
hey.threw dones, rufhed in great numbers into the water to day die boats, and made aferi*
©us anddefperate hoftile attack upon the French
Sailors^ Orders were  given to  oppofe   them
with a difcharge of mufquetry, and, at the fame-
time, to ufe the utmoft expedition in removing
the boats beyond  their reach".    A Sew of the
iflanders fell.    But the prodigious luperiority of-
their numbers ;., their nearnefs to tie boats f".
fheir great drengtft and dexterity in hurling; ROUND THE WOfLD.
ItHbSe huge dones, which they employed as their
mifule weapons ; together with the furprize and
confufion of the French ; made it impoffible for
thefe to refid the orifet of the inhofpitr.ble iflanders, without differing themfelves   in the fkir'-
mifh.    M. de Langle, with the mader of arms,
and the carpenter belonging to his Ship, were
beaten down from the bow of the long-boat in
which they dood ; and were the fird who fell.
M. de Langle periftied under the fury of the af-
failants ; the two who fell with him, were differed to efcapc.    The iflanders, in a few" minutes,,
made themfelves matters of the two boats which
were the neareft to the beach.    Eleven others
of the boats' crews perifhed with M. de Langle.
Among thefe was the unfortunate M. de Lamanon, naturalid to the expedition.    While the
iflanders  bufied  themfelves in plundering the
long-boats, which they had Seized ; the furviv-
itrg Frenchmen   threw   overboard    the  water
cafks which  had  been conveyed into the two
barges; and all found means to efeape, although
the long-boats were lod.   Having in vain torn up
the feats of the long-boats, in fearch of the riches which they fuppofed to be hidden in them j
the  iflanders turned themfelves to attack the
barges, when they faw them moveoff with difficulty.    A difcharge of fire-arms killed"a few
of them ; and, ere the red could approach, the
barges were beyond the reach of their purfuit.
It was five o'clock in the evening when the Survivors came on board the (hips, with news of the
difader which had cut off" their companions.
Numbers of the natives were at that time around
the (hips in canoes ; and  it   was not without
extreme difficulty that M. de la Peyroufe could. ■
redrain the foldiers and Sailors, on board t]g£|
frigates, from taking fudden vengeance for the
murder of their flaughtered comrades, by the de^ j
druction of all the canoes around them.     One
of the iflanders, who happened to be on the quarter deck, was arretted, and, for a time, detained
in irOns, but was differed, next day, to make his
efcape, by leaping overbear d,|b A mid ft theirin-
dignation for the fate of their companions, -M.
de la Peyroufe-, with his officers, and the whole
Ships' companies, would willingly have inflicted
fignal vengeance on  the  perfidious iflanders ;
but it was impoffible to ancror within a gun
fhot's diftance from  the village; and when all
circumftauces had been duly confidered, it was.
thought more prudent to forego the defired revenge, than to incur new inconvenience or danger.   On the following day fome ©f the iflanders
had even the audacity to venture out, towarolfc
the (hips, in their canoes, with hogs, pigeons,
and cocoa-nuts for barter.    When their offers
of this traffic were rejected, they then accoded
the French with fportive raillery.    With difficulty, la   Peyroufe Suppreffed his indignation,
and would not fuffer them to  be fired upon.'
Other canoes came out, feemingly with hoftile
purpofe to join them.    A (hot then fired from a
blunderbuis, taught them  to refpect the rage
of the French fire-arms.   'Ancrthev all fled, with.
one accord to the fhore.    Befide thofe of the
French who had lod their lives  in   the affray
with the iflanders, twenty others were wounded.    Affliction of the deeped  and mod poignant character, reigned, for fome time, on board.
the frigates.    At laft, on the 14th, they fleered
away from the fatal, inhofpitable fliores of Maou-
The perfons whom they had here loft, were
Meffrs. joe Langle, poft-captain and commander A Yves   Humon,  John Redelleg,   Francis
Ferret, Laurence Robin,  and  a Chinefe fea-
man ; all belonging to L'Aftrolabe.
[ Meffrs. De Lamanon, naturalid ; Peter Ta-
|jp, gunner ;   Andrew Roth and jofeph Ravs,
quarter-gunners, from La Bouffole.
On the 14th of December, departing from the
fatal coaft of Maouna, the French navigators
took their courfe acrofs a channel five leagues in
widenefs,  towards the Spacious and fertile ifle
of Oyolava.    At the diftance of three leagues
from its N. E. point, they were furrounded by a
great multitude of Oyolavan canoes, which were
laden, for barter, with bread-fruit, cocoa-nuts,
bananas, fugar-canes,  pigeons, hogs, &€.    In
drefs, features, and tallnefs of dature, the people of Oyolava  fo  nearly refembled thofe of
Maouna, that, at fight of them, the indignation
of the French failors for the fafe of their murdered companions was awakened anew.    M. de
la Peyroufe, however, quieted thofe angry emotions which had almoft prompted his people to
hoftilities, at the  firft fight of the  Oyolavans.
A commerce of exchange commenced, and was
carried on with great brifknefs, and^with mutual Satisfaction, between the French and the iflanders."   In the courfe of it, the French were
more careful than they had hitherto been, to re-
prefs, by threats, and even by blows, every attempt  at theft, fraud, or violence, on the part
of the natives: and this conduct was attended
with good effects.   In the afternoon, the frig- LA PEYROUSE'S VOYAGE
ates appro,acbe^raa part of the ifle, which prefent-
ed the largeft village, perhaps, that is t© be Seen
in all the iflands of the South Sea. It coniifts
of heuSes irregularly Scattered over a very ex*-
. tenfive and gently inclining plain ; and aScend-
ing even upwards to the very Summit of the
mountain, which rifes beyond the plain, and retires inwards to the middle of the ifle. The
fmoke hovering over the village, feemed as if it
rofe from Some great city. The people, who
cameoutinthe canoes,wereentirely unacquainted
with iron. A fingle bead was to them, preferable to a nail fix inches long, or to an hatchet..
Some of them had agreeable features. Their
hair was bound up with a fort of green ribband*
and adorned with flowers. Their form was
handfome; and every thing in their whole af- '
pect befpoke fweetneSs of temper, and gem
tlenefs of manners. The billows broke all
around the beach with a violence.which made it
"hot fafely acceflible on the north-fide of the ifle.
In the dufk of the evening, the canoes had retired ; and the French navigators faifcd onwaTd%
Hill at no great didan.ce from the coad of the
ifle. A dead calm prevailed during the next
day, v*rtjth frequent flafhes of lightning, which
were followed by thunders and rains. It feemed
probable, that, on this day, the people of OtpltK
va had received notice of the late unhappy events
at Maouna. On the 17th, when the frigates
came over-againd the ifland of Pqla, no canoes
came out to v^'fit them : and from this, it was
concluded, that the people of Pola had likewife
been informed of the quarrel at Maouna, and
were afraid of differing from the refentment of
the French,, if they fhould put themfelves wiiinn 'KOttKD THE WORLD.
slhefr power.     Pol a is a beautiful ifle, Somewhat
$ftni|ler than Oyolava, from which ft is fepara-
lated by.a channel, only four leagues in widenefs.
^tnthe channel are two iflets ; one of which is
-covered with wood, and perhaps occupied by
||fome inhabitants. The north coaft of Pola is inacceffible to dripping : But after doubling its wef-
-tern point, $fce mariner will enter a Smooth Sta,
ss'twbtch m%y probably afford excellent roadfleads*
pftiefe ifles are ten in number;   Opoun, Leone,
*Fanfoue,:Maouna, Oyolava, Caluafle, Pola, Shi-
t^ta, Offamo, and Overa.    The relative bearings,
of thefe different ifles,  the French navigators
could not from the information of the natives,
♦Satisfactorily afcertain.   Opoun, the mod Southerly, is in 14 deg. 7 min. S. Lat. in 171 deg. 27
min. 7 Sec. W. Long.    It has been Suppofed that,
^thefe are -the  Same ifles which* were difcovered
by Roggewen, in the year 1721, and by him denominated Beauman's Iflands.    But every cir-
cumdance led M. de la Peyroufe, and his companions, to regard this fuppofition as groundlefs,
smd to confider them as ifles unknown to Euro-
jipean navigators, still the voyage of Bougainville.
The natives of thefe ifles are  a remarkably
tallj-robud, and well-proportioned race of men.
In comparifon with the French navigators, they
Seemed to be, jud fuch as Danifh horfes are, in
icompariSan wifii thofe of France^    They are
naked ; but have the body painted or tattooed in
a manner that gives mem the appearance of
having clothes.    On  their loins  they  bind  a
girdle entwined of fea-weeds.   They wear the
hair long, and twided round the head.  They are
-exceedingly ferocious and quarrelfome.     The
forms of the women are tall, flendet| zn& not sjo
tingraceful.    But, among all whom tjfte French
navigators faw, there was not more than three
whom they could confider as being truly beautiful and handfbme^ifTheir manners are, in the
highed and mod difguding degree, wanton and
immodeft.    The three beauties, who attracted
the notice of the ftrangers, were readily profti-
tuted to their luft. Of a bafaltic done, thefe people form tools for working in wood, whUlb, even
in comparifon with the European inftruments of
iron, are far from contemptible.    Some wooden
©"idies were obtained from them, in exchange
for glafs-beads, the polifhing of which was not at
all lefs perfect, than if it had been effected with
an   European turning-loom.     The mats, and
Some paper-duffs, which thefe people manufacture, are exceedingly beautiful, and of a very ingenious texture.    Their language appears to be
a particular dialect of that which is fpoken in
the Society and in the Friendly Ifles.    A perfon
from the province of Tagayan, in the north of
the ifland of Luconia, underdood, and explained to the French navigators, in whofe Service he
was, mod of the words which he had heard fpoken at the Navigators' Ifles.    From  this fact, it
fhould feem that thefe people are, by defcent,
Malays:   and the   language which they fpeak,
the Malayan.    Among from fifteen to eighteen
hundred, whom the French voyagers faw, to the
number  of about  thirty feemed* to be chiefs.
Thefe endeavoured to exercife a fort of authori-'
| ty, but were very icarelefsly obeyed.    They have
been very properly named  by M. de Bougainville, Navigators.     They Scarcely ever perform any change of place, otherwife than by water, and in their canoes.   Their villages are fit*;. ROUND THE WORLD.
uatedjjin creeks, clofe on the fhore,    And they
have no internal roads from'one to another of
them.    All of thefe ifles, which the French voyagers vifited, were covered, to the very tops of
the interior hills,  with fruit-trees.    Wood-pigeons, turtle-doves, parraquets, blackbirds, par-
ifridges, of very beautiful and Singular varieties,
were very numerous among thefe woods. About
.the houfes were great numbers of tame wood-
pigeons.    Their canoes have outriggers, and are
generally of .a   fize incapable to contain more,
than five or fix perfons; thoughfome indeed wilt,
admit to the number of fourteen.    Their courfe
is not exceedingly rapid;   under-fail, not more
than feven knots an hour; rowing, was fuch, that
they could not keep way with the French frigate, failing at the rate of only four miies an hour.
Sometimes two of their canoes are joined into
one, by means of a tranfverfe piece of wood, in
which is put a ftep to receive a malt.    The fails
are of matting, extended by a Sprit. The fweep-
net, and the hook and line, are their only indru-
ments for fifhing.   Their baits are of mother-of-
pearl and of white (hells, very fkilfully wrought..
The baits are in the form of a   flying fifh, and
have a hook  of tortoife-fhell attached to them,
which is of fuflicient drength to drag out a tunny, boneta, or dorado.    Thefe ifles feem to be
all of volcanic origin.    On the beach appeared,
no dones, but pieces of lava, bafaltes, or coral.
la all the creeks, the fides are ufually filled up
with coral,   which leaves in  the middle jud a
narrow channel, Sufficient to  admit the canoes-
to pafs-and repafs.-   Thefe canoes are  fo light,,
as to be eafily borne, one on the fhoulders o£-
;£?*©. mem   Nor ar& they ufually left in the. w-a-- LA -PfEYROUSE S OTYA&
^r, but deposed undef the fhade of trees sea
the dwellings. NoTituatiOSscantemore agreed-
able than thofe of the villages in thefe ifles. r£ty&
noufes fland on thebiftks of dreamlets defcendi-
ing from the hillsj under the made of fruit-trees,-
by the fides of path-ways leading into the interior parts of the ifles. Each houfe is Sufficiently* lodge even Several Samilies. They?.
have moveable doors or windows, which are lefc
down to exclude the fun, and pulled up, on the
©ppofite fide, to admit, the frefh breezes. Hogs,,
$ogs, fowls, birds, and fifties, furnifh a rick
abundance.of animal food to the inhabitants of
thefe ifles. The cocoa, the guava, the banana-
tree, witlvanother tree which bears a chefhut-
]ike fruit,, that is roafted for eating, fupply an*
abundance of whplefome fruits, ougar-csinesy
. of an inferior quality, grow fpontaneoufly en theH
banks of the rivers. In Maouna, Meflrr. Mar-'
tinierc and ColJignon made a fhort botanical ex-
curfion. But the natives exacted a giafs-bead
for every plant they gathered; and, even under^
this condition, would .^hardly permit them to*
bring off" what they collected, in Safety. Clubs,
-arrow-like lances, and dones which they were
lkiiled to throw with great force and dexterity,
were the cffenfive weapons of thefe people.
The population of thefe ifles is probably very
confiderable in proportion to their extent. Ma-*
ouna, Pola, and Oyolava, are certainly among*
the mod beautiful of all the ifles of the Southern
Ocean. M. de la Peyroufe would gladly have!
gone afhore on. Pola. But, after fuch experience of the inhofpitable temper of the natives,
it would be imprudent to fend any part of the
crews afhore, unarmed; and So drong were dill KOUND THE WORlSfc*
Jtfie refentmentsof the Tailors, that going on>
land with arms in their hands, they hardly could4
*have refrained from employing thefe againft the
iflanders, even without new provocation.    For
thisreafon M. de la Peyroufe refolved not against
to eaft anchor, till he fhould reach Botany Bay.
After failing along the weftern coaft of Pola,j
the French navigators loft fight of iand.    They
endeavoured to fail in a S. S. E. direction.     An*
-E. S. E. wind, at firft, oppofed their progrefs.-*
Its fh if ting, however,  foon  differed  them  to
make way agreeably to their withes.     On the
20 th they came within, fight of a round ifle, pre--
'cifely S. from Oyolava, and about forty leagues
diftant from, it*    On the day  following, they
arrived within two leagues of its coaft^Two*
other ifles were now alfo defcried, to the fouth--
ward ; w^ichplainly appeared to be the Cocoa-
'and Traitor Iflands of Schouten^ Cocoa-Iuand
towers up to a great elevation, in the^rm of a
fugar-loaf.    It is nearly a league in diameter;
and trees cover it up to; the-very  fummit.    A
channel, of about three league* in breadth, intervenes between this;and Traitor's Ifle:which is
low and flat,   with only one  hill of moderate
height in   the   middl©|| - A   channel, about an
hundred and fifty fathoms wide at its mouth, in-
terfects thisifle into two^jpts, fo that it is pro- -
perly two ifles,: not   one,  as has been hitherto
fancied.    The weather was unfavourable;. and-
no canoe came out immediately from Traitor's
Ifland.    The  frigates hovered near during the
evening: at eight o'clock in the morning, they
approached to within two miles of the bottom of>
a.fandy bay.    About   twenty canoes foon left
the- (here, and approached the frigates.    They)
were laden for barter, with excellent cocoa-nuts^:
and with a few bananas and yams. One brought
a hog, with a few fowls.    The people appeared
plainly to  hifve had no previous acquaintance
with Europeans.    They   approached   without |
fear or fufpicion, and readily exchanged  their
provifions for beatls, nails, and different piece&Jp
of iron.    They had every one two joints cut off&
from the little finger of the left-hand.    In  oth-1
er refpedts, their afpedt and manners differed
little from thofe of the people of the Navigators' lilevJI Their ftature was  however, lower,
and their form lefs robuft.    The  French navWsji
gators, in  their intercourfef witarthcfe Indians,
thought proper to  act with more of fpirit and
vigour than they had hitherto fhown.    They' j
repreffed every act of theft or injtfftlce, would ■
not Suffer their vf&rors to come on board, and
fliewed what power their arms gave them,  tc**ji
puniih every act of hoftfifry or fraudiff On the
23d, at noon, while they were trafficking with
thefe Indians, a fudden blaft from the W. S.rf|
W. difperfed the canoes, overturning many offlj
them, but without ©ccafioning any ferious mif-
chief to thofe who failed in  them.    Although ,
the weather wa's   thus i&SavooraWe,  yet the
French voyagers failed not to make .the circuit :
©f the ifle, and to furvey aM ife poitlfi&f1 Armor**
in the afterno©i^ they renewed their progrefs,-
fleering S. S-. E. ©f purpofe to examine fuch of
the Friendly Ifles to the north of Inamooka, as
had been left unexplored by Cook. w r
CH A P.   XII.
Narrative of the- Voydge continued, from the 2g.d
of December 17 8 7, to the end of January 1788.
Courfe from the Navigator^, Ifles to Botany-
Bay. Account of the Ifland of Vavao. . Traffic with the people of Tongataboo. DefcripHon
of Norfolk Ifland, &c.^M
STORMY night Succeeding ,the day of
!their departure from Traitor® Ifland, retarded
ianjd endangered their progrefs^ Such of the
crew as, had begun, to-feel an incipient fcurvy^
jnow Suffered exceedingly Srom the moidure in
tke atmorphereli A manof the name ©f David,
the gun-room cook, died of a fcorbutic dropfy»
Molaffes and fpruce-beer, are confidered as the
mod efficacious preferyative againd fcuryyimln
Itnefe hot climates, the companies continued to
drihk thefe articles at the rate of a bottle a-day
jto.ea'ch perfch, with half a point of wine, and a
fmall glafs of brandy, greatly diluted with water.
The hogs obtainedfrom Maouna, proved but a
tranfient refoyrce.    They could neither be falted
nor preferved alive**. On this account, frefli
ipork was, for a while, ferved out twice a day,
I to the crews.    And, while this taded, ail the
j Swellirigs of the legs* and the other Symptoms
cf Scurvy, began to disappear."^ The N". N. W.
I winds followed them beyond the Friendly Ifles;
! Were always accompanied with rain ; and blew
! as hard as the weftern gales on the coad of Brit-
On the 27th of December, they discovered
j the ifland of Vavao. Its wedern point bore
I precifely W. at noon, when their latitude wa$ •Oft*
u8 deg. 34 min.- Its exideuce. was known to
Captain Cook only from the report of the people of me other Friendly Ifles. It is almod equal
in extent to Tongataboo ; and being of loftier
elevation, is more copioufly fupplied with frefh
water. This ifle had been before Seen by the
Sfanlfij Captain Don Antonio Maurelle.
Surrounded by a number of other ifles, by wmVlir
the number of Friendly Ifles, originally made
known by the Englifh, is almod -doubled. Maurelle made this difcovery in the courfe of a voyage from Manilla to Chili, in which he was induced to enter thefe latitudes in • fearch of wef-
terly winds. He called Vavao, with its fur-
rounding iflets, the Iflands of Majorca; to:
Happaee, and the iflets lying around it, he gave,
the name.of the Iflands of Galves. The name-sa
employed by the natives themfelves, have been,
preferve^in the map of the French navigators.*
On the 27 th the French frigates were at a fmall
diftance.W.N. W. from Vavao. During the?
night, theytadvanced fo far, that, on the morning, they could fee the Magura of Maurelle, at*.
the diftance of twelve or fifteen leagues ead-:
ward. - Towards noon, on the fame day, they?
were at the entrance of that part of Vavao im
which Maurelle. had anchored. It is formed by-
finall ifles, having, between them narrow, but-
very deep paffages,,and affording, entire Shelter^
again ft the winds blowing from the offing. Many circumftances invited our voyagers to come
to an anchor here ; but reflection upon the daggers to which they might be expofed, from'the.,
rapacity of the natives, determined them-againd
it. No ; canoes came from, the ifle to traffic*
The weather was threatening^ and already dor- RO^ND THE "WORLD.
tfflry.    Our navigators, therefore, bore away for
[theifland of Latte, at twenty leagues diftance,
The night   which enfued, was dreadful with
jpitchy darknefs and dorms.    When day return-
led, the dorms were rather heightened than al*
[hyed.    The frigates were now deered to within two leagues of the ifland of Latte.    But here*
[before any canoe could come out, the fails were
fo much'overfpread by a blaft, that our navigators were compelled to deer away for the ifles o£
|Kao and Toofoa.    They palled near thefe ifles |
.but were, at fird, prevented by  the mill from
[difcovering them.    At five o'clock in the evening, the weather became fair ;   and Kao  was
idifcerned riling with a lofty conical elevation.
Through the night, our navigators continued to
jhover near thefe ifles.    At fun-rife, on the fol--
jlowing morning, both Kao and Toofoa were
•clearly feen.    Pa(nng within  half a league of
Toofoa, the French voyagers- perceived it to be
uninhabited.    It is precipitoufly mountainous 5-
jabout fouy leagues in circumference ; and wooded op to its'fummit.    It is probable  that  the
people of Tongataboo, and the other Friendly
|IAes, rr&y often refort hither in the fummer, to
cut down wood, and condruct their canoes;
fince none but fruit-bearing trees grow upon the
Mies which they inhabit,    As our voyagers paffed near the fhore of this ifle, they  could dif-
eover Several Aides or inclined planes,  deftined
for the purpofe of admitting the trees cut above,
to roll eafily down the declivity of the fea fhore.
They next continued their courfe towards the
two fmall ifles of Hoonga^tonga and  Hoonga-
Happaee.    Looking back upon Kao and Toofoa,
Jhefe ifles feemetl^o them as united, So that Kao* LA PEYROUSE S VOYAGE
formed the Tummit of Toofoa. Kao is about
I three times as high as Toofoa ; its fummit may
feem the peak of a volcano :^ its bafe is apparently lefs than two miles in diameter. Towards noon they arrived within fight of the two
ifles of Hoonga-tonga and Koonga-happee.
Near to thefe is a very dangerous reef of rocks,,
two leagues in extent, in direction, nearly N. by
W, and S. by E. having its northern point five
leagues N. from Hoonga-happaee ; its fouthern
point three leagues N. from Hoonga-tonga;.
forming, with the two ifles, a dreight three
leagues broad, and not laid down in the charts of
any former navigators. Its breakers were feen,:
by the French voyagers, to rife mountain-high,
as they failed along at a league's diftance to the
wedward. Hoonga-tonga and Honga-happee
are uninhabitable rocks, fo high as to be viiible.
at fifteen leagues diftance. Their form changes^
every moment to the view, as you advance towards, or retire from them. They feemed to be,
each, lefs than half a league in circumference. A
channel, a league broad, and in the direction of
E. N. I£. and W. S. W. divides them from one
another. They lie ten leagues N. from the low
ifle of Tongataboo. This ifle was feen by our
navigators on the 31 d of December. Only the
tops of its trees were at firft vifible ; and thefe
appeared, as if they had their roots in the waters-. As they approached, the land appeared to*
rife-for about two fathoms above the level of the.
fea. With a northerly wind, the frigates deer-
ed for the fouthern coaft of this ifle. 'ihey
found it to be approachable, without danger, to-
thedidance of only three naufket-fhols. Clofe:
on the fhore the fea was feen to.break wi&gmafe M>UtiD THE WORLD.
2 39
[fcljf*    Beautiful  orchards,  and trees  fkirtirig
pefis of charming verdure, appeared over the
(whole interior furface of the iile.    Not a tingle
pill was t© be feen ; all was flat, as the Surface
pf the fea in a calm.    The huts of the natives
[ivere Scattered over the fields, not collected in-
© villages.    Seven or eight canoes were foon
aunclied out from the ifle, and bent their courfe
©wards the fhips.    But thev were ill naviga-
fed ; and, though the water was fmooth, could
n come clofe to the frigates. JlAt the diftance
If eight or ten fathoms,   trie iflanders leaped
jverboard from their canoes,  and fwam to the
trench fliips.    In their hands they held cocoa-
juts, which they very honedly gave in exchange
br hatchets, nails, and other bits of iron.    Mu-
hal confidence,   to a very high  degree,  Soon
|>ok place between theSe iflanders and the French
byagers.    A  young  man   among the former,
Lying, that-he was the (on of Feonou, obtained
ji this account, various prefents, with  which
|; appeared to  be exceedingly gratified.    He
:ged the drangers to come to an anchor at the
ore of the ifle ;   promifing  that they  fhould
ere   obtain  provifions   in great   abundance,
jhefe iflanders,  in  general, were  noify,  but
[ithout that ferocity which marked the manors of the   natives  of the Navigators' Ifles.
hey are inferior,   alfo, in  fize and vigour, to
|e people of the Navigators' Ifles.    They ap-
lared to  poffefs no arms but patow patows :
d theSe were {o  Small, that Several of them
rich  the Frenchmen  bought,   weighed not
pre than one third of the  weight of a patow
Uow from Maouna.    Thefe people, as well as
j)fe of Cocoa and Traitor Ifles, are wont to
off two joints from the little finger, in token 4B2L3
of Sorrow for the lofs of near relations.    Allihe
Intercourfe between the  Frenchmen   and the
people of Tongataboo was confined to !a£N6ngle
vifit.    The rcfrefhments obtained, were very
-flight. The aftronomical obfervations which were
here made by M. Dagelet, coincided nearly with
thofe of Cook.    On the id of January,liope-
lefs of obtaining here a fuflicient fupply of provisions, our navigators refolved to continue toeif
courSe, without farther delay, towards the Wl
S. W. and to proceed to Botany Bay, by a traci
which no navigator had as yet purfued.    The
wind, however, (hifting from  N. to W. S. W.
obliged them to dretch  Southward.     On tha
morning of the 2d of January 1788, they  per*
ceived the Ifle of Pyldaart, the diScovery  oj
T'afman.    Its greatelt breadth is a ©garter of 5
league.    It is deep.; on its north ead fide are.%
few trees;' it can only  Serve as  a retreat im
aquatic birds.    Its latitude was found by M
Dagelet to be 22 deg. 22 min. S.    For threi
days, the French frigates weredetained by calms
within fight of this ifle. ItOn the 6th, the trade-
winds arofe from the eaft; the Ikies were dari
ened ; and the billows began to roll tempeftf
oufly high.    Thefe breezes, accompanied witl
heavy rains, and an obfcure horizon, continue!
to blow till the Sth.    Steady and   drong bree
zes then aroSe from the north-ead to the fouth
cad ;   the weather became dry; and the fe
was exceffively agitated.     When they had pal
fed the latitudes of all the ifles, the-winds re
fumed their regular courfe.    The tempetatut
of the air became now alf© colder.    On the 13!
they arrived within fight of Norfolk Ifland* an
of two other iflets lying contiguous to its font!
|ertt extremity.     Approaching  its  coad, they
rfound the water Sufficiently Smooth ; and were
therefore induced to cad anchor in twenty-four
fathoms depth of water, over a bottom of hard
fand and coral.    Clofe  upon  the (hore of the
ile, the fea was f Jen to break with fury. WM. de
Clonard  was therefore  fent out to  difcover,
whether the boats might not find Safe (belter behind, fome of the rocks which fkirted the coaft.
He ftood towards a fort of inlet between  two
^points at the northern extremity of the N. E.
coad of the ifle.     But a furf, breaking   on the
rocks, was foon found to render that inlet inacceffible.    They coaded along within half a muf-
ket-fhot from the (hore, for the fpace of haif-a-
league, but dill without finding a  fing'e fpot
where they might land.    A natural wall of lava
was feen to furround the. ifle.    The lava ap-
■apearing;to have le(wed from the fummit of the
mountain, to have cooled in its defcent, and to
have formed a fort of roof, projecting feveral
feet over the  coaft of the iile.    Even  if they
-could have landed, yet, it would have'been impoffible to penetrate  into the  interior  parts of
the ifle, otherwife than by Stemming fome rapid
torrents, which had formed ravines for the fpace
of fifteen or twenty toifes.    Beyond thefe natural barriers, pines, and a rich and verdant herbage, covered the face of  the ifle.    From the
{hip, M. de la Peyroufe anxicufiy: watched with
his telefcope the progrefs of the boats.    At the
fall of night, feeing that they had found no  fit
place for debarkation, lie made 1 fignal to  re-
cal them.    Soon afterSoraers were   given for
the fhips to ge
h.     A fignal from
£/Aftrolabe,- at this time, gave   the alarm that 242
fhe was on fire. A boat was indantly difpatclfc3|
cd to the affiftance of the people on board her.
But happily before the boat had proceeded half
way, a fecond fignal from L'Aftrolabe, gave no-ja
tice that the fire was extinguished. A box of
acids, and other chymical liquors, had, by taking
fire fpontaneoufly, occafioned the alarm. That
oox being thrown overboard, removed the danger.. £ I   -1ER        I^^m
Norfolk Hand rifes abruptly for about Seventy or eighty toifes above the level of the fea.   Its
pines Seem to be of the fame fort asithofe  of
New-Caledonia   and  New-Zealand.     Of  the
cabbage-bearing palms, which  Cook found ori
this ifle, there were none   feen bv the French
.navigators. It is uninhabited, fave by fea-fowls,
particularly tropic-birds with long red feathers^)
boob*ies and gulls were likewife feen upon it, In
great numbers.    To the northward,  the eaftward, and perhaps all around this ifle, there ex- ^
tends a bank of fand, over which  the depth of
the water is but between twenty and thirty fathoms.    Some   red-fifh   were caught by our
voyagers overagainit  this  ifle,  which afforded^
them an excellent repaft.    At eight o'clock mi
the evening, they refumed their courfe; failing,^
firft, W. N. W. afterwards bearing away grad-|:
ually S. W. by W.    The bottom was found b.yj
frequent foundings, to be even ; and the water
became continually deeper in proportion as they
receded from the land.    At eleven in the eve-a
ning, they were ten miles W. N. W.  from thee
moft  northern  point of Norfolk   Ifland,  and
could find no bottom with a,line of fixty fathoms."
The  wind  was at   E.   S.  E.  with    frequent
darkening blafts, in the intervals between which* ROUND THE WORLD.
the fky-'was tolerably clearff At day-break, they
held with full fail towards Botany-Bay, from?
which they were not now more than three hundred leagues diftant. In the evening of the
14th, they founded with a line of two hundred
fathoms, without finding bottom. The wind
continued to blow from E. S. E. to N; E. till
they came within fight of New Holland. On
the 17th, in 31 deg. 28 min. S. Lat. in 159
deg. 15 min. E. Long, they were furrounded'
bv flocks of gulls, which led them to fufpect-
the vicinity of Some rock or ifland. Thefe
birds followed them to within eighty leagues-
©f New Holland; and had probably come
from fome uninhabited ifland which our voy-
agerlFhad paffed without obferving it. Within eight leagues of Botany Bay they at laft found'
bottom under ninety fathoms depth of water,
Rafter havmg, every evening, founded without
fuccefs, with a line of two hundred fathoms,
fince their departure from the coaft ©f Norfolk
IflandJll. On the 23d of January, they arrived
within fight of Botany Bay. The land is not of
■any extraordinary elevation; and is Scarcely vi-
fible beyond the diftance of twelve leagues out
at fea. In their near approach to the Bay,.they
met with currents by which they were contin-
u illy drifted fouthward from their reckoning:
On the 24th they plied for the whole day to
windward, in fight of the Bay! •'■without being
able to double Point Solander. This day, they
perceived an Englifh fleet at anchor in< Botany
Bay.; and could difcern its colours and pendents. At nine on jihe morning of the 26thy,
they dropped anchor in feven fathoms water'
©vex a bottom of grey-Sana^ abreafi of the fecond- im
An 'Englifh lieutenant and midfhipman
came on board, as they entered the mouth of
the channel; informed the French commander,
that they were Sent by Captain Hunter, commanding the Sir i us Englifh frigate; and ma*
king offer of every fervice which Captain Hunter's circumftances could permit him to render
them. Deferters from the Englifh fettlement,
which was at this time juft forming under Goy-e
ernor; Philips, afterwards gave the French no
Small trouble.
The Englifh having gone Srom Botany Bay to
Port Jackfon, M. de la Peyroufe halted for Some
time in that Bay. A fort of intrenchment with.
pallifades was formed on fhore, for the purpofe
of fecuringthe French during their flay, from the
mifchievous attacks of the natives. Thefe people threw fpears at them, after receiving their
prefents and careffes. It was the determination
of the French commander to fail from Botany
Bay on the 15 th of Maych 1788; and he hadhopes
of arriving, in the month of December, at the Ifle
of France. M. de Clonard was here advanced
to the command of L'Aftrolabe. From this nation were tranfmitted home the laft letters and
journals which have been received in France
from the unfortunate La Peyroufe, and the
companions of his voyage.
Every thing concurs to perfuade us, that they
have all peri fhed by fhipwreek. No accounts
have been obtained concerning them. Captain
Bowen, in December r 701, on his return from
Port Jackfon to Bombay, perceived, on the coaft;
of New Georgia, in the eaftern ocean, the wreck
of a Ship which he judged to be of French construction, floating upon the waters.    From the "
figns of the natives he learned-that European
fhips had touched on their conft; and he perceived, in their hands, feveral articles of iron
and glafs-ware. The only fhips known to have
ijftvigated thefe feas, are—thofe of Bougainville,
—the Alexander—the Friendfhip of. London—«
tfhofe of La Pteyroufe—and that of Captain
Bowen. As the redafe known not to have been
wrecked in thefe feas, the only inference which
remains, is, that the wreck which Captain
Bowen faw, mud have been the wreck of the
fhips of La Peyroufe. This is the only probability which we poffefs concerning the fate c£*
this great navigator and his companions.
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j N the month of Auguft in th,e year 1781, the
Princefa frigate was fitted out by the governor of
Manilla, for an expedition of which the defigu
was kept fecret. The command was intrufted
to Don Antonio Maurelle ; and he received, at
the fame time, a fealed packet, which he was^
ordered not to open, till he fhould be ten leagues
of diftance out at fea, from the port of Cavite.
He put to fea on the 24th of Auguft. On the
25 th at the prefcribed diftance from Cavite, he
opened the packet; and found it to contain in-
ftructions directing him to repair to the port of
Sifiran, on the eaftern coaft of Luconia, and
there await the further orders of government.
Adverfe winds and calms foon intervened to
retard his progrefs. While he wrought to windward, a current from the point of Efcarfeo, car-
ried the veffel backwards. On the 29th, at two
o'clock in the Morning, he was obliged to cafl
anchor near that point. On the 30th, at half
after %ree in the morning, the wind changed to
$he weft, with a degree of violence wbich drove. Z&2
the frigate from her anchors. At length, with
great difficulty, and with the lofs of fome anchors-
and cables, the point was doubled. At eight j
o'clock, on the evening of the 31ft, they came to
anchor under fhelter of the ifland of Tiaco. Qn
the ift of September, they procedeed on their
courfe. About fix o'clock in the evening of the
2d, thev reached the harbour of Sifiran.
On the $d, Don Antonio Maurelle came to
anchor, and moored the veffel in the beft manner poffible, as he was here to wait the final orders of the Governor of Manilla. In the interval he endeavoured to difcipiine his crew, that \
they might be prepared to refill any hoflile attack in the courfe of their deftined expedition.
He wrote alfo, to inform thevgovernor of his arrivals Sifiran 5 and to requeft his further 01-
Contiguous to Sifiran are  fome very hig&jj
mountains, which conftantly preferve much humidity in the  climate, and appear to occafion
violent hurricanes,   which are frequent here.?
The wetnefs of the weather began already to affect the fe"amen of the Princefa with difeafe &
and one man died during their delay here.    Th|J
neareft inhabited parts of the ifland are at morei
than 30 leagues of diftance from Sifiran. e -Steffji
mountains, and pafjes  occupied by the favage
natives, lie between.    Here, the Spanifh captain
found   the utmoft difficulty to procure thC"rjj~|
frefhments requifite for a voyage of confiderabt^
length.    The Al'cade of the province, at the requeft of Mr. Maurelle, furnifhed him with cables  to  replace   thefe   which  had   bet \    loM
Anchors, however, were not  here to W^oM
taincd. &
On the i oth of November, an officer arrived,
and put into the hands of captain Maurelle, a.
[large box, containing fome difpatches relative to
ithe fervice of his Catholic Majefty. Thefe he
was charged from the governor general of the
[Philippine Ifles, to convey with all poffible fpeed
to his Excellency, the Viceroy of Mexico. For
this end, he was, without delay, to fail, to either
the port of San Blaz or Acapulco, as he himfelf
fhould find convenient. Such a voyage, unlefs
to fhips fetting out in the beginning of June,
and failing with the wefterly winds which then
blew, to the eaft of the Marian Iflands, had been
[hitherto judged impracticable. Don Antonio
iMaurelle, therefore, juftly confidered himfelf as
engaging in a voyage abfolutely new, in the courfe
bf which he would be obliged to fail in a tract
over the ocean which no former navigator had
tried. Zeal for. the fervice of his fovereign,
however, animated him to encounter every difficulty. His perfonal experience had acquainted
him with thefe feas as far as to New-Britain.
The charts of M. de Bougainville and others,
were adapted to afford him fome further direction. Unfortunately^iy^^e port from which
he was- now to fail, it was impoffible to obtain
an adequate fupply of the neceffaries for the
#0yage. Their bread began already to be exceedingly injured by infects. Of water, they
lIKMenot conveniently flow more on board than
wMmIj pipes and forty barrels. The cordage
tes. Very infirm. In want of tar, they were
bSiiggdatjo accept pitch. In the very outfet of
lis-'Yoyage) Captain Maurelle faw it necefTary to
pFC|)irfe;for encountering calamities in the courfe
' &
On the 21ft day of November,  1780, the
Princefa frigate failed   from the port of Sifiran
for San Blaz, on the weftern coaft of American-
She was wafted by fine breezes from the E. N.
E. and E.    Mr. Maurelle endeavoured to get to
the northward.    On the 30th, he found himfelf
-in i<5 deg.  14 min.  N. Lat.    The winds and
high fwelling feas retarded the progrefs of tht
veffel, and at times diverted her from her courfe,
fo. that, on the 9th of December, me was ftill
"within fight of the ifland of  Catanduanes, one
of the Philippines.     Tolerably  frefh breezes
from rhe fouth and weft, now enabled them to
run to the eaftward till the 14th of December.
New variations of the wind foon obliged them
to run to the fouthward.     TTie   charts  which
they had onboard, reprefented different iflands,
none of which appeared as lying within fight of
the tract over which they paffed between the
18th and 21 ft. & But, the fhort and heavy billows
which nowyrolled around  them, were fuch as
muft certainly have been produced by the proximity of the Caroline Ifles, or the New Philippines.    They croffed tfee line on the 29th, an4
entered the fouthetirliemifphere.     Mr. Maurelle ftill made it his principal  object to fleer
fouthward, till he might fall in with the weftdg*/
ly winds, fuch as are naturally to be expected Jii
high latitudes j_yet varied his courfe in compliance with the frequent variations of the breezes
to which he was, in the mean time, expofed.
Jn this courfe', many large trunks of trees, birds,
of different fpecies, boobies, and  thofe fowls
which the Spaniards named dominicos, were oH
ten feen by the (hip's company, while they (ailed on. ROUND THE WORLD,
On the7th of January, they faw the Thousand
Isles of Bougainville, of which the moft northern, is, in his chart, placed in j deg. lomin.S. and
in the Longitude of 139 deg. 30 min. E. from
Paris.    They coafted along thefe ifles, at a fmall
diftance from the fhore, took many bearings,
,and determined, as Mr. Maurelle believes, with
%reat preciGon,  the pofitions of 29 of them.
Thefe ifles are ?M low, covered with trees, and
£ome of them conjoined by intermediate reefs of
locks, the fea breaks over thefe rocks ; and thev
are not viuble at any great diftance.    Sailing
-within two miles from the moft northerly of
%&m, the Spanifli mariners could perceive ma<-
nv fires blazing on thofe which were on the moft:
eafterly.    Nor was it poffible to withhold from
furprize, at perceiving fuch narrow fpots inhab^
ptfed.    Steering foon after, eaft by north, they
-difcovered on the 8th of January, S. 3 deg. E.
at the diftance of 5 leagues, two iflets, to which
pMr. Maurelle gave the common name of Her*
mitanos.C That evening, they faw alfo the Anchorets of .Bougainville, precisely in the latitude
mentioned by that voyager ; and almoft at the
pme inftant, f<5ur fmall ifles to the  eaftward,
j *>n which was impofed thenameof ^lonagos.
Bearing away from thefe ifles for the North
PCape of New Britain, they difcovered, on the
ill oth, at day-break, other ifles lying S. S. E.
"On this, and the following day, they ran along
the length of the moft weftern of thefe new
iflef, at a moderate diftance from its fhore.    Its
-northern coaft is 11 leagues in length.    Beyond
the plains adjacent to the fea-fhore, feveral hills
fjto^re eieen to - rife to a  confiderable elevation.
■>$Qiix low ifles, covered with trees, a-nd wi& *
W& 266
*coaft free from reefs, came in view fucceffively,
;while the frigate failed It is not improbable
but the channels between'thefe ifles may. afford
good anchorage, in which fhips may be fuffi-
oiently  protected   from  both   fea   and  wind.
Fromihefe ifles, there came out  on  the nth,
/twelve canoes, with a number of the iflanders on
board ;   who eameflly craved food from the
Spanifh failors.   Some cocoa-nuts, with a few
pieces of bifcuit were thrown out to them, and
-voraciojufly accepted.   "With long hatchets which
they bore, they made every effort to drag away
a net with fomo garden-fluffs, which they faw
fufpended from the poop of the frigate.    Their
weapons were {lender arrow-like darts, pointed
with clumfy flints.    They had alfo fifhing-nets.
It fhould feem ihat they live in a condition of
extreme mifery.    Fifhing is undoubtedly their
principal refource for the means of fubfiftence.
To the la*geft of thefe ifles, Captain Maurelle
.gave the name of Don Jofeph JBafeo.    Of thofe
.two, which lay  the fartheft to the  South, he
gave to the moft wefterly, the name of San Miguel ; to the moft eaflerly, that of Jefus Maria.
To two other ifles, at two miles diftance, along
the coaft of which the frigate failed, he gave, j
to thejnore eaflerly the name of San Raphael;
to the more weflerly, that of San Gabriel.    A
number  of other ifles   contiguous   to   thefe,
equally attracted tjie notice of Mr. Maurelle,
while he failed on •, and were diftinguifhed by
new names.
On the 12th, after palling within view of a very fmall iflet, he  defcried the ifle of Matthias,
which the French chart places to the north ef
Jslew Britain.   Sailing onwards, in the fame, di* ROUND THE WORLD.
redtion, they difcovered, at length, the French
Hie of florms, almoft concealed from obferva-
tion, by means of the fogs in which it was involved, and of the rain and Mails of wind which
they met with in its vicinity^ On the 13th of
Janua^p, an extenfive coaft arofe to view.
Clouds, fogs, and tornadoes, filled the fouthern
hemhphere of the horizon. In this ftate of the
weather, it was#difficult to diftinguifh what land
this coaft could be. Yet, judgingfrom all appearances, it could hardly be other than that of
§New Britain. Continuing their courfe, they
daily difcovered a diverfity of iflets, which they
believed to be hitherto unknown to European
navigators ; till at laft they came within fight of
g& iflets, which they fuppofed to be the Outong
Java of the French chart..  Thefe ifles were per-
|pdved to be furrounded by a fand-bank, which
was not vifible beyond the diftance of two miles
from the fhore. Near the edges ojjthe bank,
feveral fmall rocks raife their head^j^feernablv
abqVe the water. On the fouther^|^Jm|tlns
-bank, is a narrow opening, oppon^|JSf||«!fiich
i.Jfcfr. Maurelle  found the latitude to be.4 deg>*.
£3 min. at two cables' length from the entrance.
The1 entrance leads to a gulph, in whjch-the fea
is entirely calm, and where fhips may' fafcly rkje
[a^ygichor, during the time necefiary to taike i:\
teejjd and water*    To the north this "gflghfs;
;3»etlered by the iflets. The SpaniftiXcomman-
der gave it the name of Pu-erta la Princefb.
From thefe iflets, more than fixty canoes i^me
out to within a mufket's fhotof the frigaft^'^But
*$xe wind, at that inftant, blew too favourably to
leave it eligible  for the Spaniards to wait their,
nearer approach.    On the ifkta-agf^aced .jaahn*-
mfS;    'i *6&
tfeees, the fruit of which, with the prtxface of
their fifhings, ate their only probable means for
From Outong-Java, the Princefa wa& carried
onward by winds which, during the day, were.
gentle and favourable, but became v4oieflrin the
night.    Amid ft fo many ifles, the progrefs b]fe
sight was exceedingly dangerous; but the whole
flip's company were vigilant, and happily fuc-
ceeded without  fudden  misfortune.     On the
night of the 2 2d, they obferved the billows to
break  with terrible fury on  a fboal of rocks*
to which they gave the  name of The SnorerJi
and bore a*vay from it with all poffible hafte.'
During the remaining part  of   January, the
winds blew faintly, varying between the points-
of N. N. W. and N. E.     Thefe occafioned the
frigate to tend, in its progrefs ftill farther and
farther fouthward.    Efforts were, from time to,
time, made, but with little fuccefs, to bend their
track, as they went  on, again towards the line.
Seeing the voyage thus prolonged, Captain Maurelle, from the i&th of January, ufed the precaution of leffening, by two  ounces, the daily
allowance of bread to each man.    On the 16th
of February, finding that the weather did not
become more favourable ; that they were ftill
far diftant from the place of their deftination ;
and that there did not now remain on  board
provifions for   more  than three months :   he
thought proper to reduce the total daily allows
a nee to two thirds of what it had hitherto been.
The fiiip  was   unhappily infefted with cockroaches, which committed the moft deftractiye
.-.'depredations on the cafks  of bifcuit.     Many
of the water-calks had- alfo leaked out the great* ROUN'D T*!l WORL0>-
i er part of their contents* and had become entire--
ly unfit for further ufe.     Mr.  Maurelle was^-
! therefore, induced to make fail for Solomon's
Iflands, in order to replace the water which he
i hail loft.    But the north-eafterly winds blowing,
without  interruption, ftill drove  the veffel, in
| fpite of every e ffort fouthward.     On the 20th
of February, they were 17   leagues weftward
I from Cape Santa Cr»z,or Guadalcavar. Breezes from the E. N. E. and E.   foon made them
lofe all hopes of gaining Solomon's Ifles.     It
was determined, as the laft refource, to proceed
farther fouthward,. till they fhould fall in with
thofe   ifles of joy  and abundance, which have
been fo much celebrated by the Englifh navigators.    The failors heard the determination with
extraordinary joy&. A fmall ifland was feen on
the 26th of February ; and, there, they inftant-
ly flattered themfelves? that they fhould meet the
ample gratification of their wifhes in the relief
of their wants.*||But this ifle was-utterly barren ;
nor did its coaft affiord  anqhorage for a< fhip's
boat.     la the bitternefs  of their, difappoint- -
joaent,  they gave it the inaufpicious-name of
On the 27 th^ however, was difcovered an ifland of fairer afpect. Its fummit had a burnt'
appearance 4 but its flope was intereftingly covered with trees and verdure. In particular, many cocoa-nut-trees were (een- upon it. The
faintnefs .with which the wind blevkjbut very
imperfectly aided the eagernefs- of the Spanifh
crew to approach the fhore of this ifle. But a
number of canoes foon came out from its weftern fide^ with cocoa-nuts and bananas, which
svere readily bartered with the ftrangers.     The
Y2. 273"
iflanders came on board the frigate; and  one,
who feemed to poffefs  fuperior authority, ex&^i
preffed the moft friendly fentiments towards the
Spaniards, danced and fang upon the deck, and
gave to Mr. Maurelle, among other prefentlj a
large piece of fluff7, refembfing blotting paper..
His prefents were amply compenfated.    He informed them, that the ifle was named Latte ;
that he himfelf was its ehief; that it was abundant in fruits and frefh-water ; and that anchor-
ing-ground  might be found on its coaft.    No
fuch anchoring-grould could,  however, be difcovered.     But in their ftretches round the ifle,
the Spanifh navigators defcried, at twelve leagues
diftance to the E. N. E. other ifles of lower el'tm
vation, but larger extent, between which there
were channels, which might afford fhelter to
Shipping.    They directed their courfe towards *
thefe ifles.    On the 4th of March, they conducted the frigate up a fmall entrance formed by the
ifles to the N. "W". and anchored at a fhort d$f|
tance from land,  in forty five fathoms watedfl
From this anchorage were  feen,   within the
gulph, houfes, plantations of banana and cocoa-
trees, with very flattering appearances  of wa-lj
ter.    Various harbours, where the fhip mighty
find (belter, were likewife difcovered amidft this
grOupe of ifles.    In the evening, they moveit
from thejr fir# ftation ; and on the 5 th, at daybreak, anchored in twenty-three fathoms depth
of water, over a bottom or fand and ftones,  at
the  diftance of but two cables' length from an
inhabited fhore.
While they were coming up into this ftation,
from fifty to an hundred canoes came daily out
to them, with hogs, fowls, baaaaas, cocoas, and
potatoes of extraordinary fize. Cloths made
from the bark of palm-tree, and others of different forts, were likewife offered by the natives*
In exchange, they afked hatchets, knives, and
other cutting inftruments; but thefe Captain
plaurelle ftri£lly forbade his crew to give. The
Spaniards cut down their fhirts, trowfers, and
jackets ; and for thefe, were obtained hogs and
other refrefhments. The iflanders who came
on board, folicited Mr. Maurelle to carry his
fliip into the middle of their Archipelago. The
Chiefs readily fate down at his table, but would
eat of nothing but their own fruits. The women likewife vifited the Spaniards, and appeared to be not at all difagreeable in form and?fea-
tures. They wore a fort of petticoat encircling
their waift to the knees ; and the men had on a
fimrfer drefs. I Some of the men meafured fix
feet four inches inftature, and were proportion-*
ately tlfick and robufl:. The loweft in ftature of
the iflanders, was taller than the talleftof the
Spanifh crew. A prefent of fruits was fent to.
the Spanifh commander from the Tubou, or
Great Chief, by the hands of his fon. The
youth was courteouily received ; and feemed to
be well-pleafed wit& *his reception. At eight
o'clock, next morning, more than a hun<j#ed canoes, with a great noife of the perfons who
manned them, came around the fhip. ^The
Tubou was now on his way to vifit the ftran-
gers- He was an old man, of enormous bulk.
But, the inferior chiefs lifted him on board the
fhip. He was accompanied by his wife, a young
woman of Angular beauty, and apparently not
above twenty-five years of age. The king and
taeen feated themfelves on the watch-bench, trrr
while tneir  attendants, proftrating themfelvei*
before them, kiffed the feet of the XubOu.    The
Tubou brought a large canoe  filled with potatoes,  as a prefent to the  ilrangers.    Captain-
Maurelle gratefully adorned both him and his.
/poufe, each, with a flame-coloured filk  fcarf,;
reaching from the neck to the waift,and having,
two piailres, impreffed with  the image of the
Spanifli monarch, fufpendedby a carnation-ribbon, at the lower extremity.wReals,  with the*
fame impreifion, were, at the fame time diftri—
buted to the attendants of the royal pair.#Thefe^
attendants fhewed the moft profound deference*
for the 'Sovereign ; and  were   by him treated-
with an air of the moft exalted fuperiority. They*
all beheld, with wonder, the equipment of the
frigate,   and   the various  things which .^were
ihewn to them in the cabin.    Thev went awav»a
*  ' '     a
at laft, with profeffions of the warmefl frrend-
fhip, and certainly not ill fatisfied with their reception.    To prevent quarrels, ,Mr.   Maurelle*
had the precaution to threaten the fevereft pun->
ifhments  againft whoever of  the crew fhould*
giv£ the iflanders the flighteft offence ; and, at>
the fame  time,  cautioned  his people to keep-
vigilantly  on  their guard.    He directed fome-
canon-fhots to be fired againft the rocks, for the,
purpofe of .giving  the Indians an   idea of the
power ©f the Spanifh fire-arms.    They beheld,,
with admiration and dread, thofe.fragments of*
rocks, which were dafhed off and fcattered about,
by the impulfe of the  balls.    Twelve or fifteerr
hundred of the iflanders witneffed the difcharge:
And it produced, on their minds, all the effect-
that was defired from it.    On the 6th, Captain,;
Maurelle felected, from, among his fhip's conw ROUND THE W0RLB*
pany, fifteen men, armed them with piftcls,
fwords, mufkets, cartridges, and arming the
long-boat with fwivels, fet out in it for the fhore,
accompanied by this party. The beach where
they landed, was crowded with men and women. Thefe Mr. Maurelle obliged to remove
to a fuitable diftance. He then arranged his
men under arms, and pointed his fwivels againft
the crowd, t© be difcharged upon them, if any
unhappy accident fhould render this neceffary.
The fon of the Tubou offered to conduct one of
the Spaniards to a ftream of water; but the
[wjjaniard, foon beginning to fufpect fome bad
artifice, defifted from following the young man.
A well, dug on the ftrand, yielded only brack*
ifh water unfit to be drank. Mr. Maurelle,
therefore, directed another pit to be dug, at a
greater diftance from the edge of the fea. Tail
labour could not,be at this time completed. On
the 7th, the long-boat, with a well-armed detachment, repaired again to the fhore. The
digging of the pit was renewed ; and it was, at
laft, left in a condition which promifed to afford
water on the day following. The Tubou now
vifited the Spaniards on the fhore. His attendants were numerous ; evidently perfons o£
rank ; and fome of them, venerable old men*
He embraced Mr. Maurelle with the fame affection as formerly. The royal attendants feated
themfelves in a circle on the ground. Two
carpets of palm-ftuff were brought. The king
fat down on one of thefe ; and he invited the
Spanifh commander to feat himfelf on his right-
hand, upon the other. All around remained in
profound filence, while the Tubou fpoke, and
the venerable old men who fat near hiuu^re- 274
la>peyrouse's .voyage
peated all his words, exa&ly as he uttered them*.
Roots, probably of the Ava, were brought^
From thefe, ana ufeous bitter drink was preparr
ed : and m veffels made of leaves of the banana-
tree, this drink was, by young cup-bearers, pre-
fented, firft, to the Tubou and Mr. Maurelle,'
afterwards, in ovder, to thofe who fat around
them. Only a felect number were permitted
to tafte this neclar of the great, among thefe
iflanders^SHe who fat among the Tubou's officers, the neareft to the royal perfon, pointed out,
as if officially, to the cup-bearers, to whom they:
were to ferve the ava. Mr. Maurelle declined
tafting it. Thofe who drank of it, appeared to
writh their countenances with difgutft at its
loathfome bitternefs. Boiled potatoes and ripe-
bananas were then let before ihe Spanifh Cap-
tarn j and of thefe he ate. Two canoes, laden
with fimilar provifions for His. foldiers, were
foon after feen to arrive. After the entertainment, the Tubou returned to his own habitation*
Mr. Maurelle returned the vifit-; and wascour-
teoufly received by the. monarchy Soon after
his arrival at the royal habitation, the beautiful
queen made her appearance. Before her walked
eight or ten young girls, who might be, each,
from fifteen to eighteen years of age. Some
of them drove away the flies from incommoding
her 5 on others fhe leaned while fhe walked ^
all were employed in menial£ fervices about her
perfon. She was wrapped in feveral different
mantles, which gave a confiderable bulkinefs to
her form. She received- the ftrangers with a
fmiling countenance ; uttering the words, liley*
liley, liley, which were underftood to fignify
wetsome.    The king was fo ready to ft rip liisrW] P0
felf of his garments, to bellow thefe upon hh •
viiitors,   that, after this firft vifit of ceremony,
Mr- Maurelle, in delicacy, avoided as much as
poffible, to give him occafion for beftowing favours, fo coftly to the Tubou, of fo fmall value
to his gueft.     The Tubou, bellowed,  at  this
firft vifit, upon his Spanifh  friend, two large of the gilthead fpecies, and a flaff painted
with divers colours.    On the 8th, the pit which
the Spaniards had dug on  fhore, was, to their
jgreat joy filled  with  water.    The natives faw
this with extreme aftonifhment.  The.Spaniards
i filled their cafks.    But, this water was ftill fo
<brackifh, as not to be worth fhipping.    Newfu'p-
["plies of provisions, were, on this day, again received from the bounteous'hofpitality of the
[king and queen : And indeed, they never failed
to fend to MrvMaurelle, every evening, a large
l-quantity of boiled or roafted potatoes.
Finding the water which was to be procured
;/near the fhore, in this ifle, to be exceedingly improper, on account of its brackifh qualities, for
ithe ufe of his fliip's company*, Mr. Maurelle
-was induced to weigh anchor, and proceed to
another  bay  about  a  league  and  a  half,   or
two leagues diftant from  that  in  which  he
■had   firft   attempted  to  fupply   himfelf with
-Avater.    But,  in drawing up the anchor, the
'oable   unluckily  broke; and  the   anchor was,
in  confequence, loft.    The new bay was happily Iheltered both from the tempeftuous fweldings of the billows, and from  whateverl|was
to be  dreaded from the   winds.     It afforded
Ianchorage   in   thirty  two  fathoms   depth  of
; water, over a bottom of fand mixed with flones.
4~)n thepth, the Spanifli crew began to take in 2?£
their water.    The watering place was but a rep i
yards diftant from the beach.     The iflanders
obligingly aided them in rolling their cafks between the watering  place and the fhore.    On
the ioth, nth, and 12th, they took in as much
water as they defired.    The friendly intercourse
was ftill continued between them and the  natives.    Of the  natives, many would pafs  the
night on board,  with perfect   confidence   ia
the Spaniards*! On the 12th, the Tubou invited the ftrangers to a great entertainment.   A
fpace of ground was,  for this purpofe, entirely cleared of the wood and fhrubs with which
it had been overgrown. Indians, in pairs, brought;!
from the Tubou's houfe, a quantity of potatoes,'
bananas, cocoa-nuts, and^fifhes, fufpended from
poles, one of which was fiipported between the
ojfpofite fhoulders of every two of tn^e bearers.
All thefe provilions were by the   Tubou's or*
ders, placed in a large heap, of a cubical form,
in the middle of the fpace of ground which had
been cleared'out for the entertainment.     The
•pile was not lefs than fix feet in height.    The
Tubou came next,  with the fame train of attendants as formerly.    No fewer than two thoufand of the iflanders thronged after.    The com-
pany feated themfelves on carpets of the palm-
tree-     The king, in a fpeech, then offered to
the Spaniards the heap of provifions which they
faw before them.    And thefe  were therefore,
without delay, conveyed on board the boats. After this had paffed, the Tubou again made a
fpeech ; and the old men, as formerly, repeated
his word3 exactly" as he-uttered  them.     Mr.l
Maurelle and the  Spaniards knew not well to
what all-this-might tends  but were on their I
guard, and ready to difcharge their piftols and
rnufkets, if anything of hoilility fhould be attempted by the Indians.
While all was mute   attention  and fufpenfe,
there advanced from among  the  ranks of the
natives, a flout young man, who laying his left
hand' on  his breaft, fWuck his elbow with the
palm of his right hand.    To thofe  who were
not of his  own tribe,»he appeared to addrefs a
variety of antic gambols.    From among them,
one at length arofe, and prefented himfelf to
notice, by fimilar geftures.    Thefe two immediately begafcla wreftling-match.    They clofed
in with each other, body to body; and in all
(different directions, preffed and pulled one another with an exertion by which the veins and
[mufcles of their bodies were, to an extreme degree, inflated and ftrained.    One of the wreft-
lers was at length thrown to the ground.     He
fell w'Mx  a degree of   violence   which   made
fome of   the Spanifh fpectators fear that  he
might   never if ife  again.    But he^fbon got up,
and retired in difgrace, and afhamed, not dar-
ring once to look behind mm.     The conqueror
then paid his refpects to  the  Tubou*,   and a
!fong was fung in honour of the conteft.     Other
wreftlers fucceeded.    The contefts were pro-
iJon'ged for the fpace of two hours. One of thofe
[who were engaged, had an arm broken, others
fuffered  by  very   fevere  blows'.     Before the
wreifting was terminated, a different f£t of combatants were feen to come forward for conteft.
Thefe had cords  wrapped round   their   fifts,
[which might ferve them, much as the gauntlets
[of the Athlete of ancient  Greece.    Thefe,  in
their contefts1, prefented  a  form of fighting
> 27&
more awful than that of the wreftlers.     They
fl-ruck one another on  the forehead, the eyebrows, the cheeks, and on every part of the face.
. Some were irrecoverably felled to the ground.
The fpectators feemed to regard the boxers with
a degree of refpect, fuperior Jb that with which
they had looked upon the efforts of the wreft-
; Icrs.    The female attendants belonging to the
queen, as alfo fome other Avomen, were witneC^
fes of thefe fportive combats.    The ladies were,
upon this occafion, arrayed in all their gaycft
attirem. Their mantles were adjufted  in neati
plaits and folds ; and were fixed by a knot over
the left fhoulder:   On their heads,  they wore
garlands of flowers :   Around their necks, they
had firings of large glafs-beads : Their hair was
elegantly difpofed in trefles :   The fkin warln a
flare of exquifite cleannefs. flJThetr   whole perfons were perfumed with an agreeable fragrant"
oil.    !rjtiey ftrove to win   the   attention   of
the   Spanifh   gentlemen;    and   certainly- appeared, for this, only fo much thipnore attractive.     jAt the king's command, fome 'female
combatants made, alfo, an exhibition of a boxing match.    They fought with fuch fury, that,
if they had not been quickly parted, they would'
hardly have left a tooth in one another's heads.
But, at the requell of Don Anconio Maurelle,
thefe female combats were fpeedily put an end
to.    An old woman, at the Tubou's command,
fang, for the  entertainment of the compamlj
While (he fang, there was a  cruet fufpended
from her neck, probably to fupply a fluid with
which fhe might, from time to time, moiften her
mouth.    She fang for half an hour together^ in a
fjrain not unlike the declamation of an actrefs
fm a theatre.    From thefcene of the entertaint ROUND THE WORLD.\, ^^
ment,' Don Antonio accompanied the Tubou to
i jps houfe.. The queen there received him and her
hufband with her wonted courtefy. When hacked why-{he had not been prefent at the fports 5
me replied, that fuch amufements were far from
being pleaQpg to her. The Tubou now honoured his Spanifh friend with the name of hoxa*
or fon ; and the ties of mutual friendlhip feemed tobe,in this manner, drawn continually defer between them. Don Antonio foon took
leave of his kind hoft, and returned on board the
fhip. The Indians on the fhore, treated the
Spaniards, as they paffed to their fhips, with every poffible demontlration of friendly kindneft*
The conquerors in the games would oblige Don
Antonio, to permit them to convey him upon
their fho aiders, into the long-boat. But, the
Tubou perceiving from hifrhoufe, that the ^re-
fence, and even the kindnefs of his people in-
coimjaoded their guefls, came out with a rod in
his hand, and, wi.tlj^fevere beating, drove the
whole crowd away into the woods.
All was now inreadinefs forjthe departure o£
the Princefa.    Onihe 13th, Captain Maurelle
had  refolved to fail.    Bur, this day, gales of
wind from the north, and from the N. W. blow-
! |ag directly into the  mouth of the paffdge by
which he was to fail out, rendered his depirture
absolutely impoffible. The winds grew ftill firon-
ger and ftronger. And though three anchors were-
down from the frigate, yet the cable of her iheet-
anchor gave way.   On Jhe 15th, the violence of~
the winds feemed to be fubdued.    But, the failure of the cable of anther of the anchors, again
^"concerted Mr. Maurelle, when he w&about
to fet i&jp■■--. His cables were ail in an exceeding.
•i- clSo
ly infirm ftate ; and he had e^ery reafon to dread
that hislaft anchor might alfo foon be loft. For the
prefent occafion he had a cable fixed to the near-
eft rock.   -The people were again fet to fweep
for the two anchors wh«i§i had been here loft. On
account oi the uneafinefs of mind which he felt
from thefe accidents, he was hindered from availing himfelf of a new invitation of the Tubou's, to
another entertainment.    But, this hindered not
-the Tubou from fending,every evenings for the;
.We of the Spaniards, twobafkets of roots, .with'
fome fowls and fifh.    AH  the provilions which
had been collected for the iecond entertainment,
were,   by the Tubou's orders, carried on board
the frigate.    And the Tubou came, there, feveral   times, to dine,   and enjoy his afternoon's
nap.      On the    i6th,    Mr.    Maurelle   agaiitl
made a fruitlefs attempt to leave the channel.
On the 18th, the firft pilot going out in the boat,
happily found another channel, through which
the  frigate might eafily,fail away.      At two
o'clock on the afternoon of the ioth, the Prin-
cefa had, fortunately, gotten clear of all  the iflands.    The king and queen took leave of Don
Antonio, upon   this  final  feparation, with the
ilrongeft expreflion   of   kindriefs  and forrow.
Many of their fubjects, in their canoes, attended"
the courfe of the frigate, till fne had left all the
ifles behind her.    To the harbour, formed by^
three ifles of confiderable-extent, and a number
of fmailer ones, Captain Ma u re lie-gave the name
ofJEl.- Refugio.    It lies in 18 deg. 36 min. S.
Lat. ifi 179 deg. 52 min.  Long. E.:from Paris.
To the who!e cluflei of ifles, he gave 'fhe  name
of the Ifles Don Martin de Majorca. It affords5
flicker from every^ilorm, blowing, from what^vei? ROUND THE WORLD.
qaarter.    The cfcfcnnels to the N. W. and the
S. W. by which ihips may enter or depart, afford'
jMty-fyre fathoms depth of water over  a flinty,;
flony, or gravel^ bottom. A fimilar bottom, ex-
tendfcgrtc* the very centreof the gulph, has therep
thirty-five or forty fathoms depth of water ; in
fome of the creeks, the depth of the water is di- ♦
j mmifhed totwelveor fifteesvfathomsv^itis proper to keep the lead going* while a fhip feeks ■■
anchorage amidft thefe ifles^Nothing can exceed the fertility of their -foil.    Cocoa-trees,
banana-trees, liene-trees, fugar-canes, with a di-
verfijty  of other fruit-bearing  trees, potatoes.,
with abundance of other fweet edible  rootsj
glow here, almoft  fpontaneoufly, and in the
greateft abundance.     The^Rihivatiou is alfo
wonderfully  fkilful.^   No weeds ;are fuffered *>
among the plants, in the cultivated fields. There
are roads in mas^y directions, and in an excellent co