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A voyage round the world; but more particularly to the north-west coast of America: performed in 1785,… Beresford, William, active 1788 1789

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         VOYAGE ROUND THE WORLD;
BUT   MORE   PARTICULARLY   TO   THE
NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA:
PERFORMED   IN   I785,   1786,   I787,   AND   I788, .
THE KING GEORGE AND $UEEN CHARLOTTE,     |P$ g
CAPTAINS PORTLOCK and DIXON.   K/Cy
DEDICATED,   BY. PERMISSION,   TO      -
Sir  JOSEPH   BANKS,  Bart.
By CAPTAIN GEORGE DIXON.
THE SECOND EDITION.
LONDON:
PUBLISHED   BY   GEO.  GOULDING,
HAYDN's  HEAD,   NO.   6,   JAMES  STREET,   COYEST   GARDEN.
1789.
  Sir JOSEPH BANKS, Bart.
PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL   SOCIETY.
SIR,
A MID S T the doubt and apprehenjion which natu~
rally attend an author on fubmitting his publications to the world, 1 have the pleafure of refleBing, that
by your permijjion I prefix to the following Work the
name of a Perfon eminently dijlinguijhed in the literary
'world, and who, not fatisfied with theoretical knowledge, has traverfed -the globe in purfuit of ufeful fcience.
'This permijjion, Sir, mufl flamp a value on the Work%
and makes me lefs apprehenfive for its fuccefs.
 vi                   DEDICATION,
I Beg leave to prefent my mofl grateful acknowledg
ments for this public teflimony of your favour; and am,
With great refpeB,
i
SIR,
Your mofl obedient
Humble Servant,
1
George Dixon.
London, 7
Jan. 1789. 1
 INTRODUCTION.
IN the early periods of Navigation, it does not feem
that the extension of Commerce was altogether the
aim of the enterprizing Adventurer ; and though generally patronized by the reigning Powers, where thefe de-
figns originated, yet, a thirft after glory, and a boundlefs
ambition of adding to the itrength and extent of territory, on one hand, or a rapacious deiire of accumulating
Wealth, or, perhaps the fame of making difcoveries, on
the other, appear to have been the only objects in view.
v There cannot be a greater proof of the truth of this
pofition, than the uniform behaviour of the Spaniards,, in
the whole courfe of their almoit unbounded acquisitions
of difcovery, conqueft, and wealth. The mocking barbarities pra&ifed by them when they conquered what was
then called the New World, caft fuch an indelible flain on
that period of their annals, as time can never obliterate.
To
 INTRODUCTION.
To the honour of the Britijh Nation be it faid, their
-eondud has uniformly been the reverfe: whatever unknown traces of land they have explored ; wherever they
found inhabitants, their attention and humanity towards,
them have uniformly been fuch, as to gain their affe&ion,.
and conciliate their efieem, inftead of exciting their relent-
ment,. or incurring; their hatreds
Indeed, if we regard adventurers from our own Country in a commercial point of view, even fo lately as the
latter part of the laft, or beginning of the prefent century, we mall find the generality of them little better
than free-booters ;. but on the other hand, were we to
take a retroipective view of the feveral voyages made
immediately under the patronage of Government, during
the fpace of the laft fifty years,, we fhall not only find
them fet on foot for the benefit of mankind in general,
but that their endeavours to improve Navigation, and the
different Sciences conne&ed therewith, have been attended with the moft brilliant fuccefs ; and it is not eafy ta>
fay, whether that zeal for the general good which firft
proje&ed thefe voyages, or the conftant wifh to have the:
refult of them made univerfally public, reflects the greateft
Juftre on their royal and munificent patrons..
Without
 INTRODUCTION.
Without entering into a particular enumeration of thefe
Voyages here, which would be fuperfluous, let it fuffice
to fay, that during the late Captain Cook's laft Voyage
to the Pacific Ocean, befides every fcientific advantage-
which might be derived from it, a new and inexhauftible
mine of wealth was laid open to future Navigators, by
trading for furs of the moft valuable kind, on the North
Weft Coaft of America.
This difcovery, though obviouQy a fource from whence
immenfe riches might be expe&ed, and communicated,
no doubt, to numbers in the year-1780, was not immediately attended to. The profecution of any effectual plan
to carry on this novel undertaking, required not only
patience and perfeverance, but a degree of fpirit and enterprize which does not often fall to the lot of individuals :
however, in the Spring of 1785, a fet of Gentlemen.procured a Charter from the South Sea Company, (to whom
the exclusive privilege of trading in the Northern Pacific
Ocean belongs) for the fole right of carrying on this traffic
to its utmoft extent; to facilitate which, two veffels were
immediately purchafed, and fitted out with all expedition,
in order to proceed on a Voyage to the North Weft Coait
of America, an account of which is the fubject of the following fheets.
• b So
 INTRODUCTION.
So laudable a defire of embarking in this new channel
of commerce, naturally engaged the attention of the world
in general, and the undertaking was approved of, and encouraged by Gentlemen whofe names alone were fuffi-
cient to bring the Voyage into public notice. The Right
Honourable Lord Mulgrave, Sir Jofeph Banks, and Mr.
Rofe, honoured us with a vifit on board; and with that degree of goodnefs which ever diftinguilTies their characters,
Signified their approbation ofthe plan, and beft wifhes for
its fuccefs..
Thefe very flattering encouragements were additional
inducements for the Owners to profecute the undertaking
with vigour ; and nothing was left unattempted, that could
pofirbly be thought of, to render it fuccefsfuL Whatever
furs might be procured in our traffic on the American
Coaft, were to be dhpofed of in China, fubject to the immediate controul of the Eaft India Company's Supercargoes, and in confequence of this confignment, both vefTels
were to be freighted home on the Company's account.
But pecuniary emolument did not altogether engrofs
the attention of the Owners on this occafion ; for in addition to the provisions ufually allowed in Merchants fer-
vice, (and of which the greateft care was taken to procure^
the,-
 INTRODUCTION.
the' very beft of every kind) a plentiful ftock of all the
various antifcorbutics was laid in which could be thought
of, as prefervatives to health. Thefe, and an unremitting
attention to the rules obferved by Captain Cook, have,
under Providence, been the means of preferving the
health of the people, in every variety of climate ; for during the prefent Voyage, which has been of more than
three years continuance, the Queen Charlotte, out of
thirty-three hands, loft only one perfon.
Though a knowledge of this circumftance is of the ut-
moft importance to all perfons who are engaged in a fea-
faring life, and therefore can neVer be made too public,
yet that alone would fcarcely have been thought a fuffi-
cient inducement to publifh the following Work ; but it
is prefumed that the advantages which both Geography
and Commerce will derive from this Voyage, are neither
uninterefting or unimportant; fo that there perhaps will
need no apology for laying the refult of it before the
world.
In order that the Reader may form a better idea ofthe
advantages which may be derived from this publication,
a brief recapitulation of what has-been done by former
Navigators on the American Coaft, and particularly what
b 2 addition
 INTRODUCTION.
addition we have made to the late Captain Cook's Difco-
veries, together with a fhort account of the fur trade, may
perhaps not be improper in this place.
The Ruffian Navigator, Beering, feems to have been
the firft who explored this inhofpitable coaft to the Northward of King George's Sound : he is faid to have fallen in
with the land in 58 deg. 28 min. North latitude, and to
have anchored in 59 deg. 18 min. Tfcherikow, in 1741,
anchored about the latitude 56 deg.
That both thefe Navigators fell in with the American
Coaft, isbeyond-a doubt; but in what Situation they made
the land, or where they anchored, is by no means equally
certain. The beft accounts we have of thefe Voyages
are very inaccurate ; and it Should be remembered, that
. Navigation at that period of time was by no means-
brought to the perfection which it is in at prefent: add
to this, the coaft in the Situation which Beering is faid to*,
have anchored in, viz. 59 degrees 18 minutes North latitude, trends nearly Eaft and Weft; fo that in the ftate
Navigation was in at that time, a m if take of Six or eight
great reafon to fuppofe, that though this celebrated Navigator might be correct in his latitude, yet the place he
1 aduall-y
 INTRODUCTION.
actually anchored in is much nearer Cook's River than is
ufually laid down in the charts.
But whilft we lament the imperfect. Slate of Navigation,
and the ftill more imperfect, accounts given to us of this
famous Ruffian's Voyages, which entirely prevent us to
fay what part of the coaft, at leaft within our limits,
he furveyed with any degree of precision, it is no lefs
incumbent on me to detect, the fallacy of a more modern1
Navigator on the fame coaft.
In the Journal of a Voyage to the North Weft Coaft
of America, by Don Francifco Antonio Maurelle, published by the Hon. Mr. Daines Barrington, after Slating
what they had already done, is the following paSTage :—
" We now attempted to find out the Straight of Admiral
Fonte, though as yet we had not difcovered the Archipelago of St. Lazarus, through which he is faid to have-
failed. With this intent we Searched every bay a?id re-
cefs on the coaft, and failed round every head-land, lying-
to in the night, that we might not lofe fight of this entrance. After thefe pains taken, and being favoured by
a North Weft wind, it may be pronounced that no fuch.
Straights are to be found."*
Why
* See Barr-ington's MifceK-ames, page 5p8i
 INTRODUCTION.
Why Maurelje Should fo pofitively aSTert a palpable
falfehood, it is not eafy to conceive. Indeed the inconsistency of this afTertion may be eafily feen, if we confider
it but for one moment; for if he actually had " fearched
every bay and recefs on the coaft, and failed round every
head-land, lying-to in the night" even with the fair wind
he Speaks of, all this, I fay, could not poffibly have been
done during twice the fpace of time he was on this part
of, the coaft. But the difcovery of Queen Charlotte's
TSlands during the prefent Voyage, inconteftibly proves
that Don Francifco Maurelle was never near the place
which he boafts of having U looked for in vain." The
Situation of thefe islands, viz. from 54 deg. 20 min. to
51 deg. $6 min. North latitude, and from 130 to 133
deg. 30 min. Weft longitude, evidently Shews that they
are the Archipelago of St. Lazarus, and confequently
near the Straight of De Fonte, though farther refearches
mull be made before any degree of credibility can be
given to his pompous account of the place.
However, if the Spaniards on this occafion could find
no islands where they actually exift, at other times they
have difcovered land which we now find to be imaginary.
The islands Los Majos, La Mafo, and St. Maria la Gorta,
laid down by Mr. Roberts^ from 18 deg. 30 min. to 28
1 dear.
 INTRODUCTION.
deg. North latitude, and from 135 deg. to 149 deg.
Weft longitude, and copied by him from a SpaniSh M.S.
chart, were in vain looked for by us, and, to ufe Mau-
relle's words, " it may be pronounced that no fuch I/lands
are to be found;" fo that their intention has uniformly
been to mislead rather than be of fervice to future Navigators.
To expatiate on the abfurdity, not to call it by a
worfe name, of fuch conduct, would be painful; let us
then turn from fo difagreeable a fubject, and fay a few
words refpe&ing the Difcoveries of our immortal countryman, the late Captain Cook.
This celebrated Navigator fell in with the American
Coaft in 44 deg. North latitude, but had no opportunity
of coming to anchor till he arrived at Nootka, which he
named King George's Sound. It is Situated in 49 deg.
36 min. North latitude; and 126 deg. 42 min. Weft
longitude..
On leaving this harbour, he was prevented by bad weather from keeping in with the coaft,* and did not again.
fee
* At noon on the 28th April,  1778, the latitude by obfervation was
gtdeg. 1 min. North; longitude 229 deg. 26 min. Eaft.    I now fleered
North:
 INTRODUCTION.
fee the land till he was in the latitude of 55 deg. 20
min. North. After this, Captain Cook had generally
an opportunity of keeping the coaft a-board ; he afcer-
tained the Situation of Cape Edgecumbe, difcovered
Kaye's Ifland, Prince William's Sound, and Cook's River, in which two laft mentioned places he came to anchor-
To fay that thefe different harbours are laid down with
accuracy and precision, would be unneceSTary; it is fuSfi-
cient to obferve, that they were furveyed by Captain Cook.
It
North Weft by North, with a frefh gale at South South Eaft, and fair
weather; but at nine in the evening it began again to blow hard and in
fqualls, with rain. With fuch weather, and the wind between South
South Eaft and South Weft, I continued the fame courfe till the 30th, at
four in the morning, when I fleered North by Weft, in order to make
the land. I regretted very much, indeed, that I could not do it fooner;
for this obvious reafon, that we were now paffing the place where Geo-
>hers have placed the pretended Straight of Admiral de Fonte. For
my own part,. I give no credit to fuch vague and improbable ftories, which
carry their own. confutation with them. 'Neverthelefs, I was very defirous
of keeping the American Coaft a-board, in order to clear up this point
beyond difpute. But it would have been highly imprudent in me to
have engaged with the land in weather fo exceedingly tempeftuous, or to
have loft the advantage of a fair wind, by waiting for better weather.
This fame day at noon we were in latitude 53 deg. 22 min. North; and
longitude 225 deg. 14 min. Eaft. See Cook's Voyage to the Pacific
Ocean, Vol. ii,. page 343.
 INTRODUCTION.
It is needlefs to trace this excellent Navigator's Difco-
veries any farther to the Northward, as they are unconnected with the prefent Voyage, and their importance is
well known to the world ; but it may be neceflary to
obferve, that Captain Cook met with furs only in Cook's
River, Prince William's, and King George's Sounds, fo
that thefe places were moft likely to engage the attention
of any perfons who Should engage in that branch of com*
merce.
Who the Gentlemen were that firft embarked in the
fur-trade, is perhaps not generally known, though it is
certain they were not hardy enough to fend veffels in-
that employ diredly from England ; for we find,- that
the firft veflel which engaged in this new trade was fitted out from China: She was a brig of Sixty tons, commanded by a Captain Hanna, who left the Typa in April,
1785. His deftination was for King George's Sound,
where he arrived the following Augufl.
Soon after his arrival, the natives attempted to board
his veflel in open day, but were repulfed with considerable Slaughter: this affair fecured the friendship of the
Indians, for they afterwards traded quietly and peaceably.
. Captain Hanna is faid to have procured a valuable cargo
c of
 INTRODUCTION.
ef furs, though the number has never been mentioned.^
He left Nootka the latter end of September, and arrived
at Macao the end of December of the fame year.. The
feme Gentleman failed again from Macao in May, 1786,
in the Sea Otter, of one hundred and twenty tons, and*
arrived at King George's Sound in Auguft- The fuc-
ceis he met with in this expedition was never made
known, but no doubt it was greatly inferior to that of
his former voyage :   he arrived at Macao in February,
1787.
The fnow Lark, Captain Peters, oft two hundred and
twenty tons and forty; men,, failed from Macao in July,
178:6. Captain Peters had orders to make the North
Weft Coaft,. by way of Kamfchatka, and was directed to
examine the iflands to the Northward of Japan. He arrived at KamMlaJfa the 20th of Auguft, and left that
place the 18th of September. Accounts have Since been
received, that this veflel was loft on Copper Ifland, and;
that only two of the people were faved.
In t|i£ beginning of 1786, the fnow Captain Cook,,
of three hundred tons, and. the fnow Experiment, of one
hundred:
* A. particular aocount ofthe furs which have been collected on the-
North Weft Coaft,, will be given.in.the. following Work*.
 INTRODUCTION.
hundred tons, were fitted out from Bombay. Thefe vef.
fels arrived at Nootka the end of June following; from
thence they proceeded to Prince William's Sound. After
fome flay there, they left the coaft, and afterwards ar-?
rived fafe at Macao ; but the quantity of furs they procured is fuppofed to have been very inconfiderable.
In the Spring of the fame year, 1786, two vefTels were
fitted out from Bengal, viz. the Nootka, of two hundred
tons, Captain Meares, and the Sea Otter, of one hundred
tons, Captain Tipping.
Captain Meares failed from Bengal in March, and an
account of his deftination is given in the following Work,
■as he was met with by us in Prince William's Sound.
The Sea-Otter, Captain Tipping, left Calcutta a few
days after the Nootka. Her deftination was for Prince
William's Sound, where She arrived in September, whiift
the Captain Cook and the Experiment were there. She
left the Sound the day after, fuppofed for Cook's River,
but having never Since been heard of, there can be but
little doubt of her being loft.
c 2 The
 m&m
INTRODUCTION.
The Imperial Eagle, Captain Berkley, left Oftend die
latter end of November, 1786, and arrived at Nootka.
the beginning of June, 1787. Some account of his expedition will be met with in the prefent Voyage.
Having given a brief abftrad of the. different Voyages
which have hitherto been made to the North Weft Coaft
of America, I cannot help noticing, an expedition that
was planned prior to any of them, and which, had it
been carried into execution, mull have proved exceedingly advantageous to the Proprietors, and very probar
bly would have entirely engrofled this lucrative branch
of commerce..
So early as 1781, William Bolts, Efq; fitted out. the.
Cobenzell, an armed Ship of 700 tons, for the North-
Weft Coaft of America., She was to have failed from
Triefte (accompanied by a tender of forty-five tons) under Imperial colours, and was equally fitted out for trade
or difcovery : men of eminence in- every department of
fcience were engaged on board ; all the maritime Courts,
of Europe were written to, in order to fecure a good reception for thefe veflels, at their refpective ports, and.
favourable anfwers were returned ; yet, after all, this
expedition, fo exceedingly promifing in every point o£
viewv
 INTRODUCTION.
view, was overturned by a fet of interefted men, then in
power at Vienna.
This Short Sketch of what has yet been done in the fur
trade, will ferve to Shew that the attention of every trader
for Skins on the American Coaft has been fixed on Cook's
River, Nootka, and Prince William's Sound ;. but the
Reader will find, on perufing this Voyage, that a greater
quantity of furs may reafonably be expected in many
parts of the coaft, than at the harbours juft mentioned,
and will not, I hope, accufe me of vanity in afferting,
that a mdre fpirited undertaking was never fet on foot by
individuals, on true commercial principles-.
What additions we have made to the difcoveries of
Captain Cook, may eafily be feen, by cafting an eye on
the annexed general chart. However, as the whole of
it is not laid down from my ownfurvey, it will be but juf-
tice for me to mention the different authorities from which
f have taken the remainder.,
From the Kodiac of Captain Cook, (which is the Wef-
termoft part of the chart) to Whitfunday Bay, is the fame
as publiihed from Captain Cook's furvey ; from thence
to Cape Douglas I have taken, from the track of the fnow
Nootka,,
 INTRODUCTION.
Nootka, Captain Meares, "which chart was put into my
liands by Mr. Rofs, Chief Mate, and the track is marked
with a dotted line. From Cape Douglas to Cook's River, and as far to the Southward and Eaftward as Port-
lock's Harbour, is laid down from Captain Portlock's and
any own furvey ; and here we differ in feveral places from
the general Chart of Captain Cook.
From Portlock's Harbour as far Southward as Beres-
ford's ISle, is entirely laid down from my own furvey.
The unShaded part of the chart, from Woody Point
round to Cape Cox, is taken from two charts which Mr.
Cox very obligingly favoured me with ; the one by Captain Guife", Commander of the fnow Experiment; the
other by Captain Hanna, Commander.of the fnow Sea-
Otter ; and from Point Breakers South, is from a chart
by Captain Berkley, Commander of the Imperial Eagle.
It yet remains for me to befpeak the candour and in*
dulgence ofthe reader, in perufing the following Work,.
as it was written by a perfon on board the Queen Charlotte, who has been totally unufed to literary purfuits, and
equally fo to a fea-faring life. However, to obviate any
obje&ion that might poffibly arife from his deficiency in
i nautical
 INTRODUCTION.
nautical knowledge, I have been particularly careful in
correcting that part of the Work, and by way of Appendix, have given every thing of the kind which, in my opinion, can be any way interefting to a feaman ; as alfo a
Short fketch of the few fubjeds we have met with in
Natural Hiftory, that are likely to engage the attention of
the curious ; and I hope that a plain narrative of faBs,
written at the time when the different occurrences hap-^
pened, will prove interefting, though deficient in fmooth-
nefs of-language, or elegance of compofition.
G. D-
  CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION
LETTER
I. REASONS for writing an account of the Voyage
II. Account of the veffels and their dejitnation
III. Leave the River—anchor at Gravefend—leave that place-
meet with a heavy gale of wind in the Downs—Arrival of the
Jhips at Spithead' -
IV. Short account of Spithead and Portfmoutb
V. Pajfage from Spithead to Guernfey—Ln danger off the Cajketts
—arrival at Guernfey—defcription of it - -
VI. Departure from Guernfey—pick up a cafk of wine at fea—
pafs by Madeira, and fend letters from thence to London      -
VII. Pafs by Palma, Ferro, and Bonavijia—arrival at St.
fago, and transactions there -
VIII. Account of St. fago and the inhabitants
IX. Departure from St. fago—an account of crofting the line,
and fundry other occurrences -
X. Continuation of the pajfage from St. fago to Falkland's
Lflands—arrival there
XI. Employments engaged in whiljl at Falkland's Lflands—an
account of them and their productions
XII. Paffage from Falkland's lflands round Cape Horn
XIII. The pajfage from Cape Horn to Owhyhee
XIV. Difappointed in watering at Owhyhee—purchafe water
at Whahoo—leave that place—proceed to Oneehow, and there
procure a Jlock of yams   . - - .-
Page
16
23
27
3i
36
43
46
Si
BS
 CONTENTS.
LETTER
XV. Pajfage from the Sandwich Lflands to Cook's River—meet
there with a party of Ruffians—come to anchor in Coal Harbour
XVI. Further account of the proceedings in Cook's River, together with, ajhort defcription of the adjacent country
XVII. Pajfage from Cook's River along the Coaft
XVIIt.    Continuation of the proceeaings along  the Coaft from
Cook's River to King George's Sound - -
-XIX. Prevented by bad weather front making King George's
Sound-—Refections thereupon -
XX. Account of the furs collected in Cooks River—Ln the paf-
fage from the Coafl to Sandwich Lflands, look out for St Maria
le Gorta—arrival at the Sandwich Lflands
XXI. Tranfactions with the natives whilft among the Sandwich
lflands—Come to anchor at Whahoo
XXII. Pur chafe wood and water at Whahoo—Defcription of
the King's Nephews—An  attempt to fleal the  whale-boat
fruftrated -
XXIII. Further account of the tranfactions at Whahoo-—the
ftjips leave that ifldnd, and proceed to Afoul
XXIV. Provifions, wood, water, &c. pur chafed at Atoui—
the Jhips leave that place and proceed to- Oneehow—the King
George arrives there—is obliged to cut her cables and proceed
i   again to fea -
XXV. The veffels leave Oneehow and arrive at Atoui-~^Friend-
Jhip Jhewn by the Chiefs there—receive a viflt from the King
XXVI. An excurfion on Jhore at Atoui—friendly reception there
—dinner prepared by Tyheira—account ofthe taro plantations, ■
and various other tranfactions - - -
XXVII. The Jhips leave Atoui and proceed to Oneehow—recover
the anchors-left there by the King George—leave Oneehow, and
fail again for Atoui -
Page
6*
72
78
109
117
m
132
140
 CONTENTS.
xxvll
LETTER
XXVIII. Reafons given for not flopping at Oneehow—paffage
from the Sandwich Lflands to the North Weft Coaft—miftake
difcovered in Captain Cooks general Chart—come to anchor at
Montague Lfland -
XXIX. Lndians come mto the harbour who fpeak Engliik—the
Jhips proceed towards Prince Williams Sound—Captain Dixon
makes an excurfton to Snug Corner Cove—-finds a veffel there
from Bengal—account of the diftrefs they had undergone
XXX. The King George's long-boat fent to Cooks River—a
fijhing party in danger of being cut off by the Lndians—the
veffels leave Montague Lfland, and afterwards J'eparate—the
§>ueen Charlotte arrives at Port Mulgrave
. XXXI.    Tranfactions at Port Mulgrave—account of the inhabitants—their method of fiftoing—cooking—burial places—articles not liked in traffic -
XXXII. Departure from Port Mulgrave—arrival at Norfolk
Sound, and tranfactions there -
XXXIII. Defcription of Norfolk Sound-—the number of inha-
bitants—^their manners, cuftoms, and method of trade
XXXIV. Leave Norfolk Sound—proceed along the Coaft—arrival at Port Banks—defcription of that place, and transactions,
there—leave Port Banks and proceed along the Coaft—meet
with Lndians who poffefs fome very fine furs
XXXV. Trade with various tribes of Lndians along the Coaft—
great number of excellent furs procured—Hippah Lfland difcovered—various articles ufed in barter—a lip-piece pur-
chafed        - -
XXXVI. Continuation of traffic with the Lndians along the
Coaft—neajbfi < for Juppofing that the land now cruiftng along is
a grcubc c    .     "/r not before difcovered—defcription of one of
145
'5*
t66
177
*9%
209
 CONTENTS*
LETTER Page
XXXVII. Attempt of the Indians to fteal fur$—in danger off
Cape St. fames—the land now fallen in with, named ^ueen
Charlotte's lflands—general defcription  of the inhabitants—
fall in with two Englijh veffels who had been in King George's
Sound, and found there a Jhipfrom Oflend - 234
XXXVIII. General account of the American Coajl—the num-
"   ber of inhabitants*—their temper—difpofition—method of traffic—various fpecimens of their language - - 246
XXXIX. Departure from the Coaft of America—pajfage from%
thence to the Sandwich Lflands—arrival at Owhyhee—tranfactions there—come to anchor at Whahoo—purchafe wood and
water there -
XL. Depart from Whahoo, and proceed to Atoui—tranfactions
there—a remarkable inftance of feeling in one of the Chiefs—
general account of the Sandwich Lflands
XLI. Account of the Sandwich lflands continued—their man-
?iers—cuftoms—drefs—diverfions, and a fpecimen of their language ~ -
XLII. Departure from the Sandwich Lflands—pafs by Tinian—
"Arrival at Macao - - - -        288
XLIII. Proceed to Wampo—tranfactions there—arrival of the
King George—death of Mr. MlLeod, Captain Portlock's Chief
Mate - - 298
XLIV. Further account of tranfactions at Canton—the furs fold
—r-reajbns given for their not fetching a better price—the Jhips
leave Wampo and proceed to Macao - - go c
XLV. General account of Canton—defcription of the inhabitants—their manners and cuftoms—their commerce—the produce
of the country—religion, &c. - - -        31 a
XLVI.    Particular account of the fur-trade - 322
254
264
280
 CONTENTS.
Pag*
LETTER
XLVII. The Jhips leave Macao—death of Mr. Lauder, Surgeon to the Queen Charlotte—proceed through the Straights of
Banca and Sunda—anchor at North Lfland-—in danger off
Java Head - - - 336
XLVIII. The veffels part company—a heavy gale of wind—the
pumps choaked with fand—got up and cleared—double the
Cape of Good Hope - - 348
XLIX. Arrival at St. Helena—-find there the King George—
departure from thence and arrival in England - 35 a.
NATURAL  HISTORY.
Crab from the Sandwich Lflands defcribed - - 353
New genus of Jhell from ditto - - - 3-54
New genus of Jhells from the Coafl of America, with a defcription of each - - - 355
Ditto from Falkland's lflands - - ~ 35^
The Yellow tufted Bee-Eater from Sandwich Lflands defcribed 357
The White winged Crofs-B ill from Montague Lfland defcribed 358
The Patagonian Warbler from Falkland's Lflands defcribed 359
The focofe Shrike from China, defcribed           -                - 360
ERRATA.
  R     R
I AGE 56, Jine 23, for longitude 152 deg. 14 min. read 150-
deg. 10 min.
P. sj, 1. 2, for latitude 51 deg. read 51 deg. 24 min. and longitude 149 deg. 35 min.
Ibid. 1. 13, for longitude 147 deg. 18 min. read 148 deg. 34 min.
Ibid. 1. 18, for longitude 149 deg. 50 min. read 149 deg. 22 min.
Ibid. 1. 24, for longitude 151 deg. 13 min. read 151 deg. 4 min.
and for latitude 58 deg. 14 min. read 58 deg. 34 mm.
P. 73, 1. 22 and 23, for latitude 58 deg. and longitude 137 deg.
38 min. read lat. $j deg. 35 min. and long. 137 deg. 12 min.
P. 76, 1. 14, for longitude 134 deg. 22 min. read 133 deg. 53 min.
P. 86, 1. 25, for longitude 154 deg. 14 min. read 151 deg. 24 min.
P. 196, 1. 13, for longitude 134 deg. 54min. read 135 deg. 12 min.
P. 197, 1. 19, for longitude 134 deg. 56 min. read 134 deg. 30 min.
P. 198, 1. 20, for longitude 133 deg. 50 min. read 134 deg.
P. 205, 1. 10, for latitude 53 deg. 16 min. read 53 deg. 28 min.
P. 212, 1. 3, for latitude 51 deg. 46 mm. read 51 deg. 56 min.
P. 214, 1. 17, for latitude 51 deg. 56 min. read 51 deg. 48 min.
P. 216, 1. 11, for " our foundings leflened," read " our foundings
increafed."
P. 222, 1. 3, for South 5 deg. Eaft, read South 5 deg. Weft.
P. 247, 1. 14, for " animal and vegetable fubftances,'' read <c animal fubftances."
P. 263, 1. 25, read 1 cocoa-palm, banana, and paper-mulberry
 Directions for the Binder.
Title-page;
Page 54
-      55
62
72
170
THE Chart to face
Sketch of a Bay South fide of Whahoo
A View in the Bay of Whahoo
A view of the Volcano in Cook's River
Views of Cape St. Hermogenes, Staten's Land, and Montague
lfland - -
Sketch of Port Mulgrave ~
Ditto of Norfolk Sound -
The Difh and Daggers -
View of Cape Edgecumbe „
Sketch of Port Banks - -   .       -
I View of Hippah lfland
The Lip-piece and Spoon
View of Cape St. James, &c.
The Woman from Queen Charlotte's Ifles
The Indian's Song
Cancer Raninus, upper fide *
Ditto ditto, under fide
Apex Fulva - - -
Yellow tufted Bee-Eater
White winged Crofs-Bill
Patagonian Warbler   .
Jocofe Shrike -
192
193
205
208
214.
226
243
353
354
355
317
358
359
36a
 VOYAGE,
&C.
LETTER   I.
DEAR   HAMLEN,     $   rj0 r
WHEN I took leave of thee at my departure from London}
thou prefledft me with all the warmth of friendfhip, to
fend thee not only a defcription of every country and place I might
have an opportunity of feeing, but a minute account of every
circumftance, however trivial, that fhould occur during my naval
peregrination. I fhall endeavour to fulfil thy requeft with the
greateft pleafure, and that not only for thy amufement, but for
the employment of my own leifure hours. As thy nautical excursions, if I miftake not, never reached farther than Deptford or
Black-wall, I am lefs ap'prehenfive of any blunders I may make in
the ufe of terms relating to navigation, as it will not be in thy
power-to laugh at my expence; and I know thy generofity too well,
to think thee capable of expofing my ignorance to the ridicule
2 . A. of
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
of profeflional men. However, what I may fend, whether good
or bad, will, I flatter .myfelf, be acceptable to thee, if for no other
reafon but that it comes from affuredly thine,
W.B.
Grave send, ?
29thAuguft. 1
LETTER    II.
DEAR   HAMLEN,
BEFORE I proceed to inform thee of any fea occurrences, it
will be neceffary to mention a few previous particulars, for
thy better information. Before I came on board, my idea of the
Voyage was fo very imperfed, that it was out of my power to give
thee any notion of our deftination. I now can tell thee, that
during the late Captain Cook's laft Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, it
was found that it would be eafily pradicable to eftablifh a valuable Fur Trade on the American Coaft, and to difpofe of them to
great advantage at China. Though this was fo long fince as the
year 1780, yet the profecution of any plan lay dormant till'Spring
laft, when a fet of gentlemen procured a charter from the South
Sea Company, and were incorporated for the exprefs purpofe of
carrying on this trade to the belt advantage ; to facilitate which,
they purchafed two veffels, and got them ready for failing with
all expedition. 1
The
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF  AMERICA. jj
The larger fliip is called the King George, and commanded by    1785.
Captain Portlock (who is Commander in Chief for the voyage) and ,   -^ft
the fmaller veflel (which I am on board) the Queen Charlotte,
commanded by Captain Dixon.
Thefe gentlemen were appointed to the command of this expedition with peculiar propriety, not only as able navigators, but
(having been this voyage with Captain Cook) they well knew what
parts of the Continent were likely to afford us the beft trade ; and
could alfo form a tolerable idea of the temper and difpofition of
the natives: add to this, they are men of feeling and humanity,
and pay the moft ftrid attention to the health of their fhips companies, a circumftance of the utmoft confequence in a voyage of
fuch length as this feems likely to be. Having" premifed thus far,
-I (hall proceed to acquaint thee of every circumftance relating to
the Voyage; but having an opportunity of forwarding this, I have
only time to fay, that I am well and truly thine,
W. B.
29th
AVESEN'D, 1
:h Auguft. j
LETTER    III.
IG O T on board the Queen on Saturday evening, the 27th
Aug»ft,_and was received with great civility by my mefs-mates,
who were the Firft, Second, and Third Mates, the Surgeon, and
A 2 the
 1785.
Auguft.
VOYAGE    TG   THE
the Captain's Clerk. The Doctor (a young Scotchman of twer
and twenty) very kindly explained to me the nature and ceconomy
of our mefs, and every other particular as far as time would permit.
When bed-time came on, I was in a fad dilemma, for my cot had
been fent by miftake on board the King George; but my friend
the Dodor very kindly offered me part of his, which I accepted
with reludance, as I was fenfible it would greatly incommode
him: however, we made tolerable fhift. About midnight, the cot
broke down, and my fituation was truly difagreeable; but I chofe
to bear it patiently, rather than diflurb my companion; but " the
grey morn in ruffet mantle clad," was never more welcome to any
one, than the approach of this was to me.
The fituation of life which I am now entering upon, being
altogether new to me, I rauft inform thee of the plan I have laid
down for the regulation of my future condud j and I hope thou
wilt join with me in thinking it the moft probable method of
fecuring to myfelf a tolerable fhare of happinefs and tranquility
during my voyage. As I am a perfed ftranger to every perfon on
board, and equally fo to the manners and cuftoms of a fea-faring
life, I am determined to afli.milate myfelf as much as poflible to
both, or, as Chefterfield phrafes it, to be " All things to all men."
This, I am afraid, will be no eafy talk, but furely the objed in
view is well worth any pains I can take to attain it.
I know thee to be {o fond of charaders, that thou art already
impatient to be acquainted with thofe of my lhip-mates; but
don't be too much in a hurry; at a future opportunity I perhaps
may oblige thee'with an attempt of the defcriptive kind.
Our
 'NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
Our pilot being -come on board, and every thing being ready for
failing, we weighed anchor on the 29th, at nine o'cloek in the morning, and flood down the river for Gravefend. The profped on
each fide the river, though not fo enriched with gentlemen's feats,
or pleafure grounds, as beyond London the other way, is truly
pleafing : it affords many extenfive views, which are agreeably
variegated, and inconteftibly prove, that Nature alone is often:
fuperior to the utmoft refinements of Art. The wind and tide
being in our favour, we came to anchor at Gravefend about two-
o'clock. Near this place is Tilbury Fort, the fight of which
reminded me of G. A. Stevens's Politician, in his celebrated Lecture on Heads. After dinner, I went with the Surgeon in one of
our boats to Gravefend, to purchafe fome neceffaries for our mefs,..
and to gratify my curiofity with a fight of the place: but I can
give thee no farther defcription of it, than that the ftreets are
narrow and dirty, and the inhabitants chiefly thofe who gain a
livelihood by employment either at fea or on the river.
Though we were got thus far, yet our voyage had like to have
been greatly retarded, on the following account. The articles of
agreement being read to the people this evening, they refufed to
fign them without a greater advance of wages than is ufually
given; but this Captain Portlock abfolutely refufed to comply
with, and after reafoning with them fome time, they chearfully
agreed to proceed on the voyage : thus, by the addrefs of Captain
Portlock, was this hiatus got over, which otherwife would have-
proved very difagreeable, and poflibly have loft us the feafon.
On the 30th in the morning, the people of both fhips were paid
what wages were due to them, together with a month's advance,
which they prefently laid out in purchaflng neceffaries of the flop-
boats
 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
1785- boats that came along-fide us, and who never fail to attend on
J^-.!/ thefe occafions, well knowing that a proper failor can never go to
fea with a fafe confcience, whilft he has any money h\his pocket.
The tide ferving about eleven o'clock, we weighed anchor, and
flood for the Downs. The water now began to have a greeniih
eaft, and the fhip having a good deal of motion, I began to feel
myfelf rather fick, but it prefently went off, and I never felt any
thing of it afterwards, which was rather extraordinary, as there
are few frefh-water failors who are not troubled with fea-ficknefs.
The perfpedive might now be faid to have rather a nautical appearance, as our diftance from fhore was «onflderable, though we
never loft fight of land.
The day was agreeable and pleafant, and we came to anchor
about eight o'clock in the evening, without any material occurrence, near Margate, that place fo much frequented in the feafon
by the wives and daughters of the better fort of London citizens,
who refort here for the purpofes of drinking fea-water, wafhing
away the fmoke and duft of London, aping the manners of people
in high life, pulling to pieces the reputation of their neighbours,
and carefully concealing any flaws in their own. The wind being
fair, we again weighed anchor early in the morning, and after a
pleafant day's fail, brought to a-breaft of Deal in the evening.
The fituation of Deal is pleafant enough, and particularly convenient for the contraband trade, which is carried on here to a-
very great extent, on account of its vicinity to the Downs, and the
fhelter it affords for homeward-bound fhips. Add to this, the
inhabitants are men of a moft enterprizing and undaunted fpirit,
defpifing all dangers, and will flick at nothing to accomplifh any
thing .they undertake. Indeed no man can be a compleat fmuggler
•without thefe charaderiftics.
The
 .NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA. 7
The. wind being againft us, we. lay here all the ill of Septerrf- 1785.
ber; but in the morning ofthe 2d, a favourable breeze fpringing ,^pt!"1. ^J
up, we weighed anchor, and made fail. The adjoining coaft feems
not to be in a high ftate of cultivation ; yet at times it affords
very agreeable profpeds, particularly Dover, and its vicinity. I
could not behold the Caftle without calling to mind that celebrated defcription of the profped from it in our immortal Shake-
peare's King Lear. The day being pretty clear, we could plainly
fee the Coaft of France, and were in full view of Albion's chalky
cliffs, thofe objeds fo pleafing to a failor, after a long voyage, and
which I ardently hope to have the fatisfadion of again beholding
a few years hence. We had very little variety in our progrefs, till
the 5th, when a very heavy gale of wind fprung up, and our veflel
was toffed about at the .mercy of the winds and waves. Every
thing now was:hnwry and diforder $ and the creaking of the fhip's
timbers, the noife of the people on deck running backwards and
forwards, and the howling of the winds amongft the mails and
yards, added to the general confufion.
During this fcene, I kept below in the .fteerage, in a fituation, not very agreeable thou mayeft be fure : indeed, had I
given way to the firft impulfes of fear, I fhould have been more
dead than al^ve -, but I had recolledion enough to refled, that our
Firft and Second Mates were experienced feamen, and that if
we were in any imminent danger, I fhould know it by their
countenances, which were the barometer by which I regulated
my feelings j and this prudent ftep a good deal leffened my
anxiety, for I learned from their difcourfe that they did not
•apprehend any great danger, except from a lee fhore,' and we
had day-light in our favour, and at a confiderable* diftanee from
land. Towards the evening the ftorm abated, which eafed my
apprehenfions, and I ventured on deck; but, good God ! how was •
I amazed
 VOYAGE    TO   THE
I amazed to fee the fea rolling in billows mountains high, and
in a moft tremendous manner, every wave fufficient to
fwallow up our little veflel.
The next day the waters had recovered, their ufual ferenity, and
all Nature feemed to be as it were renovated. How forcible is
that fimile of the good old Patriarch, when defcribing the fickle-
of his fon : " He fhall be (fays he) unliable as water."
Thou wilt forgive me thefe trifling digreffions j when they rife to
the end of my pen, (if I may be allowed the expreffion) I never
check them j and thou, perhaps, wilt like them better than the
moft ftudied paragraphs.
My letter feems fwelled to an unreafonable length, therefore I
fhall only obferve at prefent, that we came to anchor at this place
on the 8th in the afternoon, after a very agreeable day's fail.
Thou may eft exped a further continuation the firft opportunity
Thine, &c.
W. B.
ITHEA]
9th September, i
LETTER    IV.
THIS place is fituated betwixt Portfmouth and the Ifle of
Wight, and is about eight or ten miles over.    It is only a
•harbour for veffels that drop in occafionally, or fuch of his Ma-
jefry's
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA, 9
jefly's fhips as are deftined for immediate fervice.   The place for     T785-
veffels that are laid up, or repairing, being up a narrow creek,   c^-^-^?
which divides Portfmouth from Gofport.
One of the firft objeds that prefentcd itfelf to my view, on our
firft coming to anchor, was the mafts of the Royal George, which
fhip, thou mayeft remember, went to the bottom a few years ago.
It is a melancholy refledion, that near fifteen hundred poor fouls
fhould perifh in a moment, many of whom were of the firft families. There are a number of line of battle fhips at anchor here, the
fight of which is quite a novelty to me j but that which renders the
profped from hence completely charming, is the beautiful land-
fcape which the Ifle of Wight affords. Nothing in Nature can
prefent a more deledable appearance, than the enchanting verdure
of its fields and meadows. I can fay nothing of its infulated appearance, but am told, that it is at leaft equal to the coaft; if fo,
k muft be a moft defirable, refidence for thofe who are fond of a
country retirement.
Spithead is a moft excellent market for the farmer to difpofe of
his various produce, the number of fhips conflantly lying here
confuming more than they can poflibly ftrrnifh them with, and
for which they in general obtain good prices, (particularly in time
of war) though we laid in both live flock and other neceffaries for
our mefs very reafonable, fuch as hogs, geefe, fowls, rabbits, ducks,
and hams j cheefe, butter, onions, potatoes, &c. &c.
Amongft the men of war at anchor here, is the Goliah, of 74
guns. Captain Sir Hyde Parker.    Mr. Lauder, (our Surgeon) had
been Surgeon's Mate on board her, and having a number of acquaintance there, he very kindly invited me to go on board along
B with'
'1
«■■'
 A    VOYAGE   TO    THE
s<
1785.
:ptember.
with 1
ed his i
great a
of a m;
for, be
engrofi
dm. Thou mayefl be fure that I was greatly pleafed with
t opportunity of gratifying my curiofity, and readily accept-
nvitation. We were on board feveral hours, but I am too
novice in fea matters to give thee any tolerable defcription
in of war : indeed I had it not in my power, if I had ability,,
ing an abfolute ftranger to every body, (the Dodor totally
'ed by his old fhip-mates) I could not with propriety afk
any particular queftions. Thus far I can tell thee, that the decks,,
and indeed every paflage and gangway, are kept as neat and
clean as a good country houfewife would her trenchers : they
have not near fo many people on board as in time of war, but
even then, I am told they are equally attentive in regard to clean-
linefs. This, I believe, was far from being the cafe formerly, till
abfolute neceffity convinced them of its utility. In abfolute
governments one, perhaps, might fee inferior ranks of people kept
in due fubordination, though an Englifhman can ill brook it,
liberty and freedom being with him innate principles ; but the
Captain of a man of war is, I underftand, more abfolute than the
moft defpotic monarch. Prudence may, fometimes, make this:
exertion of power neceffary, as a man of war, (like a common
fewer) is the receptacle for the moft profligate and abandoned of
mankind. We dined on board, along with upwards of twenty
Midfhipmen, Dodor's Mates, &c. and every thing was conduded
with the utmoft regularity and decorum, accompanied with a..
politenefs which I was far from expeding at fea, and which, I
believe, is not always the cafe; harmony and decorum, nay, common decency, being pretty often kicked out of doors. In regard
to Portfmouth I can fay but little, being there only a. few hours.
I am told it is the befl fortified of any place in the kingdom,, and I
am apt to believe it. Exclufive of the dock-yard, and other public works carried on here,, the town is inconfiderable, though it is,
1 the
 NORTH-WEST   COAST   OF  AMERICA.
thelargefl in this part ofthe country. In time of war, the people ,
at inns, and places of public refort, are particularly exorbitant
in their charges, finding, I fuppofe, that proverb verified, that
<c Sailors get their money like horfes, and fpend it like affes." This
however, is not always the cafe, for I flipped and fpent a very convivial evening with our Firft Mate, and a relation of Captain
Dixon's, at the Star and Garter, which is reckoned one of the
deareft houfes, and we found every accommodation excellent, and
their charges very moderate. Here are a number of Jews, who
principally live in one ftreet, called Jews-ftreet, and a great many
proftitutes of the loweft clafs, who always have a plentiful harveft
in time of war, from the wages and prize-money of unwary
failors.
Our bufinefs at this place {fiich as filling up our water, procuring fhip's flores, &c.) being compleated, we fhall fail from
hence the firft fair wind; but thou mayeft exped a continuation
from Guernfey, at which place we fhall touch.
Adieu, thine, &c. W. B.
Spithead, 7 .
14th Sept. J
LETTER
GREEABLY to my promife, I now fit down to give thee
L a continuation of our progrefs, though it blows To very
hard, and the fhip has fo much motion, (notwithftanding our
being at double -anchor) that I fcarcely can write intelligibly.  We
B 2 left
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
September.
left Spithead on the 16th inft. at eight o'clock in the morning, and:
paffed by St. Helen's at eleven ; but the wind proving contrary,,
and the weather wet and hazy, we returned to St. Helen's Road,,
and came to anchor there in the evening. At feven the next
morning we weighed, and made fail. The weather during this,,
and the two following days, was moderate, and the winds variable.
On board the King George were feveral ladies, who were going to
Guernfey on a jaunt of pleafure; and a cutter, from Gofport,.
belonging to our owners, accompanied us for the purpofe of bringing them back. On the 19th, in the evening, we were at anchor:
with what is called the kedge, (which is one of the fmall anchors)
and the cutter was moored to our ftern with a flout rope * but
though the weather was very moderate, the tide run fo ftrong,.
that the rope prefently broke, and the cutter ran adrift: the fluke.
of our anchor was likewife carried away j this, however, was
attended with no great inconveniency. Though I am fo young a
fail or, yet I had already been in fome danger, as thou may eft recoiled when we had a heavy gale of wind off Beachy -x and I was.
again deftined to be in a much worfe fituation, from quite a contrary caufe, viz. a calm. This, to one like thee, will feem a
paradox, as you people who never faw fait water muft needs think it
the beft weather when the fky is clear, and the water fmooth. On
the 20th, in the afternoon, we faw the Cafketts, which are a heap
of rocks, fo called by failors, on account, I fuppofe, of their like-
nefs. Thefe rocks have been, perhaps, more fatal to mariners,
than ever were the famed Scylla and Charibdis of the ancients.
The tide drifted us right upon them: we were quite becalmed, fo
that our veflel was unmanageable5 and at eight in the evening,
they were within little more than a mile of us: we had foundings
indeed in eighteen or twenty fathom water, but the bottom was
nothing but fharp rocks, fo that had we been reduced to thenecef-
fity
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA. j3
fity of letting go our anchor ; there was fcarcely a poflibility of     1785.
its doing us any fervice; but at nine o'clock the tide turned, and   ^lm_.^
all our apprehenfions were quickly over.    This rircumftance will
at once fhew thee, that calms, when near land, are oft times more
dangerous than violent gales of wind.
On the 21 ft, about one o'clock, our-owners brought us a pilot
on board (the harbour of Guernfey being right a-head of us) to-
take us in; and it was rather a laughable circumftance, that the
man pretended he could not fpeak any Englifh, and we had nobody ■
on board who underftood French; but we foon found Monfiemr
knew fomething of Englifh, when he underftood, that if he was
ignorant of our language, we muft provide ourfelves with another
pilot.
I
I
We came to anchor in Guernfey Road about fix o'clock in the.-
evening, the weather wet and hazy. Thou wilt exped me to fay-
fomething about this place, and I fhall give thee every mformation.
in my power with the greateft pleafure, though my account wul
be much more circumfcribed than I could wifhj notwithftanding
this, thou mayeft be affured, that for the fake of fwelling my narrative, I never will forfake the regions of truth, or overleap the
bounds of probability. On a rock entirely furrounded by water,.
about three quarters of a mile from the town, ftands the Caftle, but
its appearance has nothing of that Gothic eaft, which edifices of that
kind generally have ; it is exceeding low, and I fancy very ancient,,
the greater part having been recently repaired, which makes it look .
like a piece of patch-work. It is defended by a number of guns,
and a guard of foldiers ; but what quantity of each I cannot in-
form thee. It is likewife the prifon for all the ifland, either in;
civil, or criminal cafes.    The only thing to recommend the Road'
 m
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
where we lay, as a place for fhips to anchor in is, its excellent
bottom; in other refpeds, the fituation is very bad, being very
much expofed to the winds; but the inhabitants have an excellent
place clofe to the town, for their own veffels to lay in, well fecured
againft any violent wind or weather whatfoever. Guernfey is
fituated on the Tide of a pretty fteep hill, v/ith a ftony, or rather
rocky bottom: it confifls of feveral ftreets, which are dark, narrow, and inconvenient, but always clean, not only on account of
their hard bottom, but alfo their declivity; fo that any dirt or
filth is always wafhed away by the laft fhower of rain.
The houfes in general are built of a coarfe kind of free-ftone;
, and feldom appear commodious, but never elegant: indeed convenience alone feems to have been principally attended to, even in
the moft modern ones. The ifland, I believe, is not very populous,
and moft of the inhabitants ai e brought up to a fea-faring life;
fo that the place, not affording every neceffary of life in plenty,
may, perhaps, be owing to proper want of cultivation, more than
its natural fterility. This inconvenience is little felt, as the Guernfey cruizers, being always on the coaft of England, (whofe fertile
plains fb amply reward the careful farmer's toil) bring back every
thing they want at a cheap fate.
The merchants who refide at Guernfey are pretty numerous,
and fome of them confiderable. In time of war, they fit out a
number of privateers, and, in general, are pretty fuccefsful; but I
am inclined to think, that a love of gain prompts them to thefe
undertakings more than love of their country. In regard to their
trade, it is chiefly of the contraband kind, and that on a veryexten-
flve plan, not being confined to their neighbours, the French alone,
but extending to Spain, Portugal, and the Streights. In their religion
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA.
m
gion, (which is the Church of England) they are, I am told, very 1785.
exad, and pay a moft ftrid attention to the obfervance of the Sab- ^t^mber.
bath : this thou wilt fay but ill agrees with their living in con-
ftant\ violation of laws both divine and human. I am rather of
the fame opinion; but I endeavour to reconcile thefe contradidions,
by fuppofing that the text of fcripture about cc rendering unto
Cssfar,' &c." is left out of their edition of the Bible; and that
liberty, property, and no excife, is the fundamental axiom of their
Magna Charta. One benefit which they reap from their encounters with the myrmidons from the Englifh Cuftoms is, that knowing they are ading contrary to law, their men become totally callous to the feelings of humanity, and being thus entirely divefted
of the milk of human kindnefs,, they fight like devils; and this
may, in a great meafure, account for the great fuccefs the Guernfey
privateers generally meet with, Wines, brandy, &c. &c. are the
principal commodities they traffick in. Thefe articles, thou well
knowefl, pay heavy duties in England, therefore are bell worth
their attention. Till lately the article of tea was a kind of ftaple
commodity here, but Mr. Pitt's late bill having fo greatly lowered,
the duties, it is no longer an objed worth their attention. What
few women I faw were very ordinary ; indeed it was no eafy matter to tell what complexion they were of, fo liberally were they
bedaubed with paint and powder. Their language feems to be a.
mixture of bad French, with a provincial dialed, which renders it-
unintelligible jargon to every body but themfelves ; however, the
greater part of the people in town fpeak pretty good: Englifh.
Our principal bufinefs here was to take fome articles from the
King George on board our veflel, and to lay in a flock of liquor,
for the people during the voyage, both which are compleated, and
we only wait for a fair wind to weigh anchor, and proceed on our.
\    voyage.
 *«
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
voyage.—Heigh-ho—I cannot help fighing to think what a dif-
tance I fhall foon be from—but a truce with all melancholy reft1 edions, and whilft I exifl, believe me to be, 6cc.
W. B.
'Guernsey,   .?
■3.5th September. J
LETTER    VI.
AT the conclufion of my laft I informed thee, that we only
waited for a fair wind to leave Guernfey, which fortunately
happened the next day,^viz. the 26th September, when we weighed
and made fail. On the 27th, we faw feven iflands, at about {even
leagues diflance. On the 28th, fait provifions were ferved out to
the fhip's company. I already forefee, that in fulfilling thy
requeft of mentioning every occurrence, I fhall make my letters
nothing but a dull repetition of tirefome and uninterefling circum-
flances. Here methinks I fee thee make a full flop, and with a
fmile, mutter to thyfelf, | What the devil does the fellow mean ?
He furely has not the vanity to think that the befl of his letters
are any thing elfe than a heap of dull, tedious fluff?" Well, if
this is thy opinion, I moft cordially agree with thee: however,
were my abilities greater, it would be out of my power to avoid
tautology at all times. On the 30th, grog was ferved out, which
made all hands look brifk and chearful: thou art not to imagine
that I include our mefs in this obfervation, as we had a plentiful
flock of our own, independent of the fhip's allowance. We had
.a flrong gale of wind fince our leaving Guernfey: this I was
2 familiar
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA;
familiar to. Before I mention a circumftance that happened on
Sunday the 2d of Odober, I muft inform thee that we keep the
Sabbath-day in a decent and orderly manner; all hands appearing,
as the Spedator fays of country villages on the fame occafion,
| with their cleaneft looks and befl cloaths, clearing away the ruft
of the week," and employ themfelves in reading good books, no
duty being carried on that can be avoided.
17
Oftober.
■ On the 2d, about noon, one of the people faw fomething at a
diflance, floating on the water; this immediately excited every
one's curioflty, and we wifhed to have a nearer view of it, but
having little or no wind, the fhip would not obey the helm : we
prepared to hoift out our boat, but the tackles for that purpofe
were not at hand. In this dilemma, feveral of the people wifhed
to jump over-board, in order to fee what had fo engaged our
attention, and to fave it if worth the trouble. At firft Captain
Dixon objeded to this, for fear of fharks, or other accidents; but
there was no alternative, as the expeded- prize drifted from us
every moment;' fo giving leave, two of the people were in the fea
in a moment, and found it to be a large cafk, entirely covered
with a kind of fhell-fifh, called barnacles. They prefently brought
it along-flde, and we hoifted it on board. There is no doubt but
it had been in the water a long time, as the fifh were with difficulty
fcraped off, having nearly eat holes through the cafk: on examination it proved to be a hogfhead of claret. This might juflly
be reckoned an aCquifition, yet it is a melancholy refledion to
think, that no veflel would part with it but in the greateft exigency,
and that we only profited by the diftrefs of others.
Till the 13th, nothing particular occurred; (we had feen ftrange
fhips at two or three different times, but not near enough to dif-
C ' cern
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
cern what country they were from) but early in the morning we
faw the lfland of Porto Santo, at about fix leagues diflance; (thou
art to underftand, that a league at fea is three miles) and Madeira
fomething nearer: the day being very .fine and clear, we kept
Handing along the fhore, within a mile of the land. This ifland,
fo famous in the commercial, or I might rather fay, voluptuous
world, for its wine, appears mountainous, but not difagreeably fo,.
as the land flopes down by gentle declivities to the water's edge.
The numerous vineyards teem with ripe clufters of the juicy grape,
which feem to invite the preffure of the careful vintner: thefe are
ever and anon interfeded by various plantations of other kinds,
together with convents, and other public edifices, dedicated to religious feclufion, which appear to be very numerous here, and put
me in mind of Foote's Mother Cole, when fhe complains of the
cruel villains " immuring for life fuch fweet young things, &c."
Funchall, the capital of the ifland, appears very full of places
dedicated to public worfhip ; and the ftreets feem regular. With
this thou muft be contented, for I have no other opportunity of
feeing it than through a perfpedive glafs, at three miles diflance.
When I firft began to write, I was not certain whether fortune
would favour me with an opportunity of fending it from Madeira,
but on our coming a-breaft of this bay, we found here two of his.
Majefly's fhips, bound for England; and we are now laying to,,
whilft the packets are getting ready.
If I recoiled right, when I firft gave thee an account of our
veffels, and their deftination, I did not mention what number of
mds we had on board.    In our fhip we are thirty-two in all,
including Captain Dixon.    On board the King George, they are
nearly (if not quite) double that number; but fome of them are
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
mere children, and belong to people of confequence, who, intending them for the fea, I fuppofe, thought they could not do better
than embrace this opportunity of initiating them early in their
profeflion; to do which more compleatly, Captain Portlock has on
board a youth from the Mathematical School in Chrift's Hofpital
to inflrud them in the theoretical, whilft he teaches them the
pradical part of navigation.
Amongft the " changes and chances of this mortal life," behold
thy friend, doomed to fpend fome years of his, if Providence allows
him to exift, entirely fecluded from the bufy world. To the hermit, this might perhaps be a defirable event: I cannot fay that is
by any means the cafe with me. Thou mayeft, indeed, fay, that J
am not entirely diverted of the comforts of fociety j—true—but
thou art to underftand, that I have very little converfation with
any except my mefs-mates; and as failors generally introduce
falt-water fubjeds, and thofe handled fo as to fhew they have
excluded logic from their ftudies, my entertainment cannot be
great.
*9
. I frequently walk the deck for four.hours, without fpeaking as
many words: at thefe times my thoughts are employed on a
variety of fubjeds, and I propofe committing them to paper, both
for my amufement, and to have the pleafure of thy remarks, which
I beg thee always freely to make. Our Captain's letters are ready,
and the boat is waiting.—Adieu.—Believe me thine,
W.B.
Funchall-Bay, (Madeira) 1
14th O&ober. 3
C2
LETTER
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
LETTER    VII.
IF any thing can exceed the pleafure I have in writing to thee;,
it is that I have juft experienced, viz. the fetting my feet on
terra firma. By this thou wilt conclude I have been on fhore*
and confequently exped a defcription of this Ifland. As good a
one as I can give is at thy fervice 3 but let me refume my narrative
where I laft left thee.
After fending our letters on board his Majefly's fhip, we left
Funchall-Bay, and fleered for this place, with moderate breezesj
andJine weather..
On the 16th we faw Palma and Ferro, (two of the Canary
lflands) bearing South by Eaft, at about twelve leagues diflance.
Perhaps thou wilt fmile at my mentioning the bearings and dif-
tances | but give me leave to tell thee, that it is methodical and
fcaman-like: this, I hope, will not only ffecure me from thy ani—
madverfions, but merit thy approbation.
On the 19th, we were in 22 degrees North latitude, and the
weather being pretty clear, it was very hot and fultry. Our decks
leaked very bad> and the carpenters were very bufiiy employed'in?
caulking.
Early in the. morning of the 24th, we faw the Ifland Bonavifta,.
at feven leagues diflance. If I miftake not this is the Ifland which -
the renowned Columbus firft faw, when, he failed, in quell of anew
w&rtaL
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
world.    At ten o'clock the Ifle of Mayo bore N. N. E. four leagues,
and Sts Jago, (our intended port) at eight leagues diflance.,
\*
Thy knowledge in geography will inform thee, that thefe are
part of the Cape de Verd lflands, and are fu-bjed to the Portugueze.
At noon we came to anchor in Port Praya Bay, St. Jago, in eight
fathom water. The extremes of the land which forms the Bay,
bore from Eaft by South, to South-Weft. The Caftle and Fort,
North-Weft by Weft, diflance from fhore near two miles.
The Ifland St. Jago is fituated in near 14 degrees 54 minutes
North latitude; and 23 degrees 29 minutes Weft longitude : I cannot fpeak with any degree of certainty in regard to- its extent, but
I think its utmoft circumference cannot be one hundred miles.
Oaober.
hi:
It is natural to fuppofe, from its fituation, that the climate is
very hot, and this is greatly increafed by Eafterly winds, which
are generally prevalent here; thefe conflantly blowing from the
fandy defarts of Africa, greatly add to the natural heat of the climate.
Our bufinefs at this place was to water our veffels, procure frefh
provifions, and whatever neceffaries the place afforded, that coulcL
by any means conduce to our prefent or future accommodation;
ki order to do which, our Captains took the firft opportunity of
going on fhore to find out the beft and eafieft method of facilitating their purpofe-
The Commander of the Fort treated them at firft in rather a
haughty manner, but on having a trifling prefent made him,, he
grew civil, and gave them leave to water the fhips; this, it feems,
heing
 22 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
1785-     "being all that'is in his power, all other necefiaries being furnifhed
(^J^U^,*   hy a Portugueze merchant, who refides within a quarter of a mile
from the beach.
Every thing for our difpatching bufinefs being fettled, I had the
pleafure of going on fhore with our Captains. An old Negro (a
native of the Ifland) received us on the beach; he could fpeak a
little broken Englifh, and on understanding our bufinefs, went along
with us to the merchant's houfe, and proved very ferviceable, for
none of us knew a word of Portugueze, and he could fpeak no
Englifh, fo that the old man ferved as an interpreter.
We were received with great civility and politenefs, and treated
with fome excellent Madeira, capilaire, oranges, &c. We paid a
guinea for each veflel, as a kind of port charge, and entered their
names in a book kept for that purpofe, together with their deftination, and from whence they came.
Captain Portlock agreed with this gentleman for fome beef, and
a few other neceffaries ; but our interpreter informed us, that the
country people would furnifh us with many things we wanted, on
cheaper terms than this gentleman.
On going to Praya we found a kind of market held there, a
number of people being affembled from various parts of the Ifland,
with different articles to fell, fuch as hogs, fheep, goats, fowls,
turkies, &c. together with oranges, lemons, limes, cocoa-nuts,
bananas, a few pine-apples, and fmall quantities of clayed fugar,
which they make up in parcels like our bafkets of fait. The fruit
of every kind was fine, and peculiarly acceptable to us, not only
becaufe
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
23
becaufe they ferved in a moft agreeable manner to quench third,     1785.
but likewifeas they are excellent anti-fcorbutics. v^--.Jj
Of their live flock, the hogs and turkies are by far the beft ;
their goats and fheep being very thin and fpare, and their bullocks'
(for fo it feems they call them) not fb large as an Englifh year-old
calf; yet fo poor are the people, that none of them could furnifh'
us with any beef, the merchant, it feems, being the only perfon
here able to carry on that traffic. We found old cloathsr'and toys
in greater eflimation than cafh amongft thefe people, efpecially in.
exchange for their lefs valuable articles, fuch as goats, fowls, fruit,
&c. This was a lucky circumftance for us, as Englifh coin is not
current here; however, it was neceflary to have fome cafh, which
we got by applying tos the merchant,, who exchanged our guineas
for Spanifh dollars; giving us four dollars, equal here to five fhil-"
lings-each, for a guinea j. fi> that the courfe of exchange here is
nearly fifteen per cent, againft us. The beft way for any Captain
who propofes to touch at this place for a fupply of provifions, &c.
would be, to bring a few articles of hard-ware, fueh as knives,
buckles, razors, &c. &c. thefe would fetch a good profit, and furnifh him with whatever cafh he might want.
I have not time to add more at prefent, but will finifh my account of this place in my next.    Thine, &c.
W, B.,
r-PRAYA, (St. Jag
26th Odtober.
LETTER
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
LETTER    VIII.
SINCE the date of my laft, feveral fhips have arrived here,
viz. three fail from London, and an American brig.
The American's bufinefs, it feems, was to pick up horfes, or
any cattle he could lay hands on; but rtone being here, he weighed
anchor after flaying a few hours. The London veffels are employed in the Southern whale fifhery; one of them, juft come
out, belongs to a Mr. Montgomery, in Prefcott-ftreet, Goodman's-
Fields: the brig I have heard nothing about; and the other fhip,
to Hamet, Efq. now Sir Benjamin Hamet.    She is called
the Hamet, after her owner, and commanded by a Captain Clarke,
who is a good hearty kind of man, and fo obliging as to take the
charge of our letters.
I fhall now proceed to finifh what further account I am able to
give thee of this place. The Fort and Caflle, or rather the paltry
places which ferve as an apology for them, are fituated on an eminence, near half a mile from the water-fide, and commanded by a
Captain, with a detachment of foldiers, fufficient, no doubt, to keep
the Ifland in proper fubjugation, but furely unable to repel any
foreign armament.
Immediately behind this fortrefs, on a large plain, ftands the
town of Praya, confifting of about fifty or fixty huts, Handing at
a good diflance from each other, and form a large quadrangle,
where the  market is held: near the center is a pile of ftones,
i which
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA,
which ferve as a crofs. - Thefe huts (for I can call them no better)
are built with ftones, without any cement, and are perhaps as
poorly conftruded, as the moft miferable out-houfe belonging to
an Englifh farmer. They confift only of a ground-floor, which is
generally divided into two, or at moft three rooms.
Beds are a luxury not known in general here, the people fleep-
ing on mats: indeed I faw one at the merchant's before-mentioned,
but fcarcely a menial fervant in England would fleep'in it.
The natives are blacks, and generally fervants to the Portugueze,
many of whom refide here. They profefs the Roman Catholic
religion, of which they feem very tenacious. One day when I was
at Praya, the people were going to public worfhip, and, impelled
by curiofity, I was pofling to the chapel, in order to fee their
method of faying mafs ; but the Commander of the Fort happening to fee me, fent one of his foldiers to order me back.
The Portugueze behave kindly to ftrangers, but, perhaps, this
may proceed from interefted motives, as we went to their houfes
to purchafe fruit, &c. A good woman at one of the houfes made
me a mefs of boiled Indian wheat, mixed up with goat's milk, and
fweetened with fugar, much like a good Englifh houfe wife's firmity:
this fhe preffed me to partake of with fo much good-nature, that I
could not refufe eating, and found it a very agreeable mefs. It
might be imagined from the warmth of the climate, that the females are naturally amorous; yet both the natives and Portugueze
conftantly refifled every folicitation of that kind from our gentlemen, though they enforced their rhetoric with very tempting pre-
fents : whether thefe conflant denials proceeded from a real love
of chaftity, I fhall leave thee to determine.
-5
I judge
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
I judge the foil to be much the fame with that of tropical iflands-,
in general; indeed, were it capable of improvement equal to that
ef England, the people are too lazy to cultivate it. I have before
mentioned the principal articles this place produces. Thefe, in.
general, require little or no labour, except the cultivation of In- •
dian wheat, and the manufaduring the fmall quantity of fugar- -
tane which the ifland affords i from this they make a kind of fpirit,
which is here called rum, hut by faUors aqua dente. This theyv
tnake into punch,, and render it palatable by infufing_ plenty of
Ismon,, or lime-jnice and fugar.
This ifland abounds with goats, and their milk feems to be a
confiderable part of the people's fuftenance; for I obferved in all
the huts I went into,, bowls filled with it, and generally a number
of cheefes. I am the more apt to believe this, as I could fee no
preparations for cooking viduals in any of the houfes, not even fo> >
much as a fire* though I vifited many of them at different times o£"
the day.
The heat of the climate inquires but little cloathing, and in this
refped fuits the purfes of the inhabitants ; for the few cloaths
they have, the foldiers excepted, feem to be purchafed at fecond-
hand, from fhips that touch here for refrefhment. I ought not to
include the women, however, (the fair fex. I had like to have faid)
in this remark: they wear a loofe wrapper, of cotton manufadure,
the produce of the ifland, generally ftriped with blue, after various
patterns, as their fancy fuggefts; this wrapper, with a light petticoat and a cap, chiefly conflitute the women's drefs. By way of
ornament, their ears and neck are decorated with beads, or fome
toy of trifling value, and from the neck a crofs is generally fufpend-
ed. The Portugueze look the pidure of ill-health; their countenances
 NORTH-WEST   C,OAST   OF AMERICA,
tenances are wan, meagre, and fallow: whether or no this is peculiar to the people of that nation, or occafioned by the climate, I
cannot fay : the natives, however, in general are healthy looking
people. Their government I can fay nothing about, but I fhoul&
fuppofe it in fome meafure fimilar to that of Portugal.
So much for St. Jago. Our time will not permit us to flay
longer than is neceffary to compleat our water, and let the people
have a little recreation on fhore, which is very neceffary for the
prefervation of their health: moft of this being already done, I
exped every minute to hear " AH hands up anchor a-hoy" vociferated by the Boatfwain, with all the noify bawl that a good pair of
lungs can afford; fo that I fhall finifh with the words of Hamlet's
father, " Farewel! remember me!    Thine ever,
W. B.
St. Jago,   1
<a8th October. J
2/
LETTER    IX.
I HAVE before obferved, that I correfpond with thee as much
for my own amufement as thy information—I beg pardon j—
I meant to fay the gratification of thy curiofity : fo that thou art
not to wonder at feeing my letters frequently dated at fea; for, in
committing our daily occurrences to paper, I am totally governed
by good weather and opportunity. Indeed I know thee to be lo
ready to make every kind allowance, that this preamble was fcafcely
D 2 neceffary>
 28
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
1785-.     neceffary;  I fhall therefore refume my narrative withour further
November.
,_   _^_j   ceremony.
Having compleated every objed we had in view at St. Jago, and
a favourable breeze fpringing up, we weighed anchor at ten o'clock
in the morning of the 29th Odober, after taking leave, with three
hearty cheers, of our good friend Captain Clarke, whom we left at
.anchor. We alfo left the fhip belonging to Mr. Montgomery
riding in the bay. The live flock we brought from the Ifle of
Wight being nearly expended, we had purchafed feveral goats, tur-
kies, and fheep here, in order to make our voyage more comfortable, and to preferve us from the fcurvy.
I have already mentioned the great heat of the weather at St.
Jago, and endeavoured, in fome meafure, to account for it. Thou
mayeft eafily imagine, that the nearer we approached the EquU-
nodial Line, the weather grew more intenfely hot; and this is-
greatly increafed by calms, which are very frequent in latitudes
near the Line, whilft a frefh breeze always renders the heat more:
tolerable.
On the 3d November, being in eight degrees North latitude^,
and the weather moft intenfely hot, our people were bufily employed in fcrubbing and cleaning between decks, and every part of !?
the veflel with care, and afterwards wafhed it well with vinegar..
This method was always ufed by the late Captain Cooke, in his
long voyages, and he ever found it attended with the happieft -
effeds, in regard to the prefervation of health.. Such kind and
humane attentions to the health of people under the care of any
Commander, muft certainly place.his charader, as a man and a.
Ckrifiian-f;
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA. 29
thriftian, high in the eftimation of every perfon of feeling and     1785.
, . November.--
humanity. !_-_,,._,
Indeed I cannot help confidering this attention as a duty abfo-
lutely incumbent on him; for, if the mafler of a family on fhore
eonfiders it his duty to take care of his fervants during ficknefs,
when they have it in their power to procure relief by various other
methods, how jnuch more does it behove the Captain of a fhip ta
beftow every attention in his power on his fervants welfare ? In
the midft of the wide ocean, to whom can they feek for fuccour ?•
They have no kind friend, no tender parent to apply to for relief!
No generous Public, whofe charity they might implore, and who
rarely fail to aflift the helplefs in their diftrefs! Yet notwith-
flanding thefe powerful motives, there are, I am afraid, too many.
Captains who do not trouble themfelves about fuch (to them) trivial matters, but truft to chance for. the health or ficknefs of their
people.
From the 4th to the 12th of November, the weather was very-
variable ; fometimes it was clear, and nearly calm, and prefently
it would.change to ftrong fqualls and heavy rain, attended with
conflant thunder and lightning. I had omitted to mention, that'
on the 9th the fhip's company were ferved with peafe, at an allowance of half a pint per man, for three days in the week: this
addition to our fait pork, rnade a very comfortable mefs. By the
13th we were in.the latitude of 2 degrees North-, and the weather -
grew more fettled and favourable: we had a frefh Eaflerly breeze,.
with a clear fky, unattended with any fudden fqualls, or thunder'
and lightning. Qnthe.i6th we crofled the Line, our latitude being;
23..miles South.
Jfc
 .3?
A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
-It perhaps may be neceffary to inform thee, that the method df*
finding what latitude the fhip is in, is, to take an altitude of the
Sun when he is in the meridian, which is always twelve o'clock at
noon, and this altitude, after being wrought by an eafy procefs,
gives the latitude.
Sailors on crofling the Line, have a cuftom of plunging every
•perfon on board, who have never been to the Southward of it, over
head and ears in a tub of water. This teremony being but ill
xelifhed by fome of our people, Captain Dixon promifed all hands
a double allowance of grog if they would defifl': this was very
willingly accepted, and harmony was foon reftored:: but alas!
;grog and good humour foon were at variance, and fome of the
people grew fo quarrelfome and turbulent, that they were put in
irons: this brought them to reafon in a fhort time, and they were
fet at liberty on promife of better behaviour.
I was exprefling my furprize and fbrrow to my mefs-mates, that
fo difturbing a circumftance fhould happen j but they laughed, and
faid, that things of this fort were fo common at fea, that they were
not worth taking the leaft notice of. On this I could not help
refleding with Solomon, that " there is nothing new under the
Sun."
At two o'clock in the afternoon of the 21ft, we faw a fail to the
Eaflward, but at too great a diflance to difcern what country fhe
belonged to. On the 24th, vinegar was ferved out to the fhip's
company, which made our fait provifions more wholefome and
agreeable : it likewife proved a very good ingredient to eat with
fifh, which we frequently caught, fuch as bonettas, albacours,
dolphins, &c. On the 25th, the people were ferved with what
3 flops
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA. 3$
flops they wanted, and fo were rid of the fears they entertained at    J785-
JDcccinb&v-
our firft failing, viz. that they fhould not be able to procure a fup- ^f^j
ply of cloaths when their flock was worn out. On the 26th, tea
and fugar were ferved to the fhip's company, at an allowance fuffi-
cient for breakfaft every morning. This made a very comfortable:
addition to our viduals, and was a very agreeable change: add
to this, they are excellent anti-fcorbutics, and as fuch, peculiarly
defirable in long voyages. Indeed we had a plentiful flock both
of tea, coffee, and fugar for our own mefs, of a fuperior quality to
what we had ferved out; but it was a moft defirable acquisition to
the people, as I believe it is never ferved out, either in the King's e
fhips, or merchants fervice. On the 30th, we had a fpare main-
fail fitted over the quarter-deck, as a temporary awning. This not
only rendered the heat of the weather more tolerable on deck, but
was of great ufe in prefervjng it from the fun.
By the 6th of December we were well out of the Tropics, being .
in 26 deg. 16 min. South latitude. The weather now began to-
be agreeable and pleafant, with frefh fteady Eafterly breezes. At:
nine in the morning of the 7th, the King George made a fignal for
feeing a fail to the South-Weft; but fhe did not come near enough
for us to difcern what country fhe belonged to.
I believe Captain. Portlock propofes touching at Falkland's
lflands $ if fo, thou mayeft depend on a further continuation from .
.that place.   Thine ever,
W. B..
At Sea.     1
20th Dec.     5
LETTER
 A   VOYAGE    T O M H E
LETTER    X.
THOUGH a fea life is in fome degree become familiar to
me, yet the fight of land fills me with a temporary pleafure;
I fay temporary, becaufe it is foon flopped by refleding, that fome
years muft elapfe before I fhall have the heart-felt fatisfadion of
beholding my native country.
I am afhamed to trouble thee with fuch trifling digreflions>
but in future I will endeavour entirely to fupprefs them, and write
nothing that concerns the paft, or future, but confine myfelf to
the prefent time.
On the i ith of December, being in 33 deg. 16 min.^sfoeth latitude, we had a heavy gale of wind, which obliged us to clofe-reef
our top-fails and main-fail: however, in a few hours the weather
grew moderate. We have found the variation of the compafs to be
11 deg. 16 min. Eafterly. The 16th, being moderate and fine, we
had a great quantity of fpermaceti whales about the fhip, latitude
. South. On the 21ft, we had a very heavy gale of wind,
which obliged us to hand our top-fails, and reef our courfes : we
alfo reeved preventer braces for the top-fail yards, and preventer
lafhings to fecure our boats : the main and fore hatches were battened down, and every precaution taken to keep the veffel fnug and
dry. This in all parts to the Southward of the Line, is the longeft
day: it would have been a matter of furprize for thee to have ken
the Sun before four o'clock in the morning; and I dare fay that
»'. T..T..". 1 there
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF  AMERICA.. $i
there are numbers in London who will never be perfuaded that the D 178£'
Sun rifes before four o'clock in December. «—-v—*
On the 23d, being in 46 deg. South latitude, the fea had a very
muddy, dirty appearance; we faw a feal, and a great quantity of
various kinds of fifh playing about the fliip.
Early in the morning of the 24th, we had a heavy fiorm of fnow
and fleet: indeed, fince the 21ft we had very little intermiffion
from heavy gales of wind and fqually weather. This forenoon
our laft goat died, being literally ftarved to death with cold, though
we had taken every precaution in our power to keep her alive.
We felt her lofs very fenfibly for fome time, as fhe had given milk
twice a day, which made our tea drink very agreeably. Latitude
at noon 47 deg. 2 min.
On the former part of the 25th we had frefh breezes, and pretty
clear weather; but at four in the afternoon a heavy gale of wind
obliged us to hand our top-fails and reef the courfes. This being
Chriftmas-day, we celebrated it as well as our fituation could afford, and more particularly as it is accounted by failors a greater
feftival than even the Sabbath-day, though their obfervance of it
is not confiftent with this opinion, as they generally fpend it in
noify mirth, and tumultuous jollity, occafioned by drinking repeated bumpers of grog to the health of their abfent friends and
fweethearts..   Latitude 48 deg. 14 min. South.
From the 26th to the 31ft, the weather was variable : fometimes
we had moderate breezes, and cloudy; and again, heavy gales of
wind with rain.    This is the fummer feafon in this part of the
world, the latitude we were in (viz. 50 deg. 30 min. South) being
E nearly
 34 AVOYAGETOTHE
nearly the fame climate as part of England; yet the weather here'
January.
is more like March than Midfummer.
On the i ft January, 1786, we had great numbers of feals and:
penguins, about us, and a great variety of birds, which plainly
indicated that we were.not far from.land.
At three o'clock in the morning of the 2d, we faw land, the
extremes of which bore from South Eaft by South to South by-
Weft, at about nine leagues diflance. At< ten.o'clock we founded:
in feventy-eight fathom water,.-over a fine fandy bottom, intermixed with black fpecks : the extremes of the land at noon bore
from South Eaft to South Weft; the weather thick and hazy with
rain. During the afternoon we had light winds, inclining to calm;.
In the evening we founded, and had again, feventy-eight fathom;
water, with much the fame bottom as before.
At eight in the morning of the 3d, we faw the land bearing Eaft>
by North ; and at ten, the extremes of the land in fight bore from'
South Eaft to South Weft by South, diflant from fhore nine or ten-,
leagues:. the water appeared very black and muddy. At eleven-
o'clock we faw a rock,.bearing South Eaft, at about feven leagues
diflance, which had very much the appearance of a fhip under fail,
and indeed we at firft took it for a veflel. We have fince learnt,
that this rock is called the Eddyftone. 'Our latitude at noon was:
51 deg. 2 min. South; and. the longitude 58 deg..48 min. Weft..
I mention the latitude more frequently, that thou mayeft form
an idea of our progrefs:; and alio, by that and the longitude/
which I will mention in future at every opportunity, thou mayeft/
find.with eafe the.very fpot of the, globe that we.are.upon.
During.
mmM
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF   AMERICA.
During the afternoon we had.frefh breezes and cloudy weather,
and, not willing to lofe fight of the land, we flood in fhore, and
tacked occafionally. At eight o'clock in the evening, the Wefter-
moft land bore Weft South Weft, and the Eddyftone North-Eaft.
We had frefh breezes, with thick hazy weather; at times a thick
fog.
In the forenoon of the 4th we faw two fmall iflands, bearing
South by Eaft and South by Weft, with high land behind them.
At noon, the Weftermoft land in fight was about four leagues,
and the Eaftermoft near eight leagues diflance, latitude 51 deg. 10
min. South. During the afternoon we flood along fhore, as we
judged Port Egmont (the harbour we intended to anchor in) not
to be far off. About midnight, being within three miles of the
Weftermoft land, Captain Portlock made fignal to ftand off fhore.
I have before obferved, that we had very long days ; in fad, we
had no night, and the weather being moderate, might juftly warrant our Handing near the land during the night time.
At two o'clock in the morning of the 5th, we wore and made
fail. At three Captain Portlock fent his whale-boat with Mr.
Macleod, his Firft Mate, to found a-head, and look out for a harbour. Mr. Macleod left a copy of the various fignals he was to
make on board the Queen, as a guide for us, our veflel being
a-head of the King George.
1786.
At half paft feven Mr. Macleod fired a mufquet, as a fignal for
danger, which occafioned us to ftand off the land, and tack occafionally, the better to obferve the motions of the boat.    Towards
nine o'clock, being pretty near the place where Mr. Macleod made
E 2 the
 W
A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
17&6.     the fignal for danger, our whale-boat was hoifted out, and fent
January^   a.Jiea(J to found.
About half paft nine Mr. Macleod hoifted a flag at the top of
the high land, which was a fignal for a harbour: on this, both
veffels flood in for the found, and Captain Portlock fired a gun as
a fignal for his boat to returri.
Mr. Macleod informed us, that he had feen a fmall reef of rocks,
which occafioned him to fire the mufquet; and that the harbour
afforded an excellent place for watering. At eleven o'clock both
fhips came to anchor in Port Egmont, in feventeen fathom water,
over a fandy bottom.
I have endeavoured to mention every circumftance, however
trivial; and I hope fo ftrid an attention to minutiae will not only
pleafe thee, but in fome meafure atone for the defeds that continually occur in the courfe of my narration. Thou mayeft exped
fome account of this place, &c. in my next.    Thine, &c.
W.  Ba
Falkland's Islands, ?
7 th January. i
LETTER     XL
HAVING handed the fails, and put every thing to rights, we
moored with the ftream-anchor and tow-line; but the next
day, (the 6th) finding the wind blow frefh,. and a heavy fwell, we
i. took.
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
took the ftream-anchor up, and moored with both bowers. The
principal objed we had in view, was to water the fhips; for this ,
we were fituated very conveniently, as I have before obferved.
We had alfo found during our cruize, that the Queen was notfuf-
ficiently deep in the water; fo that fome hands were employed in
fetching ftones to put in the hold, by way of ballaft. Thefe employments were. fet about without delay, and both would have
been compleated in three or four days at fartheft, had we not been
frequently interrupted by blowing fqually weather: however, by
the 14th both thefe objeds were entirely compleated, befides frefh
flowing the hold. During this time all the people had been on
fhore to recreate themfelves, land air being reckoned exceeding^
falutary and wholfome for failors.
On the 14th, the people were employed in fetting up the rigging;
fore and aft, and other neceffary bufinefs. On the 15th, an Englifh floop came to anchor in the harbour, and her boat going on
board the King George, we learnt that fhe belonged to a fhip commanded by a Captain Huffey, called the United States, but Britifh
property, which lay in Huffey Harbour, States-Bay, Swan-Ifland,.
in company with a fhip from America. The United' States was
the property of Mrs. Hay ley, relid ofthe late George Hayley, Efq;
and filler to the celebrated Mr. Wilkes.
Thefe veflels had been at Falkland's lflands occafionlly for more,
than a year, and had wintered in Huffey Harbour before mentioned ; fo that they were perfedly acquainted with the tides, the
currents, and in fnort every circumftance neceffary for the fafely
navigating a fhip in. any of the various roads, bays, and founds, £0
Biumetons here.
^57
During
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
During the time our neceffary bufinefs was carried on, both our
Captains were employed in furveying the port, and various parts of
the land. In one of thefe excurfions, they fell in with a birth for
the fhips, greatly preferable to that we lay m, on the Weft fide of
the bay; and as they propofed flaying here a few days longer, it was
•determined to take the veffels there : fo early in the morning of
the 16th we unmoored, and at eight o'clock made fail: at ten we
•came to anchor in feven fathom water. We foon found that our
fituation was changed for the beft, being well fheltered from the
wind, and no fwell to incommode us. 'Tis moft probable that
this was near the place where Captain Macbride lay in the year
1766, when he wintered here, as we found on the adjacent fhore
the ruins of feveral houfes, faid to be built by him, but deftroyed
fmce by the Spaniards.
. From the 16th to the 19th, the people of both fhips were alternately on fhore, to recreate themfelves, land air (as I have already
obferved) being very falutary, and wholfome for people in our
iituations: indeed this place affords little refrefhment of any other
Jkind, as I fhall take notice by and bye.
Having learnt from Mr. Coffin, Mafler of the floop, that there
was a good paffage for us through the iflands, and he kindly
undertaking to lead the way as our pilot, our Captains determined
to get to fea the firft opportunity, as the feafon was already too far
advanced for us to exped a good paffage round Cape Horn. Accordingly we weighed anchor, and made fail early in the morning
of the 19th of January. At eight o'clock, the flag-ftaff on Kep-
pei's Ifland (the fame on which Mr. Macleod hoifted the fignal the
morning we made Port Egmont) bore Eaft by South; Sandy Bay,
South-
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
South Eaft by South, and the Weftermoft point of land, South-
Weft, at about four leagues diflance.
We came to anchor at half paft eight in the evening, without any
material occurrence, off the Eaft end of Carcafs Ifland, in twelve
fathom water. In the morning of the 20th, we weighed and made-
fail, and came to anchor at noon in Weft-Point Harbour, in eight
fathom water..
On the 21ft, in the morning, we again made fail, Mr. Coffin
cautioned us to be on our guard,,in rounding Weft-Point, as the
wind would pour upon us from the highland like a torrent. The
morning was fine and clear, and the wind moderate; yet luckily,
we did notdefpife his precaution, but had all hands ready to clue
up the fails ; and well it was that we had, for before we got
well round the Point, the wind poured down upon us like a
hurricane, and continued to blow with amazing irnpetuofity for
near an hour, during which, time we durft not fhew a fingle yard
of canvas; but as we got clear of the high land, the wind grew
moderate. At one o'clock we faw the two fhips before-mentioned, riding at anchor in Hufley Harbour; and at three o'clock,
we. came to. anchor in States Bay, Swan Ifland, off Elephant Point,
in feventeen fathom, water, and about a mile from the American
veffels..
Before I conclude, let me give thee as good an account of thefe
lflands as I am able, from what obfervations I have made during,
our flay here..
Thefe lflands were firft difcovered by Sir Richard Hawkins, in
I£94, but Captain Strong probablycalled, them Falkland's Ifland, or
 40
January.
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
more properly, Falkland's lflands, as there are a confidetuble number of them. It fhould feem as if the Englifh propofed fettling a
colony here, by Captain MacbridVs flaying here a whole feafon, and
ereding feveral houfes : thefe, however, were deflroyed by the Spaniards, who difpoffeffed us of the place in 1770.
This affair made a great noife in London, and occafioned much
clamour amongft the politicians at that time : but I fhall fay no
more on this head, as thou art much better verfed in the political
hiftory of this place than myfelf; only juft obferve, that we need
not wonder at the Spaniards envying us the poffeffion of thefe
iflands, as their fituation commands the paffage to the Spanifh Settlements in the South Seas.
Port Egmont, (viz. that part of it where we laft lay at anchor)
is fituated in 51 deg. 12 min. South latitude, and 59 deg. 54 min.
Weft longitude, and is a moft fpaeious harbour, perhaps large
enough for all the fhips belonging to Great Britain to ride at anchor.
How far thefe iflands extend, I cannot pretend to fay with any
degree of certainty; but I imagine more than one degree in latitude, and two degrees in longitude.
The fituation of Port Egmont feems to be nearly central; fb
by that, and the former conjedure, thou mayeft form a pretty good
idea of their extent.
Though thefe iflands are univerfally known by the name of
Falkland's, yet many of them are called by different names, juft, I
prefume, as the fancy of different cruifers have fuggefted : I juft
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF  AMERICA.
mention this circumftance to prevent thy furprife, on feeing fuch
names as Swan Ifland, Keppel's Ifland, &c. &c.
One would naturally fuppofe from the fituation, that the climate
here is much the fame as that of England: this, however, feems
far from being the cafe. Though this is nearly the height of Summer here, yet the weather is frequently cold and winterly, the thermometer being never higher than 53 deg. The winds have generally been Wefterly, with frequent fqualls and heavy rain.
The foil feems of a light, free mature, and well calculated for
meadow or paflure land; indeed in many places it is no eafy matter to tell what nature the foil is of, for the vegetation has grown*
and rotted, and grown again, till great numbers of large hillocks
are formed, from the tops of which grow large blades of grafs;
thefe naturally inclining to each other, form a kind of arch, and
afford occafional retreats for feals, fea-lions, penguins, &c. &c.
which abound here.
41'..
January.
II
Near the ruins of the town are a number of fmall pieces of
ground, inclofed with turf, which, no doubt, were intended for
gardens, as it might eafily be perceived that they had been in a
cultivated ftate. In one of them I found feveral forts of flowers,
and fome fine horfe-reddifh. 'Tis fomething remarkable, that
there grows not a tree, or any thing like it, on thefe iflands: our
people, after much fearching, found fome brufh-wood,, but fo
fmall, that it would fcarcely ferve to make brooms for the fhip's ufe.
There are few or no infeds to be met with here, though Mr.
Hogan, Surgeon of the King George, who is a considerable proficient in Natural Hiftory, took infinite pains to procure fome,
F On
 42
January.
A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
-On the beaches are great numbers of geefe and ducks, but much
fmaller, and of a different fpecies from our's: they are pretty tame,
and eafily run down. Our people were greatly elated on feeing
them, imagining they fhould live luxurioufly during our flay ; but
here they were grievoufly difappointed, for both geefe and ducks
eat exceedingly rank and fifhy, owing, no doubt, to their conflantly
feeding on marine productions; fo that they foon grew heartily
tired of them as food, though the exercife of running them down\
was both agreeable and healthy.
Befides thefe, here are various other kinds ofthe feathered" tribe,,
the principal of which are the Port Egmont hen, (called the fkua-
gull by Pennant) and the albatrofs. Pennant diflinguifh.es the
fpecies found here by the name of thewandering albatrofs, though
at what time of the year they migrate I cannot fay : however, I
am certain that this is the time of their incubation, as I faw feveral
hundreds of them fetting on their nefts, and great numbers of
young fcarcely fledged.. The Port Egmont hen is a very ravenous
bird, fomething like a hawk, only larger: they are very numerous,
here; indeed fo are many other kinds, though it is not in my
power to particularize them. I fhall, therefore, conclude this
article with obferving, that the only bird we caught here, which
eat without any rank fifhy tafle, is called' by failors a feapie: this
bird is not web-footed, but has claws much like our-fowls, and:
fubfifts chiefly on worms, &c. feldom or never going far from the
fea-fide„
Our people frequently attempted'to catch fifh, but were always*
•difappointed, fo that we began to conclude thefe iflands were not
bleffed with that capital part of the creation ; but Captain Huffey
making us a prefent of fome fine mullet, convinced us of our mi£-
take*.
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA.
take. It feems thefe are almoft the only kind of fifh found here,
and they often caught them in large quantities. On many of the
beaches are large beds of mufcles and limputs, and various other
marine produdions, fome of which ferve as food for the penguins,
geefe, &c. &c. Indeed there is no doubt but every one of them has
its ufes, as we are well allured, that the Almighty Creator of the
Univerfe made nothing in vain.
43
IS-'
I have endeavoured to take fome notice of every thing that has
come within my obfervation ; and thou muft attribute my not
giving thee a better account of this place, not only to want of opportunity, but to a much worfe, viz. a want of ability.
Our bufinefs is all compleated, and every thing in readinefs for
us to put to fea, fo that the firft fair wind carries us from this
place, in order to double Cape Horn; that place fo much dreaded
by many adventurers in the voyage of matrimony, and on which
numbers of them founder: however, it is to be hoped this will
never be the fortune of thine, Sec.
W. B.
Falkland's Islands., ?
22d January. \
LETTER
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
LETTER    XIL
EARLY in the morning of the 23d January, we weighed;
anchor and made fail. At nine o'clock the North Weft
end of New Ifland bore South Weft by South, diflance five miles-
Our latitude at noon was 51 deg. 35 min. South ; and longitude 6o-
deg. 54 min. Weft. During the afternoon and evening, the weather was thick and hazy, with fmall drizzling rain.-
At eight o'clock in the morning of the 24th, the Weft end of
Falkland's Iflands bore North Eaft, at ten leagues diflance :. our.
latitude at noon 52 deg. 3 min. South.. We kept flanding to the
Southward, it being our intention to get well clear of Ca|>e Horn,,
that in cafe of contrary winds,, we might double it with fafety..
From the 24th to the 26th, we had moderate hazy weather, with;
North Wefterly winds ~ latitude on the 26th, 53 deg. 39 min..
South. We here found the variation of the compafs to be 25 deg..
to the Eaftward. At ten o'clock in the evening of the 26th, we
faw Staten's Land, bearing South Eaft.. During the night we had',
frequent fqualls,. attended with.lightning..
At eight in the morning of the 27th, the extremes of Staten's
Land bore from South a quarter Weft, to Weil half South,,
diflance from, the fhore about five miles. Towards nine o'clock,
we faw a ripling a-head, which, occafioned us to fhorten fail, and.
bear up; but foon afterwards we found it was occafioned by the
current,, on which we again hauled to the Southward and made fail..
The
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF AMERICA.
The North-Weft fide of Staten's Land is very mountainous, and
appears extremely barren; but I am informed the Eaft fide is
woody, and tolerably level. In the evening, the extremes of the
land bore from Weft North Weft to North by Weft, at nine
leagues diflance. From the 28th to the 30th, we had heavy gales
of wind, and frequent fqualls; the wind veering from South by
Eaft to Weft..
The 31ft, and to the 4th of February, was more moderate. We
now had made a good offing from Cape Horn, our latitude at noon
on the 4th being 60 deg. 14. min. South; and our longitude 67
deg. 30 min. Weft. Our courfe now changed to North-Weft, our
Captains wifhing to get flill further to the Weftward, that if we
fhould have Wefterly winds, we might keep well clear of the Continent. Since our leaving Falkland's Iflands, the weather has-
been very cold and fevere, with frequent ftorms of rain and fleet j
the thermometer generally at 44 deg. Indeed we are later in the
feafon than could have been wifhed, yet this is the Summer feafon
in this part of the world. During the greateft part of February,
we had conftant and fevere gales of wind from the North and
North-Weft, with very heavy crofs feas, which retarded our pro-
grefs exceedingly, our latitude on the 28th being 5,2 deg. 14 min.
South; and our longitude 84 deg. 34 min. Weft.
45
■
I have often admired that emphatic defcription of perfons in a
ftorm, recorded in the 107th Pfalm;. but its beauty now ftrikes:
me fo forcibly, in confequence of our late fituation, that I cannpt
forbear tranfcribing it.
I They that go down to the fea in fhips, and occupy their
{t bufinefs in great waters.    Thefe men fee the works of the Lord,
H and his wonders in  the deep.    For at his word, the ftorrny
1 "■ wind
 46 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
1786.     " wind arifeth, which lifteth up the waves thereof.    They are
-u—!lllj       carried up to the Heaven, and down again to the deep.    Their
" foul melteth away becaufe of the trouble.    They reel to and fro,
" and ftagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit's end."
I fhall make no apology for troubling thee with this paffage
from Sacred Writ, not only becaufe I know thou canft be ferious
upon occafion, but as it defcribes the feelings of people in diftrefs
at fea, better than a volume on the fubjed.
I forgot to mention, that on the 27th we found the gammoning
of our bowfprit gone, on which we fhortened fail, and got it fe-
cured with a new one.
The weather now grows more moderate, with frefh Wefterly
breezes, fo that we proceed on our voyage a-pace. After I am a
little recovered from the fatigue of the late tempeftuous weather,
thou wilt again hear from thine, &c.
W. B>
At Sea,      ?
6th March.     \
LETTER    XIII.
I OBSERVED to thee in the conclufion of my laft, that the
weather grew moderate, and tolerably fine, and every thing
feemed now to promife a continuation of it.   It being uncertain
j how
 NORT H-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
how long it would be before we came to anchor, Captain Dixon,
on the 7th of March, put the fhip's company to an allowance of
-water, at two quarts a man per day, befides an allowance for peafe
three times per week. Latitude at noon, 44 deg. 13 min. South ;
longitude 83 deg. 25 min. Weft.
47
Apri:
§•!
On the 23d at noon, we were in 34 deg. 8 min. South latitude.
Though the trade winds can feldom be depended on out of the
Tropics, yet we were lucky enough to meet with a pretty regular
trade in this latitude : this determined our Captains to fleer for
Los Majos, (an Ifland, or rather a group of Iflands feen by the
Spaniards, and laid down by them in 20 degrees North latitude,
and 130 deg. Weft longitude) as they were likely to afford every
kind of refrefhment we.wanted, and at the fame time were very
little out of our courfe..
At fix o'clock in the evening of the 25th, we faw a ftrange fail,
to the North Weft, and at ten fhe paffed us nearly within hail:.
we expeded fhe would have fpoke us, but this fhe declined. We
could not fee her diflindly enough to know what country fhe came
from; but it is very probable fhe was a Spaniard going to Baldivia.
We brought out two calks of cyder, which began to be ferved out
the 3d of April, at an allowance of a pint a day per man. This
was a moft agreeable beverage, as the weather now grew intenfely
hot and fultry; the. wind from Eaft to North Eaft.
On the 5th, the Armourer's forge was got upon deck, and fixed
up. He immediately began to work, in making fundry things for
the fhip's ufe, and likewife toes for our future traffic. Thefe toes
are long flat pieces of iron, not much unlike a carpenter's plane-iron,,
only
if-
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
only narrower: they are held in great eftimation by the Indians, and
as fuch we expecl them to be Angularly lafeful in our future trade.
On the 6th, the Carpenters were employed in making ports for
guns, and fixtures for fwivels ; and on the ioth we had two guns
(four pounders) and eight fwivels* fixed on the quarter-deck.
On the 20th, being in i deg. North latitude, and the weather
extremely fultry, our allowance of water was increafed to three
■quarts a man per day. The latter end of this month we caught a
number of fharks: thefe are reckoned very coarfe, rank food, and
they certainly are fo; but to us, who had been fo long on fait pro-
vifions, they were a prize, and by making a mefs, which failors call
chouder, of them, they eat very palatably. The weather was very
hot and fultry, with frequent light airs, fometimes inclining to
calm.
From the ift to the 3d of May, we faw numbers of turtle, which
gave us reafon to hope that we fhould fall in with a turtle ifland,
efpecially as Captain Cook, in his laft voyage, fell in with one not
many degrees from us j but in this we were difappointed.
With all our endeavours, we only caught one; but Captain
Portlock was more lucky, owing to his whale-boat being fixed on
the fhip's quarter; fo that when they faw any'turtle, his people
could launch the boat, and be after them in a minute; by which
means they caught from ten to fourteen per day, part of which
was always fent on board us: fo that though turtle was a kind of
luxury, yet we began to be pretty well fatiated with it: this refpite
from fait provifions muft, however, have been of lingular fervice to
both fhips companies.
On
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF AMERICA.
Our obfervation at noon, on the 8th of May, gave 17 deg. 4 min.
North latitude; and 129 deg. $j min. Weft longitude: in this
fituation we looked for "an Ifland called by the Spaniards Roco Parti da, but in vain; however, we flood to the Northward under an
eafy fail, and kept a good look out, expeding foon to fall in with
the group of iflands already mentioned.
From the nth to the 14th, we lay to every night, and when we
made fail in the morning, fpread at the diflance of eight or ten
miles, flanding Wefterly: it being probable that though the
-Spaniards might have been pretty corred in the latitude of thefe
iflands, yet they might eafily be miftaken feveral degrees in their
longitude : but our latitude on the 15th, at noon, being 20 deg,
a min. North, and 140 deg. 1 min. Weft longitude, which is considerably to the Weflward of any ifland laid down by the Spaniards,
we concluded, and with reafon, that there muft be fome grofs mif-
take in their chart.
Hitherto the .people in general on board the Queen had enjoyed
a pretty good ftate of health, except Mr. Turner, our Second Mate,
who was taken ill foon after we left St. Jago, and Captain Dixon,
who latterly had been attacked by a complication of diforders; but
<now the fcurvy began to make its appearance amongft us, many of
the people being affeded more or lefs, and one man entirely laid up
with it. Though every anti-fcorbutic on board was ufed with the
greateft care and regularity, yet we found all would be ineffedual,
without the afliftance of frefh air, frefh water, provifions, vegetables, &c. on which it was determined to make Sandwich Iflands as
ioon as poffible.
49
17S6.
May.
Being
 A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
Being already in our proper latitude, we kept ftanding to the
Weftward, with a fine leading breeze; and at feven o'clock in the
morning ofthe 24th, we faw Owhyhee, the principal of the Sandwich Iflands, bearing Weft, diflance about fourteen leagues. At
noon, the North-Eaft point bore North, at three leagues diflance.
As it was well known that this ifland afforded every thing we
wanted in abundance, the fight of it put every perfon on board in
frefh fpirits. After ftanding along the fhore two days, with light
windsj frequently inclining to calm, we came to anchor on the
Weft fide of the ifland, in Karakkakooa Bay, at one o'clock on
the 26th, in eight fathom water, the Weft point ofthe Bay bearing
Weft by North, and the South point, South half Weft, at about a
mile diflant from fhore. In the afternoon we were* furrounded by
an innumerable quantity of canoes, and vafl numbers of both fexes,
in the water; many of thefe, no doubt, came to fee us through
curiofity, but numbers brought various commodities to fell, fuch
as hogs, fweet potatoes, plantains, bread, fruit, &c. thefe we pur-
chafed with toes, fifh-hooks, nails, and. other articles of trifling;
value: the people bought fifhing-lines, mats, and various other
curiofities.
Early in the morning of the 27th, we began to prepare for
watering,, intending to difpatch that with all expedition ; but
Captain Dixon going on board the King George, was informed,
to our very great difappointment, that the inhabitants were
;rowing troublefcme, and that they had already tabooed the
watering place. This ceremony of tabooing is performed by their
priefts, and is done by flicking a number of fmall wands, tipt with
a tuft of white hair, round any place they want to keep private,
after which, no perfon prefumes to approach the place, and I believe
the punifhment is death for. an offence of this kind.    We were
afraid:
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
afraid at firft, that this treatment might proceed from a remembrance of the loffes they fuflained after the melancholy death of
Captain Cook, who was killed in this harbour; but that was not
the cafe : the reafon they gave for this proceeding was, that all
their Chiefs being abfent, engaged in war with a neighbouring
ifland, they durft not, on any. account, fuffer ftrangers to come on
fhore.
May.
One of our principal objeds being thus fruftrated, our Captains
are determined to leave this place as foon as poflible ; mean while,
we keep purchafing hogs, fowls; vegetables, &c. in abundance ;
and I believe every perfon on board has already began to feel the
good effeds of frefh viduals, but fcarcely any one more than
thine, &c.
Sandwich Islands, 7
28th May. 5
W. B.
LETTER    XIV.
I^EFORE I proceed-with my narration, give me leave to
3 obferveto thee, that the Sandwich Iflands were difcovered by
the late Captain Cook, in his laft Voyage to the Pacific Ocean.
Owhyhee, the principal, is the firft to the Southward and Eaftward;
the reft in a diredion nearly North-Weft. The names of the
principals are, Mowee, Moretoy, Ranai, Whahoo, Attoui, and
Oneehow. This will, Iprefume, be fufficient for thy information
at prefent.
1 At
 52
1786.
June.
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
At eight o'clock in the evening ofthe 27th, we weighed and"
made fail, tacking "oceafionally during the night, and the whole of
the 28th, having light variable winds. The people were employed
in killing hogs, and falting them for the fhip's ufe. A number of
canoes ftilLkept following us with hogs, vegetables, &c.
At noon, on the 29th, Karakkakooa bore North-Eaft by Eaft,
diflance feven or eight leagues; and the high land of Mowee (the
Ifland' we intended next to touch at) in fight. A ftrong breeze
during the whole ofthe 30th, prevented our touching at Mowee.-1
In the morning the Ifland of Ranai bore North North-Weft, at fix-
leagues diflance; and at noon a high bluff to the Weftward bore-
North by Weft, diflance one league. We kept ftanding for Wha- -
. hoo with a good Eafterly breeze.
At eight in. the morning of the 31ft, the North Eaft end df'
Moretoy bore North North Eaft, diflance about fix leagues. At,
noon we faw Whahoo; the South Eaft part bore Weft Southw
Weft, and the North Eaft part North Weft;. latitude 21 deg. 14.
min. North.
On the 1 ft of June, atone in the afternoon, we came to anchor
in a bay on the South fide of Whahoo, in eight and half fathom
water, over a fandy bottom; the extremes- of the land bearing
from Eaft South Eaft to.. Weft by South, diflance from fhore near
two miles. We had prefently a number of canoes along-fide, but
hogs and vegetables were much fcarcer here than at Owhyhee.
Early in the morning ofthe 2d,, our Captains went on fhore, in
order to find a watering place, and procure accommodations for
the ffck : they foon met with good water,, but the accefs to it was-
very
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
very difficult, occafioned by a reef of rocks which run almoft the
length of the bay, at a confiderable diflance from the fhore, and fo
high, that it was fcarcely pradkable, and by no means fafe for a •
loaded boat to venture over:   this circumftance made us defpair of
filling our water at this ifland;  but Captain Dixon taking notice
that moft of the people in the canoes had feveral gourds, or cala-
bafhes full of water, he direded us to purchafe them, which we
eaflly did for nails,, buttons, and fuch like trifles:   indeed fo fond
were they of this traffic, that every other objed was totally aban- -
doned, and the whole Ifland, at leaft that part which lay next us, .
were employed in bringing water: for a fmall, or a middling-fized
calabafh, containing perhaps two or three gallons, we gave a fmall.-:
nail; and for larger ones in proportion.    Thus, in this very lingular, and I may venture to fay, unprecedented manner, were both
fhips compleatly fupplied with water, not only at a trivial expence*.
but alfo faving our boats, cafks,. and tackling, and preferving the
people from wet, and the danger of catching cold*    During .the
time we were taking in water, &c our people were bufiedin fet-
ting up the rigging fore and aft,   fcraping the fhip's fides, and
other neceflary employments.     The Surgeon took the fick people
on fhore on the 2d, expeding the land air. would be of fervice to
them;   but the weather was very  fultry,   and the inhabitants
crowded about them in fuch numhers, that they were obliged to >
come on board, ..fatigued inftead of being refrefhed by their jaunt*.
June.
One of our grand objeds was now compleated, and our fick peo-* -
pie in fome meafure recovered; but we wifhed, if poflible, to pro- -
cure a farther fupply of hogs, vegetables,. &c. and Whahoo afford-,
ing but little of either, it was determined to make Attoui with all
expedition, that ifland abounding with every thing we wifhed foiv .
 54
June.
*   A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
At {even in the morning of the 5th, we weighed anchor, and
flood for Attoui,. with moderate breezes and cloudy weather. At
.noon the South point of Whahoo bore Eaft South Eaft, diflance
fix leagues; latitude 21 deg. 15 min. North.
In the morning of the 6th, we faw Attoui; and at noon, the
"high point upon the South-Eafl end bore Weft North Weft, at
nine leagues diflance, Whahoo ftill in fight.
By three o'clock in the afternoon of the 7th, we were a-breaft of
Wymoa-Bay, Attoui, the place we propofed coming to anchor in;
but the wind blowing pretty ftrong from the South Eaft, and the
hay quite open to that quarter, Captain Portlock declined coming
-to here, and propofed ftanding for Oneehow, which at four o'clock
bore Weft North Weft, at about five leagues diflance. During the
night, we tacked occafionally; and at ten in the morning of the
8th, came to an anchor in Yam Bay, Oneehow, in feven-
teen fathom water, over a fandy bottom. The North point
of the bay bore North North Eaft, and the South point South by
Eaft, at one and a half mile diflance from fhore. This Ifland produces great quantities of excellent yams, and the inhabitants
. brought us a plentiful fupply, which we purchafed for nails, and
fuch like trifles : indeed this place produces no great plenty of any
thing befides, there being but few inhabitants here, compared with
Attoui, Whahoo, &c. &c. Our fick were taken on fhore here, and
found great benefit from the land air, as they could walk about at
their eafe, without being molefted by the inhabitants. The principal Chief at this ifland is called Abbenooe; he feems a very
adi-ve, intelligent perfon, and Captaip Portlock making him fome
trifling prefents, he was wholly attached to us; fo that our fick were
much better accommodated on his account.    We got very few
hogs
   NORTH-WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
hogs here, and thefe were chiefly brought from Attoui: however,
as our people are pretty well recovered, and every neceffary bufinefs
on board the fhips compleated, we fhall lofe no time in the profe-
cution of our voyage, but get to fea as. foon as poflible. Thou
mayeft depend on a farther continuation the earlieft opportunity,
from
w. m
Sandwich Islands, T
i 2th June. j
55
June.
LETTER    £V.
rr^HOU mayeft fee by the place from which this is dated, that
_L we at laft are arrived at the bufy fcene of adion, and perhaps thou wilt infer, at the fummit of our hopes, wifhes, and
expedations ; but have a little patience, my good friend, and thou-
wilt perceive, that "allis not gold that glitters."
I informed thee at the conclufion of my laft, that we were getting ready for fea with all expedition, our attention being as invariably fixed on the American Coaft, as the needle is to the North.
Having procured as many hogs as our time would permit, together
with an excellent flock of yams, we weighed anchor on the 13th of
June, at ten in the forenoon, and made fail, ftanding to the North-
Weft, with moderate breezes, and fine weather.
As it is probable we fhall touch at Sandwich-Iflands, perhaps
more than once during the courfe of our voyage, I fhall defer giving thee any further, account of them at prefent, as in that cafe I
fhall
 a*
A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
-1786.     fliallbe able to defcribe them more particularly than I now have it
lJ,-,-*,_' -incmy."power to do.
"No very material occurrence happened during the greateft part
of our paffage from the Iflands to Cook's River: however, as thou
art fond of particulars, though ever fo trifling, I will endeavour
to-oblige thee in that refped.
On the 15th, being well clear ofthe land, we changed our courfe
to North and North by Eaft, and from that to the 22d, had moderate breezes, with fine weather.
From the 23d to the 28th, frequent ftrong breezes with rain;
the wind veering from South Weft to North Weft, but more frequently fince the trade winds left us, which they did about the
latitude 26 deg. North.
From the 29th of June to the ift of July, we had light variable
winds, with thick fogs, and drizling rain; latitude on the 30th
of June 40. deg. 30 min. North; longitude 151 deg. 42 min. Weft.
On the 2d of July, the water changing its colour, and a number
of feals being feen playing about us (one of which was ftruck
and got on board the King George) we founded with a line of 120
fathom, but got no bottom. On the 3d, we faw a piece of wood
floating en the water, with a number of birds on it: we had frequent gales from the North Weft, with rain. On the 4th, being
in 45 deg. 2 min. North latitude, and 150 deg. 10 min. Weft
longitude, we found a ftrong current fetting to the South Weft.
From the 5th to the 1 ith, we had variable winds from South
-Eaft-to South Weft, fometimes ftrong breezes, with foggy weather
2 and
 iHii
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  NORTH7WEST   COAST  OF   AMERICA. 5
and much'rain.    On the 10th, our obfervation at noon gave ci     1786.
• Tulv
deg. 24 min. North latitude; and 149 deg. 35 min. Weft longitude 5   ^J^ _'._
the weather thick and hazy.
We frequently faw great quantities of fea-weed, called by failors
fea-leeks, and a fpecies of birds much refembling Cape pigeons.
The 1 ith, in the evening, the moon was totally eclipfed, but the
evening and night were fo very thick and foggy, that we could not
obtain the leaft fight of it.
By the 13th, our flock of yams was nearly expended, an inconvenience which we felt very heavily, as they anfwered every pur-
pofe both of potatoes and bread. We frequently paffed pieces of
wood and fea-weed, and faw various fpecies of birds. Latitude at
noon on the 13th, 54 deg. $5 min. North; longitude 148 deg. 34
min. Weft.
On the 15th, the colour of the water altering very much, the
King George frequently founded with 90 to 120 fathom line, but
found no bottom. Latitude at noon, $j deg. 4 min. North; longitude 149- deg. 22 min. Weft.
On the 16th, we had a number of puffins, gulls, fea-parrots, and
other birds about us; fea-leeks and pieces of Wood continually
paffing us : on this we founded at ten o'clock in the forenoon,
with 120 fathom line, but got no bottom. Our obfervation at
noon gave 58 deg. 34 min. North latitude ; and our longitude
was 151 degrees 4 minutes Weft. At fix in the afternoon, we
founded with 55 fathom line, over a bottom of black rock and
fand, intermixed with a kind of black fhells. At {even o'clock,
being then ftanding nearly North, we faw the land to our great
joy, bearing North Weft by Weft, at about eight leagues diflance,
H and
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
and which we judged to be near Cook's River. During the
evening, we had a number of whales playing about the fhip. I
forgot to obferve before, that our original deftination was firft
to King George's Sound: but as we were considerably later in
the feafon than we once expeded to be, our Captains judged it
moft .prudent to make Cook's River firft, and ftand along the coaft
to the Southward, as the feafon advanced..
The wind being right againft us, we plied to windward, during
the 17th and 18th, when we found the land feen on the evening
©f the 16th, to be a group of iflands, called by Captain Cook the-
Barren Iflands, and fituated at the entrance of Cook's River.
At four in the afternoon of the 18th, we faw the Ifland. St,
Hermogenes, bearing from South South Weft to Weft, at three
leagues diflance. The whales near the land were fo numerous*
that their blowing refembled a large reef of rocks.
At eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 19th, we made the entrance of Cook's River, leaving the Barren Ifles to the Southward
and Eaftward. Both wind and tide being, now in our favour, we
kept ftanding along the Eaftern fhore, intending, if poffible, to
make Anchor Point before we let go our anchor; but at fevemin
the afternoon we were furprized with the report of a gun, which
proceeded from a bay nearly a-breaft of us,, at about four miles
diflance. Captain Portlock immediately fired a gun, by way of
anfwering this fignal, and there being every appearance of a good
harbour, he determined to ftand in, and come to anchor,, in- order
that we might know what nation had got the ftart of us.
Various were our eonjedures on this head; fome thinking they
might poflibly be our own countrymen;. others,, that they were
French*
 NORTH-WEST COAST  OF AMERICA.
French ; and indeed this latter conjedure had a good deal of weight
with us, as we had heard of two French fhips fitting out for this
coaft, at the time we left England. However, all our fufmifes
were foon changed into certainty, for as we were ftanding into the
bay with a light breeze, a boat came from the fhore to the King
George, and the people proved to be Ruffians.
59'
1786.
July.
I-
At eight o'clock, being well into the bay, we came to anchor in
thirty-five fathom water, Point Bede bearing Eaft North Eaft, at
three miles diflance; and Mount St. Auguftine South Weft by
Weft.
Soon after our anchor was gone, four or five canoes, with a fingle
perfon in each, came along-fide us. We were fo elated with this
promifing appearance, that an affortment of our various articles
of trade was immediately got to hand, and abundance of furs were
already on board, in our imagination: but thefe pleafing ideas foon
vanifhed, for we foon found that thefe people belonged to the
Ruffians.
Though our expedations of finding inhabitants here were difappointed, yet as the place was found very convenient for procuring
a fupply of wood and water, every neceffary preparation was made
for that purpofe, and parties fent on fhore in the morning of the
20th, to cut wood and fill water : in the mean time, our Captains
went in the King George's whale-boat to the Ruffian Fadory, in
order to pick up what intelligence they could, refpeding their
bufinefs on this coaft.
It feems the Ruffians had no fixed fettlement here, and, in fhort,
ho other refiden'ce than a mere temporary one, which they had
H 2 made
 6a> AVOYAGETOTHE
1786. made by hauling their boats on fhore, and laying them on their
J^.'j beam-ends, with fkins drawn fore and aft, to fhelter them from
the inclemency of the weather. All that could be learnt from
them was, that they came in a floop from Onalafka, and that the
people we had feen in the canoes were Codiac Indians, which they
had brought with them, the better to facilitate their traffic with the
inhabitants of Cook's River, and the adjacent country ; but not-
withftanding this, they had frequently quarelled and fought with
. the natives, and were at prefent on fuch bad terms with them, that
they never went to fleep without their arms ready loaded by their
fide. However, the accounts we got feldom agreed, and gave us
but an indifferent idea of their proceedings, though, this might
arife, in a great meafure, from our having but a very imperfed
knowledge of the Ruffian language: thus much we were pretty
certain of, that they had met with very few, if any fkins, though
they had got nankeens,, and Perfian filks to traffic with.
The watering place here is fo very convenient, that we compleated our water in one day, viz. the 21ft : from that to the 26th,.
the people were employed in cutting wood, and recreating them-
felves on fhore..
On the 24th, our Captains went to furvey the bay,, and landing on the South Eaft point, they found a vein of coals, fome of
Which were brought on board. The bay, from this circumftance,,
obtained the name of Coal Harbour..
Our people frequently tried to catch fifli with a hook and line,,
but to no purpofe: however, Captain Portlock having a feine on
board, it was frequently hauled with fuccefs, and large quantities
of fine falmon caught, which were generally divided between
the fhips.
The
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
The country here is very mountainous: the hills Hoping down
neareft the fhore, are totally covered with pines, intermixed with
birch, alder, and various other trees and fhrubs, whilft the more
diftant mountains, whofe lofty fummits outreach the clouds, are
totally covered with fnow, and have the appearance of everlafting
Winter. But I fhall not at prefent attempt any farther defcription
of a country, which as yet I am fb little acquainted with : let it
fuffice for thee at prefent to know, that though this is the latter
end of July, the weather is in general cold, damp, and difagreeable;
with frequent fhowers of fnow or fleet; and the furrounding pro-
fped barren, dreary, and uncomfortable.. So much at prefent for
the prom fed land.    Thine ever,
W. B..
Cook's River, 7
25th July.     \
July.
LETTER    XVI.
HAVING compleated our water, and got on board a fuffi-
cient quantity of wood for prefent ufe, we. weighed anchor
early in the morning of the 2,6th, and flood out for the main river,
as our Captains knew we fhould find inhabitants farther to the
Northward; and there was not the leaft doubt of meeting with
furs wherever we could find people. The tide in the river is very
rapid, running at leaft four knots per hour; fb- that there was a
neceffity of coming to anchor every tide, unlets aflifted by a frefh
favourable breeze: this, however, was looked upon by us as a matter, of little confequence, as we expeded fuch plenty of traffic up
the river,, that our frequent anchoring, would be abfolutely neceffary ; but in this we were difappointed.
1 Duriu
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
During the 26th and 27th, we kept ftanding up the'river with
variable winds, and moderate weather: no inhabitants came near
ais, nor any particular occurrence happened. At noon on the 27th,
the Burning Mountain bore South-Weft by Weft. A confiderable
fmoke iffued from its fummit, which is very lofty, but we faw no
.fiery eruption; nor did I find, on enquiry of Captain Dixon, that
they ever faw any greater appearance of a volcano from this mountain, during their cruize up this river, their laft Voyage, at which
time it was difcovered.
At three o'clock in the afternoon of the 28th, we came to
anchor in eleven fathom water, over a fandy bottom, the adjacent
-coafl to the Weftward about three miles diflance, tolerably level,
and likely, in the opinion of our Captains, to produce Furs. In the (
evening, a fingle canoe, with one man in her, came along-fide us,
but brought nothing, except a little dried falmon, which we bought
for a few beads, with which he feemed perfedly fatisfied. 'Tis moft
probable this man came purpofely to reconnoitre us, and learn our
intentions; for when he underftood that we came to trade peaceably, and was fhewn various articles we had to traffic with, he was
very well pleafed, and gave us to underftand that the people (pointing the fhore) would bring us plenty of fkins by the next day's
fun. Early in the morning of the 29th, we had feveral canoes
along-fide us; fome fo fmall, that they hold only one or two men,
and others with from ten to fourteen people in them : they
brought us fkins of various forts, fuch as land and fea otters,
bears, racoons, marmots, &c. &c. for which they took toes and
.blue beads, but the toes are held in the greateft eftimation, a mid-
-dling fized toe fetching the beft otter fkin they had got. During
the greateft part of the day, we traded with pretty good fuc-
„,cefs, the inhabitants behaving in a quiet, orderly manner, and
we
   NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA. f
we kept up this friendly intercourfe by every method in our    1786.
power, being perfedly convinced, that a kind and mild treat-  v_J^j^
ment was the fureft means of procuring what we wanted from,
thefe favages.
• Towards evening, the wind blowing frefh, no canoes ventured'
to come near us; but the weather proving moderate on the 30th,
a number of fmall canoes, and two large ones, came along-fide^,
from whom we purchafed every thing they had worth picking up..
By our obfervation to-day at noon, the place where we now hep
is in 60 deg. 48 min. North latitude; and 152 deg. 11 min. Weft
longitude. From this to the 3d of Auguft, the weather was moderate and fine : our friends kept bringing-us fkins of various kinds,,
but gave us to underftand, that their own were all fold, and that
they were obliged to trade with tribes in diftant parts of the country, in order to fupply us. They alfo brought us great plenty of
excellent frefh falmon> which-we bought very cheap, giving a fingle
bead for a large fifh; indeed they were fo plentiful, that at anytime if we refufed to purchafe, they would throw the fifh on board,.
fooner than be at the pains to take them back. The falmon.
come into the river in innumerable fhoals, at this feafon of
the year, and are caught by the natives in wears, with the greateft
eafe; they are fmoaked and dried in their huts, and make a very
confiderable part of their food during the Winter. What a frefh ■
inflance this of the goodnefs of Divine Providence towards his
creatures! How bountifully he hath provided for thefe poor
wretches, in this barren and inhofpitable part of the world! Surely,
after this, no one can afk with the difcontented Ifraelites, " Canu
God fpread a table in the wildernefs V\
m
Q*
 64 AVOYAGETOTHE
1786. On the 4th of Auguft, we had a ftrong breeze from the South South
tf^—.'j Eaft, which prevented any canoes coming near us; but the weather,
on the 5th, being pretty moderate, feveral canoes came along-fide, •
but the people had very few fkins, and they gave us to underfland,
that the country was pretty well drained. We were moored with
both bowers, but this morning we took up the beft, in order to be
ready for fea, when Captain Portlock fhould make the fignal.
In the morning of the 6th, we had ftrong breezes from the South
-South Weft, with rain, which continued till noon on the 7th, when
the weather turned moderate. In the afternoon, Captain Portlock
came on board us, and propofed weighing anchor at four o'clock
the next morning. Accordingly we weighed, and were making
fail, when Captain Portlock fent his Third Mate on board us, with
a meffage, intimating, that - as the weather promifed very unfavourably, we had much better flay where we lay, than run the
rifque of getting a bad fituation in a gale of wind; accordingly, we
again let go our anchor, and foon found his fuggeftion a good one,
for in the evening there came on a very heavy gale of wind, which
continued the greateft part of the night. We again moored fhip,
with the beft bower; but in the morning of the 9th, the weather
growing moderate, we hove it up again, in order to be ready for
failing with the firft fair wind. For feveral days paft, but few
canoes had been near us, and thefe brought us nothing but old tattered pieces, the remnants of dirty fkins which they had wore to
defend themfelves from the inclemency of the weather : indeed, for
fome time paft, what good fkins they brought were cut into flrips,
probably with a view to obtain better prices; but this pradice we
difcountenanced as much as poflible.
Before
 WSMBmM
  NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
Before I proceed farther, let me endeavour to give thee fome
idea of the country near the place we now lay ; and furely a pro-
fped more dreary and uncomfortable can fcarcely be conceived,
than that which prefented itfelf to our view to the North Weft.
The land, indeed, clofe by the fea-fide, is tolerably level, affords
a few pines, which, together with fhrubs and underwoods, intermixed with long grafs, make the landfcape not altogether difagree-
able; but the adjacent mountains, whofe rugged tops far outreach
the clouds, abfolutely beggar all defcription : covered with eternal
fnow, except where the fierce North wind blows it from their craggy
fummits, they entirely chill the blood of the beholder, and their
prodigious extent and ftupendous precipices, render them equally
inacceflible to man or beaft. I had forgot, that in my laft I pro-
mifed to attempt no. more defcriptions of the country at prefent,
but the profped juft mentioned had fomething in it fo awfully
dreadful, that I could not avoid faying a few words refpeding it,
and I know thou wilt readily forgive any little inadvertencies of
this fort, as my only wifh is, to amufe and entertain—I wifh I
could add, and inftrud thee. Thou mayeft exped a continuation
very foon.    Adieu.    Thine, &c,
W. B.
Cook's River, 1
10th Auguft.     (
LETTER
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
LETTER     XVII.
I OBSERVED in my laft, that we held ourfelves in readinefs
to fail with the firft fair wind; and at five o'clock in the morning ofthe ioth of Auguft, we weighed and made fail with moderate breezes and fine weather. At eight o'clock, finding the tide
fet us ftrongly in for the land, and very near a long ridge of fand<
to the' Southward, we let go an anchor in ten fathom water, over
a flony bottom ; an ifland to the Southward at little more than a<
mile's diflance. At five in the afternoon, we weighed and made:
fail, but the breeze not enabling us to ftem the tide, at nine we
were obliged to come to an anchor in twelve fathom water, over a.
rocky bottom; the North Weft end of the fmall ifland to the
Southward, bearing Weft North Weft, diflance off fhore to the.
Northward five miles; the weather moderate and fine.
At five in the morning of the i ith, we weighed anchor, and
kept ftanding down the river.. At eight o'clock we perceived two
Ruffian boats,.with eighteen men in each, fleering for the iflandI
to the Southward. They, no doubt, were the fame people we
faw incoming up the river. It feems to be their plan to fub-
•jugate the poor Indians, and afterwards to exad what fkins they
can, by way of tribute; but the people are difperfed in fo many
different parts, that this fcheme can furely never anfwer their pur-
pofe. At eleven o'clock we came to in nineteen fathom water,,
Anchor Point bearing South by Eaft, diflance from fhore four
miles.    Our obfervation atnoon gave 60 deg. 9 min. North lati-
!sri$8"   tude..
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
tude.    Having but light breezes, we were obliged to wait for the
tide in ftanding down the river.
ft
Auguft.
At noon on the 12 th, Cape Bede bore Eaft South Eaft, and
Coal Harbour Eaft by South. At two o'clock we came to in thirty-nine fathom water, the barren Iflands bearing South South
Eaft; the Burning Mountain Weft North Weft; Mount St.
Auguftine South Weft; and Coal Harbour Eaft. Our obfervation
gave 59 deg. 28 min. North latitude; and 151 deg. Weft longitude.
The weather was moderate and fine, and we had great reafon to
hope that the next tide, with a tolerable breeze, would carry us
clear of the river.
In regard to the extent of this river, I cannot fpeak with any
degree of certainty ; but we know that it reaches confiderably farther to the Northward than where we lay at anchor. With refped
to its breadth, it is feldom more than twenty miles over.
The inhabitants feem not to have fixed on any particular fpot
for their refidence, but are fcattered about here" and there, as beft
fuits their convenience or inclination. 'Tis moft probable they are
divided into clans or tribes, as in every large canoe we faw there
was at leaft one perfon of fuperior authority to the reft, who not
only direded their traffic, but kept them in a proper degree of
fubordination. In their manners they feem harmlefs and inoffen-
five; but this might probably be occafioned by the different treatment they met with from us, to what the Ruffians had ufed them
to. The weapons we faw are bows and arrows, and fpears ; thefe
are very ufeful in hunting, as well as fighting; the flefh of the
various beafts they kill ferving them for food, as their fkins do for
I 2 cloath-
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
cloathing. One would reafonably fuppofe that the fkin s of large
beafts, as bears, wolves, &c. would be held in the greateft eftima-
tion as cloaths bv thefe people: this, however, is not the cafe, the
greater part wearing cloaks made of marmot-fkins, very neatly
fewed together, one cloak containing perhaps more than one hundred fkins: it is moft likely that their women's time is principally
taken up in employments like thefe. Befides the fea-otter, here are-
bears, wolves, foxes, racoons, marmots, or field-mice, mufquafh,
.ermine, &c. &c. but the marmot and fox feem to be in the greateft
plenty. The trade thefe people are fondeft of for their fkins, is
toes, and light blue beads,, fcarcely any other fort (though, wehad^
a very great variety) being taken the leaft notice of..   .
In their perfons, thefe people are ofa middle fize, and well proportioned ; their features appear regular, but their faces are fo
bedaubed with dirt and filth, that it is impoflible to fay what fort
of complexion.they have. That perfon feems to be reckoned the
greateft beau amongft them, whofe face is one entire piece of fmut
and greafe, and his hair well daubed with the fame compofition.
Their nofe and ears are ornamented with beads, or teeth, if they
cannot procure any thing elfe : they have likewife a long flit cut in
the under lip, parallel with the mouth, which is ornamented much
in the fame manner with the nofe and ears I but this I could ob-
ferve was always in proportion to the perfon's wealth. We faw
only one woman,, and the people with her behaved with great
civility, and attended her with great refped: her face, contrary to
the general cuflom, was tolerably clean, and her complexion and
. features far from difagreeable :. indeed I have often feen much
worfe-looking women in England. Their fmall canoes are fo con-
ftruded, as to hold but one, or at moft two perfons; and both
thefe and the large ones are covered with fkins.    It poffibly may
be
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
69
II!
be in my power, before the conclufion of our Voyage, to give thee     1786.
a farther account of thefe people; iffo, thou mayeft depend on it; , u*-v-^»
in the mean time, let me proceed with our tranfadions.
I have obferved, that the afternoon of the 12th was fine, and the j
weather continuing favourable, we weighed anchor at four o'clock
in the morning of the 13th of Auguft, having a fine leading breeze :
and clear weather.    We flood down the river to the Eaft North .
Eaft, leaving the Barren Iflands to the Southward.
Before noon-we were clear of Cook's River, and our deftination 1
being for Prince William's Sound, we flood to the North Eaft, at
about two leagues diflance from the fhore.    At noon, the Norther-
moft part of the Continent bore North Eaft by North and Sugar
Loaf Ifland (one ofthe Barren Iflands) South Weft.    Towards the.:
evening our breeze died away, and during the night, we had light v
-baffling winds.
During the former part of the 14th, we kept ftanding along the -
fhore, latitude at noon 59 deg. 6 min. North.    In the afternoon,
the weather grew cloudy and hazy.    At four o'clock we tacked, and •
flood to the North Weft, but being uncertain how we were fitu-
ated in regard to the paffage into Prince William's Sound, at;eight .
we again tacked, and flood off fhore till twelve o'clock.
On the 15th we had light airs, with hazy weather.    We had loft
fight of the land, but at two o'clock we again faw it, bearing from i
North North Weft to Weft North Weft.    On founding we found s
bottom with 103 fathom line, mud and clay.
Light
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
1786.
Augi '
Light airs and hazy on the 16th. We ftill kept flanding along
the fhore, at about two leagues diflance; the land bearing from
'Weft South Weft to North. On the 17th, we ftill had light baf-
: fling winds, and cloudy weather. Having had no meridian altitude fince the 14th, we could not be exadly certain as to our
fituation, but concluded the land which, we now faw to the North
Eaft to be Montague Ifland. It being nearly calm, and our foundings greatly leffened, we came to anchor at three ©"'clock, in forty-
three fathom water, over a fkndy bottom; diflance from fhore
about three miles. I fhould obferve, * that for fome days paft our
foundings had varied from one hundred and twenty to twenty
eight fathom water, generally over a muddy bottom. An ifland to
the Northward bore from North Eaft by Eaft to North North
Eaft. Another point of land due North, at fix miles diflance.
Whilft we lay at anchor, many of our people got out their fifh-
ing-lines, thinking we lay on a cod-bank; they caught fome fcul-
pins, and a few halibut, but were difappointed in their expeda-
tions of catching cod.
The weather continued thick and foggy, but at fix o'clock in
the afternoon of the 18th, a breeze fpringing up from the South
Weft by Weft, we weighed anchor, and flood in for the fhore.
At ten o'clock, we founded with forty-five fathom line, over a
bottom of fand mixed with fhells; at twelve, we had no bottom
with eighty fathom line.
The early part ofthe morning ofthe 19th was fo foggy, that we
loft fight of land, but at eight o'clock we faw land bearing North
Eaft by North. We kept plying to windward, in order to make,
if poffible, the South Weft paffage into Prince William's Sound,
which, at four in the afternoon, bore North Eaft by North \ the
1 Eaftermoft
 NORTH-WEST   COAST   OF AMERICA.
Eaftermoft point of land in fight Eaft by North; Foot Ifland, from
North by Eaft, to Weft North Weft; Leg Ifland, Weft, to North
Weft by North; the Continent South Weft. The wind blew
frefh from the North Eaft, and a heavy fwell fetting to the Weft-
ward, we gained little or nothing. At eight o'clock in the evening, the South Weft Point of Montague Ifland bore Eaft North
Eaft, at four miles diflance. The wind being variable during the
night, we tacked occafionally. At ten o'clock we had foundings
in forty fathom water, over a fandy bottom..
At eight in the morning of the 20th, the land in fight bore
from North North Eaft to North half Weft; we had no bottom
with a line of fifty fathom. Still we kept plying to windward, but:
with no better fjaccefs than on the preceding days, owing to frefh.
North Eaflerly winds, and.a current fetting to the Weftward.
71.
1786.
Auguft.
The former part of the 21ft was hazy, with rain. At four in
the afternoon, we had great hopes of making a bay near the wifhed-
for entrance, being in feventeen fathom water, and within a mile:
and half of the land; but we found a ftrong current fet us bodily
to leeward, in addition to the fwell from the Eaftward. In the.
evening, and during the night, we had ftrong North Eaflerly.
breezes, with much rain;. and the former part of the 2 2d was thick -
and rainy, but the wind more moderate. We had a tolerable obfervation at noon, which gave 59 deg. 15 min. North latitude,
being the only one we could get for ten days paft..
During the afternoon, and the whole of the 23d, the weatherr
was thick and hazy, with frefh variable breezes, though chiefly
from the North. Eaft, and.no land in fight..
At:
 li
72 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
1786. At four o'clock in the morning of the 24th, the wind veered td
^5-,'tj tihe South Eaft, on which we flood right in for the land, which we
faw at three in the afternoon, bearing from North by Eaft to Weft
by North, at ten miles diflance. We had foundings in feventy
fathom water, over a muddy bottom. At eight in the evening,
the wind changed to the North Eaft again, and we flood off the
land during the night, -it being very uncertain how the currents
fet.    I fhall refume the fubjed very fhortly.    Thine, &c.
W. B.
MOff Montague Island, ?
-27thAuguft. I
LETTER    XVIII.
DU RI N G the 25th and 26th of Auguft, we had light winds,
and hazy weather. At feven in the evening of the 26th, the
wind fhifted to the Southward, and we were in great hopes of getting in with the land next day. Towards ten o'clock it came on
to blow very frefh, fo that we hove to till three in the morning
of the 27th, when we made fail, and flood to the Northward. At
noon we faw the land, bearing due North. Our obfervation gave
59 deg. North latitude, being the only good one we had been able
to make for the paft fortnight. Longitude 145 deg. 44 min. Weft.
Finding ourfelves much too far to the Eaftward, to have any hopes
of getting into Prince William's Sound by the South Weft paffage,
our Captains determined to try for the entrance by CapeHinchin-
brooke, having a favourable breeze and moderate weather.
2 I fhould
   NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA.
I fhould have obferved, that there are two paffages into the 1-86
Sound ; the one, (which we have in vain attempted for f >me time 3^1
paft) to the Weftward, and the other to the Eaftward of Montague
Ifland. At five in the afternoon we faw fome low, flat land, bearing North Eaft, which we took for Kayes Ifland. At eight o'clock
the land a-head bore North by Weft, at ten miles diflance. The
wind blowing frefh, we tacked, and flood off fhore during the night,
not judging it prudent to ftand in for the land..
73
In the morning of the 28th, the land bore Weft, at twelve or
fourteen miles diflance; and by noon, we had entirely loft fight of
it. The weather was fqually, with rain, and a frefh North Eaflerly
breeze. All hopes of making Prince William's Sound this feafon
were now given, up, and it was determined by our Captains to fleer
for Crofs Sound, that being the next known harbour to the Southward, where any fkins were likely to be procured..
From the 29th of Auguft to the 3d of September, we had frefh-
North Eaflerly breezes, with fqually weather. On the 4th, the
weather grew moderate, and tolerably pleafant, with light variable winds, which continued much the fame till the 7th, when we
had a brifk gale from the North Eaft, but towards evening, it turned
nearly calm. On the 8th, a frefh breeze fprung up from the
South South Weft. Our obfervation at noon gave 58 deg. North
latitude; and our longitude was 137 deg. 38 min. Weft. This
being pretty near the fituation of Crofs Sound, as laid down
by Captain Cook, we fleered North Eaft by Eaft, and our Southerly breeze continuing, we faw land right a-head at eleven o'clock,
in the forenoon of the 9th, and at two o'clock it bore from North.
Weft to Eaft by South, at fix miles diflance.
K
Having
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
Having been at fea a month, when we expededonlya cruize of
two or three days, thou mayeft imagine we were greatly elated with
the profped of fpeedily coming to anchor, and beginning to traffic;
but all our expedations on this head foon vanifhed, for on ftanding in for the fhore till four o'clock, and at lefs than three miles
diflance, we could not fee any appearance of the Sound mentioned
by Captain Cook. The coaft, indeed, formed a kind of bay, but
afforded no place, in this fituation, where a veflel could anchor,
with any degree of fafety. We founded with a line of 110 fathom,
but found no bottom, neither was the colour of the water in the
leaft changed; fo that there is reafon to exped deep water quite,
clofe to the fhore.
Being difappointed in our expedations of falling in with Crofs
Sound, it was judged a needlefs wafte of time to look for it in any
other fituation, efpecially as Captain Cook never came to anchor
there, but only faw it at a considerable diflance; and we knew by
experience, how deceitful the appearances of land are on this coaft,
occafioned by a conftant haze, which perpetually changes its pofi-
tion, and renders it next to impoffible to afcertain land at a dif-
tance, with any degree of certainty.
The Bay of Lflands was the next eligible harbour for us to make j
this lay about thirty miles to the Southward and Eaftward. A
favourable breeze fpringing up towards the evening, we flood under an eafy fair during the night, with every profped of making
this harbour foon; but in the morning of the ioth, a very heavy
gale of wind came on from the Southward, which continued till
evening, when we had a flat calm for a few hours.
At
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
At two o'clock in the morning of the nth, the gale came on ,   1786
75
heavier than before, with much rain, and continued without interruption till the 13 th, at noon, when the weather grew moderate,
and tolerably clear. During the gale, we had wore occafionally,
to prevent our getting on a lee-fhore, and when it fubfided, we
found ourfelves more than ten leagues from Cape Edgecombe,
(the neareft point of land to the Bay of Iflands) our obfervation
at noon giving 56 deg. 50 min. North latitude. However, it was
determined to make this harbour if poffible, our fails and rigging
being pretty much damaged during the ftorm.
September.
Accordingly, we fleered Eaft North Eaft, with a moderate breeze
from the Southward; and at fix o'clock in the morning of the
14th, we faw land, bearing from Eaft by North to North Weft, at
fourteen miles diflance. At noon, Cape Edgecombe bore South
60 deg. Eaft, at ten miles diflance. Our obfervation gave 57 deg.
6 min. North latitude. We kept fleering to the Weflward, in
expedation of finding the Bay of Iflands till five in the afternoon,
but could not fall in with any fuch place to the Weflward of the
Cape. That part of the coaft which we examined forms a kind of
fhallow bay, but affords not the leaft fhelter for any veflel to lay at
anchor, neither could we perceive the leaft fign of inhabitants.
We had indeed heard, that the Spaniards anchored very near this
place in 1775, but this account we were afraid was not abfolutely
to be depended on. At fix o'clock we hauled our wind to the
Southward, intending to examine the South Eaft fide of the
Cape; but at midnight a very heavy gale of wind fprung up from
the South Eaft, which continued during the whole of the 15th,
with heavv and continued rain ; this made us glad to keep off the
land as much as poffible, fo that in the forenoon of the 16th, we
were more than twenty leagues-to the Southward of Cape Edge-
K 2 combe*
III
 j 786.
ptember,
76 AVOYAGETOTHE
combe. The wind grew more moderate, but variable, and frequently fqually, with rain. The weather was thick, and fo hazy,
that we could not fee a mile a-head. The feafon flipping away
very faft, all hopes of making the Bay of Iflands were given up,
and it was determined to fleer for King George's Sound,, keeping:
in, however,, with the coaft, that no opportunity of accidentally-
meeting with a harbour might be loft.
The weather on the 17th grew moderate,, and a fine Wefterly.
breeze came on early in the morning: our latitude at noon was
55 degrees 15 min. North ;. and our longitude 136 deg.. 14 min..
Weft. We ftill had a fine North- Wefterly breeze, and at one
o'clock on the 18th, being then fleering due Eaft, we faw land
right a-head, on which we flood diredly for it. Our latitude
at noon was. 53 deg. 46 min. North; and our longitude 133
deg. 53 min. Weft. At fix o'clock we were well in with the
land ; but finding no harbour, nor the leaft fign of any inhabitants, we bore up,.and flood to the Southward. The land we faw
was high,.and bore North 65 degrees Eaft, at four miles diflance..
The evening, was fine, clear, and feren.. We faw a fpecies of bird:
quite different from any we had hitherto feen : his make was long;
and flender, yet his flight was very heavy. The tips of his wings
and tail were white, and his wings were finely variegated. He was,
nearly the fize of a fmall gnll. We likewife faw wild-geefe of
various fpecies*, in great numbers^
The frefh Northerly breeze continued during the -19th; the land;
in fight at fix in the morning bore from. North Weft to North
Eaft, diflance off fhore about nine leagues. Our obfervation at
noon gave 51 deg. 56 min. North ;,and our longitude 133 deg..
Weft.
jl- The
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
The weather during; the 20th and 21ft was moderate, and we-   1786.
kept ftanding to the Eaftward;   the coaft in fight at eight or nine  ./^^^
leagues-diflance.    On the 21ft, at noon, being in 50 deg. 40 min.
North latitude, we faw an ifland, bearing North 53 deg. Eaft.    In '
the afternoon we had a large fhark- along-fide;   I mention-this as
it is a fifh rarely feen in fuch Northerly latitudes..   At fix o'clock
the Ifland; or rather Iflands we had feen at noon, bore from Norths
22 deg. Eaft to North 43 deg. Eaft,.at three leagues diflance.
During the 22d we flood to the Eaflward, for King George's
Sound, with a frefh breeze from the North Weft. At one
o'clock Woody Point bore North Weft by Weft, at two miles-
diflance. At fome diflance to the Weflward of the Point is
a rock,, which obtained the name of Split-Rock, and appears
joined by a low reef to the coaft. The Eaftermoft point of land
bore^North North Eaft, and from that to Woody Point, the coaft
forms a. kind of bay, covered with pines, fome of which have a
very beautiful appearance, the land next the fea being pretty low,
and tolerably-leveh The day being thick and hazy, we were not
able to get any obfervation to determine our latitude, and it being
impoffible for us to make the found by day-light, Captain Dixon
judged it moft prudent to ftand off the fhore during the night, as
it abounds with rocks and breakers. Captain Portlock, however,
hoifted out his boat, andfent his Third'Mate round the Eaftermoft
point of land,,to look for an anchoring birth, but he not fucceed-
ing, we hauled to the South Weft, and flood off fhore till the
morning ofthe 23d. At. fun-fet, the neareft point of land was
about fix miles diftant. We founded in forty-five fathom water,
over a hard rocky bottom..
This harbour being our dernier refource for this feafon,
lay eft, imagine we are. extremely anxious to make.it:. what
thou
fuc-
cefs
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
meet with,  will be the fubjed of my next.   Adieu.
W. B.
Off King'George's Sound, 7
24th September. i
-78
1786.     cefs we may
September    Thine ^^
LETTER    XIX.
T the conclufion of my laft, we were flattered with hopes of
 JL fpeedily making our long wifhed for port: thefe hopes, I am
fincerely forry to tell thee, are now all over, for this year at leaft:.
however, anticipation apart—let me proceed to give thee a regular
account of our ill fortune.
I obferved before, that we were within fix miles of the land in
the evening of the 2 2d, and that we hauled to the Southward
during the night. At fix in the morning of the 23d, we made
fail, and flood nearly North Eaft, with a frefh breeze from the
North Weft. At eight o'clock Split-Rock bore North 40 deg.
Weft, at fix leagues diflance. Our obfervation at noon gave 49
deg. 50 min. North latitude; and our longitude was 127 deg. 52
min. Weft; fo that we were near twenty miles to the Northward, and fifty miles to the Weflward of our harbour. The bluff
head to the Weflward bore North 69 deg. Weft, and the Eafter-
moft land South 60 deg. Eaft, at fix miles diflance. During
the afternoon, the breeze grew lighter, and towards five o'clock it
was nearly calm, fo that it was impoffible to make the found, on
which
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
Our obfervation     1786.
Septembesi.
which we hauled our wind to the Southward
at noon had, however, enabled us to determine the entrance into
the harbour to a certainty. At fix o'clock, the point of the found
bore North 60 deg. Eaft, diflance fixteen or feventeen miles. At
eight we founded with a line of fifty-feven fathom, over a muddy
bottom. During the -night, we had light, variable winds, and-
fometimes fqually, with rain.
In the morning ofthe 24th, we again flood for the land, fleering North Eaft by Eaft, with a moderate breeze from South Eaft
by Eaft, but we foon had light, baffling, variable winds, and fre^
quently calm; fo that we could not poffibly make the harbour...
Our obfervation at noon gave 49 deg. 28 min. North latitude.
The point of land at the entrance of the found bore North Eaft,.
at four leagues diflance; and Point Breakers Eaft 6 deg; South,
diflance fix miles. At two o'clock we founded, with a line of 65
fathom, over a rocky bottom. At four o'clock the harbour borer
North 55 deg. Eaft, diflance four leagues; and at fix, the extremes;
of the land bore from Eaft 9 deg. South to North, 25- deg. Weft,.
Nootka Point, North Eaft by North, diflance ten miles. We had
foundings with a line of fifty-five fathoms, over a muddy bottom.
During the forenoon of the 25th, we had light variable airs,
with frequent fhowers of rain. At noon, though we were not-
more than ten miles diftant from the entrance into the found; yet
frequent calms, with light baffling winds in every diredion, toge- -
ther with a heavy rolling fwell fetting in right on the land, rendered it impradicable for us to ftand in for the fhore; fo that at
five o'clock we wore, and flood to the Southward. At fix o'clock
the extremes of the land bore from Eaft by South to Weft North-
Weft, diftant about eight miles.    In the evening, the wind blew
"frefh.
 ■8o
A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
1786.    -'frefh-at South Eaft; and by -ten at night, increafed to a violent
Septeinber. ^alg,'attended with very heavy rain.
About three in the morning of the 26th, a moft tempeftuous
ftorm of thunder and lightning came on, the rain ftill continuing.
The claps of thunder were aftonifhingly-igujj, and the lightning
fb very fierce, that it blinded the people on deck for a confiderable
time, and every flafh left a ftrong fulphurous flench behind.
I was upon deck during the greateft part of the ftorm; and I
muft own to thee, that the awful and tremendous appearance of
the elements, if I may be allowed the expreflion, affeded me greatly.
How often have I thought, that nothing in nature could equal the
thunder ftorm fo beautifully defcribed by Thomfon, in his Seafons :
but here, every awful fituation in Thomfon's pidure was brought
on the canvafs in the moft confpicuous point of view, and the
majefty of the whole ftill heightened by the roaring of the wind,
the raging of the fea, and a more than common darknefs, which
overfpread the furrounding atmofphere.
To wards1 fix in the morning the ftorm abated, and we again had
light baffling winds, and a very heavy crofs fea, which prevented
us from ftanding in for the fhore, efpecially'as the morning was
thick and hazy. At ten o'clock we faw the land, bearing from
North Weft to Eaft, about nine miles diftant; but frequent calms,
and a heavy fwell fetting right in fhore, made us glad to keep from
the land as much as poffible, and more efpecially, as from the point
of the harbour, and at leaft two miles from fhore, there runs a
areef of breakers, for two miles to the Northward. During the
afternoon and night, we had light variable winds, with rain.
At
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA,
At four in the morning ofthe 27th, a frefh breeze fpringing up 1786.
from South South Weft, we made fail, and flood for the harbour; Sgtem^
but by ten o'clock the breeze died away, and we had baffling winds,,
.with a heavy fwell from the Southward, which fet us diredly on
the breakers juft mentioned; fo that our fituation, for fome time,
was rather alarming. However, foon after eleven o'clock, we were
pretty clear of the danger. The King George was to the Southward of us, fo that Captain Portlock was under no great degree of
apprehenfion on his own account. At noon, the Weft point of
the harbour bore North 60 deg. Eaft; and the extremes of the
land, from Weft North Weft to Eaft by South. The afternoon
and evening were fqually, with heavy ftorms of hail. At fix
o'clock, the entrance into Nootka Sound bore North, 55 deg. Eaft-
twelve miles diftant. During the night, we had light variable
airs.
At half paft five in the morning ofthe 28th, we again bore up
for the found, but unfortunately had the fame light airs, and heavy
fwell to encounter, as on the preceding day; fo that finding it im-
poffible to make the -harbour, at eleven o'clock we hauled to the
Southward. At noon, the point of the harbour bore North, 65
.deg. Eaft, feven miles diftant. The wind, during the afternoon,
being ftill light and variable, with a heavy fwell, we kept ftanding
, to the Southward. At feven o'clock, Captain Portlock fpoke us,
-and informed us, that he intended to quit the coaft, and ftand
immediately for .Sandwich Iflands, direding us at the fame time
to fleer South South Weft, or South by Weft, if the Wind permitted. The harbour at that time bore Eaft North Eaft, feven
leagues diftant. During the night we had light variable winds,
with frequent fhowers of hail and rain; but at five in the morning
of the 29th, a frefh breeze fprung up from the Weflward, which
L enabled
 32
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
1786. enabled us to fhape our courfe agreeably to Captain Portlock's
jpteiTT^er. ^iredion, though I muft own we left the coaft reludantly, and
the more fo, as the prefent wind was what we wanted to carry us
into the found. Indeed it fhould be remembered, that the wind
for fome days paft had been as favourable as we could wifh, when
at a diflance from the fhore, but always grew light and variable,
as we drew near the land; and there is every reafon to imagine
this would have been the cafe at prefent: fo that on the whole, we
probably may have caufe to rejoice at this unexpeded determination. At noon, the harbour bore North 40 deg. Eaft, diftant about
twelve leagues: our latitude was 49 deg. 15 min. North; and the
longitude 127 deg. 35 min. Weft. Before night we had entirely
loft fight of the coaft. Thus ended all our hopes of making King
George's Sound this feafon.
If we take a retrofped view of occurrences finee our leaving.
Cook's River, we feem to have been peculiarly unfuccefsful in all
our attempts to gain a fecond harbour on this inhofpitable coaft.
Twice indeed, (viz. at Crofs Sound, and the Bay of Iflands) our
mifcarriage was owing, in a great meafure, to mifinformation j
and that we did not make either Prince 'William's, or Nootka
Sound, mayjuftlybe attributed to unfavourable winds, and bad
weather, things which muft ever baffle the ftrongeft efforts of human wifdom; and, though we were unacquainted with Captain
Portlock's motives for leaving the coaft, yet he no doubt was convinced, that every attempt had been made that prudence could
fuggeft, confiflent with the fafety of the veffels, or the lives of the
people.
Thus ends our firft trading campaign, and though not abfolutely
unfuccefsful, yet it affords a moft ufeful leffon for many fituations
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AM ERICA.
in life, and would furnifh me with an ample field for harranguing
on the uncertainty and unftability of all worldly expedations, &c.
&c. but thou wilt fufped me of an attempt to palm a pack of
rufty, thread-bare moral fentences on thee; fo that I fhall conclude
at once.   Thine ever,
W. B.
At Sea,      \
2d Oaober.    J
LETTER    XX.
HAVING pretty well reconciled ourfelves to the unavoidable
difappointments we met with on the American Coaft, our
thoughts, like the Ifraelites of old, were fixed on the flefh-pots of
Egypt; or, to drop the metaphor, we comforted ourfelves -with
the hope of many a delicious regale among the hogs, yams, and
other good chear of Sandwich Iflands.
Perhaps from what I faid in my laft, refpeding our bad fuccefs,
thou wilt conclude we left the coaft without any thing worth
notice. To fet thee right in that particular, I fhall juft obferve,
that we colleded in Cook's River near fixty prime otter-fkins;
about the fame quantity of an inferior kind ; about twenty fine
marmot cloaks, together with racoons, foxes, &c. &c. fufficient to
fill three puncheons ; fo that our purchafes, if not very great, were
far from defpicable. Captain Portlock's fuccefs was, I believe,
nearly fimilar to our's.
L2 We
 m
A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
oiob' -        ^e ^ ^*n8 George's Sound, as I have already obferved, on the
u—-V-—J   29th of September, with a fine Wefterly breeze; but it fhifted to
the Eaftward on the 30th, with moderate weather.
On the 31ft, the wind again blew from the Weflward, the weather was clear and fine. On the 4th of Odober, we had clofe
foggy weather, with frequent fqualls. On the 7th, at noon, our
latitude was 43 deg. 8 min. and our longitude 131 deg. 59 min.
Weft: we had variable winds, the weather ftill foggy* During the
night, the wind blew a ftrong gale from the Weflward; but towards the morning of the 8th, it grew moderate.
About eight o'clock in the evening of the__i ith, there was a kind
of fiery meteor feen playing about the fhip. As failors have a tolerable fhare of fuperftition, an appearance of this kind is much
dreaded by them, and, is univerfally known by the appellation of
Davy Jones. Davy's power is very great, but he is fuppofed to
prefide more immediately over the winds and waves, though he
feldom or ever appears for any good purpofe; and this, I prefume,
makes the honeft tars afraid of his Worfhip.
'Tis fomewhat ftrange, that a fet of men, who defpife real dangers, which might appall the ftoutejl heart, fhould be terrified with
ideal fears of their own creating, and thofe raifed by an objed fit
only for a bug-bear to children.
During the night we had a ftrong gale of wind from the Southward, with heavy rain. A circumftance of this fort happening fo
foon after the appearance of Davy Jones, ferves greatly to ftrengthen
the fuperftitious opinion which failors already entertain of him.
la
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA.
&S
In the morning of the 12th, the weather moderated; and at ten   oaober..
o'clock the wind fhifted to the Northward, blowing a fine frefh breeze. *—-»"--*
At noon on the 13th, our latitude was 37 deg. 2 min. North;
and our longitude, being the mean of feveral fets of lunar obfer-
vations, 134 deg. 47 min. Weft. In this fituation we perceived a.
current fetting pretty ftrong to the Eaftward.
On the 14th, we caught three large fharks, which were very
acceptable, on account of the oil they afforded us, and which we.
could ufe, not only, for the binnacle, but to pay our mails, rigging, &c. our oil running fhort. From the 14th to the 24th,
nothing occurred worth notice. During this time we had variabld:
winds, aud pretty moderate weather.
On the 25th, our latitude was 33 deg. North, and the longitude
143 deg. 36 min. Weft. We had' a moderate breeze from South'
South Eaft, with frequent fhowers of rain. This afternoon we
had a fpecies of birds about the fhip, which I take to be the ftri-
ated fand-piper of Pennant, two of which were fo tame, that our
people had nearly caught them.
From this to the 31ft, we had little variety. The weather in
general was tolerably fine, though fometimes fqually, with rain.
Our obfervation at noon gave 29 deg. 5 min. North latitude; and
148 deg. Weft longitude.
On the ift of November, we looked out for St. Maria le Gorta;
which is laid down in Cook's Chart, in 27 deg, 50. min. North latitude ; and 149 deg. Weft longitude; and the fame afternoon, failed
diredly over it. Indeed we fcarcefy expeded to meet with any fuch
place, as it is copied by Mr. Roberts into the above Chart, from the
fame
II
 86 AVOYAGETOTHE
1786.     fame authority which we had already found to be erroneous,
November. refpefting Los Majos, and Roco Partida.
On the 5th of November, at noon, we were in 24 deg. 32 min.
North latitude; and the wind blowing from the Eaftward for fome
days paft, gave us fome hopes of a fteady trade; but in this we
were difappointed, for in the afternoon the wind hauled to the
Southward, and we had a very material alteration in the weather,
which was continually fqually, with rain. This time of the year
feems to be the flormy feafon near the Sandwich Iflands; for
though we had often ftrong gales of wind, yet they were never
fteady or lafting, but came on us fuddenly, attended with impetuous torrents of rain.
The weather on the 8th and 9th, was extremely fultry, with
lightning almoft in every diredion, particularly in the evening of
the 9th. About four o'clock in the morning ofthe 10th, we had
a violent guft of wind, which lafted about half an hour, attended
with exceeding heavy rain, which greatly contributed to render the
atmofphere cool and pleafant.
The fcarcity of birds for many days paft, was rather remarkable,
and more particularly fo, as the Tropic birds are peculiar to the
latitude we were in: indeed on the 9th, we faw one folitary man
of war bird, and the fame day caught two dolphins, with hook
and line, which were the only fifh we had been able to lay hold of
fince our leaving the Continent. Our latitude at noon was 22 deg.
54 min. North; and the longitude 151 deg. 24 min. Weft.
In the forenoon of the 1 ith, the wind veered to the Northward,
and the weather grew moderate and fine.
1 On
 NORTH-WEST   COAST   OF AMERICA.
i $<
87
On the 12th, we caught a fhark, with a fowl, and part of a turtle 1786.
in his belly: this plainly indicated that we were not far from ,°!!Lm^'
land ; and indeed we knew that the Ifland of Atoui was under our
lee, our obfervation at noon giving 21 deg. 30 min. North latitude ; and the mean of feveral fets of lunar obfervations, 152 deg.
4 min. Weft longitude. We had a fine North Eaflerly breeze,
with clear weather.
Towards the evening, feveral flocks of fand-pipers were flying
about the fhip. For fome time paft we had fleered well to the
Southward, having been greatly retarded by Southerly winds; but
this evening Captain Portlock fpoke us, and direded us to fleer
South South Weft, as it appeared by our obfervations, that we
were well to windward of all the iflands.
On the 13th, at noon, our latitude was 20 deg. 36 min. North ;
and finding ourfelves well to windward of Owhyhee, the ifland we
firft intended to touch at, we fleered more to the Weflward, with
a moderate Eaflerly breeze, and fine weather.
On the 14th, at noon, we were in 20 deg. 6 min. North latitude;
and the mean of feveral lunar obfervations giving 152 deg. 39
min. Weft longitude : we fleered Weft by South. We had various
fpecies of birds flying about us, as fand-larks, man of war birds,
&c. The dolphin were pretty numerous, and we caught feveral
fharks, one of which had a large turtle entire in his belly. Our
latitude on the 15th was 20 deg. 7 min. North. For fome days
paft we had fufpeded a ftrong current to fet to the Northward,
between Owhyhee and Mowee ; and this circumftance put the
matter beyond a doubt, as our courfe from the 14th, at noon, to
the 15th, gave a number of miles o the "Southward. About five
in the afternoon, we faw'high land above the clouds, bearing South
South
 ■A    VOYAGE   TO    THE
South Weft, ten or twelve leagues diftant, which we immediately
knew to be Monakaah, a high mountain on Owhyhee. During
the night, we flood to the Weft North Weft, under an eafy fail;
and at feven in the morning of the 16th, Monakaah bore South 25
deg. Weft. A confiderable fpace on its fummit was covered with
fnow; and I have every reafon to think, that this mountain is never
totally free.
During the forenoon, we fleered nearly Weft by South, about
three miles diftant from fhore, with a fine Eaflerly breeze; but
the fea running pretty high, no canoes ventured off to us. At
two o'clock we faw Mowee, bearing North 70 deg. Weft, about
feven leagues diftant. The day being now very dear, we had an
uninterrupted view of Monakaah, the higheft land in Owhyhee.
This mountain, though undoubtedly very lofty, has nothing flu-
pendous in its appearance, the afcent to it on all fides appearing
gradual and eafy.
That part of the ifland which we now coafted along, is very
beautiful. The land appears to be laid out in diftind plantations,
every one of which feemed in a high ftate of cultivation. The
higher grounds are covered with trees, which yield a never-failing
verdure; and in three or four places, there are abrupt breaks in
the land. Thefe chafms being well fupplied with plentiful ftreams
of fine water, render the landfcape truly delightful.
As Karakakooa Bay had been found, on feveral accounts, an
improper place to anchor in, it was determined to examine another
hay, which lay round the South Weft. This bay had been looked
into during Captain Cook's flay here, and we expeded it would
afford a good harbour; but about four in the afternoon the breeze
died away, and feveral canoes coming from fhore, we hove to, in
2 order
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF  AMERICA.
order to trade with the natives, who brought hogs, plantains, ,
bread-fruit, potatoes, &c. which were a moft feafonable fupply in
our prefent fituation. many of our people being affeded with the
fcurvy: indeed, when we confider how much time had elapfed
fince our leaving thefe iflands laft, and how fmall a quantity of
frefh provifions we had been able to procure,during that time, it
is almoft a wonder that we fhould enjoy fo good a ftate of health
as we did; but this, under Providence, was owing, in fome mea-
fure, to a free ufe of various antifceptics which we had in great
plenty on board. In the evening, and during the night, we had a
dead calm, with hot fultry weather, attended with a good deal of
lightning.
In the morning of the 17th, a light breeze fprimg up at South
South Weft, and we flood for the bay before-mentioned. However, being willing to purchafe as many neceffaries as poffible,
Captain Portlock fent his Firft Mate, Mr. Macleod, in the whale-
boat, to examine the bay; mean while, the fhips lay to, in order
to trade with the natives. At five in the afternoon, Mr. Macleod
returned, and reported, that there was no fafe anchorage in the bay;
and that not only from a bad bottom, but as the harbour was entirely expofed to South Wefterly winds. This being the cafe, our
intention of anchoring at Owhyhee was laid afide : however, it was
determined to keep near this part of the ifland fome time, if the
wind would permit, as it was known to afford hogs in^abundance.
During the i§th we lay to, and plied occafionally, as fuited our
conveniency, for trade. The people were bufily employed in killing and falting hogs for fea-ftore.
M
This
 90
~A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
Nov^ber      T*"s Part °^ t^ie ^an(^ affords but few cocoa-nuts, or plantains?
u.-y~~)" vegetables in the greateft plenty are bread-fruit, and fweet potatoes.
Among the various curiofities brought by the natives to fell,
were a kind of bafkets, about eighteen inches high, and five or fix
inches in diameter, of a circular form, and exceeding neatly madc
The wicker-work of which they were made was frequently variegated with twigs of a red colour, and had a pretty effed. Thefe
bafkets were quite new to us, having feen nothing of this fort
when at the iflands before.
The morning of the 19th being very fine, and the weather pro-
mifing, Captain Portlock paid us a vifit, and propofed flaying the
greateft part of the day; but a ftrong breeze fpringing up from
South Weft, he went on board his own fhip early in the afternoon.
Mowee at this time bearing Weft of us, it was determined to make
the Eaftermoft point, and come to anchor there.
I fhall conclude for the prefent j but notwithftanding the variety
which furrounds us, will refume my pen very foon. Adieu.
Thine, &c.
W. B.
Off Sandwich Islands, ?-
20th November, 1
LETTER
 NORTH-WEST  COAST OF AMERICA.
9*
LETTER   XXL
CONTRARY winds, and unfettfed weather, fruftrated our
defign of anchoring at Mowee j but let me lead thee to this
difappointment in courfe.
In the afternoon of the 19th November, the wind blew frefh at.
South Weft; and towards evening, increafed to a ftrong gale,
attended with thunder, lightning, and heavy rain; on which we
lay to during the night, under a clofe-reefed main top-fail, wearing
occafionally, and taking every method to guard againft any rnif-
chief we might receive from fudden gufts of wind, which frequently are felt amongft thefe iflands.
The morning of the 20th being pretty moderate, the wind ftill
South Weft, we made fail, and flood for the Eaftermoft point of
Mowee, fleering Weft North Weft; but- about noon, as we got
under the lee of tha land, the breeze leffened, and we had nearly a
calm. Several canoes came off to us, but what they brought to fell
was very trifling, being only three or four fmall pigs, a few potatoes, and a Uttle bread-fruit. At noon, the North Weft end o"f
Mowee bore Weft North Weft, five or fix leagues diftant j the
weather was extremely hot and fultry; the thermometer being 90
degrees. Having light baffling winds during the. afternoon, wc
kept ftanding along fhore, in order to purchafe whatever refrefh-
ments the inhabitants brought to us.
M2
The
 92
A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
The Ifland Mowee has nothing peculiarly ftriking inlts appearance. The Eaft end of the ifland is very high, but does not ap- -
pear mountainous, as it defcends in a pretty regular flope to the
water's edge. The landfcape is prettily diverfified with trees of
various kinds, plantations, &c. but thefe feem greatly inferior to
thofe I faw at Owhyhee.
About five in the afternoon, we had a ftrong breeze at South
Weft, and the weather grew very fqually, on which we fhortened
fail, and flood to the North Weft. At eight o'clock, the Weft end
of Mowee bore South Weft, five leagues diftant. During the
night the weather was pretty moderate..
At fix in the morning of the 21ft, we wore and flood to the
Southward. At eight, the Eaft end of Mowee bore South 20
deg. Eaft, and the Ifland Moretoy Weft South Weft. Our obfervation at noon gave 21 deg,, 12 min. North latitude; the extremes-
of Mowee bore from South 15 deg. Eaft to South 60 deg. Weft $,
the center of Moretoy South 76 deg. Weft. The weather during
the afternoon and night was hot and fultry, with light variable:
winds.
In the morning- of tlie 2 2d, we hada number of canoes along-
fide, from whom we purchafed' potatoes, taro, plantains, fugar-
cane, and many other articles for the fhip's ufe. The wind continued light and variable,, the fhip's head frequently round the:
compafs. At noon, the main land of. Moretoy bore Weft hy South,.
eight or nine miles diftant..
I fhould obferve, that the people who came to us from Mowee
and Moretoy, feemed to admire our veffels. more than any we had-:
;   . hitherto >
 n
NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
hitherto met with: 'tis probable that many of them had never feen     1786.
any fhips before, i°^"!,_
During the 23d, we had light winds, fometimes at Eaft, or Eaft"
South Eaft, but frequently variable. Being a good diflance from
fhore, no canoes came near us. At noon, the South end of More*
toy bore South 8 deg. Eaft, five leagues diftant; our latitude was
21 deg. 30 min. North. At fix o'clock the body of Moretoy bore
South three-quarters Weft; and Mowee South Eaft by South; diftant from fhore about fix leagues. During the greateft part of the
night,, we had a. frefh breeze at South Eaft; and at four o'clock in
the morning of the 24th} we.wore, and flood to the South South
Weft. At noon, the eaft end of Mowee bore South 25 deg. Eaft j.
but we were fo far from land, that no canoes came near us. At
five o'clock we faw Owhyhee, which bore South 25 deg. Eaft; and
t&e.Wefb end of Mowee South j diftant about feven leagues.
ill
I1
mi
;. Daring, the night, and greateft part of the 25th, we had light
variable winds. Moft of our hogs and vegetables being expended*,
it was our intention to make Owhyhee as foon as poffible,.in order
to procure a frefh fupply. In the evening of the 2.5th, a frefh'
breeze fprung up from the Southward, which continued with very,
little alteration during the 26th and 27th. Our latitude at noon*
on the 26th, was 21 deg.. 25 min. North. The Eaft end of
Mowee then bore Soutii three quarters Eaft. At noon on the 27th,
Mowee bore South by Eaft, and Moretoy South 24 deg. Weft;.
the weather tolerably fine, and the wind at South South Weft.
The wind amongft thefe Iflands- f^ems never to blow from one
point for any length of time; nor can a fteady trade wind, at this
time of the year, by any means be.depended on : fometimes we had.
Eaflerly
 •a*
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
17-86.     Eaflerly winds, then Southerly, South Weft, Weft, North Weft,
' ■Uir.'_vJ' North, and, in fhort, all round the compafs, juft as we opened different points of land.
'The wind ftill hanging to the Southward, all intentions of
• making Owhyhee weregiven up.
On the 28th, being within four miles of Moretoy, we had feveral canoes along-fide, which brought us a few fmall hogs, together
with fome taro and potatoes, but far from fufficient to fupply us,
fo that it was determined to fleer for Whahoo. It unluckily happened, that any frefh breezes we met with came on generally in
the night, when prudence did not permit us to make much Jfadl;
and in the day-time we had generally light baffling winds.
At noon, on the 28th, the bluff end of Moretoy bore South
Weft by Weft, about twelve miles diftant. In the afternoon, we
had fome fine cooling fhowers of rain, which made the weather
much cooler, and more agreeable than it had been for fome time
paft.
At eight o'clock in the morning of the 29th, we faw Whahoo,
-and at noon, the Eaft Hummock bore Weft South Weft, about
eight leagues diftant. Our obfervation gave 21 deg. 26 min.
North latitude. During the afternoon, we kept ftanding along
the Coaft of Moretoy. At eight o'clock the round hummock on
Whahoo bore Weft South Weft, and the Weft end of Moretoy,
-South by Eaft. We tacked, and flood to the North Eaft till twelve
^o'clock, when we again tacked, and fleered South Weft by Weft.
In
 NORTH-WEST COAST  OF AMERICA.
In the forenoon of the 30th, we kept ftanding South Weft, with
a fine breeze at South Eaft. Our obfervation at noon gave 21
deg. 20 min. North latitude. The Weft end of Moretoy bore
South 45 deg. Eaft ; and Whahoo South Weft, diftant about two
leagues.
At five in the afternoon we came to anchor in eight fathom
water, in the bay we lay in before, and pretty near our old fituation, the Eaft extreme of the bay bearing Eaft by South ; and the :
Weftermoft land Weft by South, half South, about two miles diftant from fhore.    In the evening we moored fhip, with the ftream-i
anchor and cable.
9$
As it is more than a fortnight fince we firft made the iflands, |
thou mayeft think it fomewhat extraordinary that we did not get
into a harbour before; but thou muft confider, that hogs and"
vegetables, being what we chiefly wanted, could in general be as.
eafily procured, by plying off and on, as coming to anchor-
Again, having a confiderable time to fpend among thefe iflands*.
we were loth to leave thofe to windward, as in that cafe it woukL
be next to impoflible to fetch them again.
If thefe reafons, joined to the contrary and light winds we have
had lately, are not fufficient for thee, it is out of my power to give ■
thee any better : indeed I give myfelf little concern about the mat- -
ter, generally thinking with Pope, that | whatever is, is right."
However, I cannot help congratulating myfelf on our prefent -
fituation, compared with what it would have been, had we wintered in King George's Sound : perhaps by this time the greateft
part of us——but I will trouble thee with no perhaps's; let it
2 fuffice^
 A    VOYAGE   TO    THE
1786.    fuffice, that we are, to a man,  in tolerable hjealth, and excellent
December.       .
i_ -,-,_;  fpints.
I fhall take fhe earlieft opportunity to communicate our tran-
fadions at this place.   Mean while believe me ever thine,
W. B.
Whahoo, 7
2d Dec.  J
LETTER     XXII.
EARLY in the morning of the 1 ft of December, the people
began to overhaul our rigging, fore and aft, it being very
much out of order. By day-light we had a number of canoes
along-fide, chiefly loaded with water, which we purchafed on the
fame eafy terms as before, viz. a large calabafh for an eight-penny
or ten-penny nail, and fmaller ones in proportion.
Many of thefe gourds, or calabafhes, are very wide at the top, and
^ufed by the natives for various purpofes, and particularly to hold a
kind of pudding made of taro. So eagerly did they purfue this
profitable traffic, that they feldom wafhed their veffels, and we
unavoidably got taro pudding mixed among the water; but we
found it of little or no prejudice, though the fight would perhaps
-not have been altogether pleafing to an epicure. The people
brought fome hogs, potatoes, and taro, but not a fufficient quantity to fupply us from day to day : on our enquiring the reafbn,
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
97
we were given to underftand, that the hogs and vegetables were 1786.
tabooed, till the King had been on board the fhips, and that they ^mter.
expeded him to pay us a vifit very fhortly. If I remember right,
I mentioned the taboo when we were laft at the iflands. I fhall
■ now only juft obferve, that its operation is very extenfive, and
regards not only places, but food, and, in fhort, every adion of
life.
In the afternoon of the ift,
with a good deal of rain. '
had frequent fqualls, attended
By noon on the 3d, we had compleated our water, and could
have procured a great deal more, the natives ftill bringing it with
the greateft avidity. Indeed this is not to be wondered at, if we
confider the great value they fet on iron, and that water cofts them
only the trouble of fetching from fhore.
Befides nails, we found buttons very ufeful in our traffic, with
thefe people. To the credit of the men be it fpoken, they looked
on them as things of no value; but the females faw them in a very
different point of view, and were exceedingly fond of wearing them
round their wrifts and ancles as bracelets, calling them Booboo,
and fometimes Poreema. As gallantry is perhaps equally prevalent here, as in more civilized nations, the men frequently preferred buttons to nails (contrary to their better judgment) in their
traffic. This is an inconteftible proof, that the power of beauty is
not confined within the narrow limits of our polite European circles, but has equal influence all over the world.
In the forenoon of the 4th, Teereteere, the King, paid us a vifit.
He came in a large double canoe, attended by two young men,
N   . who,
I
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
who, we underftood, were his nephews, and a number of other
Chiefs. The King is a good-looking man, and appears about
forty-five or fifty years old : he is tall, ftraight, and well-made,
but his eyes feem rather weak, and affeded with a kind of rheum -%
but whether this is owing to difeafe, or to a temporary cold, I cannot fay. None of the Chiefs had any thing ftriking in their appearance, though it was eafy to fee that they were above the common rank.
The King's nephews were by far the fineft memjive had yet feen
at any of the iflands: they are not brothers. Piapia, the elder*
being, if we underftood right, fon to the King of Atoui; and
Myaro, the younger, fon to a After of Teereteere..
Piapia is about five feet nine inches high, ftraight, and well proportioned : his legs and thighs very mufcular, his ftep firm, and
rather graceful; and there is a dignity in his deportment which
fhews him to be a perfon of the firft confequence. His countenance is free and open, but rather disfigured by the lofs of three
fore-teeth, which, as I underftood, were broke for the lofs of a
relation, it being the cuftom here for the Arees, or Chiefs, to part
with a tooth at the death of a friend; his legs, thighs, arms,
and various parts of his body, are tattooed in a very curious.-manner.
Myaro is nearly as tall as his coufin, but call, (if I may be allowed the expreflion) in a more delicate mould: he walks ered and
flately, and his ftep is very graceful and majeftic. It would, I
think, baffle the united powers of a Wilton, Bacon, and Roubiliac,
to equal the exad fymmetry and fine turn of his legs and thighs,
or
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
99
or indeed his whole body; in fhort, his figure has fomething in it     1786.
, •      , rr m December.
exceedingly prepoflefnng. v—-v—^
Teereteere, having fatisfied his curiofity for the prefent, and
Captain Dixon prefenting him with fome beads, and other trifles,
left us about two in the afternoon; and we foon felt the good
effeds of his vifit, the inhabitants bringing hogs and vegetables in
much greater plenty than before, though from the little refped
they feemed to pay him, we were led to fuppofe, that his influence
over them was not great; in this point, however, we were mif-
taken.
To lead thee regularly to a circumftance, which I am now going
to mention, it will be neceffary to refer fo far back as our fitting
out.
When we left England, the quantity of coals our veflel was fup-
plied with was very inadequate to a voyage like our's, though they
were conftantly ufed with the moft fcrupulous care.
As Falkland's Iflands afforded no wood, the Coaft of America was
the only place where we could procure any. Fully expeding to
touch at feveral harbours, and perhaps winter in King George's
Sound, what wood we got in Cook's River was foon expended.
It cannot be forgot, under what circumftances, and with what re-
ludance, we left the American Coaft; and the more, as fuel was one
of our greateft wants ; for though we knew Sandwich Iflands afforded moft of the neceffaries of life in great plenty, yet we almoftde-
fpaired of getting a fupply of fuel; but in this refped we were moft
agreeably difappointed; for we no fooner made the.natives under-
N 2 ftan4:
ill
II"
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
ftand what we wanted, than they brought us plenty of wood, fuch;
as anfwered our purpofe extremely well, and which we purchafedt
on the fame eafy terms as the water.
During the 5th and 6th, we|^ were all very bufily employed; fome
taking in wood from the natives; others over-hauling the rigging,,
&c. and the reft killing and falting hogs for fea-ftore.. The weather fince the 1 ft has been fine and fettled, with a fteady breeze at
North North Eaft.
From the 7th to the roth the wind blew frefh, at Eaft North.
Eaft j and the fea running pretty high, very few canoes came near
us. This weather, however, did not prevent the King and.his;
attendants from paying us frequent vifits; but it was very apparent
that intereft, more than curiofity, induced him to come on board*
fb often; for though he always brought fomethin'g, by way of a
Matano, or prefent, yet it was generally very trivial, fuch.as a fmall.
hog, a few cocoa-nuts, and fometimes a few fmall barbel; and:
Captain Dixon always gave him ten times the value. Indeed it:
would have, been extremely impolitic not to have paid him.this;
mark of our refped and attention, as he could, by tabooing the-
inhabitants, have eafily prevented a fingle canoe from, coming,neaiv
us ; but by thus feeding.his avarice, and gratifying his. ambition,,
he not only, alio wed,.but encouraged the people to bring us whatever the ifland afforded. The wind ftill continued at Eaft North;
Eaft; the weather moderate and fine
Soon after we came to anchor, our-whale-boat was hoifted out,
to be in r.eadinefs whenever occafion required ; and was generally,
fecured by her painter to the fhip's ftern.    A boy was ordered to .
look after her in the day-time,, and in. the night,.the watch always
kept;
 NORTH-WEST COAST OF AMERICA.
kept a good look out; and having moon-light, the boat hitherto
had been fafe ; but in the evening ofthe iith, fome of the natives
had formed a defign to fteal her, (the moon not rifing till paft midnight) and we faw feveral canoes bufy about her painter. On
this, Captain Dixon fired two mufquets over their heads, which
made them fheer off with precipitation, and we got her on board
next day, for fear of a fecond vifit of the like nature.
In the forenoon ofthe 12th, we caught a large fhark, and knowing it would be a very acceptable prefent to the King, Captain
Dixon fent to inform fome of his people who happened to be onboard the King George of it.
Teereteere prefently fent his fon, with feveral attendants, in a
large canoe, for the fhark, which feemed to pleafe them very
much.. The King fent a fine hog by his. fon, as an equivalent for
our prefent; but the young man, with a degree of honefty peculiar
to his country, fold us the hog for a. large toe..
The laft time we were at Whahoo, in failing from thence to;
Atoui, we paffed a bay to the Weflward of our prefent fituation,..
which promifed to afford a good harbour; the furrounding country fertile, and full of inhabitants.. At that time we had: no opportunity of examining it, but now, having fufficient leifure, on the
13th Captain Portlock fent his long boat, (which had been decked,,
and fchooner-rigged, fince we. came to Whahoo) with Mr. Hay-
ward, his Third Mate, accompanied by our Third Mate, Mr;.
White, to furvey the bay accurately..
Mr. Hay ward returned in the morning of the 15th, and reportedj.
that there was no convenient anchorage in any part of the bay ;-
ii and.
PI
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
and that there was from fixty-fix to feventy fathom water clofe in
ihore. We now learnt, that Teereteere generally refided in this
hay, which is called by the natives Whitette Bay.
Except the affair of the whale-boat, we had difcovered very few
thefts; but this, doubtlefs, has been owing to our keeping the
veflel as clear of the natives as poffible, more than their honeft dif-
pofition, which we are affured is not at all to be depended on.
I fhall embrace every opportunity of acquainting thee with our
future proceedings; mean while, believe me thine, &c.
W. B..
Whahoo,   7
i6thDec.   i
LETTER    XXIII.
AMONGST the few vifitors we admitted on board, (befides
the King, and his attendants) was an old prieft, who
fdemed to have confiderable authority amongft the natives. He
always brought two attendants with him; one purpofely to prepare his Ava, and the other to be always near his perfon, whenever
he fhould be wanted. The Ava is a root, fomewhat refembling our
liquorice in fhape and colour, but totally different in tafte. None
but theArees, or Chiefs, are permitted to ufe it, and they never prepare it themfelves, but always keep a fervant, whofe fole bufinefs is
2 (Gany-
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
(Ganymede like) to prepare and adminifter this delicious potation
to his mafler. He firft begins by chewing a.fuflicient quantity,
till it is- well mafticated; this is put into a neat wooden bowl,
made for the purpofe, and a fmall quantity of water being poured
over, it is well fqueezed, and the liquor afterwards ftrained through
a piece of cloth. The delicious beverage is now compleat, and is,
drank with the higheft relifh.
m
This root is of an intoxicating nature, but feems to ftupifyi,
rather than exhilerate thefpirits. Its effeds are very pernicious,,
if we may judge by the old priefl, who appeared greatly emaciated,
and his body was covered with a white fcurf, which had the appearance of the leprofy. The wind ftill kept at North Eaft, and Eaft
•North Eaft; but from the 13th to the 16th, a very heavy fwell
fet into the bay from the South Eaft, which caufed the veflel to,
roll very much.
On the 14th, we perceived the natives very bufily employed on'
the hill, at the South Eaft extreme of the ifland j and by noon on
the 15th, their work was fo far advanced, fhat we could plainly
difcern they were ereding a houfe, though the diflance from us
Was very confiderable. The fame afternoon, all the canoes left
both fhips, and not one returned in the evening, which, till now,
had never been the cafe; for, as an intercourfe with women was
allowed, (indeed it could not eafily be prevented) our people never
failed to have a number on board every night. This made us fuf-
ped that the people were tabooed, and our conjedures proved to
be fight; for during the whole of the 16th, not a fingle canoe appeared in the bay; but the fummit of the mountain round the
new ereded edifice, was perfedly crowded with people the whole
dayi
I'll
 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
day ; and in the evening, a number of fires were lighted as near
the place as the wind would permit.
In the morning of the 17th, we were in the fame quiet fituation;
mot a canoe to be feen, but the hill feemed pretty well cleared of
its vifitants. About ten o'clock in the forenoon, a man who was
H ftranger to us, came on board, bringing with him a very fmall
pig, as a prefent, and a branch of the cocoa-palm to fix at the maft
head. This made us hope that the taboo was taken off, and the
more, as all our hogs and vegetables were confumed. Soon afterwards our old acquaintance the prieft paid us a vifit, bringing a
few trifles, as ufual, by way of prefent, and for which he always
got five times the value. We had ftrongly fufpeded this old man
to be the caufe ofthe taboo, as he left the fhip on the 15th, feem-
ingly much diffatisfied with fomething or other, and had not been
near us till now; but we were convinced, that our conjedures were
ill-founded, though he gave no fatisfadory -account of the recent
tranfadions on fhore; but kept repeating with great vociferation,
and for a confiderable length of time, " Teereteere poonepoone,
Teereteere arreoura-' or that the King was a liar, fcoundrel, and
deceitful perfon; Poonepoone and arreoura, being terms of reproach. From this it was evident, that fomething had been tran-
fading contrary to eftablifhed cuflom, or the rules of the country.
About noon, Teereteere came on board, bringing his ufual prefent
of a hog, fome fifh, and a few cocoa-nuts. A number of canoes
now came along-fide, from whom we bought a few hogs and vegetables, but could obtain no fatisfadory account from any of them
why the taboo was laid on. Some of them gave us to underftand
that there had been a folemn feflival at the top of the mountain -,
and, if we underftood right, a human facrifice offered, but whether
a man
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
a man or woman, we could not learn.    The women, however,
were ftill tabooed, and none fuffered to come near the fhips.
About midnight, our fmall bower-cable parted in a fudden guft
of wind, on which we let go the beft bower. On heaving in the
cable, we found it very much hurt, which we fufpeded to be done
by the foulnefs of the bottom.
The forrner part of the 18th was fpent in fearching for our
anchor, which we did not find till noon, the buoy being funk.
No time was loft in attempting to get it on board; and about fix
in the afternoon, we had nearly effeded our purpofe, when a fudden fquall coming on, fnapt the haufer which we had bent to that
part of the cable remaining to the anchor, when it was almoft at
the bows. This was a vexatious circumftance, and we were afraid
that the recovering our anchor would be attended with difficulty,
as the evening was lowering, and feemed to forebode tempeftuous
weather; but as night came on, the fky cleared up, and the next
morning proved fine, with little or no wind, fo that we got the
anchor on board by eleven o'clock.
We now were fupplied with hogs and vegetables, in tolerable
plenty, but no women were fuffered to come on board the fhips ;
the reafon for this, we underftood was, a woman had been deteded
eating pork on board one of the veffels. It feems the women
are always tahooed from eating pork on fhore, and breaking
through reftridions of this fort, is reckoned a crime cf the firft
magnitude; nay, we were affured, that the poor wretch had fallen
a vidim to the laws of her country, and had adually been offered
as a facrifice, to appeafe, I fuppofe, the wrath of their gods, for fo
heinous a crime. But befides this affair of the facrifice, there was
O another
December.
11»-
m
\m'..
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
anofher motive, it feems, for the large concourfe of people we had
fo lately feen at the top of the mountain, and which accounts for
ithe flrid taboo laid on the natives, during the time of this general
;affembly.
Teereteere had caufed the houfe I have mentioned at the top of
'the hill, to be built as a kind of repofitory, or flore-houfe, for fuch
-articles as the natives might obtain in the courfe of their traffic
with our veffels: when this was compleated, he caufed the bay to
be tabooed, and convened a general affembly of the inhabitants at
the top of this mountain, direding them at the fame time, to bring
whatever trade they had got, that it might be depofited in his new-
ereded edifice. This heing effeded, he found means, on fome
^pretext or other, to appropriate one-half of thefe ftores to his own
ufe. We now no longer wondered at the old prieft venting his
reproaches {o very liberally, as it was pretty evident Teereteere had
^exerted his authority contrary to the rules of jufticeand equity.
Though the little we faw of thefe tranfadions, or what information we got refpeding them, is infufficient for me to draw any
conclufive determination as to their laws; yet of this we are certain, that the horrid cuftom of offering up human facrifices, on
certain occafions, adually exifts amongft thefe iflands, and that the
King's authority is abfolute.
It was evident, from our late misfortune, that we could not keep
our prefent fituation without damaging the cables; fo that it was
determined to leave this ifland, and fleer for Attoui the firft opportunity.
At
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
1.07-
At five o'clock in the afternoon ofthe 19th, Captain Portlock 1786.
made the fignal for weighing anchor, which we did in a fhort J^L^j,
time, and flood out of the bay with a moderate eafteily breeze.
After ftanding on for fome time, we could fee nothing of the King
George following us, on which we wore, and ftretched again into
the bay. On fpeaking Captain Portlock, we were informed that
they had not yet purchafed their anchor, and were doubtful whether they fhould be able to accomplifh it in the courfe ofthe evening. However, we kept under an eafy fail, making fhort boards,,
till paft eight o'clock, when Captain Portlock made, the fignal for.
us to anchor.
Ill''
ill:
About ten o'clock in the morning of the 20th, the King George ■
being a-weigh, we weighed and made fail, Handing out of the bay,
with a moderate breeze at North Eaft. By noon we were about
ten miles from the. bay. We learnt from Captain Portlock, that
the Indians had cut his beft bower-cable which had occafioned his
delay the preceding evening, and this morning. Captain Portlock
had Piapia, the King's nephew, on board, accompanied with the
man who ufed to chew Ava for Teereteere. It feems Piapia was fo
exceedingly attached to Captain Portlock, that he was determined
to go with him to Pritane, as they call England; and the cupbearer was inclined to follow the fortunes of his young mafler.
The day being fine, feveral canoes, filled with the relations and.
friends of thefe new voyagers, followed the King George to a con—
fiderable diflance from Whahoo ; and when they took their leave:
of them for ever, as they thought, their grief was expreffed in the
moft audible manner, wringing their hands, and making the moft
bitter lamentations all the time they were in fight of the veffel :
neither did Piapia, and his fervant take leave of their friends and
country, without expreffing fome degree of concern ; but their
sfc".-'- regret:
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
regret was lefs at prefent, as their attention was, in a great mea-
fure, taken up with the novelty of their fituation.
We had light baffling winds, till the evening of the 21ft, when a
ftrong breeze came on at North Eaft, which brought us in fight
of Atoui, in the morning of the 22d. At noon our latitude was
22 deg. 12 min. North ; the Eaft point of land bore Eaft North
Eaft, about fix miles diftant from fhore. The Ifland Onehow
Weft South Weft; Wymoa Bay, the place where we propofed to.
anchor, being to the Southward and Weflward. About two
o'clock, being as yet confiderably to the Eaflward of our propofed
anchoring place, we paffed over a good deal of fhoal water, having
feldom more than five fathom, over a fandy bottom ; the adjacent
fhore, which was not more than two miles diftant, appeared level
and well cultivated.
About three o'clock, Captain Portlock let go his anchor, and we
having bottom in twenty-five fathom, and at a convenient diflance
from the King George, prepared to do the fame, which, though
we did with all expedition, and veered out fifty fathom cable, the
anchor did not bring us up : this made us conjedure that we had
drove off the bank, and our opinion was confirmed on heaving the
lead over, as we found no bottom With eighty fathom line.
Whilfl our anchor was purchafing, we unavoidably drifted to leeward, fo that it was impradicable to make the fituation we firft
intended. On this we made feveral boards, and about five o'clock
came to in a very good fituation, near three miles North Weft of
the King George, in eighteen and half fathom water, over a fandy"
bottom, inclining to mud. A long, low, fandy point to the South
Weft, bearing Weft by South; the Eaflermoft point of the bay
Baft South Eaft; the mouth of a frefh water river North Eaft by
Eaft,
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
Eaft, rather more than a mile diftant from fhore.   The Ifland
Onehow South South Weft.
Our tranfadions at this place fhall be the fubjed of my next.
Thine,
W. B.
Atoui, ?
tzd Dec. 5
LETTER     XXIV.
if.
TOUI was the firft place Captain Cook anchored at, when
thefe iflands were difcovered by him ; fo that it was known
to afford great plenty of hogs and vegetables: the former we
wanted to cure for fea-ftore, as the hogs we had bought fince our
leaving Owhyhee afforded us little more than a daily fupply.
Early in the morning of the 23d December, we were furrounded
by a number of canoes, moft of them well loaded with taro, potatoes, fugar-cane, and cocoa-nuts, and a good number of fine hogs.
This plainly fhewed us, that the inhabitants knew we were come
for a fupply of provifions, and had prepared themfelves accordingly. We found the roots much cheaper, and in greater plenty
than at Whahoo; but finding we were defirous of buying large
hogs, they were at firft exorbitant in their demands, at leaft in
proportion to what we had given at the other iflands, on which we
feemed
 December.
A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
feemed indifferent about the matter, and by this means foon
bought the largeft hogs for one large, .or two middling-fized toes.
On our afking for water, they prefently brought us fome very
excellent, indeed the beft by far we had hitherto met with. This
kind of traffic was entirely new to them, and they very gladly fup-
plied us on the fame eafy terms we bought it for at Whahoo.
Cocoa-nuts we found in the greateft plenty; the fettled price for
them was five for an eightpenny nail. The fugar-cane was exceeding fine, and equally cheap. The taro here is by far thefineft
of any we met with, and very plentiful; we commonly got five
fine roots for an eightpenny or tenpenny nail. This ifland produces no yams, and very little, if any bread-fruit.
The weather till the 27th was moderate and fine ; but on that
day, a ftrong breeze fprung up at Eaft North Eaft, and a heavy
fwell fet in .from Eaft South Eaft, right along fhore : we were
moored with the ftream-anchor, and rode much eafier than at
Whahoo ; befides, the bottom here being free from rocks, we were
under lefs anxiety in regard to our cables.
The 28th, and part ofthe 29th, were wet and dirty; but towards
evening, the fky brightened up, and the weather grew moderate
and fine.
This being Chriftmas, that feafon of the year fo univerfally
convivial throughout the civilized world, we fpent our time as
agreeably, and with plenty of as good chear as we could procure,
fuch as roaft pig, fea-pie, &c. &c. and to fhew our refined tafte,
even in our liquor, we no longer drank grog mixed with fimple
water, but offered our Chriftmas libations in punch, mixed with
the
 NORTH-WEST COAST  OF AMERICA. n
the juice of the cocoa-nut, toafting our friends and miftreffes in    1787.
bumpers of this liquor, which, perhaps, pleafed more on account ^"^3^
of its novelty, than from any other circumftance.
The weather feldom continued fettled for more than a day together ; ftrong breezes at Eaft North Eaft, with a heavy South Eaft
fwell, frequently intervening.
By the 4th of January, 1787, we had faked and packed five
puncheons of pork for fea-ftore; but hogs now grew rather fcarce*
not that we fuppofed the fcarcity real, but owing to fome fcheme
or other of the petty Chiefs. We had for fome time expeded a
vifit from the King, and been given to underftand, that his pre-
fence, like a cornucopia, would teem with plenty; but his-Majefty
had not as yet thought proper to favour us fo far.
Abbenoue, the Chief, whom we met with at Onehow laft year,
was generally on board the King George, and being attached to
Captain Portlock, caufed plenty of fine hogs to be fent him j but
at prefent we found very little of his influence reach on board our
veflel.
From the 5th to the 9th, the weather was in an unfettled flate,
the wind frequently fhifting to the Weflward, but feldom blew
from that quarter twelve hours together, and then only a moderate
breeze. During this time, we were daily vifited by the natives,
who kept bringing us a few hogs, with taro, cocoa-nuts, &c. but
barely fufficient to fupply us from hand to mouth.
Befides this traffic, which was carried on for neceffaries, the natives had a brifk trade for curiofities of various kinds, fuch as
cloaks,
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
cloaks, caps, mats, fifhing-lines and hooks, necklaces, &c. &c. I
probably may attempt to defcribc them at a future opportunity.
They likewife brought great numbers of beautiful bird-fkins, in
excellent prefervation : thefe were generally made up in parcels of
ten each, by a wooden fkewer run through their beaks. On our
wifhing to procure fome of them alive, we foon found plenty of
bird-catchers, and the living birds were fold nearly as cheap as the
preferved ones: they are near the fize of a robin; the breaft and
throat of a moft beautiful lively red, with a long beak, the wings
and back a deep brown. I am informed by Mr. Hogan, Surgeon
of the King George, who I before obferved to thee, has ftudied
Natural Hiftory, that they are a fpecies of the humming-bird.
Thefe birds being purchafed by us with great avidity, the natives
were induced to bring every thing of the kind they could lay hold
of, among which was a fpecies of wild-duck. Captain Dixon, on
feeing them, concluded the ifland afforded plenty of game, and
being fond of fhooting, took two or three opportunities of going
on fhore with his gun, attended only by a fervant, in one of the
Indian canoes. The man to whom the canoe belonged had been
very affiduous in bringing off water, and fuch other articles for
our ufe, as were in his power; indeed he had been greatly noticed
by many of us, and treated kindly, particularly by Captain Dixon,
on account of the great refemblance he bore to one of our people:
the man feemed highly fenfible of the preference given to him before
his neighbours, and was not a little proud of his new office.
The firft time our Captain went on fhore, he was apprehenfive
that the natives, by crowding about him, would fpoil his diverfion j
but he found himfelf agreeably miftaken. Curiofity was excited in
a much lefs degree here than at Whahoo; inftead of being fur-
rounded by crowds of idle, inquifitive gazers, the people generally
i ftuck
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
ftuck clofe to whatever employments they were engaged in, fuch as
manufaduring cloth, making lines, ropes, &c. fo that hetraverfed
, the country with as much eafe, as he could have done in England.
Contrary to his expedation, he did not find game very plentiful,
yet never Returned without fome fpoils ofthe field, fuch as ducks,
terns, a fpecies like our water-hen, and various other kinds.
By this time, the wood we procured at Whahoo began to grow
fhort, on account of the conftant fires we were obliged to keep for
heating water to fcald hogs, and various other purpofes. On this
we applied to the natives for fome, though without any fanguine
hopes of our application being fuccefsful, as the mountains where
the woods grow are farther up the country on this ifland, than at
any of the others ; however, our application was very fuccefsful,
the natives to a man engaging in this traffic, and every indiyidis^l
bringing us more or lefs of the article we wanted, though it was
evident, from many poles and rafters brought for fale, and which
had been recently pulled out of the ground, that their fences, and
perhaps houfes, had been demolifhed for our accommodation, and I
may fay, their profit; yet this proceeding ferves to fhewi that any
thing whatever this ifland, or indeed any of the group affords, may
eafily be obtained, fo great is the value they fet on iron.
The weather continuing unfettled, and the fupply of vegetables
being infuflicient to ferve us daily, it was determined to make
Oneehow the firft opportunity: fo early in the morning of the
ioth January, Captain Portlock made the fignal for weighing
anchor. I have ^before obferved, that he lay farther out at fea than
we did, fo that he was favoured with a good Eaflerly breeze, at
the fame time we were becalmed, and could not poffibly anfwer his
fignal. After making a fhort board, finding the wind light and '
P baffling,
m
January.
if..
I
if"
 A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
baffling, Captain Portlock came to anchor pretty near his old fitu-
Tanuary.    L2kSJL
J      ,l_j  ation.
At five o'clock in the morning of the nth, a ftrong breeze
fpringing up at Eaft South Eaft, we weighed and madswil,. ftand.-
ing diredly for Oneehow j the breeze continued during the. forenoon, with thunder, lightning, and rain. At noon, the Weft end.
'of Atoui bore North 21 deg. Eaft, feven leagues diftant; and the
high land on the South end of Oneehow, South 70 deg. Weft.
We fully expeded to have anchored at Oneehow by three o'clock,
but before that time, the wind veered to the Weflward,. which made-
it impoflible for us to attempt it.
From the nth to the 18th, we had frefh Wefterly and Northerly breezes, light baffling winds intervening at times-
On the 15th, the King George weathered- the South point of
Oneehow; and on the 16th,. we loft fight of her,, which made us
conclude fhe had come to an anchor: our veflel being very foul*
could not work to windward equal to the King George,, fo that we
contented ourfelves in plying between the iflands, making longer or
fhorter boards, as. circumftances required -r however, we could not
help repining at our fituation, when compared with that of our
fellow-voyagers; but the event fhewed, that they were far from
being in an enviable fituation. During this time we took care to
ftretch well to the Southward and Eaftward, a precaution which
proved exceedingly neceflary ; for on the 19th,. a ftrong gale of
wind came on at South Weft, with a very heavy crofs, fea, which
continued till noon on the 2 ift,.
In
 M»
NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA. :
In the afternoon of the 20th, the weather being thick and hazy,     1.787;
we loft fight of land, and did not fee it again till near noon on the [JJ^Z.
22d, when Atoui bore from North 15 deg. Eaft, to North 55 deg.
Weft; diftant about four leagues.
During this gale, we were under great apprehenfions for Captain Eortjgck's fafety, as his fituation we knew muft be a very critical one, no harbour at Oneehow affording the leaft fheltet from
a Southerly or Wefterly wind. But at one o'clock on the 22d, we
faw the King George, to our great fatisfadion, bearing Weft by
North, about three leagues diftant.
I
I
From her fituation, it was evident, that fhe had failed round
Oneehow, and we did not doubt but that fhe had been obliged, by
the violence of the gale, to flip, or cut her cables, and run to fea.
The wind continued wefterly till the 25th, when it veered to South
Eaft, and foon afterwards to North North Eaft; this being favourable for us, and likely to continue from that quarter, we again
flood for Oneehow, and in the evening of the 26th, came to anchor
in Yam Bay, in twenty-nine fathom water, over a fandy bottom;
the extremes of Oneehow bore from South Eaft to North by Weft,
W mile and half diftant from fhore; the Ifland Tahoora South 48
deg. Weft.
During the 27th, the wind kept at North North Eaft, but blew
fo frefh, that our fituation was by no means an eligible one. Our
principal motive in coming to Oneehow was, to procure a fupply
of yams, they being the only root this ifland affords, which will
keep for any time; but the furf ran fo high, that very few canoes
ventured off to us. The fame reafon operated againft our attempting to fearch for the anchors left here by Captain Portlock.   The
King
If'
Ell
 n6
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
1787. King George laying near two miles from us, we hove up our anchor
\^-^Lj m t^ie mornmg °f trie 28th, and after making a few boards, came
to with our beft bower, in twenty-feven fathom water, over a bottom of fand, mixed with coral, about two miles'diftant from fhore,
and at a convenient diftancd from the King George. *£)ur fears
for Captain Portlock during the gale, were but too wellTounded j
he had been reduced to the neceflity of cutting his cables^Jand running to fea; and though he embraced the moft favourable opportunity of doing this, yet he had barely room to weather the breakers at the North point ofthe bay. This was a moft flriking leflbn
for us, in regard to our future condud, and pointed to us the ma-
" nifeft impropriety of murmuring at—may I be allowed to fay ?—
the difpenfations of Providence ! Had we been fortunate enough
to have made Yam-Bay at the time the King George did, 'tis im-
poffible to fay what our fituation would have been, or where we
might have drove, when neceflity forced us to quit it: butyhp of
us were philofophers enough to acknowledge with the Poet, that
ff The ways of Heaven are dark and intricate,
<c Puzzl'd in mazes and perplex'd in errors,
w Our underftanding traces 'em in vain,
" Loft and bewilder'd in the fruitlefs fearch j
" Nor fees with how much art the windings run,
" Nor where the regular confufion ends."
'Tis impoflible for me, when circumftances of this fort are
immediately before my eyes, to avoid moralizing in fome degree,
efpecially when I meet with a fet of men who attribute any fuppofed
evil that befals them to mifconduct; any temporary fuccefs to good-
fortune, entirely forgetting, that 'tis a gracious Providence who
*? direds, impels, and rules the whole."
2
I fhall
 NORTH-WEST COAST  OF AMERICA.
I fhall therefore, in future, make no kind of apology for digref-
fions of this fort, however foreign they may be to my narration, as
I am fenfible thou wilt make every kind allowance for the imper-
fedions of thy affured friend,
W. B,
Oneehow, nm
29th Jan.   i
tiy
LETTER    XXV
IN the afternoon of the 28th of January, the wind veered to
the Weflward, blowing a frefh breeze; this made us apprehend a return of unfettled weather, and experience having taught
us, that there was no laying here with a Wefterly wind, it was
determined to get to fea, fhould the breeze continue from that
quarter.
On the 29th, about two o'clock, the wind ftill Wefterly, Captain
Portlock made the fignal for weighing anchor: by three we made
fail, and flood along the coaft, intending to ftretch well to the
Southward and Eaftward, that at all events, we might keep clear of
the land
During the 30th, the weather was tolerably fine, and the wind
fhifting to North Weft, it was judged proper to make Wymoa-Bay,
Atoui, which we did, and came to anchor about eleven o'clock,
about two miles to the Eaftward of our old fituation, in twenty-
$mk five
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE 0T-
five fathom water, over a fandy bottom ; the extremes of the land
from -South Eaft by Eaft to Weft three quarters North.
On the 31 ft, we moored with both bowers, determining to flay
here whiift the weather permitted, this bay being greajj* preferable
to the road at Qneehow; and as it was yet too foon by^c weeks for
us to think of profecuting our Voyage to the Northward, the
objeds of our prefent concern were toftation the veffels where they
could lie with moft fafety, and at the fame time, where the beft
fupply of provifions and water could be procured j on thefe latter
accounts, if we except the article of yams, Atoui was by far the
moft defirable fituation now within our reach.
From the ift to the 8th of February, we had light variable
winds, with fine moderate weather. The veffels now laying much
nearer to each other than before, we frequently were favoured with
Abbenoue's company; with the help of a few prefents, he became our very good friend, and we frequently found the good
effeds of his influence, which was not a little, in getting £ur
various wants fupplied.
Abbenoue is ofa middle fize, and appears to be about fifty years
old: when we firft faw him at Oneehow, his body was almoft
covered with a white fcurf, and his eyes feemed weak, occafioned by
an immoderate ufe of the Ava; but he then difcontinued the
drinking it at our requeft. The good effeds of this moderation were vifibly feen, for his fkin began to refume its former
colour, his eyes looked frefh and lively, and he had altogether
the appearance of health and vigour. He has a fon named
Tyheira, whofe authority feemed pretty extenfive, and who feemed
equally folicitous to render us friendly offices j but he was far
from
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
from poffeffing the adivity or intelligent powers of his father, nor
was his friendfhip of the fame free, difinterefted kind, all his
adions evidently being influenced by mercenary, interefled views;
and to effedually fecure his attachment, it was fometimes neceffary
to have rec*urfe. to a bribe, and he would accept of a fmall toe, or
even a nail, fooner than mifs a Matano, or prefent. Befides the
friendly offices of Abbenoue and Tyheira, we had frequent vifits
from two other Chiefs, who frequently fupplied us with hogs, and
vegetables; their names were Toetoe, and Nomakahaite; but the
latter was always known by us under the denomination of Long-
fhanks, from his being remarkably tall and thin, and his legs and
thighs appearing too long for his body. Toetoe. is well advanced
in years, and appears greatly debilitated by the immoderate ufe of
Ava, but unlike Abbenoue, he cannot form a refolution to leave it
off. He appears to poffefs a very large portion of taro plantations,
and fupplied us with larger quantities of that root, than any of
the other Chiefs, and was always perfedly fatisfied with whatever
was offered him in return..
119
1787.
It-i
Long-fhanks alfb, was very afliduous in fupplying our wants-;;
and though his authority is greatly inferior to that of Abbenoue,.
or Toetoe; yet we found him extremely ufeful on many oecafions -r
though it muft be confeffed, that like Tyheira, he was mercenary
in his demands, and continually begging fomething or other, by
way of Matano. I had forgot to obferve, that we had been frequently vifited by a brother of the King, who. always came in a
fine large double canoe, attended by a number of inferior Chiefs;,
but, whether traffic was reckoned beneath his dignity, or from I
know not what motive, he feldom brought any thing with him to.
difpofe of; fo that curiofity, no doubt, principally induced him to
vifit us.   His daughter, a fine child about feven years old, generally
 A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
.along with him; he treated her with a fondnefs truly paternal,
carrying her for the moft part in his arms, and when fatigued, his
attendants anxioufly ftrove which fhould have the honour of bear-
. ing little Mifs, till the father again reaffumed his pretty charge.
On expreffing a defire to come on board, fhe was handed over the
fide with the utmoft care, and when on board, was never fuffered
to ftand on the deck, but always kept in the arms of her father, or
one ofthe attendants, who, we underftood, was a relation. Captain Dixon made her a prefent of a bead; Mtiaie, or necklace, with
which fhe was wonderfully .pleafed.
' The attention and tendernefs fhewn to this little girl, fo totally
different from what we had hitherto feen, gave us an idea of the
manner in which the female children of the Arees are treated, and
may ferve to throw fome light on the general charader of thefe
people.
For fome days we were fupplied by the Chiefs I have juft men/-
tioned, with a few hogs, taro, &c. fufficient, as they thought, for
our daily confumption; none of the petty Chiefs, or common
people coming near us. Abbenoue informed* u&t that the people
were tabooed, and that nobody durft bring anything to fell,!not
even water, till the King had paid us a vifit, which he propofed to
do very fhortly.
We never could learn the true caufe of this taboo being laid on,
and which it feems did not extend tothepriwip^lChiefs; though
if we compare it to the fame fituation at Whahoo, under fimilar
circumftances, there is good reafon to fuppofe, that it is done in
order to exad fome tribute or acknowledgment from the people,
for the privilege of trading with us.
On
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA'.
On the 5th of February, the King paid us his promifed vifit.
He came in a large double canoe, attended by a number of Chiefs,
exclufive of the men who paddled the canoe. Amongft the attendants was Piapia, who, I informed thee, Captain Portlock
brought from Whahoo. It feems Piapia had taken fuch a liking
to his fituation, that he was determined to flay at Atoui, and had.
entirely given up his intention of going to Pritane. Indeed Captain Portlock gueffed this would be the cafe, and on that account
the more readily brought him from Whahoo. His defire to leave
his native country originated, no doubt, from a love of novelty;
and this love of novelty, or variety, call it which thou wilt, fhews
itfelf amongft young people, in a greater or lefs degree, in the
moft civilized part of the world.
.1787.
ft,
The keen edge of this novelty was a good deal wore off, before
we anchored at Atoui, and when Piapia went on fhore there, and
found himfelf in the midft of his friends and relations, whom he
had not feen for a confiderable time, fome of them perhaps not
at all, 'tis no wonder that the little .prediledion he now had for
his new voyage, was entirely deflroyed; and that he fhould refolve
to take up his abode with his former friends.
But to return to his Majefty:—his name, if I underftood him
right, is Tiara; he is a good-looking middle-aged man, and favours
Teereteere, King of Whahoo, whofe brother, it feems, he is very
much, but he appears to be a man of fuperior knowledge, and
a better capacity. He afked many queftions about the veflel:
In what manner we fleered her ? How we managed the fails ? &c.
He admired the compafs very much, and feemed to comprehend,
that it was our guide to various parts of the world : he was particularly anxious to know which part of the compafs pointed to-
Q^_ wards
!»'■■
 A    VOYAGE   TO   THE
wards Pritane, and how far it was off: in fhort, he was veryin-
quifitive; many of his queftions were remarkably pertinent, and fo
far from.being afked merely to gratify an idle curiofity, (though
even then they would have been natural enough) that they mani-
fefted an eager defire of information, and evidently fhewed, that
the queftioner was poffeffed of ftrong natural abilities.
Before his Majefty left the veflel, Captain Dixon made him a
prefent ofa few toes, and fome beads, which pleafed very much, and
he told us the taboo fhould be taken off, and the people fuffered
to trade with us as before. He was as good as his word, and in a
day or two, things were in their former channel, the natives bringing us hogs, taro, fugar-cane, cocoa-nuts, plantains, water, curl-
ofities, &c. as ufual..
I have before obferved, that the weather was moderate and
fine; and that this opportunity might be improved to the beft advantage, the carpenters of both veffels were very bufily employed
in caulking the decks, fides, and wherever occafion required; the
flern, and quarter-boards were •frefh painted, and the fides paid
with a compofition of pitch, tar, and oil. The rigging was overhauled, and any occafional repairs made that were found neceffary;,
and that nothing might be omitted which could poffibl'y conduce
towards perfedly eftablifhing the health of our fhips companies,,
and enable us to profecute the approaching feafon. with vigour, an
agreement was made with Abbenoue for our people to recreate
themfelves on fhore, without being molefted by the natives; he
alfo was to provide fufficient refiefhments for them, when,
there.
I was
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF AMERICA.
I was on fhore in one of thefe parties of pleafure ; an account of
which excurfion, and the fumptuous dinner provided for us by
Abbenoue, fhall be the fubjed of my next. Mean while believe
me to be fincerely thine,
W. B,
Atoui, l   •
9th Feb. j
I23
. 1787.
LETTER     XXVI.
IF my memory ferves me right, I promifed thee, at the conclu-
fion of my laft, fome account of an excurfion I had made on
fhore at Atoui, and the reception I met with there. Promifes, in
my humble opinion, whatever the generality of the world may
think, fhould ever be held facred and inviolable; therefore I fhall
endeavour to fulfil mine, in the beft manner I am able.
The weather, in the morning of the 9th of February, being fine,
I went along with Mr. White, and feveral of our people, to take a
day's recreation on fhore. When we got near the beach, the furf
ran fo high, that we brought our boat to an anchor two cables
length from it; but our good friend Abbenoue had taken care to
provide againft this inconvenience, and got a number oyf his people
ready with canoes to land us, which they did as fafely, and with as
much expedition, as a London Waterman could do at Tower
Stairs,
We
 124
A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
We landed clofe by the frefh water river I mentioned when we
firft came to anchor at this ifland, and which bore nearly North
Eaft from the fhips. Before we walked into the country, Abbenoue
took us to a place hard by, in order to fhew us what was preparing
for our dinner. We here found fome of his fervants cleaning a
very fine hog, which he told us was to be baked, together with
fome taro ; and that he hoped there would be arouarou, or, great
plenty. We affured him there would be quite fufficient for us all,
which feemed to pleafe him greatly; and he cautioned us not to
walk too far, as dinner would be ready by twelve o'clock : this he
explained by pointing to the fun ; after which, Abbenoue left the
management of the feaft to Tyheira, as he wanted to be on board
the fhips.
Having frequently heard our people who had been on fhore fpeak.
of a village, called by the natives A Tappa, where a great number
of people were commonly employed in manufaduring cloth, curi-
ofity prompted me to walkito that place firft, as I found it was not
more than three miles diftant, fo that I could eafily get back by
Tyheira's dinner-time. Great numbers of the inhabitants crouded
about us, when we firft landed, but our people walking different
ways, juft as fancy or inclination led them, the natives were divided
into different parties, and I was very little incommoded in my
walk. One man was particularly affiduous in rendering me any
little fervices j he not only offered to fhew me the way to A Tappa*
but to attend me the whole day, for a large nail: though I fully
expeded him to run away from me after he got his nail, which he
ftipulated to receive before we fet out, yet I determined to tiy him,,
and at the fame time endeavoured to fecure his fidelity, by pro-
mifing him a Matano in the evening.
The
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF AMERICA.
The country, from the place where we landed to A Tappa, is
tolerably level, and for the fpace of two mi!es, very dry. The foil
here is a light red earth, and with proper cultivation, would produce excellent potatoes, or any thing that fuits a dry foil; but at
prefent, it is entirely covered with long coarfe grafs : the inhabitants, I fuppofe, finding plenty of ground near their habitations,
more conveniently fituated for their various purpofes. So far, the
fpace from the beach to the foot of the mountains, is about two
miles in breadth; but from hence to A Tappa, it grows gradually
narrower, till it terminates in a long fandy point, which I have
already obferved, is the Weft extreme of Wymoa Bay.
A Tappa is a pretty large village, fituated behind a long row of
cocoa-nut trees, which afford the inhabitants a moft excellent fhel-
ter from the feorching heat of the noon-day fun. Amongft thefe
cocoa-trees is a good deal of wet fwampy ground, which is well
laid out in plantations of taro and fugar-cane.
I had laid my account in feeing their method of manufaduring
cloth; but here I was miftaken; a number of our people, prompted by the fame curiofity as myfelf, were got to A Tappa before me,,
where " Labour flood fufpended as we paffed." The people flocked
eagerly about us; fome afking us to repofe ourfelves under the
fhady branches of trees planted about their doors;. others running;
to the trees for cocoa-nuts, and prefenting them to us with every
mark of kindnefs and good-nature;. in fhort, every inhabitant of
the village was fully employed, either in relieving our wants, or
gratifying their curiofity in looking at us.
Whilft a party of us were bufied at the door of one of thefe kind
ftrangers, I heard a rattling of ftones, as if thrown with violence ;
i and
 A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
and at the fame moment all the natives ran away from us with pre*
cipitation. On turning about, I faw Tyheira coming towards us;
it feems he was afraid that the people would be troublefome by
crouding about us, and on that account he took this method of
driving them away. This was the moft convincing proof I had
hitherto feen, of the very great power the Arees have over the
common people. Any of the flones thrown by Tyheira were at
leaft fufficient to have lamed any one they might happen to hit;
yet the natives bore it with the moft patient fubmiflion.
Tyheira informed us, that by the time we got back to our landing-place, dinner would be ready. For this piece of intelligence,
we were obliged to him; but he prefently fpoifed all, by foliciting
very earneftly for a Mataho: however, it was not worth while to
refufe him, fo he colleded fix or eight nails, which fatisfied him
very well for the prefent/
The day being very fultry, we walked leifurely back, and I returned by a different path from that I had taken, in going to
A Tappa. On examining the grafs, which in moft places is higher
than the knee, I found it not altogether of a rough coarfe fort, but
intermixed with various forts of flowers, together with different
graffes, of the meadow kind ; fo that I have no doubt, with proper
management, it would make excellent hay. By the time I got on
the beach, dinner was nearly ready, and a large houfe, which Abbenoue had for flowing away his canoes, was appropriated for our
reception.
During this time, Tyheira was buflly employed in colleding our
people together, which having done, he ordered dinner to be ferved
up.   It would have excited the laughter of a tavern-cook, in no
fmall
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA.
127
fmall degree, had he feen our dinner brought in; and I. can affure     1787.
thee, the fight added greatly to my entertainment. vJ-^II
There were no lefs than four fervants concerned in this bufinefs ; one brought in a large calabafh of water; another, a parcel
of cocoa-nuts; a third, a bowl full of fine baked taro-; and the laft,
ufhered in by Tyheira himfelf, brought the hog, laid very decently
on a large circular wooden difh. This done, the laft man, who
appeared to be the head cook, poured fome water over the hog,
and rubbed it with his hands, letting us-underftand, that by this
means he fhould make excellent gravy. This part of the ceremony we could well have difpenfed with, but it could not be
avoided, without offending our hoft ; and indeed our appetites j at
this time, were not remarkably delicate; for my own part, I eat
an exceeding hearty dinner, and I believe moft of the party followed my example. Ail this time, Tyheira's attendants were ready
to open cocoa-nuts for us, whenever we required to quench our
thirft, and in fhort, paid every attention we could have expeded, ;
had we dined at a guinea ordinary.
I will take an opportunity of defcribing their method of cooking,
hereafter; this I can tell thee, that the hog was done to a turn, as.
cooks phrafe it: the taro much better baked-than we could pofli-
bly do it on board 1 and the whole repafl, (if we except the method
of making gravy), was managed with a degree of decency, and clean-
linefs, little to be expeded in a place fo very remote from civilized,
refinements, and where nature and neceflity alone have furnifhed
the utenfils for preparations of this fort
After dinner I was determined to make an excurfion in a different part of the country to that where I had been in the morning j.
and.
 A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
and the valley along the river fide feeming to promife the greateft
y"   variety of any part within my reach, I fixed on that for my afternoon's ramble.
When I got on the hanks of the river, one of the natives was
paddling backwards and forwards in a fmall canoe, feemingly for
his amufement: on this it occurred to me, that a cruize by water
would be an agreeable variety, and perhaps give me an opportunity
of feeing part of the country on the oppofite fhore, and more efpe-
cially, as on the fide of the hill diredly facing me, there was a
high wooden pile, feemingly of a quadrangular form, which I
wifhed to examine. A couple of nails engaged my new waterman, .
and he took me with pleafure for a paffenger.
I could not prevail on the man to land me near the place I have
juft been fpeaking of; he gave me to underftand, that the pile I was
;defirous to fee was a Moral, or place where they buried their dead,
and that he durft not go near it.
Being difappointed in my expedation of examining this burying
place, I direded the man to paddle leifurely up the river, that I
might have an opportunity of viewing the furrounding profpeds
which prefented themfelves to me, though thefe are very eonfined,
the valley being not more than a mile over, in its wideft part, and
narrowing gradually as you advance higher up.
The river is not one hundred yards over, in the wideft part, but
in many places much narrower; it glides along in a fmooth pellucid ftream, fcarcely perceptible, though this, I fhould imagine,
is not the cafe in rainy weather, as the Eaftern fhore is fteep and
rocky.
Thefe
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF  AMERICA.
Thefe rocks feem to be in a great meafure covered with a thin
ftrata of the fight red earth I have before fpoke of, and which, I
doubt not, is wafhed into the river beneath by every hafty fhower
of rain; fo that the water of this river is frequently muddy,*and
its ftream rapid; how far it branches out into the ifland, I cannot
fay, but there is reafon to fuppofe, from the appearance of the country, that its fource is derived nearly from the center of the ifland.
After we had proceeded about half a mile up the river, my man
jumped haftily out of the canoe, without giving me the leaft notice*
by which means it was near being upfet. I was not alarmed at this
circumftance, as the water was not out of my depth; but I was
rather furprifed to hear Berre, Berre, called aloud, by a voice which
I had fome knowledge of: on looking round, I faw one of the natives
making haftily towards us, through the water, and the fame moment recognized the man I engaged to attend me in the morning..
I had milled him during dinner time, and not feeing him afterwards, concluded he had left me; but it feems the Matano I had
promifed -him, operated fo powerfully, that he had watched my
motions the whole afternoon, and now took. an opportunity to
remind me of his diligence in attending me, and his concern for
my welfare whilft on the water..
My waterman (if I may fb call the man who belonged to the
canoe) now got into her, and we proceeded up the river; he jump- ,
ed out only to bale the water, which, being^leaky, fhe made pretty
fall. By the time we had cruized about two miles up fhe river*
the afternoon was pretty far {pent; this made me think of returning, eipeciaHy as the valley which lies to the Weft of the river,
and through which I muft pafs in my way to the beach, feemed-to
promife a good deal of variety.
R. "    The
129
 A   V O Y A G
TO    THE
The land on the Eaft fide of the river is here much eafier of
accefs, than down at the Morai; fo that I might have taken a walk
into that part of the country, had time permitted. This, however,
not being the cafe, I was obliged not only to relinquifh that, but
alfo my original intention, of tracing the river to its fource, though
from what I could difcern, the paffage is not fufficiently level for
canoes much farther up the country than where I was at prefent,
and which may be called about two miles from the fea-fide.
Having difmiflfed the canoe, I went towards a ftraggling village,
at a fmall diflance from the river; here I met feveral of our people,
who had walked up the valley amongft the plantations.
Some of them had been a confiderable diflance farther up, but
none fo far as the river head ; they confirmed me, however, in my
conjedure, that it was not navigable for canoes more than half a
mile higher up.
We learnt that this -viSflage was the place of Abbenoue's refi-
dence, and were fhewn feveral houfes which belonged to him ; but
that he had not been on fhore fince the morning, having been all
the day with Popote, or Captain Portlock.
There are a number of houfes fcattered here and there all the
way, from this village to the beach; and as we walked leifurely
along, the inhabitants were continually preffing us to flop a while,
and repofe ourfelves under the trees, which generally grow about
their habitations. It was evident that this was not done merely to
gratify a wild impatient curiofity, but proceeded from a kindnefs
and good-natured hofpitality, which did them infinite credit. A
heart-felt joy was vifibly feen in the countenance of any one whofe
houfe
 NORTH-WEST  COAST OF  AMERICA.
houfe we happened to flop aV .and the whole family would croud
about us, bringing cocoa-nuts to quench iQur thirft, fanning fuch j
of us as feemed fatigued with wajyk&ng, and in fhort, feduloufly endeavouring to render us everydrind office in their power.
The valley all the way we walked along to the beach, is entirely
planted with taro; and thefe plantations are laid out with a great
'deal of judgment.
The ground is very low, and the taro grounds are entirely covered with water, and furrounded with trenches, fo that they can
either be drained, or frefh watered, from the river at pleafure.
They are laid out in a variety of forms, according to the fancy of
the different owners, whofe various fliares are marked with the
moft fcrupulous exadnefs : thefe are interfeded at convenient dif-
tances by raifed foot-paths, about two feet wide. I fhould obferve^
that thefe plantations range entirely along the riser-fide, and the
houfes I have been fpeaking of are fituated to the Weflward of
the extreme path. The trees, which are pretty numerous about -
the houfes, are generally the cloth mulberry. *
The houfes, and whatever elfe I faw worthy of notice, fhall be-
the fubjed of a future letter; at prefent I fhall clofe the fubjed,.
by obferving, that whether we regard the found judgment and (I.
had almoft faid fcientific) fkill with which thefe grounds are laid
out, or the clofe attention and unremitting diligence fhewn in their
cultivation, in either of thefe points of view, they would, refled
credit even on a Britijk hufbandmah.
*31
1-
By the time we got to the beach, the day was far fpent; our
<boat was already come for us, and lay at anchor much in the fame.
fituatioi3fc
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
fituation as. in the morning. Great numbers of the natives were
colleded together on the beach; many to take their leave of us,
and others were very importunate for a Matano, amongft whom
was the man I engaged to attend me in the morning: he got two
nails from me, with which he was perfedly fatisfied, a poor reward,
thou wilt fay, for a long, wearifome day's attendance ! However, it
ferved to remind, me of thofe good old Englifh times, when the
diligent labourer had the alternative of a penny, or a peck of wheat
for his day's hire.
Abbenoue's people attended with their canoes, to paddle us
through the furf to our boat, as in the morning, and we got fafe
on board foon after fun-fet.
The pleafure I experienced during this day's excurfion, is infinitely fuperior to any thing of the kind I ever met with; and if
this imperfed account gives thee the leaft fatisfadion, it will ftill
heighten that of thy aflured friend,
W. B.
Atoui, ?
nth Feb. J
LETTER
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA.
133
LETTER     XXVII.
H
AVING given thee an account of my excurfion at Atoui,
I fhall now return to our tranfadions on board.
Towards the 8 th of February, the weather grew clofe and fultry,
attended with a good deal of lightning. In the night of the 9th, a
frefh breeze fprung up from the Southward; and at five o'clock
the next morning, we parted our fmall bower cable twenty-one
fathom from the anchor.
We ftill had a ftrong Southerly breeze, and an increafing fwell,
fo that any efforts to recover our anchor would have been ineffectual ; all that we could do at prefent was to leave two or three
buoys as near as we could guefs where the anchor lay, the buoy
which was ftreamed when we came to anchor being funk.
During the afternoon and evening ofthe 10th, our fituation was
very difagreeable: the weather was very fqually, with thunder,
lightning, and heavy rain, the wind blowing ftrong at South Weft
and South South Weft; fo that if neceflity had forced us to flip
our cable, there was no probability of clearing the land.
In the afternoon of the 1 ith, the wind veered to the Weflward,
and grew more moderate, which lowered the fwell greatly.  Though
the fea ran very high, our friend Long-fhanks came off to us this
afternoon, bringing fome taro along with him ; he did not fail to
1 magnify
 A   VOYAGE   TO    THE
1787.     magnify this piece of fervice, and was rewarded accordingly, though
February.   wg w£re not ^^q^ roots, having luckily bought a large quantity
of taro before the bad weather came on.
The weather being fo exceedingly unpromifing, it was determined to leave this place; fo at three o'clock in the morning of
the 12th, Captain Portlock making fignal, we weighed anchor, and
made fail, ftretching to the Southward with a light breeze at
North Weft..
From the 12th to the 15th, we kept plying towards Oneehow,
hut were prevented from making it, by light variable winds.
During this time, we had clofe, fultry, cloudy weather.
In the forenoon of the 16th, a frefh breeze fpringing up at
North Eaft, we flood right for Oneehow; and in the afternoon,
came to anchor in Yam Bay, in twenty-nine fathom water, over a '
fandy bottom; the extremes of the bay bore from South 20 deg.
Eaft to North 15 deg. Eaft ; the body of Oreehoura North 40 deg.
Eaft ; and Tahoura South 30 deg. Weft, about two miles diftant
from fhore.
Our grand objed at this place was to recover the anchors which
Captain Portlock left here; fo at day-break in the morning of the
j 7th, the boats from both fhips were fent to fearch for them:
fortunately the weather was moderate, and the fea tolerably finooth,
fo that by two o'clock in the afternoon, the King George had got
both her anchors on board, which was a moft lucky circumftance,
and more efpecially, as the anchor we had left at Atoui might almoft
be given over for loft.
2
During
 NORTH-WEST  COAST   OF  AMERICA.
During this time, we were bufily employed on board, in pur-
chafing yams and water from the natives, who had attended us
pretty numeroufly, and brought a good quantity of yams, which
proved a very feafonable fupply, moft of our roots being expended.
About three o'clock in the afternoon, the wind fhifting to the
Southward, we weighed anchor, and ftretched towards the North
, Weft, intending, fhould Southerly winds continue, to make Atoui,
through the paffage by Oreehoura, and try to recover our anchor;
but we now had frefh reafon to fuppofe, that the wind near thefe
iflands is always variable; for from the 17th to the 23d, we had
light variable winds, frequent calms intervening, fo that we kept
ftanding to the Northward and Eaftward, making longer or fhorter
boards, as occafion required. Atoui generally bore about South
South Eaft, and Oneehow, South Weft.
Whilft we were plying in this uncertain ftate, we had an opportunity of viewing the North Coaft of Atoui, or that part of the
ifland diredly oppoflte Wymoa Bay. The fhore down to the water's edge, is in general mountainous, and difficult of accefs: I
could not fee any level groundror the leaft fign of this part of the
ifland being inhabited, at leaft by any confiderable number of people ; fo that there is every reafon to fuppofe the South fide of the
ifland contains nearly the whole of the inhabitants.
During the 24th and 25th, we had moderate weather, and generally light winds; a frefh breeze at Eaft North Eaft -fometimes
intervening.
In the morning of the 26th, we worked through the paffage
between Oreehoura and Atoui.    At noon, the extremes of the
latter
 A    VOYAGE    TO    THE
latter ifland bore from North to North 58 deg. Eaft; and Oneehow Weft, 8 deg. South.
- In the afternoon, and the whole of the 27th, we had frefh variable breezes; but the forenoon of the 28th, being fine, and the
wind blowing a moderate breeze from the Eaftward, we came to
anchor hvWymoa Bay, in thirty-feven fathom water, over a fandy
bottom.
Our motive for coming to this place was to fearch for our *
anchor, and the whale-boat was immediately hoifted out for that
purpofe; but all our .endeavours were ineffedual, though we had
taken exad bearings of the place where it was loft, and the water
was tolerably fmooth: the buoys we had left were either drifted
away, or ftolen by the natives.
The weather during the ift of March was moderate and fine, fo
that we hoped to procure a fupply of hogs and vegetables ; but the
inhabitants we found were tabooed, and nobody came near us
except a few of the inferior Chiefs, who brought us a fmall quantity of taro.
We had reafon to fuppofe, from every information we were able
to procure, that the King grew tired of us, and had tabooed the
people, in order to prevent any refrefhments being brought on
board the veffels, thinking from our frequent vifits, that we intended to fettle,at Atoui: indeed appearances might warrant a
fuppofition of this kind. We had repeatedly anchored on their
coaft; cruized backwards and forwards, in fight of their ifland;,
anchored there again ; and, in fhort, been long enough amongft
them?
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA. 137
them to encourage a fuppofition, that we wifhed to fix our abode     1787.
at this defirable fpot. ^J^L^,
. If thefe motives adually induced Tiara to taboo the inhabitants,
and I make no doubt but they did, it confirms what I have already
faid, refpeding his good fenfe and penetration; nay, the moft
refined politician could not take a- better method to drive away any
unwelcome intruders, and whom at the fame time he could not
openly quarrel with, than by ftarving them out—But to return :
The wind on the 2d fhifting to the Weflward, we weighed anchor
at eight o'clock in the evening, and flood out to fea ; it was very
fortunate for us that we did fo, for the next day proved very
fqually, with heavy rain; the wind nearly South Weft.- At noon,
Atoui bore from North North Eaft to North 25 deg. Weft ; and
Oneehow from North 60 deg. Weft to 80 deg. Weft; about fix
leagues diftant. The afternoon proving thick and foggy, we loft
fight of both iflands.
The fame foggy weather continued during the 4th and 5 th, with
ftrong Wefterly gales of wind, and heavy rain, attended with a
very heavy crofs fea: this made us judge it moft prudent to lay to,
as we were not certain how the currents fet, and were unwilling to
ftand out far from the land.        j
In the morning of the rth, we faw Atoui, which bore from
Weft to Weft South Weft; and Whahoo, South South Eaft.
Towards the afternoon, the weather grew moderate, and the people were employed in getting in a new jigger-maft, the old one
being carried away: fome iron work being required, the armourer
was buflly employed about it, when a fudden roll of the fhip
S threw
i m-
I
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
threw his anvil over-board. This was looked on as a very had
accident, as we had few toes' ready made, and we knew they would
he Angularly ufeful in our future traffic.
During the 6th and 7th, we had frefh Wefterly breezes. In the
morning of the yth, Captain Dixon went on board the King
George, and on his return, we fleered Eaft South Eaft, our Captains having determined, if the wind kept to the Southward and
Weflward, to make Owhyhee'; but all hopes of this fort quickly
vanifhed, for in the forenoon of the 8th, the wind veered to Eaft
North Eaft.
During the 9th and 10th, we plied to windward, expeding to
find the wind ftill variable; but it now feemed fet in for a con-
ftant fteady trade, fo that in the forenoon of the 1 ith, we gave up
any intention of making Owhyhee,  and flretched again to the
South Weft.
Being favoured with a hrifk, fteady, Eaflerly "breeze, early in the
afternoon, we were within two miles ofthe North Weft fide of
Whahoo. On feeing a fmall village a little to the Weflward, we
lay to about three hours, expecting the inhabitants would bring us
fome hogs and vegetables, and more efpecially, as this was a part of
the ifland we had not been near before, but we had only two fmall
canoes came near us, and they bringing little or nothing, at five
o'clock we made fail, and flood to the Weflward-
The extremes of Whahoo now hore from South 50 deg. Eaft,
to South 35 deg. Weft; diftant about three leagues. Excepting
the fmall village I have juft mentioned, the North fide of Whahoo
appears to be uninhabited; neither is there any good fhelter for a
veffel
 NORTH-WEST  COAST  OF  AMERICA, 130
veflel to anchor in; the fhore is generally fteep and mountainous,     1787.
and in that refped a good deal refembles the North fide of Atoui.   ^J^'^
I At feven o'clock in the morning of the 12th, we faw Atoui, and
at noon, we were within a few miles of our anchoring birth, in
Wymoa Bay. The weather was very fine, with a moderate Eaflerly breeze. We flood on under an eafy fail, expeding the natives
would bring us fome refrefhments, but not a fingle canoe appeared
in the bay: this fufficiently confirmed our former opinion, that the
King was determined to ftarve us from the ifland. At fix o'clock,
the extremes of Atoui bore from North 10 deg. Weft, to North
56 deg. Eaft; and the North end of Oneehow, from Weft to
Weft by South.
All hopes of procuring any quantity of hogs were now given up,
and the only thing we waited for, previous to the profecution of
our Voyage to the Northward, was a fupply of yams from Oneehow, which entirely depended on our meeting with a fteady Eaflerly
wind.
During the 13th, we had light variable winds; towards the
evening, the fky grew black and lowering; the air was exceeding
clofe and fultry, and the night was almoft one continued ftorm of
heavy rain, attended with violent thunder and lightning. Light
airs, and intervening calms, attended us the greateft part of the
14th ; but about fix<p'clock in the afternoon, a frefh breeze fprung
up at Eaft North Eaft, on which we hauled our wind to the Southward during the night, expeding at day-break to bear away for
Oneehow; but at fix o'clock in the morning of the 15th, the wind
fhifting to Eaft South Eaft, Captain Portlock hauled his wind,
contrary to our expedation, and fleered North Eaft.    At noon,
the
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
the extremes of Atoui bore from North to North 35 deg. Weft.
During the day, we had a fine breeze at South Eaft, and clear weather. Our latitude at noon was 21 deg. 29 min. North, and 159
deg. Weft longitude. At fix o'clock, the North Eaft end of Atoui
bore North 42 deg. Weft, thirteen leagues diftant; and the body
of Whahoo Eaft. The breeze continued fteady all night; and in
the morning of the 16th, being quite clear of all the iflands, we
fleered due North, with a brifk Southerly gale.
Tfius have we left thefe iflands a fecomTtime, and are now
ftanding for the American Coaft, on the pinnacle of expedation.
My next fhall be an account of our paffage thither.    Adieu.
W. B.
Off Atoui, ?
16th March. 5
LETTER     XXVIII.
BEFORE I proceed with my account of our paffage to the
North Weft Coaft, let me fay a few words refpeding our
departure from Oneehow, at a time when what we had been Arriving for weeks to obtain, was apparently within our reach.
As the weather in the night of the 14th, and during the  15th
of March, was moderate and clear, attended with a favourable
Eaflerly breeze, which would have enabled us to come to at Oneehow
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF   AMERICA.
how with eafe; and as a fupply of yams, which we were morally
certain of procuring there, would have been highly ferviceable, it
may feem flrange that Captain Portlock fhould ftand to the Northward at the moment when his every wifh appeared eafy to be ac-
complifhed : but it fhould be remembered, that the weather previous to this time, had been very unfettled, and indeed we had ever
found it fo at Oneehow-; that fhould we not meet with contrary
winds, there-was every probability of our being becalmed under
the land, which would be attended with confequences equally dif-
agreeable, as it began to be high time for us to fail to the Northward, in order to make up, if poffible, for the deficiencies of laft
feafon : however, be all this as it may, the event proved this ftep to
be extremely judicious, for the wind veering to the Southward, as
I have already related, would have rendered it impradicable for us
to lay at Oneehow.    To return now to our Voyage.
During the former part ofthe 17th, we had a ftrong Southerly
breeze, with frequent fhowers of rain. In the afternoon, the wind
grew light and variable. The night was fqually, attended with
thunder, lightning, and conftant rain.
In the morning of the 18th, we had a heavy gale of wind at
South South Eaft, with a heavy fwell, and conftant rain. This
was the firft fair gale we had met with fince our leaving England.
The gale continued during the day and greateft part of the night,
which being very dark, we lay to, and made fail at five o'clock in the
morning of the 19th, the weather being pretty moderate. Our
latitude at noon was 27 deg. 24 min. North; and the longitude
158 deg. 17 min. Weft.
From
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
From this to the 23d, we had little variety, the wind frefh and
■variable, with cloudy weather. Our latitude at noon on the 22d>
was 29 deg. 10 min. North ; and the longitude being the mean of
feveral fets of lunar obfervations, 158 deg. 27 mm. Weft.
On the 24th and 25th, we had frequent fqualls, attended with
rain; the wind fhifting from Eaft South Eaft to South South
Weft; the weather thick and foggy.
The 26th was moderate. Our latitude at noon was 34 deg. 59
min. North; and our longitude 159-deg. 30 min. Weft. Contrary to our expedation, the fog cleared up on the 27th, and we
had clear, moderate weather, with a fine Southerly breeze, which
continued till the 29th, in the evening, when a frefh gale of wind
came on from the Weflward, with frequent fhowers of rain, and
thick foggy weather. We have conftantly remarked, that South
Wefterly winds, in thefe latitudes, viz. from 30 to 60 deg. North,
never fail to bring thick fogs along with them.
In the morning of the 31ft, the weather grew moderate. Our
latitude at noon was 39 deg. 23 min. North; and the longitude
154 deg. 23 min. Weft. During the afternoon, we had light
variable airs, and cloudy weather. Towards the evening we faw
feveral puffins, and a young feal came along-fide, which clearly
indicated, that land could not be far off: indeed when we failed
laft to the Northward, and nearly in the fame fituation, we were
convinced, from fimilar circumftances, that there muft be land not
many leagues from us; but it was our misfortune, both at that
time, and the prefent, to have fuch thick, foggy weather, that had
we failed within ten miles of high land, we fhould have paffed it
unfeen. 2
From
 NORTH-WESTCOAST  OF AMERICA.
From the ift to the 4th of April, we had little variety; the wind
generally blew frefh from South South Eaft to South Weft; the
weather wet and hazy. Our latitude at noon, on the 3d, was 44
deg. 4 min. North; and the longitude 151 deg. 59 min. Weft.
The nights being very dark, we generally lay to, and made fail in
the morning at day-break.
On the 7th, at noon, our latitude was 47 deg. 2a min. North 5.
and the longitude 148 deg. 39 min. Weft; we faw feveral gulls*
divers, and various other fpecies of birds; fea-weeds alfo frequently
paffed us.
' In the afternoon of the 8th, we had a fea-lion playing about
the veflel. From the 5th to the 9th, the wind was light, and chiefly
to the Northward; but in the morning of the 9th, it fhifted
to South Weft, with moderate weather, fqualls of hail and fleet
fometimes intervening. Our latitude at noon, on the 12th, was 52
deg. 46 min. North; and the longitude, being the mean of fome <
lunar obfervations, 145 deg. 43 min. Weft.
m
1787.
April.
From this to the 16th, we had little variety; frefh variable winds
and frequent fqualls of fnow and fleet intervening. We here found
the variation of the compafs 19 deg. Eaflerly. The weather was
feverely cold,, the thermometer on the 16th being at 25 deg. which
is two and half lower than it ever was during Captain Cook's laft
Voyage, though he failed as far as 7.2 deg. North latitude.
On the 16th, at noon, ourlatitude was 58 deg. 9 min. North;
and the longitude 149 deg. 23 min. Weft. From this to the 18th,
the weather was fo thick and hazy, that we were not able to get
:an obfervation | and as it was impoffible to fee land at any dif-
tance,
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
tance, we plied occafionally, it being uncertain how far we were
from the American Coaft.
In the afternoonof the 18th, we had a fudden fquall from the
Weflward ; but our fails being handed in time, we did not receive
the leaft damage. The wind blew a frefh gale the greateft part of
the night; but in the forenoon of the 19th, it moderated, and the
weather grew clear enough for us to get a meridian altitude, which
gave $y deg. 41 min. North latitude.
From the 20th to the 2 2d, we had thick hazy weather, with
frequent fqualls, and almoft conftant fnow and fleet, the wind
generally blowing frefh at South Eaft, and South South Eaft.
Our latitude, by account at noon on the 22d, was 59 deg. 1 min.
North. This made us ply with caution, as we were certain the
coaft could not be far off; and the weather was fo very hazy, that
we could not fee land a league from the veffel.
In fhe morning of the 23 d, the weather grew tolerably clear.
Our latitude at noon was 59 deg. 9 min. and the longitude 147 deg.-
55 min. Weft, being the mean of two fets of lunar obfervations.
At one o'clock we faw land, bearing from North Eaft by North to
Weft, ten leagues diftant. At feven in.the evening, we perceived
the land to the Weflward to be Foot Ifland, and that to the Eaftward, Montague Ifland; fo that we were ftanding well for the
paffage into Prince William's Sound, which we in vain attempted to
make, when laft on this coaft. _At fun-fet, the entrance bore
North 14 deg. Eaft; and the South Eaft part of Montague Ifland
.North 32 deg. Eaft, about five leagues diftant. The wind being
light and variable, we ftretched to the Eaftward during the night;
and in the morning ofthe 24th, a moderate, breeze fpringing up
from
 NORTH-WEST   COAST  OF  AMERICA. I
from the Weflward, we fet all fail, and flood right in for the paf-    *787-
fage.    At noon we were right in the entrance of the channel.  ■.. -i-,.^
Our obfervation gave 59 deg. 47 min. North latitude; and the
longitude was 147 deg. 52 min. Weft.
This place is laid down in Captain Cook's general chart, in 59
deg. 36 min. North latitude, which is eleven miles to the Southward of our obfervation, on which account, our gentlemen were
particularly corred in taking their altitudes, and being favoured
with a remarkably clear horizon, were able to determine the latitude to a certainty. This convinced Captain Dixon of the error
in the chart above-mentioned, and evidently fhewed, that the latitude had been fettled by angles carried on from the fun's meridian
altitude at a diflance.
The land in this fituation bore from North 34 deg. Weft to
North by Eaft; Green Iflands North; diftant from the South Eaft
point of Montague Ifland two miles. The breeze dying away in
the afternoon, and there being no probability of our reaching the
Sound, we flood into a deep bay, which now opened to the Eaftward, and let go an anchor about five o'clock, in twenty-four fathom
water, over a muddy bottom; the extremes of the land bearing
from North Weft to South Weft.
Once more are we arrived at the bufy fcene of adion ; and here
I will take my leave of thee for the prefent, with a fincere wifh,
that we may not verify the old adage, " The mountains labour,"
&c.    Thine ever,
W. B.
Montague Island, 7
25th April. j
T LET-
 A   VOYAGE    TO   THE
LETTER    XXIX.
IL E F T thee at the cohclufion of my laft, immediately on our
coming to anchor, and I doubt not by this time, thou art impatient to be acquainted with our proceedings. As I know nothing
more difagreeable than a ftate of fufpence, I will immediately endeavour to relieve thee from it, in the beft manner I can.
It feems, Captain Portlock's motive for coming to jajichor, as
already mentioned, was a fight of two canoes, at fome diflance up
the bay, which gave him reafon to exped meeting with inhabitants,
and confequently that fome bufinefs might be done; a thing we
were moft particularly anxious about, as this, our laft feafon, was
already flipping away.
In the evening of the 24th, five canoes came along-fide us^Jbui^.
brought no furs, or traffic of any kind. They faluted us by extending their arms, and a frequent repetition of the word Lauleigh,
generally laying a great emphafis on the latter fyllable. This we
underftood as a friendly falutation, and returned it by fimilar gesticulations, and a repetition of the word Lauleigh. On our enquiry for Notoonejhuck, which is the name they ufe for fea otter's
fkin, they immediately pointed towards Prince William's Sound,
repeating the words <c Nootka Notbonejhuck," plenty, very frequently,
and in the moft earneft manner. Some dogs we had on board,
hearing ftrangers about the fhip, ran upon the gun-wale, and
began to bark at them, on which the Indians diredly called out,
** Towzer, Towzer,. here, here," whiftling at the fame time, after
2   * the
 NORTH-WEST   COAST   OF  AMERICA.
the manner ufed to coax dogs in England. We were pretty much
puzzled to account for thefe circumftances, though it appeared
very evident, from thefe people fpeaking Englifh, and having fome
idea of our manners, that an Englifh veflel either lay in the found
at the prefent moment, or had been there very recently; but none
of us could guefs at the meaning of Nootka, though they repeated
that word much oftener than any of the reft.
Thefe canoes were covered with fkins, the fame as we had feen
laft feafon in Cook's River: three of them were built for two men
each, and the two others held only a Angle perfon.
The ears of thefe Indians were ornamented with plenty of fmall
blue beads, but thefe, we had reafon to fuppofe, were procured
from the Ruffians, as fome knives and iron weapons which they
fhewed us, were evidently of Ruffian manufadure.
Early in the morning of the 25th, our boats were fent on fhore
for wood and water, both which were very eafily procured. In the
mean time, our Captains went all round the bay, and examined
every adjacent creek and inlet, but found no inhabitants, nor any
traces of recent habitations in this part, which made us conclude,
that our vifitors were only a hunting party from Prince William's
Sound; however, we made them fome trifling prefents, hoping,
that it might induce them not only to bring us furs, but alfo encourage their neighbours to follow their example: they feemed
perfedly fatisfied with the trifles we gave them, and told us, that
they would return foon and bring Notoonefhuck, plenty.
We waited till the 28th, with the greateft anxiety, in hopes that
the Indians would return to trade with us; but in this we were
difap-
ApriJ
 A   VOYAGE   TO   THE
87.      difappointed, fo that it was determined to leave this bay the firft
fair wind.
At four o'clock in the morning of the 29th, a breeze fpringing
up at South Weft, we unmoored, and flood out ofthe bay, but had
fcarcely reached the channel, which leads up into the found, when
we were becalmed, and the tide being againft us, we were obliged
to get the boats a-head, in order to tow the veffels in again, taking
care, however, to come to as near mid-channel as was confiftent
with our fafety. At ten o'clock we let go an anchor, in twenty-
three fathom water, over a muddy bottom, the extremes of the
bay bearing from North 40 deg. Weft to South 39 deg. Weft, a
mile diftant from fhore.
The weather during the 30th, was moderate, the wind light and
variable; no Indians came near us, fo that what faint hopes we
had hitherto entertained of their return, now entirely vanifhed.
This bay abounds with wild geefe and ducks, but they were fo
very fhy, that we could rarely come within mufquet fhot of them.
There are alfo great numbers of gulls; fome eagles of the white-
headed fpecies, and great plenty of fmaller birds, of various kinds,
fuch as fand-pipers, fnipes, plovers, &c. &c.
Our hooks and lines were generally over-board, but the only
kind of fifh we caught was a fort greatly refembling a flounder,
and called by the failors fand-dabs. The other marine productions found here, are mufcles, cockles, clams, crabs, and ftar-hih.
Ifhould not omit, that one of our people, in fifhing with hook
and line, caught a very remarkable fubjed, which I fuppofe to be a
fpecies of polypus: it feemed to be both of an animal and vegetable
 NORTH-WEST   COAST   OF  AMERICA.
table fubftance, and adhered to a fmall fwitch about three feet    3787.
long. u—v^-.
The wind ftill continuing light and variable, early in the morning of the 1 ft of May, both our Captains went in the whale-boats,
on a furvey, and Captain Portlock left orders with Mr. Macleod to
weigh anchor during his abfence, if the wind proved favourable.
A number of the people from both veffels had liberty given to
recreate themfelves on fhore; but a breeze coming on at South
Weft, at eleven o'clock a fignal was made for the people to come
on board. At two o'clock we unmoored, and made fail, ftanding
up the channel towards Prince William's Sound. At fix o'clock,
being clofe in fhore, and the wind leffening, we came to anchor in
a bay to the Eaftward, in twenty-one fathom water, over a muddy
bottom. At ten o'clock in the evening, our Captains returned;
they had met with no furs, and feen but very few Indians, and-
thofe at a confiderable diflance from the place where we lay.
During the night we had light variable airs ; but at ten in the
morning of the 2d, a breeze coming on at South Weft, we weighed
and made fail, ftanding for the channel, betwixt the Green and
Montague Iflands. By fix o'clock in the afternoon, the Green
Iflands were on our larboard beam. This paffage is dangerous in
the night, or in bad weather, the channel not being a mile in the
broadeft part free from funken rocks. In this fituation we had
foundings from twenty-five to fix fathom water, over a fandy bottom. Our breeze dying away, at feven o'clock we let go an anchor,
in thirteen fathom water; but finding we were fituated very near
a funk rock, we hove it up again, and a light breeze fpringing up,
we were enabled to get into a bay in Montague Ifland.    At nine
o'clock
149
1
 A   VOYAGE    TO    THE
o'clock we again came to, in thirteen fathom water, over a mud'd^
bottom., mooring the fhip with the kedge and ftream cable.
During the greateft part ofthe 3d, the weather was moderate;
but in the night, a ftrong gale of wind came on, at f%*tli Weft,-
which making the veflel ride very heavy, and labour much, we unmoored fhip at fix o'clock in the morning ofthe 4th, and began to'
warp towards the head of the bay. In the afternoon we came to
with the beft bower, in- eight fathom water, and moored the veflel
with the ftream cable, to a tree on fhore.
It was the intention of our Captains, the firft fecure harbour we
came into, to haul the veffels on fhore,