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Canada; the country, its people, religions, politics, rulers, and its apparent future, being a compendium… McAdam, J. T. 1882

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Array       ENLARGED EDITION.
CANADA;
The Country, its People, Religions, Politics, Rulers, and
its apparent Future,
BEING A COMPENDIUM OP TRAVEL PROM THE
ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC,
The Great Lakes, Manitoba, the North-West, and British Columbia,
WITH A DESCRIPTION OP THEIR
Resources, Trade, Statistics, etc., viewed in its Business,
Social and Political Aspects.   The various Cities
and Resorts, Salmon Rivers, etc.,
TOGETHER   WITH  THE
Legends oe the Ottawa, the Lower St. Lawrence, and the
Coast.   A Valuable and Interesting Book for
both Travellers and Home Folks.
WITH 40 ILLUSTRATIONS, RAPIDS OF THE ST. LAWRENCE, &c.
BY CAPTAIN "MAC."
Price: Paper, $1.oo; Cloth, $1.50.
Copyright Washington, D. C, 1881.    Ottawa, 1882.
Stationers' Hall, London, Eng., 1882.  TO
GEOEGE WASHINGTON STEPHENS, M.P.P.,
An able Representative, a Truthful Advocate
of. the  People, and an Honest Man,
one   of   the  few  and   gallant  minority who  have
devoted time, energy and talent in protecting   THE    RIGHTS    OF   THE    PEOPLE   OF
' THE   PROVINCE   OF   QUEBEC,
This volume is most respectfully dedicated
BY THE AUTHOR. Copyright, Washington, D.C., H.S., 1881.
Entered according to Act of Parliament by McAdam <fe Co., in the Office
of the Minister of Agriculture, in the year 1882.
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London, England, 1882. CANADA AND THE CANADIANS;
FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC.
REVISED EDITION.
In April, 1880, I laid back in a comfortable chair at the
St. Charles Hotel, New Orleans, whilst a negro boy was
energetically endeavoring to put " de Crescent City polish
on de shoeses," prior to my rambling at the Lake-end and
around Spanish Fort. Whilst the boy was thus occupied,
I fell into a reverie, and my mind seemed fully occupied in
trying to decide upon which route to take during the long
summer months now fast approaching. Whilst still mentally
cogitating, the porter, an acquaintance with whom I had
become tolerably familiar, soon brought me to a decision,
for, said he: " Say, Captain, so they say you're goin' away,
so you are ; which way are you goin' ?" "Well, Phelim," I
answered, " I expect to go north, through Alabama,
Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky and Illinois, to Chicago;
then possibly through Michigan, and perhaps into Canada."
" Oh, bedad," said Phelim, " are you goin wid thim Kanucks ?
That reminds me whin I wuz there, in '65, wid Gineral
O'jSTaille, how weloiketo hev' tuck the whole cunthryfrom
thim." This remark decided me, and I mentally determined
shortly to be en route for Canada.
After once deciding to leave the beautiful Crescent
City, it becomes quite a task to fix upon which route
to take to the North, each having its own particular
attractions   and   delights :   to   those   who "enjoy  a sea 4 Canada and the Canadians;
voyage a pleasant and healthful trip is offered by the
steamships of the Hudson, Cromwell, Morgan and
Alexander lines, following up the course of that remarkable ocean river, the Gulf Stream; whilst the time allowed
when calling at the sea ports of Florida, or at the City of
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Levee New Orleans.
Havana, is amply sufficient for a general inspection and
acquaintance; and long remembered will be the remarkable beauty of the rising and setting of the sun in these
balmy lower latitudes, when
" The glorious orb of day—
In southern climes, o'er ocean's waveless field, sinks sweetly smiling:
.Not the faintest breath steals o'er the unruffled deep,
The clouds of eve reflect unmoved the lingering beam of day,
And vespers image on the western main is beautifully still." From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 5
Passing closely to the coral reefs, and again skirting the
sandy beach, the journey north is pleasant and agreeable.
For those who are in a hurry and who must save time
there are the various all-rail routes both by the sea-board
and coast lines, the inland air lines, and the roads over the
mountain ranges north and west; whilst the palatial river
steamers, so numerous and closely packed along the levee,
bring vividly to memory the delightful journey up the
Father of Waters, the great Mississippi, i The trip up this
river from the latitude of the sunny South to that of the
frozen North is unexcelled by any in the world, whilst the
enjoyment and comfort those floating palaces such as
the "Great Eepublic," the " R. E. Lee," "Frank Par-
goud, | Natchez " and others afford cannot be excelled.
Ascending the stream in the spring, the traveller follows
the line of vegetation, and enjoys in succession all the products of the earth, from the golden orange, the luscious
peach, mellow banana, juicy mango and dainty apricot of
the South, to the hard apple and tasteless chestnut of the
North. Ample time is often given to acquaint the passengers
with the towns en route, and you remember with feelings
of pleasure the quaint former capital of Louisiana (Baton
Eouge), the pleasant stroll along its shady and tree-lined
boulevards, the cosy City of Natchez under the Hill, the
historical Vicksburg on the Bluffs—the city that was at
one time thought impregnable, but whose citizens during
the days of the Confederacy were called upon, like those of
Paris, to endure that most terrible of seiges, the seige of
famine and starvation, in addition to the scourge and terrors
of war. Journeying upwards, the ruins of the fine and costly
sugar houses and. cotton gins are still met with at intervals
on either bank of the river, and thousands of acres of valu- 6 Canada and the Canadians',
able land are filling up with rank growths for want of
cultivation, although at points and plantations where landings are made the crowds of laughing frolicsome negroes
and groups of country whites, who come down to watch
the boat, make the landing assist to form the idea that a
vast amount of land is still being cultivated.  The country
here being very low, in the spring floods, and some times
during the June rise, if there happens to be a crevasse in
the levee, you can be landed at Chicot, on the second story
of the hotel or residence, being carried by a dug-out to the
platform of the cars of the L. E. M. E. and T. E. E., the
speed of which road, bye-the-way, is only surpassed by
Morgan's Line, from Victoria to Port Lavacca, Texas.   The
cars, being drawn by mules, average some 5 miles per hour.
70  miles from Chicot, lands us at Pine Bluff on the
Arkansas Eiver, thence, 90 miles further, and we arrive at
the City of Eoses, Little Eock, the capital of the State of
Arkansas, then by the Iron Mountain road, 22 miles to
Malvern, where change is made for the Hot Springs, 25
miles distant, the cars then being narrow gauge, or, as the
road is familiarly called, " Diamond Joe's narrer gouge,"
and is certainly a gouge in fare, for the tickets are f 2.50
each way, so, as the Irishman observed, " If a man's in good
health sure he'll save a day's wages by walkin," whilst" dat's
so, dese ere keers ought to be busted up," came from the
other end of the car.    Although it is probably not the proper
thing to do to smile at' human misery, still the scenes on
those diminutive cars are constantly inciting humor.    When
the change is made at Malvern, the suffering and ailing of
humanity from all parts of the universe who are making
or the renowned Hot Springs congregate in a seemingly
harmonious democratic throng, each too much engrossed
Lii From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 7
with his own ailments to care to- argue upon caste or
religion with his neighbor, the majority being as peevish
and cross as the mythical bear; so, as rheumatic twinges are
felt, such remarks become frequent as " Ouch!" " Dam all
Hades!" " Ohlordy, take dem hoofs outen my back!" whilst
the old man in the corner consoled himself with, " Oh, if I
wuz only at home in my father's palace, bad luck to it!"
whilst the consolation was offered by a fellow sufferer,
I Bedad, if you wuz, sure you cud put yer han down the
chimney and undo the latch uv the doore." Soon the car, to
the olfactories at least, becomes an apothecary's shop,
redolent with balsams, whisky, liniment, juniper and a
confusion of other well-advertised equally sure remedies
for suffering.
The story of the discovery of the Hot Springs is
told as follows: A Dutchman and his family were journeying with their team 'from Missouri to Texas, and after a day
or two spree at Fort Smith continued his route through
the valley. Having punished a considerable quantity of Missouri Eed Eye he was naturally very dry on arrival at the
Magnesia Spring, but seeing a clear crystal-looking pool in
the rock he said, " Schonney, hold on dem mules vile your
olt Fader gets a drink uv wasser. The old man got down,
and bending over the basin attempted a good swallow, but in
a moment rising with flushed face and streaming eyes he
dashed the water off with both hands and shouted," Schonney,
drive on dem mules.  Hell is but tree miles from dis place."
But soon the journey is performed, and the
sufferers landed a mile away from the Springs, which
necessitates still another transfer by car or bus to the town
of Hot Springs. The town or village consists of one street
("Valley street) some mile and a half or two miles in length, 8
Canada and the Canadians *
and is well protected by the surrounding hills from sudden
or severe changes of weather. Hotels, boarding houses,
general stores and gambling shops are numerous, and
situated chiefly on the south-western side, the north-eastern
being the one from which bursts forth the hot water of the
different springs; thence the mineral water is conveyed in
pipes across the road to the public drinking fountains, and
also to the bath rooms of the hotels. On the side of the hill
situated above the Magnesia Spring is the Pool of Bethesda,
familiarly called the Bal Hole, free for all who are afflicted,
and numerous camps and tents are erected for the accommodation of those who are too poor to reside at the hotels and
boarding houses. Of the hotels the Arlington, French's and
the St. Louis are about the best; and their storerooms, piled
with crutches, sticks and other adjuncts of recent sufferers,
bear unspeakable but earnest testimony to the efficacy of
the healing waters. In undergoing the bath (the patient gets
one each day) the water at first is from 90° to 100° F., but
in a few days the heat is increased to from 140° to 160° F.,
so that the invalid emerging from his 10 or 15 minutes
cooking resembles, in color at least, a boiled lobster or a ripe
tomato, whilst the truthful colored deacon who rubs him
down entertains him with the remark, " dat we had a man
frum way up Nonth somewhar dat we had to bile free
weeks befor we got it outen him."
Taking the train again, 120 miles east across the State of
Arkansas (that will at no very distant period become one of
the finest grain and fruit growing states in the Union), and
we are landed at Hopefield, opposite the City of Memphis,
Tennessee. This formerly thriving city that a few years ago
suffered so severely from the visitation of yellow fever has
now undergone a most thorough and complete change for From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 9
the better : miles of sewer pipes are laid under ground; the
swampy lands around the old Memphis and Charleston
Depot filled in and drained; the negro shanties and wooden
houses, where fever couldfind a lurking-place, burned down;
the Nicholsen block pavement, that breeder of disease, torn
up and cremated; and the experience of the past two years
demonstrates conclusively that the germs of the dread
disease have been- entirely eradicated from the city; and
once more its wharves are the scene of life and activity—the
various lines of steamers continually calling, and lining its
levee, recall the old-time bustle and confusion. So, coming
back in memory for a day or two longer, we linger in our
loved city, idly wandering and enjoying its attractions,
roaming Canal street, probably the finest, widest and best
kept street on the continent. Driving on the shell road to
Lake Ponchartrain—a road equalling the famed Champs
Elysee of Paris or the beach at Galveston, revelling at the
Spanish fort, and on the old battlefield, fishing, lounging
and boating during the day, whilst evenings are spent
amidst the excitement of the masquerade. Still but a
wandering son, thy sunny Southern land we love; and,
although for 'a while an exile from thy bright clime, still
the heart loners and aches for the time of its return to the
o
smiling faces and true hearts of friends of the Ions; ago !
During the season New Orleans presents a scene of, seemingly, the wildest confusion : at every hour, night and day,
shipping from every portion of the world, steamboats from
the great rivers and their tributaries, are constantly arriving or departing, whilst work goes on incessantly up town;
the long freight trains loadedrwith grain, cotton and sugar,
come steadily rolling in. At present the population is some
220,000, and is yearly on the increase. 10
Canada and the Canadians ;
Bidding adieu to New Orleans, we are soon passing its
summer resorts of Biloxi and Mississippi City. In the spring
a journey through the Southern States is most delightful and
invigorating, and, with the hearty welcome the traveller
receives at each new stopping-place, the anxiety of the citizens for news, both political and general, from other States,
stamp the people as being both hospitable and highly intelligent. Stopping respectively at Mobile, the coming seaport of
the Gulf; then again at Montgomery—the first capital of
the Southern Confederacy and the prettiest laid out town in
Alabama—at present containing some 25,000 inhabitants,
pleasantly situated on the banks of the Alabama river. In
its streets are several artesian wells, that supply clear cold
water even in the hottest weather, whilst the country
surrounding is excellent for farming. What a contrast is the
present aspect of the city to that presented in the fall of
1860, when Jefferson Davis was nominated as the president of the new-born Confederacy, representing 6 millions
of Southern people; and how many changes has it seen
from those wild, stirring and heated scenes that took place
onthe raising of the flag until the time when force decreed
the banner should be forever laid aside.
P Furl that banner!   True 'tis gory,
But 'tis wreathed around with glory,
And 'twill live in song and story,
Though its folds are in the dust;
For its fame on brightest pages,
Penned by poets and by sages,
Shall go sounding down the ages,—
Furl its folds, for now we must."
Again a few hours' run, and we arrive at the flourishing
Gate City in Georgia, which, in spite of the havoc made by From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
11
war, is now fast rivalling New England with its manufactures and industries. Eemaining over at the Kimball house,
we took advantage of the opportunity to hear that sensational preacher, Talmage, who was to lecture in the evening.
Although having heard him on several former occasions in
Brooklyn, both on his Chinese Question, the Night Side of
New York, &c, the idea was formed that he would be both
liberal and eloquent, but his lecture proved very tame and
uninteresting, until his final peroration of his prayer,
winding up as follows : i Oh Lord, when in that day we
all assemble before thee, may each of these Georgians wear
upon his head a crown of glory, and hold in his right hand
a star.7' " That's taffy," said an old farmer close by, | to give
these goober grabblers a little crown for a cent is all right
if it fits well, but, fancy, a man must have a hand like the
hand of Providence, and a back like the back of Atlas to
support the smallest star in the orrory. I reckon they
would soon be sick of toting that star around."
Hurrying on we reach Chattanooga, the Mountain City
of Tennessee, and there were treated to an unusual sight
for a citizen of the sunny South. A first-class snow
storm was in progress, and the mountains surrounding the city were covered with the fleecy white crystals.
Lookout Mountain looked especially grand and majestic,
clothed in her winter drapery, but the transition from
summer to winter was so short, twelve hours only,
that it seemed hardly realistic, and, but for the sensation of cold experienced, we could hardly reconcile
ourselves to the fact.
From Chattanooga we were fortunate enough to
embark on the first passenger train on the New Cincinnati Southern Eailroad, at that time under the manage- 12
Canada and the Canadians;
ment of Mr. T. C. Gabbitt. The road runs through
some of the wildest scenery in America, and is certainly
one of the triumphs of engineering science. Its construction has cost the City of Cincinnati alone some $13,000,000.
The High Bridge over the Cumberland Eiver is said to be
the highest trestle in the world, being over 160 feet above
the bed of the river, and certainly demonstrates to what
perfection iron bridge building can be brought, for in crossing the feeling of the traveller is that he is gliding through
mid-air, and is really without " visible means of support."
It was stated that should the passenger drop a rock or
piece of coal, whilst the cars were in the centre of the
Bridge, the train would arrive at the other side before the
missile struck the water. Of course there were plenty of
experimenters, but results were unsatisfactory.
Arriving at Lexington, the Capital of Kentucky, sampling
the white wine of the country, its famous sour mash, it was
but a short trip to the 1 Falls City," Louisville, prettily
situated on the banks of the Ohio, about 120 miles southwest from Cincinnati, thence through the fertile States of
Indiana and Illinois, to the future great metropolis of the
West, St. Louis. This city lies inN. lat. 28° 37', and long,
west (from Greenwich) 90° 16'; distant from New York City
1,050 miles. Is the chief port and business centre of the
State of Missouri, which State lies between 30° and 40°
30' N. lat. and 11° 45' and 18° 50' W. long, (from Washington), and is most prolific in its production of woods and
minerals, lead, iron, copper and coal mines being actively worked, and contributing much to the wealth of the
State. The taxable property alone, not including the City of
St. Louis, is estimated at $500,000,000, and the yield of
wheat some $45,000,000 bushels.    Its elevation above From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
13
tide water is 461 feet. Frosts commence about the middle
of November and continue until March, giving some 115
days of cold for a winter; its summers are short and hot.
In 1775 the city was a mere fur-trading post, with but 800
inhabitants; in 1817 it had increased to 5000. In 1850 it
contained 40,000 inhabitants, but now is a busy hive of
human industry, and numbers over 500,000 people. Its
commerce is great and. constantly increasing, the trade of
the Mississippi and Missouri centering at its port, whilst no
less than eighteen trunk lines centre in the city. Its industries are both staple and enterprising, whilst its public
buildings and parks command the admiration of the entire
western people. Lafayette Park and Smith's Garden, the
latter owned by an English resident, rivals some of the
boasted parks and gardens of the South of England. The
bridge across the Mississippi Eiver connecting the States
of Missouri and Illinois was erected by Capt. James Eads
of Mississippi Jetty fame in the South, and is a most
substantial structure. The cost of the building in all, with
the approaches on either side, amounted to some $ 1,350,-
000, and for the privilege of crossing in the cars passengers
are taxed 25c. in addition to the ordinary railroad fare.
The taxable property of the city in 1879 was $132,785,-
450, although it has considerably increased since then.
Breweries, both lager and beer, are numerous, Anheauser
alone having an establishment that would compare favorably with Bass or Allsopp; whilst the American Wine Company, for the manufacture of "Cook's Imperial" Champagne, possess cellars that would be creditable to Mumm of
Eeims, or Cliquot of Epernay. Under the guidance of the
genial secretary, who is untiring in his efforts to please
and entertain his visitors, we wandered through their fine 14
Canada and the Canadians;
vaults or cellars, where the manufacture of champagne is
carried on, and, as the process may be interesting to the
reader, I will attempt to describe it. These vaults, which
are claimed to be the largest in the United States, occupy
Bridge at St. Louis.
the entire space between Cass and Garrison avenues, and
are divided underground into various departments, in the
first of which we see the large casks of this season's juice
as it comes from the grape press, the wines from each district being kept separate. Then we notice the large vats
in which the wines from Ohio and those from Southern
Missouri and other favored localities are blended. The
wine is then racked off into bottles, well corked and
arranged with their necks downwards in rows on pupitres From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
IE
or stands, where they undergo for several months the
moving process in order to settle all the sediment from the
wine on the cork. After viewing the labyrinth of underground vaults, filled with thousands of bottles of wine
admirably binned, we return once more to the light of day,
passing through walls of barrels of last year's vintage,
still in the wood. We then pass on to the finishing room ;
here we find, seated in a row, each before his special
machine, skilled workmen ready to give the last touch to
the bottle before it passes into the hands of the consumer.
Workman No. 1, called a dfyorger, had to practically
solve the difficulty of expelling from the bottle the
accumulated impurities lying on the cork, and forced
into that position by the skill and watchfulness of
the movers or remeurs; this he accomplishes by a
skilful withdrawal of the cork, when the force of the
explosion forced out, with a wonderfully small loss
of wine and gas, the obnoxious deposit. This done
the bottle is passed on to workman No. 2, who proceeds
to infuse into the wine a small but fixed percentage of a
luscious nectar, technically called a liqueur, the quantity
being determined according to the taste of the-market, thus
solving the mystery of " Dry " or " Sweet" Champagne.
Workman No. 3 then proceeds to replace with a new cork
the bouction de service, powerful machinery compressing
the yielding wood, and inserting into the narrow neck of
the bottle a cork that appears quite out of proportion to
the duty required. Workman No. 4 is the stringer who skillfully adjusts the twine, making, by physical force, the cork
assume the mushroom appearance with which we are alls.o
familiar. No. 5 then wires the bottle. No. 6 then deftly
adjusts the gold or silver leaf; and to No. 7 belongs the duty 16
Canada and the Canadians;
.   ;
of affixing the label or brand of the firm, thus completing
the work, and leaving the bottles ready for the packing
room, prior to exportation for champagne drinkers found the
wide world over. In New York city the manufacturer? do
not go to all that trouble; they merely procure Jersey
cider, condemned wine and sulphuric acid, sweeten it, and
charge it with carbonic acid gas like a bottle of soda water,
label the bottle, and place it on the market, thus saving
both time and expense, and materially assisting the spirit
merchants in their sales of brandy to relieve the pains
consequent on the absorption of a bottle of New York
champagne. Other wines, such as Catawba, Virginia Seedling, Concord and Clarets, the native wines of the west, are
stored in immense quantities awaiting a market.
From St. Louis, stopping but at Springfield, Illinois, to
pay our respects at the shrine of the martyred president,
Abraham Lincoln, and to meet the jovial, good-natured
ex-Governor, J. M. Palmer, and to wish him success at the
nomination in Cincinnati, for which the Palmer Club
and his friends throughout the country were actively
working, a twelve hours run across the fertile prairies
of the State of Illinois brings us to that energetic, prosperous and bustling city, the grain emporium of the world,
Chicago. The city claims 137,616 more in population
than St. Louis, but the latter city most strenuously denies
the claim, and offers to prove in every way imaginable her
own supremacy in the matter of population. It is stated
that such interest is taken by the people in this matter
that the sight of an emigrant train with women and
children bound through to St. Louis is enough to make a
Chicago man turn green with envy. The site of the present
city was located first in 1804, and a fort called Fort Dear- From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
17
born erected, afterwards destroyed in 1856. The city
was incorporated in the year 1837, with a population of a
little more than 4,000. From that time onward its growth
was marvelous, until checked by the terrible fire which
Chicago from the Lake.
occurred in October, 1871, occasioning a loss of property estimated at 8190,000,000, destroying-17,450 buildings, rendering homeless 98,500 persons, and leaving a death record
of over 200.   During this terrible calamity the sympathies
of the entire civilized world were aroused, and contributions
2 18
Canada and the Canadians;
and supplies were forwarded to the stricken city from all
parts of the earth. Two years afterwards, in 1874, another
fire, although not so disastrous in its results, occurred, but
to-day all trace of ruin is obliterated, and the city itself
stands forth, a monument of men's pride and energy.   Being
• Ltkcoln Park:, Chicago.
located at the mouth of the Chicago and Calumet rivers, and
on the Western shore of Lake Michigan; its situation as a
lake port is unrivalled: during the past year the clearances
from Chicago alone have been more than any three ports
in the United States, New York City included. South Park, From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 19
Lincoln Park, and Haverly's aro its chief recreation
grounds; some forty-five Eailroad lines centre in the city, and
its stock-yards and pens, for the shipment of cattle, cover
Calumet Uiveu, Chicago.
146 acres. Being the metropolitan centre of trade for the
west, business agencies, commercial agencies, Eastern
branches, etc., etc., are to be met with in any number ; some 20
Canada and the Canadians;
of these business 'agencies profess to protect the business
man in his credits, etc., informing him whom to trust and
whom to refuse. A young pushing representative of a close-
fisted firm, on his return from a business-trip is sometimes
confronted with such a report as, "he's seemingly at work
all the time, but he spends a good deal on the road." Of
course the employer has the edge on that young man, and
he is set back a year or so. A salesman for one of these
agencies enters a business office, and a colloquy such as
follows occurs:" Are you Mr. Jacques B. Scooter ?" he asks,
" I am," is the reply. " Then I would like you to subscribe
to the Agency reports of Messrs. Slyman, Skinem & Doem;
the cost is but one hundred dollars each year, entitling to two
volumes and weekly reports, whilst for $25 more you can
have a traveller's letter of introduction to our agencies, so as
to obtain our latest reports of the men, their habits and
standing, with whom you come in contact. You see we
furnish information to our subscribers, but of course we
only give it in homoeopathic doses, like justice to a workman in Quebec, especially so if the one enquired about is
a city subscriber of ours. You being a newly established
firm, I've called also to give you a rating, and improve your
credit, also to inform myself if you are the J. B. Scooter,
late president and treasurer of the Golden Bubble Mining
Company, as we have an enquiry from a party East who
invested somewhat heavily in the stock." " Oh yes," replies
the party accosted, " I have heard of your business proclivities, here's $50 for yourself, and you can put our office
down for four of your volumes, and, by the way, just let
those anxious enquirers know that J. B. Scooter, formerly
of Silver Cliff, went into the cattle export business, and was
lost at sea."   | Oh, certainly," was the reply, and the way From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
21
that agent classed the office as A A X X 1 wasn't slow.
The scene changes to Dutch Pete's, where two enterprising
citizens are seen quaffing their beer, and concocting a new
lay, for the benefit of the fraternity and themselves in
particular. " Well, how goes it ?" queries Sam. I Bully, you
bet," is the answer; " you see I guyed the gillie up to the
agencies, and I slung him a half a century, and he give it
all away; the cashier (the masher) of Grab & Dodgeout,
the contractors, is going up to pay off the hands to-morrow.
Well his nibs and me got acquainted and I slung the lush
around pretty lively; so I put Lady Liz and Parson Joe,
for the Pullman, and if they don't stagg, Miner Sam and
Manitoba Megs will meet him at St. Paul, then if he don't
come down, they'll slug him A century each to the 2 D's that
work that end of the road will fix the biz, so I say, fill em
up agin, and long life to the Agency men!"
Still hurrying onward, twelve hours from Chicago, and
we reach the thriving city of the Straits, Detroit, the river
alone separating the State of Michigan from the domain of
her Imperial Majesty, Queen Victoria. It is probably at
this point the visitor first notices the wide difference
between the enterprise of the Americans, and the seeming
apathy of the Canadians. Although Windsor was the
terminus for many years of the Great Western Eailroad
and the nearest town to the Western States, still enterprise
seems dead, and the ennui of the people so pronounced
that they seem disinclined to make any exertion in their
own behalf or for the advancement of the town they live
in; there, however, is some reason for this : the younger
people all cast a longing eye towards Uncle Sam's possessions, and hope to some day explore for themselves the
wonders that are so freely talked about on the return of. 22
Canada and the Canadians;
;■
those who have visited the States and settled there—for of
the numbers who yearly visit their relatives, but few ever
express a desire to return to live, whilst the older people
don't care, so long as they have enough for the time being,
for, as one old gentleman remarked : " What is the use of
1 the Dominion Government expending vast sums of money
I for emigration if we can't keep either the laborers or
" domestics over here ; and it is my belief that Canada is
" just becoming a recruiting ground for the United States,
" and will eventually become annexed to that country,
" for emigrants discern the difference between fair
I speeches and champagne in Europe, and hard labor and
" poverty here." Still visitors and the public generally, on
arriving at the terminus, as it were, of Uncle Sam's domains,
naturally cross over, expecting to know something of the
habits and peculiarities of their neighbors on the Northern
boundary, so numbers of them sojourn at Windsor, or even
into the interior of the Province. Although, to a certain
extent, there are symptoms of a business rivalry and
jealousy between the City of Detroit and the Town of
Windsor, still for comfort, cleanliness and a genuine attention to the wants of its guests, the Crawford House, under
the management of Mr. C. C. Green, stands pre-eminent,
whilst the courtesy of its clerks, Messrs. A. C. Walters
and Kilburn Pierce, assist materially in establishing a name
and reputation for the hostelry at Windsor equal to any
in the Provinces. Constant communication is kept up by an
admirably conducted ferry service, the steamers are com-
T&odious, the employees attentive, such a contrast to the
Suspension Bridge', Prescott, or the river towns below! For
a time the idea was prevalent that the Wabash would
^purchase ethe Great Western road, but that enterprising From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
23
corporation now having perfected their arrangements
constitute a trunk line from Boston, New York and the
cities of the East to Chicago, draining as they pass through
Canada a good proportion of the trade of the Province of
Soldier's Momttment, Detroit.
Ontario, which Province, at the last census, numbered some
1,913,460 inhabitants.
Crossing once more to Detroit, which in the year
1845 contained a population of but 10,948, but at the
present time numbers some 132,720 persons, the taxable
property  of the  city alone amounts  to $5,859,488.25. 24
Canada and the Canadians;
We wander through its spacious thoroughfares, admiring its public buildings, paying a visit to its excellent Free
library, which deserves more than a passing notice, being
not only a popular public educator but the finest institution of its kind in the West. The Library was founded
through legislative enactment more than forty-five years
ago granting a proportion of the fines of the criminal
courts throughout the State for the erection and support of
libraries in each district. These fines falling off so rapidly
owing to the diminishing number of criminals, the Legisla- -
ture levied a special library tax of 1-5 of a mill on the
dollar. The cost of the edifice was $137,000 ; it contains
43,000 volumes exclusive of pamphlets, has a free
membership without fee or subscription, and is well patronized by the working and mercantile class. Under the
superintendence of Mr. Henry Gilman, the library has
become a model of neatness and order; it is pointed to
with pride by the residents, and is quoted as worthy of
being patterned after by other institutions of its class.
It seems hardly possible that the people across the
river could knowingly have allowed such an opportunity
of building a western terminus to slip through their
fingers, but the fact is apparent to each visitor. Of course
we called at the Free Press office, occupying Em Quad's
time, and viewing the notable and heterogeneous collection of curiosities, his ghastly relics of the battlefield
and the numerous presents sent from all parts of the
universe by admiring friends to Brother Gardner, the
worthy president of the Lime Kiln Club. Some little
chat with Signor Max on human nature, and then of
course "Bijah" was visited. Although the old man is
tolerably well advanced in years, and since his episode
WuL From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 25
with the widow, care has been actively engaged in ploughing furrows, but he has been promoted from the Central
Station to one nearer the outskirts of the city, affording a
better view of the eountry and a purer and clearer atmosphere, still he carries his years and his troubles with grace
and unostentation. Being of a kindly and good-natured
disposition he bears the infliction of numerous callers
without outward manifestation of pain, and about the only
thing that really " riles " the old man is when a visitor,
who happens to have travelled a few thousand miles,
solemnly asseverates that he undertook the pilgrimage to
silently weep and piously gaze on the old man's feet, then
the thunder cloud darkens on Bijah's classic brow, and visitors know the levde for the day is over, so they quietly
pass out, indulging in feelings of pity for the next unfortunate who takes refuge until morning at the station.
Whilst noticing the enterprise of the public journals, and
the persistency with which each resident seems to advocate and advance the interests of this model cky, it should.
be stated that Mr.. Silas Farmer, an old resident of the
State, and thoroughly familiar with its growth, has for the
past seven years been actively engaged in gathering material for his forthcoming work on the " History of Detroit."
The work is most thorough and complete, embracing
almost every incident of moment, from the earliest settlement of the post until the present time, with maps, illustrations and charts, depicting the changes under the
French, the English, and American Eegime. Mr. Farmer
has almost made his history a life work, and looks forward with confidence to its being read with interest in
every land where the fair name of Detroit has established
a reputation amongst its people.    Mr. Lewis has also been  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
27
collecting data, and will publish a history of the war, and
from the numerous enquiries and encouragements it bids
fair to become the most popular as well as most truthful
of any work on that subject.
Taking the night boat " City of Detroit," we enjoy a
pleasant two hours sail down the river before entering Lake
Erie, then turning in enjoy an excellent night's rest whilst
making the run of 110 miles to Cleveland, a city of some
60,000 inhabitants, and situated on the Southern shore
of Lake Erie, arriving in time for an early breakfast at
the Kennard, under the proprietorship of D> McClasky.
This city being a central point for shipment its business is
large. The city is well laid out and pleasantly situated,
whilst at night its leading thoroughfares and square are
lighted by the electric light.
Taking the cars of the A. & G. W. E. E. we arrive at
Buffalo, the Lake outlet of the Erie and New York Central
railways. A twenty-two mile run further on brings us to the
famous Falls of Niagara, but, after crossing the Suspension
bridge, we conclude to stop at one of the fine hotels, so
numerous on the American side.
Whilst at the Spencer House, it was my good fortune to
become acquainted with Sir Arthur Kennedy, who, with
his amiable daughter and attendants, were doing the Falls
en route from Australia to London. Sir Arthur, who was
the Governor General of Queensland, has been an official
in Her Majesty's service some thirty-eight years, and was
now on his return to his native country. I found him a
studious and close observer of human nature, agreeable,
and a perfect fund of information and anecdote. His satire
on the selfishness of Canadian politicians and its grasping
capitalists was certainly pungent and pointed. 28
Canada and the Canadians ;
The contrast between the magnificent hotels on the
American side, their reasonable charges for the accommodation offered, and the charges on the opposite is most
marked. The hotels on the Canada side affording a good
view of the Falls are few in number, and comprise the
" Table Eock," I Prospect House," j Clifton House," which
of late years has been generally run by speculators, the
" Brunswick," and possibly another. The following, published in the last edition for the information of intending
visitors, is a correct copy of a one day's board bill on the
Canada side :
Eoom 115,
Mr.	
■1880.
— Dr.
Board 1 Dy., Lodg., Bkft. & Din 7.00
Dinner claret, $1.50; Extras, $1.15...$2.65
Bus 1 way, 50c.; 1 way, 25c  75
$10.40
But when the mild-eyed visitor expostulated, and
informed the clerk that he but arrived at 5 o'clock a.m.
and would be away again by 5 o'clock p.m., too early for
either tea or supper, he was assured by that white-bosomed,
diamond-pinned gentleman, " that it was all right;" the
charges were all the same, whether meals were taken or
not, and, as a matter of great condescension, the visitor was
confidently informed that the next time he came to the
hotel they would give him supper free of all charge, which
promise could with safety be made, knowing well that the
visitor seldom returns a second time during the season.
The charges are ordinary ones for every-day guests on
other occasions; extraordinary charges 'are fully equal to
the demands, for the average pile of the stranger is well
cauged.    No wonder that people generally no longer sigh From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 29
to " do " the beauties of Niagara for the summer, for the
only way to travel would be the Kaintuckians : pay the
bill but kill the clerk, and so check high-handed despotism
for the future.
Niagara Falls, once so noted and welTpatronized has, it
seems, of late years, fallen into disrepute with the summer
travellers, and the cause is still left unexplained, although
numerous theories are advanced; whether it originates
from the grasping propensities of the hotel proprietors, or
whether it is a natural consequence of the scarcity of really
good views without large payments is one of the facts for
the public themselves to determine; or, possibly the
younger generation have an idea that it may become international property and become a Park-like rendezvous for
the citizens of both countries and the sights enjoyed without expense. A New Yorker, quoting his visit, says:
" The first impression of the traveller arriving at Niagara
is profound astonishment, that so many distinct and separate sights with corresponding fees could have been found
in any one place. As far as discovered up to the time of
writing, they are as follows :
Goat Island f.    $0.50
Cave of the Winds      1.00
$1.50
Prospect Park, Admission  $0.25
"Art Gallery"  25
Inclined Eailway  25
Ferry to Canada  25
Shadow of the Eock  1.00
$2.00 30 Canada and the Canadians ;
To go behind Horse Shoe Fall v.  1.00
Museum  50
Burning Spring ;  50
Lundy's Lane Battle Ground  50
Whirlpool Eapids  50
Whirlpool  50
To walk across Suspension Bridge  25
Eailway Suspension Bridge  25
$7.50
Besides these fees there are, for the lovers df old English
customs, two toll gates on the Canada side, which the
traveller, of course, pays in addition to his $1.50 per hour,-
the legal rate for the hire of a hack; but that patronage
has fallen off most lamentably of late is a fact well attested,
although I was assured by one searcher after truth, a
theological student, that a great sensation would be produced next season, that would once more awaken an
interest in the Falls, for the leading inhabitants had subscribed to a fund for bringing scientific men to visit in a
body, and as for sometime past carters and others have
been actively engaged in dumping rock, both in the waters
above and below, it will soon be scientifically demonstrated
to a confiding public, and the figures accurately given, to
prove how fast far-famed Niagara is receding towards
Buffalo, and the sight of the immense pile of rock dumped
from one end of Goat Island will be ample proof to demonstrate the astonishing foresight of the learned gentleman.
The effect at night when the rays of the vari-colored
electric light are cast over the Falls from the Park is one
of striking beauty, and makes up in a measure for some of
the many disappointments experienced, whilst the quietude From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
31
of the surroundings and the solemnity of the mighty rush
of waters leads to earnest and devout contemplation of
the wonderful and terrible in nature. A walk across the
New Suspension Bridge, almost in the midst of the vapor
arising from the Horseshoe, and a ramble along the Niagara Eiver to Clifton, two miles below, is really delightful
and pleasant.
The village of Clifton was formally the Eastern terminus
of the G. W. E. of Canada, but it now crosses the Suspension Bridge and connects with the New York Central Eailway, thus forming a continuous route East to New York
and the New England seaboard. This village, together with
the village of Suspension Bridge on ihe United States side,
and the Falls on both sides of the line, are the location of
the Custom House Officers, who are naturally very vigi-
Tant in the prosecution of their duty in the interests of
their respective Governments. But the locality is also the
stamping ground of a class of men known as " dogs," or in
other words detective or agency informers, men who are
banded together, with their signs, counters, etc., and who
make money by various questionable ways and devices,
and who are aided in part by their patrons, even so far, it
is stated, that a portion of Government funds go to support these " thugs " or informers, whereas it is this class
of men who should be well looked after by the Governments on both sides of the line, for instead of detection
becoming a preventative, it rapidly becomes the nursery of
crime and the shield of criminals. Among this class, to
" put up a job on a man " is considered quite an achiev-
ment, and a matter worthy of emulation. No sooner does
a visitor arrive at one of the numerous hotels than he is
" spotted," and should he be at all convivial in his habits, 32
Canada and the Canadians,;
then the word is passed to the " gang," and he is followed,
dogged and crowded, until out of sheer desperation he
pays something to escape the trap he finds laid. Should he
cross the bridge and be suspected of having money, then
the word is passed along the line and over the borders,
and the " dogs let loose," and the manner in which these
" dogs give themselves away " is certainly ludicrous to
the subject if he has sense enough to penetrate their mean-
And,
therefore, if we drift through life in the midst
of secrets, and are encompassed with mysteries, an observing mind knows to a certain extent what is taking place
in the atmosphere that surrounds us, and the relation it
has with our minds is to assist in more fully developing
the feeling of distrust and suspicion.
Seeing a gentleman spend a little money on the American side, and then crossing apparently without baggage, is
enough and he is "spotted." Taking the cars he will
generally find himself followed by three strangers: the
apparently laboring man, with a bottle and empty valise,
the fresh-water sailor and tho shabby genteel. These three
worthies range themselves on either side, and as near as possible to the stranger, and then commences the system. After
several ineffectual attempts to enter into conversation, they
commence an interchange of words, apparently between
themselves, but talking at the stranger, such as, " Is he
good "—" Wife," always disjointed fragments, the key to
which is m their own possession—I played "—" Emigrant"
—I Did he stop first floor "—" Cully, he's a slouch "—" work
him "—" DaTesn't cross "—" Straight"—" Cash"—"See him
with taffy." Then should the stranger,thinking he was in with
| a hard crowd," or had fallen into bad hands, attempt to
conciliate " the
then, indeed, is he to he pitied, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
33
for no sooner does one withdraw than he telegraphs the
word that "a soft snap is on board," and almost at the
next station he meets another crowd, well posted, so that, if
rascals are inclined to cross the line they had better confess
before leaving, and not defer until after being harassed like
the Western defaulter, who originally appropriated $500,
was followed by two Chicago detectives, and disgorged
$400 to them as the price of his liberty; was almost immediately assailed by another, to whom he parted with $300;
but when the third commenced his attack out of sheer despondency he went back, confessed his fault, and chose rather
to go to prison than to be so hounded. It may possibly
work very well in the case of criminals from justice; but
when each passenger or traveller is given to understand
that he is suspected of being nothing but a thief or a
rascal, with the only honest men §?) those watching him,
then it is about time that some reform along the borders
was indulged in, even should it result in annexation itself
to either country. At the hotels in some of the border
■towns these parties will parade before the door, or scrape
a casual acquaintance at the bar, or on the street, and
with one hand behind them inform the suspect that
I possession is nine points of the law," " and they are for
sale." It is from this class that Guarantee Societies, detectives and agencies obtain their information as to men and
character, that sometimes results in the blighting or
tarnishing of a young man's name or prospects for life,
and on which testimony, as a chief remarked on oath at
trial, that he was prepared to go on the witness stand
and swear that such information gathered was the truth,
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help him
God !    Is an oath taken by such a class of men worth the ■MHmrn
34
Canada and the Canadians;
time spent in subscribing to it ? Or is the poor victim
convicted on such obtained testimony entitled to any pity
or sympathy from the public at large ? Is not every man
who is thought to possess a dollar liable to become a
victim of the avarice, cupidity, or even spite, of such people.
At the bar should they be treated sociably then there is
every probability of being "railroaded," but should no
notice be taken, and they, smarting under the mistaken
impression formed regarding the stranger, then loud and
pointed talk is indulged in, and remarks such as : " He'll pay
for giving the boys this racket," " you bet this excursion's
charged; " and, finally, when the fact was discovered that
the stranger was a business man, it was then, " Can we
sell him ?" " we can't drive him," and when the answer
came. " Oh, he's too strong," the resolve was "then let's
give him away," and when these self-constructed guardians
of a man's honesty think it necessary or advisable to take
away his character, they try to do it and " no mistake." Now to I give a ' man away" in their parlance
means to ruin his prospects, or to denounce him; so the
disappointed " thugs " hurry off to some of their friends,
and enlist the aid of such as reside in the town, who commence at once to convince ell that he aint no use to any
body, and these gentry with their hangers-on, both male
and female, follow the business man from store to store,
generally one entering with the stranger, the others carrying on an animated conversation at the doorway, passing
such comments as " He's a bad un," " You bet." " He's
caused a good deal of trouble, but he'll be fixed," " they
got him this time," with other inferences of like nature
so that, if the stranger even stands the pressure, he finds
that,  by the time he is ready to leave town, he has From the A tlantic to the Pacific.
35
acquired quite an unsavory character at the hands of theso
gentry.
Now is it not fully time that either or both Governments
should institute some enquiry into the actions of such a
class of men as these, who both are perpetrators and
protectors of crime, and assume the charge of all citizens
who may come within their ban. The Government Secret
Service, for the support of which, with the Dominion and
North-West mounted police, the people annually pay some
$355,945.35, may be well enough, and, under the control
of Chief John O'Neil, is most creditably managed, but the
fostering of this so-called system of private detection is
bringing odium on the citizens of both borders; and were
I a juryman, and the evidence alone to consist of the
testimony of these sellers of men, then I for one would
never convict.
Seven miles below, on the American side, is Lewiston,
opposite which is Queenston, on whose heights is erected
I Brock's Monument," commemorative of the early struggle
for independence. Thence across the lower river to the
village of Niagara, some sixteen miles below, and on the
borders of Lake Ontario. This town is one of the oldest in
the Province of Ontario, and was in former days the seat
of Government. Here we found rest and quietness, good
fishing—-both black bass, herring and white fish in abundance—quiet, and seemingly contented, people, and moderate
charges, a consummation most devoutly desired by all
summer travellers. And were'tourists aware of the many
advantages that are offered by this almost forgotten little
town, of the pleasant sights and trips on the lake that
can be indulged in, and the real enjoyment obtained
from  a  short stay,  visitors'- would flock here in thou- 36
Canada and the Canadians;
sands, instead of passing by almost without a notice.
But to enjoy a week's rest, and to catch the fish
yourself for meals, and find them served on the hotel
table, piping hot, thirty, minutes after they have left the
water, is an experience worth miles of travel. The town,
although so near the great highways of travel, is completely
isolated, but still containing several good hotels a conservative class of patrons annually resort here. The " Queen's
Eoyal," owned by the Queen's of Toronto, is an elegant
hostelry, and during the season is well filled. Business—
the little that is attempted—follows the same routine from
year to year; no energy is evinced, and consequently no
desire for improvements. Here the lone fisherman is
found in his primitive state, and even the bustling business man after a short residence generally busies^ himself
by endeavoring to forget his worldly education and enjoy
the universal quiet of the surroundings.
Opposite to the ruins of old Fort George and on the
American side, some seven miles below Lewiston, stands
Fort Niagara, silent, grim and sentinel-like, to guard the
entrance to the river in the interests of Uncle Sam. It is
stated that a Frenchman, one M. De Salle, enclosed the
spot with palisades in the year 1679? aud a fort was
erected in 1725, which was taken by the British in
1759, and they held possession until the year 1796, when
it was evacuated and given up to the United States.
But on the 19th December, 1814, it was again
taken by the British, who held it until March, 1815,
when it was finally surrendered to the Americans.
The fort is very strong, being of regular construction,
and mounting many guns, with stone towers at the west,
south-west   and  south  angles,  and   is  now under the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
37
command of Capt. J. L. Tiernan, who has seen such
active service on the plains and in the far west, and who at
present is resting on his laurels in peace and quietness,
which must contrast strongly with his lately adventurous
life, but who in time of danger would be probably wider
awake than to allow such a sacrifice of life as that permitted
by Capt. Leonard, whose command were mercilessly butchered in December, 1814, by the Christian soldiers of a
Christian king. The attack by the British on the night of
December 19th, 1814, is thus chronicled: | The attacking
force comprised the 100th Eegiment, the Grenadiers, companies of the first and the flank companies of the 41st, with
some artillerymen, the whole under the command of Col.
Murray of the 100th. Bateaux having been secretly conveyed overland from Burlington Beach to a point about four
miles up the British side of the river, the troops silently
left camp about ten o'clock at night, concealed their march
under cover of the adjacent woods, embarked without
noise, and landed undiscovered on the opposite side, whence
they descended cautiously towards the fort. At that time
Youngston, a village about two miles from the fort, served
as an outpost, and was garrisoned by a small detachment
from the fort. The attacking party thought it necessary
to surprise this outpost without alarming the main body;
so a picked number were sent in advance, followed closely
by the remainder of the attacking party. When they
arrived in Youngston, some of the former crept up stealthily
to the window and peeped in; they saw a party of officers
engaged at cards. ' What are trumps 2' asked one of the
Americans. ' Bayonets are trumps,' answered one of the.
peepers, breaking the window and entering with his companions, whilst the remainder of the detachment surround- 38
Canada and the Canadians;
ing the house rushed into it, and bayoneted the whole of its
defenseless inmates, that none might escape to alarm the
fort. Not a shot was fired on either side, the sentries having
retired into the building to shelter themselves from the
extreme cold, giving them no time for resistance, and therefore allowing their assailants to finish their work of human
destruction in grim silence. Eesuming their march the
attacking party drew near the fort, not a word was spoken,
the muskets carried squarely so the bayonets may not
clash; the ice and crusted snow crackled beneath their tread,
but the sound was borne backward on the gusts of a northeast wind, when suddenly the charger of Col. Hamilton
neighed loudly, and was answered by a horse in a stable
not far off from the front gate. The force instantly halted,
expecting to hear an alarm suddenly given, and the sound
of drums and bugles, and of the garrison rushing to their
posts, but all remained quiet; the sentries, crouching in
their boxes, take the neigh of the charger for that of some
horse strayed from its farm house, or from some neighboring
hamlet, and they felt no inclination to shiveringly explore
the thick darkness of a moonless, wintry night. The
approaching force, finding all was still, put itself in motion,
went hastily and silently forward, and the crisis was near.
The ' forlorn hope' was commanded by Lieut. Dawson
and led by Sergeant Spearman. Halting about twenty-five
yards from the gate, the Sergeant strode onward, and strange
to say found the wicket open. The sentry, hearing some
• one approach, issued from his box and asked, • Who comes
there ?' Spearman answered, at the same time introducing
:his shoulder through the half-opened wicket, * I guess, Mr.,
I come from Youngston.' The sentry, perceiving from his
j accoutrements and actions that he is an enemy, turned in-
\\ From the Atlantic to the Pacific*
39
wards, exclaiming, j The Brit—' the poor fellow said no
more, Spearman's bayonet was in his side. The Sergeant then
called the * forlorn hope,' which swiftly entered, followed
by the column; the light company of the 100th made a rapid
circuit, and escaladed, and the whole attacking force in a
moment were inside the fort. Once inside they uttered a
terrific yell which roused the sleeping garrison and occasioned a slight show of resistance. Lieut. Nolan of the 100th,
a man of great personal strength, rushed into the lower part
of the tower in order to bayonet the slumbering inmates.
Next morning his body was found, the breast pierced by a
deep bayonet wound, at the bottom of which were a musket
ball and three buckshot; but he had taken the lives of three
sleepers before he was stopped. One American lay at his
feet whom he had killed by a pistol shot, whilst the cloven
skulls of two others attested his strength and the rapidity
of his actions. Some of his men followed him and took the
tower, slaying its defenders to a man, and so brutalized
were the victors that they rushed wildly into every building, bayoneting every American they met. In half an hour
the fort was captured, and the blood-glutted victors sought
to drown their excitement in drink and sleep. The short contest cost the British, Lieut. Nolan and five men killed, and
two officers and three men wounded. The Americans lost
65 men, and two officers killed and twelve men wounded.
Thus fell Fort Niagara, and with such unexpected facility
as gave rise to the report that treason had contributed to
its capture, and it was charged that Capt'. Leonard had
betrayed it by giving to the British all the necessary information and countersigns. It was also known that a large
6um in specie was in the fort at the time of its capture,.and
it was openly charged, and ever afterwards believed, that 40
Canada and the Canadians;
some of the officers had embezzled the specie, and their
increased expenditures justified the accusation. No enquiry,
however, was made by the British, and the prize money
which had been expected to be large was disappointingly
small.
The old fort is also noted for being the theatre of crime
and tyranny as well as for military exploits, During the
time it was in the possession of the French its use was
that of a prison, and for many years afterwards in its dark
and dreary dungeons, where light was not admitted, ample
proofs remained of the instruments used for torture, exe?
cution or for murder. During the war of Independence
it was often quoted and dreaded as being theh eadquarters
of all that was barbarous, unrelenting and cruel, it being
the rendezvous for assembly of those savage hordes who
carried death and destruction into peaceful and far-off
American settlements ; and even after peace was proclaimed
the old fort still held its reputation for enacting scenes of
tyranny and murder; and the abduction of William Morgan,
who was supposed to have been lodged in its magazine,
kept there three or four days and then inhumanly drowned,
once more awoke public interest in the old fort." On the
shoals near the fort are most excellent fishing-grounds, and
the chief recreation of the summer visitor is to sail out to
the shoals, anchor the boat, and lazily read or dreamily
pass the long summer day away. In the evenings and on
Sundays of course other recreations are indulged in.
The people of Niagara are friendly, hospitable and entertaining in their way. A retired Scotch gentleman who had
resided here for the past four years, and with whom I had
become on intimate terms, after solemnly assuring me over
and over again that I was standing on historic and almost holy From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
41
ground, volunteered to show the sights,—so, after accepting
his kind offer, I accompanied him to the little church on
the rise, where he pointed with pride to the graves of seven
young men who were drowned whilst engaged in the
unholy sport of yachting on Sunday. After drawing conclusions, and pointing out the moral for my benefit, he then
proceeded to show the beauties of the battle-ground and
recount how many fell, indulging, meanwhile, in numerous
comments on the perversity of the people of those times,-
Seeing so many evidences of dissolution around me, and
the near approach to that somnambulant state by those
still in the flesh, we bid adieu to the peaceful little town
and a fourteen mile drive brought us to St. Catharines, but
twelve miles across country from the Suspension Bridge.
Here we see the spirit of enterprise, contrasting strongly with
the town just left,—all are agreed and are loud in their anticipations of the great benefits to be derived by enlarging and
making the Welland a ship canal, for the development of
direct trade from the West to Europe,each one be speaking
for this bustling little town a grand future, with increasing
prosperity for the country around about For some years
past the town has been quite a fashionable summer resort,
partly eaused by the celebrity of the curative properties
of their artesian wells and mineral springs, said to be most
successful in eases of rheumatism, etc. The hotels, the
Springbank, Stephenson and Welland — the latter managed
by a gentleman formerly of Eichmond, Va.— with the
Norton, are about the principal.
The canal connecting Lake Ontario with Lake Erie is
some 28 miles in length, was built to overcome the Falls of
Niagara, the fall between Erie and Ontario being some 330
feet, which is met by 27 locks, 150 feet in length and 27\ 1
BBS
■
IP
■
42
Canada and the Canadians;
feet wide, the building of which cost nearly $5,000,000,
or, in English money, £1,061,497.
The town is about 38 miles south of Toronto by water
and 32 from Hamilton by rail. Its population is 9,631.
It contains fine churches and private residences, with a
general and marine hospital, the convent of St. Joseph,
and several large manufactories, for which the town is preeminently adapted, having an inexhastible supply of water-
power. Shipbuilding is an industry, and several fine yards
are located here. The town has constant steam communication with the Upper Lakes, the United States, and Lower
Canada, the Merchants Line running regularly during the
season from Chicago to Montreal direct, and comprises the
handsome and commodious steamers, Prussia, Ocean, Celtic,
Cahfornia and Africa — as fine vessels of their class as
any that sail the lakes. Steamers of the line also run
between Cleveland, Ohio and Montreal, and have become
very popular with travellers, owing in part, no doubt, to
the enterprise of their Agent, Mr. H. G. Hunt, with
whom the public have been for years familiar, and who
recognize the genial smile with which he will book you
either for Montreal, Hades or Chicago, or, in fact, to any
railroad or steamship point known to the travelling world.
From St. Catharines it is but an hour's run by rail to
Hamilton, which city is located on Burlington Bay, in the
bight of Lake Ontario, at its south-western extremity.
Hamilton was first laid out in the year 1813, during the
American war for Independence, but in 1841 contained
but 3,446 inhabitants; during the next ten years its population had increased to 10,246. When the Great Western
Eailway commenced operations it lent a new impetus to From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
43
the growth of the city, for in 1856 its population numbered
some 25,000, since which time it has been steadily increasing, until at present it numbers 35,961, and its real
estate represents a value of some millions. The hotels
are good, the St. Nicholas, Eoyal and American being
the most prominent. The harbor is also the terminus of
the Mail Steamer line to Toronto, Kingston and other ports,
on both shores of the Lake, and down the St. Lawrence to
Montreal. Being the headquarters of the G. W. E. the
town is essentially a railroad one, and the citizens have much
to thank that enterprising corporation for the benefits
they have derived. The depot is a fine and commodious
one, in strong contrast to the G. T. station at Montreal.
Here also are located the principal offices and workshops
of the line, and at times, and on special occasions, the
amount of work transacted is something enormous ; but,
under the able management of F. Broughton, Chas. Stiff,
Wm. Edgar and others, the British owners rest quiet and
contented, knowing full well that competent men assume
the management, whilst the interests of the corporation and
themselves are fully looked after. The Great Western Eailway of Canada has become a favorite one with the travelling public, its passenger equipments are first-class in every
particular, whilst its road-bed and track is one of the best
on the American continent. Being the direct route between
the East and the West, via the Falls of Niagara, on its
system are all the principal cities and towns of Ontario,
which, with its connections through to Manitoba, make the
route one of the most desirable, as for speed,|comfort and
safety it cannot be surpassed. The road actively contends
with the Canada Southern and Grand Trunk for a considerable portion of the carrying-trade. 44
Canada and the Canadians ;
It was rather a curious fact to notice whilst in this city
the hold that Democracy has upon the people themselves :
for several days it had been announced that H. E. H.
Prince Leopold, the Princess Louise and suite, together
with the Governor General, would pass on their journey to
Niagara Falls, and a tour through a portion of the States ;
still when the train arrived at the depot scarce fifty persons
were assembled to pay their respects to Eoyalty, and the
few attended mostly from motives of curiosity alone. About
the only ones to greet the party were the railroad managers,
the American vice consul and. a few American citizens.
No enthusiasm was evinced ; not a cheer rent the air as a
welcome; silently the Eoyal party arrived, and as silently
departed, but the episode served to convince us more
thoroughly that the people do not so firmly pin their faith
on the Divine right of Princes as official sycophants
would have us believe. At the time there was a wordy war
progressing between the rich and poor on the subject of
the Scott Act, debarring the sale of beer, wines and spirits
in small quantities. The poor people look upon it as a
curtailment of their rights, and assert that, as they have
been brought to this artificial mode of life, they are only
following scriptural advice, and trying to " drink, and forget
their poverty and remember their misery no more." It
must be here added that when the voters were mustered,
the non-abstinence men came out ahead, re-echoing the
cry of Solomon the Wise, " to stay me with flagons and
comfort me with apple's (juice), for I am sick of love."
The city itself lies some half mile back from the station.
The people are an odd mixture of Yankee energy partially
developed and old-time tardiness, thus giving force to the
statement that the constant amalgamation of the races of
ii; From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
45
the old world would bring forth even in one generation
the inevitable Yankee, preserving the best and noblest
characteristics of all, and probably eliminating from them
their worst and evil habits. However, several enterprises
are established, and at present are. in a paying condition.
There is a large proportion of Scotch among the population,
and they seem to vie with each other in emulating
American ways. The city is a pleasant one, and the
people congenial and social, who look forward to renewed
prosperity in the near future.
Brighton and Burlington beaches, situated between the
bay and Lake Ontario, are the favorite resorts during the
summer.
From Hamilton a most delightful sail is by the steamer
I Southern Belle " or % Eothsea Castle," two of the old-
time blockade fleet, to Toronto, forty-miles distant. These
vessels during the American war achieved notoriety for
speed as blockade runners from Nassau, and still retain
somewhat of their old reputation.
Dundas, distant some five miles from Hamilton, is located on the slope of the hill, has fine water power and
numerous mills and factories, and occupies a fertile tract
of country. Being so close to Hamilton, and with constant
communication by rail and boat, no doubt at some future
time the one will be but the outer ward of the other.
Passing Harrisburg, merely a junction, we arrive at the
town of Brantford, containing some 10,000 inhabitants, and
named in honor of the noted Indian Chief of the Six Nations,
"Brant," who, with his tribe and allies, supported the
British during the American war; he was feared and
dreaded as being the most cruel and implacable Indian
foe  that Americans had to meet,  and in  ''Gertrude of 46
Canada and the Canadians;
Wyoming " he is thus alluded to, " The mammoth comes,
the fiend, the monster Brant," although later it has been
several times denied that he took part in that horrible
massacre in the peaceful valley on Pennsylvania soil.
The town is situated at the junction of the G. T. and G.
W. Eailways and was formerly connected by the canal to
Grand river, and thence into Lake Erie, but since the advent
of railroads the canal, some 2| miles in length, has fallen
into disuse, and the locks at the entrance to the river are
in a state of decay. The scenery along the banks of the
river and canal is fine and varied; high roUing lands, well
wooded with hard timber, lend a charm to the scene in
summer, that makes the banks appear delightfully cool
and refreshing. At the locks there were formerly fine mills
and factories, but lately, the largest having been destroyed
by fire, it is not considered necessary to rebuild so far
from town. This town was formerly a good market for
wheat, but the railroads have destroyed it somewhat, still
it has other elements of prosperity and life, has excellent
water power, and is situated in the midst of a productive
region. Manufactories and various works are numerous,
whilst other industries yet to be added are in contemplation.
Floriculture was introduced by Mr. J. B. Hay, and his
greenhouses in the midst of the city, well stocked with Flora
and Fauna, are evidence of what perseverance can do in
the way of attractions. Churches of each denomination are
tound and well attended. It is curious to note that the
industries of Brantford for some time past have been very
unfortunate, not through inability to compete with others,
or the inferiority of their products, but, as the native
assured us, " from bad luck and the fire fiend." Phoenix-like
hey arise from their ashes, and one set of mills seem to From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
47
have suffered quite a series of disasters which almost equals
retribution. It happened some years ago that a number of
capitalists erected a woollen mill some distance from town,
had first-rate workmen, and with good water power and amid
pleasant surroundings for a time all went well and satis-*
factorily, and prosperity seemed to smile on all connected.
The mills paid dividends and the men worked well, knowing
and doing their duty, but unfortunately one day some
woollen goods were missed, and suspicion crept in amongst
the workmen. The sharp-sighted manager placed the " men
of clues " on the track, and had the sin of theft fastened
upon two of the employees of the mill. The proprietors
pursued them to the bitter end, had the men convicted and
sent to the Penitentiary for a number of years, which time
has since expired, but from the era of that unfortunate
occurrence misfortune seemed to hover over the industries
of Brantford, so that after a siege of bad luck and other
calamities, the mill in which the loss occurred was during
1881 burnt to the ground, whilst the other factories are
either in the hands of the Sheriff, or converted by the
present owners to other uses not designed by the proprietors. The Exhibition grounds are well laid out, and include
a fine race track and buildings with stabling for stock.
The Exhibition, under the presidency of the Ex-Mayor,
J. S. Hamilton, has been of late a successful and attractive
one. Numerous improvements are going on, the G. T. E. are
building a new depot, more churches and numerous substantial buildings are in course of erection. The drill shed and
armory of the Dufferin rifles is as large and commodious
as any in Ontario, and taken altogether the vicinity is a
delightful one in which to settle. The hotels are first-class
and  the   cuisine good. The   Kirby   House,  under the 48
Canada and the Canadians
proprietorship of Mr. J. C. Palmer, is all that can be desired
and is well patronized during the season by American
visitors. The walks and drives are unsurpassed, the
scenery of river, hills, woods and valley is unequalled in
Southern Ontario, whilst six miles distant is the Indian
Eeserve, where the remnant of the tribes of the once famoua
Six Natious still reside. Near it is the Mohawk church where
the Indians worship, and one of the oldest churches in the
Dominion; near it is Brant's grave and monument. 0 n the
reserve are located the Sour Springs, the waters of wiich
being strongly impregnated with iron, possess considerable
curative powers, and have been considered the Indian's
panacea for all ills; whilst sulphur and other mineral springs
abound. Boating and fishing on GrandJEiver are excellent,
and are favorite pastimes, and taking a canoe and running
the rapids is exciting pastime, and freely indulged in by
the venturesome. The Commercial, under the proprietorship of H. T. Westbrook, is also an excellent hostelry, and,
being both a sportsman and naturalist, a visit is both entertaining and instructive.
Seven miles from Brantford is the town of Paris, so named
from its contiguity to beds of gypsum or plaster- of-Paris-
sometimes called the Harper's Ferry of Canada. It is a pretty
little town of some 8000 people, situated also on the.
banks of the Grand Eiver, amid scenery quite romantic in
character. The town lies away from the line of rail, and,
like other towns through this fertile portion of the province,
gives every evidence of thrift and prosperity. Nothing
could more fully attest the productive nature of the soil
of this locality than to see so many towns closa together
and each seemingly enjoying a fair share of commercial
prosperity.    The commercial agent for the United States From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
49
or this district is located at Paris, and Uncle Sam is
represented by E. M. Sharpe of Michigan, a courteous and
entertaining gentleman, who thoroughly believes in the
absolute ultimate greatness of the country he represents.
Passing Woodstock, a bustling little town of 5000
inhabitants, and the junction of the Port Dover and Lake
Huron Eailway,. we arrive at London, 119 miles from
Suspension Bridge and 110 from Windsor, a stirring and
enterprising business-place, and is actively competing with
Toronto and Hamilton for precedence in supplying the
country trade. No great wealth is apparent on the surface :
it is populated by a class of actual settlers, men who
have risen by their own efforts, starting clear from the
stump, and presents another instance of energy and enterprise of the Canadian when in close proximity with the
citizens of the United States. In the year 1846 the then
very small village was entirely burned down, but within
ten years arose in the shape of a flourishing, well-built city.
Several large importers are located here, whilst the people
generally are enthusiastic as to the future of their pretty
city. Its people are probably the most democratic in the
Dominion; the acquirement of wealth here does not mean
the putting on of " frills " and the assumption of " style '
so noticeable in the older cities east, whilst the Society and
respectable poverty class are also invisible: they are all
seemingly workers, their interests, to judge en passant,
seem mutual. The city and surroundings are well watered
by the river Thames, which is navigable to Chatham, sixty
miles distant. During the past summer this little river, with
apparently no depth of water, was the scene of a terrible
disaster, by the wrecking of the Steamer Victoria, which
vessel foundered with some 600 people on board, occasion- 50
Canada and the Canadians;
ing one of the greatest calamities and loss of life that has
ever happened to the city. London is well laid out, and
contains within the area of the surrounding country all the
elements requisite for its success—factories, workshops and
other industries that bid fair in time to enable it to become
one of the most energetic business places in the country.
Numerous societies and associations are here for the benefit
of its people, and they materially aid in the city's prosperity and advancement, although some of its public
offices are denounced by its people, as, for instance, it is
claimed that some associations and individuals are so
unscrupulous that, having an entry into the Post Office,
they manage to open letters in order to facilitate them in
working their " points." This charge has also beenmade with
reference to the same office in larger cities than London,
and it was even acknowledged by an official " that hand-
fuls of letters were taken en route, but always on the other
side of the Line." Probably the fact will become so noticeable and apparent that the Government may in time take
steps for its prevention. The brewery owned by John Carl-
ing, M.P., comprises the finest block of buildings used for
brewing purposes in Canada; they occupy one entire
block, built of gray sandstone at a cost of over $200,000,
the buildings are complete in themselves, each department
being separate and all large and commodious. Of late the
light lager beer of the United States has been introduced
here for summer use, and with Ludwig, an old employee of
Anhauser of St Louis, the venture will, no doubt, prove a
success. The capacity of the lager department is over 7000
bbls each year, whilst the ale and porter sends out some
25,000 bbls, using in the production some 120,000 bushels
of malt.    The city contains two fine parks and recreation From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
51
grounds, Victoria and Queen's Park, and also extensive
exhibition grounds, well laid out with beautiful flower
beds and fine lawns, making them .qffjite favorite resorts
for all. The hotels are excellent —the Tecumseh and
Griggs are the most prominent. The Griggs House, under
the proprietorship of Sam Griggs, is perhaps the best known
house in the Dominion ; everything that can add to the
comfort and enjoyment of the guest is carefully studied,
whilst, should it ever be the ill fortune to be away from
home and taken sick, one of the few hotels that provides
every comfort, with tenderness and good nursing, is the
one presided over by the good-natured, whole-souled, genial
Sam Griggs.
Leaving London we pass the pretty little town, of Strath-
roy well situated, with a good surrounding country, janfl
soon are landed at Wyoming, the junction of .the Petrolia
branch, and 5 miles distant from that bustling, livery
little town. Probably more business is transacted and more
speculation entered into in Petrolia than any town of its
size in the Upper province, the value of crude oil
shipped during 1881 being some $ Being situated in the
midst of the oil regions, wells with their unsightly frame work
are visible from every point of view, and should a tender
foot be smitten with the oil fever, he will find he can
become the owner of a well already sunk at any price to
suit his means, from fifty dollars to ten thousand. The only
difference for the amount paid will be the fact that at the
particular season of purchase the cheap wells are just
stopped running, but there is plenty of oil, as soon as the
rise takes place, which may keep the investor in hopes and
expectancy as long as he wishes. The people are plain, hardworking, friendly and hospitable, always ready to .aid the  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
53
stranger in securing a valuable property, and full of goods
advice. This is also the central market for the purchase of
hogs for shipment to Chicago. Merchants carry heavy
stocks, and business at all seasons is good. The hotels are
fair for.the country, the Anderson House being probably the
most prominent. Cheese factories and other local industries
are to be met with all over the country.
From Petrolia we run on to Sarnia, a substantial, well-
built little town on the Eiver St Clair, opposite Port Huron,
State of Michigan. Being again on the borders, the Customs
and their inevitable adjuncts are again met with, and the
same experience is undergone as elsewhere. After encouraging one of the gentry to follow, on arriving at the hotel you
find him there, and very anxious to make acquaintance, so,
after whiling away an hour or so with him, you will notice
the look of intense disgust depicted on his countenance as
the clerk returns him his small travelling satchel, when the
remark is made, " there's no use for me here," the clerk
informing you shortly afterwards in confidence that % the
gentleman was only a Dr. Smith of Port Huron." Even the-
Sarnia Chronicle at times denounces this mode, for it
remarks, that " travellers and business men seeking to
benefit the town should not be regarded as though they
came to beg, borrow or steal something, but should be
cordially received and listened to with patience." Merchants here are of a substantial class, many being their own
importers, enterprising and discriminating ; the population
is about 3000. The town is well provided with good hotels,
the Bellchamber taking the lead, being moderate in price:
and a good house generally,
From Sarnia a very pleasant sail by the Northwestern
Navigation  Co.'s steamers- up Lake Huron  is made to npp
54
Canada and the Canadians;
Goderich, a summer resort, situated at the mouth of the
-Maitland river. In summer a residence along the borders of
Lake Huron is delightful. High winds prevail nearly all the
season, keeping the atmosphere clear and cool, rendering
the stay both invigorating and very beneficial to health.
Fine views are to be had on all sides, whilst an excellent
park and good drives are offered for resort and recreation.
Several hotels, with the Albion and British American, afford
ample accommodation for visitors, the towns on the lake
being easy of access both by rail and steamer.
Further up the lake is Kincardine, also a popular resort,
well located on rising ground, and transacts a large amount
of business, connected with the central cities by the
Wellington, Grey and Bruce Eailroad. In this portion of
Ontario there is still room for numbers of settlers ; the soil
is a sandy loam, and is regarded as excellent for the production of wheat, farms being valued at from $50 to $60
per acre. The Salt works are extensive", which with other
industries afford employment to a large number of persons.
From Kincardine 45 miles up the lake and we arrive
at Southampton. This town was formerly the most popular resort as well as the best business town on the lake,
but of late some jealousy seems to have existed, and a new
town of Port Elgin, 4f.mfl.es distant, has sprung up as
an active competitor, and is certainly making some progress.
The winters here are severe, the cold at times, (especially
when the wind blows off the lake, being intense,) from 28°
to 40° below Zero, the snow being in drifts to a depth of
over 17 feet, but a steady winter provides good and
uninterrupted sleighing. The soil is good and the land
somewhat rolling in character, whilst the gravel roads
throughout the country are kept in excellent condition. II
From the Atlantjft to the. Pacific.
55
It is said that game, wild fowL etc-,, were at one lame plentiful in this vicinit*gj.fbut afcp^esenfcijii looks as if they had
anticipated Horace-, Greeley's advice and gone West toward;
the setting sun, or probably the country-had been visited
by the H. B. Company o¥* their agents^ and consequently
denudedof every thing of value. The Saugeen river empties
into the lake at this poi&tfc and when the ice breaks in
the spring, the panorama, presented is grand. It is astonishing to notice at that season the rapit-Jjty with which the
vast expanse of snow disappears, a day or two of hot sun,
and then a two or three days of soaking warm rain and the
sixteen to tw^njljy<fe,eitb(h#ts have-, disappeared as if by magic,
leaving the ground bajsa for the summer's work.   N©iH?"$J&,
lake  there are several springs of water strongly impregnated   with  iron, and salts, magnetic in their properties,
and so strengthening to Ijhe debilij-ated is, this water said
to be,  that thousands are attracted to Southampton   to
drink of its wafers and indulge in its baths, the sjck and
puny returning home apparently in robust health.    The
island and St. Lambert,Jight, but a mile aw,*^,; is a pleasant
spot for recrefjjtion during the summer, there being a fine
orchard of some 50 acres on the island; it has become a.
favorite spot for pAenjcg and other parties. Three miles
pleasant drive from the town lands us on the Chjippewa
Eeservation,  and   amongst th&   ''nation/**  wards," the.
remnants  of the tribesj. The Go^rnment policy is here
seen in full operation under the supervision of the Indians,
agent Denny, probably one of the mosfc wealthy men in the
place, he being, the owner of the store at which the Indians,
trade, the mills, and hotel on the reservation. It is stated
that the agent is possessed of the happy knack of keeping
the   Indians   constantly indebted to  him   through   the 56
Canada and the Canadians;
/
medium of the store, etc., and although the childlike
Aborigine when the paymaster arrives has the pleasure of
putting one finger on the annuity generously provided for
his use by a paternal Government, still that is all, for his
I.O.U.'s are presented, and the treasury notes swept away
into Denny's general fund, thus establishing a little
monopoly of which the agent is said to be not unaware.
Stages run daily from hereto Owen Sound at the southwestern extremity of Georgian Bay, and distant some 34
miles. Hotels are numerous, the leading one being
Busby's.
, Down the Wellington, Grey & Bruce E.E. we pass respectively Paisley, Walkerton, Palmerston and Elora, all
situated in a good productive country. Although at
present cereal crops are the staple, st31 some departure is
being made towards making this a stock-raising district.
We arrive at Guelph, a flourishing little manufacturing
town, well connected by rail with other parts of the
Province. On market days the town wears quite a city
appearance; there are several hotels, but having stopped
at the Eoyal we would advise the guest to be sure
to deposit with the proprietors, taking a receipt for whatever
of value may be wished to have retained.
Leaving Guelph the Grand Trunk Brings us shortly to
Toronto, the chief city in the Province of Ontario, at present
containing a population of some 86,445. It is situated on
Toronto Bay, an arm of Lake Ontario, in N. Lat. 43°32', and
W. Long. 79°20', the name being derived from an old
Indian term signifying " Oak tree3 growing out of the
Lake." The bay is a sheet of water excellent for boating,
about four miles long and two in width, separated from the
main body of the lake by a long strip of sandy beach called From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
57
Hanlan's island, on which a lighthouse, some few cottages
and numerous summer restaurants are located. In 1793,
when it was first surveyed, two Indian families were its
only inhabitants, and the harbor was a resort for myriads
of wild fowL The city was incorporated in 1834, at which
time its people numbered 9,254, whilst in the year 1856 it
had increased its numbers to over 50,000, since which
time it has rapidly given signs of permanent vitality and
growth Being the seat of Government for the Province
it contains a Parliament house,, and has a provincial
representation of 68 members, who, in order to distinguish
them from Dominion Parliament members, are called
M.P.P.S, their deliberations, being presided over by the
Lieut-Governor of the Province, who devotes his time and
service for the benefit of the Province for the small sum of
$9,999.96 and little extras yeaHy, the cost of legislation in
the Province amounting to a tax of 5 4-5 cents on each inhabitant per annum. Among the principal buildings are the
University, Cathedral, Colleges, Lunatic Asylum](and surely
Canada boasts of plenty"), Custom House and Post Office.
The Church of the Holy Trinity was erected by a donation
from a wealthy personin England of £5000, and the seats
were conditioned to remain free. As in other places both
churches and ministers are merely tolerated, the seeming
fondness for both church and pastor are in a great measure
merely affectation. Employers attend in order to set an
example to their employees, and because, as some assert,
"it gives a certain air of respectability to a man, you
know;" their wives and daughters often to display their
finery, the servants in order to stand well in the esteem
of their masters, but all, with of course some notable exceptions, seem to have no particular love for the preacher.   The 58
Canada and the Canadians;
city is substantially builfy and is claimed to be the most
enterprising €ffty in the Dominion*,, and is ambitiously
striving to become the depot fb^lake and ocean*trade and a
transfer point from rai$Co shippingi Whilst watching the
arrival of trains at the* Uniofl? depot, I noticed two
enterprising Americans meet and greet each other; both
were commercial men, and equally animated with a» desire
to introduce their goods; asidt secure a portion of trade on a
reciprocal baslsv " Weii^ Jim,"s aid! H®. 1^ '"which waiy are
you bound?""*Saek? to God's country,." said No. 2.
" What! " exclaimed the first,; a\mek already ? Why,v, i
thought you came here to make business and! stay awr-rifei"
" Well I so I did," replied! No. 2 sadly, " I tried hard and
thoroughly, and found these Kanucks an uncongenial
set, almost entirely under control of their petty pohtrcramsa
and masters; they are like the iceot»their shores^ you have
to break it to get there, and when you arri veyou find nothings
but rock, a*d theif hearts are of the* same material; in
fact, they are the coldest, most selfish and unsocial people
I ever met, and yet when on our side tltey are always*
asking indulgences." An " Italian," who* had been quSetiy
engaged in sust&ining the walls of the depot? with Mstbaekv
overhearing their conversation, interrupted them withy
"Unsocial is it you caJl em? Ofe bedad, there is< war
ye mak' the mistailfce. Sural hadn't beediwtfheie-iiy twenty-
four hour's before me arm wuz bruckinitWo places, me
legs wuz carried away from* under me, and by moriH-]*':*fiffi@
head wuz covered wid patches, and the* JNtdge fined me
$5.00, and all fur lookin' wrong way at a police, bad cess to
him! Bedad, they are the most sociabilist people I ever
saw." HHii From the Atlantte to the Pacific.
59*
The business men of the city are Swiving and enterprising, and were it? iMSff for the petty officials and so called
leaders of opfiiion, who are constantly both impeding and
endeavoring tib curtail and place obstacles in the way of
the trade development, Toronto would soon be the leading
city, siiirpassralg by far the city of Montreal (although
various reforms recemfly inaugurated make polifefeal evils
far less to contend with than in the provinces further
East).
On the Sunday we* had the pleasure of attending Sfib
Andrew's church, and of hefting to a long dissertation on
the history of Job and hi& patience undei°8rials, diffietfraes*
and despoliation which might have been modernized by the
history of many a GM-fearmg* Southern* femiTy during the
late war, for Willi afi fee great cry of wrong perpetrated on
the poor negtfo, the pious wish of the* sanctrmonfous Scot
is often utteinedj as Johny Mitchel remarked, wAh! wae is me!
Why, mcttl, therefe na more to be got oot of puir white labor;
my ambifeion noo is a Southern plantation- and a lot o* fat
niggers." But somehow or another the preachers seem to
have gone back considerably on the blood-thirsty de^trfnes
advocated by Moses and his Hebrews', whose entry being
pillage and murder are even yet experiencing the effect of
the doctrines themselves which they forced others to accept
and are, even at this day, but receiving & fast retribution in*
the world—but Israeli fated race receive sympathy
although the sign is 2 to 1—butsilwe'll more and more on
those Gentile or Heathen* such as Job whose faith was firm
in adversity, and they freely quote him as an example of
meekness and trust The book that bears hii name is a
pleasant one to read—treachery and murder occupy no part
of it:  it is the meditations of a mind strongly impressed
If J 60
Canada and the Canadians;
with the vicissitudes of human life and, by turns sinking
under and struggling against the pressure.   It is a highly-
wrought  composition between willing   submission  and
involuntary discontent, and shows man as he sometimes is,
more disposed to be resigned than he is capable of being
after finding he has been despoiled by his fellows, but he
seemed determined in the midst of ills and hardships to
impose upon himself the hard duty of contentment.    It has
also been observed that the book itself proves to be the production of a mind cultivated in science of the knowledge
of which the Jews were very ignorant, and certainly were
as illiterate a3 Southern negroes at the close of the war.
According to Mgr. Laudroit a Christian should be a complete
being, having a knowledge of his strength in the order of
nature, and walking under the eye of God to perfection, to
supernatural transfiguration, but never to the annihilation
of the faculties (so practice  good),   Christianity  (i. e.
example) is sent not tq destroy but to restore human
nature, to renew it, to give to it whilst waiting for the
perfection of glory a part of the attributes of primitive
days but only a part, alas!   The prayers   of Job were
touching, and evinced a strong and earnest faith, greatly in
contrast with those of the Hebrews, for the  Jews never
prayed but when they were in trouble, and then never for
anything but victory, vengeance and riches.
The sermon was an appropriate one, for in a few days
the community were about to hang to the death an
unfortunate fellow-being who, in a moment of rashness, and
under the influence of a false education, had attempted to
attain what he considered his rights, by firing a shot with
the intent to kill his employer. A wound was inflicted by
the servant's act, and shortly, afterwards the employer died— From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
61
even then it was stated possibly from his own indiscretion.
The meek and lowly followers of Christianity, bearing in
mind the prayer of their Saviour whilst in> His death
agonies, " Father forgive them, for they know not what
they do, " demanded at once the life of a fellow-being. A
judge and jury were quickly got together, the man found
guilty, sentence of death passed upon him, and some of
the newspapers remarked " that the life about to be
sacrificed, even were it a dozen, were nothing to the one
.that had gone before.'' Fie upon the belief that God made
man in His own image and the prayer Our Father, when
such practices on a brother can be tolerated by. a Christian ;
people ! And even after the hurriedly passed sentence had
been carried out on the body of the poor wretch, there seemed
to be a grim exultation when the papers noticed the fact
that the man was poor, and no friends had visited him
whilst in jaiL and the executioner had tortured the
condemned by strapping him so tightly as to cause him to
cry out with pain before hanging.
In his sane moments, in the year 1791, Maximilian
Eobespierre, the thinker, gave utterance to these words," I
will prove that the punishment of death is. essentially
unjust, secondly, that it has no tendency to repress crime,
and, thirdly, that it multiplies offences much more than it
diminishes them. In the eyes of justice and mercy these
death-scenes, which are got up with so much solemnity,
are nothing less than base assassinations, solemn crimes
committed, not by individuals but by nations, and of which
every individual must bear the responsibility. When a
legislator can strike criminals in so many ways, merciful
yet terrible, bloodless yet efficacious, why should he ever
recur to the hazard of public executions ? The legislator: 62!
Canada and the Canadians;
who prefers death to milder chastisements within his power
outrages every feeling and brutalizesi the minds of thet
people, aJnd comes into power a newspaper manv, a whiskey
or a beer mam. Listen- to the voice of reason: & tells,
us human judgments, especially when weighted with
prejudice, are never enough certain for society to condemn
a man to death, those who condemn him, being men and
subject to error j to take away frcm- man the. posribflity of
expiating hi& m&deeds by repentance car by acta of virtue
is, in my eyes, the most horriblsj refinement of: (amelty:
In order, therefore, to preserves the sanctity- of human life
the Government rulers and leaders of opinion should set:
the example, and, by prompt punishment for crimes:
committed, impress- the criminal with the ""certainty of
punishment and the knowledge that the (Jovernment
would reap the benefit of hia service for the remainder
of his life. Already even the city prisons is acquiring?
notoriety for its cruelties, and whippings of the poor
unfortunates for the slightest infraction of its rules are of
frequent occurrence. So long as ijfcis confined to their own
citizens it may be all right, but when, once in a while, art
American falls under the lash, and the city has to pay
some thousands-of dollars for the privilege, they naturally
pause to consider whether or not they have been toes
precipitous and indascriminate in their favors. Far more
fear took possession of the evil-doer, and more tenor
struck the hearts of the Venetians, by the terrible
uncertainty as to what became of the one condemned after
he crossed the Bridge of Sighs than is impressed by the
fighting of modern technicalities. When the verdict of
guilty is pronounced, the criminal should be forever lest
to the world outside, and his disposal left a matter of mere From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
63
conjecture to the community, the mode of punishment
being known only to the Government and its officials.
Students of  psychology assert that,  after the sudden
removal from life, the Bpirit hovers near the scene of its
execution, and we know that with all its-evil thoughts and
those on parting still .more bitter, that on meeting with a
kindred spirit in the flesh  with whom it can come in
rapport, it at once identifies itself with its Irving " com-
,.panion,so that the evil thoughts and actions of the last shall
be worst than the first;" or not finding a medium to
affiliate with, may, like the apparition that appeared in
December, 1628, at the Palace of Berlin, call upon the
Almighty and was heard to say: " V^nijaidica vivos et
■mortuosJ Judicium mUdadhucrsuperest."    Come, judge
the quick and the dead.    I wait for judgment.    That the
disembodiedfepirit does for a time hover about the spot of
cits taking off is a well-attested fact and as in a short time
Tve shall have to appear before the Almighty power that
idreated us, 8t is my belief that there is no crime in the
category that will justify the taking of ihe life of a fellow-
being.    Surely the punishment by the Power that gave ns
the breath of life will be far more terrible and complete
than the pitiful vengeance man can meet out to his fellow,
and oftentimes unjustly.    Again, the constant repetition
and hearing of such scenes-brings to the surface and fosters
-in the heart all the baser passions of mankind, besides
breeding a feeling of contempt for the life of another that
all the outward forms of Christianity cannot obliterate.
.During the winter, Toronto is often the scene of gaiety
and pleasure, the winter sports both contributing to the
-•health and pleasure of its people, skating and ice beat
sailing, sleighing and tabogganning being most popular.
/ 64
Canada and the Canadians;
Younge street, one of the principal thoroughfares, extends
from the esplanade or water's edge for several miles into
the interior towards Lake Simcoe, and affords a pleasant
drive in good weather. The hotels of Toronto are well
kept. The Queen's, under the management of Messrs.
McGaw & Winnett being the most aristocratic ; the
Eossin and American being also popular amongst all
classes. The public generally are well catered for at a
moderate charge; impositions on travellers are very rarely
practiced, and, taken altogether, the city will, at no distatn
day, become a pleasant resort for enterprising and s pecu-
lative Americans.
Six railroads center in Toronto, and the Great Western
here joins the Grand Trunk, thus forming a continuous
line through to Montreal, Quebec, St. John and Halifax,
N.S.
Toronto Bay is a popular resort for yachting, boating
and other aquatic sports, and is well patronized, whilst on
Sunday Hanlan's Island is a resort of the "Boys," as the
bar at Hanlan's hotel is always open without any restraint,
his taxes being remitted by the city council as a slight
token of their esteem for his skill as an oarsman, and as a
slight testimonial of their respect for his muscle.
Amongst the cosmopolitan population assembled here in
summertime, how easy it is to distinguish the cold-blooded
calculating denizen of the northern latitude from the
vivacious warm-hearted resident of southern climes
Mexico or Cuba, but possibly the climate makes the
difference, not only with men, but with plants, trees and
even animals: the new-comer lately from his sunny clime
is full of life and vigor, and liberal in his views, but were
he to remain here, no doubt he would become as inert and
L From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
65
and useless in this frigid zone as many of the inhabitants
themselves.
Embarking on board the steamer " Spartan," under
command of Captain J. S. Bailey, of the Eichelieu and
Ontario line—which line once famous for its liberality to
passengers has rapidly degenerated until its stock was but
worth 35; but during the present year the old fogy
management has been changed, and an effort for the better
is anticipated—we arrive at Port Hope, located on the
north shore of Lake Ontario, 62 miles from Toronto. It has
a fine and safe harbor, where steamers call daily from
different lake ports, and is connected by the Midland E.E.
to Peterboro, Midland and Haliburton, all in the Province
of Ontario. The trade of the port of late has considerably
decreased, having found in the next stopping place, Cobourg,
but eight miles distant, a formidable rival, the latter town
being situated nearly opposite the mouth of the Genesee
Eiver, N.Y., and where the lake attains its greatest
breadth; it possesses a geod harbor, and is much frequented
by steamers and sailing vessels .on their way up and down
the lakes. The town is a pleasant and hospitable one, containing numerous factories seemingly prosperous. The
Hotel Arlington is noted as being one of the best hostelries
on the lake shore, and during the summer season is filled
to overflowing. The Arlington is spacious and well
conducted, with fine grounds, good parlors for dancing and
amusements, with library and reading rooms for the
studious, whilst the sleeping apartments are cool, comfortable and airy, an attractive point for summer sojourners,
situated in the midst of a fertile district; the luxuries of
the season are to be found upon its board, and the hotel
continues, as it has long been, a.favorite.    Few places in 66
Canada and the Canadians;
Canada present a more beautiful appearancetfiroin the water
than Cobourg, the landscape being extensive and varied by
a delightfaJbackground.
Leaving Cobourg, the steamer makes out $ar ithe broad
waters of the lake, and during the prevalence of storms
and high winds quite a sea arises, and many^passengers
experience -their first lessons in fresh water sailing, invariably naxpressing their sentiments in a wish to go to " New
Yauk," but this is soon over, for shortly we make the port
of Kingston, situated on a good harbor at the north-east
extremity of Lake Ontario, and immediately above its
outlet. All along, after leaving Port Hope, the surface of the
lake was covered with myriads of dead fish, about the siae
of a shadine, and numerous theories were advanced by our
passengers to account for their sudden demise. The day
being very hot a scientific piscaculturist insisted on the
theory that the sun shone so intensely, so bright, and so
warm, that the fish startled at such an unusual sight came
to the surface to ascertain the cause, when, of course, they
were sunstruok and died, immediately. Upon expressing
this opinion the votary of science was unanimously
requested to take a back seat and study theology for the
balance of the trip. Another theory was that the fish
commissioners having obtained a grant of cash from the
Government for the propagation of fish in the rivers and
lakes had wisely expended the amount, less their own
percentage, in trying to acclimate salt water shad-tto the
iresh waters of the lakes and rivers, and, having used all
the cash appropriated, were now asking;more to further the
experiment and enrich themsglyes.
A few miles above Kingston is met with the first of the
islands known as the Thousand  Islands, Simcoe, Grand From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
67
and Wolf Islands being opposite the city, and, being converted into park and pic-nic grounds, become a popular
summer resort for the city people.
The first object to attract the traveller from the west by
lake is Fort Henry, and the naval station of Fort Frederick at its base, with its battlements, fortifications, towers
and redoubts. The former fort is a favorite resort, and from
its elevated position is procured the best view that can be
obtained of the city, lake and surrounding country.
Kingston contains at present some 14,091 inhabitants.
Its public and business buildings are substantial, its city
hall is a fine edifice, which cost originally some $92,000,
several industries are in operation, whilst at Navy Bay a
shipbuilding yard and marine railway are located. Near
the penitentiary at Portsmouth (two miles from the city)
is a mineral spring resembling in its properties the artesian
well at St. Catharines. Kingston occupies the site of the
old French fort, Frontenac, one of a chain of forts or posts
extending from Quebec to Mackinac on Lake Superior,
and, being the outlet for the Bay of Quinte (Kan-ty) and
the Eideau Canal make it an important mart for commerce. The canal extends from Kingston to Ottawa, a distance of 126 miles ; 37 locks overcome a total fall of 457
t
feet between the lake and the Ottawa river, the canal
alone costing the sum of £965,000. In the summer nearly
all the pleasure yachts from Alexandria Bay and the
American shore call constantly at the port, thus adding
considerably to the life and business of the city. It was my
privilege whilst here to become acquainted with the late
Dr. J. Gilbert Holland, and to take a cruise in his fast
little steam launch " Cameha." The launch is built on the
finest lines, and is the fastest and best model of any among (HSKX
68
Canada and the Canadians;
the islands: trim, neat, clean and well fitted, she looks a
perfect model; she sits gracefully in the water and, as the
enthusiastic engineer says, " she runs like a scart hound."
The " Minnie," owned by a Brooklyn gentleman, and the
" Cruiser," of Ottawa ownership, are often here during the
season, although the latter yacht is built more for sea-coast
trade.   Public buildings are numerous, the Queen's University, the Asylum (it is astonishing to note the number of
lunatic asylums throughout Canada, and still the people
insist that  one half are not confined  within walls, but,
probably, it is the effect of the cliruate) and the penitentiary
— although the Kingstonians repudiate the charge that the
latter building belongs to them, giving up all claims to
Portsmouth, two miles distant, at which place the building is
situated.    The Penitentiary itself is a large combination of
buildings,   occupying an entire block on the lake .front,
being isolated and surrounded with high walls; on the east
side runs the railroad track, on the west are  wharves at
which vessels are unloaded with convict labor, south is the
lake, and north the public road ; the walls are some 16 feet
in height, with a pathway on the top ; watch towers are
at each corner, and the place well guarded by sentinels.
The building contains on an average some 550 convicts, and
for the small sum of 25cts., payable at the warden's office,•
a  citizen can   have the pleasure  of going inside   and
viewing his fellow-men as if they were wild beasts   or
cattle on exhibition.    The cost of keeping criminals at the
Kingston Penitentiary is   some $157,236.54, whilst the
revenue derived amounts   to $34,409.34; the total cost
for keeping convicts throughout the Dominion amounts
to $376,177.52, against which the revenue derived from
Penitentiaries foots up $50,023.27.    A short distance from ' From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
the Penitentiary is the Kingston Asylum, a fine block of
buildings having  extensive grounds of some 114 acres
surrounding it    The buildings are pleasantly located on the
rise, and are at present under the management of Dr. W. G*
Metcalfe; its total capacity is 430, but the average number
is 234.    The institution is ably and economically managed,
but probably one of the worst features is the manner in which
it is supplied —the majority of its inmates arriving via the
jail naturally detracts some from its reputation of being a
hospital for the treatment of a disease, but under present
management the treatment accorded the unfortunates is
most humane, the food supplied being plentiful, nutritious
and varied,—kindness is met with on every hand, whilst
medical supervision constantly hovers over all; as a consequence, theinmates not only improve, but in many cases
entirely recover.    The out-door exercise being ample and
conducive to health, the normal condition of the patient
soon asserts itself, the inmates being employed in some
useful out-door occupation or trade, and from the products
of the farm alone, cultivated entirely by lunatic labor, under
the guidance of a single overseer, there was realized the
sum last year of $3,830.15.    Patients are received in two
ways, by warrant of the Lieutenant Governor from the
county jails and from private homes by application.
In Kingston are several hotels, for the accommodation of
the travelling public, but the City Hotel, recently acquired
by Archie McFaul, a genial and enterprising host, can be
patronized with the utmost confidence, the public being-
assured of every comfort and attention, the proprietor at
present sparing no pains to render the house both attractive and inviting. The rooms are cool and well- furnished;
the beds excellent,  whilst the cuisine is as fine as the 70
Canada'and the Canadians;
country affords. Delightful drives throughout the. surrounding country can be indulged in; the towns along the
lakeside are pleasantly located. The cottages look homelike and comfortable, whilst the surroundings have an air
of comfort and quiet contentment.
Opposite to Kingston, some twelve miles through the
canal, across Wolf Island, or thirty miles around in
the State of New York, is Cape Vincent, distant
twenty-five miles from Watertown, the terminus of
the St. Lawrence Navigation Company's opposition
line of steamers, and a transfer station of the Eome,
Watertown and Ogdensburg Eailway. The town is well
laid out, fine water frontage, and is supplied with good
family hotels, for the accommodation of visitors, with whom
the town is quite a favorite. Catamaran sailing and fishing
are most indulged in. As capital is induced to invest at the
Cape to aid in its development, no doubt, in the near
future, it will be able to compete with its at present more
pretentious rivals. Steam ferries communicate twice each
day with Kingston, and the fare charged is sometimes 25c.
but very often $1, according to whether you are taken
for a stranger or a resident. Small steamers also connect
with Clayton and Alexandria Bay on the American side.
Leaving Kingston we are soon wending our way amidst
the famous Thousand Islands, which stretch down the river
for between forty and fifty miles, for which distance the
. St. Lawrence is from six to twelve miles wide. Part of the
.islands belong to Canada and part are within the boundary
of the State of New York, the line dividing them about
■^equally. The islands that now axe bought and sold
.like other properties undergo with their transfer a change o
4
oo
>•
■z
c
r
>
*z
o
m 72
Canada and the Canadians;
of name, most generally taking that of their present proprietor : thus we (pass Gage Island, on which is a lighthouse;
Garden Island, a lumber depot; Howe and Carleton
Islands, both having history connected with the fight for
independence attached to them. The waters of the river
vary at different seasons from three to four feet, exposing
hundreds of islets. Our passengers, whilst admiring the
islands (at this season of the year covered with verdure),
rather took as a grim official joke the Government notices
that the virgin forests were to be preserved, and affixing a
penalty to any one found felling timber on the islands.
Now about the only ones we could imagine attempting to
fell timber would be some forlorn jay hawker from Kansas ;
they have no timber except willow and corn stalks, and
he would only fell it with his pocket knife for toothpicks,
for on many of the islands if an unfortunate goat were to
land at night he would browse away all the timber before
morning. Some of the islands are so large that a cat
might sit on them by keeping perfectly still, but to keep
dry she would either have to wrap her tail around her
neck, or else let it drop in the water. (N.B. Some of the
islands are for sale cheap, full particulars from agent.)
The fish most abundant are Maskinonge, pickerel, black
bass, pike, perch, rock bass, catfish and eels; with the
exception of the pike, they are mostly taken by hook and
line. On the islands are found rabbits, sometimes coons
and muskrats and in season quail, wild duck and
mosquitoes, although sporting of late years does not afford
as much pleasure as formerly. Then follow Grindstone
and Johnston's Islands, the latter named after the noted
Bill Johnston. From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
73
Wells Island lies above the village of Alexandria,
and on the west side has a beautiful sheet of water called
the Lake of the Thousand Islands. Numerous residences
are erected on the islands by the proprietors, whilst some'
are free for camping parties during the summer. The
outfit for tenting should always include camphor for insects,
aquamonia for bites, a few rolls of mosquito netting, whiskey
for snake bites j dose, a quart to a bite, with a dram every
once in awhile to ward off possible attacks matches
and tinder to drive away gnats, and sticking plaster for
wounds and injuries, for even the mosquitoes partake to a
certain extent of the peculiarity of the climate and its
people, for, instead of entertaining you with its song,
and affectionately calling you 1 cuzzin " before proceeding
to business, these northern invaders approach like a
thief in the night, and, without sign or sound, commence .
at onee in silence to extract from your comely form the
blood that sustains life itself, moral: use oil of pennyroyal to defeat their machinations, but should they
decline to be bribed by such sauces and syrups, why
take a little rye and soda to nullify the poisons, the rye
extract being taken internally, whilst the soda is used outside.
The Admiralty, Fleet, Indian Group, and Amateur
Islands lie either on the Canadian or U.S. lines, but below
the latter islands the river contracts to one or two miles in
width, and the Thousand Islands, of which there are
estimated to be some 1400, may be said to terminate,
although quite a number, called Brock's Group, are passed
a short distance below Brock'ville.
/ 74
Canada and the Canadians;
Landing at Brockville we find it a thriveing litl^ town
of some 6000 inhabitants, connected with the capital by the
Brockville and Ottawa E. B.and by ferry with the town
of Morristown. A large amount of business is transacted
and several important industries, including the chemical
works, are located here. The town is supplied with good
hotels, both near the river and also near the G. T. E. station.
The Eevere, a short distance from the ferry landing and B.
& 0. E. E., is probably the best patronized by the public.
The ferries have a curious way of charging for passage: for
nstance, to go to the United States costs 10c, whilst the
are to return is 25c, and no doubt this will account for
quite a number of citizens and emigrants when once acros3
the line not returning to Canada for want of lucre.
Between Brockville and Prescott or Ogdensburg the river
widens considerably. Arriving at Prescott we remain to
witness the military manoeuvres and the sham fight on
Dominion Day, the lst of July. In no two countries or
states can a greater contrast be seen than is here presented
by the village of Prescott on the Canadian side and the city
of Ogdensburg in the State of New York. The latter is a
thriving city of some 12,000 inhabitants and the terminus
of the Utica & Black Eiver, Eome, Watertown & Ogdensburg
and Ogdensburg & Champlain railways. The city boasts of
fine elevators, good wharfage, saw mills, round houses
and machine shops, and contains energy enough to make
a prosperous and enterprising community, ostensibly
showing American thrift and go-aheaditiveness ; the othei
looks apparently but a shell or a ruin, although it is stated
that soon there will be an elqyator on this side which will
add somewhat to the prosperity of the town. At present it
is in a wretched condition, the streets ill-kept, business is In
Atlantic and Pacific.
75
but small, and, were it not for the small amount of cash
spent by summer visitors and railroad travellers, the people
must either starve or emigrate. Although the bank is fail
to command a good amount of capital, yet such terms are
demanded for its use that no improvements are ever thought
of, and its merchants have no idea of ever increasing their
trade. There are two breweries'and a distillery in Prescott,
the owner of the distillery is a member of Parliament, and
distils enough whiskey to control every yote in his district
(and here I would remark that the favorites as M.Ps
are the distillers, the brewers and newspaper editors.
Although prohibited from engaging in trade whilst rendering
their^country a service, the latter class either sell out to
their relatives or form their paper into a company of which
the brother is managing-director, whilst the Parliamentary
adviser is looking for "fat takes" of the session) ; but the
Prescott member is one of the most enterprising men in the
place, and one who endeavors to keep up with the times
making several trips to the States yearly, and no doubt
adding to his general stock of knowledge, as also to his fine
breed of stock, owning some of the choicest cattle in the
province; he is about establishing a cattle ranche on an
extensive scale east of the Eockies where, if the Indians
and Mounted Police do not raid the stock, no doubt but it
will be found a paying investment—M.Ps having the prit
vilege of acreage at $10 per thousand. The hotels are
small, and prices proportionately high, living poor, and the
visitor very apt to make foreign acquaintances at almos
any hour of the day or night he may occupy his room^
An excellent newspaper is published here—the Prescott
Messenger—under the editorship of Chas J. Hynes; the
paper is bright, newsy and vivacious, thoroughly advocating 76
Canada and the Canadian;
and proclaiming the-advantages of the country surrounding.
Dominion Day in Prescott was the great day of the year,
the militia were encamped for their annual drill, a sham
fight was to be indulged in, and an attack made on old-
Fort Wellington, which is fondly imagined by the citizens
to stand as a menace to the people on the other side of the
river.    The niilitia boys—the sons of small farmers—raw
recruits   but a  few days   before,  went  very creditably
through their work, and aided in convincing me that the
improvised soldier is, under certain circumstances, quite
equal to the professional hireling, for, during the civil war
in the United States it was on several occasions demonstrated that a small and patriotic command whipped and
nearly annihilated a well equipped and veteran army of
twice their number; but it is still to the interests of the
rulers of the people to imbue false ideas upon this point.
It i3 due here to state that the militia were drilled under
the personal supervision of Col. George Shepherd who
after years of active service in the East, is now passing the
evening of life in his pleasant home at Burritts Eapids,
It was by an attack upon Fort Wellington from Windmill
Point, with a small company of liberators, that the gallant,
brave and noble Pole,   Col.  Von Schoultz, in the year
1838, won for himself a lasting name and a respectful word
even from the lips of his enemies.    He was the  soul of
honor, and as cool of head as he was brave of heart; an<j
even though he perished with his faithful band of followers
still he was revered as a foeman worthy of a better cause.
But had he been guided (even feebly as he was supported)
by an intelligence brighter than his own, success instead of
defeat would have crowned his efforts and his cause ; but his
superior officer, Gen. Birge, was the imperaonification  of From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
77
absolute cowardice and a thorough craven at heart, who
brought upon himself by his false promises the obliquy of
the loss of lives more precious than his own, whilst his
name became a bye-word and reproach, for the men who
sacrificed their lives even in a fruitless cause were esteemed
and respected by all.
The Town of Prescott is connected with the City of
Ottawa by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Eailway, one of the
most dilapidated roads in the Dominion, but which has
lately been purchased by theC. P. Syndicate, who, like the
proverbial cat, are bound to have all that's in the house in
time; but it runs through an unproductive region, the
land being barren and sandy, covered partially with rank
growths and scrub timber, entirely unfit for agricultural
purposes, but still has good locations for manufactories of
various kinds. The inhabitants when pointed out their
opportunities and rallied on their lack of enterprise
invariably reply, tl Oh this is a new country, you know. It
will take time to develop it." Still it is an older country
than most of the States, and note what they have
accomplished in the last one hundred years; or take for
example even a section, the Southern States, who, sixteen
years ago, at the close of the war, found her lands laid
waste, her houses burned, her fences destroyed, her labor
scattered or driven off, and her produce carried away out
of the country, in fact, she was the realization of desolation
itself. Now seethe change: her houses are rebuilt, farms
are well tilled, manufactories are established at many
points, and to-day the southern section is the most prosperous of any portion of the whole country, and the prosperity of the South has materially assisted in causing a
return of good times throughout the whole nation, whilst
II 78
Canada and the Canadians,
its influence is even felt throughout the length and breadth
of the Dominion.
Leaving Prescott we for a time have done with the
islands that so thickly studded the lake above us, and
which for the most part are bare rocks, partially covered
with the scantiest of verdure, varying in size from a few
yards to nine miles, although on larger islands, like that
of St John, some farms aTe cultivated and good pasturage
shown. The rocks seem to be either the deposit of icebergs
gradually cut through by the action of the water, or are
the residueof a volcanic disturbance. The channel in places
is a narrow and tortuous one, but is well lighted at frequent intervals on both the Canadian and American
sheises.
On leaving Prescott, which is generally from 9 to 10 a.m,
the hotel runners, lightning workers, and the invariable
Old Traveller, are found on board, who discant loudly on
the merits of their various avocations, the 0. T. sagely advising the passengers not to be so fully absorbed in the beauty of
the scenery as to take away the appetite, foT he calmly
assures them that, whatever happens, and whether they
arrive at Montreal by 8 p.m. or midnight, it is the policy
of the Company, fully endorsed by the steward, to furnish
passengers with no meals after the one o'clock dinner.
Of course the passenger, on receiving this information,
naturally growls, and inwardly resolves never to patronize
the'Eoyal Mail line again, but the Company don't care, for
they are making money (they believe).
Six miles below Prescott, we approach the Gallops,
(Gallewe) Eapids, a stretch of rapid some two miles in length
and the water taking a good hold brings the steamer through
in style, but for sailing vessels the rapids form a barrier. At From the Atlantic to the Pacifis.
79
present dredges are employed by the Government to deepen
the channel, and no doubt afford life-time sinecures to those
in command. On the return these rapids are overcome by a
canal two miles in length, eontaining two locks with a fall of
water of but eight feet. The five canals between this point and
Cornwall cost the;Government £1,052,601, or $5,263,005;
• then is passed Point Iroquois, with its canal three miles
long, one lock and six feet of a fall, then Matilda Landing on
the Canada side and Waddington on the American shore.
Eapid Piatt commences here, and extends some two and
a half miles. At the side is a canal four miles in length, with
two locks, overcoming a fall of eleven and a half feet,
Williamsburg and Chrysler's farm, where considerable fighting between the Lobster Coats and the Eebels was indulged
in during the year 1812, come next; then Farran's Point,
with its little canal of three-quarter mile, and fall of four
feet; Louisville Landing, where passengers land for Massena
Springs, six miles distant. During the summer two small
steamers, the Algoma and Massena, run daily from Ogdens -
burg to the Landing, for which service the passenger is
taxed his dollar, with an additional 50c. from the Landing to the Springs.
Opposite Louisville, on the Canada shore, is Dickenson's
Landing, just below which the Long Sault Eapids are met,
the longest, wildest and most important rapid on the St.
Lawrence, having a fall of forty-eight feet, and which necessitated the building of a canal eleven and a half miles in
length, containing seven locks, to enable vessels to clear the
current; the rapids are divided by islands into two channels
—the North and South; for some time the South was the
only channel used, but finding that the North Channel,
although seemingly more dangerous far to the eye—the 80
Canada and the Canadians;
waves roll and rush with apparently terrible force, the combing coming over the steamer's sponsons in some quantities
is caused by the breaking of the waves upon the projecting
rocks—but as the passage is not dangerous it is now run
in preference, owing to its depth of water and steady current, for after once passing the point good time is made to
Cornwall, at the foot of the rapids. Barnet and Long Sault
Islands, which belong to New York, and Cornwall and
Sheeks Island, belonging to Canada, divide the waters of
St. Lawrence into two channels, which cause the rapids of
the Long Sault.
Cornwall, a manufacturing town of some 4000 inhabitants, and prettily situated, is next reached. The Indian
village of St. Eegis, within the boundary line of both
countries, is then passed, and Lake St. Francis, with its
expanse of water from two to six miles in width, opens to
the view,—then we plunge into Coteau du Lac Eapid, which
extends about two miles. Below this the Cedar Eapids some
three miles in length are passed, then through the Cascades or
Split Eock which plunge into Lake St. Louis, and oncemore
we are in still water. The latter rapids are overcome by
the Beauharnois Canal, eleven and a quarter miles in length
containing nine locks, whilst the velocity of the current can
be estimated from the fact that the water of the St. Lawrence
falls eighty-two and a half feet in that distance. The cost
of this canal was £365,331, or $1,826,655. At Isle Perrot
in Lake St. Louis and mouth of the Ottawa, the dark waters
of the latter river join the St. Lawrence; then down the
lake some fourteen miles, and we wait for the Indian pilot at
the village of Caughnawaga, opposite the town of Lachine.
From there we start over the turbulent waters of the
Lachine, the last—but called the most dangerous—of the Q 82
Canada and the Canadians;
rapids. Eunning these as the boat moves onward, almost
grazing the rocks, which, as my second mate once
remarked of the* breakers whilst we were cruising
for a pilot off the Gaspe* coast, " are pretty enough
to look at but rather in the way just now," all the pas>
sengers, even to those affectatious ones who " have done
so much of the kentry you know, that it is becoming quite
a bore, and besides we are going to Yurerope, you know,"
are all anxiously crowding forward to obtain a good view
of the heaving, breaking and seething waters; and as we are
about to plunge into the cauldron we seem to be running
directly upon the rocky and grass-covered little Isle aux
Diable; and for a moment the bow of the boat is so near
that it seems impossible to clear it, but the steamer
answers swiftly to the helm, and quick as thought she
glides away from the danger it seemed impossible to avoid.
The descent depends greatly on the coolness and calculation
of the captain and pilot, for one false move and the passengers would experience lively times, for the current is
so swift, the seas run high, whilst the boat is driven so
rapidly by, that one touch upon the rocks and every plank
would be started and the vessel shivered to atoms. But
soon the thrill is passed, and leaving Isle aux Heron and
Nuns' Island we are gliding under the Victoria Bridge,
and rounding up for the wharf at Montreal. These last
rapids have a greater fall in their descent than any on the
river: the fall between Lachine and Montreal being forty-
five feet, making a total fall from Lake Erie to Montreal of
550 feet The fall from the latter city to tide water at Three
Eivers being thirteen feet makes the total fall from Lake Erie
to sea level some 565 feet. The Lachine rapids are overcome by a canal eight and a half miles in length, containing
five locks and which cost originally .£481,736, although far
more is being spent on its enlargement annually.
SKSBSffi
wwwaffi From Hie Atlantic to the Pacific.
83
MONTREAL
Montreal, formerly cal$&d Ville Marie, claims to be the
largest city in British North America, having a population
of 140,747, and is an admixture of the greed, selfishness
and parsimony of Scotch with the shrewdness of the French.
The city lies on the north bank of the river, which at
this point is over two miles wide. The bearings of the city
are lat. 45° 30' N. and long. 73° 25' W., whilst its site as
a port at the head of ship navigation is an excellent one.
Its wharves, extending down the river some 3 miles, are
substantially built of wood faced with grey limestone. The
managers of shipping interests have certainly persevered
in order to obtain the wharfage privileges they now retain.
A few years ago the "Allan Line " had almost entire control of the shipping interests of this port and being largely
subsidized by both the Home and the Dominion Governments they fast assumed control of the trade, and became a
monopoly that smaller companies were afraid to compete
with; even now a moiety of the yearly subsidy granted to
the Allans comprises the items of $126,533.32 and $28,
135.14. It is by the fostering care bestowed upon the line
that has enabled it to comprise one of the largest fleets in
the world, owning an ocean steam tonnage alone of 77,400
tons, with sailing ships, river and lake steamers as adjuncts.
This line during the season of 1880 carried some 11,402
head of cattle, 11,430 sheep, and, 1,354,706 bushels or 169,-
338 quarters of grain. For a time it was thought the
height of folly to attempt to compete or even to obtain a
portion of the trade for a season, much less attempt to
establish a permanent line as a candidate for public favor;
but through the indomitable energy, perseverance, and close m
84
Canada and the Canadians;
management of Mr. Thos. Cramp (David Torrance & Co.)
the Dominion Line of Steamships have become a regular and
permanent line of traders to this port, and are rapidly
growing in favor with both shippers and the public generally, and are certainly well patronized. During the season
the Dominion Line carried some 11,305 head of cattle,
21,262 sheep and 2,400,000 bushels grain. The steamers of
this line divide their service, a portion of the fleet being
regularly engaged in trading to New Orleans. The new
vessels of the line will be amongst the finest steamships
trading to North America. The " Vancouver," the latest
addition to the fleet, is a vessel of 5,800 tons, four-masted,
driven by compound engines; her saloons amidships
are fitted with every modern appliance for the comfort of
its passengers. The | Beaver Line," under the management of Messrs. Thompson, Murray & Co., also obtain a
fair proportion of patronage. Their exports may be summed
up in general as 6,457 head of cattle, 5,588 sheep, 1,050,-
000 bushels grain. The Donaldson Clyde Line, Temperley,
together with the outside ships, are roughly estimated
to have carried 20,396 head of cattle and 33,263 sheep.
The total value of the Montreal exports for the season
1880 was $32,284,240, and for the year 1881 amounted
to $31,300,000. A new line has been established through
the enterprise of Wm. Darley Bentley, the Consul for Brazil.
The line of which the Comte d'Eu and Tancarville are the
pioneer steamers are now running from France to Canada,
thence to the West Indies and Brazil, and it is thought
that if proper interest is taken in the line that it will
assist materially in establishing a permanent trade between
the two countries, navigation opening here about the end
of April and closing early in November. J
<i
H
05
H
O
ft 1
86
Canada and the Canadians;
The number of vessels arriving at the port of Montreal in 1880 was 710, which produced a revenue of
$331,294, but last season there was considerable
falling off, owing in part, with sailing vessels at least,
to the report of excessive charges for towage, for a
stranger here finds his pilotage alone $4.20 up, $2.80 down,
$7 per foot, with discrimination and the usual expense
of breaking in new arrivals, the other tariffs being at the
rate of $1.20 per mile, or averaging $63.29 cents per ton;
the Beaver tariff $1.79 per mile, or $94.29 per ton,
whilst the tariff of 1873 entitled them to a charge of
$3.48 per mile or $188.58 per ton, and under which
latter tariff a vessel of 572 tons being towed 398 miles
would cost $1,096, but old traders and those companies in
the ring are allowed a rebate, which at all events is satisfactory to the owners receiving it.
The business streets and those on which reside the
gentry are well paved and macadamized, and present a
cleanly appearance, for, owing, to the rising ground occupied,
the drainage is good and effective. Notre Dame is the
fashionable thoroughfare for retail trade, whilst on St
James are located the post office—a fine stone edifice
with a revenue of $169,554.09 against an expenditure
of $74,099.46,—most of the banks, insurance and other
business offices, including the fine St. Lawrence Hall. This
hotel, .being the property of the enterprising proprietor,
Henry Hogan, Esq., now occupies the entire block, and is
fitted vwith (every modern convenience that may add to
the comfort 'Of its guests; is lighted throughout with the
electric 'l|ghtt, .aznd having a fine electric lamp suspended
-from the •exterior over the main entrance, becomes the
v centre of attraction at night, the light being seen from one From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
87
extremity of the thoroughfare to the other. McGill street,
commencing at Victoria Square and extending to the
river, is filled with stores and offices of various kinds; here
too are found imposing offices of the Mercantile Agencies,
Guarantee .Societies and similiar adjuncts of a state of
suspicion, affectation and servitude, but whatever may
have been the aim intended by the founders of Mercantile
Agencies and so-called private detection, or the ends that
were to be subserved other than private gain, it is not the
intention here to discuss; but one thing is certain, it has
either outlived its usefulness, as many young merchants
here can testify, or its objects and mode of working have
been sadly perverted. Instead of keeping men honest
they really aid a man to become a violator of law, and
so subvert the very ends for which they were supposed to
be created. How many ambitious young \men eager and
anxious to do the thing that is lawful and right, and good-
naturedly try to push themselves and their fortunes along
in the world, have found their creditors inexorable and
ruin staring them in the face because the report was rendered " That he was too ambitious, and for the good of
society must be kept under, or he would rise too rapidly
and thus breed ambition in others."
A very good story of tit for tat is told of a bank president who used to have his clerks watched by some of the
so-called private detectives, now so numerous, flourishing
and importunate, who never work for rewards but sell their
services cheap to all for strictly cash in advance. He had
hauled up several of the clerks about their improper and
extravagant expenditures, and was sitting in his private
office, waiting the appearance of the new assistant receiving teller, Charles Augustus Fitzloftus De Gum, who had
1 01 From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
89
been duly shadowed and reported on by operative P. Q.
of Judas and Gehazi's secret service. The clerk having
entered the president's office, was accosted with the question, | Young man, what is your salary? "<^ 1 Nine hundred,
Sir, and I can scarcely live on that." " No, I should think
not I suppose you know I am a cautious man, and now I
will say that from enquiries made touching your habits I
have been led to form the opinion that you are spending
money altogether too fast for the trusted employee of a
bank. Now do not defend yourself. Let me tell you
where you went last night. You left this office at 4 p.m.,
and with the messenger walked into Isaac's and drank
brandy smash. You played billiards at the hall from
4.37 t© 6.42 p.m., and dined at Compain's on saddle
rocks, quail, pommery sec You went to see the
Colonel at the Academy, went out several times between
the acts, and before the piece was through walked down
to Pete's and lost $5.25 at poker, after which you drowned
your sorrow in several hot scotch's and took the last
car for your room on east St. Catherine street Now I
want to know if you think that proper conduct for a
servant of a bank like this ?"
Now the other clerks, on arriving at this point, had
one and all admitted the truth of the operative's reports,
and after begging forgiveness had promised immediate
and substantial reform. But this clerk was made of different stuff, and he said, " I don't think anything at all about
it. That report is a tissue of falsehoods from beginning to
end, and, as I happen to know, was made by Jim Muggins,
an ex-convict and son of a thief. If ever you want to
know how I spend my evenings, I shall be pleased to
inform you, Sir, at any and all times; but now that this Oomada and the Canadians;
matter of fidelity to the corporation has come up, let me
lead you my special agent's report of how you spent
yesterday afternoon. At 2 o'clock you met the notary of
the bank and told him to send around the rebate on his
commissions for the year, and he met you at the Bodega
a little later and gave you $366.15, for which you thanked
him, and told him the directors would not change their
notary for the present. On leaving the bank you met
Flimsy, the contractor for the stone and brick work for the
new western branch, and he handed you a parcel and said,
4 Here's your whack up of the divy,' at which you smiled
and invited him to drink, which he declined. At 7 p.m.
you told your wife that there was a meeting of bank
Presidents at the Windsor that night, and you wouldn't
be home until late. Instead of going to the hotel you went
to a house on Sherbrooke near St. Denis street, where
you passed the evening with the pretty widow you called
Evangeline, first giving her a package of new tens and a
watch and chain, with the observation that you had promised your wife a watch long ago and hadn't given it to
her yet. You reached home at 12.30 a.m., and had to
ring the bell because you dropped your latch-key on
Evangeline's carpet. You were surprised during the night
by burglars to whom Evangeline had given the key of
your house, and while they took nothing of value because
your dog scared them off, you were so angry that you
complained to the Chief of Police that the policeman on
your beat was of no account, whereas you were yourself
to blame, and then—" " That will do," said the President.
" I see that you are a smart young man, it is not necessary
to discuss these trivial matters. By the way, what did
you say your salary was ?"   1 Nine hundred-, Sir."   1 Well, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
91
it will be fifteen hundred after this, and I will make you
cashier as soon as old Kreter goes on his next drunk!"
" Thank you, Sir." " Oh, that's nothing to be thankful for.
Just go along and attend to your work, and I'll take care
of you, and by the by you needn't say anything to the
other clerks about my little foolishness with that widow,"
and the clerk sailed out to his duties.
Water, Commissioners and Common streets extend the
entire length of the city, facing on the St. Lawrence and
Lachine canal, and are the business centres for commission
merchants, ship stores and storage warehouses. When
the port and harbor are crowded with shipping and ocean,
lake and river steamers, these streets and wharves present
an animated appearance, for by the use of the electric light
the noise and bustle of loading and discharging is continued both night and day.
The city of Montreal is laid out in the form of a parallelogram, and lies at the foot of an eminence called Mont
Eoyal, lrom wnich the city derives its name. This rock,
which stands alone in the wide river plain, is some 550 feet
in height, and is supposed to have been formed from the deposit of an immense iceberg stranded here some centuries
ago whilst the surrounding country was overflowed by
the sea. The mountain is ascended both by a winding carriage road and also by a series of some 427 steps up its
sides; the steps in some portions of the incline are so steep
that resting places are provided at intervals during the
asceDt. Foreign boulders are perched on the top of the mountain, which itself is scored with glacial stria. The view obtained from the various eminences is a pleasing and delightful
one, laying the enti?e city at its ht-t, further off the majestic
St. Lawrence and thf* various islands, whilst ia the fardis- 92
Canada and the Canadians;
1
tance the Green Mountains of Vermont and a portion of the
Adirondacks are plainly discernible on a clear day. On the
top and sides of the mount are laid out the park and cemeteries, which will amply repay the time spent in visiting
them, and noting the prevailing customs and man's
vanity for interments. The Stations of the Cross in the
Catholic portion (fourteen in number) depict incidents
in the life of Christ until his crucifixion, whilst on the apex
are life-size figures erected on three crosses, of Christ,
Barrabas and the young man, who were crucified together
at Golgotha by the Jews some years ago, who if living in
this portion to-day would be in jail as tramps before
twenty-four hours. The dwellings and public edifices of the
city are substantially built, being for the most part of cut-
stone, giving them a solid and lasting appearance. This
peculiarity is accounted for from the fact that immense
quarries of rock are opened in close proximity to the city
itself; that it is certainly cheaper to erect a building of
stone in preference to one of brick, without the consideration that the stone house is cooler in the summer time and
warmer during the winter months than one built of any
other material. The landlords here have also two seasons of
diversion and enjoyment during the year: one in the early
spring, when the tenants are signing new leases and paying their month's deposit in advance; the other in the fall,
when the landlord, accompanied by the bailiff, are using
up the eight days allowed by law,, earnestly engaged in
looking for that tenant, to collect or distrain for the last
four months' rent, which the gentleman forgot to forward
when he gently and silently skipped away between two days,
taking his furniture with him, and forgetting to forward
his new address with the key.    Thus are old country cus- From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
93
toms transplanted to a new, fertile and prolific soil. The
winters are severe, and last usually from the latter end of
October until May, at times out-door labor being suspended
for days together. The poorer classes are either gone to
the States or confined in the hospitals or jails, but the
merchants who have made enough out of summer visitors,
together with the upper ten, are securely housed until
next season's sun shall wake them into life and energy
once more.
In approaching the city from the river the scene is
one of interest. First the mountain in the back
ground, then the Victoria Bridge and islands rivet the
attention; this bridge crosses the river from Point St.
Charles to St. Lambert, on the south shore, a total
length of 10,284 feet, or fifty yards less than two miles.
It is built on the tubular principle, and so arranged as tc
allow for the contraction and expansion of the entire mar*
a difference between summer and winter of some 6 inches.
The bridge rests on twenty-four piers, with two abutments of
limestone masonry, the centre span being 330 feet in length,
. at a height of sixty feet above the summer level of the river
descending from the centre at the rate of 1 in 130 to either
end. The bridge was built by Thomas Brassey, the noted
contractor of Birkenhead, -Eng., for Sir Morton Peto, once
well known in railroad circles, who afterwards took a
prominent part in the A. & G. W. E. E. addition to the
Erie. The cost of construction amounted to the
enormous sum of $6,500,000, which many a fair
estate and numerous quiet families in Great Britain
earnestly regret to this day. The weight of iron in the
tubes alone is over 8000 tons; the dimensions of the tube
through which the trains pass in the centre span is twenty- 94
Canada and the Canadians
two feet in height by sixteen feet in width. Half way across
is a golden rivet driven to its place by the Prince of Wales,
upon the completion and formal opening of the Bridge for
traffic in 1858. The rivet is surrounded by a glass case, and
having telegraphic communication to each end of the bridge,
should the glass be broken or an attempt made to remove
the treasure an alarm would be instantly sounded; had it
not been for these precautions it would be impossible to
ensure the safety of so valuable an ingot especially in a
community such as are found in the  vicinity.
Next to attract attention are the towers of Notre Dame and
the spires of other churches, the bronze cupola of the Marche
Bonsecours, with its fine frontage and buildings generally.
The market, formerly the old City Hall, is the largest of the
six markets that Montreal contains, whose total sales of
farm produce amount yearly to $525,000, Marche Bonsecours disposing of some $195,000, and securing a revenue
of $25,000 in rents, against an expenditure of only $3,-
700. The sales of fish alone are estimated to amount to
$193,000. Market boats from Berthier, SoreL and suburban
boats, both above and below the rapids, are regularly run
in summer, bringing vast loads of produce to the city, literally packing the market and adjacent streets for blocks
with country produce, and rendering the housekeeper's duty
a pleasant one, whilst the dealers and habitants alike seem
happy and contented^ During the winter supplies are
brought over the river in sleighs, and everything is changed:
the habitants stand clothed in furs shiveringly beside their
stalls ; and as the purchaser hurries along, he is accosted
with " aves vous besoin de quelque chose." Upon the selection being pointed out from amongst a number of frozen
blocks which, when thawed, prove to be beef, pork or mutton. From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
95
He butcher picks up his axe, and chops off a chunk like
chopping stovewood; but even his peaceful occupation is not
unattended with danger, for a boarding house keeper had
her eye put out by a butter splinter, whh^st the sausages
she was selecting fell down " kerchunk," stunning her so
badly that it took fully two hours and a bottle of gin for
her to recover. Milk is sold by the yard, and the boys buy
milk icicles like cent sticks of molasses candy, whilst birds
and chickens might be used successfully as cannon balls
during a winter's seige.
Leaving the market, up Jacques Carrier square, is seen
the monument erected to the memory of Admiral Nelson,
the hero of the Nile. On the sides of the pedestal of the
Doric column are bas-reliefs, commemorative of naval
engagements in which the Admiral took part, at the foot
of the monument, and pointed toward the river are two old-
fashioned cannon taken by the British from the Eussiana
during the Crimean war.
At the head of the Square are the splendid pile of
buildings, the Court House and the New City Hall, which
latter cost close on $12 50 000 The former building was paid
for by a special tax on civil cases heard, and so popular
did the tax become that it has never been remitted.
In the building are the offices of the Court officers, etc.,
together with rooms in which are held the Civil, Criminal
and Marine courts. In the new City Hall the various
interests of the city are duly ^attended to by the Mayor and
his Board of Aldermen, although apparently the latter are
not much valued by either His Worship or the various
corporations with whom they come in contact. On the ground
floor are the police offices, cells, and the Eecorder's Court,
the latter a veritable Star Chamber, the proceedings being 96 Canada and the Canadians;
decidedly summary. Having managed to get admitted into
one of the local stations^ a night's experience is thus
summed up : After being placed in a cell, that eertainly
would be benefited by a visit from the Board of Health,
every thing went quietly, with the exception of a few energetic remarks made by a gentleman in the next apartment,
until the patrolmen returned from their beat; they then
surrounded the table and, after imbibing something out of a
tin can, called for the cards, and Euchre was the game. Soon
becoming interested, remarks were frequent: " Them two
bowers wuz played by me," says Officer Doolan." Dat's zo but
I took dem tricks" says, Jacques. "Will yer let me take ahand
wid yer?" was the request from behind the bars. "Shall we?"
said one." " Oh, no," put in another, " sure he's a disperate
man, and might kill and murder us all and make his escape,
and thin the Eecarder cudn't foine him in the morning." So
the poor prisoner had to quietly look on and listen. In a
short time the silence was broken with, " Sure its a foine
Eecarder we have now in the place of OuldWest,—There's
the ace, and that gives me a march. You bet this is the
banner station; didn't we get four men lasht month alone
wid from $75 to $200 in their pockets, and didn't the Eecarder foine them $25 apiece, beautifully and nathural-
loike. Them return sheets is a splendid thing: sure the Eecarder has little to do when he looks at them, except to
foine." 1 Its an aisy job he's got, an no mistake; sure last
year the Court foines mounted to $11,600," chimed in
another. In a little while the patrolmen retired to their bunks
and all was silent. At five a. m. all are awakened with the
intimation that the carriage is around to convey prisoners
to the Central Station at the City Hall, and the various
occupants of the stations who, for the most part, were but From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
97
trembling drunks, are conveyed manacled through the streets
to the City Hall, where, after remaining until 10 o'clock, the
cases are called on; and the prisoners one by one make
their appearance at the bar, to be tried un any language
they like, for its all the same remarked one, for " the divfl
a man he ever lets off." The clerk, a little, fussy old man,
with grey hair, then proceeds to read the charge: " Bill
Sykes, your charged with being drunk and-begging-on- the
public-streets-Are-you-guilty-or-not-guilty ? (sotto voce) of-
course-you-are. No! How's-that-trot-up-the-Highly-Intel-
ligent" The officer, being called upon, steps up and
delivers himself: " I wuz on my bate last night, yer Honor,
betune the hours of six and eight yer Honor, and two very
respectable females informed me that the prisoner at the
bar, yer Honor, was axing thim for something." The prisoner
here broke in: " Yer Honor awm ony hout from Hingland by
last ship, on I wuz ony axing the way to the ships, for if aw
con ony git back to Wigan, aw'l never be copt here any
more." " Was he drunk ?" queried His Honor. " He wuz, yer
Honor," replied the H. I. "How do you know ?" asked the
Judge. "Becase his breath shmelt ov onions, yer Honor," was
the answer, $5 and costs." said His Honor, and the case.was
over. There is one thing very certain,—that is, it matters
but little whether it is a servant girl suing the wife of an
alderman for wages, a salesman or traveller suing for pay,
the poor party and laborer gets all the law he can stand,
whilst the decision may be almost anticipated by " dismissed
with costs." 98
Canada and the Canadians ;
EELIGION.
Tell me not, in mournful numbers,
1 Life is but an empty dream "!
For the soul is dead that slumbers,
And things are not as they seem.
Life is real 1 Life is earnest I
And the grave is not its goal;
" Dust thou art, to dust returnest,"
Was not spoken of the soul.
—Longfellow.
Montreal claims, and certainly deserves, the title of the
I City of Churches," and, as Mark Twain observes, is the
only city on the continent where you cannot throw
a brick without breaking a church window. There are more
places and forms of worship, with less real Christianity,
than can be found in any other city of its size in America,
but some of them are really notable structures. The
French Cathedral, Notre Dame, opposite the Place d'Armes,
is built in the Gothic style of architecture, and almost
after the model of the Cathedral of Eheims, France. Its
length is 255 feet, whilst its breadth is 134; the towers
belonging to the front are 220 feet in height; the S. W.
tower containing the largest bell in America, weighing
29,400 lbs. The eastern window at the high altar is sixty-
four feet in height and thirty-two in breadth; the interior
has numerous chapels, confessionals and altars, whilst the
body of the church is separated by shafts into five compartments. The building itself will accommodate some 10,000
persons, who can quickly disperse by the several outlets. The
portal is formed by an arcade of three arches, on the top of From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
99
which are placed statues, each arch being nineteen feet by
forty-nine in height. Under the church Was occupied as
catacombs in which the more wealthy of the congregation
were interred. The chapels and high altar "are profusely
decorated with gilt, color and statuary. The Seminary of
St Sulpice adjoins the cathedral. In it the secular affairs,
connected with the very valuable business property belonging to the church, as well as parochial business, is transacted. It is estimated that two-thirds of the real property in
Montreal is owned or held by religious sects or institutions.
There are some fifty-five other churches of all denominations,
of which the Catholics own thirteen, with the cathedral,
Bonsecours church, Church of the Gesu, St. Patrick's, the
Bishop's church, St. James, St. Ann's, St Peter's, Notre'
Dame des Anges, Notre Dame de Lourdes, St. Joseph St.
Vincent de Paul, St. Brigide, General Hospital church,
Notre Dame de Pitie, Hotel Dieu church, and St. Mary's.
The Catholics number in Montreal some 103,577; all others,
including those with no religion, muster about 36,357,
whilst the Yutes or Jews count up 811.
The Church of England has eight places of worship,
whilst the Dissenters and Jews own the remaining thirty-
five, but the reaching for the dollar is prominent .al each, for
when the stranger goes to inspect the building of Notre
Dame and ascends one of the towers he is taxed the sum of
twenty-five cents. So remunerative has this practice become
that several thousand dollars are annually derived from
the visits of strangers alone. The services on Sunday are
usually largely attended, but here again spot cash or no
religion is the cry ; for each seat occupied the sum of five
cents is charged, and, should some piously inclined poor
find their way into this edific,, hoping to attain some con- 100
Canada and the Canadians;
solation in their poverty, they are forced either to stand at
the side of the doorways behind the congregation, or to
kneel on the stone floor of the aisle whilst the services are
being enaeted; but the faithful poor are happy in their
ignorance, and submit to indignities and almost insults
without a murmur on their part. The Jesuits have also
located in considerable numbers in the city, and have a fine
cathedral in which to worship, but, whilst criticising the
blind and trustfully ignorant faith of the Catholic portion
of the community, we cannot overlook the Protestants.
Taken as a class, and including all denominations, they
have by far the majority in point of numbers of churches,
within whose sacred precincts the Great Cieator is popularly
supposed to be served, and in which it is assumed he
delights to dwell, there being no less than forty-three
edifices from which the Eeformed Faith is promulgated.
On Sunday no sight is so edifying and delightful as to
sit and watch the procession of the Saintly, meandering
in groups to their favorite place where the Gospel is
interpreted according to the ideas most suitable and
acceptable to themselves, and the Almighty is cajoled
and conciliated from a depraved and artificial standpoint.
First comes, paterfamilias, arrayed in his Sunday-go-to-
meeting suit of black, with solemn mien, leading by
the hand his youngest scion; then follow his wife and
daughters, enveloped in their finery, and displaying
jewellery and gewgaws like South Sea Islanders, followed
by the other members of the family,—each of the crowd,
from the old man himself, earrying in their hands a brass-
bound, copper-fastened, gilt-edged, morocco-backed prayer-
book or Bible, with the family name and number of the
pew emblazoned in  prominent gilt letters on the back,  102
Canada and the Canadians;
mm
for fear, if the  books were left in the  sanctuary, that
some poor thief might actually be tempted to steal " the
Word of Cod." Then follow the group as they ostentatiously
march up the steps of a fashionable edifice, and slowly
parade down the aisle to a comfortable, carpeted, cushioned
and hassocked pew, for which the head of the family pays
fifty dol]ars per annum; notice the self-satisfied look upon
the faces of these pious ones as they criticise in an undertone the appearance of strangers and their neighbors generally.    Should a well-dressed stranger desire to take part
in the service he is oftentimes shown to a seat, it being a
matter of policy, for strangers generally contribute handsomely on the passing of the plate in the middle of each
performance; but, should an unfortunate or poorly dressed
wight seek admittance, they are quickly informed that there
are no free seats in this church, so they must look for consolation to " the little church around the corner," where
the seats are free.    Then watch the gaily attired clerk of
the works as he ascends with sanctified look and dignified
tread to Ibis perch in the pulpit, bows his pious head in
silent prayer, arises and runs his jewelled fingers through
his well-oiled locks, and announces, in a voice full of affectation, " Bwetherin, we will now sing to the pwaise and
glowy of   Gad tie fortwy thiwd hymn, commencing with
'We'd plwace  our sin;'"—and   the way the   congregation respond show they  are most anxious and very
willing to place their sins anywhere where they will do
the most .good, and on any one  who will volunteer to
carry the load.    Then listen to the effeminate exhortation,
and the appeals for cash for the enlightenment of the
heathen, the continual repetition that through Eve's temp-
;tation and Adam's fa! we were all justly entitled to a From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
103
share of everlasting damnation. The responses by the
people of " Have meicy upon us, miserable sinners," whilst
they are fully persuaded they are not half so bad as the
poor trash over the way, brings to mind Holy Willie's
prayer or the negro camp-meeting refrain:
" The sarpint he tempted the woman,
" An' de woman she tempted de man.
" If it had'nt a' been for the mussy of God,
" We'd all been dead an' damn."
Such hypocrisy may be appreciated by the special god
who is thought to be served, but the Great Creator of the
Universe must view with feelings of disgust the mock
solemnity and affectation of a portion of the work of His
own hands.
And it was from such affected teachings as these in
other times that gave birth and credence to such characters
as Johanna Southcote, with her prophetic | Coming of
Shiloh," and through that' class the fact became apparent,
that the public at large were steeped in ignorance, and were
a most credulous people, who were imposed upon by this
dropsical old woman until they believed that she really
was inspired. We are informed that she was a native of
England, born in the year 1750; wrote and dictated
prophesies, but made money by the sale of seals, said to procure the salvation of those who purchased them. Her commission she professed to have received from the Most
High, and what she wrote for two years, from 1792 to 1794,
were sealed up with great care, and the box opened only in
January, 1803, when opened in the presence of twenty-three
persons appointed by divine command, as well as thirty-five
others without special appointment, who, like politicians
watching a square count, came to the unanimous conclu- Esaaa
104
Canada and the Canadians;
sion, "that her calling was of God." She thus practised
on the credulity of the people until she became a victim of
her own hallucination, for early in her last year she
fancied she was a second Virgin Mary, and was to bring
forth the " Shiloh" promised by Jacob Bryan. This
phenomena was to have been born in October, 1814, so
great preparations were made by her enthusiastic converts,
and they made her many expensive presents, fine wines,
luxurious foods, a bible costing $200, cradle costing $1000,
etc, so the old woman, who was a great eater, passed
much of her time in bed, gal-oriously entranced, or drunk ;
was never heard to pray, but could swear like a trooper.
She really was not half as smart as old Isaiah, who, when he
prophesied that " behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a
son," took with him two reliable witnesses to certify, Uriah
th<j priest and Zechariah, both of whom he prudently left
outside the curtain, and then went in " unto the prophetess"
to lay foundation for success, " and in due time she conceived
and bore a son" who was called Maher-Shalel-hash-baz,
which means " I am here ,*" so instead of giving miraculous
birth to a child, Johanna, after assuring her friends she
was " off" for four days in a trance, and instructing them to
keep her body warm, filled up with brandy, and laid, down
and meekly died. Her friends, literally following her injunctions, found the old lady stronger than they had any idea
of, and the signs of decomposition being unmistakeable,
they had to smoke tobacco to prevent being overpowered,
and had finally to bury her, so if the heavenly marriage
was ever consummated we poor toilers here below know
nothing about the whole affair, and are consequently left
out in the cold.
.  Still   later   have    false   teachings   been    productive From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
105
of pernicious outgrowths and fanaticism which, under
the guise of Almighty inspiration, appeared at various
periods in such characters as Sharp, one of the greatest
masters in the English School of Engraving; Bryan, an
irregular Quaker, who had engrafted sectarian doctrines on
an original stock of fervid religious feeling, and Bichard
Brothers, who publicly proclaimed himself the " Nephew of
God." and who predicted the destruction of all sovereigns,
and who also proclaimed the millenium at hand. Then the
animal magnetism of Mesmer, the mysteries and holy inspired theories of Swedenborg, which bid fair to live until
the end of time. Then the Newfoundlanders, the Spenceans,
who advocated their doctrine under the French maxim of
liberty, equality and justice, in both national and religious
matters. Then Joseph Smith, the Mormon prophet, with
his Urim and Thummin; Wm. Huntington, the coal heaver
preacher, with his drafts on the Bank of Providenee and
Bank of Faith, and the various impostors who, under the
guise of spiritual teachers, have administered to a credulous
and artificial public It is on these affected and superficial
teachers that the onus of such a state of society as that
now existing must fall, for now religion is regarded as a
pleasant fiction, fostered and upheld in order to sustain
society, and to reconcile the producer with the familiar sight
of several living in ease and luxury off the labor of one.
Even on this continent numerous communities exist who
hold as a tenet of their belief, " that association with the
clergy is contamination," and to- become " tainted with
religion " destroys the finest impulses that arise in human
nature; therefore they hold that it is only by overthrowing
Christianity that the masses can be emancipated from their
present thraldom.   For a local example of the power and love 106
Canada and the Canadians;
wielded just fill a bag with dollars, call it the Temporalities
fund, and start the branches of the Scotch Kirkafter it, the
money being allowed to the only true church. Then listen
to the truthful claims presented by each, section, and man's
confidence in infallibility rapidly vanishes. In looking
carefully over the various forms and professions, one can
truly say with John Wesley, 11 am sick of opinions
(forms and ceremonies); I am weary to bear them ; my
soul loathes this frothy food; give me solid and substantial
religion; give me an humble lover of God and man, a man
full of mercy and good faith, laying himself out in the
work of faith, the patience of hope, the labor of love." And
many a perplexed mortal cries from the heart:
" The throng is great, my Father.
Many a doubt and fear encompass me about;
My foes oppress me" sore; I cannot stand
Or go alone.    Oh Father! take my hand,
And through the throng lead safely home thy child."
The Church of the Gesu is also quite an attraction for
tourists and visitors. The church belongs to the Jesuits, and
is a massive stone building situated on Bleury street,
between Dorchester and St. Catherine, and capable of
seating some 4000 persons, but with a party we ascend the
steps and enter the church. Along the sides are the various
confessionals and chapels, whilst at the end on either side of
the altar are valuable paintings from Eome. Quite a character in connection with the church is Old Peter the
janitor, most devout in his bearing, and most persistent in
his efforts to induce the visitors to | by a buk," or give
something to the church; he explains, " Gintlemen and
ladies, thim paintings wuz done in Eome by the Italians,
and have the blessing of the Holy Father on thim afore From the. Atlantic to the Pacific.
107
they kim over." " Who is that little fellow in wax in the
glass case ?" queries a tourist " That is St. Charles Borromee
when he wuz small," is the.answer. Another asks, " What do
the paintings represent ?" " By a buk, only 25 cents, or if
you don't by,. I'll tell you, that is St. Charles Borromee
receiving the Holy Eucharist from the Archbishop whin he
give up his possessions and renounced the world." " Then
he was euchred out of all he possessed," suggested another.
" Oh sure," said Peter, " aint you afraid of committing a mor-
tual sin ? Sure I'll have to say three aves and four paters for
your sinful sowl. Sure its a shame for heretics, the likes of
ye, to gaze on thim holy picturs." So down on his knees he
drops, and the way the beads fly through his fingers is a
caution. In a moment, " Wud ye by a buk ?" is again heard,
and each time he passes the railing or the picture, his right
knee bends some six inches; in the fifteen minutes our
party occupied him the knee was bent sixty-one times,
which, on an average of ten hours daily and six inches each
time, would make that one knee travel for the honor and
glory of the Saint in the course of a month 12,000 yards, or
intwelve months a distance equal to 15 miles more than the
other knee, so if the book business does not pay the saint
ought certainly to keep a good berth for Peter. Another
visitor says, " Peter, you are too devout and too good for this
world if you keep on that way. Do you do this thing out
of love for the saints ?" " Faith I do," says Peter, " and
sure it raises my poor heart to think that a Lazarus like
myself may lay in some great saint's bosom, and whin I die
at pace wid God an man, sure its pleasant to know that I'll
not be among strangers at the resurrection." But Peter
evidently makes well out of visitors, and so we leave him
to the next crowd. 108
Canada and the Canadians;
charity. n
The Province of Quebec does not rank last in an outward
show of charity, for the grants by the Provincial Legislature
amount to $158,570.50 annually, whilst an amount estimated at some $361,010.00 is expended for the cause of
education, but with all the real object seems to be to provide sinecures for a certain class, and pattern after a worthy
Alderman, who, whilst a candidate for election, appointed
his secretary, getting full work both night and day during
the canvass and subsequent day of voting, his workmen
laboring faithfully and well amidst the snow and drenching
rains on election day, after being handed by the Alderman
the munificent sum of $2.00 to spend amongst the voters of
the ward and having $4.00 I. O. U.'s liberally cancelled
by a brother, quietly ignored all further claims after obtaining a large majority; he also was unanimously elected
as a member of the Visiting Committee of the Protestant
House of Industry and Eefuge, a most judicious selection,
for if each member of Montreal society pays its workmen
■as munificently as this Christian Alderman the Eefuge will
not want or wait long for inmates. This may be deemed an
exceptional instance, but it must be remembered he was a
wealthy man, owning fully $2000 in real estate, and a
thorough and conscientious Christian gentleman.
If Montreal prides herself upon the appellation of the
" City of Churches," she certainly also is deserving of the
distinction of being the home and abode of the beggars, for
where there is so much profession of religion and virtue,
there is a consequent abundance of pauperism, immorality,
vice and crime; for a land where the purest morals
and strictest religion are professed is generally that which From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
109
produces vice, and particularly the smaller vices, in
greatest abundance. The portion of the States and the
Dominion with most religious teachers, ruled by ministerial Justices and clerical law makers, are those that
furnish the greatest number of the nymphs du pavi to
the cities on the continent, and even furnish a large
supply to the capital of Cuba. From the same
prolific soil spring most of the sharpers, quacks and cheating traders who disgrace their country's name. It is but
the inexorable result of a pseudo-religion, outward observance, worship, Sabbath-keeping, and the various forms
are engrafted in the mind; and thus, by complicating the
true duties that man owes to his fellow-man, obscure or
take precedence of them, the latter grow to be esteemed as
only of a secondary importance, and are, consequently,
neglected; and in these northern latitudes when a man
becomes poor he rapidly descends lower and lower until
his manhood and self-respect are entirely obliterated and
the former man becomes on a plane with the brute creation.
On the streets, at the doorways of the hotels, on the corner
of the squares, on the steps of the various churches, and
even in the shadow of the great Cathedral, the passer-by
is importuned in whining tones and with outstretched hand
to give, for charity's sake. The number of men, women and
children who have lost every particle of virtue and self-
respect, in proportion to the size of the city, by far exceed
the canaille of Paris or the Lazaroni of Naples itself. Many
of these beings so lost to a sense of manhood and independence are strong and healthy, able, if properly employed, to
be producers, and assist in benefiting the community by
becoming good citizens and bearing a proportion of the
expense of government    These beings, when spoken to 110
Canada and the Canadians;
regarding their state, often reply : "We, whilst at work,
receive such a pittance from the hands of employers of
labor that it is impossible to exist on the amount earned,
therefore we would rather follow the practice of begging
with all its abasement, and appeal to.the charity of strangers
for means of existence, than work for wages upon which
we could do nothing but quietly starve." And there certainly
is some reason attached to this assertion, for many a poor
clerk who wears outwardly a semi-respectable appearance*
and who labors in a large establishment, lives upon but two,
and at times one meal a day, and even by such economy
as this cannot make both ends meet at the termination of the
month. Whilst in conversation with a merchant, this topic
was alluded to, and the proposition suggested that some
of the able-bodied laborers and starving clerks should be
encouraged to cultivate a spirit of manhood and assisted to
become independent by having some of the territory west
donated to them, and the means necessary provided and
loaned them to erect homes and dwellings for themselves,
thus enabling them to become active producers instead of idle
and comparatively vicious consumers,—when this merchant
replied: " Oh, that is entirely against Canadian principle
and policy—we never loan ; sometimes we may borrow,
but we never loan to poorer classes—we give." In order
to note the prevalence of that charitable spirit of giving, I
watched the actions of a number of well-to-do men who
fondly delude themselves with that assertion, and found
that on one Saturday, out of seventeen applications an old
woman received one cent, and still these persons thought
they had done their "whole duty, and on the Sunday "reverently " thanked the Lord for His goodness," and the profits
they had accumulated in their business, as they would that From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Ill
others should do unto them; they were not even as zealous as
old Uncle Daniel Drew who gave his note for a large amount
to found and endow a religious university and college, and
then considerately failed before the note came due, thereby
proving that he had no hard feelings against religion.
" IAfe is a jest—and all things show it.
I thought so once, but now 1 know it."
—Ben Jonson.
" I know my hide's chock full of sin,
But I've fixed Old Pete, and he'll let me in,
So rise up children, rise up in a crowd,
A.nd shout and sing to de angels loud,
An' shout an' sing for de Ian' of de Blest,
'Case hell am hot as a hornet's hest."
If ever such infinitesimal souls reach the haven of rest
and dwelling place of peace, it will only be by enacting
the same strategy that Judge Waxem accomplished in
approaching the Pearly Gates, and even after arrival they
may meet vrith the same reception. As it may possibly be
information for those who yet inhabit this mundane sphere,
I will relate the experience: Judge Moses Aaron Waxem
was a learned man of great renown, and hailed from Mexas.
In course of time his earthly career was done, and his
bones were gathered to his fathers, or planted on the
perarie, but his spirit went wandering through the ethereal
realms of space. Now the Judge was an honest man; he
never took anything whilst hving that he could not carry
away, neither did he appropriate anything his arms could
not reach. He endowed a church, and freed his niggers
when he could hold them no longer, and, like Harriet
Beecher Stowe, got $300 each from the National Government, and was well acquainted with the fact, before he 112
Canada and the Canadians;
departed, that there was a splendid climate for settling in,
also one that was reputed to be red hot and sfc^l a-heating
—so, eschewing the latter, he attempted to make his way
to the golden gates, but getting lost amidst the labyrinths
of turnings, and the day being very warm, the Judge sat
down, under the shade of some beautiful trees to rest.
Whilst refreshing himself in this manner the air became
suddenly darkened, and a shade appeared who, from the description heard of whilst in the flesh, the Judge immediately
recognized as his Satanic Majesty himself. " Halloo ! " interrogated His Majesty; | what is your name ? Where did you
come from, and where are you going ?" " Well," answered
the Judge, " my name was Moses Aaron Waxem; I've just
come from Mexas, and I want to get up to them pearly gates."
I Oh ! oh ! J " replied His Majesty, " your name's enough.
I have old Mose and his brother long ago, and you're my
meat, so get ready, and come along." " Well," returned the
Judge," it's pretty warm travelling j ust now, so sit down and
make your miserable life happy until the cool of the evening, and then I will go along; meanwhile," he added, drawing
forth a greasy pack of cards, " we will while away the time
with a game of draw poker." Well, they played a long while,
and His Majesty became interested. First, he bet the golden
bosses off his horns, then the golden ring around his tail,then
the silver shoes from off his hoofs, and finally some of the
silver chains belonging to some of his favorite imps. At last
His Majesty was dead broke, the old Judge winning wery
time. I Now," remarked he, " I will play you one mor.-) time,
and if you beat me, then I will show you the road and put
you on the right track to make the gates." They played
another game and.the Judge was again the winner, and the
devil for once in his life acted square, and escorted the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
113
Mexian to within a short distance of the gates themselves •
then telling him he was on the right track and could not
miss the way His Majesty departed. Well, after a time, the
Judge, tired and weary, arrived at the gates, and took a seat
outside on a bench. Being all by himself, he commenced to
watch the crowds going in. Old Father Pete, with his long
white beard reaching down to his knees, with his big bunch
of keys suspended from his girdle, was bustling around quite
lively for a man so weighed with years and sorrows. First
one company would approach. | Who are you ?" was the
question. "We are Catholics," replied the spokesman.
" Well, go in that side gate," was the command. " Who are
you ? " was the query as another band approached. " We are
Protestants," was the reply. " Go in the little door to the left,
and sit down," was the instruction. Then a little band came
up, and, in answer to the interrogatory, the reply was : " We
don't belong to church, we are just Christians and try to help
each other ; that's all." With that the old man threw the
gates wide open and said, " Walk in boys, and just ramble
all over the whole blamed city if you want to." After the
crowd had all entered, it being about closing time, Father
Peter was about to lock the gates for the night, when he
espied the Judge sitting on the old bench and wistfully
gazing through the panels of the gate. " Well," said he,
| where do you come from ? " " My name was Moses Aaron
Waxem," replied the Judge. " I come from Mexas, and I
want to get in." " Well, hold on till I look over the record,"
said the apostle; then he commenced to hunt for the locality. He took down every book in the office and sent out
for the old ones of former seasons. At last it got so late
and so dark that Peter said, " I am sorry to tell you, Judge,
but you will have to remain outside until the morning, for
1 114
Canada and the Canadians;
I believe that in order to let you in I shall have to open
a new set of boohs."
Bon Pasteur Nunnery, Hotel Dieu Hospital, General
Hospital, which latter institution is a credit to any city,
and admirably managed, are well worth visiting.
THE GREY NUNS AND THEIR MISSION.
THE T. M. C. A.
The preceding was written before I joined the Y. M. C. A.,
and as that institution and also the Grey Nuns accomplish a considerable amount of good in their sphere, they
certainly deserve more than a passing notice.
Then, is there no hope ! except for the saintly ?
Is there no help for the wild trailing vine ?
Must the prodigal's voice in the distance die faintly,
And Man in his misery curse the Divine ?
The Grey Nunnery is situated on Guy street, occupying
the entire block between Sherbrooke and Dorchester. The
building was founded in 1642, and such a reputation has
it obtained that thousands of strangers visit its wards and
chapel each year. The plodding man of the world, the
business man and others, whose thoughts are tied here below, experience such a relief on entering its portals that it
is impossible to anticipate or describe. Although but through
two pair of folding doors, the feeling comes over you that
you are entirely shut out from the world, and begin to feel
at rest and peace. The transition is sudden, but it is complete.
No longer are you gazed at with sharp, designing or calculating countenances; no longer do you remember the rough
crowding and jostling, the cutting remarks and treacherous actions, whilst drifting outside. Here all seems perfect
quiet, and probably you feel for the first time a spirit of From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
115
charity to all men rise within you. The faces you see and
converse with are those of sympathizing women, and recall
the countenance of a loving mother o*i a tender sister.
The Nunnery, now under the care of Sister Seed, probably
accomplishes more good in a quiet unheralded way than
any similar institution in the Dominion.
Alas 1 for those who leave the track,
How few of the wandering souls turn back;
For eyes may weep and hearts be sore,
But the silver lost is found no more.
The Y. M. C. A. have recently erected at one corner of
Victoria Square a fine building in Gothic style, with large
hall, reading room and library for the use of strangers, and
have doubtless been of great benefit to young men,, strangers and others, in order to reconcile them to their lot and
the habits of the people they found themselves amongst.
The institution was certainly needed, and the committee
deserve great credit for the manner in which they have
accomplished the undertaking, as also does the | Witness,"
an evening paper that has proved a useful, willing and powerful auxiliary. The rooms are under the charge of Mr. D.'
Budge, the efficient Secretary of the institution, a courteous, ■
affable gentleman, who does all in his power to enable a
moral young man to pass away a few spare hours pleasantly and agreeably.
Probably one of the most able advocates of Temperance,
at the same time combining business with profession, is
Mr. Charles Gtj»d, now the proprietor of the Medical
Hall Works for the manufacture of Ginger Ale, Soda
and other Aerated Waters.   This establishment is the 116
Canada'and the Canadians;
oldest one of its kind in the Dominion, and from small,
beginnings it has gradually risen to be the foremost in
Canada, having weathered the financial storms which a few
years ago threatened to engulf nearly every enterprise; and,
by pursuing one plain course, relying on the excellence
and purity of the" articles presented to the public, its
success has been almost unprecedented. During the summer
months the' factory from early morn until late at night
presents a scene of busy bustling industry and activity—
the works then being taxed to their utmost capacity by
orders from all portions of the country; at present the
factory can turn out and aerate some 950 dozen daily, or
6.8,400 .bottles each week. During the tourist season visitors
are numerous, and from the constant popping of corks and
sampling by the busy managers and workmen, confusion
seems to reign supreme and profits to evaporate, but out of
cb.ao3 comes order, and Saturday night all seems so still
and quiet that the bustle of the week is soon forgotten. Of
course comic incidents occur, as when a visitor from the
country helping himself to a sample bottle of ginger ale
attempted to draw the cork with his teeth, the full force of
the accumulated gas 'assisted him materially, and as soon
as he could clear the cork, which was blown half way down
his throat, and wipe the water from his eyes, remarked,
" Sure this is a great interprize where they bottle up
sweetened stame and sell it fur money."
They were awarded two first Prizes for 1880, and Gold
Medal for 1881. From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
117
eccentric characters.
It is a matter of surmise to the visitor generally how
the name of " McGrab " or McNab seemed to be so prominent and so continually quoted. Many ingenious
theories are advanced to prove that the name is indicative
of Eoyal origin. One gentleman, a Sandy not long " fra the
auld countree," propounds the following: That in other
times " Auld Clootie," " Auld Grabbie " and " Auld Nick "
meant really one and the same person, and were popularly
supposed to stand in place of the lengthened titles appertaining to His Imperial Majesty of the " lately revised
Kingdom," arguing then, from this theory, and from the
fact that Mac in Scotch parlance meant the son of, it
proved most conclusively that McGrab was the son of
Eoyalty itself, was heir apparent to the throne, and would
no doubt succeed with true Scotch dignity to all the titles,
privileges and emoluments thereunto appertaining. But
let that be as it may. From Halifax, Quebec, Montreal,
Toronto and Hamilton, and possibly still further West,
streets, buildings, wharves and avenues have been named
to do him honor, and, like the Squeezems, the name
is to be met with in all kinds of out-of-the-way places,
and from a superficial glance it looks as if he had certainly
" grabbed " all within reach; but it seems he was a real
canny Scotch chieftain, and brought the characteristics of
his early education over with him; there was no shoddy
about McNab, for his father owned slaves (or rather a clan
of his own), and he brought quite a number of them with
him. On arrival, he received a grant of a Township on
the bank of Lake de Chats,, and at once proceeded to erect-
the castle of McNab, in order that in a new country he 118
Canada and the Canadians;
could follow feudal customs and the ancient traditions of
his progenitors, and raid, pillage and subdue the communities around about, whilst, in case he was attacked, he
would have a place to defend and sortie from. He for
some years sold off the estate an immense quantity of
pine timber, and having cash to his credit, at once became
" tony." He visited the Provinces, and went through putting on style like a bondholder or a Western congressman.
Dressed in full Highland costume, had his tail or guard to
accompany him, with the piper and assistants preceding
him, giving vent to those outlandish and soul-torturing
strains so much reverenced and respected as bagpipe
music amongst the rocks of Auld Scotia. He held himself a little king, and imported his own chattels in the
way of laborers and fine Highland girls, meeting them upon
their arrival at Quebec, but bis power over the community
at large in those old and superstitious days is lastingly
marked by their efforts to do him honor, for at that time
style, position and bluff " took the cake."
THE DOMINION EXHIBITION.
As the master, so the man,
Name me the judges, I'll tell you .who gets the prize.
—Local Paper.
There is one noticeable peculiarity about the people of
Canada, and that is, if the citizens of one section of the
country promulgate an idea, it is instantly seized by the
people of the neighboring sections. As the individuals are
suspicious and jealous of each other, so each province is
animated by the same despicable spirit. The City of Hamilton, Ontario, announced her intention early in the season
of holding an Exhibition in the fall, and invited the co- From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
119
operation of the neighboring Provinces, to assist in making
the show a success. No sooner had this announcement
gained publicity than the city of Toronto went one better,
and advertised an Exposition during the month of September, inviting the people both of Canada and the States to
come, see, and participate. Shortly afterwards Montreal
certified to the fact that she was going to hold a Grand
Exposition, " Open to the World; " and, finally, Halifax
awoke and opened her show to the Universe and the entire
ororory, and it is the working of Montreal that we shall
deal with mostly. In the outset a Committee of Ways and
Means had to be provided, for the promoters were not men
who were inclined to risk a cent toward making a success,
out of the experiment—the prestige of their names was considered amply sufficient a portion to attract the public.
So the newspaper men were duly convened, and the various
| fat takes " were distributed amongst them : in the way
of advertisements, etc., to insure their co-operation, and
to assist in creating an enthusiasm amongst the people
generally. In the Exhibition of 1881 the newspapers most
liberally set the example by subscribing from $500 to
$1,000 each (to be taken out in advertising), and most
nobly did they perform their duty, although the Exhibition
itself was far surpassed by any country fair. Eeporters
were stationed on the grounds with instructions to " gush,"
tents for their accommodation were provided, whilst from
them issued column after column in continual streams. A
truss from a drug store put them in ecstacies, whilst a homemade bed quilt drove them wild with frenzy, but the sight
of a winter apple, tomato or potato put them on the borders
of distraction.
Having thus laid the foundation, the papers commenced 120
Canada and the Canadians;
with a will to proclaim the many advantages that would
accrue to the city by holding an Exhibition within its
hinits, appealing by turns to the credulity, greed and rapacity of its merchants and citizens generally. Flaming posters, catalogues and prize lists were scattered far and
wide over the province and neighboring States. Committees were organized to extract cash from the citizens and
storekeepers generally, and the whole affair was under way.
The grounds comprised some 35 acres,- and already had
one building on them, ■ called the Crystal Palace,, which,
after being well shored and braced up to prevent its falling,
was considered good enough to be the Main Building. The
people themselves taking an active interest in the proposed
show, for a time everything seemed to portend'success and
satisfaction. S. C. Stevenson, the Secretary of the Council
of Arts and Manufactures, was appointed Secretary, and
certainly worked well for the advancement of the interests
of the Exhibition; but his hands were soon tied, and he was
surrounded by a raVenous host of incompetents, whose
relatives or friends had contributed something towards the
furtherance of the object, and who brought such pressure
to bear upon the Secretary that he was entirely unable to
employ competent men, for most of those who had contributed to help along' the expenses had done so with the
express or implied understanding that they were either
to have a place for themselves or their friends. The
Exhibition was advertised to be open to the public on
■the 14th of September, but on that day, owing to
incompetency of the officials in charge, nothing was in
readiness, even in the first building. Exhibitors (some of
them at least) had their spaces given away to other
parties,  and, at the last moment,  when  all was hurry, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
121
bustle and confusion, chaos reigned supreme, and the
credulous public who paid their quarters were just so
much out. Three days afterwards the great Manitoba Exhibit was displayed, and comprised some sage grass, a few
sheafs of wheat, green tomatoes, sickly cabbages and half-
grown beets, with the explanatory note that the vegetables
were plucked before they were ripe. A few Indian wap-
pings, old wigwams, snow-shoes, canoes, and a worn-out
government ammunition waggon, were the attractions. The
cattle and stock did not reach the grounds until the 20th
inst., and the root and grain building was not open until'
that time. The formal opening did not take place until
the 21st, when the Governor General officiated The Judges
deserve great credit, and should now be quoted as experts.
One, a butcher, who had never wet a line, was a judge of
fishing tackle, and endeavored to please all by awarding a
prize to each exhibitor. A leather merchant was one of
the judges of flour, and knew corn starch and pea meal
were composed of the same ingredients. A farmer, who
was one of the judges of race horses, awarded a prize to an
animal because the owner was his neighbor, whilst two of
the judges of wine (teetotalers) were earnestly endeavoring
to convince the balance of their nuniber that the "• Volnay "
and Moulin a Vent on Exhibition was a new-fangled
style of whiskey,—"they could'tell by the smell." Eag
carpets, ready-made clothing, home-made! quilts, rugs,
etc., were the chief attractions at the Provincial; but one
thing is certain: all exhibitors were satisfied, for the majority
either obtained medals or were recommended for diplomas.
No sight was so touching as to see Mr. Moses Morning-
star stand arrayed like Solomon in his glory, before his
" clodings " exhibit, and to hear him in accents mild and 122
Canada and the Canadians;
persuasive invite the visitors to " shust look ofer dot fine
stock of goods, dem clodings wuz made by mine brudder
in Nieu Yorick to be gif to de gafener general, but dey
wuz a liddle too schmall in the back behind, und sell dem
at less uf de first cost; just look at dem button holes und
oxamine de qualidty uf de suit. Dem suit I schwear by
Aaron who wuz Moses' big brudder get five diplomas und
von golt metal at dis oxhibition. Dondt oxamine dat odder
man's goots; he has got nodings oxcept half soled socks und
delapidated suspenders und neck wear; he only get him a
silver metal, und he haf to pay in cash de difference uf
price for de bronze uf de silfver. Now, shentlemens, jusht
come to my schtore down town, und I sell you goots for
nodings, and credit you uf all de balance. Dake von uf my
carts, und don'd forget it was Moses Morningstar, de
clodier." The audacity of the few who have taken control
of this thing is easily noticed, whilst their boldness in
seizing was unequalled by " Tweed's " Aldermen, even in
their palmiest days. The Legislature of the Province of
Quebec, on various pretexts, granted thousands of dollars
out of the public purse of the Province to assist in erecting
the buildings, adorning the grounds, etc., etc. The City
Council was prevailed upon to contribute some thousands
more for a like purpose, whilst the individual citizens and
storekeepers were solicited to contribute liberally according
to their means, to which appeal they responded well, as the
subscriptions aggregated some 10 or 12,000 dollars at each
exhibition. Then after everything had been properly
secured, the few who seem to carry the interests of Montreal
in their vest pocket kindly took the management out of
the hands of the people, and going to Parliament obtained
a charter incorporating ".The Permanent Exhibition,"  and
SSSg H   !
From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
123
placing the entire institution in their hands, i/n trust. A
citizen wept when he saw Herman Schuffensnaffler sell the
watch he had not the power to redeem, the citizens of Quebec
sigh with regret when they see their fine Exhibition passing
silently away, but the managers are enterprising, and it
is stated that the various Governors of the different states
are to be invited to the next fair and then shown off and
exhibited to newly-arrived immigrants and citizens generally
as real, live American Governors like so many prize cattle
at so much per head. This is called kid-gloved handling.
Although the show was professedly open to the " world "
one of the judges publicly expressed his determination of
not looking at American goods at all, and at this remark
some of the exhibitors became so disgusted as to remove
their entire exhibit, and declined to show their goods, after
all the expense they had entailed. So, taken all in all,
the great Dominion Exhibition was far from being the
success it was anticipated it would be, and it is to be
hoped that the managers of the next -will be men who will
discountenance every attempt at imposition, and whose aim
will be not only to make the show a success, but to thoroughly satisfy and please the people who are attracted
there, and who contribute to its support.
VENNOR, TOE PROPHET.
" Vennor's kerrect agin, and I'll tell you how 'twas,"
remarked a farmer journeying from Southampton : " Well,
you see, I was looking in the almanax, and he said there
was to be snow; well, pretty soon, she just came along, full
pelt. You see them drifts ? Well there is over sixteen feet
in e*ii, and on a level all you can see is the tops of the stakes
and the ryder across, that means over seven feet snow.  After 124
Canada and the Canadians;
that says I to the wife, ' Vennor says that we're going to
have a cold spell, and I'll bet we git it,' says I, \ and I'm
going to watch out,' so I took the Kermometer, and set her
up on the porch. After a while the cold began to come
along, and that durned thing marked lower and lower till it
struck the last notch, and then bust the bottom and fell
through onto the porch. Well, you know Chippewa Sam what
works for me,—he come along in the morning, and thought
he found a silver or gold button or something, and went to
pick it up off n the porch, and that little inside of the
Kermometer burnt his two forefingers and his thumb off
clean to the first joint before he could drap it. Cold! well
I should remark; and it ain't overly warm now." Another
gentleman well acquainted, and just from the West, said
that the Profit wuz an ould man who lived near Hell or
Halifax or Quebec, or some of them places, and wuz in league
wid another feller in the Eockies who had a kind uv a
way of fixing up the weather by a kind of a proceeding
between thimsilves; whilst another argued that he must be
a kind of a Yankee feller, for he was mighty lucky sometimes. Therefore, having my curiosity aroused, and being in
the city in which the Prophet now abides, I took an early
opportunity to look him up. I met him, and my whitened
beard dropped off with astonishment, my pale leathery
cheek resumed it roseate hue, and thus rudely was another
dream dispelled,—for the Prophet is as young as either you
or I. Of course I asked him all his secrets, and how it was
that he could forecast the chainges of the weather with such
accuracy so long ahead, but, instead of receiving the reply
I expected from such a sage—" Why you see that certain
combustible elements having their consanguinity over certain elevated positions, whereby the storm cloud, forming ar From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
125
aqueous wave, lowers its impending influences over the
subterraneous portions of the vasty deep, and consolidated
vacuum is thus created, in the conglomerated mass of hetere-
geneous vapors that constitute a storm centre, and accumulate in the substratum of the ether that surrounds this
planet"—he simply and modestly said : " I do not claim
any special merit for my prognostications—they are merely
the result of study; and by steady appliance to the work in
hand, with constant comparisons of other seasons, I have
been enabled for some time ahead to forecast the probabilities
of approaching seasons with a tolerable degree of success
and accuracy, very satisfactory to both my friends and
-myself." Mr. Vennor claims that he makes a point of the
following features, and maintains that, by proper application
the changes in the weather may be foretold : the dryness
or humidity of previous seasons, extremes of heat or cold,
general direction of winds, time of commencement of
spring and fall, with characteristics of mid-summer, aspect
and intensity of first frosts, abundance or rarity of thunder
storms, years of unusual meteoric displays, &c. Of course
exactly how the Prophet does it is for the curious to find
out, but no doubt many of our ambitious young men will
be in the field, and prophesy with more or less degree of
success, now that the modus 'operandi has been explained^
but still there is room enough for all, and a little generally
mixed-up weather won't do any harm, even if it does dampen the'politicians and officials generally. The Prophet,
although a great naturalist and an authority on " Out Birds
of Prey," or the " Eagles, Hawks and Owls of Canada,"
is not to be fooled by the habits of animals or the flights
of birds; he considers them something like the promises of
an M. P. or head of a department—generally speaking, very- 126
Canada and the Canadians;
uncertain—but relies more especially on scientific knowledge and his own past experience. He also states that young
men who are about to enter into the prophesying business
should bear in mind that, to understand the weather, they
must be out in it and live in it: not for an hour or a week
or so but for a number of years, say twenty-five or fifty for
the average young man, although a very ambitious youth
might experiment in the back-yard in his shirt sleeves until
it rained, when he would be in a position to amply verify
the fact that the aqueous fluid was wet, and thus would
one item of knowledge be gained—and so would a cold.
Leaving the city, we wend our way to the Dominion
Capital. There are several routes from Montreal to the
City of Ottawa, viz.: by boat up the river, by the Q. M. 0.
& 0. E. E., by the Grand Trunk to Prescott or Brockville,
thence by St. L. & O. or the B. & 0. E. E. direct to
the city, but by far the most pleasant route in summer is
by river. Taking the early morning train by the G. T. E.
to Lachine, eight miles distant, or if you are healthy and
strong, either walk or drive along the Lachine road from
the city, and you will find it a pleasant recreation. The
roadway is studded with houses and farms of both the
most primitive as well as Che entre modern styles, the
orchards are numerous, and in season well filled, whilst
the roads are in excellent condition for either a drive or
walk. Arriving at Lachine, and whilst waiting for the boat
at the Dep6t landing, you most effectually, dispel the
illusion that all railroad officials are sordid, grasping, uncommunicative and unfriendly, for acquaintance once made
with Mr. J. T. O'Flaherty, the Agent of the Grand Trunk,
and a taste of his native juice, and you will have the
pleasure to uncover a jolly, good-natured, rollicking gentle- From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
127
man, one of the old school, so rarely met with in these
latter days, and who has become both popular and a favorite
with all whom business or pleasure calls to Lachine.
Almost opposite the town on the south side of the river is
the village of Caughnawaga, and as we are now getting
into the country where legends abound, it will be well to
note the Caughnawaga Bell before we go on boar.d.
CAUGHNAWAGA BELL.
Almost opposite Lachine, so named by La Salle as being
the point from which he took his departure, on the south
side of the river, is the village of Caughnawaga, where the
mail boat takes onboard the Indian pilot Baptiste, to assist
in guiding the steamer through the wildest and most dangerous of all the rapids, the " Lachine," that commences just
below the town. The village is composed of a few streets of
log huts, but in contra-distinction to the poverty of the surroundings stands a massive stone church, in the belfry of
which hang two bells, one a large and modern one; whilst the
other is a small one of the last century, and is of itself the
subject of an historical legend, in the manner of its acquirement. It seems that, in the year 1690, one Father Niccls,one
of those Missionaries who were the first to set the example
of Christianizing the heathen, who had made numerous
converts from amongst the Indians of the Caughnawaga
tribe, had persuaded his hearers to give him furs enough
to erect his church, and when they were all converted, he
convinced them, that religion was not worth having unless
they had a bell to their church, so they became enthusiastic in the cause of the bell, and, so to speak, passed round
the. hat, and contributed a goodly portion of the furs that
they had secured from their season's hunt to purchase the 128
Canada and the Canadians;
„J1
bell for their ed Of course the Indians did not know
what a bell was, but believed it was a something that spoke
in consecrated and angelic tones, and was a necessary
adjunct to their new religion. They soon accumulated a
considerable stock of furs, which were sent by Father
Nicols to an ecclesiastical friend in Havre, France, who exchanged them for the article required, and no doubt divided
the profits, and shipped the bell to Montreal. For some time
the priest and his tribe of converts awaited its arrival, and
it was thought at length that the vessel had foundered, but
after a while the news reached them that it had been captured by an English man-of-war, taken to the port of Salem,
Mass., and, further, that the bell was hung in a church at
Deerfield, and rang in the interests of heretics instead of
good Catholics. This intelligence, through the wise counselling of the priest, not only made the Indians mad, but
aroused their savage resentment. The priest advised them
that the bell, which had not yet received the sacrament of
baptism, was a captive in the custody of heretics, and caused
them to register a. vow that the first opportunity that
occurred should be taken for its recovery. Some years
passed before a chance offered, but the time was not lost,
for Father Nicols' converts were enthusiasts, and diligently
employed in adding new converts to the cause of Christianity, and in religiously plying the tomahawk and scalping knife upon such of their unregenerate neighbors as
refused to acknowledge the new faith. But i*a the year 1704
the Marquis de Vaudreuil, then Governor of Canada, wishing to kill as many Englishmen as possible by stealth
and strategy,; as well as open warfare, went to the meek
and lowly follower and advocate of Christianity, as the
diplomatic head of the tribe, and prayed for the aid of the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
129
Caughnawagas to assist him to destroy his foes ; but the
holy father would only give his consent to lead a murdering and pillaging expedition upon the tacit understanding that the objective point should be the town of Deer-
field. This condition, of course, was acceded to, and so the
man of God assembled his savage converts, and with
uplifted hands and stirring words informed them that the
time for rescuing the bell had arrived, and appealed to
them in the name of the. Deity to rally, and march upon
the crusade for its recovery. Like a second Gideon, he placed
himself at their head, and his words and actions awoke
enthusiasm in their savage hearts. Weapons were put in
order, war paint donned, and in the middle of winter the
savages, with their Christian pastor as a leader, departed to
join the regulars of the Marquis at Fort Chambly. The
French troops, unaccustomed to ha veiling through snowdrifts and to endure the hardships of winter warfare, were
with difficulty restrained from mutiny, but the Indians,
familiar with snowshoe travel, progressed almost as easily
as if the season had been summer. At the head of his
savage Christian legion marched Father Nicols on his
errand of murder and pillage, whilst by his side a stalwart
convert bore the banner of the cross as an offset. At night
the Indians were cheered by the voice of their leader in
prayer and exhortation. Arriving at the head of Lake-
Champlain, the expedition marched upon the ice, until the
spot now occupied by the City of Burlington was reached,
when it took its course by compass through the wilderness
of Vermont for Deerfield. Considerable hardships were
endured by the expedition, but Father Nicols, sustained by
remarkable zeal, continued on, until tbe expedition, on the
29th of February, saw in the distance its destination, and 130
Canada and the Canadians;
\ U
awaited the approach of night .some four miles from town.
At daylight De Eouville ordered his forces to advance. A
strong wind was blowing, encrusted with ice, which broke
beneath the weight of his men; he therefore adopted the
ruse of ordering the column to proceed a short distance
upon the run, then to halt suddenly, thus imitating the
sound of gusts of wind. The inhabitants of the town were
wholly unsuspicious of any movement against them, and
like the people of Laish of old, were wrapt in profound
slumber. Even the solitary sentinel was asleep, and the hard
snow piled nearly to the top of the stockades gave the
assaulting an easy means of ingress. Quickly and silently
they scaled the walls, and the sleeping sentinel was the
first to receive his death-blow from a tomahawk. The
surprise was complete, and no resistance was offered. Then
a terrible scene of massacre occurred; some few escaped,
numbers were slain, and about one hundred and twenty
made prisoners. The troops rioted amid the plunder, but
the Indians were after their bell. At the request of Father
Nicols, the commandant despatched a soldier to ring it. As
the first tones of the beH sounded on the cold morning air
and fell upon their ears, they reverently knelt, whilst the
priest solemnly returned thanks to God for their success,
and invoked a blessing on the murders they had committed.
What a sight! the ground strewn with the mangled and
mutilated corpses of the innocent slain; the trembling
captives mourning the loss of relatives, friends and homes,
and fearing death and even worse at the hands of their barbarous captors ; the savages seeking to do homage to an unknown God whose precepts commanded love and kindness,
but whom, through the doctrine and instruction of a preceptor they sought to serve by slaughter and cruelty. The From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
131
bell was removed from the belfry and hung upon cross poles
in order to be transported, the buildings of the place fired,
and the party retreated; the captives, men, women and
children, were forced to keep up with the column, and when
they dropped through exhaustion, or were unable to keep
up, they were tomahawked before the view of the others,
and their gory scalps added to those on the belts of their
savage captors. By the time they arrived at Burlington
Bay the Indians were thoroughly tired out with carrying
the bell, whose weight fheir snowshoes would not sustain,
so they found a likely spot and buried it. - In the
spring, upon their return, they found the bell had been
undisturbed, and with joy the party bore it homeward,
whilst those at Caughnawaga anxiously awaited its arrival,
for those who had been on the expedition for its capture
had described it in glowing terms. It was said that its
tones were sweeter than those of the birds, clearer than the
rippling melody of the river, and that it could be heard
beyond the murmuring of the rapids. At length, whilst all
were discussing the anticipated arrival, a novel sound was
heard in the woods, and interest being awakened, a voice
shouted "the bell! it is the bell!" when rushing to the
edge of the clearing they met the returning expedition, at
the head of which were yoked two snow-white oxen bearing the bell hung between them. Both bell and oxen were
adorned with wreaths of leaves and wild flowers. The bell,
after being closely examined and commented upon by the
curious, was raised to its place in'the belfry, and awoke
with its tones the echoes of the St. Lawrence. The Indians
for some time continued their rejoicings, but the sound of
the bell fell upon the ears of the captives as the
death knells of murdered relatives, and as a  reminder of 132
Canada and the Canadians;
destroyed and desolated homes, and which thev\despaired
of ever again beholding. However, two years later, the
Governor of Massachusetts, together with the Governor of
Canada, succeeded in obtaining the release of the survivors,
some fifty-seven in number. Such is the history of the bell
of Caughnawaga, and it is believed to be strictly true in all
its particulars.
Embarking on the splendid saloon steamer | Prince
of Wales," under the command of Capt. H. W. Shepherd,
or the " Princess," Capt. A. Bowie, we commence to ascend
Lake St. Louis, passing Point Claire with its cottages and
vineyards, to the village of St. Anne's, a pleasant run of 18
miles. Here the steamer passes through a lock 45 feet wide
and 180 feet long to avoid a succession of rapids, with a
fall of but 3£ feet, on the Ottawa river. The village is a
charming place of summer resort and situated at the southwest end of the Island of Montreal, and is the place to
which the poet Moore dedicated his Canadian boat song.
Two miles west of St. Anne's, commences the Lake of the
Two Mountains, an expansion of the Ottawa, some 10
miles in length by 8 in width. From this lake a branch
called the Eiviere des Prairies, North, or Back river, flows
toward the north-east, and forms a boundary to the Island
of Montreal, and forming the Sault au Eecollet, down
which rapids most of the rafts from the Ottawa descend,
and in which current some years ago the Indians drowned
Father Nichols. The Indian village, that still contains a
small remnant of the once powerful Mohawks and Algon-
quins, is next passed, above which the river narrows to a
width of about a half mile for a short distance, then again
expanding it forms the Upper Lake of the Two Mountains
which lake and coast has both its legends and romances, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
133
of which I note one from " Maple Leaves," by Dr. J. C.
Le Moine.
THE GRAVE OF  CADIEUX.
In ascending the Ottawa river one has to stop at the
rock of the High Mountain situated in the middle of the
Portage of the Seven Chutes, at the foot of the Island of the
Grand Calumet—it is there lies Cadieux's tomb, surrounded by a wooden railing. Each time canoes pass the little
rock the old voyageur relates to his younger companions
the fate of the brave interpreter. Cadieux was a roving
interpreter, brave, poetical, and of a romantic turn of mind,
and was often employed by both the government and
missionaries to interpret the various Indian dialects. He
generally spent the summer hunting, and in winter would
purchase furs for the traders, j After a winter thus passed
by Cadieux at the portage, where he and the other families
had their wigwams, it was decided in May to wait for other
Indian tribes who had furs for sale, and then all were to
come to Montreal. Profound peace was supposed at the
time to exist in the settlements. All of a sudden, one day
a young Indian, roaming about close to the rapids, got up
quite.a scare by rushing back out of breath and shouting,
Nathaoue ! Nathaoue!! the Iroquois! the Iroquois!!
There was in reality below the rapids of the Seven Falls
a party of Iroquois warriors who had been christianized,
and were then waiting to levy toll, and appropriate the
canoes that generally descended at that season loaded with
skins. Only one chance of escape presented iiself to the
minds of the affrighted ones, and that was to attempt to
bring the canoe through the rapids, a project that had previously been considered hopeless.   It was also thought. 134
Canada and the Canadians;
necessary to station some parties in the woods, in orders by
firing, to draw off the attention of the Iroquois from the
desperate attempt to run the rapids, and thus prevent pursuit. Cadieux, being the ablest and most resolute, chose a
young Algonquin warrior to accompany him in this perilous service; and it was agreed that when the interpreter
and his comrade should have succeeded to inveigle the
Iroquois into the woods, they would try a circuitous route
and attempt to join their friends, who also were to send
after them should they be too long absent. Cadieux and
the young warrior started for the Iroquois encampment,
agreeing that the sign for the canoes to break cover and
start on their fearful race would be the firing of their guns.
Soon the report of fire-arms was heard in the distance, and
was followed by three or four others in quick succession.
On went the frail birch canoes amidst the foam and rocks,
flying like sea-birds over the boiling caldron. It was
verily a race for life, the extraordinary and superhuman
skill of the Eedskins alone saving them from death in
a thousand shapes. " I saw nothing during our passage
over the rapids," said Cadieux's wife, a pious woman,
"but-the form of a tall lady in white, hovering over
the canoes, and showing us the way." They had invoked
St. Anne, the patron saint of the mariner. The canoes
escaped with safety, and arrived at the Lake of Two
Mountains, hut it was not ascertained until some time
after, from the Iroquois themselves, what had become of
Cadieux and'his devoted follower. It seems that Cadieux
had quietly watched for the Iroquois at the portage,
placing himself about an acrefTom his colleague, to allow the
Iroquois to penetrate to the centre of the portage; he then
quietly waited'for the'death-yell of one of them shot by From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
135:
his helpmate, and then fired with unerring aim.    The .war-
whoop resounded, and the Iroquois, fancying they were,
attacked by a large party of the enemy, separated, and.
charged in different directions.    It was supposed the young.
Algonquin fell in attempting to join Cadieux.    For three
days the aborigines searched the woods in order to find
traces of the encampment, never thinking the enemy had
attempted to descend the rapids; for three days and nights.
they searched for Cadieux, and those were sleepless times
for the white man.    Foiled in their object they returned,
to their canoes. Several days then elapsed, and, as no tidings.
of Cadieux came, a party was formed and sent to scour the
woods: traces of the Iroquois were unmistakable, and indications of Cadieux's presence were found.    At the Portage des Sept Chutes they noticed a small hut of "branches
which, apparently, had been abandoned; they passed it
without search and continued their route, under the impression that Cadieux might have been compelled to ascend
the Ottawa, and take refuge with the Indians of the Island.    Two days later, the thirteenth after the skirmish,
they noticed on repassing the hut, a small cross, at the
head of a fresh grave on the surface.    In it was found the
corpse of Cadieux, half covered with green branches; his
hands, clasping a sheet of birch bark (on which he had
considerately written his own dirge), were laid over his
chest.    The opinion was, on reading the inscription on the
bark, that exhaustion, hunger and anaiety had produced
on the interpreter a species of hallucination called " lafolie
de bois."   He had doubtless lived on wild fruit and berries,
not daring to light a fire, for fear of betraying his place of
concealment. He had been growing weaker daily, and, when
the relief party had passed the hut two days previously he 136
Canada and the Canadians;
i ■■■„ 1
had recognized them as friends, but the sudden/joy at a
prospect of a speedy deliverance had been so great that it
made him speechless and inanimate. Seeing his Ia3t hope
vanish as they passed him, and feeling his strength failing,
he scribbled his adieux to the living; and then prepared his
last resting-place. This done, and the cross erected, he laid
himself down for the sleep of death. Before laying down to
rest he embodied in verse his own dirge; this chaunt by
its simplicity is very attractive, being an expression of his
feelings to the objects which surround him, and his own
regret for quitting life, closing by an invocation to the
Virgin Mary. The bark on which the death-song was
written was afterwards-brought to the post of the Lake of
the Two Mountains. The voyageurs have set it to a plaintive melody, and it runs thus :   .
" Petit rocher de la Haute montagne,
Je viens finir ici cette campagne.
Ah! doux fechos; entendez mes soupirs,
En languissant je vais bientdt mourir.
Petits oiseaux, vos douces harmonies,
Quand vous chantez me rattachent a la vie;
Ah 1 si j'avais des ailes comme vous,
Je serais heureux avant qu'il fat deux jours.
Seul en ces bois, que j'ai en de soucies
Pensant toujours a mes si chers amis;
Je demandais: Helas! sont-Ss noyes ?
Les Iroquois les auraient-ils tuts ?   (finale)
Un de ces jours, que m'etant cloigne
En revenant je vis une fum§e
Je me suis dit.   Ah! Grand Dieu, qu'est ceci
Les Iroquois m'ont-ils pris mon logis.
Je me suis mis en pere a l'embassade
Afin de voir se c'etait embuscade
Alors je vis trois visages francais
ll'ont mis le coeur d'une trop grande joie. From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 137
3Ie3 genoux plient, ma faible voix -'airrStai,
Je tombe Helas! a partir :'.s s apprSteit.
Je reste seul Pas un qi ■ me console
Quand la mort vient par u j si grande aesole.
TJn loup hurlant vient pres a> ma rsnane
Vour si mon feu n'avait pi .s de boucaae,
Je lui ai dit: Retire-toi d'ici,
Car, par ma foi, je percerai ton habit.
Un noir corbeau volant a la aventure
Vient se percher tout pres de ma toiture
Je lui ai dit: mangeur de chair humaine
Va-tfen chercher autre viande que mienne;
Ya-t'en la bas, dans ces bois et marais,
Tu trouveras plusiers corps Iroquois:
Tu trouveras des chairs, aussi des os ;
Va-t'en plu3 loin, laisse moi en repos.
Bossignolet, va dire a ma maitresse
A mes enfants qu'un adieu je leur laisse
« Que j'ai garde mon amour et ma foi
Et desormais fant renoncer a moi.
C'est done ici que le monde m'abandonne,
Mais j'ai secours en vous,'Sauveur des hommes!
Tres-Sainte Vierge, ah 1 m'abandonnez pas,
Permettez-moi de mourir entre vos bras 1
Passing Eigaud Mountain we arrive at Carillon ; rapids
again occurring here, are overcome by means of a lock and
canal 12 miles in length; then by Grenville to l'Orignal;
thence 8 miles by waggon-road, and we arrive at the far-famed
Caledonia Springs, noted from the earliest settlement of
the country. It was these Springs formerly called | New-
henee," that were spoken of by the untutored Gaspe" Indians
in terms of adoration and reverence to Jacques Carrier,
upon his arrival at their camp, as the " life waters;" and still
further upon the Captain General's arrival at Quebec, the
chief Donacona urged him forward to the Springs, whilst, I38r
Canada and the Canadians;
in the midst of winter, his crew and comrades were
suffering death and were the victims of disease, ice-locked
on board their ships in the St. Croix Eiver. It ;was amid
the forests of this country that the Indian tribes placed
their dead, and the young warriors brought the ailing and
decrepid of their nation to partake of the healing waters,
and once more obtain the strength that was supposed to be
gone for ever. It is to these same life-giving waters that
many of the robust men of our present time owe the exuberance of their feelings and their strength. Once a trackless
wild and hard of access, now a most popular place of resort.
A magnificent hotel is erected near their site; a village
occupies the grounds that were formerly a forest entangled
by undergrowth; beautiful cottages now adorn the swards
that were once encumbered by wigwams and squatters'
tents, until, to-day, that which was a wilderness now blossoms as the rose, and what was once a barren waste is now
almost a second Eden. There are three springs in the
village, and all are the property of the proprietors of the
hotel, who, to benefit the entire community, have spared
no expense to form a comfortable residence for all who
may seek its waters, either in pursuit of health or merely
for a summer's recreation. The carbonated or Gas Spring
discharges some four gallons per minute; the spring is
far more effectual in its results than the waters of Europe—-
the gas evolved being carburetted hydrogen, three hundred cubic inches per minute, pleasantly saline to the taste,
and its reaction distinctly alkaline.
The Saline Spring, which is distant from the Gas Spring
about 130 feet, is the one most generally sought for. It
was this spring that, during the terrible epidemic of the
year 1836-7, was  accredited with   restoring to  normal From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
139
health the afflicted sufferers, both white and red, that camped
about its waters. Its characteristics are slightly saline,
evolving a small quantity of carburetted hydrogen, whilst
its reaction is more strongly alkaline than the Gas Spring.
The "White Sulphur Spring arises but a few feet from
the Saline, discharges about four gallons per minute, is
feebly sulphurous in both taste and odor. The efficacy ofv
this spring in rheumatic and other affections is well
attested, and the cures in proportion rival by far those of the
famous German waters or the Hot Springs of Arkansas. The
analysis comprising scientific figures, with which I will not
bother the reader, therefore he cannot doubt their accuracy,
comprise chloride of sodium, potassium, bromide of sodium,
carbonate of lime, soda, magnesia, iron, iodide of sodium,
sulphate of soda, potash, alumina, silica and carbonic
acid. No well regulated visitor passing through this
section of the country should fail to visit these Springs,
and to carry away with him a proportion of that robust
health that is here generally lying around loose, awaiting
applicants from the busy, bustling world without. These
Springs maintain the same flow and temperature at all seasons of the year, and the slightest change in their component parts has not been discovered since the Springs
passed into the hands of the white settlers, but the season
is short, extending but from the lst June to lst October.
LEGENDS OF THE OTTAWA.
The memory of the trip either up or down the Ottawa
river is fraught with pleasing reminiscences : hardly a hill
or headland that comes in sight but at one time was the
scene of some of those fierce conflicts that were continually
occurring between the Indians and the early French set- V
HEROES   OF   VIU,E-.MARIE. From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
141
tiers. These legends, whether of victory or defeat, are
invariably celebrated in soag or verse. The attack on Daulac
and his sixteen foliowi-.rs, by the Indians, in May, 1660,
is made the subject of a delightful poem by Geo. Murray,
which is well wo:*sh obtaining, and is of considerable
length, although interesting throughout. A portion of the
legend as rendered by Geo. Martin appears in " The Heroes
of Vitte Marie." The Indians had boasted that they would
wipe the French from the face of the earth, and carry
the white girls to their villages. Adam Daulac, or Dollard,
Sieur des Ormeaux, was a young man, twenty-two years
of age, fiery and impetuous, who had arrived in the colony
some three years previous. Without enquiring to find out
where the grievance of the Indians was located, he collected sixteen followers, whom he bound by an oath to
help exterminate the Indians. They pledged themselves to
neither give nor ask quarter; they then made their wills,
confessed, and received the Sacraments, and started on their
murderous errand, and erected a fort or stockade some
fifty miles up the Ottawa river. The Indians had heard of
their arrival and their determination, so they assembled
in council, and decided that the invaders should perish.
Their decision and subsequent attack on the French is thus
described:
THE HEROES OP VILLE MARIE, MAY", 1660.
The .doom is proclaimed! 'twas the Sachems that spoke,
And, rising, the calumet fiercely they broke ;
The war-dance is danced, and the war-song is sung,
And the warrior3, full painted, their weapons have slung.
A
Each armed with his arquebuse, hatchet and knife,
How they hunger and thirst for the barbarous strife 1
They have said it: The Hrenchman shall sleep with the slain,
Maid, matron and babe—not a soul shall remain I 142 Canada and the Canadians;
They have spoken, those braves of the Iroquois league,
Renowned for fierce courage and shrewdest intrigue.
Through the "Ottawa's " forest like panthers they tread,
As if stepping already o'er the pale- visaged dead.
Adam Dollard, defender of fair Ville Marie,
Has pondered and prayed o'er the savage decree,
And a desperate purpose is stamped on his brow,
And no one can slacken his ultimate vow.
» * * * •
There are some—Oh how few 1—in the bloom of their years,
Who hare listened and pledged him and trampled their fears ;
With hot hearts as brave as their sabres are keen,
They are mustered around him—his gallant sixteen f
• • • • •
In a ready Redoubt, as by Providence meant,
They hastily fashion their evergreen tent,
And, here, in tho forest,' where " Uttawas " flows,
They prepare for the speedy descent of their foes.
*****
Hark t near, and still nearer, yell answers to yell,
All the forest is peopled with spectres of hell!
Not a tree- but now looks as if changed to a fiend.
Not a rock but behind it a demon is screened.
From the loop-holed Redoubt their first volley they pour,
And Mohawks and Senecas sink iu their gore;
From musket and huge musketoon they have seen,
And heard—that our heroes count just seventeen.
Then dire is the rage of the shame-smitten crew,
When they find that the Pale-faces number so few;
Again and again comes the stormy attack,
And still, like pierced griffins, the pagans fall back.
Day and night, night and day, till the tenth set of the sua,
No trophy the maddened assailants have won,
Though their fleet-footed runners have hurried from far,
Haifa thousand tried allies—their whirlwinds of war.
Onondagas, Cayugas, Oneidas, are there,
Some howling for vengeance, some wild with despair;
Once again, with a hurricane rush and a shout,
Like a deluge of lightning, they storm the Redoubt. From the Atlantic to the Pacific. 143
In a moment, 'tis over 1 flash blending with flash,
As sword-blades and tomahawks bloodily clash ;
" Vive le Canada," Dolland exultingly cried,
Then, with cross to his lips, like a martyr he died.
And his faithful companions, his chivalrous band;
With their gallant young captain, passed out of the land.
Draw a veil, pallid muse, o'er the finishing scene,
And crown with fresh garlands the brave seventeen.
Nearing Ottawa we pass at Edinburgh, a South Eastern
suburb of the city, the Eideau Falls (the Curtain) formed
by the waters of the Eideau river emptying into the
Ottawa. The Falls were at one time an interesting feature
in the scenery of the river, and were a filmy, cloudy fall of
some 30 feet, attracting much notice—being seen to advantage from the deck of the steamer, but of late business
encroachments have made of the Falls a useful auxiliary
instead of an ornament, by damming the current, and
using it as a motive power for the saw mills that line its
banks, and forcing the river to discharge the bulk of its
waters into the canal, so the scenery, as nature finished it,
exists only in the minds of old-time residents, and early
visitors. Arriving at the City of Ottawa, navigation is at an
end until after the Chaudiere Falls (the Boiling Pot) is
passed. These falls are formed by a series of rapids, which
' commence in the Ottawa river, six miles above the city,
and are the most interesting feature in it. The greatest
height of the falls is about 40 feet, whilst every variety of
form is presented : the volume of water descending in vast
dark masses (the color of the water of the river being
something like that of a tan pit) in graceful cascades, or in
tumbling, struggling spray, they have been well described
as a hundred rivers struggling for a passage* the grandest 144
Canada and the Canadians;
sight being that of the lost Chaudiere, where an immense
body of water is quietly sucked down and disappears
under ground.
I see thy waters boil,
As if all Hades did burn,
And Satan's imps, with ardor hot,
Were thrusting wood beneath the pot.
In the autumn and part of the winter the rocks around
the Chaudiere become entirely bare, and expose to view
a chff-like mass of shale, allowing a near approach for the
contemplation of the enormous power of the seething waters
which, with the slides, log runs, etc., is the real means of
the commercial prosperity of the city. Some thirty mills are
in operation around its base, and not one use steam as a
motive power. At Aylmer, nine miles above the falls,
situated at the foot of Chaudiere lake, an expansion of the
Upper Ottawa, navigation is again resumed to Arnprior,
at which place occur falls of some twelve feet, and thence
to Pembroke, a lumbering town, 100 miles above the city,
and which ranks as a town of some importance on the
upper Ottawa. The region around stands unrivalled as a
timber district, but, even with its apparant vastness of
resource, the finest of the timber, both red and white pine,
maple and ash, is rapidly being thinned out, revealing only
a sandy and seemingly sterile soil, fit but for the cultivation of root crops. The length of the Ottawa river is
about 780 miles, and is computed to drain a territory of
fully 40,000 square miles.
OTTAWA.
The city of Ottawa, the seat of the Imperial Government,
situated on the banks of the Ottawa river, just below
lli I From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
145
Chaudiere Falls, was formerly called By-town, being named
after a Col. By, chief of Staff of Eoyal Engineers, engaged
in the construction of the Eideau canal, from Kingston to
Ottawa, but the citizens becoming ashamed either of the;
name of the Colonel, or the unaristocratic affix to their
city, in the year 1855 petitioned Parliament to change its
name to the present one of Ottawa. The city, like that of
Quebec, is divided into Upper and Lower town. Across the
Suspension bridge is the thriving town of Hull, formerly Slab
Town, the store house for lumber prior to its shipment.
Slides are erected on each side of the river for the passage
of timber in order to avoid the great falL and the sight of
the cribs of timber darting down these slides is a pleasing
one. The present population of the city is 27,412, and is divided into two classes,—Government officials, politicians, and
lumber dealers, raftsmen, or connected in some way with
the lumber interest.
The Parliamentary houses, situated on Barrack Hill and
overlooking the river, are a splendid block of buildings, in
the Italian Gothic style of architecture, and cost the
people of the Dominion the sum of $4,041,914.37 in their
erection. The buildings are in three blocks, the right and
left wings being used as department and ministerial offices.
In the eastern half of the centre block is the Senate Chamber of the Dominion, having a membership of 77 persons,
and employing a clerical force of 84; whilst the Commons,
occupying the other section of the centre block, has a membership of 206, being M.P.'s in contradistinction to the M. P.
P.'s of the Provincial Legislatures. The arduous duties of these
servants of the public, for the last session at least, seem to
have consisted in a strenuous defence of themselves as individuals, against accusations of jobbery, bribery and other small m
si
m
P
o
I
2i
H
<1
fW From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
147
corrupt practices, although it is stated that those who
voted for the Syndicate are free from such accusations,
being financially too well heeled and too high priced; but
when such accusations for such paltry sums as $250 are
earnestly entertained against a Dominion M.P., what
then can be the price of a Provincial M.P.P. The total
revenue derived by the Dominion Government is estimated
at some $52,585,501.62, which enormous revenue is
annually expended in governing the 4,000,000 of population. The salaries alone of the Governor General with
the nine Lieut.-Governors of the Province amount to
the sum of $683,967.94, whilst the contingent expenses,
hack hire, ice, stationery, etc., etc., amount to $177,202.91,
not a bad showing for ten men—an expenditure of
$861,170.85, with house rent and other little etceteras
free ; but still the Canadians are a hard set to govern, and
probably the officials deserve the cash, although with all
the resources of the Government it is all they can do to
keep the people from earnest inquiry as to where the
money goes, but its protege's are numerous, and are
composed of relatives and friends of the Government of
Great Britain, Army officers out of commission, with quite
an array of clergy who are trying their hand in a new
country, and who must be provided for. Justice is administered throughout the Dominion at an expense to the
people of some $577,896.58. The cash goes out in
quantity to all supporters of the Government, $489,327.29
is set apart for the Indians; how they get it will be shown
as we get out into the territory. Widows of clergymen are allowed $10,949.37; Geological Survey costs
$52,933.97; subsidies are granted to the amount of
$398,876.76,  whilst  the   allowance for  the volunteer 148
Canada and the Canadians;
service is $777,698.90, the show for which latter expenditure is like that offered to Napoleon the 3rd, all on paper,
whilst miscellaneous fees and favoritism are credited with
costing $101,602.15.
The visit to Great Britain in 1880 of various ministers
finally resulted, upon their return to Ottawa, upon the prepar
ration and final passing of the Bill creating and contracting
for the building of the Canadian Pacific Bailroad, but it was
only after years of disputations, heart-burnings and numerous disappointments, that the construction of the road was
at last determined upon, but the fact is stated, that even now
the line has been commenced without accurate survey, or
estimates having been prepared, therefore it becomes a firm
belief with, many of its well-wishers that the difficulties of
the road that are inevitable cannot be slightly overcome.
The Canadian Goverment binds itself to a pro-cash grant
per mile for each mile completed. So long, then, as the
Government's credfB is good, and the cash be forthcoming,
so long will the C.P.E. boom, and if eventually the line is
completed the total money grant will be $25,000,000, and
the total land grant 25 million acres. The Government
paying but a pro rata, it matters little whether the whole
line is completed or not. The expenditures for surveys
alone on account of this road from 1871 to 1877 amounted
to $3,136,615, of which the London Engineers with their
numerous proteges and favorites are supposed to have
received the lion's share. The people naturally inquiring
what has been done for the sum of over $3,000,000 taken
from the pockets of a half starved community, were answered
oh ! ah! and consoled by the assertion, that the work was
all classified substantially as follows :
lst. Pleasure trip over the ground, 1st season. From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
149
2nd. Pleasure trip with surveyor and Government
preacher as guest, who neither eat pemmican, or drink
alkali water, 2nd season.
3rd. Pleasure trip to revise the last with a few friends.
4th. Pleasure trip with some parties who must be
conciliated.
5th. Cash trips with laborers for locations.
6th. Cash trips for adepts to revise locations which are
now mostly changed.
Such is a synopsis of the work accomplished for an
expenditure of three millions of money, but as regards
those who entrust their money to the enterprise the results
should be known for a certainty or foreseen as far as
possible instead of trusting to a chance that if not propitious may bring ruin and beggary to thousands. The formation of the Company was one of the understandings with
which the people of British Columbia joined the Confederation, for by the construction of the road it will bring the
people of that Province into direct communication with
the Atlantic? Seaboard. The route of the road, so far as
at present can be ascertained, will be from Montreal to
Callender, Lake Nipissing, about 350 miles ; to Thunder
Bay, 650 miles ; thence to Lake of the "Woods, Manitoba,
220 miles, which forms beyond that point a connecting line
with the present one from Winnipeg. Through Winnipeg
to Brandon, below Eapid City, 275 miles; from thence
through the fertile belt to the foot of the Eocky Mountains,
800 miles; thence across the Eockies, it is supposed, by
Kicking Horse Pass (Yellowhead, and Kootenay Passes
having been disapproved of, after aH the expense of survey),
300 miles; thence to Port Moody by Kamloops, Lytton and
Yale, 250 miles; making the total number of miles 2,915, of 150
Canada and the Canadians;
which about 845 are constructed and 2,070 yet to be built.
There is no doubt but that when the spurs of the Eockies
are reached, that engineering difficulties will arise that will
be almost insurmountable, and with the drawbacks of the
climate superhuman efforts will have to be made. before
the line can even hope to be- a permanent one; but once
over the Mountains and into British Columbia, passing
the Lake Kamloops to the shores of Port Moody, the line
will be of great benefit to the people of the Pacific coast,
and a portion may be managed so as to pay its own
working expenses. It is stated that, as the credit of
the Government wanes, we shall hear far more of
annexation, or independence, as a mode of escape
-from the mountain of debt now being piled up. It is
calculated when the engagements to the Syndicate are
paid the total debs of the Dominion will amount to
$203,397,680, which is certainly pretty good for a population of 4,000,000 ; and, estimating the increase at 18 per
cent., each individual will find himself generously provided
with .a burden of $54.27 to wipe out for the benefit of the
C.P.E. and the Government generally. As the colored
gentleman remarked " wen de intrust begins to go out de
kentry jus look out, fur sumthing will hev to drap."
The Hon. Edw. Blake, whilst admitting the existence of
considerable prairie lands along the route, also avers that
there ; are 515 miles in the territory unfit for cultivation,
-whilst in the Eastern section some 500 miles is wholly
unfit for habitation. Labouchere most bitterly condemns
<the enterprise, so it remains yet to be seen whether the road
will be pushed through to completion and ultimate success,
for it is thought that, even should the road become an
.accomplished   fact,  results   would   be   anything   but m
j
<
a
Q
P
<!
w
O 152
Canada and the Canadians;
satisfactory to the investor vand returns from the small
amount of Pacific territory to be drained would have to be
something enormous to even pay expenses, much less
interest on capital and wear and tear of machinery and
plant. The N. P., or National Policy of Sir John A.
Macdonald and his party, comes in for a good deal of
controversy at present. Its advocates point with pride to
the results of the policy of protection in the United States
and of industries fostered and nourished by its protecting
influences. The Opposition contend that, whilst it may be
of benefit to a country with a climate and a soil that can
raise such a diversity of products as not only to supply
the actual, wants, but also all the artificial requirements of
its people, protection will never amount to much in Canada,
for the simple reason that there is but little to protect
either in staple industries or minerals. It is true that the
Canadians have an almost boundless continent from the
banks of the St. Lawrence clear up to the North Pole
itself, but the only inhabitants of those high regions, the
bears, wolves and seals, do not appear to care a cent
whether they are protected by the N. P. or not
PUBLIC OFFICERS..
Eight Hon. Sir John A. MacDonald, K.C.B., Premier
and Minister of the Interior, was born in Scotland in the
year 1815, and educated in Kingston, Ont.; he is therefore
(1882) 67 years of age; has a half-Jewish, half-Scotch cast
of countenance, his face wrinkled and tough-looking, but not
unpleasant to gaze upon. In manner he is genial, and has
constantly a smile for all who approach. In speech he is
cool, collected, and a trifle hesitating, sarcastic, humorous, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
153
and sometimes witty in his remarks, quick to grasp a
subject, forcible in his criticisms, a man whose exterior
gives no signs of the passions ruling within. After being
called to the Bar, in 1836 (note page 42 old edition), he was
created a Queen's Ceunsel, and from the year 1847 his public
Et. Hon. Sib John A. Macdonald, K.C.B.
official life may be said to have begun. From that ©n he
became a power in political circles, and held various offices
until 1867; in 1871 he was appointed one of Her Majesty's
High Joint Commissioners who sat at Geneva on the
arbitration of the famous Alabama Claims, by which award
the American Government received some $15,000,000 of 154
Canada and the Canadians;
British money. He received the degree (Honorary) from
Oxford of D.C.L. (1861); he is also LL.D. of Queen's
University. He was created K.C.B. (civil) by Her Majesty
in 1867; he was K.G.C. of Spain, 1872, and was also
appointed a member of Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy
Council in 1872; sat for Kingstonin the Canada Assembly
from 1844 until the Union, in 1867. Eeturned to Commons
in 1867, and again in '72, '74, '78 and '82. He has taken
part in many important public.measures, and, bike the late
Disraeli of England, is quick to grasp and use every opportunity that presents itself; he manages comfortably on a
salary of $8,000 per annum and other perquisites.
The Hon. Edward Blake, leader of the Opposition, is,
intellectually speaking, the peer of Canadian statesmen. He
was born in Upper Canada in the year 1832, and received
a thorough University education. As a speaker he is
clear, concise and apt, evidently possessing great oratorical powers, and from his leadership great things are expected
by his party. The differences between the Liberals, of whom
he is the chief, and the Conservatives are to a great extent of
an historical character—the Conservative party being the
legitimate offspring of the old " Family Compact" which
ruled the country at its own sweet will in the early times
of the British regime. The " Family Compact" consisted
of the scapegoat representatives of broken-down British
squires, packed off to the colonies to be got rid of, and of a
few sharp men who saw where a good thing was to be got
and wanted to keep it to themselves. For many years the
country suffered the oligarchical rule of the "Family
Compact" until a Eeform party arose in opposition to it and
rebellion resulted. The "Family Compact," although
broken up, spread itself into a Conservative party; and the MARQUIS   OP   LORNE.  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
157
Reformers, flushed with their first success, pushed on ihfc*
battle still further around such questions as the abolition
of the feudal system of seigniorial tenure, the granting of
municipal privileges, extending the franchise, purifying
the election law, abolishing the unjust clergy reserves,
etc.—Whilst these questions were foremost in the public
mind many hard battles were fought, and although in the
end the object of the Reformers was gained on all these
questions, yet they could not be claimed as party triumphs.
When popular clamor could no longer be resisted, the
wily leaders of the Conservatives were wont to yield their
principles to the expediency of the hour, and adopt the
measures their opponents had been endeavoring to pass.
As a consequence the Conservatives have had by far the
longest terms of office, being only ousted when occasionally
some act of more than ordinary official corruption has
aroused the dormant electorate. It is now held by numerous supporters of the party in power that the next few
years will bring about a crisis in Canadian Government;
and, as the present party remain in power until that time,
they will either be permanent or leave the country in such
a state that it will take generations to redeem it. Nothing
is more noticeable in Canadian politics than the absence of
individuality or individual independence, either in thought
or action; to be a party machine, and to be used and
despised, to be driven like dogs and then kicked is the
height, seemingly, of their aspirations, whilst even the papers
who seemingly wish to cultivate and assist in gaining a
hearing for independent expression are started with the
full purpose of betraying into other hands the unfortunate
dupes who may be honestly endeavoring to give expression to their thoughts.    No wonder the rulers feel secure,' 158
Canada and the Canadians;
and openly despise and denounce the vulgar horde who
clothed them with power. The member wears his kid gloves,
whilst the stolen tribute trots the cattle up to vote.
The Princess Louise, wife of the Governor General,
accompanied by her brother, Prince Leopold and suite, left
for England during the summer of 1880 on a visit, to
recruit her health, returning in 1882, thinking, no
doubt, that a continued residence here was hardly
desirable. It was expected at first that her husband,
the Marquis of Lome, would have accompanied her,
but from politic reasons he made a tour of the Lower
Provinces instead. Possibly the Marquis feels that he can
enjoy himself with more freedom in the Dominion than
he can at the Court of St. James, for the Londoners assert
that the Marquis is not over anxious to reside amongst
them, and his stay in their city on the occasion of his visits
was certainly very hmited. The Marquis of Lome is a
fair skinned, blue eyed, light haired, little gentleman, good-
natured, and just diffident enough to be led by the politicians, and to accept the Governorship of the Dominion, so as
to be out of the way of his royal relations, and comes of an
old and noble family. As a matter of interest I give a
synopsis of the history of the family, so far as can be at
present ascertained
MABQUIS OPLOENE.
His Excellency the Eight Honorable John George
Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, Marquis of
Lome, Governor General and Commander in Chief of the
Dominion of Canada. According to the historian Hogg: " It
seems very evident that the ancestors of the present Marquis FKINCESS  LOUISE.  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
161
formed one of the primitive branches of the roving or stranger tribes of visitants to Scotland of the Irish or at least
Celtic races. The first traces of the house are recorded in
the Statutes of Alexander 1st in the thirteenth cs^Jsiry, but
their real start is ascribed to Sir Colin Campbell as far
back as the year 1293. It is stated that the origin of the
Campbells has never been fully and satisfactorily settled,
but it is accredited that one of the first of the name married
the heiress of O'Duin and thus became Lord of Lochow, in
the District of Argyll. Still later another Campbell was
one of the supporters of King Eobert Bruce, and for his
loyalty and friendship to his cause the King bestowed on
Neil Campbell the hand of his sister, the Lady Mary, in
marriage. This was a lucky stroke of policy, for the matrimonial alliance marked the commencement of a new era in
the history and fortunes of the Campbells ; henceforward
their advancement, both political and social, was rapid and
substantial, for the intermarriage with the Bruces gave fortune and fame and lands extending nearly into the heart of
Athol, also the hereditary sheriffdom of Argyll. The head
of the Campbells was summoned to Parliament in the year
1445, and was styled Lord Campbell, but titles being the aspiration of the family, on the accession of James II. that
monarch raised Colin, the grandson of Duncan, to the dignity of Earl of Argyll in the year 1457, at which period the
Lome estates came into possession of the Campbells. Colin
afterwards served in public life under the rule of James III.
and James IV., and his great ambition and success in
acquiring lands and properties gave birth to the by-word, 1 the
greed of the Campbells; " it is also stated that his generation
were men of ability," skillful in detecting and using opportunities."   During the war with Charles lst of England Archi- 162
Canada and the Canadians;
bald, the eighth Earl and first Marquis of Argyll, was a bitter
opponent of that unfortunate monarch, and actively contended for civil and religious freedom on account of finding that
the English King had promised to Lord Antrim the estates
of Kintyre, which had been recently accorded to the house
of Argyll, but the opposition to the English King finally
cost him his head and the confiscation of his lands. In the
year 1661 his son Duncan finding that opposition did not
pay, became intensely loyal, and shortly afterwards, in 1663,
was rewarded for his adherence by having the immense
estates restored to him by the Crown with the title of his
Grandfather, the Earl of Argyll. The next Earl managed
also to get into disfavor with his King, so on the 30th of
June, 1686, in the Castle of Edinburgh, he also parted with
his head to please his royal master, but upon the accession
of King William of Orange the Campbells were again
brought forward, and John was an acknowledged favorite,
so in June, 1701, he was created the Duke of Argyll, on
whose title all true and devout Scotchmen are said to
constantly invoke the blessing of the Lord, presumably on
account of the scratching post question. In the year 1747
-the then Duke of Argyll was called to part with several
important privileges and rank, of power of life and death
over all around him, and it is no doubt partly to the
unlimited power wielded sometimes with extreme cruelty
by the chiefs that some of the present Scottish race,
although shielded under a thin garb of sanctity, still show
on every occasion the results of the training of their forefathers, for such stories as that of Janet telling the husband
to ascend the gallows tree "like a man, to please the
laird," and the constant fear that they were liable to be
strung up to a tree for refusing to plunder or to fight at From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
163
the command of the lords of the soil, made the average
clansman very willing to do such acts, which were then
classed as § devotion to the chief," " romantic fidelity," and
such names and phrases to cover the baseness of their
operations and their chiefs unhappy ambition and quarrels.
From that time the title descended through brothers and
younger sons until 1823, when his Grace the present Duke
of Argyll was born, and who since maturity has held
several high and influential positions under Her Majesty's
Government, and for the edification of those of my readers
who love to roll a genuine high-toned title under their
tongue, I give the honors of the house in full. His
Grace is Duke and Earl of Argyll, Marquis of Lome and
Kintyre, Earl of Campbell and Cowal, Viscount of Lochow
and Glenilla, Baron Campbell and Baron of Lome,
Inverary, Mull, Morvin and Tiry in the peerage of Scotland,
and Baron of Sundridge and Hamilton in the peerage of
Great Britain. He is Knight of the Thistle, a Privy
Councillor (1853), Lord Lieutenant and Hereditary Sheriff
of the County of Argyll, Hereditary Master of the Queen's
Household, Keeper of the Gseat Seal, one of Her Majesty's
State Councillors for Scotland, Admiral of the Western
Isles, Keeper of Dunoon Castle, and of Dunnstaffnage
and Carrick, Chancellor of the University of St. Andrews
(1851), a sometime Lord Eector of the University of
Glasgow (1854), and President of the Eoyal Society of
Edinburgh (1861), LL.D., Cambridge (1862), a Trustee of
the British Museum and holder of various political offices.
The arms of the house are described thus :
Arms, Quarterly; first and fourth, Girony of eight pieces
or and sable ; second and third argent, a Galley or Lym-
phad, sails furled up, for the Lordship of Lome. 164
Canada and the Canadians;
Crest: A Boar's head, Coupeed, or.
Supporters: Two Lions.
Motto, vix ea nostra voco (I scarcely call all this my
own).
The Duke John added ne obliviscaris (forget not), get
more.   Badge Myrtle.
The present Marquis was born in London in the year
1845, and is about three years the senior of his royal wife.
He now manages to rule the Dominion on a salary of
$48,666.66 per annum, with house rent and other little
etceteras free.
In the interregnum, caused by change or absence, the
Government is administered by General Sir Patrick L.
Macdougall, who is also Commander m Chief of the Forces
in Canada, an old and experienced British Army officer
but not necessarily a statesman of renown.
The Princess Louise, Marchioness of Lome, is a lady of
medium height, with a good-natured face, and, were she not
a princess, would be just the sort of lovable home wife to
make a man happy. Although not possessed of a style of
beauty equal to her royal sister-in-law, the Princess Alexandra; still she has that pleasant cast of countenance that marks
so distinctively the children of Queen Victoria. H.E.H.
The Princess Louise Caroline Alberta is the fourth daughter
of Her Majesty Queen Victoria; she is talented and accomplished, and has developed a natural talent in the studies of
drawing, painting and sculpture, fond of reading, with decided literary tastes. Was married to the Marquis of Lome at
Windsor Castle, near London, on the 21st March, 1871,
which alliance at the time was thought to be very condescending on the part of Boyalty. She is the eighth Princess
of whom we have record who married a subject, the others   From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
167
being Eleanor, the third daughter of King John; Isabella, the
eldest daughter of Edward III; Cecilia, third daughter of
Edward IV; Annie and^Catherine, also daughter of Edward
IV ; Mary Tudor, third daughter of Henry VIII, a beautiful
and accomplished princess, was the last who openly married
si subject, but in two other instances princesses have allied
themselves to persons below them in rank, and so popular
did this style of secret marriage become that in 1792 The
Eoyal Marriage Act, which forbade any of the Eoyal Family
contracting marriage without the royal sanction whilst under
the age of twenty-five years, was enacted to put a stop to this
sort of thing, as alliances with subjects were becoming too
common and monotonous; but in the alliance of H.E.H.
with the Marquis, on the 21st March, 1871, all loyal
subjects of the Queen were rejoiced, as it removed another
barrier in the approach to Eoyalty.
Of course, Ottawa being the residence of semi-royalty,
European manners were to come in vogue. The Palace
being the Eideau Hall, court etiquette must be followed
and nobles and titled gentry created, but how to work over
the raw material of Canada into blue-blooded aristocrats
was a difficult problem to solve, so to the tailors, dressmakers and leaders of opinion of the Capital the Canadians
are indebted for some of the absurd and ridiculous fashions
now considered au fait at the Court of Ottawa. During
this administration low-necked dresses, short sleeves, or
doctors' certificates, were first instituted as costume for
the ladies at receptions, and in this latitude it is
especially appropriate and becoming: fancy Mrs. J. Muggins
Jones, weighing 905 or 509 lbs., the wife of a retired eating-
house keeper, after months of earnest supplication, solicitation, and fees innumerable, to ushers, secretaries, and under- 168
Canada and the Canadians;
strappers generally, has at last the wish of her heart and
prayer of her life answered, for she and Mr. J. Muggins
Jones are to be presented at Court. On the day appointed
for the presentation, the happy pair drive to the Vice-Eegal
residence in their own carriage, adorned with the newly-
emblazoned family coat of arms—une saucisse, d&tfx
pommes de terre, assiette, couteau et fourchette d la crosswise, probably. Notice the happy smile that illumines the
countenance of Mrs. J. M. J. as the footman alights from
his post on the box with the coachman, and opens the door
of the carriage for her ladyship to descend; then behold her,
after being assisted to alight, take the arm of her lord, and
with stately tread mount the steps to the Gubernatorial
mansion; then, handing her wrap to the first high watcher
of the door bell, she takes her place in a line with others for
the presentation. Poor Jones all this time feels ill at ease,
he gazes on his brogans, and wonders if No. 16 feet are the
usual size admitted to Court; he gets himself into a profuse
perspiration in attempting to draw a No. 9 glove over a
hand like the hand of Providence, covered with warts and
freckles; finally the kid gives way, and he feels like relieving his mind in good old home style, but is silently admonished by his wife, so he occupies the balance of his-time in
endeavoring to remember the instructions in the book as to
how to accomplish the recherche court bow, but he can remember everything but that and his prayers. The hearts of
himself and spouse are in a flutter, and each moment rise
higher and higher in their throats. At last their names are
called, and they are ushered into the Vice-Eegal presence.
Then behold the couple, at the zenith of their ambition.
Madame Jones, like the Queen of Sheba or an immense lager
bier barrel, attired in a beautiful blue silk, cut bias in the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
171
back, and low-necked to the waist, short-sleeved in front:
warm with excitement, perspiration and grease oozing
from every pore, and a smile of gratified ambition upon her
face. Her better half in his dress suit of black broadcloth
trying to look unconcerned, but missing it every time, with
"great beads of perspiration on his brow, his hands convulsively either clutching his watch-chain or hunting for the
pocket-handkerchief he dropped in the ante-room. There
the couple stand, presented at court, monuments of gratified
ambition, silent, stupid, but grateful and satisfied plumb
down to their boot heels. Jones is soon brought to his
senses by the usher of the red bamboo tapping him on the
head to remind him of his obeisance. All at once he
remembers his court bow, and, in attempting to execute it,
bends too low, and goes sprawEng on all fours. His
spouse, noticing her lord's discomfiture, endeavors to
rectify it by placing her hand upon her heart and
dropping a courtesy, but for such a mountain of flesh
to expand something must give way, so, whilst attempting to courtsey, buttons from the back of the beautiful
blue silk fly in every direction, whilst a lace in her
elegant corsets snapped like a whip, and in attempting
to back out from the Vice-Eegal presence she overturned
a page who'was approaching with a wrap, and sitting
down upon him flattened him out like a pancake on Shrove,
Tuesday; but the ordeal was passed, the presentation
was over, and the Joneses returned to their family mansion, feeling that they were no longer of the lower
orders, and already began to despise the " vulgah horde "
who had never been presented at court. What mattered
the cold and consequent fever that laid that amiable and
aspiring woman up for the next two months, or the at- 172
Canada and the Canadians;
tack of rheumatism that confined Jones himself to the
house, had they not attained the highest pinnacle of their
ambition, and was not Jones when he went to his old sausage factory to collect the rents looked upon with awe and
reverence when his exploits became known to the common
people ; in fact, the Joneses were daily becoming more conscious of their greatness and superiority. It is stated that
several new orders of knighthood will be introduced at
court next season, and will be conferred on the worthy ones,
i.e., those who pay at extremely low prices for cash, and
soon our ears will become familiar with such sounds as
Juke Moses Abram Isaacs Threebal, Lord Squeezem
Banker Smith, Sir Charcuterie Francis, Et. Hon. Cent per
Cent Grabal, etc. It is also rumored that on the return of
Eoyalty the court ladies themselves are to become exclusive and distinctive, and no doubt we shall soon hear of
orders amongst the fair sex that will outshine in dignity
any honors the sterner relatives can acquire or assume.
In order to uphold the anticipated magnificence of the
Court and imbue the commonalty with a due appreciation
of its dignity, it will soon be necessary for the Government
of the Dominion to follow the example of the Province of
Quebec and go to France to borrow a few more millions
at 5 or 8 per cent., and then levy a tax for interest.
Outside of political circles the city is a pleasant one in
which to dwell. Hotels are numerous and well kept, the
New Eussell being one of the finest in the Dominion. Under
the management of Mr. James A. Gouin it has become as
popular an institution as any on the continent. The hotel
is admirably situted, whilst its cuisine is as fine as that
afforded by the boasted hotels of the Pacific coast, for both
the products of the Arctic and equator contribute to its board, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
173
whilst the stranger or visitor will find to his surprise that he
could not have fallen into more pleasant and agreeable hands.
The Windsor is also a noted hostelry, and economical in
its charges.
The trade in lumber at Ottawa is something enormous,
whilst the demand is yearly increasing, and affords employment in the timber districts durmg the winter season to a
vast number of men.
Or"*- OV OTTAWA,
Leaving Ottawa by the Government Bailroad, the Q. M.
0. & 0., now the Canada Pacific, we have a pleasantrun of
115 miles to Montreal. This road, which was built and
controlled by the Government, cost some $13,000,000 in its
construction, and extends from Ottawa to Quebec, a distance
of 293 miles. The roadbed is an excellent one, its appointments well kept, and its service regular; but for some years
the road was run at a loss, being altogether in the hands of 174
Canada and the Canadians;
scheming politicians. Lately, however, the Western Section,
that extending from Montreal to Ottawa, was sold to the
C. P. E to form part of the system of that road ; the Eastern Section is still in the hands of the Provincial Parliament.
Leaving the cars at Hochelaga, the present Montreal
terminus, we hasten to the Jacques Cartier wharf to take
the boat for Quebec—distance by river some 180 miles. The
steamer Quebec, Capt Eobert Nelson, and Montreal, Capt
Burns, perform a daily service between the two cities, and,
so far as the captains can control matters, are pleasant boats
to travel on. The steamers are large and commodious, and
well patronized by visitors and tourists. Leaving Montreal, St. Helen's Island with its recreation grounds, and the
Fort with its breast works, are soon left behind, then comes
Longueuil, the South shore terminus of the S. E. E. E.,
a company who, by the way, have shown considerable enterprise and vitality of late in securing a good portion of the
forwarding traffic, and who anticipate excavating a tunnel
under the St. Lawrence in the near future. Further down
stream a number of low islands are passed, one of which.
Isle Gros Bois, is quite a place of resort during the summer
season.
The French village of Vai-nnes is next sighted. At
this place are mineral springs of the usual class. The town
consists of a number of houses and cottages, clustered about
a double-spired, tin-plated church, a sight common along
the banks of the lower St Lawrence. At about sixteen miles
from Montreal the mouth of the northern branch of the
Ottawa River is passed,, numerous small islands concealing it in part; then for a stretch of several miles the St.
Lawrence widens considerably, the stream being from two § M  From the Atlantic to tlie Pacific.
177
to four miles in width, and presents a grand appearance like
the Mississippi during the June rise, but before reaching
SoreL forty-five miles below Montreal, the river contracts
to about one mile in width with more elevated banks. The
Richelieu River, draining from Lake Champlain, along whose
banks are located quite a numerous agricultural population, enters the St. Lawrence at Sorel. The town, an old-
fashioned one, is one of the oldest settled towns in
Canada, having been founded in the year 1618, and was
formerly the seat of government of the French Governors.
It is populated chiefly by French Canadians, with but few
English-speaking inhabitants.
Leaving Sorel several more small islands are passed, and
the steamer soon enters Lake St. Peter, an expansion of the
St. Lawrence. The lake is some twenty-five miles in length
and from twelve to fifteen miles in width, shallow but with
a dredged channel, now averaging about eighteen feet at
ordinary low water, thereby admitting the ocean fleet to
Montreal.
Trois RiviSres, the next stopping-place, forty-five miles
from Sorel and eighty above Quebec, is also an old and
important town, advantageously situated at the mouth of
the River St. Maurice; numerous vessels load here with timber for Europe. From Three Rivers to Quebec the scenery from the river is beautiful and grand: the eye never
becomes weary of gazing on the ever-changing and varied
aspects of the banks of the St. Lawrence. The hills and
hillocks, many of them replete with historical interest, the
seemingly cosy little French towns and their clean white
cottages along the banks are tastefully laid out and admirably situated, and during the summer seem to nestle in a
forest of verdure; but once ashore, and the dream is soon Canada and the Canadians;
dispelled, for, with the exception of a narrow strip of
bottom land along the St. Lawrence, we find the country
at the back of the hills barren, generally unproductive and
unfit either for agriculture or mining purposes,—like the
Dead Sea fruit—pleasant to the eye but ashes in the grasp.
Then we pass through elevated banks to a bold headland
called Point aux Trembles, passing numerous residences
that in their present surroundings looked really picturesque.
The population of this portion are, with few exceptions,
French, and the churches of the Roman Catholic denomination. Cap Rouge, 8 miles above Quebec, is next passed,
rounding which we come into full view of Point Levis and
the citadel. Wolfe's Cove, two miles above the city,
commemorates the spot where the General landed with the
English army in 1759, to participate in the fight on the
Plains of Abraham. From this point we are soon landed
at the old wharf in Lower Town, which skirts the base of
the rocky promontory on which is located the quaint old
city of Quebec.
QUEBEC.
On arrival at the ancient city the stranger somehow feels
that he is on historical ground and amid old associations. It
was here the adventurous Jacques Carrier, after planting a
cross at Gaspe and ascending the St. Lawrence, passing in
safety the gloomy gorge of the Saguenay, that he wintered
during the winter of 1535-6, in the Eiver St. Charles, by
him called St. Croix. The panorama that greeted the bold
navigator on his first appearance at the foot of Cape
Diamond is thus described: " A mighty promontory, rugged .
and bare, thrust its scarped front into the surging current.
Here, clothed in the majesty of   solitude, breathing the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
179
stern poetry of the wilderness, arose the cliffs now rich with
heroic  memories, where the fiery Count Frontenac  cast
defiance at his foes, where Wolfe, Montcalm and Montgomery fell,—as yet all was a nameless barbarism, and a
cluster of wigwams held the site of the rock-built city of
Quebec.    Its name was Stadacona, and it owned the sway
of the Eoyal Donacona.    But Carrier and his adventurers
were soon besieged by the rigors of a Canadian winter,
the rocks, the shores, the pine trees, the solid floor of the
river, all alike were blanketed in snow ; the drifts rose far
above the sides of  their ships, and a frosty armor four
inches thick encased the bulwarks, and, to make matters
worse, the scurvy broke out amongst the crew, and numbers
of them died, leaving but a few in health.    At last the
terrible winter broke up, and Carrier and his comrades,
having had enough of Canada for one season, and feeling
considerably homesick, took the first opportunity to return,
in order to give the other boys a chance to explore, so, after
setting his men to gather a number of crystals, which he
fondly imagined were   diamonds,  and also  collecting a
quantity of glittering mica, that he thought gold, he stole
or kidnapped  the two  Indian  chiefs,  Tuigaragny  and
Donacona, with their effects, to exhibit on his arrival as
specimens of the natural productions of " New France," as,
Canada was then called, planted the emblem of Christianity,
and sailed away, arriving under the walls of St. Malo, 16 th
July, 1536.    Eegarding Donacona and his Tribesmen so
basely kidnapped by Carrier, excellent care had been taken
of their souls, as also of their furs and other trappings,
which were taken for their passage across.    In due time
they had both been baptized, and soon reaped the benefit
of the rite, since they both died within a year or two, to
the great detriment of the next expedition. 180
Canada and the Canadians;
The next explorer, in the person of Jean Francois de la
Roque, Sieur de Roberval, a nobleman of Picardy, came in
state with the following honors attached (on parchment) :
Lord of Norembega, Viceroy and Lieut. General in Canada,
Hochelaga, Saguenay, Newfoundland, Belle Isle, Carpunt,
Labrador, the Great Bay, andBaccalaos. He also got a good
cash grant from the French Treasury, with which he equipped
five vessels, and to Cartier was given the post of Captain
General, and a divy of the spoils. On again arriving at
Quebec the savages anxiously enquired for their kidnappe
chiefs, then the nobleman, like Jeremiah of old, was
diplomatic, and lied bike a trooper, telling the savages that,
although Donacona was dead, the others had married in
France, and were living in state like great lords. This
season, like the first, was a hard one on these pioneers.
In the year 1542 Roberval, with three ships and two
hundred colonists, made the first attempt at settlement
on the heights of Cap Rouge; here all the colonists were
housed under one roof, like one of the experimental communities of recent days, officers, soldiers, nobles, artisans,
laborers and convicts, with the women and children with
whom lay the future of New France. This first
attempt at a settlement soon proved a failure, and the
Canadians annals from 1542 to 1608 offera perfect blank, no
Europeans having remained behind. On the third of July,
1608, a group of French artificers, 28 in number, under the
command of Captain Samuel de Champlain, were engaged
(on the site where 82 years afterwards, in 1690, was built,
to commemorate a French victory, the church of Notre Dame
de la Victoire) in the construction of an " habitation," and
thus laid the foundation of the future " city of Quebec."
They next proceeded to clear lands for gardens, and, although iii!
BREAK  NECK   STAIRS,   QUEBEC. a From the Atlantic to the Pacifie.
183
suffering terrible hardships during their first winters, soon
obtained a substantial foothold. In the following spring
the colony was augmented by Marias and Pontgrave" with
a number of new settlers. In 1615 the Recollet Fathers,
members of the order of St. Francis, arrived at Quebec. In
1616 the peltry trade with the savages had assumed considerable proportions, and the gains from that trade served
to erect substantial dwellings and churches. The colony
thus founded continued to flourish until the year 1689, when
a Frenchman named DeCallier originated a daring plan, in
which he proposed that France should make herself mistress
of New York and Virginia by purchase, treaty or force,
offering to conduct, in order to effect the desired result,
thirteen hundred soldiers and three hundred Canadians to
Fort Orange on the Hudson and Manhattan (New York),
in order to capture those posts by sudden assault. The
conquest, he argued, would make the King of France master
of one of the finest seaports in America, open at all seasons
to navigation of all kinds, and of a region possessing a fine
climate and fertile lands, which the English themselves
had conquered from the "Dutch." The French King and his
ministers approved of the plans submitted, and the breaking
out of the war between France and England shortly afterwards prepared for the city of Champlain the thrilling
scenes which were afterwards enacted in Quebec upon the
return of Count de Frontenac in 1689. The year following
a Quebecer named de Portneuf started with 50 French
Canadians and 60 Indians to attack and capture the stations
on the Bay of Casco, near where Portland, Maine, now stands,
which stations surrendered after a slight resistance. The
scenes of blood, midnight pillage and destruction by the
Montreal band at Schenectady and by the Three Rivers. 184
Canada and the Canadians;
band at Salmon Falls, with the barbarism and atrocities
committed by the Quebec band and their Indian allies, have
already passed into history, and led to a terrible retaliation
by the English, who, after a series of disastrous defeats
and few victories, succeeded in capturing the City of Quebec after the decisive battle on the Plains of Abraham, on
the 13th September, 1759, a vietory which cost the lives of
the victorious Wolfe and the gallant, brave but vanquished
Marquis de Montcalm, thus bringing the city under English rule. For a while afterwards the bitterness of feeling
between the French and English-speaking communities
entirely placed a barrier to the progress of the city, but as
the younger generations grew up, and a new population
poured in, new suburbs were added, and now the city comprises Quebec within, Quebec without, Lower Town, St
Eochs and St. Sauveur, and numbers about 40,000 people,
Quebec within being entirely walled in—a city within a
fortress. The public buildings are numerous and substantial-, and along the St. Louis, St. Johns and Montmorenci
roads are many residences and mansions that will contrast
favorably with those on the outskirts of London itself. The
citizens generally are sociable and democratic in their
tendencies, and are certainly, taken as a body, the most
conscientious of any in the Dominion; they have several
institutions of benefit to the community, such as the
Museums, Historical Society, Hospital, also a Y. M. C. A.
Booms and various Catholic religious institutions. The
shipping business is but of short duration, the season lasting but from May until the middle of November, and consists almost exclusively of the export of timber and logs,
in which an immense trade is transacted every season. The
monetary value of the exports of   lumber from Quebec From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
185
alofte during the season of 1880 amounted to $900,000.
The City of Quebec, whose name is derived from an old
Algonquin term meaning | take care of the rock," is situated on the upper bank of the St. Lawrence, at the
point where it is joined by the St. Chanles, about 400
miles from the gulf; it bears about 46°49/ N. lat. and
71°16/ W. long. The citadel has often been called the
Gibraltar of America; it is approached both by a winding
pathway and a stairway up the side of the rock from
Dufferin Terrace. Inside the fortress may be compared
to a town in itself. The officers' quarters overlook the St.
Lawrence, whilst the soldiers are located under the ramparts.
The armories, magazines and warlike implements make
considerable show in time of peace, but the day of their
usefulness may perhaps be past, through the introduction of
the numerous inventions of modern times. There is, however,
one consolation, which also makes it a source of pride to
the citizens, and that is its usefulness to the whole community, for at all times the fortress is continually undergoing
repairs, and no sooner does one portion obtain the necessary
improvement or patching than another part gives way,
thus affording employment to the otherwise idle labor of
the city, whilst the officers and garrison support to a great
extent the traders and storekeepers ; the citadel itself
crowns the highest point of Cape Diamond, at an elevation
of some 350 feet above the river, and presents an almost
perpendicular front towards the water. The city is
built from the water's edge along the foot of these cliffs,
in the angle formed by the junction of the St. Lawrence and St. Charles rivers, and ascends upwards to the
walls of the citadel, being divided into Lower and Upper-
Town—the one being enclosed within the walls, and the- 186
■Canada and the Canadians
other skirting the narrow strip at the foot of the cliffs. To
pass from one portion of the town to the other the visitor
has either to take the anscenseur or hydraulic inclined
railway (for which the charge is but 3 cents, and which
saves the passenger over 500 percent, in fuel and energetic
language alone) to the top; or visitors, to enjoy themselves
in the city, should be double-jointed in the knees or wind
their way through steep and narrow streets, with still narrower alleys and flights of steep steps both to the right and
left of them, until they reach the line of the fortifications,
which line stretches nearly across the peninsula in the
west, and runs along a ridge between the upper and lower
parts of the city.
Dufferin Terrace {named after a former governor)
commands a picturesque view, having the lower part of
the city in the foreground, and the shores and waters
of the St. Lawrence, with the Island of Orleans extending
far in the distance. The public garden off the terrace
contains a shaft erected to the joint memories of Wolfe and
Montcalm: it is a Corinthian thaft, mounted on a square base,
and is some 65 feet in height, but the inhabitants have so
disfigured the side on which Wolfe's name was engraved
as to render the former inscription almost illegible. Both
from the terrace and the esplanade most delightful views
of the surrounding country and river scenery are obtained
and enjoyed, and during the evenings of the summer
season, whilst the military band discourses its music, the
terrace is thronged with citizens and visitors. The . new
ProvincialParliaroent buildings are an elegant and imposing
pile, built at a cost to the people of $1,250,000 (the old
Parliament house was destroyed by fire in 1853). Being
the capital of the Province the Legislature meet here to MONTMORENCI   FALLS.  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
189
enact laws for the government of the Province of Quebec
(with its 1,359,027 inhabitants. This being one of the larger
provinces its Lieut.-Governor receives a salary of some
$9,999.96 annually, together with a free residence in the
governmental mansion at Spencer Wood, a short distance
from the city. Some little stir has been created from the. fact
that during the last season the Lieut.-Governor sent in his
little bill in addition to his salary for the amount of $15,243.
which he claims to have spent in carriage hire at Quebec and
Montreal, hotel fare whilst visiting, the Brass band for his
reception, and the uniform for his aide de camp, etc. The
House has a membership of 68, who represent the different
districts, and were paid $500 per session, which amount
on their last assemblage they raised to $800. Now that
the people are beginning to count the cost of these petty
Provincial legislatures and notice the evils they perpetuate,
breeds a feeling of discontent, and starts a more thorough
enquiry, so of late the Government has been most freely
censured; and as numerous members seek to promote misrule for their own advantage, thus rearing and endeavoring to
uphold a government not at all parental and protective in
their dealings with the people, so each succeeding year.finds
the idea of abolishing these local parliaments more and more
in favor with the people at large. The entire debt of the
Province of Quebec is some $18,500,000; but this season they are contracting another loan of $1,500,000, so
as to call it tho even twenty millions. Its total receipts
and revenue amount to $7,504,497.85, whilst its cost of
legislation, etc., foots up $7,212,129.17. The cost of legislation in the Province amounts to 13 6-10 cents per head, per
annum of the entire population, so no wonder the people
are awaking to the fact that they need a tremendous amount 190
Canada and the Canadians;
of governing. Of late years the city has been the scene of
several most disastrous and destructive fires, still she never
seems to profit by past experience, but goes on rebuilding
her dwellings and appealing for aid in the same old style,
paying up her debts and enriching her churches from the
charity bestowed by the world on her citizens. Although
of late a law has been enacted to prevent the erection of
wooden buildings within the city limits, still the majority
are but slightly better, being for the most part wooden erections with a shell work of brick or thin coating of stone.
The Court House, City Hall and Marine Hospital are fine
public buildings. The Lunatic Asylum (and no well regulated Canadian city is complete without one or two; it
almost seems that one-third of the people endeavor to keep
the other two either within the walls of a jail or in the
asylum) is situated at Beauport, 3 miles from the city. The
Asylum is an extensive building and enclosed in its grounds
of some 200 acres, and is the recipient of an annual grant
from the Provincial Legislature of $120,794.83. The Exchange Institute, Historical Society (presided over by Dr. J.
L. Lemoine, Author, Customs Officer, etc.), the Library
Association and Advocates Library, are all institutions of
interest. The city contains a E. C. Cathedral and numerous
E. C. churches, the bulk of the population inclining to that
faith. The English or Episcopal Cathedral is an edifice 135
feet by 75, and will seat from 3,000 to 4,000 people if it is
ever fortunate enough to obtain them. Notre Dame de la
Victoire, a stone structure, was erected in 1690. Trinity
Church, also of stone, is of date 1824, whilst Baptists,
Congregational, Methodists and Presbyterians, although of
later dates, are represented. Hotels are numerous, the St.
Louis and Bussell taking the lead; there are also several From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
191
nunneries, the Hotel Dieu being the principal, and also used
as an Hospital, the Nuns acting as nurses and also as
teachers, the religious institutions being numerous and
conducted on the routine plan. The population being mostly
French, that language, or rather a patois, is spoken in all
circles ; in fact it has become a popular saying, that there
is no chance foT a man to live in Quebec who paries
Anglaise. The wharves along -the river from the Custom
House to the Allan's Dock are substantial and well built,
vessels and steamships of the heaviest burthen and deepest
draught of water come up to the river front. The harbor
between the city and the Island of Orleans, formerly called ;
Isle Bacchus from the numerous wild grapes it produced,
is a large and commodious one, the depth of its waters
being about 160 feet. The tide rises from 16 to 18 feet at
neaps, and from 24 to 30 during the spring.
The Plains of Abraham, the old battlefield and scene of
the struggle between Wolfe and Montcalm, lies on the top
of the hill, or rather on the side of the highest rise, a short
distance southwest of the citadel. A monument was here
erected with the inscription " Here fell Wolfe victorious,"
which inscription the Frenchmen have kindly obliterated,
in order to remove, if possible, disagreeable reminiscences,
so the representatives of each nation now live together in
peace and harmony, willing at any time to assist in exterminating each other, in the" cause of religion, politics,, or
on any pretext whatsoever, either simple or complex.
In the year 1775 Quebec was invaded by the forces of
General Montgomery and the Englishman Arnold. Landing
at Point Levis, a night attack was determined upon by the
American General, for from the lst of December the city
had been invested, and several attacks made but without Canada and the Canadians;
Success, but the night attack was hoped to ensure the
surrender of the fortress. The attempt was duly made by
General Montgomery approaching from the southern and
Arnold from the northern side of Lower Town. Both
attacks were impetuous and made with great courage, but
both failed. In the southern attack, made from where the
Allan's wharf is now located, General Montgomery and
nearly all his personal staff were killed. A tablet has been
placed on the rock about 50 feet above the road, near the
spot where the General and his two aides-de-camp fell.
On the tablet is the inscription, " Here fell Montgomery,
December 31, 1775,'' whilst on the St. Louis road a candy
store makes capital by advertising the fact that the
General's body lay in that house four days. In the attack
from the northern portion General Arnold was wounded,
and, with most of his followers, taken prisoners. The British
being well fortified behind the rocks and ambuscades their
loss was comparatively slight, and the Americans being in
fuE view had to bear the brunt; however they did not
give up the attempt to reduce Quebec, but renewed the
attack the following year, since which time the Ancient
Capital has been free from military threatenings.
It was my privilege, whilst in this city, to see a party
planted in style, under the auspices and according to the rules
of the English Cathedral. In the State in which I was raised
the planting is done mighty quiet like, but here it was a
different thing entirely. A surveyor, a Government official,
had recently handed in his checks away up in the woods
somewhere, and when his relatives got hold of his carcass
they resolved to give him a good send-off, so they published
the fact of his demise, and it was soon rumored around that
he was a Government official, and very rich, so the citizens From the Atlantic to tke Pacific.
193
turned out in force, as if for a gala day : women and children
in their best lined the streets, and clambered around
the palings of the Cathedral, and occasionally a young Miss
would murmur, | Ma, just isn't it lovely ? " and Ma would
respond," Perfectly elegant, dear; and such fine weather
too." About the time the crowds were thickest around the
church the strains of music were heard in the distance, and
soon a band at the head of the procession appeared, lending
quite a charm to the proceedings, and putting the spectators
in excellent good humor. The procession consisted of quite
a number of men in their Sunday black, with stove-pipe hats
and sashes of various colors, either hung over their shoulders
or tied around their waists, beating anything seen lately,
even in electioneering for Governor; then the waggon containing the departed, and following eame hacks, traps and
drays, in fact, it was quite a wholesale turn out. As they
approached the gates the band ceased, and the crowds made
way right and left for the candidate; then six of the boys,
with new gloves and long sashes, unlocked the door and
hauled the lately translated out feet foremost, and as they
went up the steps were met by the two clerks in white
gowns with black hoods, and those two were in such a
hurry to earn their ten spot apiece that they commenced
to read the document before the man's feet were on a level
with the doorway. As soon as they ended the procession
formed again, the band struck up a lively tune, and hurried
him up to the boneyard and planted him in style. It was
the generally expressed opinion of the crowd that it was
the best and most stylish send-off they had seen in six
months, and, as a gentleman remarked, "When Quebec
takes a notion to do a thing up handsome she can, you may
rely;" and each of the throng wished he was a Government 194
Canada and the Canadians;
official and rich, so that some time he might give his friends
such a treat.
We also availed ourselves of the opportunity to
witness the celebration at the Hotel Dieu on the first
Friday in October, the anniversary of " Le Crucifix outrage,"
occasion for which impressive ceremonies^jwas brought
about as follows: The inscription of the day was the
cabalistic letters " I.N.E.I."—Jesus IVazerence Rex Judea-
rorem. In the year 1742 one of the soldiers belonging to
the garrison at the citadel, in order to acquire either fame or
cash, or perhaps both, played off as a sorcerer, and of course
was looked upon with superstitious awe by his comrades
and the natives generally. Finding that he had got a fair
start, he obtained a good-sized crucifix, and covered the
cross and figure with tar and feathers, coal oil or some
other inflammable material, placed it in a conspicuous position in the market place and set it on fire, pretending,
whilst reading passages of Scripture and incantations, to be
working his diabolical arts. The mob started with horror
at his audacity, and the priests cried sacrilege, so of course
the soldier was promptly arrested, tried, Gonvicted and sentenced to make public reparation, and afterwards to serve
three years in the galleys for his short-lived notoriety. So
he was led by the public executioner with a cord around his
neck, bare-headed and bare-footed, wearing only a long
shirt, and having a placard on his breast and back on which
was inscribed the legend, " Desecrator of Holy Things,"
Profanateur des choses Saintes ; he was then marched in
front of the parish church in Montreal, and being thrown
upon his knees he made the amende honorable to God, to
the King and to justice for profaning the image of Jesus
Christ; he was then taken to each cross-road and there From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
195
publicly scourged, after which castigation he was placed in
prison, and finally sent to France to work out his sentence,
all of which punishment he calculated and endured, preferring the galleys of 1 La Belle France " to a residence in
Quebec. In consequence of the act of this soldier the
Pope ordered that public veneration of the relic should
occur on the first Friday in each October, so that, if that old
vagabond of a soldier happens to be drifting around in the
WOLFE'S MONUMENTi
spirit, and enters the Hotel Dieu during these ceremonies,
he will thank his lucky stars that he is not again in the
flesh on such occasions.
Opposite to the City of Quebec is Point Levis, a town
of some 10,000 inhabitants, and terminus of the Grand
Trunk Bailroad. It is here the emigrants are landed on
arrival in the Dominion, and from this point the cattle are
shipped on the outward-bound steamers. The point was
named after a French Jew, Henri De Levis, Due de Venta- 196
Canada and the Canadians;
dour, who claimed to be a lineal descendant! of the Israelite
Jacob (who beat Ids brother on the blessing and pottage
question), and who was just as ready to swindle his
brethren as that hoary-headed old Patriarch. The historian
informs us that in a chapel belonging to the family a
painting was exposed representing the Holy Virgin and a
member of the Levi family, with his hat in his hand.' Two
inscriptions explained the scene : ** Couvrez vous, mon cousin," said the Virgin. " C'est mon plaisir, ma cousine,"
replied the descendant of Levi. Like the Jews of old and
the present, the Levis seemed to have grabbed for all within
reach, and at one time owned the most considerable portion
of the entire town.
The Chaudiere Falls, nine miles from Point Levis, are fine
natural falls and often visited; they are some 130 feet in
height, whilst the cataract itself is a fierce and noisy one, and
can be heard some distance. The station at Chaudiere
Curve, or junction of the G.T.E., is in close proximity to the
Falls.
From Quebec a delightful trip can be made by the Steamer
Miramichi, now commanded by Captain Bouchette. This
vessel, formerly one of the old blockade runners, is now
regularly engaged in the Gulf trade, and makes fortnightly
trips to Pictou, Nova Scotia and Charlottetown, P.E.I.,
calling at the Gulf Ports en route. The accommodation on
board is all that can be desired, whilst the courtesy of the
officers is such that is not experienced by every-day
travellers in other portions of the river and lakes.
Eight miles below the city of Quebec are situated the Falls
of Montmorenci. The road leading to the falls is a good one-
to drive over; crossing Eiver St. Charles several fine residences are passed on the route to Beauport, which village is ii
-ijH
1
!''j ''11 ■BiM^RiKHP*^  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
199
only unlike the ordinary French Canadian settlements from,
the fact of its having a church with three spires and a cluster
of whitewashed cottages surrounding it. Along the road at
intervals are passed monuments adorned with a cross,,
where in summer are frequently found persons kneeling
and performing their devotions, and in turn soliciting
charity at the hands of the passer-by. Arriving at the Falls
you find a pretty little river but sixty feet wide, but the
water tumbles to a depth of 240 feet before it reaches the St;
Lawrence. Some of the professors have gone into ecstasies
over these miniature cataracts, and assert that: " The river
at some distance seems suspended in the air in a sheet of
billowy foam, and, contrasted as,it is with the dark waters,
into which it falls, makes it jRi object of the highest,
interest: the sheet of foam which first breaks over the
ridge is more and more divided as it plunges, and is dashed
against the successive layers of rock, which it completely
veils from view; the spray, becomes very delicate and
abundant from.top to bottom, hanging over and revolving-
around the torrent until it becomes lighter and more
evanescent than the whitest fleecy clouds of summer,
constituting the most airy and sumptuous drapery that can
be imagined, yet, like the drapery of some of the Grecian
statues, which, while it veils, exhibits more forcibly the
form beneath,—this does not hide, but exalts the effects
produced by this noble cataract." There is an opinion that
cannot fail to please—it is so truthful that it is worthy to
be quoted as the opinion of a Presbyterian preacher drawing-
government pay. In the winter the Falls become a scene
of life and rare sport, and the feature that is then added
may be considered its finest. The spray gradually freezes,-
and at length forms a regular cone of one hundred feet or 200
Canada and the Canadians;
upward in height, immediately at the foot of the cataract,
and down this cone come with the speed of the wind the
various tabogganing parties that concentrate there to enjoy
the sport. In the city the Snow Shoe Clubs make this
the limit of their peregrinations, and during an assemblage
at the cone all is mirth, festivity and joyousness, the sleighs
•re"t(fining with their happy occupants present a scene of
-rnlrth. and seeming happiness in the midst of dreary, desolate
and chill surroundings. The natural steps in the vicinity
of the falls are also objects of interest, whilst generally the
whole, historical incidents that happened along its banks*
'with the victories and repulses that were met, both by the
•Indians, the French and,English, render it almost classic
ground.
Sixteen miles down the river we come to the Falls of
Ste. Anne, near which is situated the chapel of Ste. Anne
de Beaupre*, where modern miracles are supposed to be
worked, and where ferns from the grotto and pictures
of the Saint are sold at low prices, C.O.D. The Falls are
situated at the junction of the Ste. Anne river with the
St. Lawrence, amidst wild and varied scenery.
THE  SAGUENAT RIVER.
The Saguenay, one of the largest tributaries, enters the
St. Lawrence river six miles below Tadousac, 115 miles
from Quebec. The river is the outlet of Lake St. John, and
is some 140 miles in length, an excellent stream for ship
navigation, and vessels of the largest size ascend the entire
•distance. The stream itself is a grim, gloomy and peculiar
one; its rough and uncouth surroundings, together with its
eternal gloom, seem to impress the visitor with wonder and
amazement, and make him wish he was home.    Once setn From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
201
few care to gaze upon its beauties again. The ascent of the
river is made almost in stillness, only the monotonous
plash, plash of the steamer's paddles, with the hoarse escape
of steam ever and anon, re-echoing amidst the savage wild-
ness, seems but to make the silence more impressive.
Nature itself seems wearied out, and cast her huge bare
cliffs around promiscuously, with hardly an effort to cover
their cold, bleak and desolate sides with the scantiest
verdure; and it is with a sigh of relief that the traveller
emerges from its sullen gloom. It is wild without the
least variety, and grand even in its solitude and seeming,
desolation, whilst so dreary and monotonous becomes the
constant gazing on towering black walls of rock that any
change to thoughts savoring of life is eagerly grasped.
Over 300 years ago Jacques Carrier landed at its mouth
and rested at Tadousac, and the first mention we have of
the Saguenay is one which well befits its savage aspect,
for Carrier sent a boat and crew to explore its rocky
chasm, which were never more heard of. (He was a wise
man was Cartier, and did not believe in doing himself
what others could do for him.) At the mouth of the river
the water varies in depth from fifty to seventy-five feet,
but once between its walls of rook the depth is never less
than 500 feet, sometimes as high as 750 feet. On either
side, at a distance of about a mile, the cliffs rise up straight,
dark, and weather-scarred, varying in perpendicular from
1,200 feet to 1,600 feet,—such is its. character from its
source until it joins the St. Lawrence. On the right bank
the cliffs are poorly mantled here and there with stunted
pines and scrub timber, but on the left there is scarcely a
sign of life or verdure, and the rocks stick up bare and
rugged in the gloomy atmosphere like the bones of an old
9S» 202
Canada and the Canadians;
world after a terrible volcanic disturbance. Lake St. John,
the head water of the river, is some forty miles in length,
fringed with heavy timber and a level sandy country. Its
waters are clear, and contain numbers of small fish. Eleven
rivers flow into the lake, and yet it has but the one outlet
for its immense body of water.
There is a curtain fall of some two hundred and thirty-
six feet, called by the Indians " Oueat Chouan," flowing into
the lake, and so conspicuous as to be visible for some miles
distant; there are several towns along the Saguenay, and
from which large quantities of timber are annually
exported. A few miles below the southern fall in the
river is Chicoutimi, which is the head of tide water, and to
which point vessels of the largest class ascend for lumber.
Ha 1 Ha! Bay, some sixty miles from the St. Lawrence, is
a fine spread of water after emerging from the gorge of
the Lower Saguenay; it is said the name was given to the
bay, in an ecstasy of delight by a party of explorers, who
were astonished to. find open water after such dismal
realities. At two places, St. Marguerite and between Capes
Trinity and Eternity, where smaller tributaries help swell
the deep black stream, a breach occurs in the wall of rocks
as if some giant hand had torn them forcibly back and
left them strewn and baffled of their power, in uncouth
lumps over the valleys beyond, but these are the only openings, from the silent gloom of this dead river. Than these
two dreadful headlands nothing can be imagined more
grand or impressive; the rugged character of the river is
partly softened, and bears an aspect akin to the canons of
the Sierra Nevada in freshet time; the land wears a look of
life and wild luxuriance which, though not rich, seems so
in comparison with the previous awful barrenness.    Cape i m
From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
203
Trinity is thickly clothed with fir and beech, mingled in
a color contrast, which is pleasant and attractive to the eye,
especially when the rocks show out amongst them with
their little cascades and waterfalls lfee strips of silver
Shining in the sun. But Cape Eternity is the very reverse
of this and well becomes its name. It is one tremendous
cliff of limestone, more than 1,500 feet high, and inclining forward more than 200 feet, and seeming as if
at any moment it would fall down and overwhelm
the deep black stream which flows so cold, deep and
motionless below. Companionship becomes a necessity in a
Solitude like that encountered on the Saguenay, if only to
relieve the mind of the feeling of loneliness and desolation
that seems to oppress all who venture up this stern, grim,
watery chasm, for the idea of mirth abroad seems like a
schoolboy's idea of fun in a graveyard at midnight.
Statue Point is another attraction, where, at about 1,000
feet above the water, a huge rough Gothic arch gives
entrance to a cave. Before the entrance to this black aperture
a gigantic rock once stood; some winters ago it gave way,
and the monstrous block of granite came crashing through
the ice of the Saguenay, and left bare to view the entrance
to the cavern it had guarded, perhaps for ages. The Tableau
Eock is a cliff of dark limestone, some 600 feet high by
300 wide, straight, and almost as smooth as a mirror. At
different points of the ascent steam is shut off, and the best
views presented to the traveller, and plenty of time is
allowed by the captain for a thorough study of the various
aspects of the scenery. In times past the Marguerite and
other tributaries, together with the Saguenay, bore an
excellent reputation for salmon fishing, but in this respect
these rivers are becoming beautifully less each succeeding 204
Canada and the Canadians;
year : all the really productive streams where fishing is a
sport, or even can be made a pastime, are leased to private
parties or individuals, so that the enthusiastic disciple of
Izaak Walton who expects to find good fishing along the
rivers of Lower Canada will return considerably enlightened
with regard to Canadian fishing. At Tadousac the Government have one of their fish-breeding establishments,
and it is said there are so many officials who have to be
supplied, and so many friends in Parliament who watch
with interest the venture, that it takes all the larger size
fish to supply the want of those who advocate the institution. The small fry, from one inch to an inch and a half
long, are turned adrift at the mouths of the rivers to which
they are consigned, where they at once become food for
sea-trout, king-fishers, ducks, gulls, &c. This is now the
sixth year that these fish-breeding operations have been
established, and it is estimated that for every full-growth
salmon distributed to the rivers it must have cost the Government some $75 each fish. One thing is certain, and to
which fisherman and habitants all agree in opinion, that
since the Government has taken to making laws and regulations as to fish and fishing, the fishing has been getting
worse. An Indian was asked if he could give any reason
for the gradual decrease of salmon in the Saguenay dis«
trict, and his reply was: '$ They try make salmon at Tadousac—God not like that, salmon not like that, salmon go
away." In ten days fishing on the "Marguerite " five
salmon were seen in and out of the water, and each with
the unmistakeable mark of the net around its neck ; therefore the best way to go salmon fishing-on these rivers is to
go to sleep or read and smoke and hire an Indian to capture or catch you the fish needed.    The sea-trout fishing o
fy»
s ■*] From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
207
in the Saguenay district is" getting worse and worse every
year. The Bergeronne is mostly reserved by the Government for the preservation of sea-trout, so by the time
the habitants and the Government net have closed their
operations there are but few left to be either preserved or
destroyed.
There are several delightful legends connected with the
Saguenay and the Lower St. Lawrence published at
Quebec, and in the French language, that, will amply repay
the time and labor spent in the translation. L'Omithologie
du Canada, Soire"es Canadiennes, Historical Works of
Marmette, and Maple Ijeaves, by Dr. Le Moine, are all
very entertaining.
l'islet au massacre.
Not far from Bic Harbor there lies a small .island to
which there is attached quite an interesting legend. For
over 200 years it has been known as l'islet au Massacre.
Tradition and history furnish the details of the scene of blood
by which it gained its name. It is related that some 200
Micmac Indians, being about to lemove further up the
country to better hunting-grounds and more peaceful
neighbors, camped on this island for the night, lit their
fires in a cavern amid the rocks, and placed therein their
wives and children. Apparently no place could be better
adapted for their-saifety and security from outside foes, the
cavern reaching some distance back in the lofty rocks
which bound the coast. The canoes were drawn high up on
the beach, their evening meal was ended, the pipe of peace
indulged in, stories were related of the spoils of the chase
further west, and at last, wearied and tired, in fancied peace
and security, these warriors with their wives and children 208
Canada and the Canadians'.;
were sunk in profound slumber, quietly awaiting the
return of the morrow's sun to resume their journey. The
Micmacs slept, but their lynx-eyed enemies, the Iroquois
were wide awake, and had scented out their prey. Silently
approaching the Island, in their birch bark canoes, they
came, until a considerable number were congregated to
compass the destruction of the slumbering foe. Parties
were dispatched in all directions, and came back laden
with birch bark, faggots, and other light and combustible materials, and, when all was prepared and
in readiness, the Iroquois noiselessly surrounded the
cavern, and piled the faggots high above its mouth,
whilst the sleepers were still dreaming inside. They
then applied the torch, and gave their double ye\% their
fiendish and well-known war-whoop. In terror the Micmacs awoke and seized their arms, resolving to sell their
lives dearly, and to defend to the last their squaws and
loved ones, but the scorching flames and suffocating heat
leave them but one alternative, that of rushing out from
their lurking place, it was their only mode of escape from
death most horrible. Wild despair nerved their hearts, and
with one desperate resolve men, women and children
crowd through the narrow passage amidst the scorching
flames, but the human hyenas are on the watch, and as the
terror-stricken ones rush forth a shower of poisoned arrows
mow them down. The Iroquois warrior, gloating on his
victory, flourishes his tomahawk with a yell of triumph and
deadly hate, and soon the silence of death pervades the
narrow abode. The*time from the attack until morning
was then spent by the victors in securing the trophies—the
scalps of their victims, and history mentions that but five
out of the whole company of two hundred escaped with their From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
209
.lives. This dark deed, still vivid by tradition, is often made
the subject of remark by the Eestigouche settlers, and until
a few decades ago the blanched and mouldering bones of
the Micmacs could be seen strewn over the grotto. This
deed is mentioned in Jacques Carrier's Second Voyage, Ch.
IX., and is the subject of a legend in the Soirees Cana-
- diennes.
The student of psychology whilst rambling on the island
of the lower St. Lawrence, or up the silent Saguenay, will
meet with numberless places where deeds of darkness were
perpetrated, in such modes as to still chain the restless
wandering spirit to the things of earth and its wild abode,
whilst here no doubt those disturbed and restless spirits are
still meandering about the places from whence they departed
and are possibly endeavoring by all the means *#ithin their
power to make known through some medium in rapport with
themselves the terrible history of the deeds of their time.
Many are the tales told by sailors and others, which,
although laughed at, cannot be scientifically or reasonably
explained away—the various apparitions of restless spirits
that still linger or visit those gloomy rocks, and of the
plaintive sounds and doleful cries uttered by the Braillard
de la Magdelefoie, so that the secrets so long silent'may yet
be revealed to those who are sufficiently versed with the
workings of the so-called supernatural to pursue and hold
converse with the troubled spirits who have gone before.
ST. LAWRENCE LEGENDS.
Below Cape Desespoir is a treacherous ledge called Eed
Island Eeef, formerly an object of dread to all inbound
vessels. One of the first who suffered from its presence
was Emery de Caen, who in 1629 got his vessel aground 210
Canada and the Canadians;
on the reef whilst attempting to weather Pointe aux Allou-
ettes. A singular disaster and shipwreck occurred in September, 1846, that of the brigantine " Gaspe Packet."
The vessel was owned and commanded by a Capt. Bru-
lette, an eccentric old sea dog, who for forty years had
scanned every creek and shore from Gasp4 to Quebec.
He was a good seaman and a careful navigator, and was
also master of a perverse habit of swearing at his crew on
any and every occasion; it was stated that when any thing
GASPE PACKET.
"riled the old man " he would stand on the quarter-deck
and " cuss " a blue streak, until the peak and throat halyards both gave way, and sometimes he would storm and
rave so much as to loosen the main backstay, and for hours
afterwards the smell of brimstone could be plainly discerned by those whose duty called them aft. The Captain
himself was an enthusiast, he believed in the principles of
Neal Dow, and enforced them most rigorously amongst his
crew. It was an affecting sight, and one to be remembered, to see this old pirate, on a winter's night, when ftie From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
211
rigging was stiff with ice, with beaming countenance, clad
•in his "overcoats and oilskins, with two or three second
mate's nips of real old stingo underneath his vest, stationed
by the galley door, with a kettle of hot tea, dishing it out
by the dipperful to poor shivering Jack as he came down
from aloft, almost benumbed from shortening sail on a winter's night, and who would tremblingly remark that it was
a d d poor apology for seven water grog ;  and, after
ministering to the wants of his sailors, the good-natured
captain would return to his cabin, take a " nightcap," and
then " turn in." As a consequence of the enforcement of
cold water principles amongst his crew, and of destroying
the grog himself, he was continually changing his men, and
those who were continually fed upon such diet had neither
nerve nor courage, but were composed chiefly of the most
ignorant and superstitious class. So one day he shipped
a fresh crew of hands, and left Gasp<3 with a full cargo. A
brisk easterly wind, gradually freshening into a gale, made
the old brigantine bowl the knots off lively. It was the 2 Oth
of September, and the equinox was not far off for the wind
continued to increase. The mate on passing Perce* Eock had
noticed the wild fowl clustering and screaming as the old
brigantine scudded by, and he observed to the captain
that it was a sure presage of the coming storm. The gale
increasing, it soon became necessary to shorten sail; the
mainsail and foretopsail were double reefed accordingly,
and things were made as snug as possible. The night was
dark, but it being a following wind, it was merely necessary to head the vessel for Quebec, and it was calculated
forty-eight hours more would see her at her berth. A drizzly ra,in soon set in, and unmistakable signs of the coming
storm were observed ; drifting clouds and the piercing cry 212
Canada and the Canadians;
of the petrel bade the old mariner beware—it was the
equinoctial- gale, which came howling over the great deep.
Soon the sharp voice of the commander was heard ordering
one of his tea-fed sailors to go out on the bowsprit, and
clew down some of the tackle and canvas that had worked
loose: after some fruitless efforts the sailor came aboard,
and stated he could not perform his task on account of
the violence of the wind.
The venerable skipper " cussed " him for a while, and
ordering him to take the wheel went forward to make all
snug himself. Whilst so engaged, and bending over the
bowsprit, the brig took a green sea clean to her foremast,
and the next minute the skipper was seen on the crest of
a billow, uttering loud cries for help. The " Gaspe* Packet"
was hove to, and an attempt made to lower a boat, but it
was swamped and broke -adrift. Carried onward by the.
storm went the old brigantine, leaving her commander to
his fate, and soon despair seemed to take possession of the
minds of all on board, for old " Brulette " had ever been
the soul and ruler of the " Gaspe* Packet," always being
able to enforce his commands either by an oath or a belaying pin, and the Jacks knew him so well that they never
thought or stopped to think for themselves. The mate was
.so awestruck by the catastrophe as to well-nigh lose his
reason. He retired helplessly to the cabin to pray : a sailor
was placed at the wheel, and once more the vessel headed
for Quebec. In addition to being well grounded inBrulette's
.temperance principles, his crew were very superstitious,
and totally devoid of that self-reliance and nautical knowledge for which the Canadian caboteurs are so conspicuous,
•for no sooner had darkness set in on the troubled waters
than down came the steersman, and at his heels the cook, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
213
vowing by all that was sacred that a black object, which
they were certain was the captain's ghost, had passed over
the brig. One sailor alone, who had brought his own grog
aboard in his chest, seems to have been free from these
vain fears, but he was a new hand and not familiar with
the coast: he was bewildered by the rain and darkness, and
allowed the " Gaspe Packet" to take her own course, merely
keeping her head straight. Some time had thus passed,
during which the vessel had shipped some heavy seas,
which swept the deck and poured profusely into the cabin,
where the mate and the rest of the crew were engaged in
prayer, then, without a moment's warning, a terrific crash
was heard, and the foremast went by the board, the vessel
had struck on Eed Island Eeef, the roar of the surf and the
dim outline of the land soon revealed that fact. At this
moment the slight hope which still lingered in the breasts
of the crew seemed to have fled. The brig had not been
stranded many moments when a huge wave inundated the
cabin: the intrepid steersman rushed below, and heard the
voices of his shipmates begging him to join in a vow to La
Bonne Ste. Anne, the patron saint of the mariners. Some
of the affrighted hands even went so far as to promise their
next year's wages, which they could safely do now that the
skipper was gone, but the Saint was not to be conciliated,
and had evidently heard such promises before, for she refused to help or even aid them for less than spot cash; so
whatever the brave seaman thought at that moment of the
Saint, he evidently considered it his duty to do his utmost
"to help himself, and knowing the vessel would go to pieces
in a few minutes, he seized one of the hatches, lashed himself to it, and watching for a coming wave he dived over
the side of the ship. He drifted with the ebb and back again 214
Canada and the Canadians;
with the flood tide the whole night, and was picked up in
the morning near the south shore of the St. Lawrence, and
he alone of the entire crew of theil Gaspe* Packet" escaped
to tell the tale of terror and shipwreck.
Gaspe*, on Gaspd Basin, was at one time quite a noted
port, being the rendezvous for the fishing fleet of the entire
coast, beside considerable timber business being transacted.
Now, since the consolidation, the harbor seems to have lost
its charms somewhat, and although there are delightful
legends connected with its coast, and former piratical and
citizen wreckers, passing visitors do not seem to care about
remaining to acquaint themselves with its mode of life, or
to explore the scenery or its surroundings. There are
several large firms who still employ numerous hands and
fit out quite a fleet of fishing boats, the industry alone
assisting materially to support the business of the town.
The country itself is unattractive enough, being for the most
part unproductive sands and rock, although interspersed
at intervals with, patches of seeming fertility ; but the
inhabitants generally, being Norwegians or Swedes, and
trade having fallen off considerably, the attractions for
settlers are not very numerous. Although food, in the shape
of black bread, molasses, fish and pork, seems plenty and
to spare in each family, and freely shared with the stranger,
still, if confined to the one article of diet for a few years, a
man is apt to become weary of life and sigh for release,
although the " boys " assertl( it's good enough, so long's
there's plenty." It is stated that quite a number of rich
veins of lead and copper have been discovered in this
vicinity, and that there are every indications of a valuable
deposit of these metals, so possibly at some future time the
minerals and oil with which it is believed the country   From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
217
abounds may become a source of wealth to this people.
There are already a few lead mines some little distance off
that are said to be worked to an advantage, and to yield a
profit to their owners.
From Gaspe* the coast presents several features of
interest. The rock or headland west of the bay temiinates
in a perpendicular cliff overhanging a column of rock,
which is known as the "Old Woman." The shore,
after leaving, presents a long low line of red sandstone, worn and indentedi nto all manner of shapes by the
action of the winds and waves. The various rocks and
islands now passed present to the beholder some peculiar
configurations, the result of the continual wear and action
upon them by the sea.
HALIFAX.
Keeping well to the north and east of the Magdalen
Islands, around St. Paul and Cape Breton Islands,
then to the southward and westward, we soon come
in sight of the light off Halifax harbor—the city lying well
back on the hill, almost in the bight of the bay or inner
harbor. The harbor of Halifax affords a splendid anchorage,
and is used by the British as the naval station for their
North Atlantic squadron, and also a coaling depot for
homeward-bound steamships. As a military station it
was formerly well garrisoned, but of late the soldiers
stationed have not • been very numerous. It was found
by the authorities that after an enfeebling service
in the West Indies or India, the bracing atmosphere of'
Nova Scotia and Quebec was of immense benefit to the
men, and therefore took advantage of the situation offeredi Canada and the Comadians;
to locate their military and naval posts. It was in the
city of Halifax that the famous Fishery Award Commission
brought itself into notoriety, and whose actions and practices
may yet foment bad blood amongst the citizens of two
great nations. The City of Halifax, the capital of Nova
Scotia, is situated on an eminence, and is connected. with
the interior and northern ports by rail, which makes the
circuit of the inner harbor; it lies in about the same latitude
as Bordeaux, France, 44° 30' N., but, unlike the latter
city, has not the soothing influences of the Gulf Stream to
moderate its winters and render pleasant the summer
months. The city at present contains some 45,000 inhabitants, and, being the shipping terminus of the Intercolonial E. E., is striving to become the winter port of the
Dominion, but as yet several obstacles seem to arise that
will have to be dispelled before the wish is realized : petty
and sectional jealousies will have to be dissipated, energy
and enterprise must be evinced, elevators erected, and
public opinion so enlisted as to make the port a trade
centre, and a port for commerce. At present both Boston
and Portland monopolize a large proportion of trade through
the enterprising spirit of their merchants that might
otherwise have been diverted for the benefit of Nova Scotia,
and it is doubtful that, were the subsidy that is now granted
to the " Allans " revoked, whether the vessels of that line
would ever call at the port. Approaching from the sea the
view is a fine one, but the country around is poor, comprising rocks and sandy stretches, and clothed with a
verdure of scrub pine, with very little arable or agricultural
lands, therefore the inducements held out to settlers to
reside in its immediate neighborhood are neither very great
nor very promising, w
I
0
f-A
i  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
221
On entering the port of Halifax from the ocean the view
of the land is very gratifying to the eye, through the outer
harbor or bay, which will afford good anchorage to the navies
of several nations. The sail is delightful—a naval review
would no doubt be a very pleasant sight to witness in its
waters ; thence through the inner harbor, and once landed
through the depot, you find the streets of the city narrow,
dingy-looking thoroughfares, lined with apparently dilapidated dwellings, reminding one somewhat of the older French
portions of Quebec or Montreal, although on the rise are
several blocks of business houses, well built, and faced
with granite, that would reflect credit upon business architecture of any city further west. The city of Halifax
numbers some 36,000 people, whilst the entire Province
of Nova Scotia contains a population of 440,672. Her
Lieut. Governor receives but $9,000 per annum, and her le-
giclators are paid by the session. The barracks for the use
of the garrison are a substantial and well-built block of
buildings, said to be but seldom excelled even in Europe—
another result of Great Britain's foresight for her soldiers
who have passed through so many vicissitudes in her service •
by the time of their transfer to this point, they are well-drilled,
cool and patient, and of the right material to render good
service in case of need, therefore it pays to keep them in
good health. The banks, court house and cathedrals are
fine structures. The City Hall and Hospital comprise the
public buildings. The people complain some of the publicity of the assertion by their neighbors of New Brunswick,
viz., I That the Nova Scotians are blue-noses, and that they
and the Cape Bretons pry the sun up with a handspike."
Whilst they acknowledge the soft impeachment that their
noses may at times be blue, still they indignantly deny Canada and the Canadians;
that they have ever interfered with the habits of the sun,
and I for one believe their assertion, for, if the glorious orb
of day had to rely on the Nova Scotians for an early start,
he would have to omit many a day's work in the course of
the year. The Nova Scotia E.E. Co. do considerable local
business, transporting the general products of the country
by their passenger trains to the coast. Freights are mostly
composed of truck and car loads of bricks and ice, of which
products of skill and nature immense quantities are annually shipped; the supply of material being considered by the
natives exhaustless, it must be a source of permanent wealth.
It is needless to state that the breaking open of freight
cars and the appropriation of property whilst in transitu
is a crime of very infrequent occurrence, if not entirely
unknown throughout the Province. The cost of keeping
the prisoners of the province in the Halifax Penitentiary
amounts to $24,807.83 annually, whilst the revenue derived from the inmates of the institution is but $6,122.14.
It seems there is no fishing worthy of the name in Nova
Scotia, although numerous schooners are fitted out from
her ports, but they find their best markets elsewhere, and
the ignorance of the people respecting their neighbors of
the adjoining Provinces is something remarkable. The
country from Halifax to Windsor is yet as nature made it:
scrub timber, a mass of boulders, and bare rocks. Lakes
abound, and on several of them companies have established ice houses, with railways complete, for exporting ice to
the States and elsewhere. Some miles inland the country
changes, the rocks are softer, and include shales, sandstone,
limestone, and beds of clay, and in this portion the country
is cleared and well cultivated. The tide at Halifax rises
but four feet, whilst at Windsor, where the current has to From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
223
turn a point-, the tide rises some 40 feet. In wider parts of
the Bay some 30 feet is the average, but in the Bay of
Minas the water sometimes rises as high as 75 feet. • In
some parts of the Bay are whirlpools that are considered
dangerous, and where the stream runs over 9 miles an hour,
and the sight is astonishing to notice what a few moments
before seemed to be a harbor of mud covered with rushing
turbulent waters. About high-water mark the shores are
strewn with boulders of coarse granites and other rocks
foreign to these districts. In winter the Bay of Fundy
freezes, and the great tides pack the ice until it looks
like the boulders on the shores. No doubt the ice
moves the granite boulders and cuts into the grooved
banks like a saw. Ice marks abound in the district,
and even at the summit level of 550 feet are discernible. There is an entire absence of high mountains,
and local glaciers could not be accounted for on that hypothesis, but the marks on the highest tops correspond in
direction with marks on the sea level twenty miles away.
The boulder clay contains fragments of sandstone, and the
coal measures lie to the N. 50 E. in Cape Breton and N.
W. in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.
The hills range in altitude from 800 to 1,000 feet above
the sea level, and extend almost due east and west from
Truro to a total length of about 100 miles, and average
from ten to twelve miles in breadth.
The prevailing geological formations in the Cobequid
Hills are granite, porphyry, and clay slate in the upper
portions; above the shores of the bay, limas, and on the
northern side red sandstone and the coal measures. The
range is claimed to abound in minerals, a large vein of
specular iron ore occurs close to the line. No doubt, in the Canada and the Canadians;
.future, the region will attract the attention of capitalists.
Stellarton is the centre of a rich coal district. Iron ore is
also found here in large quantities, and a furnace is in operation. The Albion mines have been worked some fifty years,
and a few miles away are the Drummond, Acadia and Black
Diamond mines. New Glasgow is some three miles from
Stellarton, and situated in one of the richest mineral terri •
tories on the continent; it also has an extensive ship-building .trade, some of the largest vessels hailing from Nova
Scotia having been built here. A .track some five miles long
is laid from the mine to Abererombie Point in South Pictou,
from which place the coal is shipped. The best mine3
on the northern coast being those in the vicinity of Pictou
and New Glasgow. In the former place are not only
found excellent mines of coal, but valuable quarries of
building stone have been the means of producing a finely-
settled country in its neighborhood, and. its trade is considerable in stone, lumber, coal and fish, whilst that of New
Glasgow is assuming considerable importance. Brigs and
schooners from all portions of the American coast resort to
Pictou, and the exports of this little town have at times
amounted to considerable. The population is much the
same class of men that.are found amongst the " Geordies "
or in Wigan and Swansea, but are not as intell:gent and
energetic as the miners of Pennsylvania, probably because
they are fewer in number and more under control; but
churches are numerous, therefore a continued residence
amongst them would be the only means of ascertaining
correctly their ideas and their ambitions.
In this district, as generally throughout Nova Scotia, the
Scotch element predominates.
Opposite the town, the harbor extends and branches im* From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
225
East, the West and Middle rivers, several mines and the town
of New Glasgow being situated on the East river, boats also
run-up the others.   Naturally one of tbe attractions whilst
JACQUES   CARTIER.
here is to go " down in a coal mine, underneath the ground,"
which can be done by taking the steamer that runs regularly to the mines, and then making known your intentions 226
Canada and the Canadians;
to the foreman, who can generally find some one to chap-
erone you for a small consideration; then, if you are under
the guidance of an old miner, he will conduct you to the
mouth of the pit and bid you step into the cage or swinging
bucket, then, with a " lower away" to the engineer, you
commence to descend, and every once in a while hear the
wire rope or chain crack above your head, which somehow
makes you feel a little nervous about dropping into the
black abyss, seemingly so far below. On arriving at the
level, some hundreds of feet below the surface, you are
taken in charge by a guide with a grimy face and blackened clothes, who, with a bull's-eye lantern attached to his
cap, leads the way, and somehow or other, here in the
darkness and groping your way through those flickering
lights, you begin to think that at some sharp turning you
may come suddenly in contact with His Satanic Majesty
himself; and, when you remember the horrors the. preacher
depicted and the unpleasant odor of the brimstone, the
feeling comes over you that you wish you had not come
and would like to go home. Some of the miners on the
lower levels work in such cramped-up positions that on
arriving at the surface it is found almost impossible to
straighten, and after a few years' service the acquired form
of the body has become the most natural and comfortable
position. The mines are worked daily, and during the busy
season by additional gangs at night, the day gang returning
to the surface each shift, but the horses are left constantly
below to perform the work of hauling from place to place, as
new levels are found and new veins struck. The vocation of
a miner is alive with peril and fraught with danger, but the
men themselves are a venturesome, jovial set, generally
speaking, who view very lightly the hardships they undergo, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
227
and even the numerous accidents are soon obliterated and
forgotten as soon as the danger is past. The explosion and
flooding of the mines and the recent Stellarton disaster are
already becoming to be quoted as a happening of the long
ago.
Twenty-four miles north-east from the City of Halifax
stands the grand old Mount Uniake, a basaltic deposit
whose rugged aspect gives but few signs of the mineral
wealth embodied in its formation. Its crystalized rock is
permeated with seams and veins of gold, silver, and other
minerals, copper that represent the wealth of the world at
large, and will in no distant period become the means of
attracting thousands to its vicinity, for, being in close
proximity to the city, and connecting with a series of hills
of easy ascent, no difficulty will be experienced in transportation ; whilst further to the north, beyond the hills, the
soil becomes prolific, and is well watered and admirably
adapted to agriculture and the sustenance of a mining
population. Some of the hiEs scattered over this portion
of Nova Scotia produce a remarkable variation of the
magnetic needle, thereby indicating the presence of a body
of magnetic ore, and are supposed to be wonderfully rich
in precious metals ; but further north volcanic forces have
in the long distant past produced extraordinary results:
limestone, granite and trap-rock are heaped in a confused
mass, presenting a surface at once rough and rugged, and
which will take both enterprise and capital to thoroughly
explore and lay bare their riches. Being easy of access
and close to a port of entry, with the continued improvements in stamping and quartz crushing machinery, Mount
Uniake offers to the investor unequalled inducements to
develop her resources.    Mr. Henry Hogan of Montreal, 228
Canada and the Canadians;
and also an extensive stockholder in the De Lery gold
mine in the Province of Quebec, is also the owner of a claim
on Mount Uniake, comprising some 18 acres in extent area,
a
p
H
P
O
3
WKsmm
21 specimens of which upon being assayed through the
ordinary fire assay produce the following results : over 1 \
ounces virgin gold to the ton, being a production of
over 30 dollars per ton near the surface lode, and continually becomes richer as the vein is worked.    Some three From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
229
barrels of the ore have been already sent to Boston, U. S.,
which has shown a result of 3 J ounces to the ton of quartz,
say about 67 dollars per ton. As improved machinery is employed, the mine is expected to yield on an average over 3
ounces per ton.
But to return back again to the Capital (which report
has it is situated  just three   miles  from   H , but
that libel was evidently circulated by an early settler in
disparagement of the country), gazing over the waters of its
harbors to those of the deep, broad and restless blue Atlantic beyond, silently meditating, and oh ! the many scenes
and memories of years gone by that come rushing to the
mind; episodes that transpired upon its waters that at
times were productive of terror, at others of delight.. The
waters, now so placid and tranquil, seem hardly a part of
the same ocean that gave us such a terrible experience on
the night of the 18th of October, 1858, when the homeward-bound Australian " Eoyal Charter " met her fate off
Puffin Island, or the angry seas that rolled over the monster " Great Eastern " 500 miles westward of Cape Clear,
or those over which our swift blockaders were chased whilst
making the South Carolinian port, each trip being fraught
with danger and death both from cannon on the surface
and chains and torpedoes below. The .waters now so
still, with scarcely a cat's paw to disturb their glassy
serenity, seem as if repenting of their boisterous actions
and alluring fogs, when the noble "Atlantic" with her
living freight went head on to the bleak and sombre rocks
to her destruction, and the loss of nearly 500 human lives.
The terrible strength and fury of its wild waters when once
aroused is never obliterated from the memory of those
whose callings require them to brave its fury whilst in its Canada and the Canadians;
passionate moods. The first trip of the- good steamship
"Minnesota," in the fall of 1872, comes vividly before
me : the fourteen days' combat with the winds and sea in
the Bay of Biscay ; the death of the quarter-master at the
wheel, with his ribs crushed in by the cruel spokes ; the injuring of the sailors; the burials at sea, in the height of the
gale; and, after escaping the perils of the ocean, the fire that
caught among the coals from combustion, and at the critical time the break-down of machinery on Christmas day,
whilst still 300 miles eastward of Havana; the bending of
the stanchions under the cotton deck; and the sliding of the
cargo of railroad iron, that momentarily threatened
destruction to over 200 souls on board, and the prayer oi
thankfulness and sense of relief experienced when The Hole
in the Wall and Great Isaacs were first sighted. The heartfelt eulogies that were passed upon those gallant officers and
true seamen, Captains Hamlin and Johnstone, are memories
that time cannot obliterate whilst the ocean remains to be
contemplated. And still another experience comes before the
mental vision: not of cahn seas and hidden dangers, but
when mighty Boreas assumed full sway, and compelled
affrighted mortals to do him homage and acknowledge his
sceptre. The hurricanes experienced in the spring of
1876, when the barometer, even for the " roaring forties," was
unusually low, the highest pressure being 28.80. The
hurricane is thus alluded to by a fellow-voyager: At two
o'clock on the morning of Feb. 11, the barometer, which
had been stationary, unusually low, commenced suddenly
falling, and the wind that had been blowing a gale from
the north-west suddenly veered to the south-west, and
by six a.m. was blowing a gale from that quarter; at nine
the gale increased to a hurricane, and the sea, " cross and From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
231
angry," literally ran mountains high. The ship was
" hove to " with her head on, but the force of the wind was
tremendous; hailstones struck with such violence as to
indent the woodwork where they fell; it was impossible at
times for any human being to stand on deck, except under
the lee of some of the houses or bulwarks, the waves making a clean sweep of the ship, and carrying with them
everything that was not well bound down. At twelve
next noon, after hours of painful anxiety, the hurricane was
at its height, and a heavy double sea struck the ship, completely submerging her and burying her deep in the foam.
There was a moment of suspense as the feeling that the
vessel was settling down came over one, but a gentle throb
from the engines gave signs that she was yet rising; the
officer on the bridge found himself standing in the midst of
the boiling foam, with the feeling that the ship was gone
from under him, and as he clung to the iron rails the storm
canvas was swept away, and the iron stanchions bent
like wire. As the ship righted, the damage was ascertained.
The chart room, officers' rooms, surgery, with all the deck
houses, were entirely swept away, timbers were smashed,
and the trim, staunch ship wore the appearance of having
passed through a fire. The gallant Captain Sadler with his
chief and second officers had a narrow escape with their
lives, whilst everything belonging to them was swept away
by the sea; heavy seas were shipped afterwards, but the
force of the hurricane was spent, so, with a succession of
south-easterly gales, the good ship made the port of New
York. Such are some of the dangers encountered by those
who tempt the moods of Neptune, but on days like this the
mind easily drifts away off, on the dark blue waters of
the Gulf of Mexico or over the light green of the coral 939
Canada and the Canadians;
reefs, amongst the West Indies, around the Florida coasts,
or skirting the " ever-faithful Isle," but such reveries are
soon dispelled when we notice the practical, every-day life,
indulged in by the fishermen who make this port their starting-point ; and surely a cod-fisher's life is not to be envied,
for it is generally laborious work and heavy risks. The
manner of their occupation usually followed is this : the
owner of the schooner, who is often the captain also, hires a
crew of from thirteen to fifteen men to work on " sheeres,"
that is, so many parts of the profits for the owners, so many
for the captain, and a divide amongst the crew of the remainder. After shipping, a day or two is occupied in fitting out,
mending sails, setting running and fixing standing gear, and
getting the vessel ship-shape. The cook is sometimes sent
up town to lay in stores, and generally after ordering the
provisions down takes a parting glass and returns next
day, and sometimes under escort, to the great relief of those
who were anxiously waiting for eight bells and grub time-;
then sails are bent, decks washed off, touches of paint here
and there, ends of lines whipped, ropes coiled down, and
standing gear properly seized; a jigger all around, and, with
a fairwind, the fisherman stands out for the offing. Now he
finds where the discomfort begins : with a crew of from thirteen to fifteen or sixteen men, for one half to be below in the
narrow limits of the cuddy, and in bad weather with the
hatches closed, is something stifling, whilst on deck it is a
continual drench. The first day out and our fisherman is
transformed into something approaching a farmer, with a
hoe in one hand, and a bucket hard-bye. The crew are all
searching the shore for bait in the shape of clams, and in
the course of a day or so enough have been dug up to serve
for the trip.    From the baiting-grounds to the " Georges From the Atlantic to the Pacific,
233
Banks " the time is generally occupied in mending line,
splicing in hooks, improvising trolls and other tackle necessary. Then, on arrival at the fishing grounds, the kedge is
dropped, and the crew are patiently seated on deck with
their feet under the rail, in the wet, the chill and the fog,
patiently tending their lines and chawing terbaccer, and as
fast as the fish are hooked throwing them into the " well."
At times in the midnight watch, when all seems so peaceful and serene, some huge monster of an ocean steamer
comes along and crushes over the poor fisherman without
ever feeling the shock or stopping her engines, and from
fancied security he is hurried into a watery grave. Lucky
he deems himself if in a week or two the " well" is full,
and they make back for a market with a successful catch,
and obtain a fair amount of cash to recompense them for
their labor, still, year by year, does the fisherman have to
venture further and further from the coasts in the quest of
good grounds, until now the favorite localities are some
thousand miles from the shores of America.
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island,
the three provinces that comprise the Eastern portion of the
Dominion, contain in the aggregate some 750,000 inhabitants, hardly a sufficient number to populate a fourth-rate
city. Still these provinces have three mimic houses of Parliament, with all the attendant dignity and paraphernalia;
two houses of Eepresentatives, and three Lieutenant Governors ; in fact, if the strangers do not meet over five officials
out of a possible six inhabitants or acquaintances it is quite
a subject of remark, and speculation is rife about the vacancy
that is thought about to occur. But this muchly-governed
little country brings to mind very forcibly the Mississip-
pian's opinion of "Louisiana's Government," that it was 234
Canada and the Canadians;
nothing but a two-bit arrangement all around! From Halifax to St. John, New Brunswick, is but a distance of 276
miles : here, as in Nova Scotia, Neal Dow's principles are
formally enforced, and the only way for the bibulously-
inclined to satisfy his longings is to " go to de docter," as
the colored gentleman advised his questioner, " why, boss,
de only way what you kin git relieved of dem ere
cramps is to go de drug-store man, fur dere is a female
sainmtery (seminary) near town, andde probation laws is a
gwine here." So after paying heavily for a prescription, and
imbibing some of the meanest concoctions of spirits and extracts, you fancy that the scriptural inj unction was altogether
wrong and astray, or at all events not adapted for these provinces, when it recommended to " give strong drink to him
that is ready to perish, and wine to they that be of heavy
heart." Of course throughout this barren unproductive
region should anything be taken that would make glad the
heart of man, it would possibly deplete his purse, and, as
the opportunity would in all probability never again occur
for him to obtain another nickel or a dime it would be the
height of folly to waste or expend that amount on a pleasure that was but momentary, for, as a' friend remarked,
"I feel pretty bad to-day, I have been reckless, and
another ten cents has gone to the devil."
PRINCE  EDWARD ISLAND.
From Halifax to Pictou is some seventy miles over a rocky,
hilly, and generally unproductive, country; and from this
coal region to Charlottetown is but fifty-five miles, whilst
means of communication between the two ports is kept up
regularly d uring the season by steamer. Charlottetown is the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
235
capital and principal port of Prince Edward Island, and
contains 11,435 inhabitants. The Island is some one
hundred and thirty miles in length and thirty-four
miles in its greatest breadth, averaging eighteen miles;;
it is divided into three counties, Kings, Queens and
Prince, and contains a population of 103,871. It is.
an excellent farming country, and its soil is very fertile. Its,
coasts on all sides are very much indented by inlets from the
sea, several of which form good harbors. The Island itself"
lies between 46° and 47° N. lat., and between 62° and
64° 30' W. Long. The Island is situated in the southern,
portion of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and is separated from.
the mainland by the Strait of Northumberland; and from,
Cape Tormentine in New Brunswick to Cape Traverse in-
P. E. I. is but a distance of nine miles. It seems there-
were several claimants, from John Cabot down, who asserted
that they were the first discoverers of the Island; but,,
as possession was nine points of the law, in the year-
1523 one Verazzani, in the employ of the French
Government, planted, as was usual in those days, the
emblem of Christianity on its soil, and claimed the whole
region round about for the King of France, although no
attempt for the settlement of the Island was made- until
the year 1663. In that year a French naval officer obtained
a grant of the Island from the company of New France
for the purpose of establishing fisheries along its coast,
somewhat after the style of our modern M.P.'s obtaining
North West lands for the purpose of stock-raising, farming,
distilling, etc., etc., to benefit the country at large. In the
year 1713, and after a war of over two years' duration
between France and England, the Treaty of Utrecht was
entered into, and the Island began to be a settled Province, 236
Canada and the Canadians;
and Port Joy, now Charlottetown, was first founded by the
French; and it is claimed that in the year 1728 the population of the Island was about 300, and at the time of-the
Treaty of Fontainbleau, in the year 1763, the French had
peopled the Island to the number of some 8000. In
that year the Island was plaeed under the jurisdiction of
the Governor of Nova Scotia, who had it surveyed and
divided into sixty-seven townships or lots of some 20,000
acres each, which divisions still exist. At that time the
British were intent upon extending their territory and
planting colonies, so they started to .give or grant to settlers,
upon certain conditions, this fertile little Island; but so
numerous were the applicants that they organized a lottery,
and the Island, in the shape of prizes, was awarded to some
sixtyiseven lucky ones, or numbers. Of course as a high-
toned moral and Christian nation, she would not countenance such a proceeding at this day. Thegrants were issued
through Lord CampbeU, Governor of Nova Scotia. Two
lots of 20,000 acres each were bestowed upon fishing companies, and one lot of 6000 acres was reserved for the
King, thereby showing that he was not very ambitious of
owning much stock on this side of the Atlantic. In 1770
the British Government, having no use for an Island so far
from its shores, made a separate Province of it, and
allowed the Islanders to govern themselves, first appointing
a governor to keep them in the traces. During the
American war of independence this Island was often visited
hy privateers, lettres du Marque, and other vessels in
American service, and at times their visits were not without interest, especially in the vicinity of Charlottetown, for
not only the Americans, but the Nova Scotians cast a
longing eye in the vicinity of the Island, and at one time
ssra From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
237
laid plans for its capture, but they fell through. On the
north-western and west by southern portions of the
Islands are extensive sand bars that make it dangerous for
a mariner to approach in too close a proximity to its shores.
The country has its mimic Upper and Lower Houses of
Parliament, officers, civil, State, and ecclesiastic, with its
Lieut-Governor—who receives but $5,000 for his important
services — judges, justices and other civic dignitaries
too numerous to mention, who administer public affairs
with an amount of dignity that is at once ludicrous and
amusing, and it is certainly a problem for the new arrival
to solve how so many officials exist when, apparently, there
are no private citizens to support them, but I suppose they
were aU in the lobstef factories or out fishing. An appropriation of $2,000 is also made for the benefit of the Indians
resident on the Island. The Island is a good place to
spend a few weeks and on little cash, but for a permanent residence and have to work for a living the " Good
Lord deliver us!" In many of the harbors on both the
northern and southern coasts are finely-fitted yachts belonging to residents) and it seems strange that regattas that
have Charlottetown or Summerside for a terminal point are
not more freely indulged in by Portland, Boston and New
York. Good deep-sea fishing can be enjoyed at almost any
point off its shores, and the summer traveller wflQ. certainly
find it to his advantage to hurry through the Upper
Provinces and spend a few pleasant weeks in this vicinity.
To the northward of P. E. I. are situated the Magdalen Islands, some seven in number; they are inhabited
chiefly by fishermen and those engaged in fishing and
coaling interests, so although their homes seem bleak and
desolate, still they enjoy in a comparative degree a sense of 238
Canada and the Canadians;
independence, and a freedom from the cares, tricks and
tribulations of this designing universe, as to render them
far happier in their poverty than many of their favored
countrymen further west. Icebergs and islands of ice are
frequently met with in crossing the Gulf of St. Lawrence
in summer months, which are thought to have descended
from the regions of Hudson's Bay or Davis Straits, whence
they have been detached or severed from the main body by
the violence of the storms that occur in those latitudes,
and passing by the coasts of Labrador are carried by the
indraught of the current into the straits of Belle Isle,
thence through the Gulf into the open sea. Summer visitors
to these latitudes will find both health and strength derived
from the trip, whilst in the middle of July or August they
will have ample opportunity for wearing winter clothing
and donning their overcoats at night.
•m
NEW BRUNSWICK.
The City of St. John, the commercial dep6t of the Bay
of Fundy, is situated on the Harbor and at the mouth of
the river of the same name, and distant from Halifax
some 276 miles, and is also the chief business town in
the Province of New Brunswick, containing at present
some 26,188 inhabitants, being a decrease during the year
1881 of 2,627 people, and is built upon a rocky
peninsula of very uneven ground, sloping from a central
ridge. A great deal of labor has been employed, and
capital expended, in cutting down the hills, and leveling
the streets. The principal wharves, docks and warehouses
extend to the north and around the head of the basin,
to within a short distance of the Falls, some five miles up
■tilt.- From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
2J9
the St. John Eiver. The whole shore is lined with timber
ponds, booms and ship yards, which receive the timber
floated down the river.
The harbor of St. John is a safe one, but not very
spacious or commodious, especially at low' water. From
its shallowness, and the strength of the current, large ships
generally enter the harbor on the top of the flood tide.
The tides rise some twenty-six feet, and, therefore, great
facilities are afforded for repairing and launching vessels :
for during the ebb the shores and a number of docks are
left dry, but during the flood the harbor is easy of access
for the largest ships, but a strong free wind is necessary to
enable sailing vessels to enter without the aid of a tow-
boat. The approaches and the shoals are well marked and
buoyed; the beacon on the bar is crowned by a good light,
whilst on Partridge Island, at the entrance to the harbor,
there is a fine bight-house, battery, signal station, and hospital. The trade of the city consists mostly in the export
of timber, shipbuilding, and the prominent industry of
Nova Scotia, the Israelitish occupation of making
brick. The whole district of St. John is rocky and broken,
and viewed from any of the eminences the scenery is bold
and picturesque : the river at low water dashing forward in
columns of spray rushes through a narrow gorge into the
harbor, and covers the surface of the water with wreaths of
foam. The whole basin of the river seems to be covered
with ships, steamboats, and small craft. Its buildings are
substantial, and compare favorably with any in the provinces, whilst with the people there is a kind of don't-care-
a-cent, independent air, that is certainly refreshing, in
relief to the manners of some of the cities in Upper
Canada. -**■
240
Canada and the Canadians;
The Province of New Brunswick is chiefly noted in history
from the eternal quarrelKng and fighting amongst its early
settlers to obtain possession and a foothold for their respective governments. Until the year 1784 the colony of
New Brunswick formed a' portion of Acadia or New
France, and was considered a part of Nova Scotia. During
the reign of Henry IV. a speculator named De Monts
made the third attempt at colonization in the province; he
received from his sovereign almost unlimited powers and
privileges, titles and patents of nobility that covered fourteen skins of parchment, and which took him three days to
read in order to discover how great a man he really was.
His commission embraced aU the territory from the 40th
to the 46th degree north latitude, or from Hudson's Bay
to Virginia; and he had the monopoly of the fur trade
over all that tract of country then called New France.
Those old kings and potentates of Europe Gertainly did
things up in style when they liked to encourage a favorite,
and were as liberal as our Parliament to the Syndicate in
giving away that which they hardly owned, buty at any rate,
had no use for.
De Monts was a Protestant, so he at once borrowed all
the cash he could from his friends to further his enterprise
(history does not state that he ever returned it, or even gave
his note for it), got permission to give his religion a fair
show, on condition of his providing a few Catholic missionaries for the conversion of the natives, and to open up
trade; so, having plenty of Christianity, as a kind of a
cheap stock-in-trade, he set sail, and on the 16th day of
May, 1604, he arrived at Eossignol (now Liverpool). At
this place he found one Eossignol, whose name the harbor
had received, trading with the Indians, and at once asked n
p"
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oi
j
H
PS
<!
O
o
o
ft  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
243
the poor fellow to show his license, and Eossignol never
having heard of such an instrument or knowing what its
virtues were, or even who had authority to issue such a
thing, spoke out truthfully, and said that he had one all
right, but he left it at home, for his wife to make a bed
quilt out of; whereupon De Monts informed the trader
that he was afraid he was prevaricating, for nobody had
authority to isstie such things except De Monts the Great.
He therefore immediately seized the vessel and goods of
the trader for lying, and by their sale enabled himself to
carry out the Christian colony scheme, which, otherwise,
would have failed. He then sailed along the coast to the
westward, and Gaptured four more French vessels that
were engaged in trade,; and whose captains were
unacquainted with the license question, so with the results
of the spoils captured from contraband trade he had accumulated quite a little pile, and planted colonies right
along the coast; had the country surveyed, discovered
a vein of iron ore, sent home specimens and word to his
friends that he had " struck it rich " " on a silver mine."
His friends in the Old Country suddenly found out that
they loved him immensely, and began to look up anecdotes
concerning his progenitors and the status of their own
relationship, and numbers of them found life unendurable
so far away, so they longed to be near their friend and in
the vicinity of the silver mine; but after their arrival they
found he was mistaken in the quality of the material, for
the silver proved to be the shining specular iron, yet found
on Digby Neck. Then his relatives suddenly lost their
affection and all wanted | to go home," but De Monts quietly
left them in his new colony and went home himself, and
afterwards returned, bringing several more colonists and 244
Canada and the Canadians;
also a respectable lawyer by the name of L'Escarbot, who
soon quieted the murmurings of the former lot by informing them that, if they returned, they would be sent to
the galleys, so he advised them, to devote their energies
to the introduction of agriculture and the importation
of domestic animals. There is but little doubt that it was
from acts of violence committed by such characters as De
Monts, Carrier, Poutrincourt and others, who were the first
voyagers to America, upon the natives, that they were
induced to cherish that spirit of retaliation that was afterwards so terribly manifested upon whole villages of European settlers, when neither sex nor age was spared from the
tomahawk and scalping knife. In the year 1625,
Charles I. renewed a patent formerly granted by James I.,
in the year 1621, to Sir William Alexander, in which he
gave away " all the country from the St. Croix to the St.
Lawrence," including " the whole course of the St. Lawrence to the Gulf of California," which included the whole
of Canada and the chief part of the United States. An
order of Baronets were created to hold jurisdiction over the
country, and they solemnly assembled on the castle hill
of Edinburgh, Scotland, to take legal possession and rule
over a world unknown. Another instance of the bounty of
a liberal monarch. Some of the Baronets never even visited
their possessions that, had been so freely bestowed, but
those who did come found the French already in possession,
and not in the least disposed to give up their possessions
peaceably. From that on at different times there was nothing
but periodic quarreUing and fighting between the French
and English settlers, but the French, with the aid of the
priests, got a little ahead, for they offered a premium for
their men to marry with the Micmacs and other tribes of From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
247
Indians, and by a Frenchman marrying a squaw, and
an Indian a French woman, they made their interests
mutual, and gained a savage ally in time of war, and also
produced a tribe of mongrels who reside in the Province
to this day. During the 17th century barbarities of the
most horrible description were practised upon the rival
settlers, and when they could find no rivals to practice on
they turned upon their own countrymen, after the style of
" Chamise," of Penobscot, besieging Madame La Tour, on
the St. John, but that woman fought him gallantly, and it
was not until after several attacks in different years that
he was enabled to subdue the brave little Dame.
The Province of New Brunswick extends nearly North
and South, and lies between 45° 5' and 48° 20' N. lat.,
and between 63° 50' and 68° W. long., forming an irregular square between Nova Scotia and Quebec. On the north
it is bounded by the Bay Chaleurs and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, which separate it from Gaspe"; north-west by the
Eestigouche river; on the east it extends to the Gulf; a
Peninsula joins it to Nova Scotia on the south-east, and it is
separated from that Province on the south by the Bay of
Fundy; on the west it meets the State of Maine. It contains
some 26,000 square miles, and is probably the'richest in
minerals of the Lower Provinces; it has a population of
321,233, whose indebtedness per head amounted in
1880 to the sum of $17.77. There is a great diversity,
in the appearance of the Province: the lands on the
whole northern coast slope gradually down beneath the sea;
the water is generally shaUow, and along the ocean border there are banks of sand and shingle. The water in aU
the rfcer channels is deep enough to admit the largest
ships.    On   the northern   side or   coast of Gaspe the 248
Canada and the Canadians;
shores frequently present bold oVer-hanging cliffs. Along
the coast of the Bay of Fundy there is a tract of hilly
country, but few of which attain any considerable degree
of elevation. The scenery is wild and picturesque; bold cliffs
and rugged precipices, deep valleys, the quiet lake, and the
dashing waterfall are often presented at a single view ; the
forests in summer time appear like green waves rising above
each other. The north-eastern side from Bay Verte to
Bathurst presents a low and level surface, unbroken by
hills. Marshes, bottom lands and peat bogs are peculiar to
this tract, and extend in a S. W. direction to the river St.
John; this is the region of the New Brunswick coal fields*
covering an area of some 5,000 square miles. The Grand
Falls of St. John are only surpassed by the cataract of Niagara, and are some 200 miles from the mouth of the river.
Having its waters considerably increased by its numerous
branches, the river sweeps through the country, and expands
itself into a beautiful basin just above the cataract, but the
basin is suddenly contracted, and the river turning to the
south rushes into a deep rocky gorge only 250 feet wide; the
water falls into the gorge from the front and from each
side, and the river makes a leap of 58 feet over a perpendicular cliff. In the mist is seen the rainbow, and clouds
of white spray float over the cataract, whilst the noise of
the water pouring over the rocks reminds one of Niagara
itself. The entire fall of the river at this point is some 116
feet. In the freshets of the spring the broken ice for many
miles drifts down the river, and in the shallow water close
up and collect in enormous masses, forming what is called
an " ice jam," and the pent-up water extends far and wide,
causing a freshet that sweeps away cattle, buildings and
everything within its reach: logs, trees and dwellings are From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
249
borne along, and aid in forming the obstruction, whilst the
inhabitants themselves, having reached higher ground, form
interesting groups as washed-out families.
The surface of New Brunswick presents a confusion of
heterogeneous substances, but it will be found upon inspection that not only the rocks but the soils succeed each
other in regular rotation or strata: the rock itself is first
seen protruding through the soil or rising into mountain
ranges, yet the action of heat, frost, moisture, and other
meteoric agents are constantly reducing the flinty mass,
and forming a fertile; soil which, if not retained on the
table lands and slopes, is carried by the torrents down to
the valleys to render them more favorable for agricultural
purposes; then come boulders and, succeeding these, extensive beds of gravel, sand and clay, above which the soil,
varying in thickness, and differing only from the general
deposit beneath in being reduced to a finer state, and
by containing remains of the vegetation that once flourished
upon it. The soil derived from trap rock contains much
potash, and almost always produces hard wood, such as
beech, birch, maple, oak, ash and butternut. Granite
and syenite soil are also favorable to those growths, but
where there is a sufficient depth of earth, and the land is
sandy, white and red pine grow to a large size; but, owing
to the inowjpions and raids made upon the timber of the
province, in the course of a few years the supply will be
thoroughly exhausted. The people of New Brunswick claim
that their vegetables are the finest produced in America,
and they certainly have some grounds for that belief,
although they hav# -competitors in both Nova Scotia, Cape
Breton and Prince Edward Island; but their potatoes are as
near perfection as can be found, and are both so delicious Canada and the Canadians;
in flavor and mealy to look upon that they would make the
heart of an Irishman rejoice. Apples, turnips and hen fruit
(or eggs) are produced in great varieties. Many may disparage the statements concerning the product of the fowl, but
it is so—there are over sixteen varieties of aigs produced in
this Province.
The climate differs but little from the Province of Lower
Canada; frost is seen some seven months in the year.
In the summer twilight is seen after nine o'clock in the
evening, whilst daybreak occurs at two in the morning.
The aurora borealis is very brilliant at all seasons. The
break-up usually occurs during April, and by May the
weather becomes settled. It is still in tradition that, after
the wizard was expelled from the Isle of Man, he came to
New Brunswick and brought with him his art of covering
the country with a fog in order to delude and befog his
enemies. The climate is a healthy one, and without a doctor
can get hold of a genuine Old Country patient, or invent
some new disease, he has a hard row to weed to get a
Most of the practitioners generally board around
like a school-master, and look out for chances, such as
broken legs and accidents to lumbermen or river drivers.
One of the industries, like that of Quebec, is the making
of maple sugar, from which occupation considerable revenue
is derived by the inhabitants. During the months of March
and April a vast quantity of sugar is made in the province ;
the trees are numerous and in good seasons will yield
from three to five pounds of sugar per tree; the quality is
good when properly made, whilst the process is extremely
simple. As soon as the sap commences rising, in the
spring, the tree is tapped by boring a hole with an inch
auger, four inches deep;  a small spile is then inserted, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
251
through which the sap flows to the tub or pail beneath. The
sugar, although sweet, has a certain disagreeable woody taste *
to those who have been accustomed to the products of the
cane, and it takes some little time before it is fancied for
every-day use. On the lands of many of the seigniories in
the Lower Provinces are regular sugar farms, producing a
sure revenue at very slight cost. The trees run best when
the days are warm and the nights frosty. The juice at
present is evaporated in a very primitive way, that of
boiling in deep kettles. There is room here for the introduction of some of the southern evaporators and boiling
pans, although to get them adopted would be a work of
time. It might become a source of profit, and quite
health-giving, for a company to form in order to invite
young Englishmen and Americans from the cities to
take a trip to the Province, in order to shoot moose,
carriboo and deer, or trap for bear and beaver. There
was a real Virginian deer seen here in 1818, and the
skins of the other animals are valuable when obtained.
Fishing, both lake and river, can be indulged in, with considerable success. Salmon are plentiful in most rivers,
and rise freely at a proper fly, and will afford the angler
admirable sport. Trout are numerous in almost all streams,
and are taken by the children, with a baited hook, fastened to a piece of twine on the end of a light pole. The best
fly to fish with is the red hackle, and the weight of the
fish is from a half pound to six pounds. The Tobique,
Aroostook, Miramichi, Nepisiquit, Upsalquitch, and Eesti-
gouche are the best rivers for sport. The fisheries of New
Brunswick, and especially those on the Eestigouche, have
already become the subject of considerable talk and
comment—the authority arrogated to himself by the Biver
mm 252
Canada and the Canadians;
Warden being almost absolute in his district, and only
equalled by his insatiate greed. Being at once Eiver
Warden, with a good salary, Hatchery Inspector (also
with salary) paymaster for the district (small remuneration)
his opportunities were many and varied; but amongst them
all this overburdened official manages to exist through the
fisheries department, and is happily saved and providentially spared to become the means of assisting his
immediate relatives, for his expenses show that he pays
one son several hundred doUars for procuring trout ova,
and another a large amount for catching parent salmon,
the class usually sold to sportsmen and tourists. No
wonder the sportsman, after paying toll for the privilege
of fishing a portion of the stream or pool, always finds at
the end of the stay that the salmon are caught in another
portion just a little " higher up," and are exultantly exhibited by those who know the ropes.-^-Moral for amateurs :
always stand in with the Inspector and you will catch
salmon. Salt-water fisheries have always been a source of
revenue and income to the Province, but, through the enterprise and energy of the Americans, the " Brunswickers " are
being rapidly crowded out, and their industry monopolized—
mackerel, herring, gaspereau and cod being the chief kinds
sought, and this industry alone gives employment to some
thousands of men. The boats employed are well fitted,
staunch and sea--worthy, and on leaving are filled to the
hatches with, salt, empties and provisions. Along the deck
are empty puncheons and casks, whilst for each man six
mackerel lines, completely fitted, are attached to the
stanchions in the bulwarks. The hooks used are about the
size of salmon hooks, with a jig or bright- piece of metal,
which in the water resembles the sepia.   Nets are sometimes ■-.:.'■'"- m
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255
used. When in with a " school" of mackerel or other fish,
pork, old rags, red shirts, and other materials, are thrown
into a bait mill and ground up, the inside of the mill containing a revolving set of sharp knives, and the product, upon
being turned out, is something like putrid sausage meat—
this is called poheegan or squash—and, when signs are on, a
hogshead of this mixture is thrown overboard, and the
mackerel rise in shoals, covering at times the surface of
the water for miles, and for hours afterwards all hands
are actively employed in hooking, jigging and drawing in
the fish. Then, all of a sudden, as if by magic, the fish
disappear, and the vessel has to move to new grounds.
The Americans have got the science of fishing down so
fine that they can come into the ports of the provinces, and
sell fish, at a profit to themselves, at less figures than a
native can afford to catch them for. The inhabitants of
the coasts and islands engage in the different employments
of agriculture, fishing and lumbering, therefore they
cannot devote their attention entirely to one pursuit.
In conclusion, I would advise the traveller to devote
some time in exploration of the Province, for he will find
it both an interesting and instructive pursuit.
Leaving St. John we take the cars of the Intercolonial
E.E. for the return to Quebec. This road is a Government
one, built as a military necessity, and at present is run at a
serious loss; its working expenses, being an excess over the
revenue produced, in one year amounted to $716,083.53.
Eighty-nine miles lands us in Moncton, the head-quarters of
the railway and junction with the main line on to Halifax.
The town numbers some 5000, and is situated on thePetit-
codiac Eiver. The shops being located here, it is, like Hamilton, a railroad town, but has a good suiTounding country.
HP 256
Canada and the Canadians;
Taking refreshments at Moncton we rush onward through
a level and uninteresting country, passing Newcastle,
seventy-eight miles away, and situated on the bank of the
Miramichi Eiver, one of the largest rivers in the Province,
it being some 220 miles in length, whilst at its mouth it
attains a width of nine miles. Thence on to Bathurst, some
forty-four miles. The country is undulating, the vegetation
good, the soil being a sandy loam, and the scenery attractive.
The townis the usual stopping-place for younganglers about
to be initiated into the mysteries of salmon-fishing in the
Province of New Brunswick. On again past CampbeEton,
Metapedia on the boundary between Quebec and New Brunswick, through the Morrisey rock tunnel, 300 feet long, and
the only tunnel through rock in the country until those
through the Selkirk Eange are constructed. Crossing the
famous bridges over the Eestigouche and Millstream we run
up the Metapedia Valley past the Notre Dame mountains,
and come to a halt at Bimouski, a town of about 1500 inhabitants, the station at which the English mails are landed
and taken on board the mail steamships. The country
about here is terribly afflicted with mosquitoes, and at
every stopping-place these ubiquitous insects pour into
the car in countless myriads.
Leaving Bimouski, sixty-six miles lands us at Eiviere
du Loup, thence 126 miles brings us to Chaudiere Junction,
seven miles from Quebec, at which place we connect with
the Grand Trunk Bailroad—this section being under the
management of Mr. Gregory; thence 100 miles to Eich-
mond, a town of 1500 inhabitants, and situated on the
St. Francis Eiver, seventy-five miles S. W. from where
it joins the St. Lawrence. It is from here downwards
that the logs are gathered in drives, and at certain seasons From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
257
a boom of logs blocks up the river for miles, covering the
entire surface of the water and rendering it impossible for
even a skiff to ascend. At Eichmond is the junction of the-
road through the Eastern Townships, which follows the St.-
Francis Eiver to Sherbrooke, situated on the St. Francis and
Magog Eivers, and the best business town between Montreal and the Line. The rapids on the Magog Eiver, within
a half mile of the town, faE a distance of 119 feet, thus-
furmshing unlimited power to the various industries
located along its banks. The town contains about 5000-.
people, and is mainly supported by manufacturing and
milling interests. Some attempts are being made to introduce the cultivation of beets for the purpose of making'
sugar, and a factory is now being erected. Between this,
place and Island Pond, on the borders of Vermont, is.
Coaticooke, a duU, uninteresting little town of probably
1000 inhabitants. The scenery around the Pond is.
delightful and attractive, the ranges of green hills forming
a circlet around a pond of clear water of some seven miles im
length and two in breadth, in the centre of which, at short,
distances from each other, lie three. smaE islands covered
with verdure, as with a carpet, that assist materially in.
making the town a favorite place of resort for boating and
fishing parties.
But back again, through Eichmond, we resume the.
route to Montreal, some seventy-six miles distant,
passing the French town of St. Hyacinthe, a thriving place of
nearly 8000 inhabitants and situated on the Yamaska.
Eiver, forty miles above its outlet in Lake St. Peter;
next comes Mont Belceil, a conglomeration of three
hills on the summit, in the centre of which is an-
excellent lake  of the. purest water,   derived from the.
a
mm 258
Canada and the Canadians;
fall of snow during the winter. The hotel situated on
the mountain is a favorite resort for Montrealers during
the heated term. Thence, in less than an hour, once
more we are landed at St. Lambert, so before crossing the
bridge we take the cars of the G. T. E. and Central
Vermont, making a pleasant run through a level and uninteresting portion of the country to St. Johns, twenty-seven
miles distant. The town contains about 4000 inhabitants, is
weE situated on the St. Johns or Eichelieu Eiver, but a
few miles distant from the head of Lake Champlain.
The community surrounding are farmers, and the town is a
prosperous one. Twenty-three miles further south we come
to the pretty little village of Souse's Point, situated within
the boundary Enes of the State of New York and on the
northern edge of Lake Champlain. The town is a pretty
one, and has been binlt up in part by the industries that
have located near the Line. The printing estabEshment of
John LoveE & Sons has probably contributed as much
to the success of the towns in the N. E. portion of the
State as any other industry. At present the hotels are
good, business fair, and the town rapidly growing in favor
with summer visitors. A neat Ettle paper, The Sun, is
published, under the editorship of W. S. PhiEips. Five
railroads centre at the Point, so its prosperity as a railroad
town is no doubt assured.
Beturning by express, a short run of an hour and a half
lands us again in Montreal, at the famed St. Lawrence
HalL It was on our return we met the Ex-President of
the Southern Confederacy busily employed in finishing the
details connected with the issuing of his work on the
" Eise and Fall of the Southern Confederacy." In person
Jefferson D_avis is yet remarkable—a venerable gentleman, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
259
whose inexpressible benignity of countenance and cour-
teousness of demeanor cannot readily be forgotten by those
who have had the pleasure of meeting him. Although in
his seventy-third year, with his hair of snowy whiteness, in
health and looks he appears younger and more vivacious than
he did sixteen years ago; his form, though fragile, is still
erect, his bearing still courtly and dignified, with that frank
and genial way so noticeable amongst the old-time Southern
gentlemen, and whose simple nature has endeared him to
every Southern heart, and won respect and friendship even
from his enemies; whilst his friends have proved their
devotion to the cause and their chieftain by the sacrifice
of their lives, and his countrywomen have had a noble
example set them in Mrs. Dorsey, who donated her entire
estate, and thus provided the Ex-Chief with his beautiful
home at Beavoir, Mississippi. In Canada he stiE has many
professing friends, but, should they be again tried, would
probably repeat the war record of professing friendship
and sympathy for one side whilst money could be gained,
but seEing their countrymen, relations and friends to
whoever would buy for a few paltry doEars, thus following out their scriptural principles of being all things to aE
men, and at the same time making money.
From Montreal we take a run north of the St. Lawrence on the branches of the Q. M. 0. & 0., passing St.
Vincent de Paul, a village of some 2500 inhabitants, with
its Penitentiary and its 350 unfortunate inmates, who produce a revenue to the Province of some $3,459.02, against a
cost to the country of $88,826.35; thence through the sand
dunes to Joliette, a French Canadian town of some 800Q
inhabitants, at which point the gentlemanly bailiff wished
us to take note of the intense respect that the population
mm 260
Canada and the Canadians;
.
had for fjj process of law." A storekeeper was sick in bed,
and a creditor in the city of Montreal, thinking he might
die, ran in a seizure before judgment. The proprietor
having been found, the bailiff announced : " Excusez-moi,
il est malheUreux et bien pehible, j'ai une saisie a pratique"
sur vos biens, meubles et effets." H Sacre',,, exclaimed the
merchant, u I have no notice, I was not even sue, ze note
is not due, and I am getting well, my property is large,
why you not wait to see if I die ? % " That makes no difference, I must seize," replied the bailiff. " Merci, bon, ze
law is just, help yourself," replied the merchant, and thus
do country traders pay the expenses of city sharp practice.
Cutting again over a sandy and, in spots, entirely barren
country, through the little villages of St. Sophie and New
Glasgow to St. Annes, soon we are again in the city, thankful to the powers that our lot was not cast at birth in this
portion of our great continent. Leaving the city for the West
the most pleasant and agreeable route, for a short distance
at least, is to take the boat from the city ascending through
the canals. The passengers being comparatively few in
number, the time occupied in the ascent as far as Kingston,
172 miles, being two days, the time is most agreeably spent.
During the day the refreshing breeze keeps everything
cool and acquaintances are formed, whilst in the evening
the saloons are put in trim; the officers and passengers
assemble, music and singing are indulged in, and the
company upon its final separation remember with feelihgs
of pleasure the few happy moments enjoyed whilst journeying up the Great St. Lawrence, moments that are only
equalled on the continent by the dehghtful journeys up the
glorious Mississippi, so parting from the famous "Algerian "
with its   genial Captain, John Towerwell, at Kingston, From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
261
drive a short distance out of town to the Depot, and take
the Grand Trunk cars, thence rapidly passing Belleville
and Cobourg, in a few hours are landed once more in Toronto.
The section of me country at Cobourg, Port Hope and
Whitby is well supplied with railroads running some
hundreds of miles north, penetrating into the free grant
lands of Ontario, and even reaching into the Parry Sound
and Muskoka Districts, the latter being the district to
which the Oka Indians, of the Ottawa, have been recently
removed by the Seminary, as the land which was brought
into cultivation by them is now becoming marketable and
therefore of value. From Toronto a three hours run by
the Northern Eailway brings us to the town of Barrie,
situated on the westerly armlet of Lake Simcoe. Orillia,
Beaverton, Jackson's Point, and Belle Ewart, are all resorts
situated on the side of the Lake, which is a pretty sheet
of water, and studded, as these northern lakes generaEy
are, with smaE rocky islands. It is about 40 miles long
from north to south and some 25 miles wide; its waters
are elevated some 474 feet above Lake Ontario and 134
feet above Lake Huron, the surplus waters emptying
through the Severn Eiver into Georgian Bay, an inlet of
Lake Huron. There are several villages and steamboat
landings around its shores, together with numerous Indian
villages and reservations. The trip through the lake, whether
by pleasure steamer or canoe, is a dehghtful one, if you
bring your own provisions and go through safely, whilst
good sport in the way of fishing can be obtained. From
Barrie to CoEingwood is about an hour's ride by the
Northern E. E., and we find ourselves in a bustling little
town of some 2000 inhabitants; the terminus of the Lake
Superior Line of Steamers.    The town is located at the 262
Canada and the Canadians ;
i Mi
head of an indentation of the Georgian Bay, formerly
called Nottawassaga Bay, from whence steamers ply
regularly during the season to Parry Sound and the
Archipelago, Mackinac, Green Bay, Chicago, Sault Ste.
Marie, Duluth and various other ports on the Upper Lakes.
CoEingwood is situated some 94 miles north of Toronto,
and it was expected at one time that it would become one
of the most important shipping points on the Northern
coast. Vast quantities of fish are taken in the bay, and find
a ready market in the cities to the south. The fish generally
taken on the north shore comprise white fish, herring,
pickerel, salmon trout, maskalonge and some other varieties. There are several lines of propellers and also one
regular ocean class steamer, the "Campagna " (formerly a
British transport for the Cape of Good Hope), running in
the " Superior " trade, so taking the propeller, or, as they
caE them, an upper cabin steamer, we set sail, avoiding as
far as possible the open waters of Lake Huron, and steam
away through the sheltered waters of the Georgian Bay,
through the North Manitoulin channel between the Grand
Manitoulin Island (Great Spirit or Sacred Island) through
Heywood Sound, and passing La Cloche Island, a little mass
of uncultivable rock, we pick our way through the mazes
of seemingly intricate channels and pass numerous islands,
on none of which we would care to reside. We sight next
Cockburn Island, belonging still to Canada, then we pass
Drummond Island, belonging to the State of Michigan,
thence pass a group of rocky islets. Still keeping along the
North channel we pass St. Joseph's Island, a tolerably fertile
island which may in time supply some of the miners with
its fort and lighthouse, whilst on the opposite shore is the
little mining vElage of Brace Mines, built upon the bare O
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rocks, whose population depend for their supplies upon the
visits of the steamers. The Bruce mines a'*j probably the
oldest worked to pay on the lake; they are situated at the
most north-western extremity of Lake Huron, arod almost
at the mouth of the river flowing from Superior, in long.
84° W. and lat. 46° 19' N., about 700 miles from Montreal. The rocks on which the town is built contain
strata of different kinds of copper ore, but the copper of
the Bruce mines is generally a sulphuret in compact
dioritic rock; there is also a formation of amygdaloid
quartzite or glittering mica quartz. Near the Bruce mines
is the WeEington location, which has been partiaEy worked,
and not far again from those mines copper is found in
Copper Arbor, at which place a vein comes out from the
lake and extends several feet on dry land, but is soon cut
off and no further trace has been so far found; still, there
is no doubt but that the mass of rock that constitutes the
borders of the lake has been subject more or less to a
severe electro-magnetic action, and the veins in many
parts exposed.
.Passing Encampment and Sugar Islands, "thougluany
other name'would sound as sweet," we wind our way up St.
Mary's Eiver, passing occasionally a farm on the Michigan
side, and see at times an Indian hut on the reservation on
the Canadian side, and soon we arrive at foot cii the rapids
of the Sault Ste. Marie. These-are a series of rapids with no
specific faE of any height, that rush wildly over the
rocks for some three-quarters of mile. With skiEf ul men,
and avoiding the main volume of water and heaviest of
the current, a canoe properly manned with a couple of good
Half-breeds or residents can force its way throughout the
entire length of the rapids, but in the center the waters 266
Canada "and the Canadians;
rush down wt£h seemingly great velocity and fury, breaking, and sending a huge combing over the rocks. To overcome these falls a ship canal has been built on the Michigan shore. The canal is 5,694 feet in length, its bed is 64
feet wide at the bottom and 100 feet in width at water
level, and 115 at the top of its banks ; the locks are 350
feet in length by 70 feet in width, and will accommodate
steamboats of 2,000 tons. The sides of the canal are strongly
waEed with stone throughout its entire length, the lock
walls being 10 feet thick at the bottom. The construction
of the canal cost the United States nearly one miEion of
dollars.
Passing the town of St. Mary's we had the pleasure of meeting one genial acquaintance at least in the
person of Frank J. Hughes, of Algoma, as genial, as jovial
a gentleman as any who reside along the Lakes. Thence
we enter into Whitefish Bay and into the broad waters of
Lake Superior, the largest as well as the deepest of these
inland seas, whose length is 460 miles and whose breadth
is 170 miles, its depth 798 feet, some 627 feet above the
sea, and nearly 200 feet below the level of the Atlantic
Ocean.
Still skirting, the aspect of the North or Canadian
shore from Sault SteV Marie to Prince Arthur's Landing is
cold, barren and desolate, the very realization of despair
to the farmer or cultivator, being, as far as the eye can
penetrate, nothing but a conglcmeration of worthless
rock, relieved at intervals by other rock, containing
minerals, such as lead, copper, iron, copper sulphates, wfth
occasionally signs of both gold and silver. The rock itself
has been so named by explorers as to confound, if possible,
so   in   contra-distinction   to    the    worthless   Jurassic, mm
From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Cambrian, Carboniferous, Devonian, &c, of Europe, here
are applied to formations such as Huronian, SiEery,
Laurentine and Bichelieu. But, as an illustration how the
reaEy productive regions are held in reserve, and how
thoroughly the regions around have been explored by
special parties and made to subserve the interests of
capital: Sir Hugh AEan, Andrew Allan (Government
subsidy monopolists), Eyan, McDonald, Edmondson and
others, have been possessors of various claims, even before
1856, in the valuable region northward of the Batchewa-
wanong Bay at a place called Mamains, at which point
works were located and claims founded, and which, like the
territory owned by the H. B. Co., were kept as secret as
possible from all outside. The copper at Mamains contains
silver and also traces of gold, and is by far the richest on
the Lake shore. If, as is stated, the axiom maintains that
money makes money, then the " Allans" ' should be
especially congratulated, for, having subsidies granted, first
on one side of the Atlantic and then on the other, with
cash allowed to forward their every scheme, no wonder that
they have become connected with every interest in the
Dominion of Canada, that has the making of money for its
ultimate object; but if Scripture might be aEowed to
intrude in these barren regions the question might be
asked, " What shaE it profit, if, etc., etc. ?" A number of
localities were formerly explored and worked to some
extent on Michipicoten Island, but they were abandoned
prior to the year 1856. The Quebec and Lake Superior
Mining Association commenced operations in 1846 at the
Pointe aux Mines on a vein that was said at the time to be
two feet wide and rich in sulphate of copper. An adit was
driven 200 feet, three shafts were sunk, and the ten fathom Canada and the Canadians;
or sixty-six foot level was commenced. About this time
it was discovered that the cash of the stockholders was
sunk also, so, after expending upwards of £30,000, or
$150,000, it was opportunely discovered that there was
no ore to smelt, so the works were abandoned, and the
stockholders the happy recipients of another lesson in
investments. There is no doubt in the minds of Geologists
that, in the conglomeration of rock that abounds in interminable stretches towards the watersheds and frozen north,
native copper exists not only in veins, but, in the
different rocks of grey wacke, red sandstone, etc.*; but the
fact of so little legislation aiding the development of
minerals (except amongst the monopoEst class) but little
energy is evinced. Should charts be pubEshed showing
the nature of the soil—of which there is but little—and
the character of the metaEiferous strata, affording aE
possible information with respect to the localities, so that
in time, even if in the far future, the existence of mineral
wealth may become known to the world at large, and thus
assist to develop the resources of the country. On the
South, or United States side of the Lake, the mining
interests have been tolerably weE protected and aided by
the General Government. In that country, geological
charts are published from year to year, and may be found
in use with the departments at Ottawa, as a source of
information, but in the States they are attainable by aE
together with scientific works containing researches
especiaEy aiding in the development of the mines of flhe
country. But for a number of years it has been apparent
to the most casual observer that the Canadian Government
gave very little aid to the development of its minerals,
but, possibly in the future, the need wEl be seen by even o
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271
cash-absorbing politicians and the time will arrive for the
interests of the country to outweigh the obstructions of
monopolists. At La Pointe aux Mines the sandstone is
of staly structure, incHning towards the south-west and
crossed by lines from west to east. The veins are of a
quartz nature, and are often crystalized; sometimes they
even consist of agates or jaspers. In these rocks are found
the veins of zinc that are known as ferriferous zinc;
whilst at Mica Bay, Cape Choyer, near Eiver Michipicoten
and A la Chienne, are to be found various kinds of rock,
such as sandstone, traprock, greywacke and schistose
sandstone. These rocks no doubt wiE in the near future
become a medium of trade, but for the present are worthless
to a community not having for its object the permanent
settlement and building up of the country. The island of
Michipicoten is probably the most prohfic in minerals on
the Canadian side, but, as the claims are taken up mostly
by those in the ring, the only way for the observing
emigrant wiE be to anticipate the advice of the Sage of
Chautauqua and go west between the prairie and the
mountain, for the islands of Michipicoten and Mamains
are about the only places that can present an inducement
to the miner, and they certainly possess some of the characteristics of mineral wealth. At intervals-numerous species
of rock containing native copper can be found upon the
islands in every state from molecules to pieces of several
pounds in weight. The rocks, too, are softer than those
upon the main land, and are consequently more easily
worked.
But, whilst disserting on the coast and possibi-
Eties, we are still steaming onwards, and soon come in
sight of Thunder Cape at the entrance to the bay of that 272
Canada and the Canadians;
name: The Cape need hardly be described, it has been
I done " so often; let us say a cliff of Emestone white and
weather-scarred, with a narrow beach of pebbles skirting its
base, on whose summit the Indians supposed that thunder
clouds arose. But, rounding up under the lee of Fort
William, or Prince Arthur's Landing, we bid good-bye to the
Steamer and its pleasant. and numerous occupants, the
roaches. Then embarking on the cars of the Canada Pacific
E.E. we commence our journey for Winnipeg, distant some
433 miles. The country west for a considerable distance
toward SeEtirk is mountainous, rocky and broken, abounding in lakes, water courses and ravines, unfit for cultivation, with heavy fiEings, broad cuts and high trestles.
The original estimate of the cost for this portion of the
road was some $14,705,000, but it is stated that already
nearly $2,000,000 in addition has been expended, and
the end is not yet; so, after jolting and jogging for
weary hours over a road that undoubtedly has no
equal, hungry, dirty, dry and careworn, we arrive at
Selkirk, twenty-three miles from the city of Winnipeg, a
name that has been ringing in our ears for weeks and
which when once reached we had hoped would prove our
Eldorado, but on arrival at SeEtirk we still find that we are
23 miles yet from our destination, so contenting ourselves
we run the other hour or so, and crossing from St. Boniface
we arrive in the city of our hopes, but alas ! how transparent.
ii
WINNIPEG.
The' City of " Winnipeg" (signifying muddy or turbid water) was formerly the location of the Upper Fort
Garry, one of' the Dep6ts of the H. B. Co. as a trading From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
273
post and for the storage of their goods.    It is now the
capital of the Province of Manitoba, and is located on a
swampy promontory nearly opposite to the confluence of
the Assiniboine and Eed Eivers, where the former joins the
Eed Eiver of the North, whose waters flow from south to
north, entering Lake Winnipeg beyond Selkirk to the
northward of the city.    Between the years of 1811 and
1816, Lord Selkirk made an attempt at colonizing a few
Scotch  settlers,  but for aE  those   old  chieftains held
absolute power over the members of their clans, it was too
close to American institutions to prove a success, and after
the H. B. Co. located they kept it merely a trading post, it
being against their interest to allow settlers to locate or the
country to be developed, but some twelve or thirteen years
ago the vicinity began to take on a seemingly new life, for
the Scotch settlers are now considerable, their farms being
mostly west of the Eed Eiver, whilst the Canadians and
French haE-breeds occupy the eastern or  St.  Boniface
side.    Here they have quite a town with a cathedral, a
nunnery and other religious edifices.    The population of
the city is at present some 15,000, and partakes of the
nature of new frontier settlements generally, for, being
built in anticipation, speculation is rife amongst its citizens,
one of the chief aspirations seemingly being to seE out and
go further for the long wished for Eldorado.    The country
around is low and swampy, and subject to overflows and
inundations on the rising of the river or the break up in
the  spring,'but as improvements  and good drainage is
accomplished it may be rendered possibly more clean and
yet more healthy city.    The water is poor, and brackish to
the taste.   Two Artesian wells are sunk, that supply some
120 gaEons per hour, so when numerous others are sunk
mm 274
Canada and the Canadians;
water enough can be had for all practical purposes. Main
street, the principal thoroughfare, is 132 feet in width, well
lined with seemingly substantial buildings, stores, and
business houses ; the other streets laid out at angles range
from sixty-six to ninety-nine feet in width and make fine
thoroughfares, whilst for the information of intending
visitors I would say, leave all your good clothes at home
and take only buckskin, jeans and cowhide boots, you
will find the hint profitable. Since the contract for the
building of the Baihoad has been signed, a new impetus
has been given to the city, merchants have crowded in,
stores have opened, labor has thronged the city, and
numerous branches of banks and business houses from the
older Provinces have been established in its midst. One
of the great drawbacks to the settlement of these cities
and towns is the terrible system of monopoly sought to
be established, that wiE in time result in serfdom far
more dire in its effects than ever perpetrated at the South,
the West Indies, Eussia, or on a limited scale that now
existing amongst the fishermen on the island of Anticosti.
The manner in which the merchant is closed out and
competition stopped is simply this: A merchant from the
older Provinces or the mother country has been induced
to locate. After purchasing his lot, erecting his store,
bringing over a* large stock of such goods and wares as
are required by the residents and the community generally, he opens up for business with great eclat and large
hopes for his future business prosperity. Shortly he is
visited by a farmer who orders his provisions, hardware
and common necessaries, eta, etc., amounting in the
aggregate to a respectable sum, say $800. Then comes the
settlement.   " What are  the  terms f" asks the   farmer. F<rom the Atlantic to the Pacific.
275
" Cash, or interest at three months," replies the merchant.
" I seE my goods low and must realize as soon as possible,
for I pay cash." " Then," says the farmer, " I own a &
section in range 4, district 8, township 3, there are my
deeds and the land and property is all paid for; my crops
are not yet in the ground, and it wiE be next season before
I can pay you." So the farmer goes to the Hudson Bay
Co., they look up the lot sold by themselves, make the
farmer pay for a mortgage and give him all the credit he
. wants, the object being to keep him in debt from season
to season. The question may be asked, why the merchant does not make other arrangements so as to allow
the farmer as good a credit, but I would answer, that
were he plucky enough for that, then other influences
would be brought to bear, and finally he would find, like
Paul, it was no use in kicking against the pricks. Then
again ten per cent, per month on call loans, and a squeeze
by the banks when they have the upper hand, is no
smaE joke to a merchant of family who has his little aE
invested in the stock he is trying to dispose of honestly
in the way of trade. Thus the merchant is ruined, reduced,
or returns discontented, the farmer becomes indebted, in
difficulties, and in time a serf, so it is by these means
that God's chosen few seek to bring forward the millen-
iumr and who will eventuaEy Eve off of the labor of the
lower strata. .
From Winnipeg both upon the banks of the Assini-
boine West and the Eed Eiver, both north and
south-east, towns have been located and have sprung
up with rapidity. Although on the latter river south of
Winnipeg the lands are seemingly rich and aEuvial, and
under different climatic influences would undoubtedly be 276
Canada and the Canadians';
most productive, still a residence on its banks even in
summer is hardly agreeable. Capt. Butler in his work
gives his experience which can hardly be improved upon
or surpassed, and, therefore, we quote his own words
whilst journeying along its banks and over the adjacent
prairies. In approximating the time to reach a given
spot the remark was made that it would be reached in a
given time " if the mosquitoes let us travel." The observation was at once conceded to be some stupendous joke of
the driver's in order to intimidate, but he adds, "the wind,
which was very light, was blowing from the north-east;
a smaE cloud appeared which rapidly increased in size,
the wind soon dying away altogether, and there came
upon us, brought apparently by the cloud, dense swarms
of mosquitoes humming and buzzing along with us, and
covering our faces and heads with their sharp stinging
bites. They seemed to come with us, after us, and against
us, from above, from below, in volumes that ever increased.
Meantime the cloud assumed large proportions, occupying
the whole west, and was moving on towards the north;
presently from out of the dark heavens streamed liquid
fire, and long peals of thunder rolled away over the gloomy
prairies. So sudden appeared the change that one could
scarce realize that only a little while before the stars had
been shining so brightly upon the ocean of grass. At
length the bright flashes came nearer and nearer, the
thunder rolled louder and louder, and the mosquitoes
seemed to have made up their minds that to achieve the
maximum of torture in the minimum of time was the sole
end and aim of their existence: the pony showed many
signs of agony, the dog howled with pain, so nothing
remained but to unhitch and lie down; so putting the oil From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
277
cloth over the cart and covering with a blanket they crept
inside, whilst the storm was at its height.  When the crash
came the fire seemed to pour out from the clouds; during
three hours the lightning seemed to run like a river of
flame, sometimes a stream would descend and, dividing
into two branches, would pour down on the prairie two
distinct channels of fire, whilst the rain came down in
drenching torrents, and the lightning flashed with angry
fury over the long corn-like grass, beaten flat by the rain
torrent."   The following night, whilst still on the prairie,
wading through the rank sedge grass, he was hardly more,
fortunate, for he adds: " As soon as the sun had dipped
beneath the sea of verdure an ominous sound caused me-
to gallop on with increased haste.    The pony seemed to-
know the significance of that sound much better than its
rider.    He no longer lagged nor needed the spur or whip
to urge him to faster exertion, for darker and denser than
on the previous night there rose around us vast numbers,
of mosquitoes—choking masses of biting insects, no mere
cloud, thicker and denser in one place than another, but.
one huge waE of never-ending insects, filling nostrils, ears
and eyes. Where they came from I cannot tell—the prairie
seemed too small to hold them, and the air too limited to
yield them space; to say they covered the coat of the
horse would be but to give a faint idea of their numbers;.
they were literally six or eight deep upon his skin, and.
with a single sweep of the hand one could crush myriads
from his neck."    It :'s no unusual event during a wet
summer for oxen and horses to perish from the bites of
mosquitoes and buffalo gnats,   and the  venomous hard-
skinned little sand flies and bulldogs.  So altogether, in the
insect tribe at least, the  North-West can be considered 278
Canada and the Canadians;
productive, for mosquitoes are abundant on the wet ground,
sand flies on the dry, chinch bugs in the oakwoods, and
stinging ants everywhere. An exposure of a few hours'
duration sometimes is enough to cause death to domesticated animals. It is said that the Sioux were sometimes
in the habit of killing their captives by exposing them at
night to the attacks of mosquitoes. The farmers of that
region usually build smokes or smudges in the evening3
and mornings, and the cattle stand in the smoke to keep
clear of the insects, and wiE refuse and leave their feed so
as to get near to the fire. By day the udders of the kine
and tender parts of horse and cattle are rubbed with a
mixture of tar and coal oil, which, although relieving the
cattle of the hair, stiE is of great benefit by keeping off
and killing the insect pests,—so the inventor of a mosquito
annihilator has yet a fortune awaiting its application. In
journeying through the North-West each traveEer should
provide himseE with a good rubber blanket, sEt for about
six inches and weE bound in the centre, with buttons
attached on the long side, with two elastic loops and straps
at the short ends—thus rendering the article, at once,
blanket, overcoat, tent or carpet bag; also a buffalo robe
and good overcoat, trusty rifle, serviceable knife, and smaE
barker for special service. The traveller can then go most
anywhere, be unmolested, and hold his own.
The Province of Manitoba (pronounced Man-it-o-bah,
signifying Demon Lake) is named from the Lake, which is
similar in size to Lake Winnepegos, their length being
about 130 miles, whilst their breadth is about thirty. The
water of Manitoba is clear, whilst that of Winnepegos is
muddy, and in most parts brackish. One of its peculiarities
is that considerable  quantities of salt is  evaporated  at If i
11 Ik. jtajlli
!Bin»iWr
CO
O
E-t
<
of
H
25
525  From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
281
places, and in parts the saline influence is so great that the
water hardly freezes in winter. Manitoba is something like
100 miles in length north to south, by 135 mSles from east
to west, and at present numbers about 114,000 in population. ' It is represented in the Dominion Parliament by
two members in the Senate and five members in the
House of Commons. It has also its local legislature, and a Lieutenant-Governor to whom is paid a
salary of $9,000 per annum, but, unlike the Lieut.-Gov. of
Quebec, he cannot increase k some $15,000 by putting on
style, therefore he is the sole object of admiration for the
Lieut.-Governor of the next Province, Keewatin, for that
unfortunate individual but receives $1000 annually for
the exercise of his vast powers. The Province contains an
area of about 9,000,000 acres, of which the one-twentieth
claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company and the school
reserves amount to about 707,680 acres. The Province
itself occupies nearly the actual centre of the North
American continent. Lands can be bought at a reasonable
figure, or, as a H. B. Co. official remarked, can be had for
nothing at aE. "Just go there and squat, and-see nobody
turns you out." But a settler needs at least £400 or $2,000
to start with, otherwise he will have a hard time
for the first few years, and in the end will find that, after
all, the few comforts obtained have been dearly purchased
at the cost of family happiness and all that makes life
enjoyable. To get along at all in comfort the settler must
be the owner of the soil he tills and employ his labor,
otherwise he wiE be but a servant of servants, and experience a harder time to actually live than the half-breeds
themselves. The Pembina Branch Eailroad is in active
operation from Emerson on the U. S. boundary line, pass- 282
Canada and the Canadians;
ing Winnipeg, to SeEtirk, near the Delta of Lake Winnipeg, a distance of 81 miles, whEst the Canada Pacific B.E.
runs from SeEdrk to Thunder Bay, a distance of 433 miles.
Extensive timber districts are to be met with in the vicinity of Eat Portage, where large saw mills have been
erected, which are expected to supply the lumber required
for buildings and fences in the Western country. In
portions considerable timber exists suitable for building
purposes and also for fuel, but is found chiefly on the
banks and bottom lands of the creeks and rivers of the
Province, whilst on the prairie there are small groves of
poplar and willow fit for nothing but a summer camp
fire. The timber of Manitoba consists chiefly of muskegs
(swamp) spruce, poplar, balsam poplar, beirTg abundant
on the islands in the various lakes, but whilst the timber
is not large, still part of the Province and part of Keewatin
is thickly wooded with oak, spruce and tamarac. It is
predicted by enthusiasts that in the near future the Province will become a good wheat and cereal producing district, and from the following extracts, taken from " The
Trade Beview" published at Winnipeg, will be seen the
statement upon which these hopes of success are based.
The subsoil of the region is a graveEy or sandy loam,
whilst the surface soil is a brown or black loam of from 8
inches to 30 inches in depth. A seemingly good farming
country obtains along the rivers for some distance, but an
extensive tract of country between the Province and the
Saskatchewan is utterly barren, desolate and unfit for
settlement. Being part of the great American desert, it is
sterile and uncultivable, a dreary expanse of wild sage
and saleratus; the surface is sandy, gravelly and pebbly,
cactus and aloes abound, and grass is found only in the From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
rare river bottoms, where the soils of the different strata
are mixed, although as we progress westward the geological formation rapidly changes, the limestone deposits disappear and are succeeded by a variety of sandstones, some
red and compact, others grey and coarse. Pudding stones
abound, and many of the mountains are supposed to be
mainly composed of this rock. However, the following
testimony regarding the raising com or maize is taken
hap-hazard from the September (1881) number of that
journal. G. V. Fitzgerald of Eidgeville says : "I have raised
corn in the garden successfully." Mr. Simon Ballantyne of
West Lynne says, " I have never raised corn, but it is successfully grown in sheltered places.'' George A. Tucker of
Portage la Prairie is not quite so equivocal, and says : "I
have raised some kinds of com successfuEy." Gardner
Granby of High Bluff states : " I have tried a little com
in the garden and it did well." Next'Mr. James Davidson,
also of High Bluff, avers that, " I have raised some corn
this year which looks weE" Whilst John A. Lee, also of
High Bluff, does not commit himseE when he says,
raised some yeEow corn last year, it grows very fast but it
is short." All of which goes to prove that corn may be
raised in the Province of Manitoba, but whether it can be
made to pay the farmer is for the latter to find out Testimony as to the supply of wood in the Province is conflicting, but reports from High Bluff, Portage la Prairie, West
Lynne, Morris, Westbourne, St. Anne du Chene and Clear
Springs state that" wood for fuel is abundant and at a low
price," whilst E. Black, of Birds HiE, states, " wood is not
readily obtained, but we have never been cold owing to the
want of it" Mr. George Taylor of Poplar Point saysc
" wood ean be got, but not very conveniently, in Winnipeg; Canada and the Canadians;
the price ranges from $7 to $12 per cord, whilst coal commands $20.00 per ton." The breaking up of the land
throughout the Province generally occurs in the latter
part of April, at which time the weather as a rule is dry
and pleasant, no rain of any consequence falling until June,
when sowing has been finished. The weather during the
latter part of August and throughout September is usually
clear, bracing and pleasant, so that harvesting is seldom
interfered with. Many of the resident farmers, such as D.
MacDougal of Meadow Lea, Nelson Brown of High Bluff,
John Sutherland (senator), Kildonan, Bobt BeE of Bock-
wood, F. W. Aylmer of St. Leon, and J. S. P. Casley of
Bidgeville, aE testify to the country being a productive
one, and a good one for the farmer with smaE means. The
crops, such as turnips, carrots, mangel wurtzel, beets, onions,
potatoes, cabbage, tomatoes, melons, cucumbers, citrons,
beans and peas grow splendidly, but aE agree that the
settler should in no case arrive earlier than the month of
May or he would be disheartened before commencing his
first season SmaE fruits, sueh as strawberries, currants,
gooseberries and raspberries, bear in abundance, whilst
potatoes are said to surpass even those grown in Prince
Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The
intending settler is also advised to bring cattle and good
medium-sized, close-made horses with him, and if he can
find, or bore for good water they wiE thrive. Flax, timothy,
white Dutch and alsike clover also grow well, and produce in
some instances from a ton and a haEto two tons to the acre;
while, as an instance of rapid growth, the fact can be mentioned that oats sown on the 27th of April were ready to cut
on the 14th of July, whilst an acre of timothy produced over
a ton.   From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
287
The principal towns of the province are Emerson on the
east side of Eed Eiver, at the boundary line, with a population of about 1,500; Pembina; West Lynne, population
500—this town is a good wheat market, and situated elose to
the Mennonite Settlement, and is expected to become a town
of some importance; Portage la Prairie on the Assiniboine
Biver, some sixty miles by road West from Winnipeg, with
a population of about 1,000; Morris, on the Eed Eiver,
twenty-five miles from Pembina, and near the branch E. E.;
St. Boniface, opposite Winnipeg, on Eed Eiver, has a population of over 1,000, and is the oldest town in the Province ;
Selkirk, a rising town, near the delta of the Eed Eiver and
on the borders of the reservation—the terminus of the
C. P.E.E. during 1882 ; Eat Portage or (Ka-ka-be-
Mtchewan) the Steep Eock Fall, a lively little town of
some 500 population, with a floating addition of railroaders, speculators, Indian traders, prospectors, etc., etc.,—
the land on which the town is located belongs, of course,
to the H. B. Co., and is situated at the head of the Lake
of the Woods and mouth of the Winnipeg Eiver, which
river receives the surplus waters of Lake Winnipeg. The
rapid influx of emigrants and settlers cause numerous
clusters of tents and hamlets to dot the country, which
are soon designated and named as towns, and a tax collector and officials duly appointed. In the various settlements around the old H. B. Co. posts on the Eed Eiver
west, on the Assiniboine, and still further west in the
" Fertile Belt," between the north and south branches of the
Kissaskatchewan, the settlers are generally Half-breeds, or
offsprings of marriages contracted by the Company's officers
and servants with Indian women. There are two classes
of HaE-breeds in the country, the English and the French, 288
Canada and the Canadians;
the latter being descended from the pioneer hunters and
traders, who came from Lower Canada. Many of them being
retired servants of the Company, and accustomed to roving
habits, it was some time before they could be persuaded to
adopt the quiet life of a settler. Many did settle, but
they were restless and hard to manage, and as soon as they
began to be enlightened were continuaEy rebeEing against
the authority of the Company, so arbitrary in its administration. In earlier times buffalo being in large numbers at
no great distance from the settlements, and the Hudson
Bay Co., in order to more rapidly accomplish their purpose of denuding the country, purchased (I like that
word as applied to the transactions of the Hudson Bay
Co., it looks so honest and business-like) from the Indians
and Half-breeds both the skins and the surplus meat,
thus bringing on a famine, and creating a starving scarcity
amongst the residents, which produced a combined
organization of the tribes, and a war, that resulted almost
in extermination of the bison, was inaugurated; useless
massacres of that noble animal were indulged in that
shortly swept him from the face of the plain. Capt. Butler,
from whose work several extracts have been made, speaking of the practice in vogue with the Crees, says: " The
true home of the bison lay in the great region of prairie
between the Bocky Mountains, the Mississippi, the Texan
Forests and the Saskatchewan Eiver; and within this
immense region of. not less than 1,000,000 of square miles
in area the havoc worked by the European, the Indian
and Half-breeds, has been terrible; and only a few years
must elapse before this noble beast, hunted down in the
last recesses of his breeding-grounds, wiE have taken his
place in the long list of those extinct giants, which once From the Atlantic to the Pacific.
289
dwelt in our world. When the trader pushed his way
into the fur regions the vast herds of the plains experienced a change in their surroundings: the meat pounded
down, and mixed with fat into "pemmican," was found to
supply the wants of the fur traders. The Indians formerly hunted the buffalo with arrows, and wondrous tales
are told of their accuracy with the bow. A good Sioux
archer could discharge nine arrows upward, before the
first had faEen to the ground. With such power could he
transfix a bison as to drive the shaft clean through the
beast, and find it on the ground on the other side. It is yet
considered in the West no great feat to put an arrow into
the ace of spades at a distance of forty yards. So expert,
also, were the Indians in riding that they could draw an
arrow from the flank of the beast before it feE. The
bison is a duU, surly and stupid animal, timid and wary,
fleeing in terror at the approach of the White Man but
seemingly not afraid of the Bed; but to bring one down it
requires hard riding, with the risk of a coEar-bone being
broken by the chance of the horse stepping through the
roof of a prairie-dog's house; but when headed, wounded
or tired, the old buE rarely fails to charge, and makes
a stubborn fight. So the Crees, not satisfied with the
ordinary methods, devised a plan by which gr«at
multitudes of bison could be easily annihilated. This
method of hunting consists in the erection of strong
wooden enclosures into which the buffalo are guided by
the supposed magic power of a medicine man. Sometimes
for days the medicine man wiE Eve with the herd, which
he haE guides, haE drives into the enclosures; sometimes
he is on the right, again on the left, and sometimes in rear
of the herd, but never to windward of them.    At last they 290
Canada and the Canadians;
approach tbe pound, which is usuaEy concealed in a thicket
of wood. For many miles from the entrance to this pound
two graduaEy diverging lines of tree stumps and heaps of
snow lead out into the plains. Within these lines the
buffalo are led by the medicine man; and, as the lines
narrow towards the entrance, the herd, finding itseE
hemmed in on both sides, becomes more and more alarmed,
until at length the great beasts plunge on into the pound
itseE, across the mouth of which ropes are quickly thrown
and barriers raised. Then commences the slaughter. From
the wooden fence around arrows and buEets are poured
into the dense plunging mass of buffalo careering wildly
round the ring, always going in one direction, with the
sun. The poor beasts race on until not a living thing is
left, then, when there is nothing more to kill, the cutting
up commences and pemmican making begins. The manner
in which this favorite food of the Indian and haE-breed is
prepared is this, although it can be made from the flesh of
any animal, still it is nearly altogether composed of buffalo
meat: the meat is first cut into slices, then dried either
by fire or in the sun, and then pounded or beaten out into
a thick flaky substance ; in this state it is put into a large
bag made from the hide of the animal, the dried pulp
being soldered down into a hard soEd mass by melted fat being poured over it in proportions four-fifths fat to the total
weight of beat meat, the most high-toned and aristocratic
being mixed like an Englishman's plum pudding with a
quantity