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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Through Canada with a Kodak. With illustrations Aberdeen and Temair, Ishbel Gordon, Marchioness of, 1857-1939 1893

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W    H.   WHITE   &   CO. 
THE great majority of the illustrations in
this book are printed from photographs
taken by Lady Aberdeen's Kodak; but in
some instances use has been made of photographs collected by Lord and Lady Aberdeen
when travelling. As these were, however,
mostly unmounted, the name of the photographer does not always appear, so that acknowledgment of their origin cannot in every
case be recorded. But special mention must
be made of Messrs Notman of Montreal, and
Messrs Boorne and May of Calgary, whose
well known work will be recognised in some of
the illustrations inserted.
If in some cases there is an unavoidable
omission of acknowledgment, an apology is
hereby offered, any such omission being quite
unintentional. PREFACTORY NOTE.
THE papers contained in this little book were writtem
during two tours in Canada, for the information
and amusement of the Members and Associates of the
Onward and Upward Association, and were accordingly published in the Magazine Onward and
Upward vo 1891-92. They are merely the passing and
superficial notes of a traveller journeying rapidly through
the country, and desirous of conveying some impressions
of the rich and varied attractions presented by " the
Dominion," and which appear to be but very imperfectly
realised by those at home, whether by the holiday
seeker or the intending settler. .They do not aspire to
deal with the deeper questions of Canadian life or
politics, but are merely recollections of delightful holiday trips made charming not only by the beauties of
nature, but by the extraordinary kindness and hospitality
of people of all classes in Canada. Looked upon thus
in the light of a journal, these pages possess a peculiar
attraction for their writer, in company with the little
scraps of sketches and photographic views so dear to
the heart of the tourist. But they appear to her to be
scarcely worthy of being thus collected in the form of a
volume. As, however, both the publisher and many kind
readers of these jottings in their previous form have
desired to see them* thus gathered together, their wishes
have been deferred to, and, with a full consciousness
of their deficiencies, they are now gratefully dedicated
to both the Members and Associates of the Onward
and Upward Association and to our friends and hosts
in Canada.
Haddo House, Aberdeenshire, April 1893 CONTENTS.
QUEBEC, ----._
MONTREAL, - - - -    . -
TORONTO, ------
OTTAWA, ------
APPENDIX, ------
Group of Canadian Boys,     - - ■ -
Outward Bound,      -
A Last Peep of " Ould Ireland."    From a Sketch by Lady
Aberdeen, x   -
The First Iceberg on the Horizon.       From a Sketch by
Lady Aberdeen,
Quebec, from the South Side of the River, ^g
Quebec, from Montmorenci.      From a Sketch by Lady
Aberdeen,     ------
The Falls of Montmorenci, -
A Quebec Caleche, -
Jacques Cartier,      .-_-_.
Montreal,    -------
Sir Donald Smith, ------
Father Lacombe,     ------
"The First Communion."      From a Photo of Picture by
Jules Breton, in the possession of Sir Donald Smith,   -
Kingston, Ontario.    From a Sketch by Lady Aberdeen,
Highfield, Hamilton, Ontario,        -
The Gore, Hamilton, Ontario,        -
Lord Haddo and Lady Marjorie H. Gordon,
Hon. Dudley and Hon. Archie H. Gordon,
A Hamilton Yacht, -
51 List of Illustrations.
View on Hamilton Bay,      - - - - "55
The Lads and Lassies who accompanied us,            -            - 59
University Buildings, Toronto, 63
Captain Macmaster,             ----- 66
-Government House, Toronto, 67
The late Sir Alexander Campbell, 68
Falls of Niagara,     -            -            -            -            -            - 73
Above Niagara,        ------ 74
View of Ottawa,      ------ 75
Lord Stanley (now Earl of Derby), -            -            -            - 76
Lady Stanley (now Countess of Derby),       -            -            - 77
Sir John Abbott,     ----_- 79
A pair of Acadian or Sand Whet Owls,       -            -            - 80
Canadian " Dick" and " Bill" at Dollis Hill, Willesden,   - 81
The View from the Terrace outside Parliament Buildings, - 84
Page 25.-
Page 79-•
-Read "View of Victoria, B.C.," instead of " Montreal."
-Read " Portrait of Sir John Carling," instead of   'Sir
John Abbott."
""craremigme, as Photographed after the Accident,   -
Off Again! - - -
A Regiment of Workers on the Prairie,      -
One of Sir John Lister-Kaye's big Farms in Alberta,
Passing a Car-full of Emigrants—" Take our Pictures,"
Map showing region of Summer droughts in North America,
A Horse Ranch near Calgary, -
Approaching the Rockies,   -----
" The Three Sisters," -
View from the Window of the Banff Hotel,
^Cascade Mountain, Banff,   -
The Van Home Range, sketched from Field by Lady
Aberdeen,      ... -
A Trestle Bridge,    - -
"~***»»e m? CANADA,
The Falls of Montmorenci,
A Quebec Caleche,
Jacques Cartier,      ------
Montreal,    -------
Sir Donald Smith, ------
Father Lacombe,     ------
"The First Communion."       From a Photo of Picture by
Jules Breton, in the possession of Sir Donald Smith,   -
Kingston, Ontario.    From a Sketch by Lady Aberdeen,
Highfield, Hamilton, Ontario,        -
The Gore, Hamilton, Ontario,        -
Lord Haddo and Lady Marjorie H. Gordon,
Hon. Dudley and Hon. Archie H. Gordon,
A Hamilton Yacht, -
5i List of Illustrations.
View on Hamilton Bay,      -----
The Lads and Lassies who accompanied us,
University Buildings, Toronto,        -
Captain Macmaster, -
Government House, Toronto, -
The late Sir Alexander Campbell,  -
Falls of Niagara,     ------
Above Niagara,       ------
View of Ottawa,      ------
Lord Stanley (now Earl of Derby), -
Lady Stanley (now Countess of Derby),
Sir John Abbott,     --.._-
A pair of Acadian or Sand Whet Owls,       ...
Canadian " Dick" and " Bill" at Dollis Hill, Willesden,   -
The View from the Terrace outside Parliament Buildings, -
Rideau Hall, Ottawa, -----
The Toboggan Slide at Rideau Hall,
Westward! -
All Aboard! ------
The Car in which we travelled West,
John Barber, our Car Porter,
A Young Settlement, -
Mr and Mrs O'Brien,
All that is left of the Buffalo, -
How a journey from Winnipeg for Ottawa was accomplished
in days gone by, -
Manitou, Manitoba, -----
^Greetings from a Group of Manitobans,      ...
Mr and Mrs Peter Graham's Cottage, ...
Mr and Mrs John Campbell's House, -
The Darough Family at Glenfern,   - - - -
.Scene of Accident.    From a Sketch by Lady Aberdeen, -
Our Engine, as Photographed after the Accident,   -
Off Again! - - -
A Regiment of Workers on the Prairie,      -
One of Sir John Lister-Kaye's big Farms in Alberta,
Passing a Car-full of Emigrants—" Take our Pictures,"
Map showing region of Summer droughts in North America,
A Horse Ranch near Calgary, -
Approaching the Rockies,   -----
" The Three Sisters," -
View from the Window of the Banff Hotel,
^Cascade Mountain, Banff,   -
The Van Home Range, sketched from Field by Lady
Aberdeen,      ... -
A Trestle Bridge,    ------
133 Vlll
List of Illustrations.
Vancouver, -------
The late Mr G. G. Mackay, -
Lieut-Governor of British Columbia,
Admiral Hotham,   ------
H.M.S. "Warspite," -----
Lord Aberdeen and Prof.  H. Drummond in the Railway
Car,     -.----.
The first Passenger Train on the Shushwap and Okanagan
Line,    -------
Mr Lequime's little Steamer, -
Transferring the Luggage from the Train to the Steamer,  -
Entrance Gate to Guisachan Farm,
In the Woods of Guisachan, B. C,
View from the front-door of Guisachan.     From a sketch by
Lady Aberdeen,       -----
Guisachan, B. G,   -
Going out for a Bear Hunt, -
Watching the Game-bag,    -----
" Foo," our Chinese Cook, - -
Willy, the Indian boy, with his white pony
Residence No. I,    -
Residence No. 2,    - - - .
Residence No. 3, -
Residence No. 4,     -
The Guisachan Staff, -
Starting for a Drive with " Charlie " and " Pinto,"
Mr Smith exhibiting the wild Indian pony,
Coutts on " Aleck "—" Spot" in attendance,
Planting Scotch  Firs from  Guisachan, Inverness-shire, at
Guisachan, B. C,        -
S.S. " Penticton " waiting to bear us away,
Good bye ! -
Going to work at Coldstream Ranch,
The s.s. " Empress of India,"
Sarcee Indians,        ------
•Crowfoot, Chief of the Blackfeet,    -
Indian curios.    Drawn by Mr J. Grant, -
215, 216, 217, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 231, 23
235> 237, 239, 241.
Making a " Brave" at the Sun-dance,        -
An Indian Lodge or Wigwam,        -
Eastern part of Kasa-an Village, Prince of Wales' Island,
Alaska, - -
Memorial bust of Sir John Macdonald,       ...
Homeward bound, - - - - -
ATRIP to Canada! Yes, we had often talked about
it. We had paid a visit to India, Ceylon, Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand; and we much
wished to see something of this other vast and fair
Dominion, which forms part of the British Empire. But,
in spite of our voyagings, we have never been friends of
the sea; and when we talked of Canada we were always
very conscious of the fact that the wild waves of the
ocean separated its shores by the space of seven days
from Britain.
However, last year our desires, coupled with doctor's
advice, overcame our fears, and on a fine evening in
August we found ourselves dropping down the Mersey
on board the s.s. " Parisian | of the Allan Line, one
of the largest ships plying between this country and
Canadian ports. Have you ever been on board an
Atlantic liner when in port? If so, you know how
delightful everything looks. A large beautiful deck
above, snug little berths below; a splendid saloon, a
reading-room, a  smoking-room, books,   music,   games;
A Through Canada with a Kodak.
and you look in the pretty little prospectuses handed to
you about the interior arrangements of the ship, and
you see pictures of a happy company seated at long
tables   enjoying the best of fare, ladies and gentlemen
Outward Bound—The " Parisian " "dropping down the Mersey.
singing and playing, reading, and playing at games, and
altogether having a good time of it. Look at the pictures
given in those pages, and say whether life at sea does not
seem a very attractive thing, sailing along in one of these Outward  Bound.
brave ships under a good captain, surrounded by
luxuries, and with no cares, no responsibilities, no
work, no telegrams, no letters ?
So one thinks, and so one continues to think for an
hour or two after starting; but wait a wee, and see if you
don't begin to wish that you could give effect to second
thoughts, when you find yourself tossing about in the Irish
Channel in a gale a few hours later.    But the least said
A last peep of" Ould Ireland.
about these experiences, and the wishes then rashly
uttered, the better % and so I will tell you nothing of that
August night, nor of the long wait we had next day at
Moville,, near Londonderry, for the English mails, which
had been delayed some hours in crossing from Holyhead
to Kingstown, in consequence of the storm. I should
like, though, to be able to give you a sight of our last
glimpse of the shores of " Ould Ireland," as we saw them Through  Canada  with  a  Kodak.
disappearing next evening. A succession of bold bluffs
and headlands jutting out into the sea, one beyond the
other, as far as the eye could reach in the gathering
darkness, the green slopes here and there just visible,
and the heavy black clouds which had been overhanging
us all day fringed with a glory of red and purple and
orange. Lord Aberdeen and I leant over the taff-rail
and caught some whiffs of a dear familiar peat-smoke,
which sent us happy to our cabins that night Pray
enquire no further: you shall hear none of our groans.
Suffice it to say that the 750 passengers on board were
in a decidedly subdued frame of mind for a few days,
your Editor amongst the number. She had not yet
even conceived the idea of telling her friends of the
Onward and Upward Association something about
this expedition, or else she would doutbless have used
her Kodak, to bring before you various scenes and
attitudes of different degrees of misery. Our fellow-
passengers therefore escaped the danger of being
introduced thus to you, and I shall hope to show
some of them to you in a happier aspect later on.
When we began to be in a state to realise one another,
we found that we might almost consider ourselves already
in Canada. We were of all degrees: cabinet ministers,
governors, senators, professors, business men, were there,
and so were also emigrants of many various classes and
from all countries, bound to many various destinations. Outward Bound.
Some were going for the first time to seek their fortune,
they knew not where; some were going out to join friends
who had already prospered; some were returning from
paying a brief visit to their friends in " the old country,"
as we soon became Canadian enough to call it. Amongst
such company, who were all also so willing to impart
information to strangers and "tenderfeet" (this being the
name for new-comers in Canada), we were able to pick
up a good deal about the country and the people amongst
whom we were going to live for the next three months.
I will try to filter down to you a little of what they told
us by degrees, but first I want to introduce to you a
number of youthful emigrants, in whom I think you
will be specially interested. These are a party of fifty
young girls of all ages, from three to seventeen, taken
from misery and destitution to Miss Rye's Homes,
from whence they will be drafted, either as servants or
else adopted into colonists' homes. Much care has to
be used in selecting only suitable, healthy children for
emigration, but when this care is used there are endless
openings for them in Canada. Miss Macpherson, whose
name is so well known as having been the first lady to
undertake the emigration of children, told us that this
year she had had 900 applications for children, of which
she had only been able to supply 150.
These little ones .whom we saw on board the " Parisian"
were all full  of eager  expectation regarding  their new Through Canada with a Kodak.
homes, and, after the first few days of sea-sickness and
discomfort consequent on the vaccination to which
every steerage passenger to Canada must submit, they
made themselves very happy with their skipping-ropes
and various games. A part of the ship had been
partitioned off and fitted up on purpose for them—a
little dining place, a row of little tin basins and two
storeys of little box-like berths where they lay snugly
packed away at night; the kind matron, who had crossed
the ocean some forty times on like business, sleeping in
a little cabin opening into this special section.
The chaplain accompanying the ship often had special
services for the children, and it was very pleasant to hear
the bright hymn-singing, which always brought together a
number of the other passengers. As we think of those
little ones we wonder how they are getting on in their
scattered homes. We had hoped to see them again in
Miss Rye's Home, near Niagara, but, to our regret, we
never managed the expedition. The matron told us that
very probably a fortnight after we landed the children
would all be engaged, or adopted in homes where they
knew they would 'be cared for. I think I have behaved
very badly to you in not having photographed either these
children for you, or a typical emigrant Norwegian family,
who would have made a delightful group if I could have
made them understand what I wanted. There they were,
father, mother, and a whole succession of little flaxen- Outward Bound.
haired boys and girls, the latter each with a little yellow
pig-tail, after the fashion of some of the foreign dolls we
buy. There are always a number of Scandinavians in
every ship-load of emigrants going to Canada, for they
are most thrifty, hard-wotking people, and when they get
settled, generally soon send money home to bring out
their relations. I shall have more to tell you about them
by-and-by. Meantime, I must tell you about what is
always the great excitement of a voyage to Canada. We
were seven days out from Liverpool, and were preparing,
in various ways, for a concert, which was to be given on
behalf of the Liverpool Home for the Orphan Children
of Seamen who have perished at sea, when a rumour
went round that an iceberg was in sight. An eager
crowd was soon scanning the horizon with telescopes and
field-glasses, and before long a tiny, cone-shaped,
glistening white hill hove in sight, resplendent with
shades of transparent green and blue. We looked at it,
and we photographed it, and we sketched it, and we
talked about it, till another, and yet another, came in
view, and during that evening and next day some
thirteen were seen in all the various lights of sunset and
sunrise, and mid-day They were very beautiful, but
their beauty needs to be seen to be understood. I am
almost ashamed to let you see the reproduction of a
little sketch I attempted when the first iceberg was
visible  on  the  horizon.     These   icebergs,  which   are 8
Through Canada with a Kodak.
morsels detached from the great glaciers of Greenland
by the summer sun, cause great anxiety to the officers
commanding ships on the Atlantic. This is more
especially the case in the neighbourhood of Newfoundland, which is very subject to fogs; for, as the saying
goes, it is celebrated for "fog, dog, and cod." Often
and often ships have to lie outside the Straits of Belle-
Isle for days enwrapped ir> dense fog, afraid to budge,
The first Iceberg on the Horizon
in case one of these great ice monsters may be
looming near at hand, ready to overwhelm the unwary
seaman and his craft. This very ship of ours, the
" Parisian," had a narrow escape in May. In the fog she
ran atilt against what was called a small iceberg, but
which one of the passengers decribed to me as having a
most alarming appearance. In a moment there appeared
as a vision just in front of the bows, a towering white
mass, part of which seemed  to! overshadow the deck.
m Outward Bound.
This passenger told me that the feeling of alarm was
swallowed up in an overpowering sense of wonder and
awe at the marvellousness and magnificence of the scene
presented, and that it was only later, when the skill of
captain and officers had averted a catastrophe, that the
perilous position in which the ship had been placed was
fully realised.
The bright sun and clear skies which we enjoyed
gave us immunity from all such dangers. We sailed
peacefully through the Straits, on either side of us the
line of the low blue hills of Labrador and Newfoundland
gleaming in the sun, and in the reflected light of long,
trailing, flaky, pinky-white clouds, which we soon began
to associate with Canadian skies. Then we floated out
of sight of land again, into the great Gulf of St Lawrence, on into the big river itself, along the picturesque
shores of French Canada, dotted with groups of cosy, wee,
tin-roofed cottages, in which lived the French-Canadian
fishermen, and every now and again a picturesque little
church and school. It was all very peaceful, and a great
contrast to the beginning of our voyage. || But I must
not linger longer over our voyage, and so I leave you, till
next letter, within sight of the beautiful city of Quebec. "St
Irs II.
NO words could ever describe Quebec; so you must
try to form an idea of it from the pictures we
have given you. We saw it in every variety of
weather:—first, in the uncertain reddish light of a dull
sunrise on the morning of our arrival; and next in a
howling storm; then, when its bright spires glittered in
the glorious Canadian noon-day, or with the grey of its
old gables transfigured in the sunset. We saw its bright
roofs and spires bathed in the sunlight of noon; again
in all the glories of a gold and purple sunset; and at
night we saw the whole city gleaming with the myriads
of electric lights shining about her crags. Quebec
exercises a curious fascination on the visitor; it transports him into the past whether he wills it or no; the
sentiment of the place dominates him, and it is the only
town that I have seen which I can conceive imposing on
her children the same strange potent spell which binds
us Scotch folk to our own never-to-be-surpassed " Auld
Reekie." . ■$
It is strange that the emigrant to the New World 12
Through  Canada with a Kodak.
should make acquaintance with it first in this old-world
city, full of associations and traces of the past—its very
inhabitants seeming to transport you to a France of two or
three centuries ago. Nevertheless the emigrant will find
that the demands of the present and future have not
been forgotten, that his needs have not been overlooked,
and that the Government and the Railway Companies
have amply provided for his reception. And besides
the Government and the Railways, there is the Women's
Protective Immigration Society, which takes special
charge of all women emigrants disembarking at Quebec,
whether travelling alone, or with one of those protected
parties^—by far the best auspices to travel under—which
have special arrangements on board ship, and a matron
to themselves. I hope to say something later on in
these papers to young women thinking of emigrating;
but meanwhile I would like to take this opportunity of
saying that there is a constant demand for women-servants
in all parts of Canada, the wages being from $8 to $12
(j£i, 12s. to £2, 8s.) a month in Eastern Canada, and
increasing as you go Westward to as much as $20 (£4)
per month. Good general servants, who 'are not afraid
to work, and who will adapt themselves to the ways of
the country, are sure to get on in Canada and to find
happy homes. Girls who only wish to take to one branch
of domestic work had better not go, except in limited
numbers, as it is the exception, not the rule, to keep Quebec.
more than one servant, and those will succeed best who
will put their hands heartily and readily to anything.
Servants who have had some training in general work will
be particularly valued. If any girls reading these words
make up their minds to emigrate, they cannot do better
than go out with one of the protected parties arranged by
the Hon. Mrs Joyce, of the United British Women's
Emigration Society. The passage with one of these
parties costs £4, 10s., and all who go may be sure of
securing a situation immediately on arrival.
But to return to our own doings at Quebec. The
scene on our arrival at the wharf was a busy one. Most
of the emigrants disembarked here, and we saw our little
friends destined for Miss Rye's Homes marched off two
and two very happily to the train which was to convey
them further West. There were, a great many " Goodbyes " to be said to our good captain and officers, and to
the friends we had made on our passage out, and who
were all now dispersing far and near. Soon we were
crossing the river in a ferry-boat, and next found
ourselves dashing up the queerest, quaintest, roughest,
steepest streets you can imagine. These led up to the
Citadel, which crowns the heights, and where the
Governor-General lives when he is staying at Quebec.
The present Governor-General, Lord Stanley of Preston,
and his wife, Lady Stanley, were not at Quebec when we
arrived; but they sent us the kindest of welcomes, along 14
Through Canada with a Kodak.
with a hospitable invitation to stay at the Citadel. And
never did any guests feel more grateful than we, when
we found ourselves in a cosy room overlooking the town
and the busy river. We watched our old friend the
"Parisian" making ready for her further journey to
Montreal, and we " Kodaked" her, and, as she steamed
away, waved our final greetings with a towel out of the
Then we had time to take in our position, and
to survey the whole surrounding country from a delightful
terrace which had been built out beyond the spacious
ball-room erected whilst Lord Lome and Princess Louise
were in Canada. In the distance lay long lines of low
blue hills; the broad, stately river winding below, laden
with vessels of every description bound to and from many
European ports, while darting in and out amongst them
flashed the white sails of pleasure boats. The city, with
the imposing tower of its University, its many spires, its
bright roofs made of plates of tin, presents a strange
contrast to the heights clad with verdure and forest
which met the eye of the adventurous French explorer,
Jacques Cartier, who arrived here in the autumn of 1535,
with his three ships, the "Grande Hermine " (120 tons),
the " Petite Hermine " (60 tons), and the " Emerillon'
(40 tons), and stayed one whole winter. We could not
but often dream that we could see those three brave
little ships, with their gallant captain, floating in these a
* i6
Through Canada with a Kodak.
unexplored waters, and exciting the wonder of the Indian
Prince Donnacona and his savages, crowding around the
new arrivals in their little bark canoes.
You must get out your history-books if you want to go
back to that time, and, if you want to trace out how
Quebec was founded a half-century later by Champlain,
how it became half a mission, half a trading station, how
it was defended against the many attacks of the Indians
and became the centre of the Colony of New France;
and then "how it was neglected and misgoverned by
corrupt officials from France, and finally how it was
conquered by the splendid daring of General Wolfe in
1759. We had the great advantage of seeing the scenes
of all these historic deeds under the able guidance of
M. Lemoine, the historian of Quebec, to whose kind care
we had been confided by our friend Sir Alexander
Campbell, Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, whom we were
fortunate enough to have as one of our fellow-passengers
in the "Parisian." M. Lemoine showed us the steep
precipitous cliff up which Wolfe and his men clambered
that memorable night, and the spot where he overthrew
the few men carelessly guarding the heights: where his
men formed up in line, and advanced over the plains of
Abraham : where Montcalm, the gallant French defender,
rode out and saw the English red-coats, and heard the
Highland bagpipes, and exclaimed, "This is a serious
business!"     Then we saw the spot where Wolfe fell
H I Quebec.
pierced by three bullets—where he fell, only to hear
the cry, a moment later, "They run! see how they
run !" " Who run ? " demanded Wolfe. " The enemy,
sir. They give way everywhere." " Go," said the dying
man, " go, one of you to Colonel Burton, and tell him to
march Webb's regiment down to Charles River, to cut off
their retreat from the bridge." And then, turning on his
side he murmured, "Now God be praised. I will die in
peace," and expired. Almost at the same moment his
noble-hearted enemy received his death-wound, though
riding into the city he tried to reassure his friends, saying
" It is nothing; it is nothing !" We saw also the monument
in the Governor's garden, which commemorates both the
conquered and the conquering General.
But I have not space to tell more of all we saw at
Quebec, nor of the delightful day we spent at the falls of
Montmorenci—higher than those of Niagara—and known
to the people of the neighbourhood as "La Vache"
(the cow), because the foam has the appearance of
frothing milk.
In the winter this spray freezes till a cone is formed
some seventy feet high. Then sledges with metal
runners called "toboggans" are prepared, and from the
height of this cone the young people of Quebec amuse
themselves by shooting down one after another, and
sliding away far across the smooth surface of the river
below.    Oh,  the fun these Canadians have  in winter,
B *-.
The Falls of Montmorenci. Quebec.
with their sledging, their skating, their tobogganing, and
their snow-shoe expeditions. The snow-shoe is a necessary equipment for those who have to take long journeys
in the winter. It looks rather like a lawn-tennis racket,
and consists of a light frame with netting across, which
prevents the wearer from sinking into the snow. But
some practice is required in order to use this novel
oot-gear easily.
One word about the French Canadians. They are a
thrifty, contented, law-abiding, religious people. When
the British conquered Quebec they wisely allowed the
people to retain their own laws and customs, and the
result is that nowhere can be found more loyal subjects
of the British Crown. The atmosphere of modern France
has never reached them, and they are still the same
simple Norman and Briton peasants who came out some
hundreds of years ago. They are very much influenced
by their priests, who maintain a strict rule over them
and all their family affairs. The regulations are very
strict—for instance, about dancing, the popular snow-shoe
expeditions, and other amusements. Some restrictions
are, however, being relaxed. For example, fifty years
ago meat was absolutely forbidden all through the forty
days of Lent, and this was found to be a great hardship,
in many cases in that severe climate. The rule has not
been so rigidly enforced of late years/
The French in Canada are increasing rapidly by reason 20
Through Canada with a Kodak.
of the large families they generally have. Twelve,
fourteen, and sixteen children are quite an ordinary-sized
family, while we heard of a well-authenticated case of one
couple rearing forty-four children. The country is
therefore filling up, and some of the people are moving
into the New England States, and westward to Manitoba.
The general desire is, however, to stick to their own
country, and the Quebec Government facilitates this by
giving ioo acres free to every family which numbers
twelve children. As we drove along the well-kept road
to and from Montmorenci, we passed various characteristic little villages; the houses bear evidence of being
built for contingencies of either extremes of climate:
verandahs and green sun-shutters, and netting over doors
and windows, as protection against the blazing heat and
the mosquitoes and flies, but also peculiarly-shaped
roofs, curved at the bottom in such a way as to prevent
the snow from making a permanent lodgment.
The crops we saw were very poor indeed, but we were
told that it had been a very bad year for agriculturists
round about Quebec. We were especially struck by the
universal civility and gentle courtesy of the people—no
pushing either of themselves or of their sights, only a
quiet readiness to help strangers, and to give them any
information which they might be in need of, without
looking for reward. When we were in Quebec we
imagined   this  was  the   hereditary  French   politeness Quebec.
showing itself, but our experience afterwards showed us
that civility and a spirit of kindliness towards visitors is
more or less a characteristic of all Canadians.
There is much more that I would like to tell you
about Quebec and its neighbourhood, but my space is
more than filled, and I cannot even describe to you the
little carts, dragged by dogs trained to harness, like those
A Quebec Caleche.
used in this country in bygone days, until they were forbidden by law; nor yet can I dilate on the curious old-
fashioned vehicle, peculiar to Quebec, called a caleche.
You see a picture of one here. Try to imagine a very high
gig, with a hood, swung on enormously high C-shaped
springs; next imagine a weedy-looking horse tearing
along, after the fashion of Quebec horses, at full gallop as
Through Canada with a Kodak.
up and down streets steeper than the Edinburgh High
Street, and full of holes and pitfalls, and then you will
be able to judge of the courage of those who trust their
persons in such a conveyance. Nevertheless, I will confide to you that we found this method of progression
most comfortable, and we congratulate Quebecers on
having discovered a way of making the roughness of
their streets unperceivable to the traveller.
And now adieu to Quebec.    We shall meet again in
Montreal. III.
LAD to see you at Montreal!" "Well, and what
do you think of Canada ? " " Lord Aberdeen,
I think? You're heartily welcome, sir!" "Grand hotel
this ! Nothing to beat it on the Continent!" Such-like
were the greetings which fell on our ears as we entered
into the vast central hall of the Windsor Hotel, Montreal,
after a hot and dusty railway journey from Quebec.
This hall and the spacious dining-saloon and public
drawing-rooms of the hotel are practically a club for
the inhabitants of Montreal and its visitors, fj Here we
find many of our fellow-passengers from the I Parisian "
again—here, too, was our captain; this celebrity and
that were pointed out to us by the head waiter, as they
sat at the innumerable small tables at meals, and before
many hours had passed we felt ourselves quite habitues
of Canada's commercial capital, and accustomed to her
ways. Quite conscientiously, too, could we pass muster
with the most exacting Canadian in paying due tribute
to the comforts, the conveniences, and the splendour of
the Windsor Hotel. If
I :
Through Canada with a Kodak.
As at Quebec, our thoughts irresistibly turned to the
contrast between this proud and splendid city, with her
beautiful buildings, and churches, and universities, to
the nestling Indian village found by Jacques Cartier at
Jacques Cartier.
the foot of the mountain which he first called Mont
Royal (the royal mountain), in honour of his king. We
fancied we could see the groups of " braves," with their
squaws and children, crowding out of their little huts to i*"J   lfla   • *'"."■ *' 26
Through Canada with a Kodak.
look at these strange beings; the women stroking the
moustaches and beards of the explorers, to make sure of
their reality; the infirm, and sick, and feeble, with their
paralysed chief at their head, imploring for the " healing
touch" which they believed these denizens of another
world could give.
The words which were spoken by Maisonneuve, the
leader of the little band of forty-five emigrants who
landed on the island of Montreal in 1642, with the
intention of founding a colony and a mission, have
indeed come true. No sooner had the little party landed
than they gathered together for prayer and in consecration of their mission in this new land, and at the close
of their worship Maisonneuve turned to his companions
and said, "You are a grain of mustard seed that shall
rise and grow till its branches overshadow the earth.
You are few, but your work is the work of God. His
smile is on you, and your children shall fill the land."
Many were the vicissitudes which that little colony
had to pass through, many were the heroes and heroines
whom they were destined to nurture amidst the rough
experiences of a life spent in constant dread and danger
of the Indian's tomahawk and scalping-knife. But
Maisonneuve's words proved prophetic, and in place of
the small barricaded fort of Villa Marie of Montreal,
defended by a few missionaries and devoted women,
there rears itself the largest,  most prosperous city in Montreal.
Canada, sheltered by her Royal Mountain, on which she
lavishes her proud care. A lovely winding drive has
been laid out round the sides of the mountain, by which
the visitor gradually ascends to a standpoint, from which
a glorious view of the river and scenery below must be
Unfortunately the weather was very unfavourable when
we made the ascent, and we could only form a dim conception of the splendid panorama spread out before us,
with the rushing white waters of the Lachine Rapids in
the distance. But you can get an idea of the view from
the picture we have given you.
On the sides of the mountain itself large and most
carefully-tended cemeteries have been laid out separately
for Protestants and Roman Catholics, and are considered
one of the sights of the place. We drove through them,
admiring many strange bright plants and trees, and then
we wended our way to return a visit made to us in the
morning by an old friend of the family, Mr Crombie,
who had been for many years a London City Missionary,
but who has now in his old age gone out with his wife
to make his home with his son, a minister in charge
of a Presbyterian Church in Montreal.. We found
them enthusiastic in praise of their new country,
and the beneficial effects that its climate had had on
their health.
But I must cry, Halt!    For I see that I am dangerously Through Canada with a Kodak.
near writing a journal of all our doings, and this will
never do. So, only one or two more remarks about
Montreal, where, indeed, we only stayed two nights, as
we were hurrying on to our children, who had preceded
us across the ocean. But we had time to inspect a
pleasant little Home for Female Emigrants in Mansfield
Street, which is under the charge of a lady who takes the
liveliest interest in those who pass through her hands.
They are met at the steamers, and for the first twenty-
four hours can remain at the Home free of all charge.
Very often, even on the first day, they find places to
which they can go at once, but if they require to stay a
little longer they pay a small sum per day. W But all may
be sure of a welcome here, and of help and wise advice.
And then I must tell you of the evening we spent at
the beautiful house of Sir Donald Smith, whose name is
a household word in Canada, as well it may be, for he
has acted the part of a fairy godfather to his adopted
country. I think we must some day try if Sir Donald
cannot be persuaded to tell the O.U.A. some of his
stories of the by-gone days of the Hudson's Bay Company, of which he is President, and in whose service
he has taken many an adventurous journey. He could
tell us not only of the hardships of cold, but of the hardships of heat, which beset the hunter. That very evening
we were with him he told us of the terrors of the Labrador
mosquitoes, and how they have vanquished men who M
i I
Sir Donald Smith. 3°
Through Canada with  a Kodak.
would fly from no other enemy. He instanced one case
in which a friend of his was so sensitive to their bites,
that he had to stop every half-hour on the march to wash
away the blood which was pouring from his head and
We had all manner of stories that night, for amongst
Sir Donald's guests were—Mr Shaughnessy, the Vice-
President of the Canadian Pacific Railway; the Rev-
Mr Barclay, whom many of you may have heard of, as
he was colleague with Dr Macgregor, at St Cuthbert's,
Edinburgh, for some years before going to the Montreal
congregation, by whom he is held in such high esteem ;
and last, but not least, Father Lacombe, a priest missionary amongst the Indians, who has given all his life to
their cause. I have had a photograph of him engraved
so that you may have a glimpse of the kindly, noble old
face. He lives far away in the North-West, and is not
often seen in civilised haunts, but his name is everywhere
loved and respected among Protestants and Roman
Catholics alike. His life of love and whole-hearted
devotioin to his mission has gained for him enormous
influence amongst "mes sauvages," as he playfully calls
the Indians. For instance, when the Canadian Pacific
Railway Company first began to lay out their railway
through the red man's territory, there were rumours,
and more than rumours, that the wild "Bloods" and
" Blackfeet"  meditated  wrecking   the  pathway  of the FatherLacombe. 32
Through Canada with a Kodak.
iron fiend which threatened their solitudes. Father
Lacombe's aid was invoked as mediator, and the
"Bloods" and the "Blackfeet" buried the hatchet.
His talk with us will always be a happy remembrance;
his fatherly solicitude over his flock, and the way
in which he identifies himself with them is most touch
"You must never drive the Indians, or frighten
them; you must draw them by ever telling them of
the love of the Father." Only once, he told us, was
he in momentary danger from any Indian. An Indian
lad had been falling into bad ways, and Father Lacombe
told him that if he persisted in these ways he would
surely reap the fruits of his sin. A few days later the
boy was ill, and Father Lacombe went to see him, and,
laying his hand on his knee, asked him how he was.
The boy jumped up in a fury, and seizing a knife, made
a lunge at the missionary, which, fortunately, the latter
eluded by a rapid movement. The boy had remembered
the words spoken to him a few days before, and thought
that Father Lacombe had the power to bring punishment
and death upon him by merely touching him. Amongst.
other work done for the Indian by this good man has
been the making of grammars and translations of parts
of the Bible, and other books for their use. He says
that when he is quite worn. out with active work, he will
come and build a Hermitage near Haddo House, and
write books for and about his Indians. Montreal.
Some day I must tell you of other missions amongst
the Indians, of the Church of England's Mission, and
of our Presbyterian Church Mission, which are doing
splendid work, and for which I would like to ask your
support.   To-day I have simply told you our impressions.
of one who is surely following Christ, if ever man did,
and taking His message of love and mercy to dark souls,
and to whom, therefore, all Christians can with heart and
soul say, " God speed."    Meanwhile I must tell you how
Mr Barclay joined with Pere Lacombe in telling us of
the North-West.    He had gone with the Canadian troops
as chaplain, on the expedition to quell the last insurrection amongst the half-breeds, and we were told on*all
hands how magnificent his tall manly figure looked in
uniform, and how his conduct with the troops won for
him universal respect.     I wish you could have heard
him describing the services he had in far out-of-the-way
places on the Sabbaths.     The military band led  the
psalms and hymns, and the host of men's voices rose up
in the open air, in regions where divine worship had
never before awakened echoes, and amongst the worshippers were found lonely settlers who had for years been
far from any church, and who hailed this opportunity of
joining in public prayer and praise once more, and to
whose eyes the sound of the well-known tunes brought
tears of joy. .
One more glimpse must I give you of the interior of
c 34.
Through Canada with a Kodak.
Sir Donald's hospitable mansion—not of his library,
lined with the beautiful red wood of California and
British Columbia; not of his unique Japanese room,
where you might spend hours in examining curiosities
which can be seen nowhere else out of Japan; not of his
beautifully decorated drawing-rooms; but of one picture
in his picture gallery. It is full of other treasures, but
this is the one you would most like to see. It is painted
by a French artist, and the scene is in France. A number
of peasant girls, their heads veiled, after foreign custom,
are passing up the lane to the little church in the distance,
their friends standing about in groups invoking blessings
on the young lives about to dedicate themselves to God's
service. In the foreground of the picture we have a
touching scene of one family kissing and blessing their
own child, about to join her companions. Grandparents
and parents lift up their hands and eyes to Heaven on
behalf of their darling, whose face bears a look of such
humility, and love, and steadfastness, that one turns
away from the picture with the sense that one has been
standing on hallowed ground.
But the boat which is to take us westward is waiting
for us at Lachine, and if we are to arrive at Hamilton
next month we must hurry westwards. So, good-bye,
Sir Donald, and good-bye to your guests; but au revoirf 8 IV.
THAT was a mistake when I said the boat was waiting
for us at Lachine ! I must have been thinking of
the Lachine Rapids, which are one of the sights which
all right-minded visitors to Montreal go and see, and
down which they generally descend in a steamer. We
had fully intended to include them in our programme,
but want of time and heavy rain prevented our going,
and so I cannot give you the description of an eyewitness. There are a number of these rapids on the
St. Lawrence, those of Lachine being the best known.
They presented formidable obstacles to the early explorers, until the Indians guided them over the dangers
in their bark canoes. It is said that the safest course
for the steamboats to take was discovered by first
shooting the .rapids on rafts, on the bottom of which
were nailed many spikes of wood, and the deepest
course was then known by examining which spikes had
been broken off by contact with the rocks, and which
remained intact.
A somewhat risky  experience ?     But think of the i
A Canadian Lake Vo"yage.
anxiety which the first captain must have suffered who
took a steamer full of passengers down this succession
of waterfalls, with rocks which can be touched on either
side with a boat-hook. It is not thought much of a feat
now, however, when it is done every day in the utmost
We determined to make the most of our last day
at Montreal, and so, instead of joining the boat either
at Montreal itself or at Lachine, we left late in the
afternoon by train to Coteau, about 30 miles west of the
city. There we had ordered a " machine " to meet us to
drive us for the mile and a half between the station and
the river. But our " machine " did not turn up, and we
fell to the mercy of a youthful Jehu, with an extremely
shaky and antediluvian trap, who took a mischievous
pleasure in landing us ever and anon in deep black ruts
with which the road abounded, looking back with a
twinkle to enjoy the anxious glances of his passengers at
the angle in which the frail wheels found themselves during
these plunges. But the rough transit did not blind our
eyes to the peaceful French Canadian scenes through
which we were passing, nor to the gorgeousness of the
golden sunset which was glorifying the whole landscape.
Soon we were established in our new abode, the " Cor-
sican," with its clean cabins and attentive stewards, and
its genial, sailor-like captain, who had been navigating
the river for twenty-eight years, but who came originally .
fl 3»
Through Canada with a Kodak.
i i
from Maidenhead. He was good enough to invite us to
his own upper deck, near the steersman's cabin, and once
having clambered up the precipitous ladder which led
thither, we enjoyed a magnificent view. That first evening was lovely; the glow of the sunset melting into full
moonlight in an incredibly short space of time, and we
sat and sketched, and congratulated ourselves on having
taken the boat instead of the hot stuffy train. Next day
was too hazy and grey for a proper view of the far famed
"Thousand Islands," through which the "Corsican"
threaded her passage. No name could better describe
the scene than the " Thousand Islands." The broad
river, which, at places, is seven miles across, is literally
studded with islands of all shapes and sizes, some scarcely
more than a rock on which a bush has taken root, others
large enough to maintain a small colony. Nearly every
island has its villa and its flag, and its little pier with
brightly coloured pleasure-boats lying around. Steam
launches ply busily from one point to another, whistling
importantly their approach, while fishermen are seen
pursuing their craft devotedly in every little bay. The
air resounds with the laughter of picnic parties; for this
is one of the great holiday haunts of the Americans, and
at night the villas and the hotels vie one with another as
to who can best illuminate their respective islands. It is
therefore a gay and attractive scene that the river here
presents, but we agreed that it has not the same imposing
i A Canadian Lake Voyage.
beauty that we saw further east. But now, in the afternoon,
we are approaching Kingston, full of historical associations, from the old days of Frontenac onwards, and which
commands the river in a most picturesque way. Our
captain told us we could have just two hours ashore, and
so we hurried off, desirous first of all to assure ourselves
of the well-being of a daughter of one of Lord Aberdeen's
tenants who had emigrated hither two or three years
back. We found her happy and bright, and quite a
Canadian, giving  her verdict in  favour  of the  "new
Kingston, Ontario
country" most emphatically. She had been with the
same mistress ever since she came out, and appeared to
be a great favourite with the latter. Having received this
further testimony in favour of the emigration to Canada
of the right sort of hard-working girls, we proceeded
round the sights of the town, under the guidance of a
genuine Irish cabman, who did the honours, impartially
of the Barracks, of the Military College, of the Martello
Towers, and of the Penitentiary and the Lunatic Asylum
•    '< 4-o
Through Canada with a Kodak.
and the Queen's College—this latter being a Presbyterian
University, presided over by the well-known and eloquent
Principal Grant. Then, after a comfy little tea at the
hotel, we scurried back in good time before the bell of
departure sounded, and we sailed out into Lake Ontario
in the rays of the setting sun in the happy delusion that
we were to glide over waters as smooth as the river which
we had just left, till we found ourselves at Toronto, which
we were to reach next morning.
Alas for our hopes! We descended to supper, but
scarcely were we seated, than swish-swash came a wave
through the port hole, sweeping over glasses and plates
in its passage. We do not know much of what happened
in the supper saloon after that. We were each alone in
our narrow berth bewailing our folly for having trusted
the-treacherous waters instead of having resorted, bag and
baggage, to the train at Kingston. But, at three in the
morning, hark, what is that whistle? What is that
welcome clanking of a chain ? Are we stopping ? Yes,
indeed. And is there any chance of escape? The
thought occurred simultaneously to two passengers, who
appeared with wan faces and dishevelled hair at the door
of their cabins at the same time, and confronted one
another with the same question. The thought was
quickly put into action, after Lord Aberdeen had obtained
the kindly co-operation of the captain, who even refrained
from scoffing at such deserters, and admitted that it had A Canadian Lake Voyage.
come up a pretty stiff and unexpected gale. And a few
minutes later we were left rejoicing on a deserted pier
with naught but a tea-kettle, a plaid, and an umbrella in
our hands. But a Robinson Crusoe inhabited that pier
—as fate would have it, he was Cruso by name—and he
was like his namesake in hospitality also, and in his
ability for making the: best of whatever strangers came
his way. He asked not our name or our business, but
made us free of the office which he occupied as agent
for the steam-boats. He asked us if we wanted anything, he provided us with money, he volunteered to stir
up a cab in the town to fetch us to the station a couple
of hours later, and he showed us his method of getting
water out of the lake by means of a soda-water bottle
with a long string round the neck. What say you to this
as a specimen of Canadian hospitality and courtesy?
The recipients of it Were, any way, genuinely grateful,
and very joyfully did we balance ourselves on the edge
of the pier in the dark, and, in the midst of the gale,
fish for water, and then make our tea in the shelter of
the office, listening to the storm outside. You will think
us very cowardly sailors, I fear; but it is no joke, I assure
you; and if you love not a storm at sea, remember our
advice and keep to the train when you come out to
Canada. Mr Cruso was as good as his word, and in
due course a cabman, who had been unwillingly aroused
out of his early morning slumbers, appeared, and about
mm 42
Through Canada with a Kodak.
5 a.m. we boarded a train bound West, in which with
difficulty we found a corner among the half-awake passengers who had been travelling all night. From the
window we caught a glimpse of our poor ship ploughing
her way through the waves, and we congratulated ourselves afresh on our escape. We got long before her to
Toronto, but not even here at the " Queen City " did we
halt. We were to make acquaintance with her a few
days later under more auspicious circumstances, and so
we only stopped long enough to change from one train
to another, which, skirting along a lake, brought us,
after an hour's journey, within sight of a most attractive
first view of our new Canadian home. You shall not
see this view yet. I will but put you down on the
platform at Hamilton, and we will go on to " Highfield,"
and prepare breakfast and a warm welcome for you
Ill mil
I AM sure that any of you who have travelled will
agree that one of its chief pleasures is coming home
again. And we felt almost like getting home when we
walked into the cool, comfortable dining-room, where
breakfast had been prepared for us by those of our
household who had preceded us to " Highfield," the
house which was to be our home whilst in Canada.
Here is a picture of Highfield. I will but give you one
of Hamilton, for it is a place which photographs do not
do full justice to. The town lies on a gently-rising slope
round the head of a beautiful bay, and nestles under a
steep ridge, which stretches miles and miles away to the
heights of Niagara. Here it shelteringly protects the
town, which fondly acknowledges its sway, and which
demands from all strangers and new-comers a due tribute
of loyal admiration for the " Mountain." As an illustration of this admiration, the day after we arrived, a boy,
of about thirteen, came up to Lord Aberdeen as he was
walking in the grounds, and said, " Is Lord Haddo at
; ;   •■
Through Canada with a Kodak.
It 11
home?" "Well, no, he is not, but I am his father,
What do you want with him ? "
"Well, I wanted to interview him, and ask what his
lordship thought of our city, and I wanted to put the
interview in my father's newspaper."
Lord Aberdeen was rather startled, in spite of having
become somewhat familiarised to the custom of "interviewing " which prevails universally on the other side of the
water, by means of which public men make known their
views. He had scarcely, however, expected his eleven-
year old son to be called upon to give his opinions as
yet, and he tried to explain to the youthful journalist
that in the old country boys were not expected to air
their views so soon. But our young friend was not
easily [baffled. He still persisted in asking " if Lord
Haddo had made arrangements to inspect the public
buildings of the city, and especially if he had visited
'the Mountain] and what he thought of that." Lord
Aberdeen informed him that his boy was at that moment
enjoying a clamber up the steep, and did his best to
satisfy his enterprising enquirer by expressing his own
appreciation of the heights under whose shade they were
Well, climb up this Mountain (almost on the side of
which stands Highfield), in the cool of an early September
evening, and see the town spreading itself out east and
west below you—wide and well-kept streets, trim lawns  46
Through Canada with a Kodak.
as green as those in England, houses nestling amongst
trees, handsome buildings, church spires and factory
chimneys competing for pre-eminence. And beyond
the city, and its manufactories, and its wharves, lies the
bay, all gleaming with the bright colours of the setting
sun, amid which little yachts and pleasure boats are
making their way home. Our thoughts linger fondly
over the restful days spent in this peaceful retreat, and
I fancy that both we and our children associate Highfield
to a great extent with sunshine and butterflies. Perhaps
we had a little more of the former than we cared for just
at first—for days with the thermometer over 90 deg. in
the shade do not as a rule commend themselves to
Scottish-bred folk. But after all we had not much to
grumble at, for the heat was not accompanied by our
much-dreaded foes, the blood-thirsty mosquitoes. True,
this race of pests, who are supposed to avoid Hamilton
as a rule, had sent out this year an advance-guard to
survey the place, and even we, though late in the season,
heard ominous trumpetings as we laid our heads on our
pillows, but it seems that as yet they were but vegetarian
specimens of the race who had arrived, for none of our
party suffered at their hands. Nor did they suffer at
ours. We did not capture a single specimen. And this
is a great deal to say for such an insect-hunting family as
we must confess ourselves to be.
As we sat in the pretty secluded little grounds which ^3
<M 48
Through Canada with a Kodak.
surround Highfield that first day, we became conscious
that we were by no means alone, and our children, who
had joined us, were soon in full pursuit of the wonderful
creatures, which looked like butterflies on the wing, but
turned into grasshoppers when they alighted, of the
"Camberwell Beauties," and the "Admirals," and the
many other brightly-coloured visitors of our garden.
But we did not do much that first day—we had not the
necessary implements, and we'had to sally forth in search
of the wherewithall to make butterfly nets, and killing-
boxes, and specimen boxes, and I know not what. (And
here, by way of a parenthesis, I must beg the readers of
"Wee Willie Winkie," who look in here, to understand that we are a family of scientific entomologists,
that we employ the most humane methods in killing our
victims, that we should look with horror on any one who
should stick pins through them alive, and that we do not
kill those we do not need for our cabinet. Pray forgive
this parenthesis, good readers. I feared that we might
be confounded with the cruel boy whom our magazine
has held up to reprobation.)
And here let me introduce the four young butterfly-
hunters of Highfield. Of course if you ever hear that
their mother—your staid editor—joined them in their
wild pursuit of her majesty the glorious red-wingedj
swift-flying "Queen of Spain," or if you hear of her
anointing telegraph  poles  and  trees  with honey and Hamilton.
Lord Haddo.    Aged ii.
Lady Marjorie H. Gordon.   Aged q.
Ii Through Canada with a Kodak.
molasses, and flitting about with others of the staff of
"Onward and Upward" at dead of night, with lanterns,
capturing unwary, but magnificent moths, who had imbibed the sweet draughts too freely, you will surely not
believe such tales!
Suffice it to say that a really beautiful collection of
moths and butterflies resulted from our stay at Highfield,
Hon. Dudley and Hon. Archie H. Gordon.   Aged 6 and5.
a collection doomed to an untimely end, for during their
transitho me, they got so battered, that it was only left to
mother and daughter to mingle their tears together over
their ashes. We must not ask you to linger with us in
our lamentations over our broken treasures. We live in
hope of replacing them some day, and meanwhile we IP
have other memories of Hamilton which we wish to
share with you.
A Hamilton Yacht. 52
Through Canada with a Kodak.
A hundred years ago Hamilton had barely begun to
exist. But the few who were then ploughing up the land
on which the city now stands were of the stamp which
makes nations to rejoice over her children. You will
remember that after the war which resulted in the independence of the United States, a number of American
people, who had remained true to the British flag
throughout the war, resolved to give up their lands and
their homes and migrate to Canada, rather than dwell
in a land which had revolted from the Crown to which
they were so loyal. And England right joyfully held
out her arms to these noble-hearted refugees. Ontario
was then unpeopled, and so two hundred acres of land
in this rich province were granted free to every one of
these United Empire Loyalists, as they were called.
U.E. Loyalists they are now usually designated, and
those who can trace their parentage to these families
count it a proud descent, and glory in it.
" And they who have loved
The cause that had been lost, and kept their faith
To England's Crown, and scorned an alien name,
Passed into exile ; leaving all behind
Except their honour, and the conscious pride
Of duty done to country and to King.
Broad lands, ancestral homes, the gathered wealth
Of patient toil and self-denying years
Were confiscate and lost; for they had been
The salt and savour of the land, trained up
In honour, loyalty, and fear of God.
i •
"•Not drooping like poor fugitives, they came
In exodus to our Canadian wild's :
But full of heart and hope, with heads erect
And fearless eyes, victorious in defeat.
With thousand toils they forced their devious way
Through the great wilderness of silent woods
That gloomed o'er lake and stream ;. till higher rose
The northern star above the broad domain
Of half a continent, still theirs to hold,
Defend, and keep forever as their own ;
Their own and England's, to the end of time.
'' King's gifts upon the exiles were bestowed.
Ten thousand homes were planted ; and each one,
With axe and fire, and mutual help, made war
Against the wilderness, and smote it down.
Into the open glades, unlit before,
Since forests grew, or rivers ran, there leaped
The sun's bright rays, creating heat and light,
Waking to life the buried seeds that slept
Since time's beginning, in the earth's dark womb.
' To keep the empire one in unity
Ai:d brotherhood of its imperial race,
For that they nobly fought and bravely lost,
Where losing was to win a higher fame !
In building up our northern land to be
A vast Dominion stretched from sea to sea—
A land of labour, but of sure reward—
A land of corn to feed the world withal—
A land of life's rich treasures, plenty, peace ;
Content and freedom, both to speak and do,
A land of men to rule with sober law
This part of Britain's Empire, next to the heart,
Loyal as were their fathers and as free !"
—Kirby. 54 Through  Canada  with  a  Kodak.
One of the earliest of these refugees was Robert Laud,
and he selected the head of the lake, more because of
the game to be found there, and the scenery, than because
of the fertility of the soil. His first acre was ploughed
with a hoe, sown with a bushel of wheat, and harrowed
with a leafy bough. He was his own miller, too, for
some years, until a French-Canadian arrived and set up
a mill some seven miles away. Then other farmers
came, and in 1813 George Hamilton laid out his farm
in village lots, and gave the future town its name. |J: Lying
as it does so near the frontier, it did not escape anxious
times during the war of 1812 and the following years,
and in 1832 it narrowly escaped destruction at the hands
of a terrible visitation of the cholera, and the same year
by a raging fire. These trials did but prove the mettle
of the inhabitants of the young town, and perhaps furnish
the reason why its streets are now so broad, and so cared
for, its buildings so solid, its sanitary arrangements so
thoroughly looked into, its provisions against destruction
by fire so complete. A popular writer described Hamilton in 1858 as "the ambitious and stirring little city,"
and the name stuck; only "little" she is no longer,
being the third city in the Dominion, having a population of over 50,000, and her critics have missed out the
" stirring," so if you seek for news of Hamilton in the
general newspapers, you must look for it under the
heading "The Ambitious City."    But she is not, and
ti m
£ 56
Through Canada with a Kodak.
need not, be ashamed of this nickname, for she has
shown herself ambitious to some purpose. I could take
up a large part of these Canadian talks by describing
to you the public buildings and their uses, the magnificent school buildings and the good work that goes on
in them, the institutions—social, literary, philanthropic,
and religious—the many manufactories, which cause
this town to be regarded as the Birmingham of Canada,
the acres of vineyards around the fruit gardens and
orchards, which give this part of the country the name
of "the Garden of Canada," the churches of all denominations whose services we attended, and above all
the people, of Hamilton. But, having regard to the
length and purport of these sketches, I will not launch
into so large a subject. Suffice it to say that the
kindness and good fellowship extended to us by the
inhabitants of Hamilton, of all classes, did what only
true hearty courtesy and kindness can do, viz., we felt
ourselves to be no mere tourists and strangers, but fellow-
citizens of " no mean city." And in proof of this assertion, I have, by my side here, in the office of " Onward
and Upward," two beautifully-bound books, concerning
the birds and plants of Canada, and which were presented
to me by the Free Library Committee, as being the first
citizen to apply for a book, on the occasion of Lord
Aberdeen's opening of the new buildings. (I must confide to you, however, that your President's character had Hamilton.
to be inquired into before I was admitted as a reader.
I had to produce a certificate of character for honesty,
and so forth, signed by two citizens of Hamilton. You
will be glad to know that I found two Senators willing to
vouch for me!)
There is no doubt that if you want really to know
something of a country, its customs, and its people, it is
a great advantage if you can settle down in some typical
place for a few weeks, instead of merely travelling through
and seeing the sights of each town. In the latter way
you may see more perhaps of the buildings, institutions,
&c, for if you have but a day or two, you map out your
time, and spend it in driving from one place to another,
and you thus get through a great deal: but if you make
yourself at home anywhere for a bit, you will not do the
tourist so much, but if you mix at all with the people,
you almost unconsciously get to understand them and
their ways of thinking, and the why and wherefore of
their customs and institutions. This was our experience,
living our every-day life, interchanging visits, reading the
daily papers of all sections of politics, mingling with
clergy, statesmen, merchants, agriculturists, &c, and
hearing various opinions from all sorts and conditions of
men. And the sum total of what we learnt made us feel
that the more the old country learnt to know her grownup Child over the sea, the more she would be proud of
her in all ways, and the more earnestly did it make us
III 5«
Through Canada with a Kodak.
wish and pray that the future of Canada may be worthy
of her past, and that the present God-fearing, industrious,
simple, education-loving stock may only be reinforced by
those worthy to combine with them in building up a
grand nation and country.
As I have said before, none need fear to go out to
Canada who are ready to work. Our lads arid lasses
who went out with us with the intention of settling (and
of whom I give you a group sitting outside " Highfield "),
have nearly all found happy homes. One, indeed, has
come back because of her father's death, but I feel much
tempted to give you extracts from some of the letters of
others. They have not suffered at all from the cold of
the winter, but seem to have enjoyed the merry winter
customs, and seeing all the skating and the sleighing
going on round about them. For one thing, the heartiness of Canadians towards new-comers counts for a great
deal: they do all they can to make everyone feel welcome
and one with them—there is a freeness, a sense of
equality, a consciousness that everyone will be taken just
for what he or she is worth, and nothing more or less,
which cannot altogether be attained in the old world,
and which must always be refreshing to anyone of independent spirit. " Prove yourself to be a man, a woman,
and we shall respect you, and you shall have an equal
chance with any of us, and what is more, we will do our
best to put you into the running with us from the first." '
i      j 6o
Through Canada with a Kodak.
Human nature is undoubtedly the same everywhere,
and Canadians would not wish to claim for themselves
immunity from all faults, but they may fairly claim that-
anyone wishing to live a free, independent, self-respecting,
law-abiding, and God-fearing life, has as few impediments
under the government, the public life and customs, the
bright climate, and the sanguine temperament of Canada
and her folk as they will find in any land under the sun.
Lord Aberdeen was accused of distributing, in some
of his speeches in Canada, what was termed "taffy to
the Dominion." (Is this word derived from "toffee," I
wonder ? Anyway it means something sweet.) Perhaps I
shall be accused of following in his footsteps. Well, we
can only speak of that we do know, and what we have
seen, and I can honestly say that I am not conscious of
having flattered. Next month I invite you to accompany
us to some of Canada's autumn fairs, and to see some of
her products.
- ^^.J^!^^w^'K-^^.^^&>^'^^iC'^ '
WHAT a rash promise I made last month ! I
believe I promised to escort you to some of
the well-known Autumn Fairs of Canada, and now that
the time has come for me to fulfil my promise, and I
have begun to look up my notes, my heart misgives me,
and I have almost a mind to throw you over. For how
can I do justice to all that we saw ? It is one thing to
be guided and another thing to guide. But it is of no
use making excuses. I must just do my best; so come
along, to begin with, to the greatest of Canadian Fairs, in
the " Queen City" of Toronto. And we had begun to feel
ourselves quite familiar with Toronto, for in our house at
Hamilton was a telephone, not only communicating with
nearly every other house in the town, and thus saving
many a note and interview, but having also communication with Toronto on the one side, 40 miles east of us,
and London on the other, about 30 miles west. (Yes,
London; I mean what I say—London on the Thames,
in the county of Middlesex. Look in your geography
books and you will find there is more than one London 62
Through Canada with a Kodak.
in the world, and when you go to Canada you will learn
always to explain which London you mean—London,
England, or London, Ontario. But, indeed, we have
found ourselves that the more youthful of the two
Londons has already made its existence known in the
Old World, for when we were in Italy last year, and
wanted on one occasion to send a telegram to London,
we simply addressed it to London, without adding
England. But a message came back to ask whether it
was London in England or in Canada that we meant!)
But our first real personal acquaintance with Toronto
was made on the opening day of what is familiarly known
in the country as " Canada's Greatest Fair." Here every
autumn congregate thousands and thousands of agriculturists, fruit-raisers, manufacturers, and pleasure-seekers.
The Fair goes on for a fortnight, and is held in grounds
of 60 acres of public land, specially set apart for the
purpose for two months in the year, and on which handsome buildings have been erected for exhibition purposes,
and are maintained by the Exhibition Committee.
These grounds are found too small now for the exhibition of all the stock that is brought from all parts of the
Dominion, not to speak of the agricultural machinery in
which Canada excels, and the specimens of manufactured
goods of every description, from pianos and organs, and
really beautiful articles of furniture, down to the humblest
of household necessaries.    And not only the useful was J
« 64
Through Canada with a Kodak.
provided for, but the ornamental, and the amusing also,
were given their full place. Trotting races, the Wild
West Show—a performance after the manner of Buffalo
Bill, with cow-boys and wild Indians and buck-jumping
horses, and side performances of all kinds—were all to
hand for the diversion of those who were not interested in
the all-absorbing agricultural work and prospects of the
country, i And in spite of the Vast concourse of people
assembling daily (it is reckoned that 300,000 visitors
attended the Fair each week), there was a remarkable
absence of any disorderly conduct or unseemly language.
All strangers are struck by the good behaviour of the
crowd, and by the evidence it gives of the high moral tone
prevailing in Canada, and which, amongst other results,
shews itself in a popular agreement that no intoxicating
drinks shall be sold on the grounds during the Fair.
Lord Aberdeen had the honour done him to be asked
to open this vast Exhibition, and to give an address
on the occasion, and it was then that we first visited
Toronto, and that we were first brought into contact
with a Canadian crowd. The opening ceremony is
somewhat a trying one, for it takes place in the open air,
the speakers occupying a platform given up afterwards
to acrobats and jugglers, and having to address a vast
crowd in an amphitheatre opposite, with the racing-course
intervening. The ordeal, however, was safely got through,
and the audience were very kind, and appeared satisfied. fclt
But I must return to our Toronto Fair, and I feel I
ought to take you round the Dog Show, and the Poultry
Show, and the Honey Show, all of which were excellent;
and then I ought to tell you of all the strange implements for sowing, and reaping, and binding, and digging,
and I do not know what besides; and then we ought to
see the roots and the vegetables, and the magnificent
show of fruit; and then we ought to stand in the ring,
and see the Herefords, and  the Shorthorns,  and our
own Aberdeen-Angus cattle being led out, and seeming
very nfuch at home, and the Clydesdales, too, and the
roadsters, and the wonderful jumping-horse " Rosebery,"
who cleared the seven-feet jump easily.   Besides there are
the Manitoba exhibits, and those from the North-West
and British Columbia.    And there are the birds, and the
insects, and the snakes to be seen.    Well, what do you
say to going through all these shows, and my pointing
out the merits of each exhibit ?    If you were wise you
would not absolutely trust yourself to my knowledge on
all these subjects, even though I had the benefit of being
shown all by our most kind friend, Captain Macmaster,
Vice-President of the Fair.    But even if you would, I
am afraid you would not care for a whole number of the
Magazine to be devoted to Canada, which would be the
result of your rashness, and if you or any of your friends
want  to  know more  in  detail  about  the  agricultural
resources of the country, I would advise you to write to
I! 66 Through Canada with a Kodak.
the High Commissioner for Canada, 17 Victoria Street,
London, S.W., and ask for some of the reports on
Canada made by the British tenant-farmers, who went
out in 1891, on the invitation of the Canadian Govern-
-v. ee
Captain Macmaster
ment andjvisited every part of the country, and who have
made most valuable reports on all they had jseen/!;ifor
the use of those wanting full and reliable information. Toronto.
Some of these tenant-farmers were present at the Toronto
Fair the same day as we were (on our second visit), and
we saw them going about everywhere making notes.
But I have told you nothing yet of our host at Govern-
Government House, Toronto.
ment House, where we stayed for the night. We had
had the good fortune to be fellow-passengers across the
Atlantic with the Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, Sir
Alexander Campbell,* and he had proved the best and
* Sir Alexander Campbell died in May 1892, after these letters were published.4 68
Through Canada with a Kodak.
kindest of friends, both as regards bodily and mental
wants, for as to the former, he had made us free of his
private provision of tea and butter, and Devonshire
cream, and as to the latter, he told us much which
enabled us to feel that we knew a good  deal  about
Sir Alexander Campbell,
late Lieutenant-Governor oj Ontario.
Canada before we got there. He has lived a long life of
public usefulness to his adopted country, and we count the
friendship with which he honoured us as one of the solid
gains which our trip to Canada brought us.    And now, Toronto.
he and his daughter, Miss Marjorie Campbell, took care
of us in their pleasant Government House, and through
their kindness we made other friends—amongst others,
Mr Mowat, the Hon. Prime Minister of Ontario, and the
Speaker of the Dominion Senate, the Hon. Mr Allan;
and we renewed acquaintance with our friend, Mr Edward
Blake, one of the leaders.of the Opposition, and a well-
known orator and statesman. Then Sir Alexander drove
me all round the city next morning, and showed me the
new and the old parts, the Queen's Park, and the different colleges and schools, and the beautiful University
Buildings, which were in large parts destroyed by fire
last year. They still presented a grand appearance, and
I am happy to say they are to be worthily restored.
Now for a peep at the London Fair, and then both
you and I must have a rest. A bad cold unfortunately
prevented me from accompanying Lord Aberdeen to
London, as I much wanted to do, but he came home
full of praise of the bright appearance of this young city
of 35,000 inhabitants, which goes by the name of the
" Forest City," on account of the great number of trees
planted along the well-laid broad streets. I have given
you two peeps of London and its surroundings, but must
leave you to imagine the rest, as I cannot give a personal
report. But one thing I can tell you. Just after we left
Canada, a very spirited little monthly paper for women
was started in London, called Wives and Daughters fi
70 Through Canada with a Kodak.
ever any of you go to Canada I advise you to take it in,
and meanwhile I hope to give you extracts from it now
and again. And now, Good-night, ladies and gentlemen.
I hope that my inefficiency as a guide to the agricultural
fairs will not prevent you from allowing me to conduct
you to the Falls of Niagara, and then to Canada's capital,
and then we must hie away West. But now once more,
Good-night ! VII.
.1 ',
( '
ON second thoughts, I think we had better not
linger at Niagara. You must have heard it
described so often, and have seen so many pictures of it,
that we should be going over what you would feel to be
well-known ground. So I will only give you a little
picture of these wonderful falls, and then pass on.
Only do not you ever think that you can have the
slightest conception of what " the Falls " are really like
until y©u have been there, until you have stood and
gazed at them, and have looked at them from this point
and from that, above and below, here where they are
about to precipitate themselves in a wild surging flood
over the cliffs, and there where the mighty volume of
water, having poured itself down over the crags and
rocks in grand magnificence, convulses itself into terrific
and seemingly useless fury in its efforts to make its way
along its course. Watch, and look, and listen to the
roar of many waters, and go back again and again, and
then you will know what you have felt Niagara to mean,
though you may never be able to describe it.
"■■ flfF
Through Canada with a Kodak.
It is the Niagara district that shares with that immediately round Hamilton, the distinction of producing the
finest fruit in the Dominion, as well as the greatest
quantity. And we found that reputation to be in no
wise exaggerated when we visited the Fair at Hamilton
and saw the rows and rows of apples and pears, and
peaches, of all sizes and descriptions; and then the
grapes ! Why have I not a photograph to show you the
long piled-up tables, covered with lovely clusters of
bloom-covered grapes ! The " Niagara " white grape is
supposed to be the best of the varieties of Canadian
open-air grapes, all of which have a taste somewhat
peculiar to themselves and not liked by everybody.
Speaking from experience, I can only say that we thought
we had never tasted better grapes in our lives, than some
which we gathered, growing in a perfectly wild state up
the cliffs, near Dundas, where we had scrambled up in
pursuit of butterflies and a most splendid view. Some
day you will have a better chance of tasting Canadian-
grown grapes when more special arrangements are made
for their conveyance by the steamers. As it is, if you
want the best apples in the market, you will always ask
for " Niagara " apples. But we are lingering too long in
the fruit orchards of Ontario, and we must repair to
the station again at Hamilton and take our tickets for
Ottawa, the capital of the Dominion; for Ottawa, which,
some twenty-five years ago, went by the name of Bye- 9ftV''     ' * -_v;"-i...
Falls of Niagara I
Through Canada with a Kodak.
town, a Hudson Bay Company station and a centre for
the lumberers.M Now at a distance we see the proud
towers of the Parliament Houses and Government
Buildings, commanding the heights above the river, and
we see a town which, though far smaller than Montreal,
Above Niagara.
or Toronto, or even Hamilton, can well challenge comparison in point of her picturesque situation, and one
which must, from all accounts, be a centre of brightness
and mirth all through the merry Canadian winter. She
owes her position as capital to the fact that when all the mt
awaftBS 76
Through Canada with a Kodak.
different provinces in Canada were confederated into
one Dominion in 1866, there was too much jealousy
between the great cities of Montreal and Toronto to
allow of either of these being chosen, and so the Queen
Lord Stanley.
chose the little Indian town of Ottawa, standing on the
confines of Quebec and Ontario, to be the centre of
Government.     We  spent  some  most interesting days Ottawa.
here. I will but mention our visit to Sir John Macdonald,
and the kindness with which he received us, for I cannot
attempt a task which would take too long, viz., to tell you
about the statesmen and leaders of political life in Canada
Lady Stanley.
at whose hands we received kindness. They were good
enough^to gather at a dinner given^to'Lord Aberdeen
later on, and both then and at all times they did all in **■
Through Canada with a Kodak.
III If-!
their power to make our visit combine both instruction
and pleasure. You will have noticed in the papers that
after Sir John Macdonald's death, before Sir John Abbott
became Premier, Sir John Thompson, the Minister of
Justice, was first summoned by the Governor-General to
form a Government. We had the chance of making Sir
John and Lady Thompson's acquaintance in the steamer
which took us across the Atlantic, and we and our
Kodak did our best to take photographs of them, but I
am sorry to say that that best on that occasion was a
failure, and so you are cheated of pictures, which we
should have much liked to reproduce in our Magazine,
and which would have reminded us of many pleasant
At Ottawa, as elsewhere in the Dominion, the Scotch
element is strong; and at the house of our kind friend
Sir James Grant (or, as we should delight to call
him in Inverness-shire, "Corrymony," which is the old
home of his family, and the laird of which he is by
descent) and Lady Grant, where we were introduced to
a number of prominent citizens, we found that not a few
claimed Scottish birth or parentage. Under Sir James's
escort, too, we visited the beautifully-arranged Geological
Museum, where we were shown specimens of all the
valuable minerals that lie buried in Canadian soil, and
which will enrich many future generations. We saw,
too,  samples  of  the  beautiful precious  stones  which ii*i 1
Canada can produce for her children, Labradorites, and
Sodorites, and Perthites, and Asterias, all radiating with
beautiful soft blues and purples, and golden and silver
colours.     They have not yet become fashionable, but
Ml •
Sir John  411\\'\'[ Prime M-'"-'"*rv C\f'fiYfffii""^. r^r-f°
when they are known their time will come. Then we
went upstairs and saw the cases of birds and butterflies,
and Lord Aberdeen brought away with him two lovely !;ti
80 Through Canada with a Kodak.
little stuffed owjs, not more than five inches high, and
these little owls now look down on me from the top of
A pair of Aceedian or San-whet Owls.
my bookcase at home, and exhort me to be as wise as
they are. But we brought something else besides these
wee owls back from Ottawa.    Of course a " Fair" was Ottawa.
going on here too, and after the parade of cattle and of
cart horses came some pairs of fast trotting carriage
horses, and among these were a pair of black horses
which Lord Aberdeen admired so much that he bought
Canadian Dick and Bill at Do His Hill, W illesden.
them, and sent them home. These are our friends,
Dick and Bill, about whom our little girl wrote in the
Children's Page of the January number of Onward and
Upward.    They are dear, kind horses, and understand
F 82
Through Canada with a Kodak.
what is said to them very well. They go very fast, and
take us up to London from our little farm at Dollis Hill,
fully five miles . away, in half-an-hour easily. Here they
are, ready to start.
At the Ottawa Fair we also had the opportunity of
making acquaintance with the Hon. Mr Carling, Minister
for Agriculture. He was good enough to offer to take
us to see the Government Experimental Farm he had
established about three miles from the town. So on a
glorious September afternoon we drove out, in company
with Mr Carling and Mr Mackintosh, one of the Members
of Parliament for the city, another kind friend of ours.
The Farm was taken in hand by Mr Carling about four
years ago, and scarcely a day passes when he is at
Ottawa without his visiting it. There are about 500
acres in all; but it is not yet all cultivated. Experiments
of all sorts are carried on here relative to seeds, feeding-
stuffs, flowers, fruit, vegetables, trees, poultry, cattle,
sheep, pigs, horses, &c, &c, and the results of the
experiments are published from time to time. The
farmers from all over the Dominion can send their seeds
here to be tested as to fertility, nutritiousness, &c.; and
this they can do free of cost, for the Post-Offlce carries
everything addressed to and from the Experimental Farm
free. And the farmers are largely taking advantage of
the opportunities thus afforded them, and are cultivating
their farms according to the advice given, and so far the Ottawa.
results have been found satisfactory. Then, again, seeds
are sent to careful farmers in the various provinces for
them to test in their various localities and climate, and
to report upon. We saw at the Farm various houses
and plots of ground where experiments were being carried
on, and we saw also a dairy in process of construction,
where they are to test the produce of various breeds of
cows as to milking powers, and the different methods of
making butter, cheese, &c. Experiments are also being
made as to the expense of feeding animals.. To illustrate
this Mr Saunders, the energetic manager, showed us
some splendid, sleek, healthy-looking Clydesdales, which
were fed at a cost of only 15 cents a day (about 8d.), by
having their hay and all their food chopped up, and not
wasted in any way. I will not, however, keep those of
you who are not interested in agricultural matters longer
at what we found to be a most engrossing place; nor
will I tell you just now of the half-hour spent with Mr
Fletcher, who superintends the entomological and gardening departments, and who makes researches as to the
insects which are injurious and those that are beneficial,
and how to keep down the former and encourage the
latter. fefp
No, we must hurry off to see some of the saw-mills at
work, which are one of the sights of Ottawa. As you
look on the enchanting view down the river, from the
high terrace outside the Parliament Houses,  you  see
I : ,
II w
Through Canada with a Kodak.
thousands and thousands of huge piles of sawn planks,
and when you go down amongst them, you walk through
them as through narrow streets of high buildings, and
you wonder how there can ever be enough demand for
The View from the Terrace outside Parliament Buildings, Ottawa.
all this wood. Both by day and night (by the use of the
electric light) do the huge saw-mills work on, replenishing
and increasing these vast stores of wood, which are
destined to travel to all parts of the world. It is a
wonderful thing to stand in one of these mills, vibrating iJi'   i
with the workings of the mighty engines working the
huge saws and blades, and full of busy workers moving
between the machinery, which is acting out its relentless
will on each victim from the far away woods which it
receives into its jaws. You see these huge forest trees,
cut down hundreds of miles away, each marked with its
owner's brand, floated down the river, and guided
down the rushing water to the special mill to which it
belongs. In a moment it is hauled up, dripping, and
dark, and rough, and it is under the steel teeth of the
huge monster—a crash and a hiss, and in a few moments,
after having run the gauntlet of one machine after
another, the king of the forest emerges out of the other
end,of the shed, a pile of common-place looking planks.
" Lumbering," as it is called, has been one of the chief
industries of Canada during the last fifty years, and
young men loving a rough adventurous life have delighted-in its freedom, its variety, and its dangers. The
lumberers live amongst the forests in rough shanties all
through the winter, felling the trees, and marking them,
and taking them down all sorts of precipitous slides,
called "skidways," through snow, and ice, and drifts, to
the water's edge. Their dress is rough, th§y sleep in a
blanket on a bunk, and their food consists for the most
part of pork and home-made bread, and huge potions
of tea (no intoxicating drinks are ever allowed at the
shanties), but they seem to be none the worse for their
<f :
I It
I   1 86
Through Canada with a Kodak.
hardships. As they work they shout the merry lumberers'
songs, and now and again they have a chance of using
the rifles which lie always ready to hand, and they get
some fresh venison as a reward of their skill. They also
trap bears occasionally. The trap is formed of an
enclosure of stakes driven into the ground. A log is
then suspended above, propped up by a stick to which
the bait is attached, and when poor " Mr Bruin" is unwary
enough to seize the tempting dainty he is done for!
When spring comes, the lumberman's duties alter.
They have to see that the logs brought down to the
water's edge get properly into the current, that none get
caught by the rocks or other impediments, and the
dangers encountered in driving down timber like this
are very considerable, although the skill of the men in
jumping from log to log in the water, in guiding them
with their long hooks, and in running their flat-bottomed
boats dQwn the rapids, is very remarkable. On rivers
where large cataracts occur, artificial channels are made,
called "slides." These are lined with timber, and at
the upper end gates are put up through which the pent-up
water can be admitted or shut off. Down these " slides "
pass the "cribs," which are formed of logs fastened
together with large pieces of timber on the top. Often
a rough wooden hut is also fixed on the crib for the
raftsmen, who guide their craft either with long oars,
called "sweepers," or put up a sail on an improvised fe -•?*
11 88
Through Canada with a Kodak.
ik *
mast.     There is one of these slides near Ottawa, on
which visitors are taken who desire to have the sensation
of " shooting a slide."   When you embark above the crib-
gates, you are bidden  to take a firm hold of a pole
fastened on to the logs beneath; the gates are thrown
open; the water surges over; the crib, carefully steered
through the gateway, advances over the entrance, and
then leaps with a rush.down the narrow channel till it
reaches the calm water below.    We did not ourselves
taste the pleasures of the plunge, but have taken this
account of it from an article on " Lumbering," by Principal Grant, in Picturesque Canada.   The sensation must
be much the same as that enjoyed by the Canadian
tobogganers,   whose  sport  reigns   supreme  among  the
many winter amusements.    We visited Rideau Hall, the
residence of the Governor-General, and saw the high
toboggan-slide put up by the Marquis of Lome, of which
we here give you a picture, which is the centre of so,
much bright, healthy fun.    I need not describe to you
what a toboggan is, for you see it here in its  rapid-
headlong descent, with its laughing, breathless freight,
and  the  mischances  and  tumbles,  and  occasions  for
merriment to which its voyagers are exposed.    Here I
shall leave you a while to amuse yourselves, or to wait to
see one of the Governor's toboggan parties by torchlight,
and if you get tired of-this, try your hand at our old
Scotch game of curling, for which you will find ample H
I 90 Through Canada with a Kodak.
facilities hard by, or try your snow-shoes, or summon a
sleigh and have a bewitching drive to the sound of the
jangling bells along the smooth, dry, hard, snow-covered
roads.    I go to prepare our car for our Westward trip.
•1 ••• VIII.
NOW, in with you, if you do not want to be left
behind! And please remember that you have
to keep your wits about you during this journey when
you get out at railway stations. We have left the
whistles behind us in the old country, and in their stead
you hear a bell, which at first reminds you more than
anything else of the bell of a country church or school,
and when you hear that bell, scramble in as best you
Can,, for there will be no slamming of carriage doors, no
crying of " Take your seats," no guard's whistle as a last
warning. The conductor calls " All aboard," but if the
train is a long one, you are as likely as not to miss hearing
him. And at every station where we stop you will see
after the train has actually started, a rush of stragglers
scrambling up on the " platforms" at either end of the
long cars. Of course you know that trains in America
are not at all like those in this country. Here you have
a picture of our car, and all the carriages are constructed
on this principal with a platform at each end, over which
1 02
Through Canada with a Kodak.
If 111
you can pass when  the  train is in motion.     People
walk from one carriage to another, and during the long
All Aboard!" Across the Prairies.
journeys dining-cars are attached at certain hours of the
day, where passengers can go and have their meals, and
feel very much as if they were in a moving hotel. Little
tables for two or four people are placed down each side
The Car in which we travelled West.
of the long car, the waiters move up and down the
passage between the tables, and the kitchen is at one
end. Cooking under these circumstances must be rather
difficult, but in our experience the results were very
satisfactory. When we had our first meal on board one
of these  cars,  we thought that we must be specially 94
Through Canada with a Kodak.
fortunate in having an out-of-the-way well managed car
attached to the train; but, as we went further, and new
cars came on every day, we found that the rule was for
everything to be well done, for the attendants to be
courteous and obliging. This is only one illustration of
the fact that if you hear that the Canadian-Pacific Railway has undertaken to do anything, whether it concerns
the piercing of the Rocky Mountains or the making of
good soup, you may be sure that it will be well and
thoroughly done. Now this is saying a good deal, and
moreover, we can guarantee that it is true according to
our experience, and not merely according to the words of
advertising agents and attractive little guide-books, which
at times are rather deceptive. Certainly we ought to
speak up for that railway if anyone ought, for we were
royally treated by being provided with a beautiful new
car all to ourselves, in which we could shut ourselves off
into comfortable little rooms at night, when partitions
were put up, and curtains drawn, and beds pulled down
by our faithful porter, John (who ministered to all our
wants most assiduously), and during the day could be
used as one long sitting-room, panelled with pretty white
mahogany, where we read, and wrote, and painted, and
where we had many a pleasant little tea-party during the
four weeks while we inhabited it.
We thought we had chosen quite the best time of year
for our trip, although it might be considered a little late
WW Across the Prairies.
by some, for when we woke up the first morning after
leaving Ottawa, we found ourselves passing through roads
all flaming with the gorgeous autumnal tints of the maple
John Barber, our Car-Porter.
and other trees, and underneath the trailing leaves of
various berry-bearing plants made a carpet of rich yellows,
and reds, and browns. I think, if I am to be truthful, I
must admit that this scenery would have borne rather
'  :   :   \ I
Through Canada with a Kodak.
a forbidding aspect if it had not been for these rich
colourings, and we can scarcely wonder if newly-arrived
emigrants bound Westward feel rather depressed at passing through a stretch of such apparently sterile country
A Young Settlement.
at the outset of their journey. The trees are stunted,
the vegetation allows us to see the stony character of the
soil below; some of the telegraph poles even have to be
upheld by heaps of stones around them, and the desolation is often rendered greater by many of the trees
having been the prey of forest fires, the result either of II
Across  the  Prairies.
the carelessness* of settlers or Indians, or arising from
sparks from the engine falling on the dry inflammable
substances all around. And yet this region has charms
of its own—the fishermen can tell of the wealth to be
found in the rivers and lakes, the geologist and the miner
will tell you of the yet comparatively unexplored riches
of silver and copper and other metals which are stored
up for Canada's children beneath the unpromising looking surface, and the artist will revel in the wild grandeur
of the mountain and lake scenery all along the coast of
Lake Superior. A succession of magnificent promontories, frowning rocks and crags, surrounding the lovely
bay of that vast expanse of water calling itself a lake,
meets your eye as the train bears you along, and you lay
down your pencil and brush in bewilderment as to which
point, to seize amidst so much beauty, and instead, you
revert to the faithful rapid Kodak to record your
memories of Thunder Bay, and Jackfish Bay, and the
Lake of the Woods, and many another spot of beauty.
And then one day as you wake up and peep out behind
the blind of your car, the mountain, and the lake, and
the torrent have disappeared, and instead you behold a
vast stretch of grassy country, and you realise that you
see before you the far-famed wheat-lands of Manitoba,
and that Winnipeg, the City of Prairies, lies hard by.
At Winnipeg we felt almost as if we had a home
awaiting us,  for our friend,  Sir Donald Smith,  about
G 98
Through Canada with a Kodak.
whose generosity to his native country I have told you
before, had written to us even before we left England,
and had bidden us to come to his house at Silver Heights,
and to make ourselves at home. And so, on the verandah   of  Silver   Heights we  were  assembled  with   my
Mr O'Brien (who christened the Lake of Killarney) and his wife
talking to Lord Aberdeen.
brother (who met us here), and Mr Traill, Sir Donald's
manager. Here, too, are Sir Donald's buffaloes, the
last remaining in Canada of the millions who used to
inhabit the prairies, and whose bones you still see in
dismal heaps as you pass along.
w Across  the  Prairies.
And now, what am I to say about Winnipeg ? It is
700 feet above the sea level, it has a population of
28,000 (twenty years ago there were only 215 inhabitants), it has some fine buildings, wide streets, it is lighted
AH that is left of the buffalo.
with electric light, it is a great railway centre, and is
destined to become a great capital. You still, however,
can see how recent is its birth, for side by side with a
fine house stands an old Red River settler's log hut, the
wide streets are still mostly unpaved, and on a wet day IOO
Through Canada with a Kodak.
serve as admirable illustrations of the richness and the
blackness of Manitoba soil, and you still see passing
through the city by the side of a carriage and pair, the
old Red River carts made entirely of wood, creaking as
they go. The rate of progress amazes the inhabitants
themselves, and it is very pleasant to hear stories of
things as they were and as they are. For instance, look
at this dog-carriage; that is the vehicle in which the
Governor and his wife used to be transported to Ottawa
not so many years ago. Rather a different business
now-a-days, is it not?. We must not linger long here,
much as I should like to tell you of the many impressions left on our minds by Winnipeg, its inhabitants and
its surroundings, and of all the truly_Scotch hospitality
with which we were entertained whilst there, and again
on our return journey, not only by Sir Donald Smith,
and the Lieut.-Governor, Mr Schultz, and his wife, but
by many other friends of whose kindness we cherish
grateful memories.
One of the impressions most strongly left on our
minds by our stay in Winnipeg was the strongly marked
religious tone of the community. This is not only
shown by the number of churches and religious institutions, but in the evident earnestness of purpose, which
causes people who have but little spare time in this young
city, to devote themselves to active works of religion and
benevolence.  The great scarcity of servants often throws a £
ill ii mi
102 Through Canada with a Kodak.
large part of the household work on the ladies themselves,
and yet they contrive to throw themselves into Christian
work, and to take charge personally of the orphans and
the aged poor, and to befriend the stranger in a way
which may well put us to shame.    One of their latest
organisations undertakes to send out monthly parcels of
literature to settlers in Manitoba and the North-West.
It is difficult for those at home to realise the isolation of
such settlers; everything has to be begun and carried
I on by' the work of their own hands, and their whole
thoughts are  absorbed by the  desperately hard work
which is an essenual for success^   Church is far away,
there are no libraries or reading-rooms or means of self-
improvement at hand, and the temptation must be great
in such lives to forget mind and soul in the struggle for
material prosperity.    Those who stay at home and have
friends in these distant parts sfiould remember that Moe
greater kindness can be shewn than by sending out good
weekly newspapers  and  magazines, perhaps  a picture
now and again to brighten up the walls of $ie wooden
house, perhaps some flower seeds from the garden at
home, which will bring tender thoughts to the minds Of
those now so far away, and who will teach their children
to tend the little plants sent by " grannie " or " auntie,"
and so make them think of doing their best to make
their homes beautiful and home-like.     Frugality, and
self-denial, and *SfnBfigtTrUf character are developed by
I %: fog
Across  the  Prairies.
the stern life which must be led by the settler in
Manitoba who means to prosper. It is our part to do
our best to prevent the possibility of these sterner virtues
from becoming too stern, and from growing into a mere
passion to get on and to make money. And if you have
no friends in Canada yourselves, may I ask those who
are willing to do so to save up their papers, and pictures,
and magazines, and to send them to—Madame Gautier,
theL.A. Association for distributing Literature to Settlers,
Winnipeg, Manitoba. The ladies of this Association are
deluged with applications for monthly packets of such
literature, and find that packets containing consecutive
issues of the same magazine are those most valued. They
will be very gratified for all contributions, helpful for mind,
and heart and soul, and tending to give thoughts which will
uplift the common daily work which would otherwise be
Now let me tell you of a visit we paid to some new
settlers from Scotland who are amongst those who need
help and sympathy to be shown in this way. And first
I will quote from a letter from Sir George Baden Powell
to the Daily Graphic to explain how they came over
from Scotland :— J-e
the emigration fund.
The general public—and so many are now-a-days interested in
emigration and colonisation—will remember that the scheme was
inaugurated in 1888, when the Government finally decided to offer
L m
Through Canada with a Kodak.
;£ 10,000 if another ^2000 was given by private charity. At first
the Fund was administered by the Scotch Office, under the personal guidance of Lord Lothian, but in the second year a special
Colonisation Board was appointed, consisting of representatives
of the Imperial and Canadian Governments, the private subscribers,
and the land companies aiding the experiment.    The proposal was
Manilou, Manitoba.
to select and import to Manitoba such families among the crofters
as might apply. It was estimated that a sum of ^120 per family
would be sufficient to establish them on the 160-acre lots offered
them by Canada. This sum was to be eventually repaid by each
family, security being meanwhile given by a mortgage on the holding and on the goods and chattels.
m Across  the Prairies.
In May, 1888, eighteen families were despatched, and twelve
more families followed in June of the same year. In April, 1889,
forty-nine families were sent out. The journey from Scotland to
Manitoba was accomplished not without grumbling on the part of
the discontented. The first parties were sent rather late in the
season, and extra efforts had to be made to provide them with
necessaries for the first winter. Many of the crofters gave evidence
at once of .an indolent reliance on charity, and maintained that
Government was to find a home for, and even clothe them. But
the spirit of the country soon fell upon them ; there was work and
hope in the atmosphere; by the second year actual crops gave
earnest for the future, and by the third, with its excellent harvest,
indolence and grumbling had been completely pushed aside and
forgotten, in habits of hard work and confidence in a future of
plenty and success.
The second batch of emigrants also met with difficulties at the
outset. Eighteen families enhanced their difficulties by refusing to
take the lands chosen for them, and wandering afield to find
others. The heads of some of these wandering families, making,
after all, but a poor selection of lands, fell to the temptation of
excellent wages in a distant lumber industry, and after a while
deserted their holdings, and somehow found the means of transferring themselves and their families hundreds of miles to the wage-
earning locality. Possibly they will return to their holdings, especially as all who remained are now doing well, and feeling more than
contented ; the very greatest original grumbler among them on first
arrival declaring that now no power on earth shall drag him from
his holding. io6
Through Canada with a Kodak.
These crofters have now built for themselves very comfortable'
houses; they own working oxen,  milk  cows,  and even horses ;
they are accused of having bought more waggons and reapers and
binders and other agricultural machines than they have need of;
and, as I pointed out at the beginning of this article, the actual
Greetings from a group of Manitobans at Manitoba.
results of their labours are to place each family in a fair way to own
a prosperous farm of 160 acres. Some live close by lakes and
streams, affording plenty of good trout and wild fowl. Good
school and kirk accommodation is already provided, and there can
be no doubt but that in another three years these settlements will
be among the most well-to-do of the prairie "locations." Lord
Lothian is certainly to be congratulated upon the success of his
experiment. Across  the  Prairies.
Mr Scarth, Dominion Member of Parliament for
Winnipeg, took great personal trouble in the settling of
these Highland crofters, and he and Mrs Scarth lived
amongst them for the first few weeks, when they arrived
as strangers, without friends, and had to be camped out
in tents. He now kindly made all arrangements for us
to visit the settlement, and I will give] you a few extracts
from my journal about our visit, written at the time, along
with some pictures which tell their own tale:—
Tuesday, October 7th, 1890.—Went to little hotel for breakfast, and by nine were ready for our start.    Killarney rather a
respectable little place for four years old.     Mr Lalor, the local
merchant, who has taken great charge of the Highland crofters
whom we had come to see, had arranged to drive us at Mr Scarth's
request.    So off we went, A., Coutts, Mr Lalor, and myself, in
what they call a "Democrat," a sort of long, four-wheeled cart,
with two seats, one behind the other.    It was a perfect day for our
forty miles drive across the prairie ; not much sun, but a bright
shining always in the long fleecy clouds, which extend themselves
in long, long stretches of manifold shapes in the way which we have
come to look upon as especially Canadian.    No wind, but an indescribably brisk bracing   air,  which we want  to inhale in  long
breaths all the while.    And, as we thought when travelling on a
previous occasion in Texas and Dakota, driving on the prairie and
on the trails running through the prairies is unlike any other driving.
The soft elasticity of the ground carries one over all the bumps, and
jars, and ruts; and roots and hillocks are all passed over as the
most natural things in the world.    But with all this, I am not going
to rave about the scenery of Manitoba; for to a mountain bred visitor
111 io8 Through Canada with a Kodak.
these everlasting prairies, with their serpentine black trails winding
through them, appear, on first acquaintance at any rate, inexpressibly dreary.
Of course to-day we have been going through land but newly
taken up, and there has not yet been time for the desire for beauty
or comfort to grow. The struggle to live has naturally swallowed
up all the energy of the settlers, and it has been quite the exception
to see even any attempt after the commonest sort of tidiness, much
less any effort to nurture a few flowers, a plant, or a tree. But the
Manitobans have shown that they value education, for little schools
are planted down everywhere where there are fifteen children to
attend, and the teachers are not badly paid. We went into one of
these schools to-day, where there are about twenty children, and a
pleasent looking young man, an M.A., who also has a farm in the
neighbourhood, was teaching them. He said the great difficulty
was the irregularity of attendance, which made his work resemble
that of Sisyphus and become real drudgery. Such country schools
are shut up during the winter, and in the autumn the children are
kept away for harvest work, so that it is only the three spring
months that can be depended on.
Our first visit was to the old Irishman O'Brien, who constituted himself the god-father of the place, and insisted on its
being called Killarney. I am afraid that my smothered exclamation
of amusement on first sight of the lake, remembering our first sight
of the real Killarney, was taken as disrespectful by our cicerone, but,
in truth, it is the prettiest thing we have seen in Manitoba.
After seven or eight miles we came to the first crofter, one John
Macleod, who had been one of the grumblers about small things,
but he made no grumble to us, and said he thought he should get
along well now. Then came John Nicholson's section. He is one
of the most successful, but, unfortunately he and his wife were away
from home.    He had his ten acres cultivated according to stipula- Across  the  Prairies.
tion the first year (1889), this year he had 55 ; next year he is
preparing for 75. His wheat has been thrashed, and we saw it all
in his new little wooden barn—900 bushels, representing about ,£150.
His first barn was still standing, made of sods. Other four crofters
to the West are relations, and all on one section, and are doing well.
We saw two more of the Lewes families, John Campbell and his
Mr and Mrs Peter Graham's cottage.
wife and children, in whose cottage also was old Mrs Macleod,
whose husband holds meetings while the missionary is away
in the winter, Mrs Macdonald, Peter Graham and his wife, a tidy,
capable-looking woman with five bonny bairns. We photographed
some of the people and their places, though some were very un- IE
Through  Canada with a Kodak.
willing, being in their working clothes.    One requires to think of
what these people were before they came out, to appreciate their
present position and prospects.     Some who came knew nothing
about agircultural work—one had never used a hay-fork in his life.
And that they should have got on so well as they have done is very
^•••■z: --■: ■--,":-.:■:!-■
Mr and Mrs John Campbell's home.
creditable, both to themselves and their neighbours. After leaving
the crofters we came in sight of Pelican Lake, and then, descending
a steep brae, the sight of which rejoiced our hearts, we came upon a
prosperous-looking farm, 640 acres, owned by a man whom we passed
ploughing.    We stopped to ask our way, but, after all got rather
\r Across  the   Prairies.
astray, and went a good bit out of our way up a rough hill, which
landed us on the edge of a ravine, on the other side of which was
the house where we were to have luncheon. A young English
farmer of cheery and hopeful aspect, and newly married, put us
right again, and we were then ready for our four o'clock luncheon,
at Mrs Darough's, at the farmhouse of Glenfern. The threshing was
going on there, and they had had a busy day, vith 16 or 17 men
The Darough family at Glenfern.
in to dinner. The yield had not been so good as expected, and one
field, from which they expected twenty-five bushels per acre, had
only fifteen. They were doing better to-day. That same field in
1887 yielded 40 bushels per acre (sold at 48 cents), in 1888 it was
down to five bushels per acre (sold at 84 cents) in 1887 I forgot
what she told me the number of bushels were, but the price was 64
cents.      The  Daroughs  came  from  Ontario,   and  are  of Scotch 112
Through  Canada with a Kodak.
extraction. There are five sons, three working, the eldest, just
married to one of the crofter girls, living on a section of his own, and
two daughters, who gave us proofs of their prowess in the homemade bread and jam and pumpkin pie. But Mrs Darough said that
sugar had" been too dear to make much jam. All the smaller kinds
of fruit do well, and wild berries abound. Potatoes, cabbages,
cauliflowers, and other vegetables grow magnificently. Apples are
not yet a success. Coutts left us here, and we drove on to Glen-
boro, about 21 miles further, calling in at two of the Harris crofters
en route, Morrison and Donald Stewart. Only saw the wife of the
latter, who worked for Lord Dunmore until he sold the Island.
Many messages sent to the Dunmores.
All the last part of the drive, which passes through rich wheat
land and past a prosperous Scandinavian settlement, was lost on us,
for it had become quite dark, and our attention was concentrated on
our driver avoiding the many vehicles returning from Glenboro
Fair—waggons, and carts, and buggies, and gigs, and droves of
cattle and horses. He managed very creditably, and the demeanour
of the home-going folk contrasted favourably with what might have
been on some similar occasions at home. "We started from Winnipeg soon after six, and about eight we
had just gone across to the dining-car and begun our dinner, when
there came a sudden tremendous screwing on of the brakes, a series
of jerks, an abrupt transference of crockery and-glass from tables to
floor, and then the car was motionless, and all was perfectly still.
People looked at one another for a moment—the same unuttered
thought passing through each mind,—then came the tidings, ' The
engine is off the rails !'   A. rushed off with others to see what had
H 113
IN the English newspapers of last October appeared
telegraphic reports of a railway accident west of
Winnipeg, finishing up with the statement that Lord and
Lady Aberdeen were on the train, and that while the
former went about ministering to the wants of the
wounded, the latter took sketches of the scene. That
was a tolerably hard-hearted proceeding, was it not ? I
wonder what those of our Members and Associates who
happened to notice this statement thought of the doings
of their President while she was away beyond their reach.
Well, here is the true unvarnished statement of the facts,
as written at the time :— jfp
Through  Canada with a  Kodak.
really occurred, and we were amazed to find how much damage was
done, when we remembered the comparitively slight shock we had
felt. The engine was lying on its side, on- the bank, all crumpled
and torn, the funnel half into the ground and still smoking away;
the tender, upside down across the rails, towering above the luggage-
van on its side. On the other side of the line, one car half down the
bank, and three more off the rails; the three last cars, including the
dining-car and ours, were still on the rails. No one could ascertain
the cause of the accident, and for a few minutes there "was great
suspense as to whether any one was killed or injured. Marvellously
and mercifully no one was killed, and the engine-driver, fire-man,
and express messenger were only somewhat cut and bruised. The
driver had, with great presence of mind, turned off steam, put on the
brakes at the first jerk, and then jumped off; the fireman remained,
thinking, as he himself expressed it, that the engine would "ride
the ties."' It is wonderful how he escaped, when the part of the
engine where he was sitting was all smashed. All in the dajk and by
the light of a lantern held by A., I tried to make a sketch of the
wreck, but it was so dark and drizzling that it was rather difficult
work. It all looked very weird. The engine gave one the impression of a great, gasping, living thing, with its head buried in the earth,
still hissing and steaming in impotent misery, and, to increase the
mystery of the scene, dark figures flitted about here, there, and
everywhere, with lanterns, and in the near distance there loomed a
great threatening fiery eye, barring our way. This latter apparition
turned out to be the lights of the engine of a freight train, which had
been waiting at the next station (Poplar Point) till'we should pass,
and now came up to see what could be done. It was past twelve
when we heard the tinkling bell announcing the arrival of the wreck-
train 'with a break-down gang'from Winnipeg, (thirty-five miles
away), with superintendent, doctor, and engineer aboard. We,
from our post of vantage, at the end of the train, saw the lights k>
I n6
Through Canada with a Kodak.
approach slowly and cautiously. A party from our train were on the
outlook for them, and motioned them to proceed by swinging a
lantern backwards and forwards, but they crept up inch by inch
making sure of their way as they came.    And then all at once the
Our Engine as photographed by the Kadok the morning after accident.
place was alive with groups of the new-comers, surrounding the
remains of our .wrecked train, examining, enquiring, testing the
amount of damage done, and ere long setting to work with pickaxe and spade to remove the dSris which lay across the torn-up
line.    It was soon decided that the quickest method was to construct i
In  a  Railway  Accident.
a temporary new line for the few hundred yards or so which had
been destroyed, and while this was being done, the uninjured cars
were pulled back to Raeburn, the first station back.
Off again I
Oct. 10.—By mid-day the line was in order for us to proceed, and
a new engine was in readiness.    We had already, however, walked n8
Through  Canada with- a Kodak.
[ ''||[
forward to the scene of the disaster, having arranged with the conductor to be picked up by the train as it came up. We tried some
photos. But the weather was very dark for that. It was only now
that we ascertained the cause of our accident, i.e., a drove of cattle,
which in the pitchy black night, were not perceived. A big ox was
killed, and two poor cows got their legs broken. Is it not wonderful how animals suffer in silence ? Fancy our not hearing a sound
from these poor beasts under the train when we were standing
about! They were not discovered till the men set to work. The
next day as we passed, the poor cows were lying piteously on the
bank, with such a scared look in their eyes, and making miserable
attempts to rise. The railway people dared not put an end to their
sufferings, lest their owners should bring an action for damages—and
the owners, although they had been notified of the accident had not
yet appeared on the scene."
It is wonderful how such accidents do not occur
oftener on dark nights, when the train is passing along
such vast stretches of unfenced land, over which cattle
roam at their own free will. As it happened, there were
fences on either side of the line at this particular spot,
so the cattle must have strayed in by some open gate, anol
were doubtless lying on the track because of its comparative dryness after the deluge of rain that had been
coming down. You will notice in the illustration of the
fallen engine the iron pointed contrivance in front
invented on purpose to guard against such mishaps. It
is called the " cow-catcher," and is intended to sweep
any   animal   off the  line that  may be  bent  on  self- destruction. Our accident, however, proves that it is not
always successful in its purpose, but I should add that
accidents on the C.P.R. have hitherto happily been
exceedingly rare, owing to the constant and vigilant care of
those in charge of the fine, and who arrange perpetual
supervision of every part of the track, so that all possible
danger may be averted.
The "cow-catcher" in front of the engine has sometimes been put to another and original use at times.
Adventurous travellers have obtained permission to sit
on it whilst travelling through the magnificent scenery on
the route of the C.P.R., in order to obtain the best possible
views of all that is to be seen from the line. You would
not imagine such a position very comfortable, would you?
But those who have tried it speak of their experiences
with enthusiasm. Amongst others, Lady Macdonald,
the wife of the late Premier of Canada, took a trip West
on the | cow-catcher," of which she has written a charming account. We were not so bold, and contented ourselves with the outlook from our car, and this for two or
three days after leaving Winnipeg consisted solely in vast
stretches, which the poet Bryant describes as—
The gardens of the Desert, these.
The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful,
For which the speech of England has no name-
The Prairies.    I behold them for the first,
And my heart swells, while the dilated sight 120
Through Canada with a Kodak.
Takes in the encircling vastness.    Lo ! they lie
In airy undulations, far away,
As if the ocean, in his gentlest swell,
Stood still, with all his rounded billows fixed
And motionless for ever.—Motionless?
No—they are all unchained again.    The clouds
Sweep over with their shadows, and beneath
The surface rolls and fluctuates to the eye.
Man hath no part in all this glorious work :
The hand that built the firmanent hath heaved
And smoothed these verdant swells, and sown their slopes,
With herbage.  .  .  .  The great heavens
Seem to stoop down upon the scene in love,—
A nearer vault, and of a tender blue,
Than that which bends above the eastern hills.  .  .  .
In these plains the bison feeds no  more, where once he
The earth with thundering steps—yet here I meet
His ancient footprints stamped beside the pool.
Still this great solitude is quick with life,
Myriads of insects, gaudy as the flowers
They flutter over, gentle quadrupeds,
And birds, that scarce have learned the fear of man,
Are here, and sliding reptiles of the ground,
Startling beautiful.  .  .  .  The bee,
A more adventurous colonist than man,
With whom he comes across the eastern deep,
Fills the savannas with his murmurings,
And hides his sweets, as in the olden age,
Within the hollow oak.    I listen long
To his domestic hum, and think I hear
The sound of that advancing multitude In a Railway Accident.
Which soon shall fill these deserts.    From the ground
Comes up the laugh of children, the soft voice
Of maidens, and the sweet and solemn hymn
Of Sabbath worshippers.    The low of herds
Bends with the rustling of the heavy grain
Over the dark-brown furrows.    All at once
A fresher wind sweeps by, and breaks my dream.
And I am in the wilderness alone.
Alone ! Yes, I think that settlers on the prairie must
realise what solitude means in a way which can scarcely
be understood by those living in mountainous regions.
The mountains and tree-clad crags seem to encircle and
protect those who dwell among them with so real and
living a personality that these can never feel " alone " in
their company. But go to the prairie country and look
around—you may see the bright colours of butterfly and
flower, you may smile at the cunning looks of the little
rabbit-like sort of creatures called "prairie dogs," who
rear themselves up on their hind legs and look at you,
and then "heigh,presto" they are off; you may hear the
rushing through the air of the flocks of wild geese overhead, on their way to their winter quarters, but of human
habitation you will see but scant signs. Your eye may
scan many square miles around, and yet you may scarcely
be able to detect any indication of the fact that the lords
of this rich harvest land are beginning to enter upon
their inheritance. Yet it is so. And if we had paid
our Western visit during harvest-time, we should have
'1 pr
III- ■
11 III'''
Through Canada with a Kodak.
seen some such sights as you see represented in the
accompanying pictures. When you are reading this, we
shall be hearing rejoicing accounts of the bounteousness
of the harvest which farmers in Manitoba and the North-
West  have  been  gathering  in   this   year  without   any
A regiment of workers on the. Prairie.
damage from the dreaded early frosts. And I shall be
trying to grow wise as to the reasons why the Manitoban
black mud, which lies from two to four feet in depth on
the surface of the soil, is so rich as to produce magnificent crops without manure. Once more, too, it will be
impressed on us that the settlers who do best are those
:«r , In a Railway Accident.
who adapt themselves most to the methods of farming
found successful in the new country.    For instance, they
must not plough deep as they do at home, but only
about two inches, and then they must put in a crop at
the first breaking, as this has been found the best way of
subduing  the sod,  besides  the  advantage  of yielding
profit to the farmer the first year, when his means are not
generally plentiful.    This sod is very hard to break at
first, but subsequent ploughings are easy.    As we went
along, we found one and another of our fellow-passengers
quite v willing to tell us about all these things, and to
explain the reasons as to why one man fails and the
other succeeds.    It was especially interesting to us  to
come  across   young   men,   from   our   own   district   in'
Aberdeenshire, who could speak in cheery tones of theirs
past experience and their future prospects.    One of these, j
Mr Will, from Methlick, who came and chatted with us.
on our car for a bit, had been working for a year or two i
on one of the huge  10,000 acre farms, formed  originally j
by Sir John  Lister-Kaye; when we met him, he   was
about to buy a farm of his own, and to bring to it as
mistress  an  Associate  of the   "Onward and  Upward
Association."    But death broke up his home only a few
months later, and he is now foreman on Lord Aberdeen's
estate in British Columbia.
This young man's experience, and that of others whom
we met, points to the fact that one of the best ways of it
Through  Canada with a Kodak.
getting on is for a new comer to hire himself as labourer
to a srood farmer for a year or two, so as not only to save
up money for his start, but also, even if he have some
capital, to learn the ways of the country under practical
guidance.    In  looking to the  future and   to the  pro-
One of Sir John Lister-Kaye's big farms in Alberta.
bability of the continuance of the rich crops which have
been obtained these last few years from Manitoba and
the North - West, there is one encouraging feature
which was brought before us by a gentleman at Ottawa,
Mr Hurlbert, who has prepared a series of very interest- Passing a car-full of emigrants—" Take our pictures."
t< m\
I 26
Through  Canada with a  Kodak.
ing maps under the sanction of the Canadian Government.
One of these maps, part of which we have reproduced'here
on a small scale, shows us that all over the world there are
Map showing region of 'summer droughts in North America..
regions where summer droughts prevail, where rain falls
but rarely during the period while the crops are growing
and requiring moisture. If. If you look at the map, you will
$ee that but a small part of this region is included in
the Dominion of Canada, and this is a matter of no
small importance to intending settlers.
As we get further West, we begin to hear about other.
sources of prosperity besides wheat—-we hear of the grass
lands of Alberta, and its openings for large ranches for
the breeding of horses; we hear, too, of coal-fields of In a Railway Accident.
such extent that all past fears as to the fuel resources of
Canada have been set at rest. Then, too, there is the
timber, and large petroleum deposits. But I cannot enlarge on these things in this paper, norwill I describe to you
the young towns of this region : Regina, the capital of the
A horse ranch near Calgary.
North-West, where too are the head-quarters of the smart
red-uniformed Canadian Mounted Police; Medicine Hat,
a little town in a cavity, surrounded by strongly indented hills, where we had the pleasure of inspecting a charmingly-appointed hospital, erected through the efforts of
I 128
Through Canada with a Kodak.
Mr Niblock, one of the C.P.R. Superintendents; and
Calgary, at the foot of the Rockies, a rapidly rising town
which seems likely to become an important centre.
If space had permitted, I would have wished to tell
you something of the former masters of this country, the
Indians, who are diminishing in numbers, and will ere
long disappear. Their tents, or " teepees," are pitched
in groups on the plains you pass by, and miserable
specimens in dirty squalid-coloured blankets haunt the
railway stations, with the object of selling buffalo horns,
or baskets, or feather-work. Their babies, whom they
call "papooses," and who are strapped to boards which
their mothers carry on their backs, seem to be model
babies. You never hear one crying. There they are,
swathed up tightly on their boards, and they appear to
be equally unconcerned if they are riding on their
mothers' backs, or are put down against a wall, whilst
their guardians are otherwise occupied. But travellers
who pass through these countries only by the railway can
know nothing of the lives and customs of the true type
of Indian. For knowledge of these we must go to the
hunter, the Hudson's Bay Company trader, and the
missionary, and we must hunt records of the past, which
already have supplied material for tales of thrilling
adventure to the writers of boys' books.
When the Europeans came to America, all this vast
region,   of  which  we  have   been  speaking,   was   only In a Railway Accident.
inhabited by various tribes of Indians, who lived almost
entirely on the proceeds of their fishing and hunting.
Gradually the white men came to realise what a source of
wealth existed in the herds of fur-covered animals which
roamed over these endless plains and mountains, and the
skins of which could be obtained very easily from the
Indians for a few beads, ornaments, or better still, for
muskets when they had learned how to use them, or for
the spirits, which were to work such havoc among the
native races. And in 1669 Prince Rupert formed a
Company, which was endowed by King Charles II., with
" all countries which lie within the entrance of Hudson's
Straits, in whatever latitude they may be, so far as not
possessed by other Christian States." The new Company entered vigorously on its work, establishing central
trading stations throughout their domain, formed of a few
wooden huts, and surrounded by palisades or walls and
well-barred gates. These were generally near rivers, and
to these the savages brought their merchandise of skins,
and feathers, and horns, at stated seasons of the year.
They encamped before the fort, and a solemn transaction,
of bartering and of affectionate speeches, took place, and on
the results of this bartering the Company grew fabulously
rich. A century later their continued success caused
another Company to be formed, and many were the feuds
which ensued, until the two decided to unite and to work
together.    Oh, the yarns that might be told of those i3o
Through  Canada with a  Kodak.
golden  days of hunting, of the  adventures  and hairbreadth escapes, and in all the Red Man plays a conspicuous part.    Round his loyalty or his enmity centres
many a tale.    Those days are over now.    In 1869 the
Government took over the domains of the Hudson's Bay
Company for ^300,000, and certain lands round the
trading stations, and from that time the era of the Indian
was   over.    They   cannot   stand  before  the  forces   of
civilisation, and they are doomed to give way to those
who have entered on their predestined work of cultivating
the  land   and   building   cities,   thus   multiplying   the
population and replenishing the earth.    Meanwhile, the
missionaries have been busy.    The authorities of the
Hudson's Bay Company always encouraged their efforts,
and did much for them by forbidding the use of spirits at
their stations, and in later times the Government has
endeavoured   to   exercise  a  paternal  care  over these
perishing tribes, gathering them into reserves, trying to
teach them agriculture, educating their children, granting
gifts and pensions, and doing all in their power to promote the success of the Missions.    But of the heroic work
of these missionaries, and of what they have been able to
accomplish, we must tell you some other time, if you will
not tire of the subject. X.
AND now we have come to the last part of the-
trip through which I have endeavoured to act
as your conductor. And if I have felt myself inefficient
in that capacity during the earlier parts of our journey,
still more do I feel the impossibility of doing justice to
all the glories of the scenery through which we shall now
pass. For even the prairies of the North West prove themselves to be not so limitless as they appear at first to those
traversing their vast extent day after day; and one night,
as we peep out of our berths behind the closed blinds of
the car, we find ourselves standing still at the very foot
of the Rockies. In the conflicting light of the stars and
early dawn, we see. ourselves guarded by three high
purple peaks, known as the Three Sisters, and we feel
ourselves once more safe at home in the bosom of the
mountains. Soon the heavy engine which is to pant up-
the steep inclines in front of us comes, and hooks us on,
and all day long, as we clamber the snow-covered Rockies,
and steam on slowly through the heart of the Selkirks,
along the Columbia River, and the wild waters which
sweep down the Kicking-Horse Pass, and pass under the
shade of the crags of huge " Sir Donald," we rush about.
P 132
Through Canada with a Kodak.
from side to side, and from end to end of our car,
attempting, if not to photograph or sketch, at least to
imprint some memory of the magnificent panorama
unrolling itself before our eyes. But all in vain ! There
is such a thing as being surfeited with fine scenery, and it
Approaching the Rockies.
is a transgression against nature to hurry, as we did
through these glorious scenes. All that remains now is a
remembrance of towering snow-capped peaks rearing
themselves up in all their strength above us, and stretches
of mountains changing in the varying light of sun and
cloud, from palest blues and greys to rich tones of yellow £
;■. j
m ■
Through Canada with a Kodak.
and red and purple, as we come nearer, and as the autumn
foliage shows itself blending with the deep browns and
blueish-green colours of the waters foaming below. To
appreciate scenery such as this frequent halts should be
made, and time should be allowed for the eye and mind
to drink in and realise what is before them. Solitude too,
and deep, unbroken stillness, are needed, if you would be
in harmony with these surroundings, if you would have
nature lead you up irresistibly to nature's God, if you
would be able from your heart to bow yourself down and
S' These are Thy glorious works, Parent of good.
Almighty, Thine this universal frame,
Thus wondrous fair !     Thyself how wondrous then !
Unspeakable ! who sits above these heavens
To us invisible, or dimly seen
In these Thy lowest works, yet these
Declare Thy goodness beyond thought
And power divine."
Another time we hope to be able to stop at various places
on this route, for a day at any rate, and perhaps I shall
thus be better fitted to be your guide on some future
occasion. The only halt we did make in these regions
we enjoyed immensely. It was at Banff, where the
Government are forming a National Park, twenty-six
miles long by ten broad, and where the C.P.R. have put
up a most comfortable hotel, 4000, feet above the sea,
overlooking the Bow River.    The hotel is about one and The Rocky Mountains.
a half miles from the station. OiSt tein arrived at th&
station about 1 a.m., and we shall not Soon forget the
brisk drive in the bright, frosty Mt^ OV& snow-besprinkled
grounds, amidst snow-cOVered rn©ur\iikiS) with stars
glimmering overhead.    The h©tel h a prettily-designed
From the window of the Banff Hotel.  • ^
wooden building, capable of accommodating a hundred
guests, and in the large entrance-hall a huge log-fire,
crackling away on an open hearth, bids welcome to weary
travellers from East and West, whatever hour of the
night they may arrive- Well, we had what is termed in
America " a lovely time" at Banff. The sun shone
brilliantly, the air was exhilarating, and we made the 111
•5 The  Rocky  Mountains.
most of our one day. We walked, and we sketched, and
we " kodaked"—we visited the hot sulphur springs, which
are much resorted to by invalids, and which boil out of
the ground at different degrees of temperature up to
90 or 92 degrees. Some of these look most tempting to
the bather, the clear green-blue water bubbling into a
large pool, enclosed by high rocks, and the rays of the
sun glinting through the opening above. And in the
afternoon Captain Harper, one of the Inspectors of the
Mounted Police, came round with his break and four-in-
hand, and took us for a drive round the Park, charioteering us most skilfully up and down the steep roads, winding
round Tunnel Mountain, and showing us many beautiful
The time for departure came all too soon, and as we
were standing near the station in the darkness, waiting
for the arrival of the train, I heard a familiar Aberdeenshire voice putting the question, " Do you remember
" Titaboutie ? " " Remember Titaboutie !" I should
think we did ! The voice belonged to a daughter of one
>of Lord Aberdeen's Tarland tenants, and we found that
she and her sister had both come out to Canada. One
was engaged at the Banff Sanatorium, the other was
with her brother on one of Sir John Lister-Kaye's farms,
and both said they liked the country. It was a touch of
home where we had least expected it, but it was by no
means   a  solitary  experience.    Wherever   we  went,   it U s
Through Canada with a Kodak.
seemed as if we met " oor ain folk," and these same folk
seem generally to get " the guiding o't." That reflection
should do more than fill our hearts with pride of old
Scotland, it should bring home to those of us who are
parents the additional responsibility of being parents of
children who belong to a race who seemed bound to rise
to high position and influence wherever they may go, the
world over. The thought that the destinies of countries
far away may one day largely rest in our children's hands
should fill us with a noble ambition for them, that they
may be able to say with others who have gone before —
" We cross the prairie as of old
The pilgrims crossed the sea,
To make the West, as they the East,
The homestead of the free.
" We go to plant her common schools
On distant prairie swells,
And give the Sabbaths of the wilds
The music of her bells.
" Upbearing, like the ark of old,
The Bible in our van,
We go to test the truth of God,
Against the foes of man."
Undoubtedly Scotchmen have largely had to do with
the making of Canada, and happily they have for the
most part left their mark on her for good. We find their
names  much associated too with  the making of this Jo
I r   : :
Through Canada with a Kodak.
wonderful railway, by means of which all this marvellous
scenery is witnessed. If we think of what was considered
a good road in these parts before the railway came, and
then when we travel by this iron road cut through, or
cut out of the sides of, perpendicular cliffs, the workmen
A Trestle Bridge.
in some cases having had to be lowered by ropes from
above in order to get at their work, we get some idea of
the change which has been wrought. From side to side
of rushing waters the train crosses on trestle bridges like
that of which we give you an illustration, and finds its
way along ledges of rock, twisting and turning in every The  Rocky  Mountains.
direction on the brink of the precipices below. On some
parts of the road great wooden erections, called snow-
sheds (having something of the character of tunnels), have
had to be put up to protect the line from snow in winter.
By this means the road is scarcely, if ever, blocked, even
during heavy falls of snow. And thus, by one device and
another, and by the exercise of constant, vigilant inspection, this railway company, though their system covers such
an extent of country, and has to face so many perilous
places, can, up to the present time, thankfully record that
they* have only lost the life of one passenger, and that
was in consequence of his standing on the steps of the
car after being warned by the conductor not to do so.
I could tell you much of the glimpses we caught of life
in British Columbia, of the Indians spearing the salmon,
of the Chinamen washing the sand for gold, of the
villages of both Indians and Chinese, which are quite
different to any other we have seen, and the curious
burying-places, high up in the trees, which the Indians
make for their dead But I prefer to wait until I have
seen more of all this, and will then gladly give you a
paper or two, exclusively on British Columbia, if you
should wish it. sp;
I will only ask you on this occasion to come straight
on to the cities of Vancouver and Victoria, and take a
look of these before we part.
At Vancouver we were most hospitably entertained by
1111 fcrt
Through Canada with a Kodak.
the Mayor, Mr Oppenheimer, and his wife, and, in
addition to this, the Scotch and the Irish residents
combined together to give us a most hearty and kindly
reception one evening. In this way we heard much of
all that was doing in the place, and of its wonderful
growth since the disastrous fire which utterely annihilated
it five years ago. Within three months after the fire
four hundred houses had been erected, and the progress
has since been so rapid that there is now a population of
13,000. This is the more remarkable when we reflect
that the site on which the town stands was covered with The  Rocky  Mountains.
a dense forest, of enormous pines, such as we now see
just outside the limits of present habitations. Their great
roots have to be removed, and the heavy wood and dead
timber have to be cleared at an enormous expense before
the land can be utilised, yet a great part of this forest is
already parcelled out into building blocks, and is selling
Tite late Mr G. G. Mackay.
at a high price. And where the Douglas pine and the
cedar flourished undisturbed but a few years ago, handsome streets are now formed, lighted with electric light,
and supplied with electric tram-cars. Most of the buildings are of wood, but there are a few principal streets
where only stone or brick buildings may be erected.
Great foresight is also being shown by the municipal
Jj m
144 Through Canada with a Kodak.
authorities in matters of sanitation and drainage, unlike
some new towns, where such matters have been left to
chance; and even in these early days a Public Park has
been set aside, with a circuit of ten miles, called after the
present Governor-General, the Stanley Park.
We had the advantage of being shown some of the
country round Vancouver by an old friend (Mr G. G,
Mackay) whom I* have often seen during my childhood at my father's home in Inverness-shire. He
•came out here three years ago to see if this would
be a good place for his sons, and liked it so much
that he never went back, but sent for his^ family to
join him. As he pointed out to us, the peninsula
on which Vancouver is situated on either side of her
beautiful harbour is bound to be built over, and to
oecome exceedingly valuable, as the city develops under
the increase of trade which must of necessity come,
through its being the terminus of the C.P.R., and commanding the shortest route to Japan, China, and India, by
the new magnificent steam-ships which are now running.
Just ten weeks ago, the advantage of this route over any
other was demonstrated by the Japanese mail reaching
Queenstown in twenty days from leaving Yokohama. You
may imagine the pride of the Vancouver people at seeing
" The Empress of Japan" sail proudly in after a nine day's
woyage from Yokohama.
The atmosphere of hope and faith in the future of their The Rocky Mountains.
country make British Columbians a very delightful people.
There is a spirit of enterprise in the air which, coupled to
natural advantages, makes success a certainty. This
belief in the future was rather amusingly illustrated by a
huge sign-board which we found stuck into the ground,,
on the borders of a dense forest with no house in sight.
The notice ran thus :—
'' There is a tide in the affairs of men,
Which, taken at its flood, leads on to fortune !
This is the tide oi your life I!
Invest in the city of the future, Sieveston,
And become
A Millionaire."
I wonder whether we shall find the city of Steveston an
accomplished fact this year ?
We must teat ourselves away from Vancouver and its
beautiful surroundings with regret, and embark in the
" Islander " for the five hours' crossing to Victoria, under
Captain Hulden's care. See Mount Baker raising its
head high above the sunset clouds, all in a golden glory,
and seeming isolated far above all the rest of the common
world below. And there, opposite, are the peaks of the
famed Olympic Range, standing out a deep blue against
the sky, only hidden here and there by a light mist curling about their sides. So we sail out of Vancouver, and
the sunset fades into moonlight over a delightfully calm
sea long before we reach Victoria, the beautiful capital of
'■■: e
Through Canada with a Kodak.
British Columbia. Is it indeed Victoria and Vancouver
Island where we have arrived ? Has not the " Islander "
lost her way, and brought us by a short route back to
England, and landed at Torquay ? The resemblance has
almost a touch of the comical in it—the same scents,
the same sort of greenness all round, the same sort of
ferns and foliage and surroundings, and on that day, at
His Honour the L ieut. -Governor of British Columbia.
any rate, the same moist feeling in the air, developing
later on into a steady downpour. Then English voices
and faces abound, and English customs predominate so
largely that the illusion would be complete if we were not
recalled to our whereabouts by the presence of the
Chinese pigtail everywhere.
The residents of British Columbia would be hard put The Rocky Mountains.
to it if it were not for these same Chinese. Domestic
servants are very difficult to get, and even when obtained
often give themselves such airs that the mistresses are
glad to return to the Chinaman, who will act as cook,
housemaid, waiter, groom, and gardener, all in one, without giving any trouble. Girls, however, who do come
out, and are ready to work and do what they are told, get
Admiral Hotham.
very high wages. Labour generally is very dear. An
ordinary labourer will get 10s. to 12s. a day, and mechanics and masons get as much as 16s. to 20s. a day.
We much regretted that the steady rain prevented us
from seeing all the beauties of the place. But the
Governor of British Columbia, and Mrs Nelson, and Sir
Joseph and Lady Trutch, were ready to help us to see all 148
Through Canada with a  Kodak.
that could be seen. The Governor kindly drove us
down to the magnificent harbour at Esquimault, three
miles from Victoria, the headquarters of the North Pacific
Squadron.. Several warships were riding at anchor, adding
one more touch to the likeness to England.   The Admiral
H.M.S. " Warspiter
of the Fleet, Admiral Hotham, had been good enough
to give us an invitation to tea on board the flagship,
the " Warspite," commanded by Captain Hedworth
Lambton, and so here, on the Pacific Ocean, I paid
my first visit to a British war-ship. Everything on board
looked  spotless  in its  whiteness, and  brightness, and The Rocky Mountains.
trimness, and the Admiral's room, in the end bows of
the ship, was like a drawing-room for cosiness and
comfort—a bright fire burning in a grate, and comfortable
chairs and tables and ornaments, all looking as if we were
ashore. Admiral Hotham gave a high character to
British Columbia; he had been here for five months, and
this was only the second wet day he had seen—climate,
people, and all surroundings were amongst the pleas-
antest he had known in all his nautical wanderings. It
was sad that we should not have the opportunity of seeing
the place to full advantage, but our brief stay was full of
•enjoyments,- including an evening at Government House ;
and here, too, we met our friend, Professor Henry
Drummond, who had just arrived from Australia and
Japan, and who now joined our party for the homeward
Here, then, amidst the roses and fragrant breezes of
this favoured isle, I must leave you, with many regrets that
•our trip has come to an end. It is a hurried journey
that we have taken, and we have had but glimpses of the
inexhaustable resources of this great country. But if
these little sketches have added somewhat to your
knowledge of what Canada is, if it has increased your
pride in her, if it has kindled a desire to do what may
be in your power to build up her fortunes, I shall feel they
fiave not been written in vain. The high moral and
religious character of her present populations, the wise and ii
Through Canada with a Kodak.
true foundations that they are laying for future development and prosperity, makes one long that those remaining
in the old country should thoroughly realise how much
reason they have to rejoice in our common kinship, and
that those thinking of coming out to Canada to try their
fortunes should come with a hearty desire to do their
utmost for the land of their adoption. There has been
some disappointment this year at the increase of the
population during the last decade being only half a
million. Still all admit that the settlers are of a good
stamp, and this, after all, is of far more importance
than mere numbers. Strong in her sense of her future,
she can afford to wait. As we sail down her rivers and
lakes, and traverse her prairies, and climb her mountains,,
the poet Whittier's words haunt us—
" I hear the tread of pioneers,
Of nations yet to be,
The first low wash of waves where soon
Shall roll a human sea."
Our eyes may not see this consummation, but we may
join our prayers to those of a Canadian poet, with whose
words I will close:—
" Canada ! Maple-land ! Land of great mountains !
Lake-land and river-land ! Land 'twixt the seas !
Grant us, God, hearts that are large as our heritage,
Spirits as free as the breeze ! The  Rockv  Mountains.
" Grant us Thy fear, that we may walk in humility,—
Fear that is rev'rent, not fear that is base:—
Grant to us righteousness, wisdom, prosperity,
Peace—if unstained by disgrace.
'' Grant us Thy love, and the love of our country!
Grant us Thy strength, for Our strength's in Thy name ;
Shield us from danger, from every adversity,
Shield us, O Father, from shame.
' - Last born of nations ! The offspring of freedom !
Heir to wide prairies, thick forests, red^gold !
God grant us wisdom to value our birthright,
Courage to guard what we own."
Lord Aberdeen and Projessor H. Drummond in the Railway Car, ill XL
THE very mention of the place is restful and
delightful! Never have we had such a holiday
anywhere, and even now a mere allusion to " Guisachan,
B.C.," is sufficient to produce a soothing sensation in
the minds of the trio of holiday-makers whose visit I want
to describe. But how to approach the subject in" a calm
and judicial spirit! There's the rub! Our feelings
regarding the place are betrayed already, and how am I
to convince you that I am a trustworthy reporter ? Well,
I must just let facts speak for themselves; and now to
begin at the very beginning !
How did we get there ?    Perhaps some of you may
remember in our travels last year, "Through Canada with 54
Through Canada with a Kodak.
a Kodak," a day's halt at fair Canadian " Banff," nestling
under the shade of the mighty Rockies, and yearly
attracting to its magnificent solitudes an increasing
number of seekers after change, and rest, and health. The
remembrance of our former experience led us to make this
again a resting-place, and much might be said concerning
the walks and drives, and exploring rambles taken, and
the friendships made, during the ten days which we spent
peacefully in the midst of the everlasting hill's, enjoying
the most exquisite sunshiny weather all the while. But
on this occasion I must content myself by merely referring
to it as the place from which we started for our journey
to our British Columbian home.
Early in the morning the West-bound train, bearing the
traces of a prairie blizzard of hail and snow, through
which it had passed, but which we had escaped, picked
up our private car, whither we had repaired over night.
All day long we had the delight of passing afresh through
the scenes of beauty and grandeur which had so fascinated
us on our previous trip. A brilliant sun lighted up the
snow-capped peaks, the shining glaciers, and the foaming
torrents, and melted away at last in a fiery glow of
glory. Evening found us arrived at Sicamous Junction,
where we were to spend the night, and where we
were to leave the main-line, and to wend our way
southwards along a track in course of construction to
our valley of the Okanagan.    Sicamous, situated on the Guisachan Farm.
lovely Shushwap Lake, noted for its fine fishing, already
boasts of a good-sized hotel, although but few other
dwellings are to be seen. We had arrived in time to
travel by the first passenger train along the new line. As
mentioned, it was only now in course of construction,
and only half of the fifty miles between Sicamous and
Vernon, our county town, were completed. The railway
authorities, however, complied with Lord Aberdeen's
request for a special train which he chartered for the
occasion. £ As it happened, Vernon was to hold her first
Agricultural Show on this very day; and, in consequence
of this, a number of other passengers desired conveyance,
and they were glad to get the chance of a train instead
of making the trip in one of the hand-cars used by the
workmen on the railway. These are worked by
means of a pump-like contrivance, and doubtless
look very cheery little vehicles. Let me own that
a difference of opinion exists amongst our own party
as to the charms of riding on these hand-cars.
Lord Aberdeen is enthusiastic in their praise, whereas
his wife is inclined to prefer her own feet as a means of
locomotion to whizzing through the air at the rate of
20 miles an hour, when a choice must be made, and our
little ten-year-old daughter—who formed the third of our
travelling party—inclined to the opinion of one parent or
the other in this matter, according to circumstances.
The first passenger train up the line was an event     It *S<5
Through Canada with a Kodak.
consisted of an engine and tender, our private car (lent
us through the kindness of Mr Spencer, of the C.P.R.), a
"caboose," which I think may be described as a glorified
guard's van, and two luggage trucks, on the top of which
travelled a medley of men, dogs, packages, trunks,
agricultural machinery, and all sorts of etceteras. We
were all much interested in our own appearance, and we
all got out at every halting-place, and surveyed ourselves
with mingled pride and curiosity. At one of these
temporary stations where we stopped to water the engine,
by means of a very primitive wooden contrivance, we
found quite an orchard and nursery-garden right alongside
of the track. We were not surprised that the owner,
Mr Thomson, was a Scotchman, nor that his wife was an
"Ironside" from the Haddo House estates, so accustomed
had we become to such coincidences; but these things
being so, we were more than usually interested in hearing
of what a good thing they were making of their 75 acres,
what splendid fruit and vegetables could be produced in
that district, and how they kept cows too, and poultry,
getting 50 cents, (about 2s) per dozen eggs, and 50 cents,
per spring chicken. A great part of our journey lay
through very pretty country, skirting the Mara Lake,
through picturesque mountain and wood scenery, after
leaving Vernon, and then coming on the Spallumcheen
River, along which a passenger steamer plies to Enderby,
half-way to Vernon.    After Enderby our driver had to ^ is8
Through Canada with a Kodak.
take us cautiously, and often at foot's-pace, and even in
this way we bumped and plunged strangely over the half-
finished line, on which large gangs of workmen, mostly
Chinese, were still working. But at last Vernon was
reached without any mishap. The new little town of
wooden houses, but already possessing four hotels and a
fifth large one in course of erection, was evidently the
scene of unwonted bustle. Little groups of eager agriculturists were discussing the prospects of the district, and
their own individual fortunes; here and there waggons
were unloading, buggies being unyoked, horses being led
about in ribbons and exhibition apparel. The Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Province, the Hon.
F. G. Vernon, after whom the town was named, was
expected to open the Exhibition, but he not appearing,
Lord Aberdeen was taken possession of by the Chairman,
Mr Lumby, and the Committee, and the well-known
process of inspecting the show and of making and hearing
speeches was gone through with apparent satisfaction to
all concerned. I say the process was a well-known one,
but never at home have we had the pleasure of seeing
such fruit, such roots, such vegetables. I wish I could
give you some idea of the enormous size of the monster
cabbages, of the melons and golden pumpkins, some of
the former weighing as much as 30 and 40 lbs. The
apples made a splendid show, as did also the pears,
-cherries,   and   all   smaller   fruits.      Guisachan    Farm Guisachan  Farm.
did well,   for   it   carried   off   six   first   prizes   and   six
Mr Lequime s little steamer -which took us up the Cake to Guisachan.
Up to ;now but little attention has been devoted to
fruit-growing, as this has been principally a stock-raising
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Through Canada with a Kodak.
country, but the possibilities shown by the few orchards
Transferring the luggage from the train to the steamer.
already  planted  point  to  its  being  found  to  possess
exceptional advantages for the pursuit of this industry. Guisachan  Farm.
While at the show we heard many desires expressed that
the large ranche-owners in the neighbourhood could be
persuaded to break up some of their property into fruit-
farms from 20 to 100 acres, and it is because of this that
Lord Aberdeen has now asked Mr G. G. Mackay, of Vancouver, to parcel out some of the property he has since
acquired near Vernon into portions suitable for fruit-growing, and, at the same time, has arranged for the erection
of a jam-factory. But more of this hereafter. Suffice it
to say for the present, that great eagerness is being
manifested on the subject by the inhabitants of the valley,
and that - a prosperous future is predicted for it by experienced judges, who point out not only the capabilities
of production, but also the inexhaustible market existing
in the North-West Provinces, where fruit cannot be grown
to any advantage, and where there is a constantly growing
demand for it.
But we must not linger at Vernon, though we were
treated there with great kindness, and made many new
friends. Especially do we remember the courtesy of Mr
Dewdney, the Government agent, whose sad death since
then has evoked such sincere sorrow and deep sympathy
with his wife and family. We made acquaintance, too,
with the pioneer settler of these parts, Mr Girouard, a
French Canadian, who arrived here in 1858, having taken
the best part of a year to travel hither from California,
and with Mr Stuart, the enterprising young editor of the
i mm
162 Through Canada with a Kodak.
Vernon News, a capital local paper, which brings us all
the news of the district every week. But the day was
wearing away, and my brother, who takes charge of Guisachan, was anxious that we should start on the final
Entrance Gate to Guisachan Farm;
stage of our journey. So we left the showyard before
the judging of the cattle and horses was completed, but not before seeing a Guisachan team
given  a  first prize, and another pair of useful horses- Guisachan Farm.
(which  Lord  A. had just purchased,  on  my brother
In the woods of Guisachan, B.C.
telling   him  that   such   a   pair   were   needed   on   the 164
Through Canada with a Kodak.
farm) gaining the same honourable position in another
The day was a general holiday, and the men who work
the steamboat which carries passengers up and down the
Okanagan Lake were away from work. In this emergency
a neighbour of ours at Guisachan, Mr Lequime, undertook to take us home in his small steamboat. It was
not intended exactly for passengers, but we had a very
merry voyage, stowed away most of the time in a queer
little cabin, father and daughter beguiling themselves and
their companions by singing improvised Canadian railway
songs to Scotch tunes. Presently the moon came out,
and we had an opportunity of reconnoitring our Okanagan Lake beauties by moonlight. The time soon sped
away, and ere four hours had .passed we found ourselves
turning into a bay> and presently we and our baggage were
deposited on a landing stage, whilst our crew were hieing
back to Vernon for an all-night ball in honour of the
Show. They did not leave us, however, without securing
a cart from a neighbour for our luggage, whilst we walked
leisurely on to take possession of our new domain, only
two miles distant. The telegram we had sent announcing
the exact day of our arrival had never been received, and
hence we had all the fun of appearing unexpectedly, and
of a moonlight walk. Now, knowing that the beauty of a
country is often over-rated, we had schooled ourselves not
to expect much, so as not to  be disappointed.     We &lgp«:
£ i66
Through Canada with a Kodak.
imagined to ourselves, therefore, a flat plain with bare
hills in the distance, a few scrubby trees and bushes here
and there, and a house set down in the middle of the flat.
Instead of which we found mountains looking more like
the Inverness-shire mountains of my youth than any others
we had seen in Canada, and about a mile from the landing-stage we came to a gate leading into a wood.    " Oh,
, Guisachan, B.C.
if only that were our gate !" murmured Lord Aberdeen.
"But that's just what it is," answered Coutts, my brother,
and we. turned into a regular delightful wood, with big
trees of two hundred feet high, through which the moonlight fell in silvery streaks across the new road which my
brother and his assistant-manager, Mr Smith, had prepared for us as a surprise.    About half-a-mile brings us Guisachan Farm.
through the wood, and then, on emerging, we see our
house a quarter of a mile away, standing against a background of purple hills, and commanding a charming view,
with a peep of the lake from the verandah. On approaching our habitation it looked very much deserted and locked
up, but Coutts knocked away in confidence that someone
*would appear. Presently a cautious step was heard
within, and the door was presently opened a chink, and
we were demanded what we wanted. It was perhaps as
well for us that Coutts was with us, for Mr Smith afterwards owned that he had been very suspicious of us when
he heard footsteps on the verandah, and he had loaded
and brought his rifle with him behind the door, to repel
us by force if need be, and the dogs "Caesar" and "Spot"
were quite ready to join in the chase until they heard
the voice of their master assuring them that we were
A warm reception—was it not ? But we all agreed that
we could not have had a more delightful home-coming
than that moonlight walk with all its surprises, and then
the storming of the citadel was much more in keeping
with our mood than finding everybody and everything in
It took but a few minutes, however, to light up the
house, and to show how ship-shape everything had been
made to receive us, and we barely had time to examine
all the ingenuities and tastefulness of the two bachelors 168 Through  Canada with a  Kodak.
in.the household arrangements, when it was announced
that "Foo," the Chinese cook and servant-in-general, had
not only been roused out of his slumbers, but had prepared a substantial supper wherewith to appease our
hunger. And soon thereafter we were all in the land of
dreams, dreaming of delights, past, present, and future.
Ill w
ILL you come out for a bear hunt this afternoon ?"
That was the first communication which we
received from the outer world the morning
after our arrival at Guisachan. Two of our neighbours,
hearing of our advent, had come up to say that a bear
with her two cubs, had been seen coming down from the
hills to search for the berries which were scarce last year
higher up, and their present whereabouts being ascertained, it was proposed that they should pay for their temerity with their lives. Perhaps you will think that such an
expedition does not sound like a very proper beginning for
a respectable farmer and his family to make to his farming life in British Columbia. But truth will out, and the
invitation was accepted and acted upon before we had
ridden the marches or examined the stock. A beautiful
day it was, too, for a hunt or an expedition of any kind !
A quiet, gray morning, with light soft fleecy white clouds
floating about the mountain tops, had brightened out into
an afternoon full of sunshine, and we saw the surroundings 170 Through Canada with a Kodak.
of our new home under the most favourable auspices, as
we trotted merrily over the fields, and through the woods,
in an old buggy, which had seen much work, drawn by
wise-looking old horses, who were reputed to have taken
part in many an escapade in more youthful days. The
scrub was reached where " Mrs Bruin" and her family
Going out for a bear hunt.
were in hiding, and the guns were posted on a hillside
commanding a delightful view of the lake for sketching
purposes, and our bear hunters, with their dogs, plunged
about bravely round the outskirts of the thicket, which
was too dense and prickly for anyone to penetrate, except Guisachan Farm.
at the risk of clothes and skin. There was much hallooing, and barking of dogs, and beating with sticks; but no
results, though every now and then a glimpse of the
brown fur was caught by one or other of the sportsmen,
and the end of it all was that we were obliged to own
that " Mrs  Bruin" was cleverer than we, for all of a
Watching the game-bag.
sudden she was spied scuttling up a hill a quarter-of-a-
mile distant, having got away by a side where there was
no gun posted, and having determined to leave her
children in the lurch. So we had to satisfy ourselves
with having seen her, and we wended our way home 172
Through Canada with a  Kodak.
under a glorious sunset sky, with hundreds of wild geese
flying to their feeding grounds, filling the air with their
wild, peculiar cries. I will not tell you how many of
them were brought down on this occasion ! but I can tell
"Foo," our Chinese cook.
you wild goose is very good, and so are some of the other
game birds which were provided for us by our sportsmen
during our stay at Guisachan. There are the wild duck,
of which there are several varieties on the Okanagan Lake, Guisachan  Farm.
and which bring to our minds an exciting chase, and a
brilliant long shot by my brother, such as sportsmen love
to think back on, and good retrieving on the part of good
dog " Spot." • Then there are the " ruffed grouse," more
like our pheasant to eat, and what is called the " prairie
chicken," so named by early settlers, but which in reality
Willy, the Indian boy, with his white pony.
is a species of grouse, and, in our opinion,-the best game
bird for the table which Canada possesses. And bear
steak and chops are very good, too ; for one of those rash
young bears was killed after all, and though he was very
thin, poor little chap, yet we thought him a good sub- 174
Through Canada with a  Kodak,
stitute for venison, as served up by " Foo," our Chinese
The mention of that dignitary reminds me that I have
not yet introduced you to our establishment, nor shown
you over the house. Well, first, besides ourselves, our
little girl, Marjorie, my brother Coutts, and Mr Smith,.
Residence No i.    Present owner emerging from inspection.
there is Barron, my maid, the companion of all our
journeyings for many years past, and who knows most
quarters of the globe, is a perfect traveller, is never sea
sick, never has headaches, and never forgets anything.
At Guisachan she became a sort of combined house- Guisachan Farm.
keeper and housemaid. Then comes Turner, Lord A.'s
servant, another valuable companion of our wanderings,
and who, on the present occasion, showed his usual
energy and adaptability in every role from butler to wOod-
chopper. " Foo," who on ordinary occasions was general
factotum, accepted such assistance with alacrity, and
showed his appreciation by never appearing in his kitchen
till half-past eight in the morning. Did we remonstrate ?
Oh, no; we knew better.    A Chinese cook is a very
Residence No. 2.
touchy gentleman, and if you offend his majesty you will
find that he will demand his pay and walk off the next
hour. And we got into terrible trouble one day. A
large covey of prairie chicken flew past the house. Lord
A. ran to get his gun; but, meanwhile, friend " Foo " had
seen the birds, and, being fond of sport, borrowed my
brother's gun and ammunition out of his room, without
saying " by your leave," and sped away so as to be first
m am
Through Canada with a Kodak.
on the scene of action. On being called back, and a
humble suggestion made that he should wait a minute
and go with Lord A., instead of in front of him, he waxed
fierce with wrath, and not only did he rush ahead and
scatter the birds, but for a day or two afterwards retired
Residence No. 3.
into the sulks, varied with ebullitions of wrath over the
unwarrantable interference with his liberties which had
occurred. But, nevertheless, he was a good cook, as
most of the Chinese are, and, when all is said, it is hard
to see how the British Columbian folk could get on
without the Chinese servants and labourers.    You see  n
178 Through Canada with a  Kodak.
them everywhere, and they are ready to be combined
cook, groom, housemaid, and gardener, and the general
verdict is that, after all, they are better than girls who
come out from the old country with all sorts of foolish
notions in their heads as to what work they should or
should not do. I regret to say that the general tone of
the girls who have gone to British Columbia, and who get
high wages (12, 15, and 20 dollars a month, and even
more), has not been such as to make employers very
anxious to repeat the experiment. Still, girls going West
to the Pacific coast are certain to find good places, and
if only they will be sensible, and ready to turn their
hands to anything, and to do as they are bid, they will
command first-rate wages and happy homes. In the
meanwhile the Chinaman has still the predominance,
and he possesses many advantages, though his wages are
high. But I must come back to our Guisachan establishment, and introduce you to Willy, an Indian boy, who
arrived every morning on his white pony at full gallop,
and who was initiated into the mysteries of blacking boots,
and the greater mystery of picking up " Foo's " tins and
empty bottles, feathers, and other debris, so as to make
the place look a bit tidy.
Now, take a peep round the house, into the hall
decorated with horns and heads of deer shot in Dakota
by my brother, and with various specimens of Indian
work; and then see the pretty bright sitting-room, with *o
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skins of animals, shot in the same way, scattered about
on the floor: pictures on the walls, and magazines and
other evidences of the last mail on the table; the dining-
room at the back, to which communication is obtained
from the kitchen across a passage open to the air, thus
devised with the object of avoiding unnecessary kitchen
Starting for a drive -with " Cltarlie" and " Pinto."
smells, four big bed-rooms, two small ones, the office,
and a broad verandah round three sides of the house,
will complete the survey. It is the fourth mansion on
the Guisachan estate, and we give you a sight of the
four. The first as you see is a mere " shack," evidently
put  up for shelter on the owner's first arrival.     The Guisachan Farm.
second, though in ruins now, was doubtless a good
enough house for the country in its day. The third is
quite a big house, with two good living rooms in it, and
is now inhabited by the men.    It looks quite smart, now
Mr Smith exhibiting the wild Indian pony.
that it has peen painted outside and inside, and the
sundry traces of the former occupants done away with.
Many tales of the wild doings of these Macdougalls were
told us, and testimony to the truth of some, at least, of
■ um.
Through Canada with a Kodak.
these was to be seen in the marks of the pistol shots with
which the walls and ceiling of the house were riddled.
We were fortunate in securing a very nice set of men,
and I am sorry our Kodak has not done them more
justice. They were gathered from all parts of the country,
and from all sorts and conditions of men—one would be
from Ontario, another from Yorkshire, another from the
States; another was the son of a gentleman near London,
who unexpectedly arrived one evening to spend a few
hours with his boy. This young man owned a farm in
Alberta, but was hiring himself out as a workman in
order to get the wherewithal to carry on his farm more
The foreman, Frank Conckling, was an old friend of
my brother's in Dakota, and most valuable acquisition,
for he is one of those handy-men who can turn to
anything and do it all well. He has now brought his
father from the Eastern States to live with him. Both
have a knowledge of fruit-growing, and are taking up some
land of their own.
With the high wages obtained in British Columbia (45
to 50 dollars a month for a foreman, and 30 to 35 for an
ordinary workman, with board and lodgings provided), a
saving and sober man can soon save up enough to make
a start on his own account. It is sad to hear, however,
of the many ruined lives and fortunes which must be put
down to the influence of strong drink and the saloon. Guisachan  Farm.
Numbers of small farms in the district which we are now
Coutts on " Aleck "—" Spot" in attendance
describing have been literally drunk away and are now the
ii mm
Through Canada with a Kodak.
property of the license-holders. - It is to be hoped that
the new settlers coming into the valley will help to
promote social gatherings and entertainments, which will
meet the natural desire for gathering together in a cheery
way, without sowing the seeds of intemperance and
Our neighbours were good enough to gather in our
house twice during our stay, and thus welcomed the newcomers, and made us feel real Okanaganers. One of
these gatherings was in the evening, and was just an
old-fashioned Scotch " social," with tea and " bags" of
eatables handed round, or rather, to be strictly accurate,
we had the eatables without the bags. And a very
pleasant evening we had, with songs, and music, and
recitations, some in English and some in French, for the
benefit of our French Roman Catholic neighbours, who
represent the earlier settlers all round what is termed the
" Okanagan Mission." The Mission was founded some
32 years ago for the Indians, by a devoted priest,
Father Pendozy, of whose fame we heard much, and who
only died a few months before our arrival. The Indians
have mostly moved away to their reserve at the foot of
the lake, but " the Mission " is now the head-quarters of
a large district, and it is also the residence of a lay
brotherhood who cultivate a farm and orchard. The
two priests in residence, Father Marzial and Father de
Vriendt, were both amongst our guests at our "social," Guisachan Farm.
and the latter gave us two songs, while the Presbyterian
minister, Mr. Langell, gave us a recitation. It was the
first time that such a gathering had been held in the
district, but from the success which attended it, we hope
it will not be the last. Since then a magic-lantern has
been established at Guisachan, and we hear that the first
magic-lantern entertainment was well attended and much
The other gathering of which I spoke was a little
Sunday afternoon service conducted by Lord A. That
really came first, on our first Sunday, and was intended
as a sort of formal taking possession and dedication of
the house, and it was delightful to find all our neighbours,
both Protestant and Roman Catholic, gathering together
for the occasion. Some sort of gathering, such as this,
on the Sunday afternoon or evening, has also become
another institution at Guisachan.
But the mention of a service reminds me that I must
tell you how active the Presbyterian Church in Canada is
in providing services for colonies of new settlers. We
were much struck with this throughout our trip. Even
in quite small places where we halted, we found that
provision was made for at least fortnightly services, and a
missionary appointed, who is paid out of a Home Mission
Fund, collected mainly by the zealous Dr. Robertson,
until such time as the young community can afford to
pay for their own church and minister.     Our friend, mm
Through Canada with a Kodak.
..»  B tgf|
Mr Gordon of Banff, told us that experience justified this
action. If settlers are allowed to get into a habit of
not attending church, it will be generally much longer
before they move in the matter themselves than when
the means of grace have been placed within their reach
from the beginning, and many opportunities for promoting religious influences, and for preventing evil will
have been lost. In the Okanagan Valley there is a
service now every Sunday; at the upper end one Sunday,
at the house of some good neighbours, the Postills, and
at our end the next Sunday, at the Schoolhouse, which
the Board have gladly lent for the purpose, although
several of the members are Roman Catholics. At the
present time the minister lives in Vernon, 35 miles away,
and has to return there always in time for an evening
service. But already there is more than a talk of two
churches, one at either end of the valley, and a minister
of our own. We shall never forget the picturesqueness
of the scene which met our eye as we drove up to the
Schoolhouse for the morning service. As usual the
weather was gorgeous. The School is situated just at the
corner of a wood of tall trees gay in their brilliant autumn
colourings. Just inside this wood, and on its outskirts,
were tied up saddle horses and buggies of all sizes and
descriptions, and all around were standing picturesque
groups of men and dogs awaiting the moment for going
in.    The brilliant sunshine pouring down on the scene «
m i88
Through Canada with a Kodak.
and glinting on the stems of the trees completed the
charm and naturalness of the picture. No conventionality, no black coats, no formal solemnity. There
were but three women in the congregation; all the rest
were men and lads who looked as if they knew how to
work, Mr Langell quite adopted the same free and easy
attitude, and spoke to his hearers as if he were one of
them. I am so sorry that I cannot give you a picture
of that scene outside the church, and I would have liked
to put in the very forefront, the dearest and cheeriest of
old ladies, in. an old-fashioned black poke bonnet—Mrs
Postill, who had driven over 16 miles or so with her son,
and who told us she had been the first white woman in
the valley, and that' she would never forget all the kindness shown her in those old days by the rough miners
and ranchers.
But all this while I am telling you nothing about the
farm itself. But where shall I begin ? Shall I describe
to you the cattle which we took over with the farm, and
which may be found anywhere within a 20 mile radius,
or the cows who did not at all understand that their
mission in life was to provide milk for the human species ?
At the outset some of these same cows resented the idea
so fiercely that they had to be lassoed and thrown on
their sides to be milked. When we were there they had
somewhat  reconciled  themselves to the new order of • Guisachan  Farm.
things, but the milkers had still to go and search for
them on horseback.
Or shall I show you our stud of horses—the old team,
and the new team, with the foal, Madge, who after the
fashion of the country, accompanied her mother when
out for work, and insisted always on running just in front
and so impeding progress; the old white pack horse, and
canny Aleck, and pretty Harry from Dakota, and Pinto,
and wise old thirty-year-old Charlie, who was none too
old, however, to give our little girl many a delightful
canter, and who was a much more reliable steed than the
wild Indian pony which had been intended for her use,
but who absolutely refused to bear the indignity of any
mortal on its back, and who made good its escape to its
free companions, bridled and saddled, more than once,
and had to be re-captured.
No; I do not think that I will detain you here, nor will
I ask you to admire what is called the " barn " in Canada,
but what we should call the stable. I may confess that
that building is not in the best of repair. Nor will I ask
you to admire our pigs, among which we boast of some
Berkshires; nor our white Leghorns, nor even will I
linger to point out the fascinating antics of the beautiful
but hated blue jays, the enemies of both farmer and
gardener; nor the pranks of the magpies, who often made
the place lively with their chatterings and their quarrel-
lings over some coveted bone or other choice scrap.
'IF- 190
Through Canada with a» Kodak.
No, but I will ask you to take a passing look at the
baby fir-trees which we brought out from the old Guisachan, in Inverness-shire, to be planted at the new
Guisachan. For "Guisachan" means "The Place of the
Fir," and though there are many firs all round about on
the mountains, there were none quite near the house;
and then I must call upon you to admire our cabbages,
any one of which would require an ordinary wheelbarrow
as a conveyance; and then look at our glorious melons,
and citrons, and cucumbers, and apples, even as we saw
them so late as in October. Unfortunately our photographs turned out failures, so you must take our word for
it when we tell you that the melons often weigh 30 lbs.
and more; and also when we give you the following
example of what an ordinary orchard produces in this
country. Our next door neighbour has an orchard of
about a third of an acre containing twenty-four apple
trees, half of which are old trees and the others young,
some as young as four years old. This gentleman and
his wife have a family of four little boys, and take in
lodgers besides, having sometimes in the summer as
many as fourteen boarders. The produce of the orchard
forms a never-failing item in the menu, and one of the
lodgers told us he could never have believed that apples
could be cooked in so many different excellent ways till
he went to lodge with Mrs Monson. But after the
powers of the orchard had been thus taxed all through Guisachan Farm.
the fruit season, the owner was able to sell the residue of
the produce for 250 dollars. And such apples ! Such
facts, and the knowledge of the ever-increasing demand
for fruit of all kinds in the North-West Provinces, will
S.S. " Penticton " waiting to bear us~/iway.
doubtless cause the valley to become ere long a great
fruit-producing centre. Two hundred acres of the Guisachan farm will be planted with various kinds of fruit-
trees this year, and with the smaller kinds of fruit, such
as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries,  currants, and
m Ff'1
192 Through Canada with a Kodak.
gooseberries in between. All these fruits, as well as the
apples, pears, plums, melons, &c, flourish magnificently
and with the best possible results. Peaches and grapes
have also been tried, but we did not ourselves think the
specimens we saw were satisfactory. A number of
purchasers have been taking up the lots subdivided for
fruit farms by Mr G. G. Mackay, who set a good example
in the neighbourhood by buying estates and dividing
them into lots. Hops, wheat, barley, and all root crops
yield abundantly, the wheat averaging 35 bushels an acre.
Good land for fruit growing is now fetching from 30 to
60 dollars an acre, and is steadily rising in value. A land
owner in the neighbourhood, owning a ranch which
consists of some 4000 to 5000 acres of rough hill range
land, and 500 acres of good rich agricultural land, was
offered 36,000 dollars for the whole. "Not I," says he,
" Not a farthing less will I take than 90,000 dollars for
the property." " Then do you think the men fools who
are selling their land for 60 dollars an acre ? " That is
just what I do think them. I know the worth of that
land, I tell you." The steady rise in price, which is going
on so far, justifies this opinion. There was one difficulty
in the way of the grower of small and perishable fruits,
and that was the difficulty about their transit, for though
the demand for fresh fruit is great, it of course cannot be
carried any great distance without injury. This has now
been obviated by Lord Aberdeen deciding to put up a Guisachan Farm.
jam factory and cannery, at the head of the lake near
Vernon, where all good fruit raised in the district can be
received, and this announcement has been greeted with
Good-bye !
great satisfaction. The site of the factory has been
placed near Vernon, both on account of the proximity to
the railway, and because it is near the Coldstream pro-
w 194
Through Canada with a Kodak.
perty, which now belongs to Lord A., and part of which
he has entrusted to Mr Mackay x for subdivision into the
fruit farms which appear to be so much wanted, or fruit
farms combined with grazing ground, for those who wish
to raise cattle or keep dairy stock, for whieh there are
;good openings.
We are often asked for advice as to what class of
settlers are likely to succeed in this part of British
Columbia. There are two classes whom the country will
-suit, (i) Men with a little capital, say not less than ^500,
who can buy 20 acres perhaps or more, have the means
to plant it and cultivate it, put up a little frame house and
be able to support themselves until the fruit begins to
bear. It takes four or five years for apple trees to bear,
but of course many of the other kinds of crops and fruits
bear the second or even the first year. A fruit-grower
who is keen about his trees will have each tree numbered
.and entered in a book, and will find delightful occupation in carefully nurturing, pruning, and watching over
each young nursling, while he may expect an abundant
Teward by-and-bye. There are some Qollege graduates
now taking up land in our district, some of whom came
thinking of following the learned professions, but finding
these all full, are very sensibly devoting themselves to
1 Since the above was written, we grieve to say that Mr G. G.
Mackay died suddenly (in January 1893), much regretted by his
friends and neighbours. Guisachan Farm.
fruit-farming. (2) The second class of men who can
succeed are those who will hire themselves out as
labourers, and who will set themselves to save their high
wages and meanwhile learn the ways of the country.
We are hopeful that a very good class of settler is
coming in amongst us, which will make the district a
desirable one for those who seek to find a home where
there will be good influences and a high tone.
I must not forget to mention that the climate and its
healthfulness are great attractions. We certainly found
the climate a most perfect and health-giving one during
our all too brief sojourn; but my brother gave it the
same character, as also did the old residents of the valley,
who seem never to have found out the need for a doctor.
The weather was a perfect " Indian summer," while we
were there at the end of October. They have, we understand, about six weeks' hard winter with thermometer
often considerably below zero, and two months of the
summer are very hot, and the mosquitoes abound far
more than we should like. But, taking it all round, the
people seem wholly satisfied with their weather. Certain
it is that we at least agree with Mr Mackay when he said,
in a letter to the papers, that " if a man cannot be happy
here he can be happy nowhere,"—nor a woman either,
say I.
Now Lord A. says I have been writing a puff, and let
my enthusiasm for our holiday-resort run away with me, 196
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but he has to admit that all that I have said is true—and
he often wishes he were there.
I am afraid I have occupied an altogether unwarrantable amount of space in the Magazine this month, and
even now, I shall not be able to include the pictures of
the Coldstream Ranch in this month's issue. We felt
very badly when we had to wend our way to the point of
embarkation, and sadly say good-bye and sail up the
Lake to Vernon, under charge of good Captain Shorts,
who knows the country well, and who fell in with our
humour by singing its praises.
YOU saw us off from Guisachan a few weeks ago, and
. now this month I am afraid we must bid Good-bye
to British Columbia, though I would gladly linger there
with you awhile, and chatter on about our further experiences whilst in that charming province, and about all
our plans for the future. But it will be better to wait
.awhile until I can tell you whether our customers at
Vernon are satisfied with our dairy supplies from the
Coldstream, and until I can explain to you the process by
which we mean to try to turn out the best jams and
preserves in the Dominion. When you get a chance of
buying "Oka jam," mind you seize it, for nothing will
equal it, I am sure !!
Before we leave the subject, however, I must tell you
about the Coldstream Ranch, which is ' the name of
the large property which Lord Aberdeen has bought
near Vernon.
Not such a smart house as at Guisachan, but there
"is  a good barn  standing   by the  side  of the  house, 198 Through Canada with a Kodak.
and in the other pictures you will see some specimens of
our Coldstream horses and cattle, though some of the
creatures have spoiled their likenesses by moving whilst
being   photographed.     You  cannot judge from these
pictures of the beauty of the valley, which received the
following description from a business gentleman who was
sent lately to survey it:—" I wish you had been with me,
and I think you would agree that it is not only one of
the richest but one of the most beautiful valleys you ever
saw."    It receives its name from a stream which is always
ice-cold even in our hottest weather.    A considerable
portion of the property runs along the shores of the lovely
" Long Lake," pronounced by Lord Lome to be one of
the  most  attractive  sheets  of water he had  seen  in
America.    We had a good vie'w of the lake from a spot
where we picnicked one day during an expedition from
Guisachan.    This  was  at  the other  end  of the lake
from that on which  the  Coldstream  is  situated,  and
where residences are being erected on the shores, on
"lots" which have already been parcelled off from the
property.    There is a curious feature about this lake:
One can see stretching across the lake what looks like a
bridge or dam.    It goes in the district by the name of
" the Railway," and is in reality the work of the skilful
beaver architects and workers.
And now will you travel down with us to the coast„
and see the " Empress of India " start from Vancouver «:
f 2oo Through Canada with a Kodak.
bound for Japan, China, and India ? She is one of the
three grand new ships built by the Canadian Pacific
Railway, which now make communication between China,
Japan, Canada, and England so easy and swift, that it is
possible for letters from Japan to reach London in
twenty days.
We were very glad to have a chance of seeing over the
•comfortable internal arrangements of the ship, with a view
of a possible expedition in the future to that wonderful
•country, to pick up gossip for you; and even our aversion
to the sea did not prevent us from half-envying our
friends when we saw them making their start, amidst the
•cheers of the Vancouver public, who take vast interest in
these boats, which are so greatly promoting the prosperity
of their city and province. Amongst the living freight
•carried on this occasion was a crowd of Chinamen on the
lower deck, who, having made their fortunes, were
returning home to their own land. It creates a curious
sensation to be brought face to face with this strange
people between whom and ourselves there seems to be a
gulf fixed—the two races having so little in common, and
yet, at anyrate in British Columbia, depending so largely
■on one another. They despise us, and look on us as
heathens, and are unwilling to let their dead bodies be
contaminated by resting in our soil, but endeavour to
have them all back to China for interment. And we, or
at least many of us, no less unjustly despise them, and Q
•s 202
Through Canada with^a Kodak.
call them " Heathen Chinee," having but scant respect
for the great forces lying hidden in that vast j Celestial
Empire," of whose internal affairs and workings we are
comparatively so ignorant.
But it was not of the Chinese that I was to talk in this
paper, but of anpther race with whom we are far more
immediately concerned, and concerning whom we have
far more responsibility. As you pass through Canada
from east to west, through her thick forests and over her
wide prairies, and her mighty mountains, it is a pathetic
sight to see what appear to be the ghosts of a people of
other days, stealing, gaunt and mournful, and silent, to
the towns and railway stations, and who, crouching
around, watch the new race rising up and possessing this
fair and goodly land over which they held sovereign sway
in the times now gone by. They are an unattractive
sight, with their deeply-lined countenances, and prominent features, bedaubed often with paint, their black
dishevelled hair, their array of ragged squalid blankets,
or tattered garments, to which fragments of tawdry, finery
give the finishing touch to an aspect of distasteful
wretchedness. Perchance, mingling with a reflection of
national self-complacency that the Canadian Government
have on the whole dealt fairly and justly with these
Indians within her borders, there comes also a scarcely
acknowledged thought that it is as well for these poor
folk that their race is yearly diminishing, and that by-and- Indians of Canada.
bye all traces of their existence will have vanished, save
in museums.
But can we thus lightly dismiss the fate and fortunes
of a nation whom we have disinherited ? Think of their
position a few years ago, ere the buffalo disappeared
before the advance of the white man. They were wealthy
in those days, wealthy after the only fashion about which
they cared aught. The vast plains were their undisputed
hunting-ground, and the unnumbered herds of buffaloes
provided for all their needs. Food, for they lived chiefly
on buffalo, eating sometimes as much as eight or ten lbs.
a day; houses, for the tanned skins made comfortable
and durable tents, or " tee-pees," or " lodges " as they call
them; clothing, for from them they obtained their robes
and other articles of clothing. They had bands of
horses and ponies to transport them and their goods
to a fresh location, whensoever it pleased them to
move, and to carry them to the chase of the wild
beasts and birds, in which they so excelled. What
more did they need ?
Now they are confined to certain portions of the
country alloted to them by Government, called "Indian
reserves "; they are poor, for the buffalo has mysteriously
disappeared within the last twelve or fifteen years, and
they have to depend in large measure on the charity of
Government, which gives them rations of food to save them
from starvation: the wild animals and birds which they
!   I
' !04
Through Canada with a Kodak.
loved to pursue, which supplied them with food and
ornaments, and for which they commanded a ready sale,
are fast diminishing; they are suffering from diseases and
vices introduced by the " pale-faces "; and their ideas of
life and civilisation so totally differ from those of their
■conquerors that it is with the utmost difficulty they can
set themselves to win their livelihood by what appears to
them the dull and distasteful work of agriculture. Small
wonder that the red man looks sad, and listless, and
hopeless, as he looks out on the altered conditions of life
for his race, and as he meditates on the future of his
•country, which seems to have so little place for him unless
he alters all his habits and tastes ! An earnest effort is
fjeing made, both by missionaries and by the Government,
to help him to accommodate himself to the new conditions, but it is uphill work. But there is often an instinctive
want of trust between the two races, and a lack of understanding of one another. Wise men of science, and
sympathetic and large-minded missionaries, are both now
searching into the customs, habits, and traditions of the
different tribes of North American Indians, and with a
wider knowledge of these there will come fuller power
to enter into their ideas and conceptions, to gain their
confidence, and consequently their co-operation in the
work of their own elevation and civilisation.
Our ideas of the Red Indian are largely the outcome
of the representation of him in the stirring tales of daring Indians of Canada.
adventure and cruel ferocity, which are considered the
fittest literature for boys—but we go no further.
I would like to interest you in another way in these
children of the plain and forest, but my knowledge is so-
fragmentary and inadequate that I can only give you
glimpses into that little understood world of the Indian..
As you know, there are many different tribes, from those
of the East, who received the white men so hospitably on
their first appearance,  but who afterwards became so-
dreaded,   to   those   in  the   extreme  West   in   British
Columbia, who appear to be so distinct in character and
customs from those east of the Rocky Mountains that I
will  defer all  mention  of them  until another  paper..
Amongst all these different tribes the chief religion appears^
to consist in a belief of spirits, spirits which inhabit earth,,
air, water, as also animals, and even inanimate things,
and whose protection must be sought, and whose vengeance  avoided.     They  do  not,   however,   like  other
heathen people, make images or idols of these spirits, and
their chief reverence is given to the sun and moon, and
to one Chief Spirit, who re-appears in the legends of
various   tribes  under  different   names,   and   in   many
Let me give you here one or two examples of their
religious traditions, as taken down from their own lips
by the Rev. E. Wilson, and reported by him to the
British Association:—
■iv.k 2o6
Through Canada with a Kodak.
The Creation.—"It had been long time night. Napi, the
Ancient, said, * Let it be day,' and it became day. Napi made the
sun, and told it to travel from east to west. Every night it sinks
into the earth, and it comes out of the earth again the next morning. Napi is very old every winter, but he becomes young every
spring. He has travelled all along the Rocky Mountains, and
there are various marks on the mountains which remain as relics of
his presence. Napi said, 'We will'be two people.' He took out
the lower rib from his right side, and he said, ' It shall be a woman,'
and he let it go, and he looked on it, and he saw a woman. He
then took a rib from the left side, and said, ' Let it be a boy,' and
it was a boy. Napi also made a number of men with earth. Napi
and the men went one way, the woman went another way. And
the woman made women of earth, in the same way as Napi had
made men.
"At Morley, opposite the Rev. Mr Macdougall's house, and
down the river," said Big Plume, "there is a little stream; they
call it the men's kraal or enclosure ; on one side of the stream is a
cut bank and big stones; this was the men's boundary, beyond
which they were not to pass. They used to hunt buffalo, and drive
them over the cut bank; they had plenty of meat ; they had no
need to follow the buffaloes; they hid themselves behind the big
stones and uttered a low cry; this guided the buffalo to the cut
bank, and when they were over the bank they shot them with their
stone arrows and ate the meat.
" One day Napi went out on a long journey. He got as far as
High River. There he saw lots of women together, with the
woman made from his rib, who acted as their chief. There were no
men and no boys there. There were a great number of teepees.
Napi was alone. He told the women, 11 have come from the men.'
The woman chief said to him, 'Go home; bring all your men;
stand them all on the top of this stone ridge ; our women shall then Indians of Canada.
•go up one by one, and each take a man for a husband.' When
they were all up there, the chief woman went up first and laid hold
on Napi to take him, but Napi drew back ; the chief woman had put
on an old and torn blanket, and had rubbed all the paint off her
face, and had no ornaments on her. Napi did not like her appearance, and so he rejected her addresses. He did not know that she
was the chief woman. She then went back to the women, and,
pointing to Napi, said, 'Don't any of you take him.' She then
dressed herself in her best, and painted her face, and put on her
ornaments', and went and chose another man. All the women did
the same. Thus all the men had wives, and Napi was left standing
alone. The chief woman then cried aloud, ' Let him stand there
alone like a pine tree.' Napi then began breaking away the stony
ridge with his heel, till there was only very little of it left. The
woman then shouted, ' Be a pine tree.' And the pine tree stands
there now alongside the big stones, and they still call it the women's
kraal. Napi's flesh is in the pine tree, but his spirit still wanders
through the earth.
" The boy made from Napi's left rib fell sick. The woman took
a stone and threw it in the water, and she said, ' If the stone swims
the boy will live,' but the stone sank and the boy died ; and so all
people die now. If the stone had floated, all people would have
How Horses Originated.—"A long time ago there were no
horses. There were only dogs. They used only stone for their
arrows. They were fighting with people in the Rocky Mountains.
Those people were Snake Indians. They took a Blackfoot woman
away south. There were a great number of people down there, and
they tied the woman's feet, and tied her hands behind her, and a
cord round her waist, and picketed her to a stake, near the big salt
water. And they cried across the lake, ' See, here is your wife !'
Then they all retreated and left her.     These Big Lake people did 208
Through Canada with a Kodak.
not see her at all; but the waters rose and covered her ; and when?
the waters abated, there was no woman there, but there were lots of
horses. The Snake Indians caught these horses, and that is how
horses began."
Future Life.—"I asked 'Big Plume' what did he think became of the soul after death? He replied that the souls of all Black-
feet Indians go to the Sandhills, north of the Cyprus hills (this
would be to the east of the Blackfeet country). What proof had he
of that ? I asked. ' At a distance,' said the chief, ' we can see them
hunting buffalo, and we can hear them talking and praying, and
inviting one another to their feasts. In the summer we often go
there, and we see the trails of the spirits, and the places where they
have been camping. I have been there myself, and have seen them,
and heard them beating their drums. We can see them in the distance, but when we get near to them they vanish. I cannot say
whether or not they see the Great Spirit. I believe they will live
for ever. All the Blackfeet believe this; also the Sarcees, Stonies,
Atsinas, and Crees. The Crees, after death, will go to the Sandhills further north. • There will still be fighting between the Crees
and the Blackfeet in the spiritual world. Dogs and horses go to the
Sandhills too ; also the spirits of the dead buffaloes. We hand these
traditions down to our children. We point out-to our children
various places where Napi slept, or walked, or hunted, and thus our
children's minds become impressed."
kjPi £.1*     ■
You have probably heard of the Indians' medicine-bags,
and the name suggests that medicines are carried about for
cases of emergency, but their ideas of medicine and ours
are two very different affairs.  ;SKhen a young man grows
up he has to find out which of the many spirits is to be
his special protector, and then he has to carry the symbol Indians of Canada.
of this spirit always on his person as a sort of charm.
(From a photograph by Boorne '&* May.)
And here is an account, by Mr Hale, of the way they find
their " medicine " :—
o 2io Through Canada with a Kodak.
" Young men go up on to a hill and cry and pray for some animal
or bird to come to them.    Before starting out they wash themselves
all over,  and put off all their clothing and ornaments, except a
blanket.    For five or six days they neither eat nor drink, and they
become thin.    They take a pipe with them, and tinder and flint, and
a native weed or bark for smoking (not matches or tobacco).    When
the pipe is filled they point the stem to the sun, and say, ' Pity me,
that some animal or bird may come to me !'    Then they address the
trees, the grass, the water, and the stones in the same manner     If
any one crosses their path while so engaged, they call aloud to them
to warn them off, saying, ' I am living alone ; do not come near !'
While in this state they dream, and whatever animal or bird they
see in their dream becomes their medicine or guardian through life.
They are told also in a dream what description of herbs or roots to
gather as their medicine, and this they collect and put carefully into
a small bag to keep as a charm.    They also kill the animal they
dreamed of, and keep its skin as a charm.    No one knows what is
the medicine they have gathered; it is kept a profound secret.    The
little bag is kept in the tent, and no one may touch it but the owner,
other Indians would be afraid to meddle with it.    There is no particular age for young men to engage in the above rites.    They start
away in the evening—only in summer.     Some go of their own
accord, others are bid to do so by their fathers or elder brothers.    If
they do not go, any sickness that comes upon them will certainly be
fatal, or if shot by an enemy they will certainly die."
The burial customs bring out again the same belief in
spirits, inasmuch as they bury the dead person's belongings
with him, and kill his pony, so that the spirits of these
things may be at hand for his use in the other world.
"The Blackfeet never bury their dead below the surface of the Indians of Canada.
soil; they think it a horrible practice to expose the body to the
worms and vermin that live in the ground.    They either deposit the
bodies on a hill-top or place them in a tree.    Perhaps, being sun-
worshippers, their idea is that the sun should still shine upon them
after they are dead.    When the body is placed in a tree it is wrapped
in blankets and put up on a rudely-constructed platform.    When
deposited on a hill-top, or cliff, a rough kind of box is made, three
times the size of a coffin, and into it are put, besides the body, all
that belonged to the dead person—blankets, saddle, gun, kettles,
and everything; it is then nailed down, dragged by a pony on a
travoi'e to the appointed spot, and there deposited.    Sometimes a
few logs are piled round it to keep off the dogs and wild animals,
but often nothing is to be seen but the rudely-made box and some
kind of flag flying above it.    When a chief dies his favourite poriy
is brought and killed at the door of his tent; his body is then laid
out in his own teepee, often in a sitting position, and all his posses-
sessions are spread around him ; the edges of the tent are wedged
down and secured with stones, then the teepee is closed and left.
This is called a ' death teepee.'    Travellers sometimes come across
a solitary teepee, with no signs of life around it, and, on looking in,
are horrified to see a decomposing corpse.   There is great grief when
a person dies.    The people weep and howl over the dead bodies of
their friends.    It is usual also for the friends to throw their blankets
-and other valuables into the coffin before it is closed.    A mother has
been known to wrap her last remaining blanket around her dead infant, even in the middle of winter.    Mr Tims told me of a father
walking several miles barefooted through the snow to bury his little
child, having given his moccasins to his dead infant.    The graves of
the dead are visited by the living; the people often come and hold
a feast with the departed spirits, setting aside portions of food for
them.    The Blackfeet seem to have no dread of ghosts or spirits,
and do not mind handling dead bodies.    It is not an unusual thing
for a ' death teepee' even to be rifled by those bent on plunder." XIV.
NOW let me show you a picture of the fine old
Indian Chief, " Crowfoot," whose physiognomy
and expression will tell you of the strength of character
and mind that lay behind, fl He was one of the far-seeing
Indians who understood that it was for the ultimate good
of the country that the white men should take possession
of the country, that railways should traverse its length and
breadth, though bringing destruction to the Red Men's
hunting-grounds, and that the land should be brought
under the dominion of the plough. jj| He saw that the
only hope for the Indian was to accommodate himself to
the new order of things, and to co-operate with the
Englishmen in spreading education, and civilisation, and
the art of agriculture. He was of great service to the
Government when the great railway across the Continent
was planned, and in many other ways managed to bring
his people to help, and not to hinder. In recognition of
these services he was given a pass (which you see him
wearing in the picture) not only over the C.P.R.,  but ilPlli
H   "'
^^H                           -S£
WM *
wL 3
Crowfoot," Chief of the Blackfeet.
.$' 214
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also on several of the American lines of railway.    He
was ' taken   on    a
the principal cities,
grand tour round all
and  was shown   the
A collection of clubs and -whips,
which the Indians throw "with
schools,   and   colleges,
manufactories,  and   all
the    great   centres   of
into everything with mar-
telligence, taking in mat-
weighted "with stones and metals,
marvellous dexterity.
and institutions, and
that was being done in
population. He entered
vellous interest and inters   which   one   would Indians of Canada.
have thought totally beyond the comprehension of a
man who had lived his life on the prairie. And when
he came back to his quarters near Calgary, he gathered
together his tribe, and is said
to have addressed them continuously for three days, describing all the marvels that
he ha4 seen, picturing the
progress of the world in terms
of glowing eloquence, and how
the Indians, too, might take
their share in the general prosperity if they were wise in
time, and would learn all that
was good from the white men,
without following their vices.
But Crowfoot, who died a few years back,
was by no means a solitary instance of this
power of oratory. Travellers and missionaries tell us that the art of swaying audiences
by public speaking is very often met with,
and that the speeches of the Indian orators
are full  of  pathos  and  figurative beauty
wh pn     bparH     hv    tbnqp    wbn   A feather head-dress for ceremonial
wncn    ned.iu    uy    uiu&c   wuu       and war ^^^     It is morn
understand the language suffi-      domg the back ofthe head'
ciently to appreciate the force of the expressions used.
Mr John Maclean, who has laboured for many years
! 2l6
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amongst the Indians in Alberta, gives us various illustrations of such speeches in his
interesting book on " The Indians and their Manners and
[ Customs." We may take as
an example part of a speech
by "Tecumseh," who, at the
beginning of this century,
helped the British so heroically in the war against the
Americans. When General
Brock, in command of the
British troops, was preparing
to retreat into Canada, on
hearing of  the  defeat  of our
fleet on Lake Erie, he concealed the news of the defeat
from Tecumseh, fearing that
it would have a bad effect on
his Indian allies. Tecumseh,
who had but a poor opinion
of Brock, addressed him thus
at a Council:—
"Father, listen! Our fleet
has gone out; we know they
have fought;   we have heard
belt of feathers worn in
time of war and at cere-
monfal dances.
V& Indians of Canada.
the great guns; but we know nothing of what has happened to
our father with the one arm (Captain Barclay). Our ships have gone
one way,
and we are
much astonished to
see our father tying up everything, and preparing
to run the other way, without letting
his red children know what his intentions are. You always told us you
would never draw your foot off British
ground; but now, father, we see you
drawing back, and we are sorry to see
our father do so without seeing the
enemy. We must compare our father's
conduct to a fat dog that carries its tail
upon its back, but when affrighted it
drops it between its legs and runs off.
Father, listen! The Americans have
not defeated us by land, neither are we
sure that they have done so by water;
we, therefore, wish to remain here and
fight our enemy, should he make his
appearance. If they defeat us, then
we will retreat with our father. . . .
You have got the arms and ammunition
which our great father, the king, sent
for  his red  child- A " Papoose" swathed on its cradle-board.    The wooden
protection at the top is arranged so that a cloth may
ren.       If you have be thrown over and protect the child from the sun.
., r       . A band passes round the mother's shoulders in front.
any Idea Ot  going Tnis particular cradle-board belonged to a chiefs
awav    «ive    them squaw, and is richly ornamented with bead work:*-
m 2l8
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to us, and you may go, and welcome, for us. Our lives are in
the hands of the Great Spirit. We are determined to defend our
lands, and, if it be His will, we wish to leave our bones upon
Soon after this occasion Tecumseh was killed in battle,
and his warriors took away his body and buried it in a
place which no white man might ever know.
There is another feature in the character of the Indians
to which we must draw special attention, and that is their
wonderful and heroic endurance of pain, whether in times
of war or in going through certain ceremonies required
of them by their religious beliefs. Take, for instance,
the sun-dance, a great ceremony amongst many of the
tribes, on the occasion of which the young men are made
"braves," or recognised warriors. And we must remember that the dances of the Indians, grotesque and
strange as they may appear, are as sacred to them as
many of our religious ceremonies. One gentleman told
us that, after seeing some of his Indian friends, dressed
and daubed in feathers and barbaric colours, going
through all sorts of fantastic antics, to the sound of
unearthly music of tom-toms and whistles and trumpets,
in the streets of the town, he remonstrated with them,
and asked them how such wise men as they could make
such fools of themselves. And, on hearing these remonstrances, they looked much shocked and said, " But
are you an unbeliever?    Do you not know that this Making a " brave " at the sun-dance.   (Boorne &" May).
ft I
Mr 22o Through Canada with a Kodak.
dance is a solemn thing, a tribute that we must yield at
this time of year to the Great Spirit." I think these
words will make us recall to mind professing Christians
who have much in common with these Indians whom
they would look on as mere savages.
But to return to the sun-dance. On passing through
an Indian reserve,, near Calgary, we saw a large number
of trunks of trees leaning against one central pole, forming
a circle, and surmounted with what appeared a collection
of rubbish, sticks, and feathers, and such like. Our
guide explained to us that this is where the sun-dance
takes place, though last year, owing to the persuasions of
the missionaries, the ceremony did not take place, and
the authorities are anxious to do all in their power to
prevent its recurrence with its attendant cruel practices.
We give you a picture of what a young man who desires
to be made a " brave " has to go through. He first goes
up to the pole in the centre, and, clasping his arms
around it, prays for strength to go through the ordeal, for
which he is afterwards prepared. This preparation consists in first painting the whole body a dead white, and
then making a slit below two muscles in the chest, underneath which a wedge of wood is introduced. The.wedge
is then attached by cords to the top of the pole, and the
candidate for the honours of a brave has to sway himself
backwards and forwards and jerk himself until the wedge
is torn out of his flesh by force.  ' He must • not utter a  222
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groan or a cry during the process, but is given a whistle
wherewith he may divert himself, and he is considered
the bravest who laughs and jokes most during his agony,
which often lasts for hours. When the ghastly object is
at last accomplished, the newly-made brave is taken
charge of, often in a fainting condition, by the medicinemen, who have various processes of their own whereby to
heal the cruel wounds. The bravery which is required
to go through such tortures clearly shows what backbone
there is in the Indian character, if it can only be made
use of for the service of the God of love, and the betterment of* their race, instead of for such purposes as the
deliberate maiming and wounding of themselves in order
to please the imaginary requirements of their Great Spirit.
Many other stories could be told of the prairie tribes,
which would excite our sympathy; but we must pass on
in our next paper to the coast Indians, and their customs
and arts, and home manufactures. XV.
WHEN we were in Vancouver last year we had the
opportunity of gathering together a small collection of Indian curios from Mr Landsberg, of Victoria,
who has made a practice of collecting them for many
years, and who intended having a great show of them at
the Chicago " World's Fair." He gave us many interesting details regarding the use of the articles, which are
now displayed on the walls of one of the corridors at
Haddo House—and some of which are now reproduced
for your benefit from drawings made by Mr J. Grant.
But besides the information there obtained, I have also
to thank the authorities of the Smithsonian Institute at
Washington, where a wonderful collection of Indian
curiosities is to be seen, for their readiness to allow me
to make use of both printed matter and illustrations to
be found in a valuable publication of theirs, written by
Lieutenant Niblack, on the Coast Indians. These are
my authorities; and now, what shall I pick out from
these stores, to hand on to you ?  Manners and Traditions of Indians.
coast regions, on the adjacent islands and to
the north in the territory of Alaska, are altogether different in manners and customs to
those races of the interior about whom I
have tried to tell you a little in previous
papers. Their outward appearance is different too—they are of shorter height, the
cheek-bonesj are less prominent, the nose is
straighter, and the face rounder and fuller,
and many hold them to be of Mongolian origin, and that they must
have crossed over from Asia by the
Behring  Straits • in  times gone by.
Certain it is that they had attained    I
no small measure of civilisation and    §
a very complex tribal  organisation    ^
before the white men  arrived.      I *
will not trouble you with the names '3
of  the different  tribes,   nor  as  to ^
which of them the special customs
to which I shall refer belong; some |
are common to all, and some are the ||
special  property  of the Salish,   or |
the Flingit,  or the   Haida,  as  the ^
case may be. "f
Now, first I will ask you to look
at the picture of part of an Indian
/" '/.
Wi M
226 Through Canada with a Kodak.
village in the Prince   of Wales's  Island   (page  224).
What do you think the carved columns in front of each
house   represent ?      "Idols,"   of
course you will  say.    Nothing of
the   sort.       These   columns   are
carved   in  devices   which  are  to
them what crests are  to  us,  and
signify that the persons using that
device belong to the same clan, or as
they call it, the same   "totem."     The
principal   totems   are   the   Crow,   the
Raven, the Bear, the Beaver, the Eagle,
the Wolf, and the Whale. ^Representations of these animals, or of other objects
which are used as the signs of totem,
are carved on these totem columns outside the house, on mortuary and commemorative columns, on the articles for
household and ceremonial use, and are
tatooed on the skins. Look at the model
of one of these columns which we have
in our collection.    At the top is Hoots,
the brown bear, who is the totem of the
head of the household who erected it.
Hoots is wearing one of the grass hats,
•f| made by Indians, but the signifi-
6"%sj;SZ^^"ss- cance of this here is unknown. Manners and Traditions of-Indians.      227
Tsing, the beaver, the totem of the wife and children, is-
at the bottom of the column, and between the two is
represented Tetl or Yetl, the great Raven, the benefactor
of mankind, about whom many wonderful stories are
related.    His coat of feathers could be put off or on at.
Mask used for ceremonial purposes and formerly for war. The
Jaws move by pulling a string. The face is painted with
totemic designs.'
pleasure, and he had the power of transforming himself
into any form he choose to assume.    He existed before
his birth, will never grow old   and  cannot die;   and
endless are the adventures told of his peopling the world,
and providing men with fire, fresh water, fish, game, &c.r 228
Through Canada with a Kodak.
and how he fought for them against their great enemy,
Setim-ki-jash. Often some of these stories are illustrated
on these columns, and thus they become representations,
not only of the totemic relations of the household, but
also of the general legends or folk-lore believed in by the
tribe.     But  they are in no  sense idols, though they
represent objects which the Indian
regards with superstitious respect; he
believes that there exists between him
and his totem an intimate and altogether special relation, which he must
respect if he is to receive protection.
If his totem is an animal, then he will
not kill any of its class, and if it be a
plant he will not cut it or gather it.
Those belonging to the same totem
may not marry, and thus it comes about
that the wife and her children belong to
a different totem to that of the head of
the household. In the northern coast
tribes, too, rank and wealth and pro-
Rattle used   in   cere- f. 5 r
aisfbya™shamaivvfy   descend   through   the   mother,
CarlZZmt'oZtlc according  to   the   system   known   as
designs. "matriarchy"    or    "mother-rule,"    a
system which  has  often been found to  exist amongst
primitive  races;   but   in   southern   tribes   of   British
Columbia   this   has   given   place   to   "father-rule,"  or
■ Manners and Traditions of Indians.      229
position and inheritance being obtained through the
father. But if a father has special reasons for wishing his
child to belong to his own totem, asr for instance, if he is
a chief, and desires his son to succeed him, he must
transfer him to his own totem by handing him over to his
Medicine-man.'s apron.    Totem of eagle worked in red cloth, and
below three rows of puffin beaks to rattle as "wearer moves.
own sister, who will figuratively adopt him and thus change
his totem.
The ties which bind the members of the same totem or
phratry (an organisation in which several totems unite
together in some tribes) remind us much of the ties ^3°
Through Canada with a Kodak.
existing between the members of our old Scottish clans.
If an Indian arrives at a strange village, where he has
reason to fear hostility, he will at once look out for the
house whose carved post indicates that its master belongs
to his totem. And there he is sure in any case to receive
protection and to be received with honour. If, again, a
member of a tribe is captured and carried off by another
tribe, it is the duty of those of his own totem in the
enemy's tribe to offer to redeem him and to send him
back to his own tribe, when his own relatives are expected to pay back the redeemer whatever he may have
The relationships and customs which spring out of
these totemic organisations are endless, and full of
interest, and are now receiving the investigation from
men of science that they deserve. It is well that these
investigations should have been set on foot, for the old
ways and customs and traditions are fast disappearing,
and it is only the older Indians who can give reliable
information on the subject, and they are often very
reticent and unwilling to give up their knowledge to
" Then, again, the occasions on which the ceremonial
dances and feasts, or "pot-latches," can be witnessed are
becoming few and far between, owing to the discouragement given to them by the Government, who are anxious
to  prevent  the  Indians from  ruining  themselves  and Manners and Traditions of Indians.      231
squandering their substance at these feasts,- as they were
wont to do. We had an opportunity, however, of seeing
a whole village start forth to one of these " pot-latches,"
and a curious sight it was.    The whole population came
3 fl \Chiefs coat, made or beautifully-tanned buckskin and edged "with
velvet and fur. These coats are often covered over with
totemic designs.
forth, arrayed in garments of very diverse and very
brilliant colours, and mounted their herd of scraggy little
ponies. Lord Aberdeen joined a group, and tried to
glean some information as to what it all meant, from an
11 Through Canada with a Kodak.
old man who.was evidently of some importance amongst
his fellows. But he was not communicative, and we
could not at all understand why so many riderless and
burdenless ponies were being driven along by the feast-
goers, until it was explained to us
that the important feature of a
"pot-latch" was a distribution of
'^ presents to all the guests, and that
these ponies were being taken so
as to bear back the expected gifts.
These feasts are great events in the
history of a community, and are
prepared for by the giver long in
advance, for these are the occasions
whereby men are able to advance
themselves in the estimation of their
fellows, and whereby they hope to
attain position and honour, and
possibly a chieftaincy. They are
on   various   occasions:   on
(m,>, '
Fringed  leggings   to   wear given
with chief's coat.   Each
legging used separately, marriage, on the naming of a child,
on the building of a house, or on the important
occasion of the rearing of one of the carved columns
previously described, and in which work the guests
are all expected to assist,—or it may be given for
no particular reason beyond the desire of making a figure.
An ordinary man confines his invitations to the inhabit- Manners and Traditions of Indians.      233
ants of his own
village, but a chief
invites those of
the neighbouring
villages also. All
sorts of property
are given away at a
" pot - latch "-
ponies,     guns,
canoes, robes,
blankets, furs,
dishes, spoons,
bowls, ammunition, ornaments,
and, in former
times, slaves; and,
according to a custom not unknown in
civilised regions, the
wealthy    guests    re-
Chiefs bead - embroidered girdle, gambling bag, dagger
sheath, and pistol
pouch. Used for
ceremonial occasions IS  *
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•ceive the best presents, and the poor ones the shabby
ones, such as a worn-out blanket or a strip of cloth.
Previous to the ceremony the host gathers together
his near relations, and, with their aid, makes out a list of
the presents to be given to  each individual.    On the
Bow and arrows and buckskin actually used by an old chief
guests assembling, the goods are all displayed about the
walls or on poles, or piled up on the floor. The host
stands or sits in ceremonial attire, and presides over the
affairs with a ceremonial baton in hand. The herald
blows a whistle, extols the position and the virtues of the Manners and Traditions of Indians.       235
giver of the feast, calls out a name and the present which
that person is to receive. The host nods his head
solemnly, thumps on the floor with his baton, and an
attendant takes
the article'and
deposits it be-
Carved wooden bowl of beautiful shape, and covered with
totemic designs.
fore the recipient. During the
intervals, or at
the end, dancing,     feasting,
and singing are indulged in, and the ceremony may
at times prolong itself to several days. It need
scarcely be added that the receiving of such presents
involves a suitable return on some future occasion.
It has been mentioned
that dancing takes place at
the entertainments I have
described, and many of the
Indian curiosities which we
have   brought   home   are
Bone bark scraper.     This is used for      .--i r j nrrtn
scraping off the inner bark of the artlCieb   OI tire&b    ur    urild-
cedar, &*c, beating it down, pre- , j r •   i
paratory to separating it into fibresment   USeO tor   Ceremonial
for "weaving purposes. n . ,. ,       .
dancing on these and other
festive occasions. We must not think of Indian
dancing being such as that to which we are accustomed, in which the whole company takes  part; but 236
Through Canada with a Kodak.
it is rather a show performance by the few, the performers being both men and women, whilst others sing
or play the drum, shake the rattles, blow the whistles,,
and thump on the ground with batons to mark the time,
and the spectators sit round and look on, and signify
applause by grunts and cries of laughter. Niblack
classifies three classes of dance—(1) the stately, dignified, and formal; (2) the wild, passionate, and furious;
(3) the ludicrous; but, he adds that " the method of
dancing them is the same, the movements being slow, or
exaggerated, as the case may be. It consists mainly in
contortions of the body and hips, with the feet firmly
planted and the knees slightly bent. The body is
wriggled and swayed from side to side with redoubled
animation and fury as the dance advances, but the legs
remain bent at about the same angle, and the feet play
only a small part in the so-called dancing itself." Masks
of all descriptions are worn at these dances—some with
eyes that roll and jaws that move, others representing
animals with snapping beaks. Then there are ceremonial
coats and leggings, and finely worked girdles in beads or
in cedar-bark—blankets worked out in totemic designs,
and woven in a curious way with the warp of cedar-bark
hammered out, and the woof of fine mountain goat's
wool (which is found under the animal's outer covering
of hair), and batons, wands, head-dresses, ceremonial
spears, bows and arrows and I know not what besides. Manners and Traditions of Indians.      237
These articles of apparel are reserved now for these
festive occasions, as for ordinary life the Indians have
adopted the European costume. There is one ceremonial head-dress used by a chief (represented in the illustration) which I should
like you specially to notice. It is carved
from hard wood, painted and inlaid with
abalone shell, and hanging behind are
three lengths of ermine skins; round the
top we see remains of a fringe of seal
whiskers which surmounted the headdress, and inside which was placed a
quantity of birds' down, which, through the
motion of the dancer, would fall like snow
around him at his will. This birds' down
would also be blown from tubes and
scattered otherwise by the dancers, and
sometimes it would also be powdered over
the paint used on the face and body, thus
.giving the performer a most startling appearance.
The list of these paraphernalia gives you
. some idea of the advanced stage to which
these Indian races had brought their industrial arts
and crafts before the advent of the white man. Their
carving, as shown on the totemic columns, funeral and
-other   chests,  and «on  the  spoons,   bowls,   and   other
Spoon carved
from the horn
of a mountain
sheep—beautifully executed.
I'M 238
Through  Canada with a Kodak
household utensils, both on wood, horn, slate, and silver,
is marvellous, more especially when the rudeness of their
instruments is considered. Their weaving of cloth from
cedar-bark and wool has already been alluded to, but
their expertness as basket-weavers, canoe-builders, tanners of hides, dyers, and designers, should also be mentioned. These handicrafts are carried on mostly during
the winter by men and women alike, and Mr Niblack
tells us that the women are quite on an equality with
the men in the matters of industrial organisation, that
they do a great portion of the trading, and that they
take part in the councils. In times of war it was
generally an old woman of rank who steered the war
Unlike the Indians of the interior, the coast Indians
are neither good shots nor good hunters as a rule, and
seek to obtain their game largely by means of traps, but
as fishermen they are unequalled, and we -cannot compete,
even with our most modern contrivances, with their skill
with their crude implements. The Indians parcel out
the territory belonging to them, near their villages, in
hunting, berrying, and fishing grounds for each household,
and their summer camps can be seen near where the
salmon run in greatest abundance. Those who have
watched the salmon rush up these streams in vast shoals
speak of it as a marvellous spectacle: the fish hurling,
themselves over rocks and waterfalls in. their endeavours Manners and Traditions of Indians.
to surmount all obstacles. The Indians reap their
harvest at these times, and never a hook is used. That
would be far too slow work—they are either speared or
caught in nets, as a rule. But in the catching of all sorts
of fish the Indians cannot be surpassed, and we saw all
manner of hooks, spears, clubs, floats, nets, and baskets,   which  they make   and  use  to  such  good   pur-
Twined basketry hat. The twining consists of weaving the woof
strands round a series of -warp strands. Totemic designs are
painted on this hat, "which is used for dances. Plain hats of
this description are used in an ordinary way by both men and
pose in catching all kinds of the denizens of sea,.
and river, and lake. Their fish form a main staple
of their food, along with the wild berries that grow in
great abundance. Both the fish and berries are dried
for the winter's use, and, in former times, if the winter
proved long and severe, the Indians were often in want
before the fishing began. Now they have learned to
cultivate potatoes and other roots to help them through Through Canada with  a Kodak.
with their winter's supplies. The fish are cut into long
flakes, and dried without salt, in the sun, over a slow fire,
-or in the shade of the dwellings. It is eaten by bits being
broken off and dipped into the oil, which is the universal
accompaniment of all food. They make a great quantity
of oil from bear, deer, goats, seals, porpoises, and all
kinds of fish. The fish are allowed partially to putrify,
and are then boiled in wooden boxes by means of hot
stones dropped in the water. The grease or oil is
skimmed from the surface, and is stored in boxes, or in
the holy stalks of giant kelp, which are first dried and
made pliable with oil. The oil, unfortunately, is often
rancid, and this, along with the decomposed roe of fish
and putrified salmon heads, both of which are esteemed
a great luxury7, pervade the Indian dwellings with an
•odour distressing to the visitor. Efforts have been made
to convince them of the insanitary nature of this food,
and not without success. The inner bark of spruce,
hemlock, and pine, and sea-weed is also used as an article
of food, pressed into cakes. One species of sea-weed is
used for making a dish called sopallaly, of which the
Indians are especially fond. It is made by breaking up
a piece of the dried sea-weed cake into little bits in a
bowl, and adding warm water. It is then beaten with a
wooden spoon, and sugar and sometimes berries are
added. The mixture froths and foams like the white of
an egg, and is consumed with avidity. Manners and Traditions of Indians.      241
There is much else that I would like to tell you about
the customs and tradition of this interesting race, but my
paper is growing too long, and I fear that I may weary
you. But I have not shown you anything of the sad side
of the picture—how contact with the whites has demoralised the Indians, how they have intensified the
vices of the latter, and how they have
introduced new ones—for example, the
use of strong liquor, such as rum and a
concoction called " hoochinoo" a poison-
ously impure distillation from potatoes.
Gambling is a passion with most of the
Indians, and we have amongst our collection a specimen of one of the gambling-
bags which they carry about, and which
are full of small round sticks, which
serve them as cards, and on wrhich are
found various marks, distinguishing one
from the other. The Governments,
both of British Columbia and Alaska, are doing
their best to restrain the drinking and immorality
and gambling which have played such havoc amongst
the tribes, and the missionaries are carrying on a
vigorous work amongst them. These coast tribes are
much more susceptible to the influences of Christianity
than the tribes of the interior, and the Roman Catholics
established successful missions at an early date, which
Tobacco pouch, "with
totemic   painted
designs. ■4-
Through  Canada with a  Kodak.
are still flourishing. The Episcopal and other Churches
are also at work, and Bishop Sillitoe, of New Westminster, told us that a very marked advance may now
be seen in the habits and customs of the people. On
one occasion lately he was received after a confirmation
ceremony to luncheon by an Indian lady dressed in
lavender silk, and a table spread out with preserved
fruits and all sorts of delicacies. Advance is also being
made in the education and training of the children, and
at Yale Lytton, a lovely spot in the mountains, we had
the opportunity of seeing a number of bright, attractive-
looking little Indian maidens being trained as servants.
But I have so little authentic information as to the work
of education and missions amongst these Indians that I
can only touch on the subject, and hope that I may have
sufficiently interested you in these fellow-subjects of ours,
whom we have dispossessed, to make you wish to hear
more of this side of the subject on some future occasion^ APPENDIX.
Prime Minister of Canada.
By J. G. Colmer, C.M.G., Secretary at the Office of the High
Commissioner for Canada.
In the July issue of "Onward and Upward," the death of the
Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald was briefly
referred to, and a promise made that some particulars of his career
should be given in a succeeding number. The Editor has been kind
enough to afford the opportunity of writing a few words about the
deceased statesman ; and I will try, in the space at my disposal, to
tell my readers what a great and good man he was.
It is not necessary to say very much about the early days of Sir John.
He was born in Glasgow in the month of January, 1815, and went
to Canada in 182I5 with his parents, who were Sutherlandshire
people. The party of emigrants settled down near Kingston, on the
shores of the beautiful Lake Ontario, and the subject of this little
sketch remained identified with the "Limestone City," as it is called,
to the day of his death, for, with the exception of one or two
intervals, he was its representative, first in the Parliament of Old
Canada, and then in that of the Dominion, ever since 1844. Both
his father and mother were of good families, but at the time of their !44
^settling in Canada were not, to use the ordinary phrase, "well off"
from a money point of view. They were, however, good, sensible,
people, and it is to their care, and watchfulness, and to their
example and training, that Sir John owed most of the remarkable
success that he achieved. They contrived to give him as good an
education as could be obtained at the time. He acquired a fair
average knowledge of classics, and an enormous appetite for reading,
but it seems that he especially excelled in mathematics, and in
algebra and Euclid he was the "show" boy of the Kingston
Grammar School, and the pride of his master. As a lad, he had
the peculiar appearance which he retained through life, and one of
his biographers describes him in his school days as having "a very
intelligent and pleasing face, strange fuzzy-looking hair that curled
in a dark mass, and a striking nose." Although full of fun, and
blessed with high spirits, he was always a hard worker ; and this is
the great secret of the advancement and progress of most of our
great men. Mr Macdonald was bent on making young John a
lawyer, and this object was kept in view in his studies. At the age
of fifteen he entered a local " law office," and was called to the bar in
1836, when he reached man's estate.
The next stage was to open a law office on his own account, and
as he showed so much ability and diligence in any work he undertook,
and, besides was so popular in Kingston and its neighbourhood, he
soon acquired the leading practice of the place ; and his efforts,
although unsuccessful, in the defence of a man named Van Schultz,
who, in 1838, tried to create a disturbance in Canada, and entered
the country with a number of men from the United States, added
greatly to his reputation and gave him a place on the ladder of fame.
Mr John Macdonald, as he was* then termed, first entered
Parliament in 1844, as I have already stated, and the fact that he
became a member of the Administration three years later, shows
that he soon assumed a prominent position in the political arena. Appendix.
From that time, down to the present, his history is that of his
adopted country—or, to put it more definitely, of Old Canada up to
1867, and of the Dominion since that year, when several of the
Memorial bust of Sir John Macdonald placed in St Pauls
Cathedral, and unveiled by Lord Rosebery, Nov. i8g2.
scattered Colonies of British North America agreed to unite under
one form of Government. Space will not permit of my discussing,
at any length, the events which lead up to the Confederation, but -246
I may say that the union of Upper and Lower Canada, in 1840,
was not found to work easily and smoothly, and there seemed to be
no way out of the difficulties that were created until 1864, when the
Maritime Provinces were discussing a closer union among themselves at the suggestion of Dr Tupper, now Sir Charles Tupper,
the High Commissioner for Canada, in London, whose career is
another instance of what ability, energy, and assiduity can accomplish. Well, the long and the short of it was that Canada proposed
a much wider union, one which would include all the Colonies;
after much negotiation this was brought about, and the new
Dominion, with Sir John as the Premier of the first Government,
entered upon that era of rapid devlopment, and progress, which has
been witnessed' in the last twenty-four years, and has attracted
attention all over the world. Sir John, as we must now call him
(for he received the honour of knighthood in 1867, in recognition
of his work), may not have been the originator of the idea of
federation, and all the wonderful things that have happened since
then may not, as the children say, have come " out of his own head."
Still it is generally accepted that much of Canada's success is due to
his ability, tact, patience, knowledge of detail, and the remarkable
faculty he possessed of conciliating conflicting interests, and smoothing away difficulties. To appreciate the result of the life and
labours of Sir John Macdonald, it is necessary to know something
of Old Canada fifty years ago, as well as of the great Dominion of
to-day. Then British North America consisted of the Maritime
Provinces and Canada, the country west of the Lake Huron to the
Pacific Coast being under the control of the Hudson Bay Company
(the provinces of Manitoba, the North West Territories and British
Columbia not being then organised), the great hunting grounds of
Indians and trappers, and the home of the buffalo (now extinct), and
many other fur-bearing animals. There were only sixteen miles of
railway in operation, and all the provinces were as separate and dis- Appendix.
tinct.from each other as are Canada and Australia to-day. What
Canada is now the Editor has told us in a delightful manner in this-
interesting book, descriptive of her journey in 1890, which journey,
by the way, would not have been possible but for the efforts of Sir
John Macdonald and his colleagues to consolidate the Dominion by
the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and other public
I have nearly come to the end of the space allotted to me, and I
cannot write all I should like to say about the many wise measures,
with which Sir John Macdonald's name is especially identified, besides those dealing with the formation of the Dominion, and the
construction of the great railway, which have helped to make the
country what it is to-day. But I may add that, apart from the high
position he occupied as a statesman, which was recognised in every
part of the Empire, he was in his social life a most charming man.
No one was more popular in the Dominion among old and young,
and no one had more friends. To be in his society was both
pleasant and profitable, for he was full of reminiscences and anecdotes, had read everything that is worth reading, and was gifted
with a wonderful memory. He was the recipient of many honours
from Her Majesty, and his loss has been lamented, not only in the
United Kingdom (which found expression in the memorial service
in Westminster Abbey), but from one end of Canada to the other.
There is very general sympathy with Lady Macdonald in her great
grief, and the announcement that the Queen has conferred a peerage
upon her, in recognition of her husband's great services to the
Empire, has given much satisfaction. It is said that a memorial is
to be erected to Sir John's memory in St Paul's Cathedral, and the
proposition is such an excellent and appropriate one that it is sure
to receive much support. His life affords an example that may well
be followed by all young men, both " at home " and in the colonies;
for it shows, in the first place, what a man can do for the good or H
his country, if he throws his heart and soul into his work; and,
secondly, the opportunities for advancement that exist in the
Colonies for those who adopt the right methods to earn success.
He said of himself, nearly twenty years ago, in the course of a great
speech, "There does not exist in Canada a man who has given
more of his time, more of his heart, more of his wealth, or more of
his intellect and power, such as they may be, for the good of this
Dominion of Canada," and those who knew him think that no more
appropriate epitaph could be written on the tomb of the lamented
statesman than those very words.
On the occasion of unveiling the memorial to the late
Right Hon. Sir John Macdonald, in St Paul's Cathedral,
on 16th November 1892, the Earl of Rosebery said:-
My Lords, Ladies, and Gentlemen,—It gives me great pleasure
to come here to-day to unveil this bust. We are gradually collecting within this cathedral the Lares and the Penates—the household
gods—of our commonwealth. Up above there sleep Wellington
and Nelson, those lords of war who preserved the Empire ; below
here we have the effigies of Dalley and Macdonald, who did so
much to preserve it. We have not, indeed, their bodies. They
rest more fitly in the regions where they lived and laboured; but
here to-day we consecrate their memory and their example. We
know nothing of party politics in Canada on this occasion. We
only recognise this—:that Sir John Macdonald had grasped the
central idea that the British Empire is the greatest secular agency
for good now known to mankind; that that was the secret of his
success, and that he determined to die under it, and strove that
Canada should live under it.    It is a custom, I have heard, in the Appendix.
German army that when new colours are presented to a regiment
the German Emperor first, and then his Princes and chiefs in their
order, each drive a nail into the staff. I have sometimes been
reminded of this practice in connexion with the banner of our
Empire. Elizabeth and her heroes first drove their nails in, and so
onward through the expansive 18th century, when our flag flashed
everywhere, down to our own times, when we have not quailed or
shrunk. Yesterday it wrapped the corpse of Tennyson ; to-day we
drive one more nail in on behalf of Sir John Macdonald. But this
standard, so richly studded, imposes on us—the survivors—a solemn
obligation. It would be nothing were it the mere symbol of violence
and rapine, or even of conquest. It is what it is because it represents everywhere peace and civilisation and commerce, the negation
of narrowness and the gospel of humanity. Let us then to-day, by
the shrine of this signal statesman, once more remember our responsibility and renew the resolution that, come what may, we will
not flinch or fail under it.
Homeward Bound. 
W H. White & Co., Printers, Edinburgh.    


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