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British Columbia. Report of the Hon. H. L. Langevin, C.B., minister of public works Langevin, Hector, Sir, 1826-1906 1872

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Territorial Characteristics	
Advantages offered to Settlers	
Forest Lands and Timber	
Auriferous Regions
„        Yield of Gold Mines	
,,        Ominica Mines
,,        Official Report of Gold Commissioner	
,,        Exportation of G-old for 10 years	
Silver and Copper Mines 
Coal Mines
,,        Anthracite Coal	
,,        Quantity of Coal exported since 1867 	
„        Sales at Mines for 10 years	
Agricultural Produce	
Cattle, Horses, Sheep 
„       Whaling Grounds ,
,,      Various descriptions of fish found in the Province 
Products of the Chase—Fur bearing Animals 
Birds and Feathered Tribe
Stone Quarries
Ship-building, and Navigation

Probable number of	
System of Government of	
The practicability of making agreements with
Value of, as Inhabitants	
Training Schools for	
Treatment of, Present and Future	
Character of	
Progress towards Civilization of	
Reserves of Land belonging to	
Sale of Liquor to	
30 Conveyance of the Mails
Island of San Juan	
U.S. Capitation Tax	
Imports and Duties	
Miscellaneotis Information
Appendix A.—Climate :—Memorandum on the Climate of B.C., by the Hon. Chief Justice Begbie 56
„         B.—       do         Effect of Climate on Harbours, Snowfall, Temperature, &c.; Vancouver .
Island as compared with mainland  58
„         C.—      do         Meteorological Observations taken by Captain Moody, at New Westminster, 1862»      59
„         D.—       do          Meteorological Register kept at Fisgard Lighthouse  62
„         E.—      do         Prevailing Direction of Wind, 1870-71  63
„         F.—       d»         Extract from " Colonization Circular," 1870, on Climate of B.C  64
H         G.—       do         Extract from Mr. Groot's pamphlet on                          „                 67
i9 .      H.—       do         Extract from Dr. Chas. Forbes'work on                       „                 69
*           I.—       do         Extract from Mr. J. D. Pemberton's work on              ,,                 74
„          J.—       do         Extract and Table from Dr. Rattray's work on            ,,                 77
„        K.—Timber :—Extract from Mr. J. D. Pemberton's work, referring to the Timber of
British Columbia  82
M          L.—       do       Extract from Dr. Rattray's work on British Columbia  84
„      »M.—Coal :—Coal Mining on Vancouver Island.   Letter from Mr. R. Dunsmuir  86
,,        N.—Gold :—Gold Mining at Germansen Creek.   Extract from a Letter  88
O.—     do      Ordinance in reference to Gold Mining, of 1867  89
,,         P.—Mineral Lands :—Ordinance relating to Mineral Lands, of 1869 -  108
„         Q. • - Crown La_tds :—Ordinance in respect to Crown Lands, of 1870 ,  118
„         R.—Coal :—Extract from Dr. Rattray's Work, on the Coal of British Columbia.  129
„         S.—Joint Stock Companies :—Ordinance relating to Joint Stock Companies, of 1866 .. 132
„         T.—Produce and Stock Return, extracted from Blue Book of 1870  134
„        U.—Fish':—Extract from Rev. Mr. Brown's Pamphlet on the Fish of British Columbia. 136
,,         V.—Fauna :—^Extract from Dr. Forbes' Work, giving tke-Names of the Animals found in
the Province  138
,,        W.—Game:—Extract from Mr. J. D. Pemberton's Work, on the Game of British Columbia 141
„         X.—Movement op Shipping I—Particulars of  Vessels   entered at  British Columbian
Ports, 1870, and Countries whence arrived.    Extracted from Blue Book  144
„ „    Particulars of Vessels. cleared at British Columbian Ports, 1870, and Countries to
which departed , ,.  145
,,          ,,    Nationality of Vessels entered and clear^H. at British Columbian Ports, 1870  146
,,          „    Vessels entered and cleared from and to Ports in the Province for 1870.  147
,,         Y.—Exports :—General Exports from British Columbia for 1870. Extract from Blue Book 148
„         Z.—Population :—Return of Population of British Columbia for 1870.   Extracted from
Blue Book  152
„ AA.—IndcaNs :—Memorandum by Hon. Mr. Trutch, in reference to Treatment of Indians
by Colonial Government, 1870  153
„     .    BB.—       do       Letter from his Lordship the Bishop of Miletopolis on the Treatment
of the Indian Population  159
„ CC.—       do       A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, or Indian  Trade Language, of
the North Pacific Coast.   Published at Victoria   161
„ DD.—      do       Specimen   Treaties   concluded   with   Indian   Tribes   of Vancouver
Island  183
„ EE.—-      do       Memorandum of  Treaties made with Indian Tribes for purchase of
their Lands     185
,,         FF.—Lighthouse Staff :—Names, Ages, Salaries, and dates of Appointment of Lighthouse Staff, British Columbia  188
„          GGf—Dredge ;—Memorandum on the Victoria Harbor dredge  189 VI
Appendix HH.
J J.
„        KK.
»» LL.-
-Steamer Sir James Douglas :—Report by Captain    198
-Telegraph Line:—Copy of Lease to British Columbia Government of Western
Union Telegraph Company's Line in that Province     201
-Harbour Improvement:—Suggestions made to Colonial Government in 1868 by the
Honorable Mr. Trutch, in reference to the building of an embankment at James
Bay, Victoria A    204
-Graving Dock :—Official correspondence in reference to the construction of a
Graving Dock at Esquimalt     205
-Coach Road over Rocky Mountains :—Minute by Honorable Mr. Trutch, when
Commissioner of Lands and Works, on the subject of a through coach road from
the Pacific Coast to Canada, comparing the merits of the different passes
through the Rocky Mountains     209
-Tldes:—Extract from "Vancouver Island Pilot," by Captain Richards, R.N., in
reference to tides on the ceast of British Columbia „     217
-Statement of Imports into British Columbia since 1867.   Extract from Blue Book   219
-Taxes, &c. —Schedule of Taxes, Duties, Fees, and other sources of Revenue     220
-Inland Revenue, including Customs Duties, and Port & Harbor Dues, for ten years   227
-Excise Ordinance of 1867     228
-Savings Banks and Course of Exchange :—Extract from Blue Book     234
-Game Ordinance of 1870     235
-Title to Vancouver Island :—Copy of Indenture made between Her Majesty
The Queen, and the Hudson's Bay Company, on the relinquishment by the
latter of their rights on Vancouver Island, 1867     237
-Oregon Boundary :—Copy of, Treaty between Her Majesty and the United States
Settlement of the Oregon Boundary, 1846     241
-Form of Sale of Public Lands in British Columbia     243
-Magistrates :—List of Stipendiary Magistrates in British Columbia, with date of
Appointment, Salary, &c \     244
-Joint Stock Companies :—Statement of Joint Stock Companies registered under
the Act. and in existence in September, 1871     245
-Assay Office :—Statement of the cost of establishing the Assay Department of
British Columbia, and remarks by Superintendent     246
HON.   H.  L,  LANGEVIN,   (IB.,
To His Excellency the Right Honorable John, Baron Lisg
tar. of
ind, Knight
and Baillieborough, in the County of Gavan, Irelai
Grand Cross of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath, Knight
Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. MicJiael and
St. George, one of Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Coioncil,
Governor General of Canada, &c., <&c.
May it please Your Excellency:—
I hare the honor to report that, in accordance with the desire expressed Objects of the
by the Privy Council, I visited British Columbia, with the view of acquiring
a knowledge of that new Province, in relation to the Pacific Railway and
its western terminus.    I was charged at the same time to
y the require
ments of that distant Province, and to ascertain personally what public works,
are necessary for it. To fulfil my mission, it was requisite that I should
extend my observations to a point beyond that to which the attention of
the Minister of Public Works, when he visits the works under the control
of his department, is ordinarily confined. It is for this reason that this
report necessarily includes matters which are not generally found in the
reports which I have the honor to submit to Your Excellency.
On my journey to British Columbia, I travelled from Chicago to San Route.
Francisco by the American Pacific Railway, and at San Francisco, I embarked
on the iron steamer " Prince Alfred," of 900 tons, which conveys the Canadian
mails to Victoria, the Capital of British Columbia.
Division of British Columbia.
This new Province of Canada is divided into two perfectly, distinct parts— Division of
Vancouver Island and the main land.    They were constituted colonies, the British
first in 1849, and the second in 1858 : they were then united in 1866 under Columbia-
the name of British Columbia, and so continued until the 20th July last, at
which date that large and beautiful colony became* one of the Provinces of the
Dominion of Canada.
10-1 2
Climate. The  climate  of British   Columbia  varies   according   to  the locality
whether this be in the lower parts of the country near the sea and in Vancouver
Island, or in the central tracts of the Province, which differ entirely the one
from the other. In the lower parts and on the island the climate is extremely
agreeable during the summer. The thermometer seldom rises above eighty
decrees Fahrenheit, and in winter it seldom falls below fifteen degrees. It
may in fact be said of this region, that it possesses the climate of England, but
without its extreme humidity. On the other hand, in the central portion of
the Province the drought, the heat and the cold are greater. The heat there
is sometimes very intense. However, in the region which 1 visited, the
cattle remain out during the whole year, and it is only when the winter is
very severe, that it is found requisite to supplement the nutriment which
they continue to find in the open field. As to horses, I was assured that they
could find their food out of doors during the whole twelve months of the year.
I requested the Honorable Chief Justice Begbie, who knows the Province
Memorandum well, to communicate to me the result of his experience; this he has done in a
Chief Justice memorandum, which I attach with pleasure to this report/and which will be
Ornate°n tlie found in Appendix A. I also refer Your Excellency to Appendix B, which
is another short memorandum furnished by the officials at Victoria,
to Appendix C, containing meteorological observations taken at New'
Westminister, by order of Colonel Moody, of the Royal Engineers; to Appendix D and E, being meteorological observations taken at the mouth of the
Fraser River, and* at the Fisgard lighthouse in the Strait of Fuca;
to Appendix F, which is an extract from the Colonization Circular issued in
1870 by Her Majesty's Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners; to
Appendix (x, being an extract from a pamphlet by Henry de Groot upon
British Columbia; to Appendix H, being an extract from a pamphlet on
Vancouver Island by Dr. Charles Forbes, published in 1862 ; tb Appendix
I. being a chapter from Mr. J. Despard Pemberton's work on Vancouver
Island and British Columbia, published in 1860; and to Appendix J, being
an extract from a work on that Province by Dr. Alexander Rattray, published
in 1862.
Territorial Characteristics.
British Columbia contains very extensive tracts of arable land. There is
also a vast region fitted for grazing purposes, another covered with fine forests,
and lastly that part of the country in which gold, silver and coal mining is
carried on. The arable land is of two classes—that which is naturally well
watered, and that which requires artificial irrigation. I ascertained that this
artificial irrigation was for the most part not more costly than the clearing of our
wooded land. The works consist generally of a dyke which retains the waters
of a lake, or of a river, in' such a way as to form a reservoir. In times of
dreught once or twice during the summer, this water is allowed to run through
a conduit or ditch which discharges into another ditch dug at the upper part
of the fields which it is desired to irrigate. From this latter ditch proceed a
large number of trenches, dug at regular distances along the fields, so that
by allowing the water to remain for from twenty to twenty-four hours, the
land between the trenches is moistened, and vegetation progresses as rapidly
as if a grateful shower had watered the fields. I observed this result in several
places, and among others in the interior of Columbia, upon the farms of
Messrs. Calbreath and Hawks, at an altitude of seventeen hundred feet above
the level of the sea. On these farms I saw, adjacent to each other, fields that
had been artificially irrigated, and others whieh had not. The former this
year yielded forty bushels of wheat~to the acre, while the latter produced but ten.
Arable land.
Irrigation. REPORT-
The tracts of land adapted for the raising of cattle, horses and sheep, are Lands for
of wonderful extent, and offer great advantages to those who are desirous of ^oraefand °*
turning their attention to that branch of industry. The climate is very favor- sheep.
able, admitting of the animals living in the open air, and thus diminishing the
cost of shelter, which is generally only required for sheep, and then- only
during exceptional seasons. From the top of Mount Begbie, fifteen miles
from Bridge Creek, on the Cariboo Road, may be seen an immense plain
more than one hundred and fifty miles long, and from sixty to eighty
miles wide. On the other hand, from Cache Creek to the United States
frontier, between the Thompson and Fraser Rivers, there is an immense
and magnificent tract adapted for cultivation, grazing, &c. In these
parts the plains and the hills are covered with a herb called bunch grass, "Bunch grass"
which possesses highly nutritious qualities, and the importance of which
has called forth from one of the editors of the Alta California, of San
Francisco, who was travelling in the country last summer, the following
tribute of appreciation :—"In winter, he says, this herb (bunch grass) keeps
" the cattle in excellent condition, and as in general but little snow ialls,
" cattle feed upon it during the whole winter. The snow rarely exceeds from
" twelve to fifteen inches in depth. It is from this region of the District of
" Okannagan that the beef, with which the Victoria markets are supplied, is
| obtained. Directly the winter is over the bunch grass grows with great
" luxuriance, and I am assured that the nutritive qualities of this bunch grass
il excel those of the celebrated blue grass and clover of Virginia and Mary- Large herds.
" land." In Columbia it is no rare thing to find farmers owning from two
hundred to a thousand head of cattle, and the number must increase,
directly tie works on the Canadian Pacific Railway are commenced
in Columbia, and still more when the railway is opened; for in
the first case the local demand will be largely increased, and subsequently
by the opening of the road new outlets for trade will be provided for sheep
and cattle breeders, as well as for farmers for the produce of their land.
Advantages for Settlement.
It is therefore evident that this country offers considerable advantages to Advantage!
• t> —t r t ..,     ,     ° for settlement
any one who is desirous of cultivating the soil, or or breeding cattle, horses or offered by
sheep.    These advantages are more particularly set forth in a short memo- Columbia.
randum, communicated to me by a gentleman of experience, who has resided
in the Province for a number of years.    It is as follows-.—
" These advantages are:—1st. A mild and not very variable climate.
2nd. Immense tracts of land for the maintenance of cattle, situated to the
east of the Cascade Mountains, and producing principally bunch grass.    3rd.
The pre-emption right to 320 acres of land, the price of which, one dollar
an acre, the purchaser may not be called on to pay for many years, and in
no case until eight years have elapsed.    4th. The pre-emption right to 160 *
" acres of land if the settler prefers to establish himself to the west of the
" Cascade Mountains.    5th. The existence ot a good system of roads, which
" excite the astonishment of every stranger, when the scanty population of
" the Province is considered.   6th. Good local markets for farm produce, and
jfj for the increase of herds.    7th. Security against incursions and depredations
by the Indians.    8th. The protection granted to person and property.    9th.
" institutions."
timber  of  all
Llth. Mines of gold, silver, iron, copper,
Forest Lands and Timber
The forest lands of British Columbia are of
10th. Inexhaustible
coal, &c.    12th. Free
extent, and are very Forest lands:
rich.    They are not confined to one part of the Province, but are found L
Timber   ex
Timber trees.
Where found.
Douglas pine, throughout nearly its whole extent. The Douglas pine is one of the most •
valuable trees in Columbia, and is found in great abundance. It yields
spars from ninety to 100 feet in length, and from twenty to twenty-four
inches in diameter. The tree is very often from 150 to 175 feet long without
knots or branches', and of a diameter varying from six to ten feet. I have
myself seen several logs from sixty to eighty feet long, and six feet in diameter,
in Messrs. Moody, Dietz & Nelson's booms at Burrard Inlet. From that
place—that is, from the mills belonging to those gentlemen, and to the company
called the "Hastings Mill Company"—there were this year exported from
twenty to twenty-five million? feet of timber, which must have furnished lading
for thirty ships of 1,000 tons. It is a fact that an order for 750,000 feet of
timber was this year received from Valparaiso at Burrard Inlet, it having been
found impossible to fill the order ab the American Sound, where wood of the
required dimensions could not be found. The order was in course of execution during my visit to Columbia, and the timber so exported was a subject
of admiration to those who visited Burrard Inlet at that time.
The short memorandum Avhich follows was prepared at my request by a
gentleman who is in a position to give exact information as to the timber of
the country.
'•' The timber trees for which the Province of British Columbia is cMeny
" remarkable, are as follows :—Douglas pine, spruce or Menzies fir, yellow .
" fir, balsam, hemlock, white pine, yellow pine or Scotch fir, cedar, yellow
| cypress, arbor vitoe, yew, oak, white maple, arbutus, alder,3dogwood, aspen,
" cherry, crab apple, willow, cotton wood.
" These trees abound in almost all parts of the Province, and are all of
" more or less value. It is impossible to give any exact area or describe the
exact position. But in a general way, in all the numerous indentations of
" the coast of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, the Douglas and Menzies
pine, the cedar, and the maple, may be found in exhaustless quantities. The
" coast of British Columbia is wonderfully adapted, from its conformation and
" growth of timber, for lumbering, possessing as it does deep and safe harbors,
" and unrivalled water power.
" The White Pine is a valuable timber for carriage building or furniture,
" and is plentiful, but not so generally scattered through the country.
" The Maple is universal on the island and coast range.
" The Scotch Fir is chiefly found with the willow and Cottonwood on the
" bottom lands.
" The Cedar abounds in almost all parts of the country. It attains an
" enormous growth, and is used for all sorts of purposes, the manufacture of
% roofing shingles being one of the most important. Its facility for splitting
" renders it very valuable to the farmer for fencing purposes.
" But the most valuable species is the Douglas fir. It is almost universally
" found on the sea coast, and up to the Cascade range. It grows to an enor-
" mous size, and is one of the best woods for large spars known. It can be
" obtained 150 feet in length free from knots, and has squared forty-five inches
" for ninety feet. Its extraordinary size, straightness, and uniform thickness,
" its strength and flexibility, the regularity of the grain, the durability of the
If timber, and its freeness from knots, places this timber almost beyond coni-
" petition.
% The lumbering trade of British Columbia is carried on entirely on salt
" water. The logs are drawn through the woods, by oxen, and rolled into the
I water on ways constructed for the purpose, and are sawn in the mills situated
" at the water's edge, whence they are shipped direct. The timber of British
| Columbia has been barely tapped J hardly enough has been cut to make an
I impression on these vast forests. The yearly export amounts to about
" $250,000.
"White pine.
Scotch fir.
Douglas pine.
" In Vancouver Island coal and wood are used for fuel; oak, pine, and Fuel.
" poplar are the woods chiefly in use.    On the mainland pine and poplar are
" almost exclusively used, at a cost of $2 50 to $3 50 a cord (128 cubic feet)
" in the low country, but at the mines wood is very dear—$7 50 a cord."
The Arbutus mentioned above, is found on the Island of San Juan, and Arbutus.
on the coast of Columbia.    It is an evergreen, and sheds its bark in the
autumn.    It is a very hard wood, and is manufactured into mallets, &c.
For further information respecting the timber of Columbia, I refer to
Appendix K., which is an extract from Mr. Pemberton's work on Columbia,
and to Appendix L., an extract from Dr. Rattray's book.
Facilities for the Conveyance of Timber.
Having enquired what facilities the rivers of Columbia afforded for the Facilities   for
transportation of timber, I was told in reply :— *ke transpor-
'• Timber'is at present chiefly procured in the vicinity of the harbors,   ber>
" and towed to the different mills.    Little or no wood is just now brought
" from the interior.
" The Columbia River affords a natural outlet for the the timber gr*ow-
" ing on the slopes and hills bordering the Columbia River Valley ; but the
" navigation of the Columbia River from the 49th parallel to the sea, is not
" open to British subjects as it should be.
" The Fraser River may also be made the means of conveyance of the
" timber of the immense forests along its upper waters, by the construction
"of timber slides at different places."
Quantity of Timber Exported.
I considered that a statement of the quantity of timber' exported from
Columbia during the last ten years would be a subject of interest, • and in
consequence, Mr. Hamley, the excellent Collector of Customs at Victoria, has
furnished the required statement, with the addition of some remarks which
are of use to explain it.    It is as follows :—
Statement    of   the   various "descriptions   of   Lumber exported   from the Statement of
Colony or Province of British Columbia during the ten years ending porte(i during
past ten years
31st December, 1870.
Laths and
or M.
Logs, &c.
13 cords.
1 Flag pole.
696 922
9 885
175 pieces.
21 cords,     )
92 M piles, j
420 bundles.
,   53,038,188
mm British Columbia.
In this statement, the exports from 1861 to the end of 1866, are from
" the mainland portion of British Columbia only ; from 1867 to 1870, they
" are from the TJnited Colony.
" In 1861, 1862 and 1863, the exports were solely to the then separate
" colony of Vancouver Island.
" In 1864, the first lumber was sent beyond the limits of the present
" Province, to the Australian Colonies.
" In 1870, one of the mills at Burrard Inlet was shut for the greater por-
" tion of the year, which accounts for the falling off in the quantity exported.
| This year (1871), the exports will probably be greater than ever before.
| British ships carry more than one-half. The remainder is carried
I principally by Americans."
Auriferous Regions.
The auriferous lands of British Columbia do not appear to be confined
to any single district of that great Province. They extend all along the
Fraser and Thompson Rivers, and are particularly rich in the district of
Cariboo. Then again there are the new gold mines of the district of Ominica in
the north of Columbia, which would appear to extend over a very large tract of
country, as they are found along the shores of the Peace and Ominica Rivers,
of Germansen Creek and of a number of other rivers and streams. Gold
has also been found on Vancouver Island, but in small quantity. It is probable that we are but beginning to discover the richness of these mines,
which have not yet been systematically worked.
Causes of Tardy Development.
Causes of The first requisite in that region was a geological survey, which by
tardy develop- giving general information as to the geology of the country, would serve as
a guide to miners and diggers by shewing them at what places they might
hope to find the precious metal, and in what other spots they were pretty
sure not to find it. That survey is now being made, and gives promise of the
happiest results. In the meantime it is established that from the United
States frontier to the 53rd degree of north latitude, and to a width of from
one to two hundred miles, gold is found nearly everywhere ; and the Honorable Mr. Good, in his report for 1869, declares that the yield of the goldmines in 1869 was quite proportionate to the population, and that the exports
' of gold dust had been ascertained to be $2,417,873, to which amount must be
added about $1,000,000 exported by individuals, giving a total of $3,417,873.
In the second place, there are required for the working of these mines,
roads to reach them and capital to carry on the works. The Government
of Columbia has already done much towards the opening of routes of com-
munication, and it is very probable that now that it is no longer burdened
with a debt too heavy for the limited population of the Province, it will be
in a position to facilitate access to these auriterous regions by the opening of
new roads and trails. As to capital, that will be forthcoming the moment
easy access to bhe mines exists, and will follow the opening of the Pacific,
Railway, which is destined to effect a great change in the aspect not only of
that Province, but*of two-thirds of the Confederation.
One thing which has retarded the working of the mines of the rich district of Cariboo is the cost of freight from the Lower Fraser to Barkerville.
Not only are the distances long, and the cost of transport considerable, but
the articles so transported are subject to the payment of heavy duties, to meet REPORT.
the cost of the Cariboo road, a road which would be a credit to a rich and
prosperous country. It is desirable that these duties should be repealed, or at
least considerably diminished.
Produce of the Mines.
To give Your Excellency an idea of the richness of these mines, I will Produce of the
here state what those which I visited produced this summer.    The f South mme«
Wales " mine at Vanwinckle, twelve miles from Barkerville, which is the extremity of the Cariboo Road, produced during the last three weeks of the
month of August,   328,   215  and   256  ounces  of   gold  respectively.    The
" Forest Rose" mine on "William's Creek, produced in one week 203 ounces,
and in another 245 ounces. The " Ballarat " mine yielded 72 ounces one week, -
and 95 ounces the following week.
Some of these mines are at a depth of from 100 to 150 feet under
ground, and the shafts leading to them communicate with galleries, each of
which is more than 200 feet long. The " Lane and Kurtz" mine gives
promise of very great results. It is in the centre of what is balled the
Meadows; it is in the hands of an American Company, with a capital of
$500,000. It had been abandoned, although it yielded a large quantity of
gold ; but the subterranean water came in so rapidly, that the company which
was working it was unable to continue its operations for want of means. If
the present American Company succeeds in pumping out the water by means
of the powerful machinery which it has conveyed 600 miles into the interior
of Columbia, it is certain that numerous companies will be at once established
at the Meadows, who will follow the example of that company, and will be
rewarded for their sacrifices by a rich harvest of gold, similar to that which
was obtained by the old company, when its operations were stoppecj by
subterranean inundation.
The Blue Book of 1870, contains the following statements respecting
these mines:—
" Cariboo:—These mines have been steadily worked during the year, Cariboo.
" and with satisfactory results to those employed.    Many of the old mining
| creeks that have been diminishing in importance for the past year or two,
" have this year recovered somewhat of their former prosperity, and have
" yielded to great advantage.
" Ldllouet and Clinton :—The gold mines in this district are principally Lillouet.
" worked by Chinese, who are satisfied with small earnings in return for their
I labor.
" Columbia and Kootenay:—This mining district has not come up to Kootenay.
" the hopes entertained of it in previous years ; the country has not been
" thoroughly prospected, the greater number of the miners having left it,
" being tempted by brighter prospects in the newly discovered gold fields of
" Ominica, and others having left the country to try their fortunes at new
" discoveries in California. Those, however, who remained seem to be con-
" tent with what they have realized, and are engaged in carrying on works
" of sluicing and tunnelling with vigor.
" Hope, Yale, and Lytton :—The gold mining in this district is princi-
" pally carried on by Chinese on the banks of the Fraser River, who make
" from $1 to $5 a day per man.
" The yield of gold for the year has been as follows :—
Cariboo |  $1,047,245 00
Lillouet  15,000 00
Columbia, &c         161,500 00
Yale and Lytton         110,000 00 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"This, however, is only approximate, as it is impossible to arrive at
fi the quantity of gold carried out of the country in private hands."
Price of Goods at the Cariboo MiNEi.
Price of Goods Before passing on  to  the  gold  mines  of the district of Ominica,  I
at the Cariboo colder that to show what sacrifices the hardy miners who have opened up
the Cariboo district, and who are at the present time at work there, have
made, and are still making in order to work the auriferous tracts, it is
expedient to insert here a comparative table of the prices of certain articles
in the district of Cariboo, in 1861 and 1871.    It is as follows :—
A Shovel  $14 00    	
APick     14 00    	
A pound of Flour        2 50    	
„ Bacon        2 50    	
„ White Sugar       2 50    	
A pair of gum Boots      40 00    	
A bottle of Brandy     14 00
A bottle of Champagne     14 00
A pair  of Bocts, half long to knee,
Caribeomade      36 00         20 00
A pair of Blankets (four points) Hudson's Bay Company ,. c     35
Freight per pound        0
One Meal       2
One ordinary Cooking Stove   350 00      100 00
One sheet iron Stove, with six lengths
ofPipe  100 00         25 00
Daily wages of a Carpenter      16 00           7 00
00 ...
... 16 00
90 ...
...  0 11
50 ...
1 00
Foreman  ..    16 00
Workman      12 00
6> 00
Gold Mines of the District of Ominica.
Gold Mines of The gold mines of the district of Ominica have not been really worked
the district of ^j^il this year.    They are reached either by steamer from Victoria to Nanaimo,
Ominica. j j j >
and thence by the River Skeena, or else by the Cariboo Road. A letter from
Ominica, dated 15th August last, states that it was intended to make a
trail from Lake Stuart, by means of which provisions and merchandise might
arrive from Yale a month earlier in the spring than they could formerly, which
would probably cause that route to be preferred to the River Skeena. At
that time there were in the district more than 1,200 persons within a radius
of about 20 miles As I had not time to visit that remote district, I had
to derive information from other sources, and I ascertained from persons who
were in a position to form the best opinions as to the results of the works in
that part of the country, that those results were most satisfactory. Thus,
on Lost Creek, one mine yielded 192 ounces, to be divided among five miners
in return for one week's labour; and another, that belonging to Ward, Dunleary
and Co., yielded as much as $500 a man during one week.     On Black Jack /
Gulch, the yield of the mine, from its first working, was $10 a man per day,
or $200 for the five miners. On Manson Creek there were about 200 miners,
who were making from $5 to $50 a day each. On Slate Creek, fifty men
were making from $5 to $20 a day. On Germansen Creek, the amount of
gold collected during the last week of August, was $10,000. Si
period fresh reports have reached me, and everything tends to the belief
that the season has been a productive one ; the district is really rich in gold,
and promises much. Some hundreds of miners have resolved to winter at
the mines, and to carry on their operations during the winter. Others, in
view of the high price of provisions and merchandise, will come down to
Victoria, and return in the spring. And judging from the reports which flow
in from all quarters, and from the numerous miners I myself met on the road,
who came from Montana in the United States, and who consider this district
to be another promised land, it is evident that this spring there will be a large
influx of mining population.
Price of Goods at the Ominica Mines.
It is, however, to be remarked, that in the month of August last, in the Price of Goods
district of Ominica, all transactions, with but few exceptions, were on a credit h* the^ district
basis.    There was but little money or gold dust in circulation.    Flour was
of Ominica.
selling at from thirty-five to forty cents a pound, and beans for a little more.
Smoked pork was one dollar a pound, sugar eighty cents a pound, and beef
from twenty-five to thirty cents a pound.    Wages were eight dollars a day.
Report of the Commissioner of Gold Mines.
Since the foregoing was written, the Commissioner of Gold Mines in that
district has made a report, of which a copy has been sent to me; it gives
a correct idea of the state of affairs, and I consider it important that it should
' J.
not be omitted.    It is as follows :—
" Germansen Creek, Ominica,
" 23rd October, 1171.
I have the honor to report for the information of His Excellency Official Report
ant Governor, that the mines on Germansen Creek have failed to on the Onuni-
the Lieutena
realize the expectations formed of them in the early part of the season ; and °* •MmeB-
at present there are but few companies taking out pay. Several are, however, preparing to test the hills on the upper portion of the creek during the
coming winter; and, should they be successful, it is in contemplation to construct large ditches, which will greatly facilitate the working of the benches
and hills on either side of the creek. «
" I am, however, enabled to report more favorably of Manson River and
its tributaries, which have, notwithstanding the difficulties attendant on the
opening of the mines, in many instances, paid the miners handsomely.
" Several ditches are now being constructed with a view of conveving
water to the benches and hills of Manson River and Slate Creek, where a
very considerable amount of gold has already been obtained; and I have no
hesitation in saying that the diggings, in this portion of the district, are
sufficiently established to justify the belief that they will afford profitable
employment to a large number of men for years to come.
" On Manson River, the greater portion of the season has been spent in
working the surfaee diggings in the bed of the stream, which have barely paid
expenses; but it is now apparent that a deep channel exists, as was the case
in Williams' Creek, and the most experienced miners in the district are of the
10-2 10
" opinion that the channel contains the lode for which they have been search-
" ing; and from the prospects obtained by the only two companies who have
" succeeded in sinking to the bed rock, it would appear that these opinions
" well founded.   .
" It is difficult to ascertain, with any degree of accuracy, the amount of
" gold taken from the Ominica mines, during the present season; but the
" returns that have been furnished to me by the foremen of the principal com-
" panies, shew a yield of over $300,000, and to this may be fairly added not
" less than $100,000 more, taken away in the hands of miners, of which there
" is no return, making in all $400,000.
" At the request of a number of miners, I have reserved a plot of land,
" on the north bank of Manson River, at the mouth of Slate Creek, for a town
" site, and have had it marked off into thirty lots; since which, several traders
" have built substantial houses and commenced business there.
P. O'Reilly,
Gold Commissioner."
Exportation of Gold.
Exporfcatienof I received from the Honorable Mr. Good, the following statement of
Gold. the official exportation of gold.   The note at the bottom shews that, to arrive
at the amount of gold really yielded by the auriferous territory, 33 per cent*
must be added.
| Statement of the Gold shipped from British Columbia by Banks, from
1862 to 1870, and ap far as can be ascertained for 1871.
Willi I I     " I   HI I I    II      H       I     li  I i i i I      II       | i II    I     i l   I  |      l   l i .     I i   |i .     | i. .     |   i.. hill       ■  I   I II I II        I   '       I M II       11!'     I I   I I i     in ii   I   I '   I   Hill
of British
N. America,
(actual ship
1871, to 20th Sept
, 330,120
of British Columbia,
(actual shipments).
( 502.835 ) Q09 ftoK
t400,000[ JVZ>Q6°
Wells, Fargo & Co.,
(actual shipments
1867, '68, '69 and '70,
estimated for 1862,
'63, '64, '65 and '66).
H    1
t 433,505
[Estimated) 163,271
/->  Ti  —  )
O P £
| This Return is exclusive of gold carried out of the country by miners
" themselves, which has always been estimated at one third more in each year.
" (Signed) Charles Good,
Colonial Secretarv."
Silv«r & Copper Mines.      largely worked
Silver and Copper Mines.
The silver and copper mines of British Columbia have not yet been
Nevertheless*, in the month of September last, I saw very
rich specimens from a silver mine near Hope, on the Fraser River, and I was REPORT.
told that it was proposed to work that mine on a large scale. On the spot,
works of a considerable extent were being carried on ; among o/thers, a road
leading from Hope to the mine itself. I am further aware that this silver
mine is not the only one which exists in the Eraser Valley : and, so soen as
the Hope mine shall have been worked and shall have yielded, as is expected,
good results, there is no doubt but that other mines situated in the same
range of mountains, will likewise be worked.
Coal Mines.
The coal mines of Columbia are very valuable and numerous. The Coal Mines,
mines of Nanaimo, which yield bituminous coal, are those which, at the
present time, are the most worked. They are very easy of access, and vessels
can be loaded from them without difficulty. This coal abounds on the eastern
coast of Vancouver Island, not only at Nanaimo, but also at Departure
Bay, Bayne's Sound, Isquash and at Moskeemo, near the end of the Island.
This coal is, in fact, the only good coal found on the Pacific coast. Mr. Dilke
has probably this in his mind when he remarks as follows in his " Greater
" The position of the various stores of coal in the Pacific is of extreme JTuture of
importance as an index to the future distribution of power in that part of Columbia,
the world ; but it is not enough to know where coal is to be found, without
looking also to the quantity, quality and cheapness of labour, and facility of
transport. In Chin.a and in Borneo there are extensive ' coal fields,' but
they lie the ' wrong way' for trade. On the other hand, the California
coal at Monte Diablo, San Diego and Monterey lies well, but is bad in
quality. Tasmania has good coal, but in no great quantity, and the beds
" nearest to the coast are formed of inferior anthracite. The three countries
" of the Pacific, which must, for a time at least, rise to manufacturing
" greatness, are Japan, Vancouver Island and New South Wales ; but which
" of these will become wealthiest and most powerful depends mainly on the
" amount of coal which they respectively possess, so situated as to be cheaply
" raised. The dearness of labour which Vancouver suffers will be removed
" by the opening of the Pacific Railroad, but for the present New South
" Wales has the cheapest labour, and upon her shores at Newcastle are
" abundant stores of coal of good quality for manufacturing purposes,
" although for sea use it burns ' dirtily f and too fast."
On the subject of the coal mines of Columbia, the Blue Book of 1869
contains the following :—
" Two hundred men are employed in these mines.    The yield for 1869 Mines of
" was 40,883 tons, of which 19,700 tons were shipped to foreign parts.    The Nanaimo.
" price of coals at the pit's mouth is 24 shillings (sterling) a ton.    The coal
" contains 66 per cent, of carbon.    The area of the mine is 900,000 square
% yards.    Three pits are worked.    The seam is generally 4 feet thick."
The Blue Book of 1870 adds :—
" These mines are progressing favourably, and have been worked to
% advantage during the year, the yield of coal for exportation having been
" about 30,000 tons. Thp price of coal at the pit's mouth is $6 per ton.
" The coal contains 66 per cent, of carbon."
A Director of one of these mines told me that the mine produced this
year 44,000 tons of coal. This mine, as well as others, would yield much
more if our coal was not subject in the United States to a very heavy import
English vessels which are stationed at Esquimalt   or which touch at Comparison of
these  parte, make partial use of the Columbia coal.    A trial having been *. ee de8crj"P*
made to test the respective qualities of Douglas, Newcastle ancl Punsmuir *
<Jm 12
coal on board H.M.S. "Boxer," the following result was ascertained by the
Chief Engineer;—
I H. M. S. H Boxer."
« Trial of Douglas, Newcastle, and Dunsmuir Coals on the 24th, 27th, and
29th of September, 1870.
wxzcwuB&nzursauzziiviM* j iggjjsnrrixzztarsmKx'^iirjZTSj?!-: n Jhuunvy** ur^.'^a sxe yszazssPw.nL, v&rztan
gitfggCr UW^^JkPCTT^Ti
Hours fires have been lighted	
,,    steaming	
Height of steam guage	
Total quantitv of Coals used in lbs	
Quantity used while Steaming lbs	
Revolutions per minute	
Horse power, indicated1	
Coals per indicated. Horse power per hour..
Miles run during trial	
Quantity of coals used per mile	
Density of Sea water	
,,      of water in Boilers	
Direction of wind	
Force of wind	
Total quantity of Ashes in lbs	
,, ,, Clinker in lbs	
,, ,, Soot in lbs	
Per oentage of Ashes	
„ „   Clinker	
m »   Soot •	
hrs. 20 m.
hrs. 40 m.
34 lbs.
7.5 lbs.
225.4 lbs.
1 nearly
9 hrs.   0 m.
7 hrs. 30 m.
36.7 lbs.
7.17 lbs.
,15 lbs.
i £
9 hrs.   5 m.
7 hrs. 30 m.
36.5 lbs.
6.6 lbs.
209.7 lbs.
1 nearly
abeam & aft.
" With Dunsmuir coal, the throttle was nearly wide open, with New-
" castle and Douglas from one-third to one-half open.
" Dunsmuir compared with Newcastle :—There is more smoke, much less
" soot, the tubes are much cleaner, the work is much lighter for the stokers, it
" is better steaming coal and there is much less dirt about the deck.
" Dunsmuir compared with Douglas :—There is less smoke, the tubes are
" much cleaner, less dirt about the deck, and they keep steam much better.
" Newcastle compared with Douglas :—There is much less smoke, keeps
" steam better, the tubes are about the same, and dirt about the deck the same.
" While trying the Dunsmuir coal the boilers primed very much, if they
" had not don® so, the horse power, revolutions, steam, &c, would have shown
" a much better result.
* (Signed) Andrew Watt,
Engineer in Charge."
" H.M.S. < Boxer,' Esquimalt, B. C."
Anthracite. Veins of coal have been found in several othex parts of the Province; the
coal is of excellent quality, but a deficiency of capital has prevented the veins
being worked. Thus on Queen Charlotte's Island excellent and very valuable
coal is found ; it is anthracite. It contains seventy-two per cent of carbon,
and it is stated to be better adapted for use in foundries than the Pennsylvanian
. anthracite. In 1869 the company which was working this mine, was taking
coal from three veins on 6,000 acres of land ; in three years the company expended $80,000 in carrying on their works. The coal was worth $10 at the
jnouth of the shaft.    But for want of means the company had to abandon both REPORT.
Jjbs mines and its capital. Coal has been found not only on Vancouver
Island, but also in the interior of Columbia, 160 miles from the sea, near the
Nicola River, a tributary of the Thompson. It is said to be superior to that
on the sea coast.
Mr. Hamley, the collector of Customs at Victoria, at my request furnished Exportation o
the following statement of coal exported during the last four years.
Statement of the Coal exported from British Columbia, from 1867 to 1871:—
Year Where Shipped. Quantity. Value.
Tons. $
1867   To the United States   11,223      72,953
1868   „ „         29,219   189,923
1,305        8,482'
„ the United States   19,97.0   119,820
  16,114      96,687
Tons 77,831
Mr. Hamley, adds :—
" Before 1867, the Colonies were separate and no account was therefore
" kept of the export of coal from Nanaimo at the Custon House of British
I Columbia. "Nanaimo coal is universally used in Victoria. A large quantity
| is consumed by her Majesty's ships and the coasting steamers, and a few
" tons are annually sent to the mainland."
To ascertain correctly what these mines have produced, it is necessary to ?iet"J$ *^e
establish what are the sales effected by the companies working them. The oa ines*
following statement was furnished to me as correct:—
Amount of Sales of Coal.
1861   14,600 tons.
1862   18,690
1863   21,394
1864   28,632
1865  32,819
1866   25,115
1867   31,239.
1868   44,005
1869  * i  35,802
1870 <... 29,843
1 was further informed that the pi ices of labor, in relation to coal mines, Price of labor,
are as follows :—
Miner  $3,00 to $4.00 a day
Mechanic  3.75 .,	
Engineer  2.00 to    3.50
Blacksmith  2.00 to    3-25
Laborer  1.75 to    2.00
Chinese or Indian  1.00 to    1*25
Having thus spoken of the arable, grazing, forest and mining lands of
British Columbia, I annex as appendices the following documents : Appendix
M, letter from the proprietor of the Dunsmuir mine, giving interesting details
on the subject; Appendix N, letter giving important details in relation to the
mines of the District of Ominica ; Appendix O, law respecting gold mines;
Appendix P, law respecting \ mineral lands, other than auriferous lands;
Appendix  Q, the Columbia land law; Appendix P, an extract from Dr. 14
Battray's work on the Columbia coal; Appendix S, the law respecting joinjb
stock companies.
Agricultural Produce, &c.
Besides the produce of the mine, there is agricultural produce, and that
obtained from cattle breeding, the fisheries and the chase. Wheat, barley,
oats, potatoes, peas, vegetables, and fruits, such as apples, plums, cherried,
&c, grow and flourish in Columbia. At Cariboo, however, the frequent frosts
do not allow of the cultivation of grain; and what little cultivation there is
there, is confined to vegetables which do not require a long season to bring
them to a degree of maturity at which they can be used. But it would be
erroneous to suppose, that, in the interior of Columbia, the cultivation of
grain cannot be carried on. I saw in the interior, at the mouth of the
Quesnel Biver, land farmed by a Canadian of the name of Brousseau, and he
had a magnificent crop of all sorts of grain. More than- this, at a distance of
thirteen and a half miles from the Quesnel Biver, towards the interior of
Columbia, I saw at a level of 2,700 feet above the sea, cabbages, carrots,
turnips, and potatoes, which would have done credit to any part of Canada
whatever. And elsewhere, at almost as great a height, I found fields of wheat,
barley, and oats, presenting the finest possible appearance, and in their mute
language proclaiming that those who believed that Columbia was a land
of mountains, unfit for cultivation, and destined to prove but a source of
expense to the Confederation, had made a great mistake. The fact is, that,
at Clinton, I was shewn a mill, among others, that this year turned out four
hundred tons of flour, and the wheat brought to this mill is entirely the produce of the country. There are, I think, eight mills of that description.
Last year, barley and oats were sold at from two to three cents a pound;
this year they are selling at from three to five cents. Wlieat was sold at
three cents last year, and this year it is selling at three and three-quarter
cents a pound. For details respecting agricultural produce, I refer to
Appendix T, which is an extract from the Blue Book for 1870. It also contains a list of the prices of certain articles of consumption.
Raising of
cattle, &c.
Dr. Battray, whom I have already quoted as a man who is generally
well informed as to our new Pacific Province, after having spoken of
Vancouver Island as not being highly susceptible of cultivation, exeept in
its southern parts, adds :—
"This colony, however, has British Columbia on her right to fall back
" upon to supply her markets, a country in every way adapted, by its climate,
" soil* fine pastures, and an abundance of arable land, for agricultural and
" pastoral development, and capable of becoming a storehouse of animal and
" vegetable prodtice, able to supply, not only this island, but the entire
The author is right. Columbia not only yields abundance of agricultural
produce (and will yield more when the population is greater, and the demand
increases), but the country is specially adapted for the raising of cattle, horses,
and sheep. 1 saw oxen, six years of age—which had never been under any
shelter other than the vault of heaven —in very good condition, and as
fat as the finest cattle which are brought to the markets in our Eastern Pro-
vinces. I do not mean to sav that a prudent; cattle-breeder ought not to
provide shelter for his cattle, and ought not to lay in at least one month's,
forage, in case of accident, a thing he can easily do, for the plain is covered with
the suceulent grass of which I have already spoken above. REPORT.
What I have just said in relation to cattle applies equally to horses, with
this difference, that the horse finds his food more easily, in^he event of a fall
of snow, than the ox does. His foot easily penetrates through from ten to
twelve inches of snow, and reaches the grass, which, in that country, constitutes his favorite nourishment.
With respect to sheep, there is no part of Canada better adapted for raising them than Columbia. They here continue in good condition, fatten
rapidly, and the breeder finds a ready sale both for the mutton and for the
It is needless to say that the porcine race is represented here, and multiplies to an astonishing extent. During the fine season they only need the
roots, fruits, cactus, and herbs, which are so abundant in all parts of Columbia;
but, like sheep, they require more care during the winter. The pig, however,
is an animal for which there is always a market in a mining country like
Columbia, and which is always sure to bring a fair profit to the breeder.
The fisheries of Columbia are probably .the richest in the world, but they Fisheries.
have been but very little work«d. The gold fever draws immigrants towards
the auriferous tracts, causing them to neglect what to many of them would
prove to be a much richer mine,-and one yielding much more certain results
than that, to seek which they go so far, and undergo so much labor and fatigue.
At the present time things are beginning to wear a different aspect; some
attention is being turned to the fisheries, without, however, the auriferous
lands being in consequence neglected; however, the fisheries require fresh
arrivals to develope their full resources. The present population has its ordinary avocations, and' can devote to this new branch of industry but an
unimportant part of its time. Inferences may be drawn from the fact that
there are really only two large fishing establishments : one a salmon fishery
under the management of Captain Stamp, who, for the first time, exports
salmon in tin boxes ; the other, a whale fishery in the Gulf of Georgia. I
saw one of the whalers, the Byzantium, in Deep Bay. She was an English
brig, commanded by Captain Calhoun, and on board of her was Captain Boys,
the inventor of an explosive ball, which is used in the whale fishery, and
which, on penetrating the marine monster, explodes, and throws out a harpoon. The first whale, against which this projectile was used, was killed in
1868. In 1869 and 1870, the company made use of a small steam vessel;
and their success last year induced them to devote to the trade a brig of 179
tons, manned with twenty hands. Captain Calhoun complained of having to
pay heavy duties on nearly all the articles required for the fishery. This
obstacle to the success of this branch of industry, will shortly be removed by
the substitution of the Canadian tariff for the tariff of British Columbia.
I was assured that, if that expedition proved a success, there is room in
our Pacific waters for at least fifty undertakings of a similar character, I
observe that, since my return, the whaling schooner Industry* has arrived at
Victoria with 300 barrels, or about 10,000 gallons of oil, after an absence of
only five weeks. One of the whales killed during the expedition was sixty
feet long, and would certainly yield nearly seventy barrels of oil.
On this subject the Blue Book of 1870 contains the following :—
" During the year there were three whaling companies in existence (one
" of these has since broken down). Thirty-two whales were killed, yielding
| 25,800 gallons of oil, worth 50 cents per gallon. There was one vessel with
" boats, and there were two stations with boats, employing altogether forty-nine
f hands.    The capital invested in this interest amounted to about $20,000."
" The dog-fish catch exceeds in importance that of the whales.    50,000 Sl&U^SR
Whaling companies.
!r\ : ffl
varieties   of
No restrictive
laws in force.
" gallons of dog-fish  oil was rendered, worth forty cents per gallon.    This
f branch of industry is steadily progressing."
From another source I have obtained the following information respecting 1871.
" There are three whaling expeditions now in action in the waters of
" British Columbia, viz.:
" 1st. The British Columbia Whaling Company, with the " Kate," a
" schooner of seventy tons, outlay $15,000. They have already secured
" 20,000 gallons; they expect 10,000 more. The value of oil here is 37
" cents a gallon. In England it is worth £$5 a ton of ,252 gallons. This
" company have in addition secured already 30,000 gallons of dog-fish oil,
" worth 37 cents here per gallon, 55 cents in California, and <£35 a ton in
" England.
" 2nd. The brig " Byzantium," 179 tons, expenditure $20,000. Their
" take for the year is not known.
"3rd. Steamer "Emma" and scow "Industry," expenditure $10,000
" estimated take 15,000 gallons.
" This coast is considered by an old whaler from Providence to be one of^
" the best fields in the  world from whence  to start  whaling enterprizes.
" Particular attention is called to the value and facility of the dog-fish oil
" fishery, which is even a more paying undertaking, at present, than the;
" whaling."
In Columbia salmon is most abundant, and constitutes one of the principal sources of wealth in the country. It is sold at a very low price—five
cents a pound—at Victoria, and constitutes an important part of the food of
the Indians. IJhere are five species, a description of which is contained in
Appendix IT., which is an ext»act from the Beverend Dr. Brown's pamphlet
on British Columbia.
Details respecting the Fisheries.
As this branch of industry, the fisheries, was so little developed, I
obtained from a gentleman who is, from his studies, in a position to give me
correct information on this subject, a memorandum which, though short,gives
more details than it was possible for me to obtain from official documents. It
is as follows:—
" In speaking of the fisheries of British Columbia, one may almost be
" said to be speaking of something which has no existence. With the exeep-
" tion of a small attempt at putting up salmon in tins on the Fraser Biver,
" and one or two whaling enterprizes of a few years standing, no attempt
" whatever has been made to develope the actually marvellous resources of
" this Province in the way of fish. I will, therefore, proceed to give a list of
" the fish that are to be found in quantities that would warrant the establish-
" ment of fisheries, and then a brief description of the, habits, locality, and
" commercial utility of each class of fish, with any remarks that may occur
" that would be of interest or value.
" Description of fish found in British Columbia and Vancouver Island:—
| Whale, sturgeon, salmon, oulachan or houlican, cod, herring, halibut, sardine,
" anchovy, oysters, haddock, and dog-fish.
" There is no law governing fisheries in British Columbia. Fishing is
" carried on throughout the year without any restrictions. This state of
" things is well suited to a new and thinly populated country. The restric-
I tions of a close season would be very injurious to the Province at present,
" and for many years to come.
"It is quite impossible to give even an approximate estimate of the
" produce of the fisheries during the last ten years, there being no data from
" which it could be computed. Z5SSS&
" There" is no  local law  preventing Americans from  fishing in our
" Wlude.—I am unable to say whether the whales are sperm, or of what "Whales.
V J- *
species, but an undertaking, now some three years old, seems from ail
accounts (it has- been found impossible to obtain any official return from the
company) to have been very successful. That it is a profitable speculation
there can be no doubt, or it would have been long ago abandoned; and that
the company have no difficulty in obtaining whales is also demonstrated by
the amount of oil secured. I have little doubt that if this branch of industry were followed up by men well versed in the requisite knowledge, a
vast amount of wealth might be added to this Province by whale
| The Sturgeon abounds in the rivers and estuaries of British Columbia. Sturgeon.
This fish is caught with little or no difficulty. It attains a gigantic size,
over ,500 lbs. in -weight. The flesh is excellent, both fresh and smoked.
No attempt, that I am aware of, has ever been made to put the fish up for
market. Its commercial value is derived from the isinglass and caviare
which are made from it. I am not aware of ther^ having been any attempt
to manufacture isinglass in this country. Caviare of excellent quality has
been produced. At present I should be inclined to believe that there is no
person in the Province capable of making isinglass, which is, therefore,, a
resource entirely undeveloped as yet.
-" Salmon.—The salmon in the waters of British Columbia are excellent Salmon,
in quality, varied in species, and most abundant. In the rivers which they
penetrate up to their head waters, they are caught by a drag-net in the deep
waters, and by a bag-net in the rapids. In the sea they are generally %
caught with hook and line ; a canoe at certain seasons can be filled in a day
by the latter method. The Fraser Biver salmon is justly famous. It is
used fresh, salted, pickled, smoked, and kippered, and for export is put up
salted in barrels, and fresh in one or two pound tins; the latter practice
has only been commenced during the past three years. The article produced is of a most excellent description, and will doubtless prove a source
of considerable export trade when it becomes known in suitable markets.
There would appear to be no limit to the catch of salmon.
" Oulachans or Houlicans.—This small fish, something about the size of a Oulachans
sprat, appears in the rivers of British Columbia and about certain estuaries
on the coast towards the end of April. Their run lasts about three weeks,
during which time they may be captured in countless myriads. Eaten fresh
they are most delicious, and they are most excellent packed in a salted or
smoked form. This fish produces oil abundantly, which is of a pure and
excellent quality, and which, as held by some, will eventually supersede
cod liver eil. This fish is caught with a pole of about ten feet in length,
along which are arranged, for five feet at the end, nails like the teeth of a
comb, only about an inch and a half apart. The comb is thrust smartly
into the water, brought up with a backward sweep of the hands, and is
rarely found without three or four fish impaled on the nails. I have seen
a canoe filled with them in two hours by a couple of hands.
" Cod.—Several   species of cod are found in  the  waters of   British Cod.
Columbia, which are excellent both fresh and cured.    It has been often
asserted, I cannot say with what truth, that the true cod is found on this
north-west coast.    That, however, remains to be proved.
" Herring.—This fish also abounds during the winter months, and is of Hsrrng.
good sound quality.    It is largely used in the Province, both fresh and
Smoked, but nothing has been done in the way of export.
" Halibut.—Halibut banks are of frequent recurrence in the  inland Halibut,
waters of this Province.    The fish attain an enormous size, and are caught
10-3 18
by deep-sea-lines. They are only used in the Province at present. They
are of first rate quality, and an excellent article of food.
" Sardines.—Are always found among herrings. I cannot state if they
are precisely the fish known to commerce under that designation, or in
what quantity they exist; but they are firm in flesh and excellent in
" Anchovy.—This fish is only second to the oulachan or houlican in its
abundance. During the autumn it abounds in the harbors and inlets, and
may be taken with great ease in any quantity. Eaten fresh, they have
rather a bitter flavor.
" Haddock.—This fish, called in the country * mackerel,' to which however it has no resemblance, is a great favorite both fresh and cured. It is
caught in the winter months, and when smoked forms a luxurious addition
to the breakfast table. I am of opinion that a very large trad© will be
done some day in exporting this fish to the southern ports of America,
where fish is highly valued in a smoked or cured state.
" Dog-Fish.—This species of fish can be taken with great facility with a
line and hook in almost any of the numerous bays and inlets of this
Province. TJte oil extracted from them is obtained in abundance, and is
commercially of much value. It is produced in moderately large quantities
by the Indians, and exported.
" Oysters.—Are found in all parts of the Province. Though small in their
native l)eds, they are finely flavored and of good quality. When, in course
of timfe, regular beds are formed, and their proper culture is commenced, a
large export will no doubt take place both in a fresh and canned state,
Ihere is a large consumption of oysters in cans on-the Pacific coast."
Products of the (^hase.
The products of the chase in Columbia are very various and abundant. Furs, for example, constitute one of the most valuable exports from
this Province. I procured the following list of animals, the furs of which
are obtained for the purposes of trade, the value of iihe fur being set opposite
to the name of each animal, viz. :—
Panther       $2 50
WildCat j         0 75
Wolf.         2 50
RedVox       25 00
Fisher         5 00
Mink         2 00
Martin         5 00 to $10
Bacoon          0 75
Beaver  1  00 per lb.
Black Bear         5 00 to $8
Brown Bear         -7 50
Wolverine         100
Siffleur         0 50
Musk Bat         0 25
Lynx         3 00
Common Otter         5 00
Sea Otter..,       50 00 to $80
Squirrel         0 12
Bed Deer (Elk)         0 15 per lb.
Blaektailed Deer         0 15     „ report.
Ermine  0 50
SeaLion   0 00
Fur Seal   10 00
Mountain Goat  2 00
do       Sheep  3 00
At Cariboo.
Silver Fox       50 00 to §70
Black Fox     100 00
Until the year 1860 the fur trade was entirely monopolized by the Fur trade.
Hudson's Bay Company; but since that date the trade has ceased to be
exclusively in the hands of that Company, and there are now a large number
of persons who have invested their capital in it. In general, the trade is
carried on by coasting vessels, which exchange goods for- peltry. It is
rather difficult to arrive at a just estimate of the value of the furs exported.
I was however assured that it amounted to $210,000, in 186*8, and to
$233,000 in 1869.
Birds and Animals of Columbia.
There are also in British Columbia large numbers of waterfowls, snipe, Birds and
geese, swans, pheasants, partridges, prairie chickens, grouse and ducks, without ammais oi
taking into account--says one writer—the eagle, sparrow-hawk, mosquito-hawk,
owl, wood-pecker, humming-bird, king-fisher, swallow, robin, crow, pigeon,
plover, crane, magpie, thrush, jay and blue-bird.
In Appendix V will be found a list of the animals and birds of Vancouver Island, furnished by Dr. Forbes. I add to it, in Appendix W, an
extract from Mr. Pemberton's work, giving some further details respecting
the animals and birds of Columbia.
Stone Quarries.
After having pointed out the principal products of Columbia, I perceive Quarrie
that I have omitted to mention the fine stone quarries ■ at Newcastle Island
(two miles from Nanaimo) in Departure Bay. A sandstone of very
fine quality is obtained from them. From the upper part of the quarry can
be quarried blocks 50 feet long by 8 in diameter. I saw columns 30 feet
long, by 4 feet and two inches in diameter, intended for the San Francisco
Mint. The lower part of the quarry, which is very considerable, is composed
of strata from 6 inches to 4 feet in thickness. The agent of the company,
which is working this quarry, told me that 8,000 tons of this stone would be
required for the San Francisco Mint, and I understood that the stone cost
$3 a ton on board the vessel ; large blocks however costing double that
Shipbuilding and Navigation.
I now come to the subject of shipbuilding and the navigation of the Ships.
The number of vessels built during the last ten years is not considerable.
It is a branch of industry which is as yet only in its infancy; but which;
through the opening of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is destined soon to
assume large proportions. 20
It is however  expedient,   for statistical purposes,  to  ascertain that
number, though small.    It is as follows :—
Victoria  1861  ... 3 Steamers   ... 5 Schooners1
1 Barge
. 2 Steamers
1 Light Ship
New Westminster...
Victoria ' 1866 ... 2 Steamers
„       1867 ... 1
Sooke  1867    1 Brigantine
Victoria  1868   2 Schooners
Victoria   1871
Soda Creek
1 Steamer
Total   9 Steamers        19 Schooners        1 Brigantine
1 Barge
1 Light Ship
and The number of vessels which arrived in the Ports of the New Province,
es °f   and which sailed from them during the last ten years, is as follows :—
( Of these a good number were canoes with )
( freight and passengers for the mines, 'J-
(     wliich did not return  j
1861 .
. 227
1862 .
. 276
1863 .
. 243
1864 .
. 233
1865 .
. 289
1866 .
Previous to the Union of British Columbia aftd Vancouver Island in
1866, the only port of entry then in British Columbia, was New Westminster.
1867 ...1059  1066
1868 ... 921    951
1869 ... 864   896
1870 ... 814   835
After the Union,, the Ports of Victoria, Nanaimo,  New   Westminster,
and Burrard Inlet are included.
Vessels navi- To the foregoing tables we may add a statement of vessels of all sizes
gating the trading in British Columbia. This table shows the nationality of each class
waters of 0p vesseis an(j their tonnage. For this information I am indebted to the
Columbia. 'l^ff%      v   /   Tj. • <• n
Government ot Columbia.'   It is as tollows :—
8 Coasting British.
5 Inland (River Fraser) 3 only running       „
1 To and from San Francisco       „
1 To and from Puget Sound American.
2 To and from Portland	
* m /
Ships and Barques.
r7 from England are generally chartered to carry lumber—-3 by Hudson
Bay Company, and an average of 4 by other British Merchants,
6 from and to San Francisco, are generally chartered to carry lumber—
21 to Australia, China, and South America, (in 1870)—6 British, 15
;3 between Honolulu and Victoria—1 American, 2 British.
28 Coasting,—British.
Schooners and Sloops,
8 Coasting Steamers     1182 tons   83 men
3 Inland       452
.  GO
7 Ships from England in 1870     3868
6 Traders to and from San Francisco    1320
21. To Australia, &c   10894
3 To and from Honolulu        893
The 21 vessels mentioned above to | Australia, &c," are not regular
traders.    They are the vessels cleared in 1870.
In Appendix X will be found extracts from the Blue Book for 1870,
containing fuller details respecting vessels, their nationality, tonnage, crews,
&c, &c.
The manufactures of Columbia are few in number; but water power Manufactures,
being abundant, it is certain that so soon as the requirements of the Province
call for them, manufactories may be multiplied under advantageous circumstances. I shall treat this subject as I did that of ship building; although
these branches of industry are only in their infancy, so to speak, it is well,
in a statistical point of view, to give the iiiformation which we possess
respecting the present condition of things. This information will prove
useful -at a later date, for purposes of comparison. The following table is a
statement of the manufactories, mills, &c., at the principal places in Columbia,
in the year 1870.
Hew Westminster.
3 Saw Mills—can cut 183,000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Grist mill—can grind 30 barrels per day.
1 Distillery—distils 300 to 400 gallons per month.
Hope,  Tale, and Lytton.
2 Saw Mills—can cut 7,000 feet of lumber per day.
5 Flour Mills—2 can grind 23 barrels, the others 10 barrels per day each.
Lillouet and Clinton.
1 Saw and Flour Mill (combined)—can grind 60 barrels of flour per day,
and cut 12,000 feet of lumber.
1 Flour Mill on Dog-Creek—can grind 2,000 pounds of wheat per day.
1 Saw Mill at Lillouet—can cut 5,000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Saw Mill at Clinton—can cut 2,000 feet of lumber per day.
1 Flour Mill at Lillouet—can grind 120 sacks in twelve hours.
Kootenay and Columbia.
1 Saw Mill, waterpower—in process of construction.
1 Bed Bock Flume—in process of construction.
■MMW 94
1 Steam Saw Mill, on William's Creek, 20 horse power—can cut 20,000
feet of lumber per day.
1 Steam Saw Mill, on Ditten Lightning Creek—cam cut 20,000 feet of
lumber per day.
.   1 Quartz Mill, on William's Creek, 3 horse power, 4 stamps of 450 lbs.
each—can crush 4 tons a day.     ||§f
1 Flour Mill, 20 horse power—can grind 50 barrels of flour per day.
1 Flour Mill, Soda Creek, watfer power—can grind 40 barrels of flour
per day.
1 Saw Mill, Quesnel, water power—can cut 2,500 feet of lumber per day.
1 Saw Mill.
1 Iron Foundry.
2. Sash Factories.
Gas Works.
4 Breweries.
2 Distilleries.
1 Soap Factory.
2 Tanneries.
1 Ship Yard.
2 Lumber Yards.
Exports. Before passing on to the population of British Columbia, and after the
statement of the produce and manufactories of the Province, I think it is
expedient to state that in 1870, the exports amounted to $208,364, exclusive
of the gold, the amount of which is given above. The details of the exports
will be found in Appendix Y.
Increase of
the     population.
between the
Submission to
the laws.
The population of British Columbia, was greater some years ago than it
is now. That was when the gold fever was at its height. According to the
enumeration made, I think, in the month of March or April 1871, the
population of Columbia was 8,576 whites, 462 negroes, and 1,548 Chinese,
giving a total of 10,586, the distribution whereof throughout the territory
is given in Appendix Z.
The total of 10,586 does not include the Indians, of whom I shall speak
The white and Chinese population increased by immigration during the
year 1871 by from 1,500 to 2,000. This immigration is to be attributed to
the discovery of the new gold mines of Peace Biver, district of Ominica; and,
to judge by appearances, it is likely to continue during the coming season.
In this population is observable the usual disproportion between the
two sexes, which was remarked from the first in California*and Australia.
Thus, the number of men is 7,574 and of women'3,012.
The population is remarkable for its spirit of order and submission to,
the laws. This state of things is to be attributed, in the first place, to the
fact that the white population is composed in great part of men of education,
many of whom have seen better days, and who are consequently less disposed
than the majority of ordinary populations, in these distant regions, to avail
themselves of every favorable opportunity of violating the law.    It is also to f
be attributed to the firm administration of the laws by the "Chief Justice,
whose name alone, at the time of the great immigration during the gold-
digging excitement, was 4he terror of delinquents.
Although the magistrates entrusted with the census fulfilled the duty
confided to them with care, it is undeniable that in so vast a country as
Columbia, with such a scattered population, it is hardly possible to take a
correct census. The names of many traders, miners, and fishermen were not
registered, and consequently not included in the total number given as the
result of the census.
The white population of Columbia is intelligent and industrious, and
may unhesitatingly be compared with the population of any other part of
Canada. If the progress of the Province has not been rapid, it is to be
attributed much less to a want of energy on its part than to other causes.
Of these causes the paucity of population is perhaps the principal for it has
been found impossible, under existing circumstances, to obtain a considerable
revenue, and so to be placed in a position to carry out great undertakings.
This small population, however, did not hesitate to submit to great sacrifices
to open that great highway from Yale to Cariboo, which gave, and still gives,
comparatively easy access to the rich mines of the District of Cariboo, and
which, for boldness of enterprise and solidity of construction at many points,
is worthy cf a great people. Suffice it to add, that this great Cariboo road,
which in many places is cut out of the-mountain side, at a height of from
600 to 1,000 feet above the Fraser or the Thompson Biver, which run at the
hase of the precipice, cost nearly a million and a quarter of dollars.
Spirit qf
The Chinese population is regarded with no greater affection in Columbia Chinese,
than in California, but is, at any rate, in the former country, not ill treated.
The Chinese are an industrious, clean and laborious community. They are
generally miners, working either on their own account or for the whites, or in
service as laborers or domestic servants, most frequently in the latter
capacity as cooks. Many of them are also, employed, either on their own
account or by others, in the transportation of freight from the lower Fraser
to the mines. They live on little, and make a livelihood even in places
from which the whites have had to emigrate lest they should perish of
hunger. Those who dread the increasing immigration of the Chinese maintain that they are a population but little to be desired. They forget that
the presence of the Chinese has contributed to reduce the price of wages in
the mines. A Chinese there receives $3 to $3 50 a day, and a white man
$5. It is added that the Chinese leave nothing in the country. That is
strictly true, if it is said of their dead, the ashes of which are scrupulously
conveyed bv them to China. But it is certain that the Chinese leave a great
deal of money in the country, by their purchases, travelling, &c. During
my trip to the Cariboo Mines, T saw a great number of Chinese, who were
going to or returning from them, and in many cases they were travelling in
stages, and halted like others at the stopping places to take their meals;
and often, on land as well as on board the steamers, travelled as first class
The   census   of the Indian   population   has not   been   made,   but   it Indians,
is desirable that it should be so before long.    That population is estimated
at 30,000, 40,000, and even 50,0§0  souls.    Persons who are in the best
position to judge of the number of these Indians, such as the Catholic and 24
Protestant missionaries, gave me to understand, however, that that population
would not at the present time amount to the highest of those figures. I conclude, therefore, that from 35,000 to 40,000 is probably th.e more exact number.
However, the Hon. Chief Justice Matthew Baillie Begbie appears to think
that for some years they have diminished in number. In a memorandum;
which he was obliging enough to prepare for me, the Honorable Judge gives
most interesting details respecting the Indian tribes ; and although I was
able to verify by personal observation a number of the facts which he records,
I prefer not to state them here myself, but to transcribe his memorandum in
full in the body of this Beport itself, in order that the information which I
have to offer may be given in as complete a manner as possible. The
following is his memorandum :—
Indians found
in all parts of
the Province.
Prohable numbers of coast
and interior
^Memorandum by Chief Justice Begbie.
" Indian tribes are found everywhere, all over the Province. The main
divisions, in one sense, may be taken to be the .-coast Indians, and'the inland
" tribes. On Vancouver Island, I apprehend they are all coast Indians.
There are apparently no interior parts fit for settlement by Indians. They
"may and do go inland for hunting deer, and lake fishing; but in most parts,
" the deer are to be found in sufficient quantity not far from the sea; and the
" sea fishing is much superior in quantity and nutritive quality to the lake
" fishing. On the mainland the conditions are reversed in great measure.
" The upper eountry is far superior for settlement and hunting purposes .to
" the coast, and theiarge rivers abound with salmon, which run up to the
| Bocky Mountains. The lakes also afford abundant food during the season
U when the salmon are not running, and the wild berries which grow in great
" profusion and excellence are (especially the ' service berry') a staple
% article of food, being dried and stored, for food and trade. •
" I cannot judge at all, of my own authority, of the number of the coast
" Ludians. To the north of British Columbia, they are said to be in consider-
" able numbers. In the parts of the Province, of which I have any per-
" sonal knowledge, the Indians are exceedingly sparse, and annually diminish-
ing (this includes all the country east of Fraser Biver). I should guess—
but it is a mere guess,—that there are not 5,000 in the vast triangle between
New Westminster, Kootenay, and Cariboo—400 miles from- east to
west, and 350 miles from North to South. But it is proper to state that
" in a recent report to the Bishop of the Diocese (Anglican), the Be v. J. B.
Good says, (Lytton, 3rd May, 1870): ' I estimate the number of the dis-
% ' ciples at large [Anglicans, at Lytton] young and old to be at least 2,000,
" { Mr. Holmes having under him, in the Yale district, nearly as many more.'
" Yale and Lytton are fifty-seven miles apart. The latter attracts probably
" Indians from Lillouet, Nichola, and even from the Okanagan. Yale probably
" collects Indians on the Fraser Biver for thirty or forty miles downwards.
" But at least half of the Fraser "Biver native population lies below that, and
" is probably attracted wholly by the Boman Catholic missions at St. Mary's,
" and at New Westminster; and there are two other thriving Roman
" Catholic missions, one on the east side of Okanagan Lake, and one to the
" north, near William's Lake. I should really think that these four stations
" influence! as many disciples, as the two central Anglican stations; but I
" should be surprised if the four claimed 4,000 disciples. Mr. Good's whole
" report, however, is not before me, and it may not be intended to bear the
V sense here put. This is nevertheless the idea conveyed in the pamphlet
" from which I quote, which states 4,000 Indians under instruction.
" Beferring to the continual entries in an old journal of the Hudson's
Sf Bay Company, preserved at Fort Langley, from the foundation, of that first
1 fort On the Lower Fraser Biver, in 1826-7, one would suppose that the
" coast Indians, tempted to frequent the Fraser for fishing, or for war, were
I at least three times as numerous fifty or sixty years ago as they are now.
" In the-interior, whole tribal families have disappeared within the last few
" years, and it is probable that in certain districts e.g., Lillouet and Okanagan,
I not one tenth, perhaps even not one twentieth, survive. In 1846, Mr.
" A. C. Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company, advised against the Lillouet-
J x J * O
H Douglas Boute for the Hudson's B.iy'Company's brigades, on account of the
■ very great number of Indians they would have to pass through, estimating
I the number, at and about the Fountains (8 miles from Lillouet), at 4000 to
1 5000.    I have never seen (1858-69) on the greatest occasions at Lillouet
" more than 400 or 500—many of whom had come forty or fifty miles—some
" 100 miles.
•' One tribal family of about sixty individuals on Canoe Creek was, in Causes of
" 1862 or 1863, entirely destroyed by small-pox, with the exception of a single declmejn
i t    4-1 -j      -     At.    vjcr-n- -r   i     jc     -v i      j population of
I man.     In the same epidemic, the Williams Lake families were reduced Indians.
" from 200 to beloAv 100 individuals. Their wars are occasionally equally dell structive. On more than one successful onslaught, everv man has been
" killed, and only the unwcunded women and children preserved as slaves—
" almost always, every man the victors could reach, was killed. At Comox,
" several years ago, on such an occasion, every man, woman and child was
" killed, except one woman, who fled to the bush. She was enceinte, and her
" child, a son, still survives ; I have seen him. Of course his tribe was ex-
" tinguished. They rear small families and the children often die. Accidents
" do much in such small adventurous societies ; private quarrels do much ;
" whisky and dissipation wear them to an early death, and sap the powers of
jj• reproduction ; but the great devastators have been their cruel tribal wars,.
" and, much worse, small-pox and measles. Vaccination has made a stand to
" secure them against the former; but measles are nearly as deadly, and even
" vaccination is as severe a malady with them as measles among Europeans.
" Eruptive disorders seem to overpower their constitutions. Wars have im-
| mensely diminished of late ; there are deadly private quarrels; few tribal
" war expeditions.    Indeed, I don't remember to have known of one.
" The habits of the Indians are exceedingly simple ; probably such as The Indians*
" are common to almost all societies in a low degree of organization.    They system of       ,
" appear to live very much on the " village community " system, as described S°vernment»
" in " Mayne s Ancient Law," at least as regards land and its produce, and
" their fishing giounds.    The chiefs owe their pre-eminence partly to birth
' or family connections, partly to personal attributes and the choice of the
" tribal family or tribe.    The chiefs appear to acquire their predominance of
" wealth by voluntary contributions, or " benevolences," from those who ad-
| mit their authority, offered sometimes from fear, sometimes from flattery,
" sometimes perhaps from motives of attachment. They preserve their influence
" by measures of recklessness and severity, or of wisdom, but principally perhaps
I by the generosity or lavishness with which they re-distribute the wealth
"they  have  acquired;   in fact   all  this  part of their polity very much
I resembles that of the Plantagenet Kings of England.
" The houses of the coast Indians are more roomy and substantial, being Dwellings   ef
a sort of one story card castle (only firmly fastened), of- axe-hewn lumber, c°ast Indians.
divided into several compartments, of which one is occupied by each family.
" In the interior, the houses, or wigwams, are made of skins more or less
" dressed, old tent cloths, mats, &c. In severe weather, they take shelter
" in underground houses—circular pits, from 20 to 40 feet in diameter, and
" 8 or 10 feet deep, covered over with a substantial earthed roof, with a 3
" feet circular aperture in the centre, which is the only ingress for the inhabi-
".tants and provisions, and the only egress for the inhabitants and the smoke,
I don't believe anything else leaves the cave until it is finally abandoned in
the spring. It may be imagined what havoc measles or small-pox will
cause in such a pit. I do not remember any of these pits nearer the sea
than at Hope. I have known at least one Indian, however, (St. Paul, near
Kamloops, died 1867), who lived in a comfortable squared-log house, with
three or four rooms, cows, chickens, pigs, and a decent garden; living in
infinitely more comfort and pretensions than the officers of the Hudson
Bay Company, in their fort, on the*opposite side ©f the Thompson Biver.
Like most savages, they possess enormous powers of appetite, and enormous
powers of abstinence from food.
Indians' skill
in boat-build-
ing and man- i{
Everywhere, a]
the Indians have great skill in the manufacture
and management of canoes
The   Indians'
want of relig- a
ious notions.
with Indians; ll
whattheyhave u
been and what
conld be done
in  that   direc a
c —"— Those on the coast and the lower Fraser are
perfect models of naval architecture on the wave-line principle. On the
Columbia, they are built of the bark of the white pine, with the most
modern bow, viz. :—on the identical /principle of ■ Griffith's Patent,' only
with a similar projecting snout at the stern.
x        J O
" Polygamy prevails among them, as among most non-Christian people,
limited only by considerations of finance.
" Alone among"all intelligent savages of whom I have read, (for there
is no doubt these are very intelligent, and with vast natural power of observation,) they seem to have no religion whatever, nor any idea of any God,
except what has been imported. They have, however, some notion of
spirits, restricted, I think, almost entirely to spirits of dead men, though
there is one much spoken of, ' Shay,' or wind spirit, supposed to haunt a
certain point on Harrison Lake. I have never heard of an Indian language
which possessed in its vocabulary a word expressive of an abstract idea. -
" Slavery is universally known ; among tribes under European influence
J J O x
it is much retrograding. Slaves were almost all derived from wars : and,
since wars have died out, the source of slavery is stopped. They are all
of course devoted to whiskey, and to gambling. As a logical consequence
from the absence of all indigenous religion, there are no indigenous forms
of cursing and swearing. The natives have very readily adopted the habit,
but they use, to our disgrace, none but English oaths and terms of abuse.
Of these, of course, they have first learnt, and best remember, the lowest
and the most obscene. Many of the northern Indians display considerable^
aptitude for carving, and others for handling metals. The astonishing
accuracy of their eye may. be seen in any canoe, for which they
never have a model, nor do they ever ensure accuracy_by a single
" I am not aware of any treaty having been made with any tribe on
the mainland. I believe that some sort of arrangement, as binding in
honor as a treaty, has been made at different times, with different tribes in
Vancouver Island. I am not aware that it has been reduced to writing : I
believe it has generally (where it exists) been in the form of a declaration
of intentions bv the local government.
" Rese
rves have been laid out both
f tribal families,  of land res
aware of any thing m the nature
here and on the mainland, in the
rved for their use ; but I am not
f a treaty.    ~No general treaty would be
Their anxiety
about their reserves of laiid.
possible, for there are a vast number of tribes, mutually more jealous and
unintelligible than are the whites to them.
I They are in that state of powerlessness and respect for the superior
power, numbers, and acquirements of the governing race, that any arrangements which that race would, consistently with self-respect and humanity,
think ] ►roper- would readily be adopted by the native.
" Their chief anxiety always is about their reserves of land which, perhaps necessarily, have not alwavs been made in accordance with their REPORT.
H wishes.    The manner in which they hold and occupy land (village com-
" munities frequently occupying and cultivating irregularly detached plots)
I 0      J xJ CD CD CD x/ X /
" is. a tenure scarcely intelligible to English notions of property in land at
«/ CD CD X X v
all; and-they have an affection for particular little bits of land, (which
" seems a feeling common to humanity, savage or civilized), which, probably,
" is exceedingly inconvenient to a surveyor, and is not always, in our view J
" very reasonable.    It is, in fact, prejudice.
" What woiild probably be most useful for them, and tend to preserve Suggestions
"the numbers and improve the position of these very valuable inhabitants offor ™.Provh1g
w the Province, would be to teach them settled habits, and, above all, agricul- incH.ans#
" ture.    Mr. Duncan, at Metlahkatlah, seems one of the most successful of
" all who have attempted this; but he is a man of rare gifts.
" I call the Indians very valuable inhabitants,  because,   1st—they are Value of   In-
" admirably adapted for opening up a difficult countrv.    Without them, it ^ianf asmhab-
i •-i   .i -i-ii i iv t   i •    tocto   itants   of  the
" may be said, the country could not have been entered nor supplied m looo- country.
I 60.    Until roads were made, no supplies were taken in except by Indians.
I 2nd—they are large consumers, in proportion to their means, of customable
" articles.     3rd—they are our best tools for obtaining one great product of   .
" the country—furs.
" But these qualities are exactly those which make it very difficult to Difficulty of
" civilize them.    The Indian admires and  desires to acquire our stores of bringing
t- i i  j i r ixi i        -j. -a r    l    -Indians to
9 knowledge and our means of wealth, and quite appreciates our comlorts, COnform to
" both of clothes, and food, and dwellings.    But  his inborn capacity for habits of
nnroUiM    +h« ClVHlZe<
novelties, tiie    v..
" enduring hardships, i. e., for enabling him to do without
" very qualities which render him so useful as a pioneer or hunter, make him
" tire of steady industry, and less influenced by its results.    Accordingly,
" after years of cultivation, he constantly relapses, for a time at least, into a
" pajnted savage, and goes hunting and fishing—or starving—as a relaxation.
" These influences will, no doubt, prove to be hereditary, but there is more
" hope with the next generation than with this.
" It might be possible to establish, under adequate superintendence, small In reference
" establishments to which any Indians might have access for one or more A^f. r^,_.
c •-!, •-!• i    establishment
" year or .years, and where, during residence, they might be trained m speak- of training
v %f 7 7 CD ' v <D X O
" ing English, and in useful labor, receiving at the end of the year their due schools for
" share, according to such a scale as might be established, of the surplus
■ profit, after maintaining the establishment; or even, if no net profit was
" made, receiving something.    It might not be deemed necessary that these
" establishments should be self supporting entirely.     They should be limited
X   L CD v v
" to receive only a certain number, so that the Indians might perceive admis-
" sion to be a favor. They should be bound for a fixed period, but not for too
" long,—say one year, subiect to re-engagement. Whatever the method to be
" adopted, it should be under the superintendence of a practical man, not too
" lavish, and cautiously gradual.
w     CD
11 There has never, since 1858, been-any trouble with Indians except Troubles with
" once, in 1864, known as the year of the Chilcotin Expedition.     In that JS?ians;
" case, some white men had, under color of the pre-emption act, taken posses- nave been
" sion of some Indian lands (not, I believe, reserved as such,—the whole
" matter arose on the west of Fraser River, where no  magistrate or white-
" population had ever been,^—but de facto Indian lands, their old accustomed
" camping place, and including a mucli-valued spring of water), and even
" after this, continued to treat the natives with great contumely, and breach of
faith. The natives were few in number, but very warlike and great hunters.
" They had no idea of the number of rhe whites, whom they had not seen.
" They shot down everv white whom they did see, twenty-one I think,
" including a trail party of Mr. Waddington's—one or two escaped their
*' notice.    Six Indians were induced  to  surrender, and were hung.    The 28
" expense to the colony was inordinate.    Except in such cases, which cannot
" affect the progress of society for good or evil, no trouble is to be appre-
" hended.    Occasional isolated murders will be committed, and the arrest of
" the murderers will be difficult and expensive.
Improbability " But for any general danger, the scattered position of the tribes, their
jj-Tr v     O CD        J x 7
Indf ns    IOin " thinness °f population, their' mutual enmity—even now, there is nothing
" better, among strange tribes, than an armed peace   tit
their variety of
t languages, making union for a common purpose impossible,—these consid-
il orations alone, make any danger from them inconsiderable, even if they
" were as hostile to the Government and to the authorities, as they are, in
" general, exceedingly well disposed.
"Victoria, 5th September, 1871."
Their Treatment, Present and Future.
Treatment of
the Indians.
To complete the information as to the manner in which the Indians are
treated, and also with a view to aid in deciding upon a plan for their future
treatment, I beg to refer Your Excellency to Appendix AA, which is a memorandum prepared in January, 1870, by His Honor Lieutenant Governor
Trutch, then Commissioner of Lands and Works of Columbia, and to Appendix BB, which is a lelter addressed to me by His Lordship Bishop
d'Herbomcz, Vicar Apostolic of British Columbia. Your Excellency will
observe, by the former document, what has been the treatment of the Indians
by the Government of the Province, and by the second as well as by the
first, what are the suggestions which are offered as to their protection and
treatment in the future. I do not here, myself, express any opinion on this
subject, preferring to leave to my colleague, who is more especially charged with
the protection of the Indians, the initiation.of the measures to be taken in
regard thereto.
Indians an Important Population.
Importance of
the Indians.
.The Indians, as the Chief Justice has remarked, have been, and still are,
and will long continue, an important population for Columbia, in the capacity
oi guides, porters
and laborers.
lhey nave
learned, at least in the southern
parts, and in those places which are inhabited by the whites, to regard
authority with respect and fear. To them, the person of the British subject—
" King George Man" —as- they call him. is sacred, but such is not the case
with the American from the United States. For one reason or for another,
whether because they believe that the Indian races have been ill treated in the
American Union, or because they are impelled by some other motive, the
Indians of Columbia are' not partial to Americans. They do not however
attack them, for they know that the arm of the law would be able to reach
them even in the depths of their forests.
Their  charac- The  Indians,'throughout the whole of that  part  of Columbia which I
ter, visited, are faithful and trustworthy.    If you entrust a message or a letter
to  them,   yon  may  be  certain   that   they  will at once convey  it  to  its
' seasons, ho
meat, fish, furs, &c.; and the women in gathering fruits, which they dry.
These provisions are stored by the Indians, 30, 40, and 50 feet above the
ground, in the tops of trees, where they construct a description of storehouse,
the sanctity of which is invariably respected.
They are not equally industrious     In the hunting or fishing
ing up a stock of
OVCI «   vxxKj f    cALt
seen to work—the men in REPORT.
Their Progress towards Civilization.
Some  tribes  have  been induced  to  collect together in villages,   and Civilization of
progress has in this way been made toward their civilization.    Mr. Begbie tlie Indians-
speaks of the establishment founded by Mr. Duncan at Metlahkatlah, and
which I
cret not to h:
ive oeei
?-n able to visit, being situated jn the north of
nbia. where
able to go. But I saw at Victoria, the Convent
of the Ladies of St. Anne, where a number of young female Indians and half-
breeds receive an education which is as solid and as complete, as is obtainable
in many establishments of the same class in other parts of Canada.    I also
v X
remarked that at St. Mary, on the Fraser, between New Westminster and
«/   7 7
Yale, there was an important establishment founded by His Lordship Bishop
d'Herbomez, comprising a college and a convent for young Indians and half-
breeds, male and female. It was on the day of the re-opening of the classes,
and it was a pleasant thing to see hundreds of canoes and pirogues, manned
by Indians who came from a distance of 100 and even 200 miles to bring
their children to these educational establishments. They now appreciate the
advantages which their children derive from the education which they receive.
I was also not astonished to learn that at the periods of missions more than
2,000 would be assembled together at one time. There is also at Caowchan a
convent founded by the Rev. Mr. Rondeau, of Montreal, and intended for
the education of young female Indians and half-breeds. As in the case of
the Victoria and St. Mary Convents, education is here also imparted to the
young girls by the Sisters of* St. Anne.
•f CD   CD J
On the other hand in certain other villages, for instance near "Nanaimo,
where in one are found the "Nanaimos, in another the Euclatores, and on the
main land the Seychelles, but a very small number of the Indians are Christians, and their morals are excessively lax^ They sell their wives and
daughters to the first comer.    In Barclay Sound and, its vicinity are found
CD J «*
the Opitsiishahts, the Sishahts, the Ohiahts, the Ucluclets, the Toquahts, and
the Aiichuklesetts. In appearance they do not differ from the other Indians
of the south of Columbia, but they are idolaters, practice polygamy and only
abstain from thieving when there is nothing to their taste.
Indian Tombs.
The Indians appear to hold  their dead in great respect.    They erect Tombs of
tombs, which generally consist of a wooden pent-house, under which is a canoe "^a Indians,
containing the ashes of the deceased.    The canoe contains, in addition, cooking utensils, &c, and carved on wood may be seen rude representations of
© 7 7 j x
Indians with paddles, &c. Above the pent-house, floating in the wind are
standards in the case of a chief; and if the deceased has been a great warrior,
guns are hung upon it; if he has been a great hunter, the skins of wild animals
are placed there; and if he has Ijeen an expert horseman, the skins of two or
three horses bear testimony to his prowess. These tombs are placed at some
distance from the main road, often unon an eminence; they are respected by
Costume and Appearance of the Indians.
The Indians whom I saw, and they were many, were generally well Costume,
clothed.    They must, as has been said, contribute largely to the public reveoue
by their purchases of merchandise, such as cloth, blankets, &c. When they set
Out to engage in fishing thev are less particular about their dress.    I saw 80
of the Indians.
Indians on
numbers without any clothes at all, handling their paddles with great
dexterity, and seeming to believe that clothes impeded .their movements, and
were injurious to the success of their fishery.
The Indians of the south of Columbia are generally of a dark tint. They
wear their hair long, and do not appear to be particularly clean. In this they
differ from the northern Indians, whom I saw when going to Seymour's Narrows. The latter are of a clear tint, and are larger, stronger and more cleanly ;
in short they are a fine race.
The Indians of the lower Fraser, and those of Vancouver Island, move
about either in canoes or on foot. Those of the interior, on the main land,
travel on horseback, and in many cases raise hoises, either for sale, or to carry
merchandise from Yale to the mouth of the Quesnel, or to Barkerville.
belonging to
the Indians.
Indian Reserves.
The Indian tribes do not appear to receive any presents from the Government of Columbia. The Government has, however, established reserves of
land for their benefit; some of these reserves are well situated, and might, if
sold, produce an important fund for certain tribes. And there can be*no doubt
that, as several of these reserves are situated in the immediate vicinity of
Victoria, and of other centres of white population, it would be for the advantage
of the Indians that those reserves should be sold, and that they should be
removed to a distance from the towns, and induced to devote themselves to
agriculture and to certain manufacturing arts.
I understood that there'was in the Bank of British Columbia a sum of
$1,984 belonging of right to the tribe of the Songhees, opposite Victoria. It
was the produce of certain leases, which the Government conceded to white
men, of a part of the reserve belonging to that tribe. Except in special cases,
such as that just mentioned, the whites cannot settle on the lands of the
Indians. They are forbidden to do so by proclamations, acts and ordinances
respecting the public lands.
Sale of Liquor to the Indians.
Sale of intoxi- The whites are also forbidden to sell intoxicating liquors to the Indians,
g iquors. ku£ unforfcunat;eiy illicit traffic in this respect is carried on upon a large scale.
From cases that have come to light it is known that schooners and large
canoes are engaged in this nefarious business. From Vietoria the vessel
proceeds to the upper part of the country, in the northern portion of the
Gulf of Georgia, in order to be less liable to detection, and there confederates,
either whites or Indians, are at hand to take charge of the casks of brandy or
whiskey and convey them to the places where the Indians are encamped.
The stipendiary magistrates inflict severe punishment whenever a trader is
caught in the act, but unfortunately many of the guilty eseape. This subject
will not fail, I am certain, to receive the special attention of the Indian
Indian Languages.
Before concluding this chapter in relation to the Indians, I must add a
few words respecting their languages or dialects, which are very numerous.
I need not say that during the five weeks that I passed in Columbia it
was not possible for me to study these, so as to be able to speak of them from
personal knowledge. I was, nevertheless, enabled to ascertain, from conversation with educated men, who have passed several years in British Columbia,
8nd especially with Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, Esq., that their languages are r
difficult and as numerous as their tribes. In addition to all these, from the
moment the whites arrived in British Columbia, another medium of conversation was established, partly French, partly English, and partly Indian.
This singular tongue, which is called the " Chinook jargon," has as its basis, Chinook
besides the  English  and French languages,  the  language of the   Haidahs language °*
t» . • 1 arson.
(Northern Indians), which includes the Hygany, Massett, Skittgetts, Hanega,
and Cumshewas tribes, and the language of the Chiheelis and Chinooks, who
are southern Indians. The jargon is the language of commerce, and a knowledge
of it is indispensable to all who trade with the Indians, or have dealings with
them. And as our territory now extends to the Pacific, I consider it expedient to give with this report a dictionary of this Chinook jargon, which
will be of use to those who go to Columbia, and is interesting as showing
what transformations the Indian, English, and French languages have undergone on the Pacific Coast in consequence of the relations of the whites with
the Indians.    That dictionary constitutes Appendix CC.
Mr. Sproat's Work on the Indians.
I cannot leave the subject of the Indians without calling Your Excellency's Mr. Sproat's
attention to a work published by Mr. Gilbert Mafcolm Sproat, which I have F^ on tno
already   quoted.     The  title   of  this   work, which   is published  by Smith,
Elder <fe Co., of London, England, is uScenes and Studies of Savage Life'"
and although it does not treat of all the Indian tribes, as far as those of
CD \ 7 <    ^T
Vancouver Island are concerned, it gives in elegant  language  and in  a
highly interesting manner, valuable details as to their mode of life, their
;0 •/ O 7 7
intelligence, industry, language, <tc. These details are the more important
from being the result of observations made by Mr. Sproat in the course of
several years which he passed in the midst of the Indians, and from their
being communicated by one who was perfectly in position to bring to bear
a sound judgment in such matters.
Treaties with the Indians.
Appendix   DD.   contains   two  treaties with Indian tribes   which  are Treaties wi&i
given as specimens of the treaties which have been made with the Indians on tne Indiana.,
Vancouver Island.    It ^does not appear that any have been made with the
Indians of the main land.    Appendix EE. is a list of all the treaties which
have been made.
I now pass on to the public   works,   buildings,  and undertakings of Public works.
They comprise:
1. Lighthouses and buoys.
2. A dredge and a steamer.
3. Post offices.
4. Custom houses.
5. The Mint.
6. A Marine Hospital:
7. Court houses and jails.
8. A Penitentiary.
9. Legislative buildings.
10. Departmental buildings.
11. Governors' residences.
12. A telegraph line. 32
13. Harbors.
1 i. A graving dock.
15. Improvement of the navigation of the Fraser.
16. The great Cariboo Road.
17. The Pacific Railway.
18. The conveyance of the mails.
Lighthouses and Buoys.
Lighthouses. The lighthouses are three in number, two fixed and one floating.    The
two fixed lights are those of Race Rock and Fisgard.    The floating light is
,0 CD
that at the mouth of the Fraser River.
Race. Rock Light.
Race Rock Race Rock lighthouse is nine miles from Esquimalt Harbor, and is
Lighthouse, situated on nearly the--extreme southern point of Vancouver Island, in the
Strait of St. Juan de Fuca. This lighthouse, which was built in 1861, is
provided with a second dioptric light. It is about 118 feet above the level
of the sea. It shows a white revolving light, appearing every ten seconds,
and may be seen, in clear weather, from a distance of twenty-five miles.
It is built of stone upon a little island about 300 yards across. It
is painted black and white, in horizontal bands. It contains an alarm bell
for use in fogs. The lighthouse is solid, but needs some repairs; on the. outside the joints of the stone require pointing, and the keeper's residence also
needs repair. A new lightning conductor should be put up, and the apparatus
of the light and of the alarm bell both require improvement.    At this light-
hbuSe   there are a principal keeper (Mr. Argyle)r. two  assistants, and  the
keeper's wife.
Fisgard Lighthouse.
Fisgard Light.
Msgard lighthouse is situated on the western point of the entrance to
Esquimalt Harbor, which is three miles from Victoria. It was built in 1860,
and is white; the light is a stationary one, of the fourth class, and in clear
Weather may be seen from a distance of ten miles. It is seventy feet above
the level of the sea. The lighthouse, which is of brick, requires repair on
the outside. The joints will have to be pointed, and the whole painted. The
stairs leading from the water's edge to the lighthouse should be entirely rebuilt. A keeper (Mr. Bevis) and his wife reside here; this keeper was
appointed in March, 1861 ; he is intelligent and industrious. He should be
provided with a good self-indicating thermometer to continue the tables,
which he keeps with great care.
'raser River Light.
Fraser River
floating light*   j^
The Fraser River floating light is situated at the mouth of £hat river,
was constructed in 1865. It has a fixed white light, which can be discerned in clear weather from a distance of fifteen miles. The light is about
forty feet above the level of the sea, and is composed of eight lamps. It is
useful not only for craft entering the Fraser River, but also for vessels sailing
■/ CD 7 £3
along a part of the eastern coast of Vancouver Island. This light stood in
need of some slight repairs at the time I Was in Colilmbia. It is attended
by a chief keeper, three assistants, and the keeper's wife, who prepares meals
for all. REPORT.
Lighthouses asked for.
In addition to the foregoing, it has been suggested that lighthouses
should be constructed at the following points, viz.:—
1. At Cape Beale on the western coast of Vancouver Island. This
lighthouse, which should be provided with a first class light and powerful
fog whistle,, would serve in the first place as a guide to navigators desirous
of entering the Strait of Fuca, and prevent their being cast away on
\he coast; it would also serve to mark the entrance to Barclay Sound,
which is a very deep harbor, and which, I have not the slightest doubt, will
hereafter become one of the most important places on the Island. Indeed,
from its outlet as far as the head of the Alberni Canal, for a distance of
thirty-five miles Barclay Sound is navigable. It almost entirely crosses the
whole breadth of Vancouver, being at its head only fourteen miles from the
eastern coast of the island. Some years ago, considerable lumbering operations were carried on there, and sp far as scenery is concerned, few parts of
the world can present anything more worthy of observation.
2. A lighthouse with a fourth class light at the entrance of Victoria
Harbor; that harbor being difficult of access in the night time, and being also
the principal port of entry in the Province.
3. On Lighthouse or Entrance Island, outside the entrance to Nanaimo
Harbor on the eastern side of Vancouver Islancl. The light placed here
should be visible at a distance of fifteen miles. This lighthouse would be
extremely useful, for at present navigators cannot enter that port during the
night, and are compelled to anchor. This is the port resorted to in order to
obtain coal from the two mines of which I have already spoken. Now, apart
from the floating light at the entrance of the Fraser, there is no light, except
the American lighthouse at Smith's Island, which is only of use to vessels
navigating American waters. This new lighthouse would also serve to guide
vessels crossing the Gulf of Georgia, and going to the east coast of Vancouver
Island, towards the Fraser, or vice versa.
On this subject Captain Richards of the Royal Navy says :—
" Either Lighthouse or Entrance Island offers a good site for a lighthouse,
" which will soon be required at Nanaimo; but perhaps under all the circuwi-
" stances, Entrance Island is the more eligible, as it would show a vessel her
" position in the Strait of Georgia, and serve to clear that dangerous shoal,
" the Gabriola Reef; by far the greater amount of traffic also would always
I be from the southward and eastward; a light in this position would lead a
" vessel through Fairway Channel, until the south point of Protection Island
" opened out, where a small harbor light would enable a vessel at night to
| take up a berth within the entrance, instead of remaining outside, where
" the water is too deep for anchorage."
4. A lighthouse, of minor importance, on Turn Point, Stewart's
Island, would complete the lighting of the coast from Victoria to Nanaimo.
5. At Point Gray, at the entrance to the Harbor of Burrard Inlet,
w   7 7
on the, main land. This harbor is that most resorted to by vessels loading
with lumber. It is a magnificent harbor, but one which, without a light at its
entrance, can only be entered by vessels during the day-time. The light should
be visible from a distance of at least fifteen miles, and would tend, together with
the floating light at the mouth of the Fraser and that on Lighthouse Island,
near Nanaimo, to make the navigation of the Gulf of Georgia much safer.
Reserves for lighthouses in various places have been set apart by the
Government of Columbia. I hope to be able to give a list of these in the
Appendices to this Report.
Besides the lighthouses wdiich I have mentioned, there are at Victoria,
at Nanaimo, and on the Fraser River, a number of buoys, which require
Lighthouse at
Cape Beale.
Lighthouse at
the Harbor of
near Nanaimo.
Lighthouse on
Lighthouse at
Burrard Inlet.
Reserves for
Lighthouses. .#
constant attention.    Those on the Fraser River are specially liable to change
their position, and this year they had to be repaired and restored to their
respective places, complaints being preferred by the trade that they no longer
indicated either the channel or the rocks.
Names, &c. of In Appendix FF are given the names,'rank, ages, salaries, and dates of
keepers of ex- appointment, of the persons employed at the existing lighthouses.
istmg    Light-   Ir f r r   J o    o
Dredge. I visited the dredge which is lying in the Harbor of Victoria, and has
become the property of Canada. It is strong, and in good condition. It has
not been used for several years, and consequently will require to be thoroughly
overhauled before being employed again ; an expenditure of from $6,000 to
$7,000 will probably be necessary. I shall not here enter upon the history
of this machine. I procured from the Government of the Province ample
details respecting this dredge, which wilt be foimd in Appendix GG. By it,
Your Excellency will perceive that the dredge with its four lighters or scows,
and the steamer " Sir James Douglas," which belongs to Canada, cost
$92,000. The lighters or scows are considered to be too large and clumsy,
and it is suggested that four smaller ones should be substituted for them :
GO j
these  would cost about $2,000.    The Honorable Mr. Pearse estimates the
annual   outlay ' entailed by this machine  and   the   steamer   " Sir  James *
Douglas/' at $24,000.    For my part I am satisfied that that outlay could be
greatly diminished by allowing the steamer " Sir James Douglas " to continue
in her present service, and by making use of a small tug when required.
James Doug
Steamer "Sir James Douglas."
The steamer " Sir James Douglas " performs the postal service between
Victoria, Nanaimo and Comox, and serves the intermediate ports. She has
a nominal strength of 40 horse-power; she measures a little more than 153
tons, 110 feet keel, and 18 feet 8 inches beam. She is built of wood with
copper bolts and iron knees. She is very strong, and may be considered
equal to the service of the inner waters of Columbia, but could never be used
for service on the Pacific ; her speed is from 8 to 9 knots an hour. She is
commanded by Captain William Clarke, an excellent sailor, highly deserving
of the confidence which is reposed in him. He has under his command an
engineer, two firemen, three other sailors and an Indian, The vessel carries
passengers and freight. The receipts and expenditure during the last six
years have been :— 'Wtfl
Receipts     $76,756
Expenditure    ,...       74,540
In the amount credited to receipts is included a sum of $4,200, which
was the consideration demanded by the proprietor of an inferior steam vessel
for the transportation of the mails. The expenditure does not comprise the
amount of the interest on the cost of the vessel, nor her annual deterioration. Appendix HH contains fuller details respecting this steamer, which
is also made use of to convey supplies to Race Rock Lighthouse.
Post Offices
and Custom
At Victoria<
Post Offices and Custom Houses.
The post offices and custom  houses belonging to Canada in Columbia,
are situated at Victoria, and at New Westminster.
Building at Victoria.
The building in which the post office and custom house at Victoria are
located   is   a   wretched wooden one,  entirely unfit for   the   purposes   to REPORT,
which it is devoted. The lot on whjch it is situated is 90 feet by 67, and
belongs to the Government. It will be necessary to erect a suitable building,
proportionate not only to the present, but also to the future requirements of
the capital of the Province.
' Building at New Westminster.
The corresponding building at New Westminster is sufficient for the At New West-
requirements of that section.    It requires some slight repairs, which will minster,
make it still more fit for the purposes to which it is applied.
The Mint and Assay Office.
Some years ago a Mint was established at New Westminster.    All the The Mint,
necessary  machinery or apparatus   was imported by  the  Government   of
v %7 I   X X *7
Columbia and put in operation; the total cost being $8,609. Some gold pieces
were then coined ; of these I saw two of the denomination of $10, and two of
$20, each.    The establishment was very soon closed, as it was found that it
did  not pay expenses.    The machinery or apparatus is however  carefully
preserved.    It appeared to me to be in very good order.    It is under the
care of Mr. Claudet, who has also charge of the Gold Assaving Office at New Assaying
Westminster, of  which there  is  a branch at Barkerville in the  District umc*'
of Cariboo.    If the mines of Cariboo and of the District of Ominica continue
to yield as rich results as is expected; and if, as  is  generally believed,
the gold-bearing region on the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains is as
rich and extensive as it is said to be,  the question will arise whether it
would not be for the interest of Canada to strike coin instead of allowing all
that gold dust to be exported to San Francisco, there to swell the United
States currency.
Appendix YY contains further information in regard to these buildings.
Marine Hospital.
There is no Marine Hospital in Columbia; but one of the conditions of Marine Hos-
the Act uniting that Province with Canada, is that there shall be one located Plt&b
<77 7
at Victoria. Such an establishment is absolutely necessary. Hitherto, sick
seamen have been received into the Royal Hospital at Victoria, and into that
at New Westminster, which are purely local hospitals, intended for the necessities of the inhabitants of Victoria and of New Westminster and their vicinity.
The outlay occasioned by the attendance which it is necessary to bestow upon
sick sailors, is considerable, and should) as soon as possible, cease to be at the
cost of the Province.
Court Houses.
I visited the principal court-houses of Columbia, and satisfied myself that Courts of
they are sufficient for the requirements of the Province.    At Victoria, the Justice,
courts are held in one of the public buildings, of which I shall shortly speak.
The building is partly  of brick  and partly of  wood.    Some trifling  additions, chargeable to the provincial treasury, will obviate the necessity of a
new building for a number of years.    At New Westminster and at Nanaimo
CD v
the. buildings used for the same purpose, without being models of architecture,
are.suflicient for the present, 36
The Jails of Victoria and New Westminster, as well as the local Jails of
Nanaimo and Yale, appear to have been built with care, the three former of
wood and that at Yale of stone. These jails, without being, as secure or as
strongly built as those in certain other Provinces of the Confederation, do
not appear to allow of the escape of the delinquents confined in them more
frequently than is the case in the older Provinces. They are managed witk
care and economy, and presented, at the time of my visit, an appearance of
remarkable cleanliness.
Sit3 of the
There is no Penitentiary in Columbia; but in virtue of the Act for the
union of that Province with Canada, the latter took upon herself the erection
of one. At the present time, prisoners who have been condemned to imprisonment with hard labor are confined in the jails of Victoria and New
Westminster, and during the day they are chained and employed, at New
Westminster and its vicinity, in working on the streets and .highways, and
«.    7 CD O J       7
at Victoria in improving the property on which the residence of the Lieutenant
X CD) x i %/
Governor is situated. At one time it was the practice for them to work
also on the streets of Victoria, but public sentiment was opposed to it,
and has been respected by the Government, which has ceased to employ
them in that manner.
The accommodation afforded by the present jails is becoming too scanty
even to contain the prisoners, much more to admit of their being put to any
occupation within the prison* walls. If prisoners sentenced to more than two
years' confinement could, as in the other Provinces, be sent to a penitentiary,
the existing jails might suffice for delinquents sentenced to a shorter term of
imprisonment; and the punishment would be regarded by the convicts, when
they were aware that they would be sent to the penitentiary, as more severe,
and it would, moreover,be possible in such an institution t© classify and reform
The question now is, at what place the penitentiary should be erected.
For my part, I have no hesitation in recommending New Westminster as the
most suitable site. There is there, at what is called the Camp, some few
minutes' walk from the centre of the town, and on the bank of the Fraser
a considerable piece of land, which is public property, and which
is, in my opinion, the most desirable site. Prisoners from Victoria might
easily, and in a few hours, be conveyed thither by steamer, and those from
the mainland could be brought from the interior, by the Cariboo road, as far
as Yale, and thence by steamer to New Westminster. Should the land on
that side of the Fraser not be sufficient, there is, on the other side of the
river, immediately opposite, another very large reserve, which might be
utilized for convict labor.
Legislative Building.
The Legislative building, though not a palace, is a very good edifice of
brick and wood, sufficient for the requirements of the local Legislature. It
is situated at Victoria, close to the centre of business ; and upon the same
lot of land, which is about seven acres in extent, are the buildings for the
use of the law courts, and for the offices of the Lieutenant-Governor and the
public departments of the Province. All these buildings and this land are
evidently necessary for the Government and Legislature of Columbia, and an
Qrcjer in Council should hereafter, in conformity with the Act of Confedera- REPORT.
tion, formally appropriate them for those purposes, similar action  being also
taken in respect to court-houses and jails.
Governors' Residences.
There are two Governor's residences in Columbia, that at Victoria and Governora*
that at New Westminster. This is to be attributed to the fact that, at no very Residenoes.
remote period, the present Province constituted two distinct colonies, with
separate governments. Those two colonies having been merged some time
previous to Confederation, into the existing Province of British Columbia,
the seat of government of the new Province was fixed at Victoria, and the
pleasant residence at New Westminster, which, through the splendid hospitality of certain Governors, had become highly popular, was abandoned and
placed in charge of a keeper, William Loudon, who receives for his services
$40 a month.
This residence at New Westminster is of wood, and is in tolerably good Residence
order.    It might be utilized, as well as other wooden buildings which are in at New^
the vicinity, as a residence for the Director of Penitentiaries, if the penal Westminster,
institution be erected at the Camp, which adjoins this property.    The building contains most of the furniture used by the last Governor of the colony.
The remainder  was  removed to Victoria when the seat of government of
the new Province was fixed there.
The official residence of the present Lieutenant-Governor of British Residence
Columbia is situated on an elevated site, in the immediate vicinity of Victoria. a* Victoria.
The edifice, which is spacious, is built partly of stone and partly of wood.
It is in a tolerable state of repair, and is surrounded by large and beautiful
gardens, the land attached to it being rather more than twenty-seven acres
in extent. There is a ground-rent of ten pounds sterling on the property.
The furniture in use by the last Governor of Columbia before Confederation
remained in the residence, which was not, at the time of my departure
from Columbia, occupied by His Honor the Lieuten:int-Govemor; it will,
however, doubtless be so before long. The site, although the prospect is
very fine, was not selected with a view to the present position of affairs.
Hie upper portion of itis a rock, almost barren, upon which earthhasbeen carted,
which does not, however, everywhere conceal its arid nature.    There is no
7 7 %/
water, which has therefore to be brought from considerable distances. Thus,
the outlay of a Lieutenant-Governor there would necessarily be very
large.     This   consideration was   evidentlv not  taken  into account at the
CD v
time when the Governor of the country had a high salary.   Now that the salary
J CD v m
only amounts to $7,000, it follows that to enable the Lieutenant-Governor
to reside there, he'must be provided with a house easily supplied with water
and fuel, and I have reason to believe that public opinion in Columbia tends
in this direction. This property, like the others which I have already
mentioned, should be transferred by Order in Council.
Telegraph Lines.
By the Act completing the union of Columbia with Canada, the telegraph Telegraph
lines of that Province became the property of the Dominion, and are a charge lines,
upon it. These telegraph lines extend from Swinomish, in Washington
Territory (United States) to Barkerville, at the extremity of the Cariboo
Road. There is, besides, a branch from Matsqui to Burrard Inlet vid New
Westminster, in addition to a telegraphic right of way over the line
belonging to the Western Union Telegraph Company, from Swinomish to Victoria, which comprises two submarine cables. This line of
telegraph is 569 miles long, in addition to the submarine portion, which is
t^isiii^ ii BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Cost of Maintenance and
a mile and a quarter in length; it originally cost $170,000.    Besides this,
line, there is that from the mouth of the Quesnel to the §fabine, but the
and is abandoned.
has not been kept up
in virtue of which the Government of British Columbia held
this line of telegraph, constitutes Appendix 11, of this Report
This line of telegraph, nearly the whole of which I saw, appeared to me
to be generally in good condition, only standing in need of ordinary current
repairs; the instruments and batteries are good; the wire is No. 9 galvanized.
Your Excellency will observe by the title in Appendix I.I. that the line
is' under our control in virtue of a lease for 999 years, to which the Government may put an end by giving a month's notice. The telegraph line is a
charge upon the Government, which has to maintain in a good state of repair,
and at its own expense, the portion under water; and in consideration of this, all messages between Victoria aud Swinomish are to be transmitted by the Western Union Company without charge.
The cost of the maintenance of this line from the 1st January, 1871, to
the 1 st July i follow ing, including salaries of superintendents, travelling
expenses, wages of operators, and cost of repairs to the cables, was $5,287,
making the total for the year $10,574.
On the other hand, the revenue during the same period was only $2,394,
or $4,788 for the whole year. But the line*to Barkerville having been
opened only on the 15th July, and the receipts at that office up to the 25th
August having been $258, there is reason to believe that the revenue from
the line will be considerably increased, while the additional expense will
hardly be more than $600. So that I conclude that the expenditure will
be about $11,250 a year, and the revenue about $6,000. The revenue will,
therefore, have to be supplemented by a vote of from $5,000 to $6,000,
until such time as^the revenue, in consequence of the opening up and peopling
of the land, shall have increased.
The tariff now in force on the line is as follows:
Tariff of the Telegraph Line of Columbia.
Spence's Bridge
83-Mile Honse
Soda Creek...
New Westminster
Burrard Inlet.
Chilukweyuk .
• r-l
lio j
001 •
5oi r
1   $
• iH
e3   1
'75   '
50|l-00jl- 0011 -00! -75,
5011-2511-25 1-00 1-00
The following is a statement of the names of the telegraph operators, Telegraph
and  of their  respective   stations.      I add to the list   their ages, salaries Operator*.
and  date  of appointment,  and  I  point  out  whether  they  are   operators
only, or whether it is their duty at the same time to see to the repairs of the
fames of Operators.   Ages.
Sehpme W. T..
New Westminster
Burrard Inlet	
Spence's Bridge..
83 Mile House ...
Soda Cr*
F. H. Lamb, Supi
W. Larman	
John Maclure.	
Geo. B. Murray...
Date of
C. M; Chambers .
Jn@. McCutcheon.
J. C. Wirth	
John Nicholles	
T. R Buie	
Jno. Murray	
J. L. S. Hughes...
Murdo Boss	
Henry Yeates	
A. Barlow	
J. B. Leiffhton	
1st June 1870.
April 1871.
Oct. 1870.
Oct. „
Oct. „
May 1871.
perator &repairer
The operators at Burrard Inlet, Lytton, and Spence's Bridge do not appear
in this list as receiving any salary, and the following is the reason:—
The branch from New Westminister to Burrard Inlet, was built by
Messrs. Moody and Co., for their use, the Western Union Company furnishing
the materials and Messrs. Moody and Co. paying the cost of construction.
v X      %> CD
That arrangement was then made, it would appear, because the other establishments engaged in the lumber business refused to contribute their share.
Messrs. Moody and Co. pay the operator and have, I am told, a right
to send their despatches over that branch without paying, the line nevertheless
JL J-        v *>7
belonging to the Government.    I am satisfied that arrangements might easily
O        O CD CD J
be made with that respectable firm* for placing this part of the telegraphic
system on the same footing as the principal line.
The operator at Lytton has the right of sending his own messages
without charge, in consideration of which he performs the duties of operator
without salary.
The operator at Spence's Bridge performs the duty, it would appear, as a
relaxation and receives no pay.
Mr. Lamb, the superintendent is an American citizen.     He is an able Superinten-
and very efficient officer, and has had great experience in telegraphy.    He dent of the
also acts as the superintendent of the American line from Victoria to Portland, tel*SraPn-
Washington Territory, and under an understanding with that company he
divides his time and his services between that section of their line and the
telegraph belonging to British Columbia, receiving $100 a month for each of
those lines.
Mr. Lamb's services are valuable, not only on account of his experience
in the superintendence of a telegraph line, but also, and more especially, on
account of his practical knowledge of the locality and of the met hod of constructing and repairing' that line of telegraph. It would be desirable, however, that the time and services of the existing superintendent, or of an
equally competent person should be exclusively devoted to our line; but in 40
that case, if I am to rely upon the information which I received, the whole
salary would have to be insured to the person employed, that is to say $200 a
Maintenance and Repairs.
Maintenance The telegraph line is at the present time kept in a good state of repair
SJgraphKn? ^ Mr* Lamb under tne provisional direction of the local department of Lands
' ' and Works.    The local Government  allows Mr. Lamb the assistance of its
officers and employes to maintain and repair the line ; and this is the more
easy from the fact that the telegraph line, throughout nearly its whole extent
follows the course of the great Cariboo road.
I was informed in Columbia that it had been the intention to insert, in
any new contract for the conveyance of the mails between Yale and Cariboo,
a condition providing for the gratuitous conveyance of persons charged with the
duty of repairing the line; and in that case, all telegraphic despatches necessary
for the postal service, and required by post office officials in connection with
that service, would have been transmitted free of charge.
New telegraph The opening of a telegraph office at Cache Creek is suggested.    Such an
office. office would be very useful for the maintenance and repair of the line, and
would serve the already considerable and growing establishments on the east
and south-west in the direction of Kamloops, the Thompson River, the
Okanagan Valley <fec.    It would be almost absolutely necessary in order to
CD *S %7 %7
communicate with the surveying parties, and for the construction of the railway. The monthly outlay would be $75, but if the operator were also the
postmaster of the district, the revenue of the office would be increased, and
would probably, before long, considerably diminish the expenditure, if it did
not entirely meet it.
By Whom the Line should be Administered.
By whom the The question now arises whether the Canadian Government should con-
telegraph tinue to retain this line of telegraph under its management, or whether it
ministered would not be better to replace the whole in the hands of the local Government
of Columbia, an annual sum being paid to that Government until such time
as, in consequence of the country having become sufficiently populous, the
telegraph line shall become self-supporting. My own opinion is that if the
Federal Government continues to manage the line itself, the cost of working
will be much greater than it would he to the local Government, which
has already on the Cariboo road its superintendents, officers and employes charged with the duty of keeping that great medium of communication
in a good state of repair; while the Federal Government would have to employ
new hands, or convey the permanent employe's over considerable distances,
whenever repairs to the line became necessary. I am therefore inclined to
think that it would be more satisfactory to the Government of Canada and to
that of the Province, to leave the management in the hands of the local Government, who should receive an annual fixed sum from Ottawa.
Harbors of
Harbor of
Harbors of Vancouver Island.
The principal harbors of Vancouver Island are :—1. Victoria; 2. Esquimalt ; 3. Nanaimo; 4. Barclay Sound.
1. The harbor of Victoria derives its importance from the fact that
Victoria, the capital, is built at its head. It would appear that it would
frave been much more reasonable, and advantageous for the future of the REPORT.
capital, that it should have been built at Esquimalt harbor in the immediate
vicinity,which is. a commodious and beautiful port, while that of Victoria is
small and difficult of access. However, private interests without doubt
originally determined the selection of Victoria, and as it is the principal port
of entry, and that at which the customs duties of the entire Province are in
V    7
great part received, it is important that the approach to it should be made safe.
In 1862 a commission drew up a report suggesting a plan for the
improvement of this harbor (vide Appendix G.G.), and it was in consequence
of that report that the Government procured a dredge, with scows and a
tug-boat; but as I have already stated the scheme fell through in consequence of the excessive expenditure whith its execution would have entailed
on the Provincial Government, and the entrance of the harbor is therefore
still obstructed by a bar of sand upon which vessels frequently ground, and
which it will be necessary to remove in whole Vr in part. There are also
some rocks opposite Deadman's Point, which should be blasted. On this
subject Captain G. H. Richards, of the Royal Navy, says:—
" The entrance to Victoria Harbor is shoal, narrow and intricate, and
" with S.W. or S.E. gales, a heavy rolling sea sets on the coast, which renders
1 the anchorage outside unsafe, while vessels of burthen cann@t run-in for
" shelter unless at or near high water. Vessels drawing fourteen or fifteen feet
** water may, under ordinary circumstances, enter at such times of tide, and
I ships drawing seventeen feet have entered, through only at the top of spring
I tides."
There are besides deposits of mud in the harbor which must be removed
unless the harbor is to cease to be frequented by any vessels except small
coasting craft. Should the Canadian Government cause this work to be
carried out, the mud and stones removed in dredging the harbor might be
deposited in that part of it which is called James' Bay, which has a superficial extent of some ten acres, and which might then become a valuable
property. The local Government should transfer that property to the Federal
Government, or should contribute to the cost of the dredging in consideration
of James' Bay being made the place of deposit of the material dredged up,
and acquiring thereby a considerable value.
Appendix J J. is an extract from a report made in Noveniber 1868, by
the Honorable Mr. Trutch en this subject.
.2. The harbor of Esquimalt is considered the best harbor on the Pacific EBquimalt,
coast, north of San Francisco. It is well lighted and may be entered with
facility either by day or by night, in fine or in stormy weather. It is the
Canadian harbor at which the Pacific Squadron of the British Navy is stationed. It has an almost even depth of thirty-six feet, the bottom^ is excellent, and the harbor is perfectly safe and sheltered. Here fifty vessels of the
line might anchor with ease.
Free water communication between the two harbors of Victoria and
Esquimalt is only prevented by a tongue of land about 750 feet wide. It is
a question whether at some later date it will not be necessary to cut a canal
through that tongue of land, and thus connect the navigable waters of the
two harbors. Esquimalt would then become, without question, the entrance
to Victoria, as nature would appear to have intended. This is a subject for
future consideration.
3. The harbor of Nanaimo is situated on the eastern coast of Vancouver Nanaimo
Island, about sixty-five miles from Victoria,    It is the port Qf "that coast,
10—6 42
Barclay Sound
The coal mines, now being worked, are there situated, and in its neighborhood
also lie the fine quarries of Departure Bay. Further importance attaches
to this harbor in view of the fisheries, and especially of the whale fishery.
As I have already pointed out, the harbor requires a lighthouse and one or
two buoys to indicate the position of a submerged rock. To sum up, it is
well situated, large and safe. *
Barclay Sound.
4. Barclay sound is the principal harbor on the western coast of Vancouver Island. It is but little known in Columbia at the present day, because
the lumber trade which was carried on there has ceased. It seems to be feared
that this harbor may be selected as the terminus of the Pacific Railway, and
that in that case Esquimalt and Victoria would be shorn of their importance. For my part, I entertain no such dread. Whatever spot may be selected
as the terminus of the Canadian trans-continental Railway, Esquimalt will
not the less continue to be one of the finest harbors in the world, and that
of Victoria will continue to enjoy the importance conferred upon it by the
Capital of the Province.
However this may be, Barclay Sound opens into the Pacific Ocean itself;
From its mouth to the head of the Alberni Canal it is about thirty-five miles
long. At that point it is but fourteen miles from the eastern coast of Vancouver, and easy communication from it to that coast may be had through a pass in
the mountains, and by Lake Horne and the River Quahlicum. In Barclay
Sound and the natural canal of Alberni, the water is very deep, and once in
the harbor the shelter is perfect. As I have said elsewhere this is one of the
most picturesque harbors in the world. It is studded with large and small
islets clothed with verdure; the hills.are well wooded and on some lofty peaks
eternal snows may be discerned. There are here some fishing establishments
and at the head of the Alberni Canal, is a small town now deserted.
Here formerly flourished the saw mills of Messrs. Anderson & Co. Then
there were some 280 persons employed in the mills, the little town had a
population of 600 souls, and in the adjacent waters rode large vessels of 1000
tons, which bore away to distant parts the timber which the district produced.
Now nothing is to be seen but the Indian who formerly made the place his
abode; and the civilization which once visited the spot would seem to
have doomed it to barbarism or solitude. And yet if the terminus of the
Pacific Railway is destined to be situated on Vancouver Island, it may be
that the voice of civilization may again before long make itself heard in that
I have above stated that at the entrance of Barclay Sound, at Cape
Beale, it is necessary that a lighthouse of the first-class should be erected.
There can be no doubt that it will be requisite at a later date to place also
a few buoys, and possibly to erect one or two lighthouses, of third or fourth
class, if the harbor should attain the importance, to which at a period more
or less near, I am of opinion that it will rise.
Harbars on the
Harbors on the Mainland.
The principal harbors on the mainland are,—1. Burrard Inlet; 2. Howe
Sound; 3. Bute Inlet; 4. Milbank Sound; 5. The River Skeena | 6. The
River Nass.
Burrard Inlet.
Burrrrl Inlet? 1- The harbor of Burrard Inlet is one of the finest on the Pacif c Coast.
It is situated on the Gulf of Georgia, only a few miles, from New West- REPORT.
minster on the Fraser River. From the first narrows the harbor is nine miles
in length ; it is deep and safe. There it is that the lumber trade of Columbia
in principally carried on. The timber which is cut in the district, lying
between Lillouet and the Gulf of Georgia, reaches Messrs. Moodie and Co's
mills5 at Burrard Inlet by means of an immense dry slide half-a-mile in length,
which gives passage to the enormous saw-logs of which 1 have spoken elsewhere. Leaving behind them a long train of smoke, they plunge into the
deep water, causing the spray to fly up into the air some thirty feet, and are
then retained in powerful and perfectly secure booms.
This harbor is of very great importance, as it is frequented by a large
number of vessels—by as many probably as all the other harbors put together—
and as, being situated in the centre of the timber trade and near the outlet of
the tract of country crossed by the Cariboo road, it must at a future period
be the adjunct of an important town. The populatien at present consists of
400 or 500 whites, and 600 or 700 Indians. Captain G. H. Richards of the
Royal Navy speaks of it in the following terms :—
" Burrard Inlet differs from most of the great sounds of this coast, in
I being extremely easy of access to vessels of any size or class, and in the convenient depth of the water for anchorage, which may be found in almost every
part of it; its close proximity to Fraser River, with the great facilities/or
constructing roads between the two places, likewise adds considerably to its
importance. It is divided into three distinct harbours, viz.: English Bay, or
| the outer anchorage ; Coal Harbour, above the first narrows ; and Port
"•Moody, at the head of the eastern arm of the inlet."
A lighthouse is required at the entrance of the harbor, and some buoys
will also be necessary at other points.
Howe Sound.
2. Howe Sound is a harbor immediately to the north: of Burrard Inlet. Howe Sound.
I^did not visit it, and cannot therefore speak of it from personal knowledge.
If, however, I may rely upon reports which were made to me, it is difficult of
access as compared with Burrard Inlet. It is separated from the latter by
Bowen Island, which is situated at its mouth, and which forms the north-west
boundary of Burrard Inlet. It cannot be looked upon as a harbor of any great
importance, in view of the immediate vicinity of Burrard Inlet, which is the
natural port of the whole district.
Bute Inlet.
Bute Inlet
is much  further to the north than Howe Sound, and Bute Inlet.
receives the waters of the River Homatheo.    The harbor is surrounded by
lofty mountains, and may hereafter attain some importance, especially if the
Pacific Railway should pass in the vicinity.  Between its outlet and Vancouver
Island is situated Valdes Island.
Milbank Sound.
4. Milbank Sound lies still further to the north than Bute Inlet, and is ^ibank
only mentioned here to be of record, for at the present time the harbor is one Sound,
ot no importance. Still, if the gold mines of the Peace River continue to
yield well, and to attract the gold-mining population, as appears likely to be
the case, one of the routes followed by the miners being that by the Straits
of Georgia and Johnstone, Milbank Sound may become valuable as a harbor
of refuge, and perhaps also as a point of departure for the interior. 44
River Skeena.
River Ske&na.
5. Steam vessels from Nanaimo now ascend the River Skeena. It is
one of the routes selected by miners in order to reach the District of Ominica
(Peace River). This river is acquiring importance, arid will probably require
some lighthouses and buoys. It will be necessary to establish over-this route
a regular postal service for the miners.
River Nass.
River Nass. 6. The River Nass is a little further to the north than the Skeena, and
derives a certain amount of importance from its giving access to a more
northern region than that near the Skeena, and from there being reason to
believe that that region is also rich in gold mines. Both are valuable also in
respect of the fisheries ; they are navigable over a considerable part of their
course. They receive the waters from the Lake, or from the vicinity of the
llake Ala!, which is on the high lands. The River Nass is^ quite close to the
frontier of Alaska, which by no means detracts from its importance. The
steamer " Union " ascended it in 1865 to a distance of more than 25 miles
from its mouth.
Graving Dock.
G-raring dock.
Site of the
Necessity for
its cpnstruc-
The graving dock is one of the public works to which the highest importance is attached in Columbia, at least in Vancouver Island. That work is
specially mentioned in the conditions of union between that Province and
Canada.    It is there said :—
" The Dominion Government shall guarantee the interest for ten yeafs.
^D %f
" from the date of the completion of the works, at the rate of five per centum
" per annum on such sum not exceeding XI00,000 sterling, as may be required
" for the construction of a first-class graving dock at Esquimalt"   .
' The site of that dock having been thus designated, I made it my duty
personally to examine the harbor of Esquimalt, and to ascertain for myself
what place was considered the most suitable by scientific men. Admiral
Farquhar, without whose kind assistance, most courteously rendered, in
placing his gunboats at my disposal, I should have found it quite impracticable to visit many points of interest in the Province, was good enough to
point out to me himself the site of the future graving dock. The place would
appear to.have been made expressly for the purpose; it is called Lang or
Constance Cove, and is situate inside the harbor. The bay or cove is
perfectly sheltered, and is not exposed to be attacked by an enemy. A
commission composed of naval officers, appointed in 1867 by Admiral Hastings,
made a minute examination of the spot. That commission reported that
the soundings shewed that there were no stones or rock to blast. At flood-
tide there are twenty-four feet of water, and the bottom is excellent and hard,
consisting of sand and shells.
The construction of this dock is absolutely necessary for the navy as
well as for the merchant service. British frigates stationed on the Pacific,
are at present obliged to proceed to the United States (San Francisco), to be
docked. The cost of the docking there is very great. Not less than ,£30,000
sterling has been expended in two years in these repairs The expenditure of
that enormous sum at Esquimalt, supposing there had been a dock in exist-
ance, would have yielded to the English Government much more satisfactory
results, for it would have sufficed for a much more thorough refitting than
the vessels actually underwent.    Moreover the necessity for going to  San BS
Francisco to dock vessels, must, as a natural result, cause the docking to
be less frequent, and thereby render the British naval service less effective
in that part of the globe.
It may perhaps be asked why Esquimalt was selected as the site of the
graving dock, in preference to Nanaimo, or Burrard Inlet. In reply to this
question, I was told that the last four British admirals on the station had
strongly recommended that course to be adopted, and that Esquimalt should
be the rendezvous of the British navy on the Pacific.     It was stated, in
v 7
addition, that this place afforded great advantages for building, apart from
the fact that it is the first harbor reached by vessels from the Pacific, after
their entrance into the Strait of San Juan de Fuca. It is also believed
that, Esquimalt being easy of access, vessels from "Washington territory would
find it advantageous to go into dock there.
It is true that,  at Nanaimo, tides  rising very high  (18 feet in  the Why Esqui-
spring), and stone being found in the vicinity, a graving dock could have been mf ^^
constructed with tolerable ease, but,  on the other hand, it is stated, that
locality would not have been  as convenient for the navy, or for vessels
frequenting Puget Sound.
Since my departure from British Columbia, the Provincial Government Tenders for its
has called for tenders for the construction of the dock in the following construction,
" The Government of British Columbia invite tenders to be sent in to
f. the Lands and Works Office, Victoria, up to noon of the 20th day of March,
I 1872, for the construction of a graving dock at Esquimalt, British
$ Columbia, under the guarantee provided in the twelfth section of the terms
(t of union of this Province with the Dominion of .Canada, which section is
" in the following words :
" The Dominion Government shall guarantee the interest for ten years
l( from the date of the completion of the works, at the rate of five per cent.
per annum, on such sum not exceeding £100,000 sterling, as may be required for the construction of a first-class graving dock at Esquimalt.
" The dock is to be of a clear length of not less than 450 feet, a clear
" breadth of 90 feet at top and 50 at bottom, and affording a depth of
water, at ordinary high^tide, of not less than 24 feet on the sill, and
to be substantially built upon a site to be selected, and provided by the
party or parties tendering, subject to the approval of the Government.
Parties tendering are required to specify the time within which they propose
to complete the dock.
" Tenders are to be sealed, superscribed " Tenders for Esquimalt Graving
I Dock," and addressed to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
I Victoria, British Columbia, and to be accompanied by plans and drawings,
" shewing the exact dimensions of the dock proposed to be built, the mode of
if construction and materials to be used therein.
" Parties desirous of tendering, bu£ who may decline to do. so under the
| guarantee above named, as insufficient, are invited to tender on the basis
" of such supplemental - guarantee by the Provincial Government or other
" financial inducement as they may suggest."
Fears appeared to be entertained that the guarantee afforded by the
Canadian Government would not be sufficient, but on the other hand the importance of having the dock, not only to Canada generally, but especially to
the Province and to the Imperial Naval Service, was thoroughly appreciated.
And there appeared to be a conviction that the English Government would
assist! in its construction, and that the local Legislature would not fail to
manifest, by substantial tokens, the interest that it felt in the matter.
n 4$
Appendix KK contains the correspondence which has passed-on the
subject between the Admirals and' the Governors of Columbia since 1867.
a rp.
The " lwo
Improvement of the Fraser River.
In the Fraser River between Hope and Yale, that is to say, about three
or four miles from Hope, and about eleven miles from Yale, there are two
rocks known as f The Two Sisters." These rocks are a great impediment to
navigation, and one of them should be removed. Hon. Mr. Pearse made
a memorandum respecting'Jthem in 1868, and recommended that the one
called the " Port Sister " should be blasted.    He says :
" This survey shows that there would require 3,762 cubic yards of
" blasting to be done to bring the rock to the level of the water on 9th October.
" The water has never been known to be so low at the same time of year. If
" the blasting were down three feet beloW this level, there would be no impedi-
" ment, except from ice, to the navigation of the river by the present class of
" steamers throughout the year. To effect this object, there would require to
" be blasted 692 yards, (cubic) making a total of 4,454 cubic yards. There
" could be no better time for undertaking this work than the present, owing to
" the low stage of water. The three feet referred to could be got out between
" this and March next, during which month the water in the river is at its very
" lowest.    .     .     .    The rock is verv hard, but is throughout more or less
•, 7 CD
" rent by atmospheric agency. The water in the main channel is very deep—
■I sixty-two feet in the middle. That in the western channel averages about
" four feet six inches ; whilst below the Port Sister, there is a shoal for about
" one hundred yards, with about five feet of water over it, and immediately
" beyond the depth is sixty feet. These conditions are very much in favor of
" the work in my opinion, because a very great deal of the rock taken out might
v L %f    CD CD
" be left, either on the shoal, or in the western channel,—without any detri-
" ment to the river."
Mr. Pearse, in September, 1871, estimated the cost of this work at
$6,000 '•' according to the present price of labor, powder, ozc." It is probable
that the improvement in question could be effected for that sum. or for a sum
of $7,000.
Cariboo Road.
Cariboo Road. The Cariboo Road, to which I have alluded above, is one of the public
works for which the neW Province of British Columbia deserves the highest
honor. It is a road which may be travelled in carriages and leads from Yale,
on the Fraser, to Barkerville, its terminus. Without personal inspection, no
idea can be formed of the difficulties which had to be surmounted in the
construction of this road. It was built in great part on the scarp of the
mountains which border on the Eraser and Thompson Rivers, and on many
sections of the route these precipices are so abrupt, and offer so little facility
for cutting out a road except at the cost of an enormous sum of money,
that it has been found necessary to form the substructure of the road of crib-
work, which has been attached to the almost perpendicular sides of the
mountains. The plan adopted having been to follow the rivers, it is thought
that the road is longer than it should be. It is, however, the only road
establishing communication between the Lower Fraser and the interior of the
country, and although it is very much travelled, and is but from fifteen to
twenty-five feet wide, it is generally in good order, and accidents rarely occur.
This is the more astonishing when one remembers that the road, for a great
part of its course, presents either on the right hand or on the left, precipices
from 500 to 1,000 feet in depth.
Probable colt
of the work. REPORT.
Over this road, which cost more than a milli6n of dollars, is conveyed Cost of the
everything which is required at the mines, or which is brought from them.
The mode of conveyance is, for passengers, by stages drawn by four or Mode of coi
six horses, and for merchandise, by packed trains of two, three or four great veyance.
waggons, drawn by ten or twelve mules, or by sixteen or eighteen oxen. There
are packed trains composed exclusively of mules, each of which carries a
certain weight, the goods or merchandise being strongly bound on the back of
the animal. The packed trains travel at a foot's pace, some few miles a day,
and at four or five o'clock in the evening, the muleteers stop on the road, and
unharness their beasts, the harness being left where the animal halts ; the
cattle are turned out to graze till morning, and the muleteers, who are either
whites, Indians or Chinese, camp at the side of the road near a stream, which
thev-never neglect to select for the purpose. The unavoidable slowness with
which merchandise is conveyed makes the cost of transport very great.
And, therefore, the miners look forward eagerly to the building of the
Pacific Railway, which will shorten for them, whatever route it may fallow,
the distance to be travelled, and will in that way make their labor more
I was informed that there were on the Cariboo road, about 20 ox-trains, Number of
of 16 head of cattle each, 25 to 30 horse or mule trains, of 10 head of cattle beasts of hur-
each,   and  at least 400 horses or mules without vehicles, all engaged in   en emp  ye
conveying goods and merchandise.
Bridge on the Quesnel River.
At the Quesnel River the road is interrupted, the crossing being effected Bridge neces-
by means of a, scow. The crossing is costly, slow and often difficult, ^saryacrossthe
bridge is absolutely necessary here, and as the Cariboo Road is, of necessity,
under the control of, and a charge upon, the Provincial Government, I only
mention this want that it may be of record. I have, however, reason to
believe that the Provincial authorities are fully aware of the necessity of this
bridge, which, moreover, is demanded by the press. The bridge would probably cost $15,000.
The Canadian Pacific Railway is the most extensive public undertaking, Pacific Rail-
in connection with British Columbia, that Canada has promised to see carried way*
into effect, and it is also that from which we may expect to reap the greatest
advantage, for by it all the Provinces of the Dominion will be united, and
form, one and the same nation, in the true sense of the word. The trade of
Europe and Asia must necessarily be attracted to that road, and moreover, in
making accessible the A^ast and beautiful territories of the North-West and
Columbia, the emigration of Europe, and, it may be, Asia, will see thrown
open to it an easy route by which to reach those valuable prairies and rich
mineral lands, bringing in its train that reinforcement of population and
riches of which we stand in need.
The clause relating to this work, in the terms of Confederation, is as What it is to
follows:— be.
| The Government of the Dominion undertake to secure the commence-
" ment, simultaneously, within two years from the date of the Union, of the
I construction of a railway from the Pacific towards tha Rocky Mountains,
"and from such point as maybe selected East of the Rocky Mountains
" towards the Pacific, to connect the seaboard of British Columbia with the
" railway system of Canada; and further to secure the completion of such
railway within ten years from the date of the Union."
a 48
What is
thought of our
What is the
nature of the
Pacific Terrir
I shall not repeat here the reasons which decided, and justly decided,
the Canadian Parliament to undertake this Railway. * Those reasons are
perfectly well known; but I find in a pamphlet published under the auspices
of an American Company, which has begun the construction of the "Northern
Pacific Railway," a detailed account of some of the sources of the revenue
which it hopes to obtain, of which I think it worth while to embody in this
report the following extfacts:—
% Where the road crosses the Red River of the North, it taps 1,500 miles
" of inland navigation, down the Red River, through Lake Winnipeg, and up
" the Saskatchewan to the. foot hills of the Rocky Mountains. Light draft
" steamers have long navigated this route. Along the greater part of this
" water-way the soil is ^good, the climate like that of Minnesota, and the
|| settlements numerous. The trade of this vast region beyond the national
" boundary, including the transportation of supplies for the Hudson's Bay
" Company, will at once and permanently form part of the business of the
" Northern Pacific Road."
After so outspoken and true a eulogy on the North-West Territories, it
is interesting to hear what the Company says about the Pacific territories :—
" The summer isothermal line of 70 degrees, which in Europe passes
" through southern France, Lombardy, and the wheat-growing region of
" southern Russia, strikes the Atlantic coast of the United States at the east
" end of Long Island, and, passing through central Pennsylvania, Northern
" Ohio and Indiana, diverges north-westerly, and runs up into the British
" Possessions to latitude 52, at least 360 miles north of this road.
" The fact of this mildness of climate is abundantly established.
" Nowhere between the Lakes and the Pacific is the climate colder than in
Minnesota, and this great State is not surpassed as a grain-growing region,
or in healthfullness of atmosphere. The seasons of Dakota are very
similar to those of Iowa, and from Dakota westward the climate steadily
modifies until in Oregon and Washington territoiy there is almost no
" winter at all, aside from a rainy season as in California.
r This remarkable modification of climate, the existence of which no
" well-informed "person now questions, is due to several natural causes, chief
" among which are probably these: First. The mountain country lying
" between the 44th and 50th parallels is lower by some 3,000 feet than the
"belt lying immediately south. The highest point on the lines of the
u. Northern Pacific Road is 3,300 feet lower than the corresponding summit
" of the Union and Central Line. Both the Rocky and the Cascade ranges,
" where they are crossed by the Northern Pacific route, are broken down to
" low elevations, compared with their height four hundred-miles southward.
" This difference in altitude would in itself account for much of the difference
"in climate, as three degrees of temperature are allowed for a thousand feet
" of elevation. But, second, the warm winds from the South Pacific, which
" prevail in winter, and (aided by/ the warm ocean current corresponding to
" our Atlantic Gulf Stream) produce the genial climate of our Pacific Coast,
" pass over the low mountain ridges to the north of latitude 44°, and carry
" their softening effect far inland, giving to Washington territory the climate
" of Virginia, and to Montana the mildness of southern Ohio."
Superior .advantages
which our
affords lor a
Superior Advantages in favor op a Canada Line.
Similar causes produce similar results at Vancouver Island and in a
great pari of Continental British Columbia. There is, however, a difference
in favor of our country—it is this :—on the Union and Central Pacific Railway
the highest elevation is 8,240 feet above the level of the sea, and on the proposed Northern Pacific Railway the highest elevation would be a Uytle less REPORT.
than 5,000 feet, whereas on the Canadian Pacific Railway the Rocky Mountains may be crossed at Tete Jaime Cache or Leather Pass at an elevation
of only 3,760 feet, or at Howse's Pass at an elevation of a little more than
4,000 feet above the level of the sea.
So soon as Columbia was united to Canada, in the month of July last, Survey.
parties of engineers sent out b^^y department, under the control of
Sandford Fleming, Esq^&M^hief Engineer, commenced operations not only on
the Pacific side, but also from Lake Nipissihg to the Rocky Mountains. As
the Chief Engineer wilj. submit a report of his proceedings, and of the result
of the examination made by^he engineers acting under him, with a view of
placing him in a position to indicate the general line which the Canadian
Pacific Railway should follow, I shall refrain from entering here into any
details on the subject?
Passes in the Rocky Mountains.
It is, however, understood that the Railway must necessarily pass either Passes in the
by Tete   Jaune Cache,   in latitude 52  degrees  48  minutes north,   or  by 5^gyM<mn"
Howse's Pass in latitude 52 degrees 20 minutes north, those being considered
to be the two passes which are the most practicable and the least elevated.
The   Honorable   Mr.   Trutch,   the   Lieutenant-Governor    of   British Hon.Mr;
Columbia, inquired into the subject in 1868, and his report to the government j^^t S
of the day is replete with so much valuable information, that I consider I
cannot do better than attach it hereto as Appendix LL.       g|&
By one or other of the passes named the Canadian Railway must be
carried towards the Pacific, so as to connect the seaboard of^ritish Columbia
with the railway system of Canada. '^r
.   il -■■."-■'
Terminus of Canadian Pacific Railway in Britis
With regard to the question of the location of the wd
the Canadian Pacific Railway, I shall confine myself to %m
various localities that have been pointed out as well adaptef
terminus of
Kfence to the
jthe purpose :
Proposed . Terminus on the Mainland.—Burrar?
If it were found impracticable for the Railway to cross i|<
tainland Terminus on
to Vancouver Island, or it it were decided not to adopt thafec^rs'ejiit-ra-ight the mainland.
be that Burrard Inlet or Howe Sound should be the point sefecfc. BurrSd Inlet
Those two harbors, as I have stated elsewhere, are close'*toH|aoh other, or Howe
and if the Railway were not to have its terminus on Vancou%eiJMslant^ I kound.
incline to the opinion that Burrard Inlet should have the prefere^SkgIt is a.
magnificent harbor, the centre of the timber trade of ContmentaFSfcinnbia;
and the most accessible port from the valley of the Fraser.    The location of
the terminus at that place would of necessity give a great impulse to New
Westminster, the former capital of Columbia.    Burrard Inlet would also be
perfectly  accessible  from the district situated between   Howe  Sound  and
Lillouet; for, if I am correctly informed, there is easy communication between
Howe Sound and Burrard Inlet by means of a pass known to be in existence
by many persons at Burrard Inlet. . The harbor of Burrard Inlet would be
easy of access for vessels from the Pacific, and would  be subject only to the
following  disadvantages :—1. Being at a distance of   152  miles from  the
entrance of the Strait of Fuca; 2. Compelling British vessels to pass beneath
American batteries, should the question of the Island of San Juan not be
decided in our favor ; 3. Not being on Vancouver Island.
10—7 50
Terminus at
Bute Inlet.
Bute Inlet.
I simply mention Bute Inlet, for I do not imagine that the line of the
Railway would terminate there, supposing it were not to be continued to
Vancouver Island. If however, as some suggest, a crossing should be established here by which powerful vessels could take railway cars across the
Strait, Bute Inlet would probably serve as a terminus; although I must say
that if the ears could be conveyed to Vancouver Island, the Pacific Ocean
shipping would prefer the Vancouver Island terminus, as they would thus be
spared a long voyage in the inland waters of Columbia.
Terminus on Vancouver Island.—Esquimalt.
. If the terminus is to be on Vancouver Island, Esquimalt Harbor affords
Esquimalt very great advantages which none will deny. In the first place the harbor
is only sixty-five miles from the entrance of the Strait of Fuca, and although
the shore of the strait opposite Vancouver Island is United States territory,
yet the width of water (16 miles) renders the navigation quite secure. Esquimalt is besides a perfectly safe harbor and of sufficient extent to serve as the
terminus of our Pacific Railway. It would be easy to defend in case of
trouble, and vessels frequenting it might easily reach the Pacific, where they
would receive the protection of the Imperial fleets. It is true that to get to it
from Bute Inlet, the line of Railway would have to be longer than if the
terminus were fixed at Barclay Sound, but the advantages affordedHby Esquimalt are so superior that it would be false economy not to carry the line there.
And it must not be forgotten that besides the advantages which I have
enumerated, the immediate vicinity of the eapital should tend to the selection
of Esquimalt if the Railway is to be continued to Vancouver Island.
Barclay Sound.
It would be well however, in locating the line, not to lose sight of the
-   HD 7 O
fact that the traffic over the Pacific Railway, must necessarily become very
considerable if, as we expect, the road is used to transport the produce of
? China and Japan to a great part of North America and to Europe. And why
should that trade escape us, when we see that the promoters of the Northern
Pacific Railway of the United States count ©n that traffic, because their road
will be shorter than the other lines terminating at San Francisco, and because
Puget Sound, their Pacific terminus, is further north than San Francisco, and
from that very fact the distance between Puget Sound, and China beino- much
less than the distance between San Francisco and China 1 Now, as to
geographical position, Esquimalt and Puget Sound are exactly the same, and
we shall besides *have the advantage of having a Railway which will be
shorter, less costly as to construction, and less costly as to maintenance and
working, as the altitudes to be surmounted will be less formidable, and as we
shall not have to cross the great American desert. "We may therefore reason-
ably count upon a large portion of that immense trade, and it may be that we
shall then find that it will be well not to rely on a single port of entry.
r»inus at Barclay Sound, at the eastern extremity of the Alberni Canal, if it could be
made accessible to the railway, would, under these circumstances, be possessed
of great n«p<5rtance, for it could afford accommodation for many hundreds of
• vessels.
Terminus at
the Riverg
' Skeena.
River Skeena.
I am aware that the entrance of the River Skeena has also been mentioned as a possible terminus for the Canadian Railway. It is perhaps possible,
but it is not probable, that it will be chosen.    Such a terminus would be REPORT.
much too far north and would subject vessels to' a long and expensive course
of inland navigation. For another reason, it would, in my opinion be a bad
selection, for if the American Northern Pacific Railway is to terminate at
Puget Sound, the latter spot would naturally have the preference; for when
vessels reached the latitude of the Strait of Fuca, they would most certainly
shape their course for the Strait in which the navigation is easy and
safe, instead of sailing five or six degrees to the north to reach the mouth of
the Skeena.    This location therefore is not to be thought of.
Railway Bridge at Seymour Narrows.
In the event of the terminus being fixed on Vancouver Island, an im- Bridge at Sey-
portant work would have to be carried into execution; that is, a bridge at mour Narrows
Seymour Narrows (Johnstone Strait). Being aware of the importance which (Johnstone
was attached to this question, I considered it advisable that I should visit the
spot and be able to give more certain information on the subject, than^ was
already available. I proceeded thither accordingly on board the Sir James
Douglas in company with the Lieutenant Governor, Hon. Mr. Trutch. The
strait is from 1800 to 2000 feet in width, with a current running from six to
eight knots an hour. The depth varies from seventeen to sixty fathoms, and
the tide rises about thirteen feet. At a distance of from 600 to 800 feet (one-
third of the entire distance between the two shores) from Valdes Island which,
with Vancouver Island forms the strait at this point, there is a rock which is
said only to have been discovered two years ago. At low water there is
eighteen feet of water over this rock. It is needless to say that I was not
able to measure the rock, or to ascertain if it was adapted to serve as the
foundation of the pier of a bridge over which the trains of the Pacific Railway
might pass. If after examination it is found that that rock may serve as the
foundation of such a pier it is likely that the problem of a bridge at this point
will have been favorably solved. The cliffs at this part of the strait appear
to be from 100 to 125 feet high.
ri&T' 4£r*1'
The Tides.
As the question of the tides may play an important part in connection ti^ tides.
with this subject, I consider it expedient to annex, in Appendix MM, what
Captain George Henry Richards  says in reference   to the subject in his
Vancouver Island Pilot.
Table of Distances.
It is also well to give here a table of distances, which will be of use in Table of
determining the advantages offered by the several places designated as^possible distances,
to be selected as the terminus of the Railway.    I am indebted for it to the
Hon. Mr. Pearse.
From the entrance of the Fuca Strait
To Esquimalt     65 miles.
To Burrard Inlet  152 „
From Esquimalt
To Burrardlnlet     87 „
To Nanaimo     65 „
From Nanaimo
To Comox     55 „
To Seymour Narrows (by land)    100 „
To Esquimalt (by land)        52 „
To the head of Barclay Sound     14 „ 52
Conveyance of the Mails.
Mails. Mails from Canada to British Columbia and vice versd are conveyed
' between San Francisco and Victoria by the Steamer Prince Alfred, an iron
steam ship of 900 tons.    The service is performed twice a month.    Some mails
are also conveyed by land to Portland or Olympia and thence reach Victoria
by another steamer.
Postal service This service is guaranteed by one of the conditions of union of Columbia
between    San ^^ Canada, viz. :—
Francisco and ,. „,,      JL      .   . .,, . 1 ~. . ., r    ,. ■,,•*     -,	
Victoria. The   Dominion will provide an efficient mail service fortnightly by
" steam communication between Victoria and San Francisco, and twice a week
" between Victoria and Olympia, the vessel to be adapted for the conveyance
" of freight and passengers."
Future Postal Service.
Future serrk t When  the  American  Railway  shall have  been  completed  as far as
Olympia, it will be a question whether the interests of Columbia will not
require a modification of this article, and whether it would not be better, in
the interest of all parties, to do away with the line from San Francisco, and to
substitute for it a daily line between Olympia and Victoria. In fact from the
instant that the American Railway shall have been completed to Olympia,
travellers will prefer a twenty hours voyage only, the rest of the journey
being made by rail, to running the risk of an extended voyage on the
Pacific Ocean, which in those latitudes is very often anything but what-its,
* \1 V CD m
name implies. The cost to the Canadian Government would be the, same or
nearly so, but this service would have the advantage of reducing the journey
between Victoria and San Francisco to less than two days, and of sparing
travellers a sea voyage of from three to five days.
Island mails.
Mails for Vancouver Island.
The Vancouver Island postal service is performed frem Victoria by the
steamer Sir James Douglas, which conveys the mails along the eastern coast
as far as Comox, 130 miles from Victoria, stopping at Cowichan, Maple Bay,
Chemainus, Nanaimo and Comox. Cowichan is a flourishing place. It
possesses good schools, a convent at which the Nuns (who are Canadians)teach
trades to Indian and half-breed girls, and the only stone church in the
Province. Nanaimo is also a flourishing town, with bright prospects for the
future. There are hardly any settlements on the western coast, and there is in
consequence no postal service. The service to Comox is efficient and regular,
and is performed with every possible regard to economy.
Mails for the Mainland.
Mails for the The mails for the mainland are despatched from Victoria.      Some, of but
mam iana.      little importance, are conveyed by the Sir James Douglas, as far as Nanaimo,
where the steamer Otter, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, receives
the mails for the River Skeena.    This service will Eave to be increased if the
mines of the District of Ominica continue, during the coming season, to be as
rich and as much resorted to as they were last year.
Cariboo mails.»        The other mails, which are by far the most important, are conveyed from
Victoria to New Westminster, thence to Yale, and from Yale to Barkerville.
From Victoria The service from Victoria to New Westminster, is performed by the
wNtW* ~t      steamer Enterprise, belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company.    The vessel
is very well adapted for the service.    She has an excellent commander in REPORT.
Captain Swanson, who personally, as well as in the name of the company,
shewed me every possible attention.
From New "Westminster to Yale, on the Fraser, the mails are conveyed, Fom New
in summer, by the steamer Lillouet, commanded by Captain Parsons, who is Westminster
deserving in every respect of the position which he holds.    This service *   *e*
should be independent of that from Victoria  to New Westminster,  and
arrangements should be made by which these steamers should wait for each
other in case of delay.    By this means alone, can the conveyance of the mails
for the interior of the country, be rendered efficient.    Otherwise, the mails
arrive at Yale from the upper country, and if the steamers start  without a
previous understanding, the mails have to wait either at Yale or New Westminster.     In fact, in any new  post   office  contract entered   into in that
region, provision should be made for more speedy service, and for ensuring More speedy
connections between the different modes of transport along the line. service.
iFrom Yale to Barkerville, the seivice is performed by means of stages From Yale to
drawn by four or six horses. Until last year the contractor was Mr. Francis Barkerville.
Jones Barnard, who owned excellent vehicles and horses, and fulfilled his
contract to the satisfaction of all. A year ago, a contract was entered into
with other contractors—-Messrs. Gerow <fc Johnston—who have started a new
line, and have taken the contract at a lower price. Numerous complaints are
made as to the manner in which the service is now performed. It is important
that, let the contractor be who he may, he should be held strictly to fulfil his
contract; otherwise, all continental Columbia will be ill served, or deprived
entirely of its mails.
Additional Steamboat Service.
Upon the Cariboo route, between Soda Creek and the mouth of the
Quesnel, the Fraser is navigable, and the contractor, Mr. Gustavus Blin
Wright, has put on a steamer, the Victoria, which makes the trip promptly
and safely, and affords to travellers every comfort than can be desired.
This is the same Mr. Wright, who has recently placed a steamboat on
Lake Tatla, to provide miners with facilities for reaching the mines of the
District of Ominica more speedily, more safely, and with less fatigue. I
understood that, from the mouth of the Quesnel, he took his steamer up the
Fraser River as far as Fort George, then by the River Nechago, Lake Stewart,
the River Tache, Lake Tremble, or Traverse, and Middle River, as far as
Lake Tatla, where is found the trail leading to the River Ominica. This will
probably be the route followed in the conveyance of one of the mails
intended for that part of the country.
From Soda
Creek to
Quesnel, the
Fraser is
Postal route
for the District
of Ominica.
Necessity of a Post Office Inspector.
The presence of a good post office inspector is absolutely necessary in Pwst Office
Columbia.    There should be on the spot, some person with authority to act InsPector
in an emergency, and one who, at the same time, would superintend the*
working of the system, and prevent fraud, abuses, and delay.
Island of San Juan.
The Island of San Juan, with  the other islands in the archipelago of The Island of
which it forms part, is situated between the Haro  Strait and the Rosario »an Juan.
Strait.     If the arbitrator should decide that the treaty which determined the
boundary line between the United States and the British possessions in North
America, is to be interpreted as fixing the boundary in the Rosario Strait,
then, as Your Excellency is aware, San Juan, and the other important islands, *4
Its extent.
sueh as Lopez, Shaw, Blakely, Decatur, Orcas, &c., will form part of the
territory of Canada. If, on the contrary, the Haro Strait forms the boundary
between the two countries, then San Juan, and the other important islands
which I have just mentioned, will belong to our neighbors.
I shall not here enter into any details on the subject of *the other islands,
but shall confine myself to a few remarks respecting San Juan. The island
is 14 miles long, by about 4J in width. Its superficial area is 54 square
miles j it is 18 miles from Victoria, the capital of Columbia, and is 6 J miles
from the shore of Vancouver Island. It appears to be very strong in a
strategetic point of view, and in the hands of an enemy, would command, on
that side, the entrance to the Gulf of Georgia, and from that same fact, the
entrance also of the Fraser River and of Burrard Inlet, in so far at least as
vessels of large tonnage are concerned.
The Island of San Juan is jointly occupied by English and United States'
troops. When I visited it in the month of September, there were about
200 or 250 soldiers there. The English camp is situated at the eastern end,
and the American camp at the western end of the island. The English
camp is in a picturesque spot, at the foot of a high mountain, called Mount
Young. The camp appeared to be in very good order, and reflected credit on
Captain De Lacombe, who commands it.
Capitation tax
in the United
United States Capitation Tax.
Before concluding this report, I consider it advisable to make mention of
a complaint preferred by the Canadians in our Pacific Province. -They
grumble, justly, at the payment which the authorities of the State of California
exact from them each time that they enter American territory, of a
capitation tax of $5. They say, with reason, that although that tax may be
imposed on foreigners entering the United States, Canadians should be exempt,
as they only pass through their country while en route from one part of Canada
to another. They consider that, in this respect, the exemption from duties
granted to merchandise, and to the Canadian mails, which pass through the
United States to reach Canada, should be extended to persons.
Imports and Duties.
This mention of entry duties reminds me that I should have given a
table of the imports into Columbia, from the date when Vancouver Island
and continental Columbia became one and the same Province.    I now append
one.    See Appendix NN.    I attach to it, as Appendix 00, tables of the
duties on imports, and of the taxes other than judicial*imposts.
Duties of By means of those tables, it will be easy to see to what extent duties of
excise. excise have been levied in Columbia.    The table forming Appendix PP, shews
the revenue from customs, and also the total revenue for each of the ten
years.    I add as Appendix QQ, the excise law of the Province ; as Appendix
Savings banks. RR, the number of savings banks, the course of exchange in 1870, and the
coin which was then current in Columbia.
Game Law.
of Vancouver
Miscellaneous   Information.
To complete the information which I collected in Columbia, I attach in
the Appendix the following documents :—
Appendix SS.—Game law.
Appendix TL—Relinquishment by the Hudson's Bay Company, to
Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain, of their rights on
Vancouver Island. REPORT*
Appendix UU.—Treaty between Great Britain and the United
States, on the subject of the boundary line between British
Columbia and the United States, and on the subject of the
navigation of the Columbia River
Columbia and
the United
Joint Stock
Gold and
Assay Office.
Appendix VV.—Form of sale of public land, with the restrictions Public^la*«is,
which it contains.
Appendix WW.—List of the names of stipendiary magistrates,
with details as to their duties, salaries, <fcc.
Appendix XX.—List of Joint Stock Companies incorporated in
virtue of the act or ordinance of 1869.
Appendix YY.—Report on the Colonial Assay Office, shewing the
quantity of gold submitted for examination and the necessity of
the office.
I conclude with an expression of my sincere thanks, especially to His Acknowledg-
Honor the Honorable J. W. Trutch, Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, men *
to His Excellency Admiral Farquhar, to the Honorable Mr. Begbie, Chief
Justice, to the Honorable Mr. Justice Crease, and to the Honorable Messrs.
McCreight, Pearse, and Good, for the facilities with which they provided me
for obtaining the information which I was desirous of acquiring respecting
British Columbia. To these gentlemen, and to a number of others, who also
facilitated my researches, I am indebted for having been able to collect the
W 7 ^
information which I give here, and to acquire a knowledge, and become
acquainted with the wants of the Province in so short a time. I venture to
believe that my labor will not be unproductive, but that it will place Your
Excellency, as well as my colleagues, and members of Parliament, in a position
to judge of the value of that part of the Canadian Confederation which is as
yet so little known, but whose future is so full of promise.
The whole respectfully submitted.
Ottawa, March, 1872.
Minister of Public Works. BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
descriptions of
climate ; the
probable cause
of the difference.
Climate near
sea coast (low-
lying lands)
couver Island
There are many different climates in British Columbia, apparently influenced in a great degree by four operative causes, each, probably, very important:
First, the soil, which in the lower country, and again north of Quesnel
River, and generally in the Cascade and Selkirk ranges, is moist, well wooded,
and mixed with, perhaps mainly constituted of, decomposed organic substances. In the middle of the Province, the middle Fraser, Thompson and
Okanagan Districts, the soil is light, generally a sandy loam, of no great depth
usually immediately superimposed on gravel beds (northern drift) occasionally
of very great thickness, and always affording perfect drainage—comparajively
destitute of trees or underbrush, covered with a thin but very nutritious glass
(bunch grass.) As the great difference in the quantity and nature of the vegetable growth is an effect of the climate, so also it probably reacts powerfully upon it.
The second important consideration is, the very great difference of level •
the open country round Okanagan varies'from l,500feetabovethesealevel; round
Nicola Lake, from 2,000 feet upwards; round Lake Lahache, from 2,500 feet
upwards, while the plateau between Clinton and the Bridge Creek, is nearly
level at 3,500 to 4,000 feet. I give these figures from memory and in round
The third and fourth considerations are, in a great degree, intermixed
being the geographical consideiations arising from the greater or less distance
from the sea, and the direction and vicinity of the mountain ranges, by which
the equalizing currents of air from the ocean, or the intensifying currents from
the arctic regions, or the superheated plains to the south of British Columbia
are checked or invited.
The range of climate, therefore, is extremely great. Generally speakino-
the low portions near the sea and Vancouver Island have a moderate
thermometrical range, rarely exceeding 80° Fahrenheit in the shade on the
hottest day in summer, and rarely falling to 20° Fahrenheit in winter. The
summers are generally dry, although with occasional showers; the winters
generally bring much rain or snow; although I have known brilliant weather
in winter for a month at a time. There is generally a good deal of wind not
however, of exceeding violence.
In the middle districts, both summers and winters are very dry, not so
as to destroy vegetation by any means, for the country is covered with grass •
but at most of the farms artificial irrigation is found desirable. The summer
heat is intense, and in winter, mercury commonly freezes. In the winter of
1868, a tolerable thermometer at Quesnel Mouth was reported to me to have
marked—57° F. = 89° F. below freezing point. rp-L    bors during
" the winter.
As to the effect of winter in freezing up harbors, I can only speak of State of har
three : Victoria (and Esquimalt), Fraser River and Burrard Inlet,
former and probably all the inlets to the S. and W. of the island, are quite
open. Fraser River is generally open all winter; but in the course of thirteen
winters, I have known it nipped early in November (in November, 1859 or
1860), and once continuously from January to March (about 7th January to
about 21st March, 1862), during which time cattle were habitually driven
across the ice to be butchered at New Westminster.    Fraser River is generally
CD t/
closed for a few days only.    On the other hand, in the majority of winters it
is so obstructed.     At Burrard Inlet (nine miles from New Westminster)
there is in many winters a thin film of ice, but nothing, I should think, to
impede navigation.    Nanaimo, I believe, is more seriously frozen, but probably
never so as to obstruct steamers much.
The winds  up the country  are not important, nor generally strong; Force and
although, of course, there are occasional outbursts.    Upon the sea ooast, of direction of
°,v • .      . •  n vi     .-I j.    ii winds and sea
course, tney are very important, especially as like the currents, they vary very an(j fiveT cur.
suddenly both in strength and direction.    But as to this, both winds and sea rents.
currents will probably be found most fully described in Admiral Richard's
sailing directions.
There is nothing especial about the inland rivers except, 1st, their swiftness ; 2nd (for the most part) their unnavigability; 3rd, the absence of all
valley; they generally run in a mere groove, with but a small portion of
alluvial soil.
In the upper country my experience is limited to the six travelling Direction of
XL v %/ x o        *    j*     •
months—from May to November.    During those months, the wind is almost winas m
J it- -ii r\   • uppercountry.
always irom the W. or JN. W., and this accompanies dry weather.    Owing to
the confoiniatien of the country, probably, and the vicinity of mountains in
many parts, the surface wind may be in a very different direction from that
in the upper strata.    It is of course almost or quite impossible to observe this
when the sky is perfectly clear, or uniformly overcast. -
•/ 1 %7 J v
The existence of these different directions is well established at New Direction of
Westminster, and at Victoria, for certain winds and states of the weather, wind in low
At New Westminster, from November to May, much -rain falls ;" nine-tenths *'
of it with a surface wind from S. E. to N. E. Yet whenever during rain
the motion of the clouds is visible, T have always noticed them to be driving
from the S. or S. W.; which current (perhaps operated on by the mountains
northward from Pitt Lake), appears to engender the counter current from the
east, along which the rain seems to be borne, though it evidentlycomes in fact
from the S. or S. W., i. e., from the Pacific Ocean. When at New Westminster the rain comes on a surface current from the west (as it does occasionally),
this surface current is a«true .wind, generally of considerable force (6-8) and ♦
almost always clearing up fine in four or five hours. At Victoria, in like
manner (where the prevailing winds are S. W. and S. E.—the latter the only
stormy wind), a S. W. wind in the summer especially is well known to be
generally a sort of counter current to a N. W. wind blowing outside the
September 5th, 1871,
M. B. B.
Its effect on
of Vancouver
Q. Are harbors open the year round 1   When closed?
A. Harbors open throughout the year, except New Westminster, (fifteen
'miles up Fraser River,—fresh water); floating ice here makes harbor
dangerous for shipping from January to March.
Q. Is there snow 1 Where 1 How much 1 Where does it fall % How
long does it remain 1
A. Very little snow in Victoria. One fall in 1870, about an inch ; little
more at Nanaimo and Comox, but does not remain long o* the ground. At
New Westminster, snow commences about January, and is all gone by March
7 *   7 O v
—not continuous. In the higher altitudes, more snow falls ; but, in the open
country, it seldom exceeds two feet in depth. In all the pastoral districts'
throughout the Province, cattle, as a rule, «an obtain feed at any season of
the year. Some unusually severe winters, farmers have had to depend on
provender for their eattle, that had been stored up previously. A farmer
who provides one month's forage, is considered a very careful, safe man. -
Q. Is there any difference on,Vancouver Island, and what?
A. The temperature on Vancouver Island in summer, is lower than on
the mainland, owing to the prevailing southerly winds blowing from the
1 O X CD */ O
direction of the snow-capped mountains, on the American side, and across the
Sound. The waters of the sound are peculiarly cold at this season, caused,
it is supposed, by the currents running from the north, and by the melted
snow finding its way into the Sound from the mountain tops. APPENDIX    C
Taken at the Royal Engineer Camp, during the year 1862, by order of Col.
R. C. Moody, R.E., commanding the troops.
New Westminster, British Columbia.
Latitude, 49° 12' 415" N. j Longitude, 122° 53' 19" W.
The highest reading of the barometer, corrected for tern-     In.
perattfre, was  30,517 Feb. 9.
The mean height of the barometer, cerrected at 9.30 a.m.,
was 1   29,983
The mean height do~ do at 3.30 p.m., was 29,963
The lowest do    29,071 Jan. 22.
Maximum temperature, in sun's rays (black bulb) was      104.0 Aug. 29.
do do        of air, in shade, was        88.5       „
do do do at 9.30 a.m., was/     73.9 July 23.
do do do at 3.30 p.m.    „        86.0 Aug. 28.
Mean temperature of air, in shade        at 9.30 a.m.     „        46.8
do do do at 3.30 p.m.    ,,        51.2
Minimum do do at 9.30 a.m.     „ 2.0 <    T      •, K !
" (   Jan. 15.
do do do at 3.30 p.m.    „ 6.0 „
j , ,, 1KAf belowzero,
do do        on the grass       „       15.0 <    T      -•« '
& (   Jan. 16.
Greatest amount of humidity  „ 1.000
Mean           do                do                      at 9.30 a.m. „ .842
- do            do                do                      at 3.30 p.m. „ .772
Least          do                do        „ .320 Jan. 3.
The cistern of the barometer is about 54 feet above the level of the sea.
All the observations were made at 9.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. daily throughout
the year.
There were slight frosts nearly every night in the month of April, and
once in May (16th); they did not re-commence until the 9th of October.
The severe frosts of January' and February, have been unknown for many
Thunder and lightning occurred on the 24th May, 24th July, and 22nd,
29th, and 30th August.
WWWWB British Columbia.
Table shewing the depth of rain, the number of days on which it fell, the
mean humidity, (9.30 a.m., and 3.30 p.m.,) mean temperature of the
air in shade, and the lowest temperature on the grass in each month.
Humidity. |
9.30 a.m.
3.30 p.m.
Min. on Grass.
May ....	
40.0   i
44.0   i
Rain  fell on 8 days  when.the wind was   south, 4—S.W., 3 —W., 5.
K.-W., 8—N.E., 43 -E., 26—S.E., and 38 when calm.
The greatest fall of rain in twenty-four hours, measured 2-260 inches,
and was on the 20th March.    The average fall for every day of the vear, was
' C7 v v V 7
C.130 inches, and, for each wet day, it was 0.352.
The amount of ozone this year was very small : its mean daily number
would be represented by 3 on the scale, and it seldom exceeded 6. During
the greater part of October, November, and December, there was little indication of its presence. For November, and the early part of December, there
were heavy fogs, during which there was no ozone.
of three years.
Comparison of Mean Results for Three Years.
Mean Temperature.
Mean height of
9.30 a.m.
3.30 p.m.
9.30 a.m.
3.30 p.m.
9.30 a.m.
3.30 p.m.
} '842
Rain was more equally distributed throughout all the months this year,
than in 1860 or 1861.
In the winter months, January to March, and October to December
31,682 inches of rain fell, in 1862 : 41,230, in 1861 ; and 13,834,-in 1860, \
The prevailing direction of the wind during rain in each year, was E. Wind and
and S.-E.    The absolute limiting nights of frost, in the three years, was
nearly the same.
Difference of
12th June ..
8th June ..
14th June .
4th March.
17th March.
19th April..
10.5 feet...
9.5 feet...
10.5 feet...
From 22nd May to 12th Aug., ships
did not swing to the flood tide.
From 19th May to 10th Aug., ships
did not swing to the flood tide.
From 1st May to 2nd Sept., ships
did not swing to the flood tide.
* 1862	
Ice appeared on the 1st of January, 1862; and the river at New West- Formation of
minster was unnavigable on the 4th; it was completely frozen over on the ice*
9th, and the ice attained a thickness of thirteen inches in the channel, opposite the R. E. camp, on the 12th of February. Sleighs were running from
Langley, to several miles below New Westminster; and persons walked from
Hope to the latter place, a distance of eighty miles, on the ice, at the end of
January. Lake Harrison and the other lakes were frozen. Navigation from
New Westminster was open to the mouth of the river, on the 11th March ;
and from Yale, on the 12th April. Again, on the 5th December, there was
ice in the river at New Westminster for one day. In January, 1*861, there
was ice at New Westminster, but the navigation to the mouth of the river
was not impeded.    In 1860 there was no ice.
The observations were taken by second Corporal P. J. Leech, and Lance
Corporal J. Conroy. R.E.
(Signed) R. M. Parsons,
Captain, R.E,
WBBaawwwiw 62
Taken from Returns furnished by Lighthouse Keepers.
September, 1870
October,        „
November,    „
December,     ,,
January, 1871
t/   7
j i
At inouth of Fraser River.
N.E. to S.E.
S.E. and E.N.E.
S.E. and E.
S.E. and E.N.E.
W. and S.E*
Race Rock.
W. toN.
Direction of
N.N.E and W.
N. and N.E.
N. to S.W.
W. 64
Variations of
Meteorological observa*
British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
The climate of the Western Colonies is stated to be excellent, and has
been compared to the climate of the milder parts of England, or to that in
the south of France. Indeed, it is said to be preferably to that of England,
as it has more fine steady weather, is far less changeable, and on the whole
The days in summer are warm, but not oppressive, and free from glare;
the evenings are cool, with a gentle sea breeze.
Heavy rains generally fall in December or January.
The winter is a little cold, but not severe.
There are occasional frosts and falls of snow, but they rarely last
The climate of British Columbia may compare favorably with most
colonies, more particularly with those on the American Continent, in similar
It is remarkably -healthy both in summer and winter, there being
nothing like malaria or ague, either in the hottest summer weather, or the
dampest localities.
The climate varies considerably according to the height from the level
of the sea.
On the western and eastern side of the Cascade Range the climate is
quite different.
The western is heavily timbered, and subject to heavy rains in spring
and autumn, while on the eastern side the country consists of rolling grassv
Zs   CD tf
plains lightly timbered, the summer heat more intense, the rain light.
Tomatoes and melons ripen readily in the open air, and the winters are
comparatively mild.
Again, at William's Creek, Cariboo District, situate in latitude 53°,
or 5° north of New Westminster, the site of our most extensive gold mines,
and at an altitude of 4,200 feet above the level of the sea, the weather of
all seasons is most variable, subject to violent storms of rain and thunder,
both in summer and winter.
The winter begins in October and lasts till April, the thermometer
varying from ten above to twenty below zero; snow generally falling' in
January and February to a depth of seven to ten feet.
The present meteorological observations may be taken to represent
chiefly the features of the climate of that portion of the Colony occupying
the southern corner of the Cascade Range.
Snow not exceeding a foot ih depth except in extraordinary winters:
and the summer season very much like that of England, with less rain in
June, July and August.
Extract of meteox*olcgical observations taken at the Government House
New Westminister. B. C, during the year 1865 :—
Latitude, 49° 12' 47" N.
Longitude, 122° 53' 19' W. APPENDIX.
The highest reading of the barometer, corrected for
temperature, was
The mean height was, do        ..      at 9:30 a.m
do do do 3*30 p.m.
3jhe lowest        do do
Maximum temperature in sun's rays   (black  bulk)
was      ... ... ... ... ...        ...
Maximum temperature of air in shade
30-589 4 Feb.
29-137 19 Feb.
9:30 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
9#30 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
9:30 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
108-5   4 Aug.
87-5 29 July.
•270 12 Dec.
8 Aug.
8 Feb.
18 Dec.
Minimum, temperature on the grass
Greatest amount of humidity
Mean do do ... 9:30 a.m.
do do do .. 3:30 p.m.
Least do do *
The cistern of the barometer is about thirty-four feet above the level of
the sea.
All   the observations were  made at 9:30 a.m.   and 3:30 p.m. daily
throughout the year.
Table shewing the depth of rain, the number of days on which it fell, the Bain fall,
mean humidity (9:30 a.m. and 3:30 p.m.), mean temperature of air in
shade, and the lowest temperature on the grass in each month :—
9:30 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
Min. on
63 8
pf.   '	
f     43'0
21 6
The day on which most rain fell, and which measured 1 -64 inches, was
on the 28th November.
The prevailing direction of wind was E. and N. E.
Ozone, registered for nine months only, gave a greater quantity than Ozone
former years, as shewn by the test papers ; its mean daily number would be
represented by five on the scale, and often indicated as high as nine.
An earthquake  was felt a few minutes after nine p.m. on the 25feh
Heavy thunder and vivid lightning occurred on June 20th, July 15x1^
August 6th and September 12th.
10-9 66
Comparison of Comparison of Mean Results for three Years; also Mean Result for the
results- Year 1865.
| Bain.
Mean temperature.
Mean height of
Min. on
9:30 a.m.
3:30 p.m..
9:30 a.m.
9:30 a.m.
3:30 p.m.
15 5
( 15-0
< below
» 29 943
29 983
182 .
' The observations for the above three years were taken by the Royal
Engineers, and were discontinued on the disbandment of the detachment in
1863, and were not resumed till January, 1865.
Rain was more equally distributed throughout all the months in 1862/
tfcim in 1860 or 1861.
In the winter months, January to March, and October to December,
31-68&iaehes of rain fell in 1862, 41-230 in 1861. and 40-586 in 1860.
In the remaining months, 15-785 inches fell in 1862, 19,255 in 1861,
and 13834 in 1860.
The prevailing direction of the wirid during rain in each year, was E.
and  S. E.    The absolute limiting nights of frost in the three years were
CD CD •/
nearly the same.
The observations were taken by second Corporal P. J. Leech, and Lance
Corj£>ral J. Conroy, R. E.
R. M. Parsons,
Captain, R. E.
Memo. :—The meteorological observatory at the camp, New West-*
monster, was discontinued in 1866 for lack of funds.
Published in 1859.
The climate of the Pacific coast, as is well known, is no where so severe Climate,
in the same parallel of latitude, as that of the Atlantic, the difference varying
from fifteen to twenty degrees, that is, we have to go some 1,200 miles further
south on the Atlantic side of the continent, to find a mean winter temperature
corresponding to that on the Pacific side. And though the climate of British
Columbia forms no exception to this rule, it is somewhat varied, certain
belts of country being warm and dry, while others are moist and of a more
v CD v   7
equable temperature. Thus we have a district extending from the mouth of
the Fraser River inland, about 150 miles, characterized by a humid climate,
and in which the thermometer of Fahrenheit rarely falls below ten or rises
above ninety degrees in the course of the year.
V O %7
Throughout this region rain is abundant during the spring.     During Rain fall,
summer and autumn, falling not only in frequent showers, but continuing
sometimes for several days together.
Snow also falls here in the winter from one to two feet, often more in Snow fall,
the northern part of the district, though hardly so much near the sea.
It is not«apt to lie more than a week or two at a time, it then melting
and the ground remaining bare for a like interval, to be again succeeded by
another fall, and so on throughout the winter, which generally breaks up in
the early part of March. The damp and cloudy weather here prevalent
during the summer prevents the heat reaching so high a point as further in
the interior.
When the atmosphere is clear heavy dews fall at night, and fogs at all Dews and
seasons of the year are common. Togs.
Beyond this wet section of country, the northern limits of which cross
the  Lillouet  route in the vicinity  of Anderson's  Lake, and   the   Fraser
*7 7
between the Upper Canon and the Forks, lies a district of about equal breadth
characterized by greater heat and aridity, and which though situate further
north, and generally more elevated, is scarcely any colder in the winter, and
has even less snow than the country further south along the. lower*Fraser.
North of this, again, is another belt having a more humid climate,
showers being frequent in the summer, and fche winters somewhat more
Taken altogether then, the climate of British Columbia, though subject
to much fluctuation, and varying with locality, cannot be considered one of
7 «/ CD v  *
great severity : neither the heat of summer nor the cold of winter reaching
CD •/     J CD
such extremes as in Canada, or the Northern States of the Union.
As evidence on this point, it may be stated that the snow along the
valleys ef the Upper Fraser and its tributaries, rarely ever exceeds eighteen
inches in depth, and for the most part does not even reach six inches,
while a great portion of the time there is none at all on the ground during
The larger lakes neverA freeze over, nor do the Fraser or other large
streams ever close entirely up.
Stock is able to subsist on the bunch grass throughout the winter, anc[ Food of Catt,le
even work animals keep in tolerable condition on the rushes that grow in the
bottoms without other feed.
On the divides and more elevated places, the depth of snow as well
as the degree  of cold, depends of course on the height of the  locality;
the traveller encountering snow in sonie places he may have to pass, twice as
deep as that found in the valleys.
Climate of the There was no snow or frost of any consequence on the Upper Fraser
Upper Fraser. river last year, until about the first of December, when the weather suddenly
became cold, the snow failing to a depth of five or six inches, and even a
foot, on the lower part of the river.
The smaller streams and the ditches at the same time became covered
with ice, and the ground froze to the depth of several inches, interfering
seriously with, and for the most part putting a stop to, mining operations.
This wester after continuing for two or three weeks, moderated, and
for the next five weeks, but little snow fell, while the thermometer in two or
three instances only, went below twenty degrees, fluctuating between that
point and forty-five degrees.
After this mild period came another spell of cold and varying weather,
which held for three or four weeks, when the snow and ice mostly disappeared,
and the Indians leaving their winter houses, declared that season at an end.
The miners also get to work in their; claims, and have not since been%
This was early in the month of March, since which time the weather has
been constantly growing warmer, the thermometer having fallen, but a few
times below the freezing point.
During March the weather was showery, with some slight frosts and falls
of snow in the early part of the month. Much the same kind of climate as
above described, prevails throughout the regions lying between, and bordering
on the Kamloops and Great Okanagan Lakes, as well as the extensive districts
to the north and east. APPBNIUX.
Published by  the  Colonial   Government,   Vancouver Island,   1862.
The following meteorological observations having reference to the tables Causes of dif-
appended, will show the character of the seasons which have prevailed on the ference °f cli-
*■■*       ** *mfi i ft
coast generally, for the last fifteen years, and will further elucidate the subject
by pointing out the causes of the difference observable between the littoral
and inland insular climates.
On the western side of the North American Continent, the summer
heats are modified by the boreal currents and melting snows of the watersheds,
whife the severity of winter is not irwsteased by a sweeping Arctic current
such as washes the eastern shores.
Arctic currents do sweep down, however, and in summer are felt far
south, below the latitude of San Francisco, but, more diffused, they do not
lower the temperature in a corresponding degree, and the coast, open to the
warm rays of the western sun, and the moist westerly winds, presents to
equal latitudes on the eastern side, very unequal isothermal conditions.
A more extended series of observations is needed, before any general
deductions can be made whereby to recognize the existence of any cycle, or
predicate the possible recurrence of any particular season.
Enough, however, is known to give the general character already
assigned to the climate of Vancouver, viz.:—a dry, warm summer, a bright
and beautiful autumn, an open, wet winter, and spring. Severe and exceptional seasons occurring at irregular intervals.
The winter of 1846 was remarkably severe, the cold setting in on the Winters.
5th of January, and continuing with severity until the middle of March,
during which time the Columbia River was frozen, the thermometer ranging
five degrees below zero.
1847.—Very mild throughout.
v CD
1848.—The cold weather began on the 17th December, the Columbia
'Itiver froze over, but the ice broke up before New Year's Day, the river
7 X V    '
remaining open.
1849.—The cold weather set in on the 27th November, when the moon
was at full; clear days and sharp frosty nights continued till the 10th December,
when the Celumbia was covered with floating ice, and snow began to fall
This continued till the 18th (seven inches of snow on the ground), when
it became mild, with S.E. winds and rain, and open weather continued to the
end of the month.
These remarks apply to the coast generally; the following have reference
specially to Vancouver :—
The  year 1850, as shewn by a thermometric  register,   kept  at Fort The year 1850,
Victoria, (see tabular statement, page 71), was fine throughout.   It shows that Sp t
there were in4;hat year 201 fine days, 96 overcast and foggy, 97 rainy, and 17 and weather,
days on which snow fell.
This, however, is not critically correct, as respects doing justice to the 7$
Other years.
fine weather, for under the two last heads are included all days on which rain
or snow fell, although the amount might be trifling.
Maximum temperature of air in shade
At 8 a.m., 65* Fahr., on 20th June, 1850.
At 2 p.m., 84°       „       26th     „
At 8 p.m., 73°        „        28th July
Minimum temperature of air in Shade
At 3 a.m., 14£° Fahr., on 4th December, 1850.
At 2 p.m., 24° I „
At 8 p.m., 16° „ „ „
Mean daily temperatures given in Abstract Appendix No. 1 (see page 72.)
Snow began to fall on the 5th January. On the 24th there were 17
inches on the ground, which, However, was all gone by the 28th. The
maximum temperatuie for January was 47° Fahr. The minimum temperature 21° Fahr., on the 23rd.
February was open and mild. On the 12th, gooseberry buds were
opening; some hail showers and frost towards the end of the month.
Maximum temperature 58°.    Minimum temperature 26° Fahr.
March.—Variable weather, slight snow storms in early part, but so
partial, that on the 2nd, early plants were coming into leaf in sheltered spots,
native hemp was three inches high, elder bush putting out leaves. On the
7th; the catkins of the palm willow in full bloom. On the 29th there was
still snow on the ground, and buttercups in flower. Maximum temperature
60°.    Minimum 35° Fahn '
April.—High winds, altering with calms. Strawberries coming into
bloom on 13th.    Maximum temperature 69°.    Minimum 35° Fahr.
May.—Fifteen fine clear days, twelve overcast^ four rainy. On the 1st,
plains covered with verdure, the turn-cup lily, heartsease, crowsfoot, jonquil,
and many other flowers in full bloom, camass flowering, spring wheat and
peas rising, early potatoes above ground. On the 4th, campanula and lupin
coming into flower, wild cherry and serviceberry coming into blossom, and
wild vetch flowering in warm places. On the 6th, apple tree in blossom,
strawberries forming. 7th, potatoes planted in March and April coming up.
12tn, early beans in bloom. 18th, wild rose coming into bloom. 25th,
strawberries ripening. 31st, wild gooseberries ripening. Maximum temperature 79°.    Minimum 39° Fahr.
June.—Twenty-three fine clear days, seven  overcast and foggy.     On
*7 v       7 CDCDis
the  14th, queen of the meadow and golden rod in bloom.    17th, potatoes
flowering.    Maximum temperature 84°.    Minimum 47° Fahr.
July.—Twenty-two fine days, * nine  overcast.    Maximum  temperature
82°.    Minimum 52° Fahr.    11th, barberry and raspberries ripe.    On the.
17th, first double rose on Vancouver Island came into flower.
August.—Twenty-six fine days, five overcast.    Maximum temperature
Minimum 53° Fahr.    On the 16th, distant thunder, high wind, N.B.
September.,—Twenty-four fine days, six overcast. Maximum temperature
Minimum 45° Fahr.    On the 7th, heavy dews.
October.—Twenty fine days, ten overcast. Maximum temperature 70°.
Minimum 38° Fahr.
November.—Thirteen fine days, fourteen overcast, three rainy. On the
19th, a heavy gale of wind, felt simultaneously along the whole coast.
Maximum temperature 55°.    Minimum 32° Fahr.
December.—Ten -fine days, sixteen overcast, four rainy, one snowy.
Fraser River frozen on the 4th, ice quickly broke up. Maximum temperature
48°.    Minimum 14J° Fahr.
The above gives the general character of the year 1850, and may be
taken as a good type of a season, intermediate between the severity of 1816,
and the mild open winters, which prevailed until 1859-60; when the cold set
in in November, and continued for some months with-heavy falls of snow.
From March, 1860, the weather was mild throughout, and continued so
through the winter, and into the spring of 1861.
The summer of this latter year was very hot and dry, the early autumn
was very fine and clear, with occasional cold, south-easterly winds, heavy
rains in November, and early part of December.
The tabulated statement at page 72, for the year 1860-61, shows the
ranges of the barometer, thermometer, (wet and dry bulbs), number of days
fine, rainy, &c, and furnishes a good comparative estimate of climatorial
Care must be taken, however, to bear in mind, that in consequence of Special in-
its insular position, washed by an ocean having a remarkably low temperature, Auences in V,
the littoral climate of Vancouver, differs materially from that of the inland  '
plains and valleys, therefore the register No. 2, for  1860-61, kept on board
one  of H.M.  ships, is peculiarly interesting, as showing what range the
thermometer takes in the shade, when removed from all possible influences ef
radiated or reflected heat.
To this cause is to be assigned the differences in the mean daily temperatures, observable on comparison of the different months in the two years,
both ashore and afloat, and not simply to change or variation of climate.
Abstract of Thermometrical Observations, from a Register kept at Fort Temperature
Victoria, Vancouver Island, for 1850, showing Maximum and Minimum *t Fort Vic-
Temperatures, &c, <fcc.
Jan.. .
Feb.. .
July ..
65 84 64
65 82 73
55170 52
46 44
33 28
45   4639
50  59 47
Number of Days.
N. &N. byE.
IN. &N.E....
N. & W	
321 13
N.W. to S. W..
N.W, to N.E.
Eight and Variable 	
N.W., S.W...
S.S.W., N.W.
No. of Days.
g^gl   Wind.
Calms, Light
East winds .   14
Calms, Light
North winds, 16
s! to s.w.
No. of Days.
No. of Days.
S.W. & W
S.E ......
Calm.  ...
N. & N.F,,
S.E. 72
Mean .temper Jjfo,
1.—Mean Daily Temperature in the shade, for the year 1850,
kept on shore at Fort Victoria.
- 8 a.m., 2 P.M.
January     32      38
February        36      44J
March        37      46
April      46      57
May        54      69
June j     57J   69^
July        61      74
August      59J   72
September     5 4\   64|
October     46J   5f|
November     39J   46
December      35      40
No. 2.—Mean Maximum and Minimum Daily Temperature in shade, for the
year 1860-61.    Register kept on board ship.
1860. DEG. DEG. DEG.
April     54         49      51
May       59         53J   58
June      62         57      57J
July       64         58  5a|
August      65J      59J   54|
September     60         55J   58}
October      55J      54|   54J
November     50         5l|   48J
7td 7U
December      46         44  40
January     43     40£   41£
February       43J      40"     43"
March        40         50      48
Meteorological observations.
?he thermometer average 55^° with
In the quarter ending 30th June, 1860, the highest barometric range
was in April, 30*13 ; the lowest 29*25. In the same month, there were seventeen fine days, seven rainy, and six overcast, with variable and light winds
from east and south. Sea waier 50° Fahr., the hygrometric observations
show an average difference of 3° 7-10 Fahr., between the wet and dry bulbs.
Average temperature 51^° Fahr.
In May the barometer had an average range of 30*04.    There were
eighteen fine days, nine rainy, and four overcast, with variable winds, chiefly
from south-west.    Sea water 51° Fahr.
4° 1-10 Fahr., difference between wet and dry bulbs
June.— Twenty fine clear days, six rainy, and four overcast. Barometric
range, average 30*02. Average of thermometer 61°, and difference of bulbs
4°7-10.    Sea water 55° Fahr.
July.—Sixteen fine days, six foggy, seven rainy. Average rango of barometer 29*93, thermometer 60°1-10 Fahr., hygrometer 3J° Fahr. Sea water
58^ Fahr.    Prevailing winds, south and south-east, with calms.
August.—Twenty-four fine days, seven rainy.    Average range of barometer  30*01,  thermometer  63^°  Fahr., hygrometer  1°.
Fahr.    Winds S.W., S. and S.S~E.
Sea water 58|°
September.—Eighteen fine days, seven rainy, five overcast.
range of barometer, 30*12, thermometer 57J? Fahr., hygrometer I9.     Sea
water 55° Fahr.    Prevailing winds S. and S.S.E.
■fit. ' APPENDIX.
October.—Thirteen fine days, eleven rainy, seven overcast.    Average
%7       7 •/   ' *D
range of barometer 30*01°, thermometer 54° Fahr., hygrometer 103-155.
Sea water 50° Fahr.    Winds N.E., variable, calms.
November.—Ten fine days, twelve rainy, eight overcast. Average range
of barometer 30*18, thermometer 49-|-° Fahr., hygrometer l°l-30 Fahr. Sea
water 47\° Fahr.    Prevailing winds N. and S.W., to E.S.E.
December.—Fifteen fine days, nine rainy, seven overcast.   Average range
*7     \7 «/   7 CD CD
of barometer 29*96, thermometer, 42® Fahr., hygrometer, 1°5*6 Fahr. Sea
water 45^° Fahr.    Winds N. and N.E., variable, frequent calms.
January.—Ten fine days, eleven rainy, ten overcast. Average range of
barometer 30*01, thermometer 38° Fahr., hygrometer 3° Fahr. Sea water
43i° Fahr.    Winds variable, frequent calms.
February.—Nine fine clear dayl, seven rainy, eleven overcast, one snowy.
Average range of barometer, 29*94, thermometer 44^° Fahr., hygrometer 3°
Fahr.    Sea water 43^° Fahr.    Winds light, Variable, frequent calms.
March.—Fifteen fine days, four rainy, nineteen overcast, three snowy.
Average range of barometer 25 02, thermometer 46° Fahr., hygrometer 2^°
Fahr.    Sea water 44^° Fahr.    Winds, light, variable.
The importance of a knowledge of the remarkable differences observable
in these, registers, kept one on shore, the other afloat, is obvious both in a
sanitary and agricultural point of view.
The humidity of the atmosphere can be only estimated by the above
average difference between the wet and dry bulbs.
The absence of thunderstorms is a remarkable fact. Distant thunder is
heard at times, but very rarely does the electrical discharge take place over
By J. Despard Pemberton, Esq., Published in 1860.
d British Emigmnt and- J'ostal route from Canada to the Pacific
h British Columbia,.
some very erroneous impressions, regarding the climate ot tne
diffeibnt localities through which the proposed line must pass, prevail, I may
be excused for making the following remarks.
It is commonly said that in point of temperature, in North America, the
same effect is experienced by travelling through 1° of longitude westward, as
by travelling through 1° of latitude southward; ■■
v O CD
This is manifestly an exaggeration ; still it is a fact that, as we movie
if OO 7 *
westward, the climate becomes milder, and the average annual temperature
is increased.
This increase of temperature, in the region we are speaking of, on the
same latitude, amounts probably from side to side of the continent, to 15°
Fahr., an effect, perhaps, produced by the summer winds of the Pacific, which
blow almost constantly from west or north-west, wafting warmth and moisture
through the passes of the rocky chain. But whatever the cause, the fact is
certain ; the south part of Vancouver Island, for instance, having a climate
much milder than in England, is a hundred miles north of Quebec.
An isotherma
me c
Irawn across the continent would, of course, be far
from straight, b
ut the
with Russia
nty of such a line may be iudged of in
x J w 97 CD
bins way :—If such a line were drawn from New York it would pass through
Lake Winnepeg to Fort Simpson; in other words, if New York were with
respect to latitude, similarly placed on the West Coast, Fort Simpson, a
thousand Tniles north of it, would enjoy a temperature equally favorable
with it.
Mr. Blodget, who has puBlished an extensive work on  the Climatology
CD 7 X Oi/
of the United States, remarks that nine-tenths of European Russia,—the
main seat of population and resources—is farther north than S*s. Paul; that,
in fact, Pembina is the climate equivalent of Moscow, and for that of St.
Petersburg (which is in 60° north) we may reasonably go to latitude 55° on
the American continent. Like European Russia, also, the Sascatchewan
district has a climate of extremes, the thermometer having a wide range : but
' CD CD      s
it is well understood that the growth of the cereals, and of the most useful
vegetables, depends chiefly on the intensity and duration of the summer heats,
and is comparatively little influenced by the severity of winter cold, or
lowness of the mean temperature during the year.
X CD tj
Therefore, it is important to observe that the Northern shore of Lake
Huron has the mean summer heat of Bordeaux, in Southern France, namely
70° Fahr., while Cumberland House, in latitude 54°, longitude 102°, on the
Sascatchewan, exceeds, in this respect, Brussels and Paris. m
The United States Army Meteorological Register has ascertained that
the line of 70° mean summer heat, crosses the Hudson River at West Point,
thonce descends to the latitude of Pittsburg, but westward is traced through /
Sandusky, Chicago, Fort Snelling, and Fort Union, into British America.
" It is warmer," he says, " at Fort Benton on the Missouri, in long. 110^°
" west, and lat. 47\° north for every season, than at St. Paul, Minnesota.
" The mean winter temperature at Fort Benton is 25°, and the same
I as that of Chicago, Toronto, Albany, and Portland, Maine.
** At St. Paul it is but 15°, or 10° less. It is not so cold as this on the
p main (south) branch of the Sascatchewan."
Allowing the 15° Fahr. before mentioned ■ considering 1 ° latitude south
equal to 1° Fahr. ; also as usual, 300 feet of altitude equal to 1° Fahr.; the
average climate of the Vermilion Pass would probably resemble that of Moose
or York factories, in the southern part of Hudson's Bay, of which Dr Rae
says the summer there extends from early in June to early in November,—five
months. Mr. A. C. Anderson's opinion on this subject, from his long residence in the country, is entitled to attention: of the Upper Fraser he says :—
" The regular freshets begin at the fetter end of April, and last during Freshets.
" May and June.
" About the 15th of June may be regarded as the culminating'point; ancl
" by the middle of July the waters are generally greatly subsided.
v •/ CD */      O **
" There is rarely a freshet of much consequence at any other season : but
*/ 1 *7 7
** this sometimes happens, and I have known a sudden freshet from heavy rains
I in October, raise the river beyond the summer limit.
I Snow begins to fall in the mountains early in October. Snow.
I In July there is still snow for a short distance on the summit of the
" Fort Hope trail, but not to impede the passage of horses. From the
" middle of October, however, to the middle of June, this track is not to be
" depended upon for transport with pack animals.
I The summer climate about the Forks is dry, and the heat is great.
%f 7 O
" During winter, the thermometer indicates occasionally from 20° to 30° Climatic
CD 7 %7 •     . •
" of cold below zero of Fahr. ; but such severe cold seldom lasts on the upper variation.
il parts of Fraser's River for more than three days * the thermOnieter will
" then  continue- to  fluctuate  between zero and the freezing point, until
" possibly, another interval of cold arrives.
" But the winters are extremely capricious throughout these regions, and
•/ L CD ^7 7
I no two resemble each other very closely.
" In general the snow does not not fall deep enough along the banks of
I main streams to preclude winter travelling with pafck animals. The quality
| of the pasture is such (a kind of bunch grass in most places) that animals
I feed well at all seasons.
" There are many spots between the Similikameen Valley and Okanagan
" that are specially favorable for winter ranches.
" In some the snow never lies, however deep it may be around."
Mr. John Miles, on May 1st, found the Sascatchewan country completely
/ %1 7 v X %/
free from snow, and the river very full of water.
j Of/a climate known to be capricious, whether we compare seasons or
localities, it is of course impossible to speak with certainty ; but, we have
evidence enough to justify the inference that Vermilion Pass would be open
at least five or six months, (perhaps seven) out of the twelve, and the
remaining portions of the route much longer.
One peculiarity of the climate of the courrtiy, it requires in England an
effort to realise. Surrounded bv snowy peaks, the air is often not outy warm
but sultry. Even at Victoria, where snow seldom exceeds a few inches, or
Langley, we have evidence of this every day. The snow itself is not o± the
damp, compact nature we are accustomed to, it is light, dry, and drifting ; on
this account, when it does come to thaw, it disappears with astonishing rapidity.
The annexed data extracted from the reports, of the Secretary of War, f^^YfS*
U. S., 1853-1854, record some particularly interesting facts on this point.     War w
0 Mr. Pinkham crossed the mountains from Walla-Walla to Seattle, by
* the Yakima pass, the summit of which he crossed on the 21st of January.
' For about six miles on the summit, the show was found to vary from four
4 feet to six feet in depth, occasionally seven feet.
" The area covered by snow exceeding twelve inches in depth, was some-
' what less than seventy miles; of this forty five miles were two feet, and
1 upwards ; twenty miles were four feet, and upwards ; and five miles were
' six feet and upwards.
f All thev snow was light and dry; it was the accumulated snows of the
1 winter to January 21st; deposited in successive layers of two inches to two
* feet, which have generally lain undisturbed since their fall; and they present
1 Irfctle obstruction to removal in comparison with the compact drifted snows
' of the Atlantic States.    The winter and spring temperatures of the Yakima
* pass, 3000 to 4000 feet elevation, are given as follows :—November, 36 °;
* December, 28°; January, 28°; February, 30°; March, 31°; April, 38°.
" The mean temperature at Puget Sound, from observations "extending
i over fdor years, is exactly 10° higher than these: at the Sound the winter
v ' */ ^*? 7
1 rain is 20.6 inches, and since more rain usually falls in the neighborhood of
* mountains than on plains, and snow occupies from ten to twelve times the
e bulk of an equal quantity of rain, it is probable that the accumulated snows
* of winter, in the Vermilion Pass, would exceed twenty or twenty-one feet, •
* but that the Pass would frequently be open in December, and passable'
' in May." APPENDIX.
77 7S
In the table on the two preceeding pages will be found a statement of the Weather at
prevailing weather, at Esquimalt, for one year, viz., from the 1st April, 1860, -Esqumialt.
to the 1st April, 1861, inclusive, which may be taken as a fair specimen from
which to form an average conclusion.
This goes far to prove that we enjoy, as a rule, fine weather. Of the
365 days of the year, no fewer than 187, or 51 per cent., were fine, the
remainder being dull, showerv, rainy, &c.
O ' 17   * J   7
During the winter months, fine weather accompanying frost is by no
means uncommon, or of short duration.
Rain fell on 118 days, or once every jOj days ; most heavily and fre-Kain.
quently during the winter months, from October to February.    Snow fell on
twelve davs only, and then neither heavily nor for anv length of time.    The
thermometer fell only eleven times below freezing, during the year, a good
indication of the mildness of the winter.
Heavy and prolonged fogs, prevail during October and November. In
the summer, mists are usually rare, partial, and transitory.
~3?he highest   summer   temperature   shown  in the table was 72° (9th Temperature.
August); June, July, and August, being the warmest months of the year.
The lowest, 23|-°, the coldest months being December, January, and February.
The annual tliermometric range was 48^°, while the greatest daily range
(23°), occurred in March, and the smallest during October. extremes of temperature are, therefore, by no means great, a good
index of the equable character of the climate, and of the absence of sudden
and violent changes.
The columns indicating the difference between the wet and dry bulb
thermometers (a good criterion of the amount of moisture in the atmosphere),
shew that during the entire year, even during the winter months and the
rainy and foggy weather of October and November, the air is not unfrequently
very dry.    The greatest  difference  between the wet and dry bulbs was 8£°
*/ •/ CD v •£
(June)—it has been observed as high as 13°, (5th May, 1861,) and the least
maximum difference, 2^° (September).
The dampest months   of  the year were from September   to January Moisture.
inclusive, the dampest of all being October, when fogs are often prevalent.
The barometric variations are neither great nor frequent, the range for
.he entire year being only 1*50 inch.
v CD «/
The wind columns shew the great frequency of calm mornings  and Wind,
evenings, while entire calm days occurred about once in every ten.
The average force of wind for the entire year was only 1^-, scarcely equal
to a light breeze, the highest being nine. High winds and squally weather
are unusual in summer, they chiefly visit us in the spring and winter months.
The following table will shew the direction of those winds which occurred
during the year with a force equal to a fresh breeze :—
Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, 1860-61.    Table of Winds with a force
at and. above 5, (fresh breeze).
. *>»
Total and
Per centage.
(chiefly S.W)j
56==67 *47 per cent
11=13*25     „
6= 7*23     ,
6= 7*23
4= 4*82      ,
,. 1
11 86
Thus it appears that high winds are commonest in April, and blow
chiefly from the south and south-west, forming sixty-seven per cent of the
strong breezes which occur during the entire year. Strong northerly winds
are rare even in winter. The per-centage from the west is, however, unusually
large.    When westerly winds do occur, they are often violent.
Southerly winds prevail, as a rule, during the year, and occur in ike
proportion of sixty-seven per cent.
Next to these in the order of frequency are the northern, eastern, and
western. The southerly winds, which blow nearly all the year round, and
those in winter from the north, may be said to prevail in the southern extremity of Vancouver Island.
The less prevalent easterly and westerly winds usually occur during the
winter months, especially December and January; in the summer, very rarely.
Winds with
Esquimalt, Vancouver Island, 1860-61.    Winds which accompanied Kain.
Characteristics of seasons.
Direction of
S. W	
2 }- Southerly, 59.
7 I
T  1
H > Northerly, 28.
O j                     * '
N.W. ...
N N.W..
2H Easterly, 12.
W.S W	
2 Westerly, 2.
Total.. .
The above table shows that the winds which, most frequently accompany
rain are southerly or sea breezes, principally S.W. These almost invariably
accompany the showers of spring and summer, and often occur with the
heavier and more prolonged winter rains—although northerly and easterly
winds, both land breezes, are those which usually follow the latter, and
together form about one-third of the winds which succeed rain.
. The following are the usual characteristics of the different seasons:	
The spring is short, and lasts from the beginning or middle of March to
the end of April or beginning of May. In early March the weather undergoes a marked change, and a drier and milder atmosphere forms a decided
.contrast to that of the cold and wet winter months that precede it. Trees bud
and come into leaf, and, towards its close, various wild plants,e.^., the Colmsia.
TvMum, <fec, are in flower. The prevailing weather is characterized by
fine mild days, still alternated, however, with occasional rain and squalls.
Towards the latter end of April, fine weather has fairly set in, with mild
dry south and -south-west winds, but farming operations may usually be commenced with the utmost safety in the beginning or middle of March as the
&een biting " March winds " of the English climate, so detrimental to the BBS
budding fruit and vegetation generally, are seldom, and never severely, felt
Our beautiful and more protracted summer begins with May, and ends with Summer.
September.    During these glorious months we are cheered tjy a bright sun, .a
clear and often cloudless sky, lasting frequently for days together, with gentle
sea and land breezes.    Rain falls seldom, and never heavily; fogs and mists
7 v     7 C7
are rare; the season is delightful. Sometimes, indeed, the power of the sun
becomes excessive, and the soil very arid from the want of rain; but these
drawbacks are but trifling, and do not interfere, to any appreciable extent,
either with individual arrangements, or agricultural or horticultural operations.
The heavy English " harvest rains " of August and September are unknown
in Vancouver Island, and the crops are usually sown, reared, cut, and housed
with fine weather.
The autumn, which lasts during October and November, presents a Autumn,
marked change. Cold and moist northerly winds succeed the dry southerly
breezes of summer; fogs begin in October, and occasionally during the latter
end of September, with a moist atmosphere and frequent rains. These,
however, alternate with periods of fine mild weather, sometimes lasting for
ten days or a fortnight, and forming what, in the aggregate, is termed the
*/ CD        7 CD OO       O 7
" Indian summer." So mild, however, is the temperature, comparatively
speaking, even at the latter end of November, that wild strawberries may
occasionally be seen in bloom.
During the winter, which lasts from the beginning of December to the Winter.
end of February, cold moist northerly and southerly winds prevail, with
•/   7 %7 *7 X f
frequent rains and occasional fogs, the latter, however, less common than in
the autumn. This state of things is often pleasantly varied by periods of
fine, clear, frosty weather, lasting from two to four, or even eight or ten days.
The thermometer is seldom much below zero, snow is uncommon, and neither
falls heavily nor lies long, nor are the frosts intense or long continued, ice
being seldom more than one inch thick. So mild is the usual winter weather
of this colony, that most farmers leave their stock unhoused and at large
during the entire season. More severe and prolonged winters occasionally
oceur, however, as during the past year of 1861-62, and during 1852-53, but
these are exceptional, and do not happen more frequently here than in England
and other countries with similar climates.
10—11 m
urges*} trees
the cypress
ret discovered on the Pacific coast resemble cedar,
but are of the cypress kind, They are found at Mariposa and Calaveras,
and measure upwards of 30 feet in diameter, and nearly 400 feet m
height.    No pines have been met with as large as these.    Near Humboldt, I
noticed a forest of firs (which resembled the Douglas, but had smaller
foliage and cones), in which a diameter of from 14 to 15 feet, and a corres-
Douglas pine, ponding height, was not uncommon. A few trees of the Douglas kind, of
similar size, are found on the banks of the Columbia. In the British
Colonies, trees exceeding 9 or 10 feet in diameter, aud 270 or 300 feet in
height, are rarely met with. In the very large trees, alluded to as being
found south of 49°, the annual  rings are large and soft, and the timber
/ CD & '
comparatively weak.
In this respect, the timber north of 49° being of more moderate
dimensions, lias decidedly an advantage. There the Douglas fir, which,
with the silver fir (c/randis), is the most abundant on the coast, will, I
should think, prove, on being properly tested, to be the strongest fir or pine
in existence. Broken in a gale, the stem is splintered to a height of 20
feet at least, and when being hewn down, it is astonishing to observe how
small a portion of the trunk will withstand the leverage of the whole tree.'
On account of the quantity of resin it contains, the timber is exceedingly
durable. The bark lesembles cork, is often 8 or 9 inches thick, and makes
a capital fire. H. M. S. TJietis was sparred with it,—I am not aware with
what result. If the wood is not too heavy, I should think it will make
the best spars in the service.
On the banks of the,Nitinat Inlet and elsewhere, forests of the Menzies
pine occur, very suitable in point of size for first- class spars. This wood
appears to work beautifully. Hemlock spruce {Canadensis), from which
laths are made, is very common. The banks of the Columbia, near Colville,
appear to grow ponderosa almost exclusively. A small pine (inops), a
portion of the bark of which Indians eat, is constantly met with near
water, whether in the lowest swamps, or basins on mountain tops. The
Weymouth pine (Strobus), is common everywhere. The P. jtfootkatensis I
have not met with. are but a few of the fire or pines which are
generally met with. A series of experiments to test their physical properties
has been commenced, but is as yet too incomplete for publication.
* X X
Although spar-timber is common everywhere, the trees grow larger
and straighter in the still valleys bordering on the Gulf of Georgia, than
where more exposed on the coast.
There are two occasions on which touring in a pine forest is far from'
Menzies and
other pine.
mtertaining,   viz.
storm; when tree after tree, with a noise like
thunder, comes crashing to the ground; and, secondly, when the forest is
on fire. It is difficult to conceive anything more dismal thairt the appearance
of charred and branchless forasts where fires have swept.    It is not ua*
common in autumn to see the country in this way illuminated by a blaze
extending for miles in every direction.
Of oak there are two kinds ; the timber is weak, and the trees usually Oak.
show symptoms of decay.
If curled maple is in England valuable for furniture, as I am told it is, Maple and
it may be of service to some one to know that it grows in abundance on arDutus.
the banks of the rivers in these Colonies.    The trunks of the Arbutus grow
very large, and the wood in color and texture so much resembles box, that
for many purposes it might supply the uses of the latter.    It is, however,
specifically lighter.
The country also produces cedar, or rather cypress (Cupressus ihyoides), Other timber,
juniper, yew, birch, poplar, sorbis, <fcc., but I never noticed ash, beech or
Timber Produce.
Timber: its The timber produce of Vancouver Island and British Columbia-, will soon
ralue and uses. -^ 0f gj.eaY v<ilue in the colonies themselves, especially in the former, likely
to possess a large mercantile navy.
In addition to this, the increasing scarcity in many countries of timber
7 {J v
adapted l'cr mast and spar-making, and for ship-building purposes generally,
makes the produce of these colonies of peculiar value, especially to extensive
ship-building countries like Great Britain. Both colonies are, for the most
part, forest-clad, and much fine timber exists. ^
The pine, or cone-bearing family, predominates throughout, and forms a
marked feature in the scenery.
The following list comprises the most nseful and imjiortant trees :—
1. Coniferm (Cone-bearing family).
•/ \ CD *   /
Pinus Douglasii Douglas Pine.
„    Balsamea  Canada Balsam Pine.
„    Strobus White, or Weymouth Pine.
Canadensis    Hemlock Pine.
Nigra    Black Spruce.
JYobilis Noble Fir.
Thuja Occidentalis White Cedar.
Cupressus Thyo ides Common Cypress Cedar.
Taxus Bacchata  Western Yew.
2. Amentacece (Catkin-bearing family).
Platanus Acerifolia Plane.
Populus Tremtda     Aspen.
„      Balsamea Cotton Wood.
Quercv.s Nigra Black Oak.
„     Alba  White Oak.
3. Ericaceae.
Arbuiits Laurifolia Arbutus.
The Douglas pine preponderates at the southern end of Vancouver
Island, and along its east and west coasts, with occasional patches of oak,
' CD * X 7
and a few maple, cypress, arbutus, yew, and other varieties.
Maple is said to abound towards its north end. * Many of the trees on
the hilly ground are of stunted growth ; but, in the valleys and low ground,
especially along the west coast, heavy timber is plentiful, especially the
lofty Douglas pine, admirably adapted for mast and spar-making. Messrs.
Stamp k Co., at Barclay Sound? are actively pushing the timber trade, and
arev exporting cut timber to Australia, &c. ; and are also under contract to
supply the English Government with spars.
Much of the oak of this colony is ef good size and quality,  and well Oak.
adapted for knee-timber and general ship-building purposes.
Their wood  has been of incalculable utility to these young colonies,
J «/ CD 7
where it still forms the  principal fuel, and the most generally employed
material for house-building, land-fencing, <fec, &C.
Saw mills are much required at the southern end of Vancouver Island,
to supply the colony with sawn timber; much of that now in us® is imported
from the neighbouring American territory.    The principal difficulty in this
CD CD v x JL *7
colony, is the scarcity of labor.
The timber produce of British Columbia is both varied and valuable;
the country along the Lower Fraser especially is densely wooded.
+> CD J. «/ v
The forests of this colony may be said to be inexhaustible, and will long Inexhaustible
yield timber in abundance when the timber produce of Vancouver Island has *orests*
been consumed.   British Columbia has superior facilities for the development
of an export trade in timber.    By its large and rapid rivers,  especially the
Fraser and its tributaries,  and the Harrison and other lakes,  which usually
communicate with them,  the timber of the north-east,  east,  and southern
parts of the interior, and of the whole of the extensive tract of wooded
country which the Fraser River drains, may be floated down to New Westminster or Victoria for shipment: while that of the hilly region,  which lies
between the western coast and the Cascade and Harrison Lake ranges, may
be similarly transported by the smaller streams, and those numerous arms of
the sea, which are found in that direction, e.g.:—Bentinck Arm, Howe Sound,
Bute Inlet, &c, where saw mills may easily be established for the manufac- .
ture of spars and timber,  similar to that now in operation at Barclay Sound.
The timber found in British Columbia, though more varied than that of
Vancouver Island, is even less used, except for fuel and house-building.
7 A O
Several markets may be found for the manufactured timber of Van- Markets for
couver Island and British Columbia;   in England,  spars, oak, and other timber.
woods are much required for ship-building ; in Australia and South America,
X. X CD   7 7
timber is scarce ; and in China, especially in the south, whose teeming population are compelled to sacrifice everything to agriculture, and where wood is
therefore scarce, valuable, and in great demand for house, junk, and boat building,
. the soft woods of Vancouver Island will find a ready sale ; and also charcoal,
the principal fuel used by the Chinese for culinary and general domestic
The collection of turpentine, an exudation from various species of pine, Turpentine,
might be profitable in these colonies.   The Douglas pine yields it in considerable quantities, though probably not so abundantly as the Carolina pine, the
ordinary source of the turpentine of English commerce.
The manufacture of tar, invaluable to Vancouver Island as a commercial Tar and pitch,
and fishing colony with a numerous shipping, has not yet been attempted in
either colony.
In the southern states of America, it is made from the heart-wood of
dead pines, which becomes charged with resinous juice long after the tree
has died, from which it is extracted by an easy process, -usually  carried on
7 ^/ U X 7 */
in the forest.   From tar thus obtained, pitch may be procured by distillation.
7    X <7 X •/
The manufacture of potash, or pearlash, (the blacks salts of commerce,) Potash and
^-m • Aula o"Vk
now  extensively carried out in the forests of Canada, might be attempted Feanasn-
in those of British Columbia and Vancouver Island with their surplus wood.
In Canada, the hard woods yield it in greatest abundance, especially
elm, ash, birch, beech, and maple; and the salt is made by dissolving and
evaporating the ashes left on burning the trees. This salt will be useful in the
colony for soap, candle, and other manufactures. 86
Coal Mining
on Vancouver
Discovery of
Trial of the
Nanaimo, B. C, September 20, 1871,
The Hoxorable H. L. Langevtn, C. B.
Minister of Piiblie Works.
ir,—Bteing informed by Captain Spalding that you wished to have a few
remarks from me relative to the scam of coal which we are about to work on
Vancouver Island, and not knowing the exact points* on which you would
feel most interested, as very little has been done so far towards its develope-
ment, I have considered it not amiss to state in the first place how it was
When I was in the bush about three miles from the sea, in the month of
October 1869, not exactly for the purpose of prospecting for coal, but being
thoroughly acquainted from past experience with all the coal formation in this
country, I came across a ridge of rock, which I knew to be the strata overlying the lowest seam that had as yet been discovered here.- A
short time afterwards, I sent two men to prospect, and in three days discovered a seam of coal 3£ feet in thickness, 30 feet below the tops of the
ridge, clipping S.E., one foot in six.
After procuring from government a right to further prospect, I sunk a
slope 97|- yards in the seam, and mined therefrom about 500 tons, twenty-five
tons of which were taken on board of H. M. S. Boxer, for trial. The same
quantities were taken from the Vancouver Coal Company's Douglas' Pit and
Newcastle Mi ne.    A copy of the report of said trial, I herewith enclose.
While working the slope, I had a party of men prospecting in the same
ridge, ajbout half a mile nearer the sea, and found the same seam about 27
feet from the surface. I afterwards had a bore put down about f of a mile
from the beach, and struck the seam 8 feet in thickness, at a depth of 132
feet. This place was as far to the dip of the field, as the grant from Government allowed me to go. Hence you will observe that the distance between
where I first discovered the coal, and the bore is 2|- miles, with an average
width of -S- mile, which I believe contains coal, although there may be a few
" faults " met with, as is the case in all coal fields, but considering the depth
of the bore in such f\ distance from the " out crop " they cannot be of much
It was my intention to have worked, for the present, the second place
where the coal was found, merely because it would have shortened the length
of the tram-road; but as I was again strolling through the bush about ten
weeks ago, about 200 yards from the place I had determined to work, I
chanced to come upon the root of a fallen tree, which I thought had a peculiar
appearance. On examination I found' coal sticking on the upturned root, and
digging a little under it, Isaw that coal had been there, but was now removed
by the action of fire.
I then sent for two of the workmen, who brought picks and shovels,
and in half-an-hour, we discovered a seam of coal left 3 feet thick, the top of
course having been consumed. I set the men to work about 80 yards further
to the dip, and 9 feet below the surface found the seam of 9 feet in thickness. APPENDIX.
For a distance of 54 yards by 2 yards wide, I have had the surface removed,
and from the cut intend to *"* open cast" some acres to the rise, where the surface to be removed will only average about 4^- feet.
1 expect to find a rock roof to the dip of this, in which case the coal will
have to be mined, this I may remark is rather a remarkable discovery, no
machinery being required for a considerable time. The quality of the coal
appears to myself and others to be superior to the other.
It is my opinion that the average yield of this field, per acre,  will be Anticipated
about 7,000 tons ; but should the thickness of 9 feet continue, it will be much yield of the
more.    H. M. ships have been supplied with most of the coal procured from
the first opening, and under considerable difficulties, as the coal had to be
teamed to the beach and put alongside in lighters.
At present I am constructing a tram-road to, and building a wharf at,
Departure Bay (one of the finest harbors on the coast, where vessels of any
draught can enter), and intend to be able to supply coal within two months.
There are about forty men employed at present, twenty-five whites, seven
Chinese, and the remainder Indian.
Should you wish information regarding coal or coal mining in this Province at any future time, I shall always feel it an honor to do what I can in
supplying it to the best of my ability,
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed)        Robert Dunsmuir. i mBgmHHHMtn
Nature and
yield of gold
Black Duck
Germansen Creek, August 16th, 1871.
* * * I did not think the country sufficiently prospected to
justify me in writing definitely about the mines before this. There are two
and a half miles of this stream that will pay from $10 to $75 per day/to the
hand; the diggings are shallow, and will be speedily worked out. Of eourse
there may be some few claims that will prove blanks, but they cannot be
many, as prospects have been obtained in a majority. South-east from this
Mansen Biver place there has been a stream called Mansen River discovered. So fat! the
stream, with few exceptions, has proved a blank, but on both sides of the
creek there are many benches and joints of bare rock and gravel, that pay
well; in some instances they pay as high as $75 per day to the man. I think if
there was water to be had to wash the flats, the yield of gold from that section
would be very heavy indeed.    There are several small crseeks and gulches
%7 v *—'
putting into Mansen Creek that prospect well, two of which pay remarkably. Lost Creek, for five days' work, with five men, cleaned up 192 oz. of
gold dust. The new company below them consider their ground equally
as good. The companies above them have not got their claims opened, but
think the pay will be found as good there as below. The next is Black Duck
Gulch. The best pay is from $40 to $50 per day to the man, four companies
working. There are some of the oldest and best miners in the mountains
prospecting. One of them, who came in for a fresh supply of provisions,
thinks they are  going to  develop  some  rich mines fifty miles north-west
*7 CD O X *7
from here. I think there is a lively future for this section of B.ritish
Columbia. I consider there are mines enough found at present to justify a
population of 2,000 in risking the country. The only drawback to the old
route will be the road tolls. If they can be removed I have no doubt the
Proposed pack travel and merchandise will come that way. The trail cut by the packers
ro can be made a splendid road for pack animals at a little expense; at least,
all who have travelled over the route say so. From this town to Stewart's
Lake the distance will not exceed 115 miles; from thence to Quesnel 175
miles. Good feed can be had all the way. There is some talk of gold
quartz being found. I cannot trace the report to reliable men. Next week
almost every company, for a distance of two miles, will be washing. I cannot
give you an idea as to how many men there are here. There are quite a
number leaving, and of course they will give the country a bad name, but
Necessity for   j fed certain time will prove this to be a great mining region.    We need a
a   mall IT Ml t5&.
weekly mail to the place. Cannot something be done to induce the new
Government to send us a mail twice a month in winter, and as often as it is
sent to Cariboo in the summer1? There are about twenty houses erected
here, many of which compare favorably with the mercantile houses in Barker-
ville. About three miles of this creek are abandoned by the miners, but
many contend the pay will be found in the flats where it is .not in the
stream.    I believe  the largest pieces found in Mansen River district weigh
-"~— O I o
and $>100.    Nothing so heavy has been found in this creek this season.
• U  ; * # # *
a mail. APPENDIX.
[2nd April, 1867.]
"Y^^ HERE AS it is expedient to anrencl and assimilate the laws relating to Preamble.
Gold Mining in this Colony :
Be it enacted by the Governor of British Columbia, with the advice and
consent of the Legislative Council thereof, as follows :—
1. From and after the passing of this Ordinance " The Gold Mining
I Ordinance, 1865," and the proclamations, rules and regulations and ordinances repealed thereby, are hereby repealed ; provided, however, that such
X v   7 %7 X 7      X ' 7
repeal shall not in any manner affect any rights acquired, or any liabilities or
penalties incurred thereunder, or any remedies or punishments prescribed
thereby, b>ut such remedies and punishments may still for the purposes of
such enforcement, but not further or otherwise, be available and capable of
2. In the construction of this Ordinance