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Victoria water supply. Report by Thos. A. Bulkley chief engineer to government. Addressed to the Hon.… Bulkley, Thomas A. 1872

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Victoria, British Columbia.
The Hon. Geo . /C|* VTaleeM,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
One of the first questions requiring ray attentiou, on entering upon my duties
under the terms of your litter of the 24th of April, Was that of the Supply of Water
to the City of Victoria.
I have now the honor to submit my report on the subject, together with the
result of my examinations, and Surveys, Plans and Estimates of the project, which
I beg to recommend for your adoption.
^"np^y"*8 . In the absence of any specially expressed instructions, the
requirements which I proposed to myself were as follows:—
"A supply of water pure and soft, ample for existing requirements and
capable of extension to meet the-wants of such a considerably increased
population as Victoria may reasonably expect.
A supply which shall be constant and on the High Service System and
obtained, if possible, by gravitation in preference to pumping.
A supply to be obtained at the smallest cost compatible with efficiency;
if possible at such an estimate as will enable the project to be financially
raterftmust be pure and The neceB8ity for a supplj 0f pure water is now, I imagine,
more or less generally recognized; the advantage of "soft" water, however, in preference to "hard," on both healthful and economical grounds, is not as a rule so
well understood.
The Report by the General Board of Health upon the supply of water to London'
abounds with evidence bearing upon this point.
Dr. Sutherland's evidence in t-v       rt    ,•■       1       j ■       i • • 1 .        j_i     j. i      i      i •        i
favor of soft water. Dr. Sutherland in his evidence states that he had examined
the works for the supply of Gorbals, Paisley and Sterling, in all of which the water
is obtained from gathering grounds and thence distributed: all these waters are
described as "remarkably soft," Sterling water being only 1 degree of hardness,
Paisley 2 degrees, and Gorbals about 3J degrees, "and to a person accustomed to
the hard water supply of London the sensation in washing is, that it can be done
as well without soap in tnese waters as with soap in the London waters."
C 2]
Again he remarks:—
"In those towns were a soft water supply has lately been introduced, I found a deciied conviction
prevailing among the medicel profession as to the sanitary advantages ot such waters, merely on the
ground of tbeir softness. The evidence goes to prove that dyspeptic complaints diminish, that epidemics
are less severe and less fatal, and that stone and other calculous diseases are prevented. "
Dr. Leech, of Glasgow, in  the district supplied by the Gorbals Gravitation
Water-works, said:—
"My attention has been called to the bearing of the questioa of pure soft water supply on the public
health. The Gorbals water is very soft and pure. The new supply has been introducer] about two years;
but in consequence of the bad water supply which existed before the new water was introduced, my attention as well as that of my raedh-al brethren was directed to the question for a long time previously.
The comparative value of the new soft supply over the hard supply has been a matter of discussion at the
Glasgow Southern Medical Society, of which I was president two years. It was the unanimous opinion of
t ie medical profession, that gre it benefits of a sanitary kind had followed in the substitution of the soft
water on the priuciple of constant supply. It has been observed, that since this change, urinary.disea-es
have become less frequent, especially, those attended by the deposition of gravel. So far as experience
has gone, my own opinion is, that dyspeptic complaints have become diminished in number. With the
same reservation as to time, it is the opinion of the medical profession that fever has numerically diminished, and that the cases that occur are more amenable to treatment by the* use of the soft water supply
than they were with the former supply."
And again,
"I cannot therefore but express my conviction that in all towns where it may be found necessary to
to obtain a new source of supply, this evidence as to the peculiar advantages of soft water in regard to
health should apart from the well known economic value of such water, exercise great influence in determining the selection.
Br' faro" ofsoft water*6 | Br, Holland, after describing a process in which he employed
lime to effect the softening of hard water, was questioned as to whether it was
worth while to go to so much trouble and expense for the sake of obtaining soft
water; his reply was:—
"Certainly, it is very well worth while; in fact, without liming, I consider the water quite u/i&t Tor
drinking; though it varies in quality, it has generally a very perceptible taste and smell which the lime
removes. Then as to softness; I am charged 35s. a year for water (which is far too much), but, however,
water costs me say 8d. a-week, but the soap for my family, in addition to that for the washing sent on
costs about is. Gd. a week, or twice as much as the water. It is evident that by diminishing the hardness ot the water, and thereby the waste of soap, I may easily save the amount of my water-rate in that
article alone.\ Besides that, I can wash comfortably with softened water, but I cannot do so with any
quantity of soap with the water before it is limed, unless I have it boiled to precipitate the chalk, which
process is more expensive and troublesome. I should, however, much prefer being supplied with a water
fit for ordinary domestic purposes, and, if necessary, paying more for it,
"Have you tried the difference of hard and soft water for cooking?—I have not made any accurate ex-
periments except as to tea making; I find that the water softened by means of oxalate of ammonia extracts
the strength of tea almost twice as well as when hard. I had tea made with equal quantities of the lea',
and equal quantities of boiling water, with and without oxalate of ammonia. The infusion made with
water softened by the oxalate, was stronger and better flavoured, and had to be dilated with the addition
80 per cent, of hot water to bring it down to the strength of the other. It follows, therefore, that with
the oxalate 10 parts of tea go as far as IS without it.
"Does that saving pay for the expense?—Over and over again; my tea costs me about Is. a week, if
I can save eight parts oat of 18, I can have as strong and better flavoured tea for less than Id. a week >
V [3 ]
le:ng a saving nearly equal to the water rate. It is not easy, however, to get these savings effected regularly; it is apt to be forgotten, and cannot well be left to the servants. It would be far better to have a
water originnlly soft, if it were procurable."
Dr. Lyon piayfairs evidence       j)r Lyon PI ay fair, in the course ofhis evidence, when asked
as to the domestic value        ,       , i i       -i    /• 1 n- r-      i  • • .-,
of soft water. whether he had found reason to modify his opinion as to the .
do.nestic value of soft water, replied:—
"I speak with the force of increased experience when F say that I formerly greatly underrated the
advantages of soft water. I need not allude to the importance of soft water for washing further than to
say 30 ozs. of soap are consumed by every 100 gallons of Thames witter before it forms a lather fitted for
detergent purposes. The importance of soft water in cooking is less obvious, but no less ascertained to
exercise an important influence on the culinary art. With regard to health, accurate observations have
not yet been made, especially with reference to human subjects, but, on anima's, the effect of bard water
is very apparent. Horses have an instinctive love for soft water, and refuse bard wa>er if they can possibly
g(-t the former. Hard water produces a rough and staring coat on horses and renders them liable to gripes.
Pigeons also refuse bard water if they can obtain access to soft. Gleghoru states, that hard water in
Minorca causes diseases in the system of certain animals, e-pecially sheep, -"'o much are race horses in~
fluenced by the quality of the water that it is not unfrequent to carry a supply of soft water to the locality
in which the race is to take place, lest their being only hard water the horses should lose c .ndition.
Mr. Youatt, in his book called "The Horse," in remarking upon the desirableness of soft water for
the horse, says, 'Instinct or experience has made the horse himself conscious of this, for he will never
drink hard water if he has access to soft; he will leave the most transparent water of the well for a river,
a'though the water may be torbid, and even for the muddiest pool.' And again, in another place, he says,
'Hard water drawn fresh from the well will assuredly make the coat of a horse unaccustomed to it stare,
and will not unfreqnently gripe or further injure it.' "
Mr. soyer-s evidence as to |      Mi\ Alexis Soyer, the well known  cook, grave the result of
•the value of soft water      . . ~ ^#S* ,
culinary purposes. -his experience as being entirely in favor of soft water over hard
for all culinary purposes. From experiments made by him it appeared that it
required one-fourth more time and fuel to cook vegetables or meat with hard than
with soft water; that hard water was ill adapted for making soups and broths, that
it was also very inferior in making bread and in brewing operations.
Lastly, in connection with the question of soft water, James Temple, Esq., or
Paisley was examined, as follows:—
Mr. Temples'   evidence   in        " What  experience has   there been at Paisley of the  public   use of waters
favor of soft water from {ifc^eSjfc $@ffM "
gathering grounds. of   different   qualities?—Previously    to    the introduction of   the   new    water
j.upply, the water used was spring water and river water. The spring water taken from the wells was very
hard; the river water was comparatively soft, and was used for washing. A snpply was afterwards obtained
of jet softer water from gathering grounds, the water at present in use being of only two degrees of hardness. An Act of Parliament was obtained to supply the town with river water, as being much softer than
well water, but on ascertaining that a still softer water might be procured, the townspeople allowed the
Act to expire without availing themselves of the powers conferred by it. This softer water, obtained from
gathering grounds, is now in use, and is of two degrees of hardness.
"What can you state as evidence of popular appreciation of the softer water now supplied?—The popular complaint is that it is sold at too high a price, and they think it no crime to steal it, and they do steal
it whenever they can.
"May they have well water or river water without stealing?—Yes ; they may.
"This soft water is, then, preferred to the well or river water?—Yes ; for every purpose.
"For drinking?—Yes, for drinking particular^; for myself, when I come to London I think I shall no
get a good drink of water until I again return to Paisley.
"Is the supply of water constant at Paisley?—Yes ; by gravitation. I
"Is the soft water considered superior for tea and washing?—For tea, there is not a lady in Paisley who
would not give testimony as to its superiority. We End also in washing that we have a great saving cot
only of soap, but also of the wear and tear of clothes, from the greater rubbing occasioned b> hard water,''
These opmions all tend to prove that were a plentiful supply of soft water procurable at a moderate cost, the population of this city would not be backward in
availing themselves of it in preference to the hard and frequently impure water
from the generality of yard and garden wells.
scale ofhardncsc. The degrees of hardness referred to, are in accordance with
a scale devised by Professor Clarke and since generally adopted. Thus, by water
described as of 1, 2, 6 or 10 degrees of hardness is intended the hardening effect
that would be produced by dissolving respectively 1, 2, 6 or 10 grains of chalk in a
gallon of water.
>aterffrJm varioiw"oui-cosf The result of an examination of various waters, was found
by the "Board of Health" to be as follows:-—
Well and Spring
P-iver water
injr water.	
of Specimens.
Average Hardness
25° .86
13° .05
urface Collection	
4° .94
Quantity fit Water required is »r. •, 1 -i ,        ,-t ,., jc ±. ~\    x.
25 gallons per head per day. With regard, now, to the quantity of water required to
render the supply "ample for existing demands." In estimating this I shall probably be sufficiently accurate in assuming the existing population at five thousand,
for which I propose to allow 25 gallons per head per day.
The following table gives some particulars regarding the populations provided
for and the water actually supplied by several existing water companies ;
Table of particulars regarding the delivery of several existing Water Cos.
rTame of Company.
Population  sup-1 Mileage of Pipesl Diameter
plied,   estimatedlexciuding house! of
at 7 8 per. 1 ou.-e.l        service. Pipes.
Quantity of water de-
li\ ered annually
for all purposes.
New River Company...
East London Water Co
Squt.liwark & Vauxhall
West Middlesex Co	
Lambeth Co	
Chelsea Co	
Grand Junction Co	
Kent Co	
Hampstead Co	
Paisley Co	
Glasgow North  Co	
do      South or Gorbals Gravitation Co.
St'r iog Co ,
Nottingham (Jo	
Preston Co	
Philadelphia Co	
442 000
3 to 42 in.
2 to
27 in.
2 to
23 in.
3 to
18 in.
3f to
32 in.
1J to
24 in.
3 to
12 to
22 in.
000 gals.
876    do
Quan. of water
delivered per
iead per d*y«
28 gals.
20 do
22 do
17 do
16 do
24 do
33 do
14 do
12 do
45 do
52 do
32   do
13 do
19 do
9   do
20 do C5]
From this it will be seen that the quautity of water delivered, varied between
9 and 45 gallons, averaging about 24 gallons per head per day.
*This is, however, for all purposes, including street watering, sewer flushing,
fire extinguishing, and special supplies to manufactories, and including a very large
proportion of waste.
From the evidence before the Board of Health it appeared that the quantity of
water actually entering into consumption, was far below that pumped into the
mains or drawn from the reservoir.
Qua..Htr of water applied to       jn Stirling- the consumption in the better class of houses
various towns iu England   .
and Scotland. including washing, baths and water-closets, was found to be
almost 5J gallors per head per day.
A direct experiment made in a first-class house in Liverpool showed the actual
consumption to be 7 gallons per head per day for all purposes.
A similar measurement at one of the Liverpool hospitals gave a result of 10
gallons per head per day.
Mr. Gale in a paper descriptive of the new Glasgow Water Works, on which
he was Resident Engineer, states that "the quantity of water used in the manufacturing towns of Lancashire is about 20 gallons per head per day for all purposes.
"In Manchester with a population nearly the same as Glasgow it is 22 gallons,
and the quantity sold for trade purposes is from 5 to 8 gallons per head per day.
" In Sunderland with a population of 130,000 it is 15 gallons, of which 3 go to
" In Nottingham it is 17 to 18 gallons per head, of which 5 or 6 are sold for
trade purposes."
The quantity, therefore, which I have mentioned above, viz.: 25 gallons per
head per day, appears to be a sufficiently liberal supply for Victoria.
nnouVp"e^ntpo^»,iaoiif>r We require then for our assumed population of five thousand, a daily supply of 125,000 gallons, which is equivalent to 45£ millions of gallons per annum.
I will return to the question of a future extension of the supply after explain
bag the details of my project.
AdTMtuKM of "high pre.-       rjjjg advantages of "High Service" and a constant supply are
sure" and "constant sup- ° ° it
piy.« now so well known that they are adopted m all new works, and
introduced where practical in old works ia favour of the intermittent system.
ci«terns avoided. The advantages of a constant supply are manifold.   The
expense of cisterns and their attendant annoyance and impurities are avoided.
With cisterns of lead, exposed to the action of both air and water, poisoning is the
result. While according to Dr. Angus Smith "if wooden cisterns are used pure
water can never be obtained."
po*.„h*0f the water ayoi- Again, with a constant supply, the leaden service pipes are
always kept fall and consequently free from air; by this means the oxidisation of
the lead and poisoning of the water is avoided. [6]
security againse fire. Among the advantages of ''High Service" is that of greater
security against fire. Fire pulgs can bo provided at certain known intervals
alono- the principal streets, and by means of a.hydrant, hose and nozzle, a high pressure jet of water can be obtained without the intervention of a fire engine.
It is stated that, with proper arrangements, a jet may thus, be thrown on a
house within two minutes of its being found to be on fire, while according to Mr.
Braidwood it took on an average in London "more than 20 minutes before an
en«rine can be brought to the spot and set to work at a fire, and more than 30
minutes in other towns."
surplus water at high pres-       a high pressure jet affords the easiest means of cleansing
sure can be utilized as a      ^ windows,   side-walks,    and   of   watering the
mechanical power. uuuov ' ' ' °
treets- and with a high pressure, any surplus supply of water provides, at a small
cost, a convenient mechanical power which can be utilized for turning lathes, chaff
cutters, printing and other small machines.
saving in servants labor. Finally in this country of high wages and scarce servants it is
ol no small importance to be able to command a constant supply of water in the
upper part of the house without the labor of carrying it
objections to the pumping       fu o-reat disadvantage of a supply of water by pumping as
system. © ° \ .   x «.      «->
compared with a supply on the gravitation system, is that of expense; and not so
much the prime cost of engines and machinery as the continual expense of pumping and maintenance.
Then the engines are liable to get out of order, and the result, unless they are I
in duplicate, is an interruption in the water supply.
Again, pumping as a rule, necessitates either an intermittent supply or consi-j
derable expenditure in the construction ot distributing reservoirs.
Gravitating system is the       There is no doubt then that a high pressure supply of water
simplest, cheapest and ^ ^ gravitating system, provides the maximum of convenience ]
best. O O     •/ t
at the minimum of cost for maintenance.
In adopting the gravitating
system certain things are
In order, however, to adopt this system, the following requirements must^be satisfied:—
1. The reservoir or other source from which the supply is drawn, must be sufficiently high to command the highest point of delivery within the town.
2. The supply pipe must be sufficiently strong to resist the pressure of the
required head, and of sufficient size to deliver, under the pressure of such head, the
maximum quantity of water required at any time during the day.
-radons sources of supply       In seeking for a supply under these conditions there may be
Engineer. 0Pei   ° *" 8aid generally to be three sources open to one :—>
1. From springs or wells,*either ordinary or artesian.
2. From water of streams or rivers.
3. From the collection and storage of surface water, or rainfall.
We,,Pn^<*r' hard and ^      Under the 1st head may be classed the present insufficient
supply to the town.   A large proportion of houses have their own wells.   In the [7 J
generality of these the water is very hard—in several the water is unfit for use, as
must always be the case in a city in which cesspools are the rule—and with all there
exists the disadvantage that the water has to be raised and carried by hand in all
St*££%J£Z£Ti       Ly™g to the north-east of Victoria is a rising ground of
,UhT£™.to the wanteof gravelly water bearing formation ; on this the present "Spring
Eidge Water Company" have established a small pumping engine, by which water
is raised from a shaft and tunnel, and conveyed to town in wooden pipes.
This Company does not appear to have received the entire support and confidence of the public. Possibly on account of the high charges levied. Possibly
from the deficient quantity and inferior quality ot the water supplied. Possibly
from the small amount of convenience attending its use. Probably from a combination of all three.
8iPKidgefb7uSuffllientprins j There is no doubt that a small supply of good water might
be obtained from this "Spring Ridge," but that it would be quite inadequate to our
wants is evident from the fact that in the summer months, when a pure supply of
water is most required, the spring fails and the Company are obliged to draw upon
what is known as Harris' Pond ; and any person who has noticed the appearance
presented by the remains of this muddy pool in the months of August and September,
will not wish me to look for an increased supply in that direction. From either
source the Company has to contend against the great disadvantage of puuiping
ever gallon of water they deliver.
Artesian weiis considered. With regard to artesian wells, I have seen them urged more
than once, by the local press, as the means by which a cheap and abundant supmy
of water could probably best be obtained.
One Writer, I noticed, went so far as to urge the fact of an artesian bore in
Chicago having struck water at a depth of one thousand two hundred feet, as a
good reason for cur embarking in a similar undertaking here.
The fact is, that the success or failure of an artesian well is a question depending upon the geological formation of the district. Success depends upon the existence of a permeable, water bearing, stratum having an outcrop at some higher
level, with a considerable surface exposed for tne absorption of the rainfall. This
stratum being underlaid and overlaid by others of a clayey or impermeable nature.
A well or bore is then sunk to tap the water bearing stratum, and, when this
is reached, the water is forced up by the hydrostatic pressure due to the higher level
at which the rainfall was collected.
These conditions can oniy be fulfilled in a district composed of regularly stratified rocks of the Secondary or Tertiary formations. Whereas, here in Victoria,
such strata as exist are broken through in every direction by outcrops of volcanic
or primary rocks.
With reference, also, to time and cost, artesian wells, even in districts thorougly
known, have frequently failed to answer expectations. [8]
That at Greneile was in progress for 10 years before water was struck; and that
at Passy, estimated at one year at a cost of £12,000, was only completed in four
years at a cost of £40,000.
^^^StoZSZ""*       I am of opinion, then, that we have no reasonable grounds
for expecting success in sinking an artesian well for the purpose of obtaining a
supply of water for this city,
water from Riversor Kuning       xye come next to the second source, viz: tli3 water of streams
Streams is not available _ -_, . ,        ... i        j   „».l    ,.„ ,V./> n,\n n. it
m our neighbourhood, or rivers, aud this must be in its turn abandoned, as we cannot
be said to have any Rivers in our neighbourhood, aud such streams as exist, present
little more than a dry bed throughout the summer months.
Lastly, we have a source of supply in the surface collection and storage of
water   from   gathering       From this source is derived the supply to the three towns
grounds or surface  col- ill       P •.,, .
lection of-rainfaii is the mentioned on page one as specially remarkable tor punt} .
purest and best. x    o ■*■ •*
and indeed all the recent supplies in Scotland and elsewhere are derived from lakes
or gathering grounds.
Dr. Paton's observations lead him to the conclusion that a supply of pure, sot
water for towns "can only be accomplished by collecting the water from high
grounds formed of trap or primitive rock."
Evidence in favour of water       j)r T,von Plavfair said:—"The practice is extending of taking
from gathering grounds. '     J J £
water from surface drainage."
"I have found surface waters decidedly softer than river waters."
"I would sooner take the surface waters if you could take them from a large
extent of hill ground away from habitations and consisting of non-calcareous formations."
pian adopted in examining       Tn examining into this source my plan has been to ascertain
various gathering grounds- D , .    ,
the various valleys, or natural lines of drainage debouching upon, or m tbe neign-
bourhood of the city; and to trace these upwards with a view to finding some
natural basin, at a sufiicient elevation, in which the maximum quantity of water
could be collected and stored with the minimum amount of embanking.
Various lines of surface
drainage in our neighborhood.
These various valleys may be enumerated as follows:—
1. "Goldstream."
2. "Colwood Stream—heading in Langford Lake."
"Prospect Lake Valley"
^^^^^ "Deadman's River."
6.   "Colquitz River."
In Goldstream there is a large supply of water of excellent quality. The discharge, however, is away from us into the Saanich Arm, and the valley offers no
special facilities for the formation of a storage reservoir.
5. k\
doidstream and  langford       jn connection with the second valley, Goldstream might be
Lake    considered     and . .
rejected. made a valuable source of supply.   By intercepting the water
at a distance of two or three miles up, the stream might be diverted into Langford
Lake, and from that, as a storage reservoir, the water might be brought into town.
This scheme, however, would involve at the outset a heavy expense, on
account of some 9£ miles of iron conduit pipe, in addition to the two or three miles
of flume between Goldstream and the Lake. And I have not thought it necessary
to go into details with regard to it.
"Millstream'' which empties into the head of Esquimalt Harbor, has its source
among the hills in the neighborhood of the Saauich Arm.
icutetrMm examined but a flame has been construced at its mouth, extending out
does not suit our require*   ,-».... „ . i-i-j
ments. to sufficiently deep water for a water schooner to lie alongside;
by this means a supply is obtained for the ships of H. M Navy.
By tracing up Millstream Valley about three miles an elevation of some 200
feet is obtained, but at this point the area of the watershed is somewhat limited, and
considerable embanking would be required for the formation of a storage reservoir.
""aW ourkpur^ose.not *°* The Valley of Prospect Lake commences at Highland or
Maltby's Lake; this discharges into Prospect Lake at a height of 150 feet above
high water at Victoria. The waters of both overflow northwards into the Saanich
Arm, and offer no special facilities for the ooject we have in view.
supply of water" The next on our list is the Deadman's River.   This valley
heads on either side of the Green Mountain, and discharges into the north-west
head of the Victoria Arm.
Here is, undoubtedly, an extensive gathering ground, which would furnish a
very large supply ot excellent water. I was so pleased with what I saw of this
valley that I devoted considerable time to its examination; aud, on tracing it
upwards, found a convenient site for the construction of a dam a little below the
junction of the waters of Thetis Lake aud Pikes Lake.    See plan attached.
By this means a large storage reservoir might be fan mil, uniting the waters of
Pikes Lake and Thetis Lake, aud the length of supply pipe required would &e>
roughly, about seven miles.
However, upon making more detailed measurements I found that the dam
would require to be some 490 feet long, by 49 feet high, involving rather heavy
work. A very considerable track of land would be inundated by the reservoir, and
the maximum elevation of water obtained would not be more than about 159 feet
above Victoria high water mark.
Headman'. River abandoned       Having at that time ascertained that more favourable condr
in  favour  of Elk  Lake     . , .   . .   ,       , ,    ,
vaiiey. tions were to be found in connection with the next ana last
mentioned source, I determined to abandon Deadman's Valley in favour of the
This river, which empties into the north-east head of the Victoria Arm, derives
its water from several distinct gathering grounds.
V S\
[ 10]
Tarife™din|1heIctou1utannd3 Firstly, from a line of surface drainage, heading in "Lost
Lake," at a height of 85 feet above H. W. M., flowing on through "Swan Lake" at
a height of 50 feet, and joining the Colquitz near Rowland's.
Secondly, from a large tract of swamp land near Fiterre's farm.
vaiiey of Elk Lake is the        Continuingto trace up the valley, the stream, after crossing
i„ghest and most exten- Saanich road, begins to rise rapidly, until, in the couu-
.   sive gathering grounu. •        o a        •> '
try round Beaver Lake aud Elk Lake, we reach the highest and most extensive portion of the gathering ground.
This as you are are aware, is the source which I have selected for our water
survey Party. In carrying out the preliminary examinations whichl have roughly
sketched above, it was necessary to engage the services of a small survey party.
This party, with Mr. Robert Homfray, surveyor in. charge, was now placed in camp
in the vicinity of Elk Lake, in order to complete the more detailed surveys which
were required.
SiMpef ofwater in The height of the natural water level of Elk Lake, above
approximate high water mark in Victoria, was found to be 183 feet.
Are^k°efs.Elk and Beaver The area of the open waters of Elk Lake and Beaver Lake
which are really one, although separated by a long stretch of willow swamp, is as
Elk Lake 394 acres.
Beaver Lake ; 18    ?■
Total 412    "
The mean depth is about 30 feet,
present depth of lakes docs       rphe depth, however, is a point which does not affect the
uon"" supply! question of supply, except so far that, the greater the depth, the
less is the growth of aflquatic plants, and the greater the probable purity of water.
However great the depth below the natural outlet or overflow, the water is not
available unless at considerable expense for pumping or tunnelling.
The depth of water which can be obtained above the natural outlet, is the question which concerns us.
**"£££ 1£ cpon™ion       Some distance below the open water of Beaver Lake—at the
»ldawaite^eirdi,,g dam point shown on plan—great natural facilities are presented for
the construction of a masonry dam and waste weir.   The overflow channel is very
confined and runs over bed-rock.
storage reservoir of 589 acres Here at a very trifling cost for embanking, the open waters
of Elk Lake and Beaver Lake can be united and a magnificent storage reservoir
formed with a surface area of 589 acres, and a depth of 10 feet above the natural outlet level.
'"iuhabuaX*f< r Assuming that only six feet, out of these ten, are available for
supply, this reservoir will have a capacity of over 962 millions of gallons, or one irvi
^m I
"■ Y.
r n i
year's supply, at the rate of 25 gallons per head per day to a population of over
(100,000) one hundred thousand.
It may be objected to this that the water of Beaver Lake is not of so pure a
quality as that of Elk Lake, and that it would be more desirable to take the water
direct from the latter.
TFiiter cannot satisfactorily
be taken from Elk Lake
In answer to this I would say, that, irrespective of the additional two miles of pipe, which would be required, there are no
satisfactory means for affecting this, unless at great expense for pumping, cutting or
Again, the waters of both are, practically, the same; but that of Beaver Lake,
having stagnated thro'ugh a long stretch of willow swamp, has, when viewed in
bulk, a slightly peaty tinge. This is not perceptable when tho water is placed in a
bottle, and entirely disappears in the overflow stream a short distance below the
outlet. Indeed the self-purifying power of water in motion is well known ; and
peaty matter, although it might be classed as organic, possesses quite the reverse of
putrifying properties.
ko objection to the water       This objection, however, will entirely disappear under the
running    through    ana «/ J r r
verLuke.surIace °f Bea proposal which I submit to you, which, as will be seen from the
estimates, provides for the removal of the whole of the willow swamp before the
formation of the reservoir, as well as for the construction of head works by which
the water will be filtered before it is admitted iuto the conduit pipe.
Comto^{iocai"wMerofTar" Mr. Claudet has been good enough to undertake, at my
request, a comparative analysis of the following samples of water which I forwarded to him.
Elk Lake water, unfiltered,.....	
Beaver do do        	
Well water in town, unfiltered	
Waterfrom Spring Ridge Company's
service pipe, filtered	
Organic Matter I Mineral  ingred-
in  grains ients in grains
per gallon. per gallon.
I am not yet in possession of the result, but am quite confident it will be satisfactory as regards the quality of Elk and Beaver Lake waters.
The men of the survey party after using these waters for some weeks, found it
vastly superior to any water they were able to obtain afterwards, while engaged in
cutting the line into town.
Ho™v,ofr!lu our Btorage       "With regard to the means at our disposal for filling the reservoir ; I estimate the area of the watershed, or gathering ground, at 2,616 acres.
The registered annual rainfall at the Fisgard Lighthouse is nearly 24 inches.
Rainfaii at least 34 inches. According to all meteorological experience the rainfall, in
the hilly district around Elk Lake, should be considerable more than this; but to be [12]
on the safe side, I will estimate it at only 24 inches; of which, having regard to
75   per cent,  of rainfall is    .i -ii n ,. .,       . -,     T ■_-
available for storage. the rocky character ot the gathering ground, I assume 75 per
cent, to be available, or, in other words, that of the two feet of rainfall, one and a
half feet finds its way into our storage reservoir; exepting the fall over the reservoir
itself, of which, the whole is available for storage.
With regard to the amount of water annually lost by evaporation; no data have
as yet been generally accepted from which this can be accurately ascertained. In
tropical climates evaporation has been recorded as high as five feet in the year.
One authority has stated that, in temperate climates, the loss by evaporation may
be assumed to be counterbalanced by the deposit of dew. Mr. Hawksley states
that the loss by evaporation varies between 9 and 16 inches.
A ^L^rari'nfroniTu^ To be again on the safe side, I estimate the loss in each year,
i^kagfe.reserToir andf,r from the proposed reservoir, by evaporation and leakage, at 24
inches, or equivalent to the rainfall over the same area. So that to allow for
evaporation it will be sufficient to omit the reservoir from the area of the gathering
?u'pp1yto9o&habaitLt Deducting, therefore, 589 acres from 2,616 acres, we have-a
gathering ground of 2,027 acres, with an available rainfall of 18 inches, yielding a
supply in each year of over 827 millions of gallons, with a mean elevation ot
eaM.0[n™icteria^Trwteet.' 190 feet above high water mark in Victoria—sufficient, at the
Tate of 25 gallons per bead per day, for a population of over 90,000.
une of Pipes. Having completed the general survey work in the neighbour
hood of the lakes, the next step was to fix upon a line along'which the water could
best be conveyed from the dam to its destination: and for this purpose cast iron
piping is the material which I recommend.
TerTbJnTuntle Une has I had at first expected it might be necessary to follow the
valley line of the Colquitz in bringing the pipes into town; however, after spending a good deal of time and labour, I considered myself fortunate in finding such a
convenient line as that which I have adopted, and shown on the plan.
^^matnconfuix^es This gives a length of only 5 miles, 522 yards, from the Dam
to the Bridge Tavern, at the commencement of Douglas Street, and is in every
way more favourable than I had ventured to hope for. Indeed, I should imagine
it might, at some future time, be selected for the construction of a road, as the
levels are good and the-saving in distance, as compared with the existing Saanich
road, is half a mile between Douglas Street and the Royal Oak.
The line of pipes, shown blue on plan, joins the Saanich road opposite Dr.
Tolmie's farm, so as to avoid the interference with any of the more valuable private
lands in the vicinity of the city.
UneA%£ permanently The whole of this line has been permanently laid down and
cut out through the bush, and is so much work done against the laying down of
the pipes.
^yc^iLe^fo^es81 I have mentioned above that cast iron piping is the material
which I recommend for conveying the water into town.   I have, however, been ia
_.    . 123
C 13]
commuuination with Mr. S. How3, Secretary of the "Washington Water Pipe
Manufacturing Company," at Olympia, with reference to the cost and strength of
the wooden pipes which they offer to supply.
The following is an extract from a letter I have received from Mr. Howe, dated
October 16th, 1872:—
"We manufacture 6, 4 and 2 inch pipe, and have not jet manufactured any of larger bore than these
dimensions. We have an eight inch auger, but have not used it thns far. We are laying pipe of the
bores mentioned, some with the bark on not requiring much pressure, say not exceeding, for six inch,
more than thirty feet pressure, and for the other sizes not exceeding sixty feet. We can furnish at this
place six inch, with the bark on, at twetny-seven cents per running foot; four inch, eighteen cents, and
two inch at twelve and one-half cents, by the quantity. The coupling is turned on the pipe and costs no
a iditional expense. The banded pipe we make from two to six inches; it costs considerably more. We
band it to suit the pressure required, and coat the pipe with asphaltum and coal tar, so as-to cover the
outer surface and protect the bands from rust, and preserve the wood from decay. We can furnish the
six to stand one hundred and fifty feet pressure, or less, for seventy-five cents per foot; four inch
for fifty cents, and two inch for twenty five cents per running foot. The durability of this pipe we only
know from tests elsewhere. It has been laid down in the States for fifteen years past, and given good
satisfaction. We are prepared with the necessary machinery to make it, and we feel satisfied can give
good satisfaction "
Ko ^°fB%J^?n pipes'       No quotation is given of the cost of 9 inch pipes, but judging by the prices for pipe of smaller diameters, I do not suppose that they could be
supplied of sufficient strength" to resist the required head for less than $1 25 per
foot, at which pricet there would be no saving on the cost of cast iron,
conduit wpe to be 9.inches, in      j have, therefore, estimated for a Conduit Main, of cast iron
diameter, and will deliver » n-i . it •  i     rr -•/» i /•
a supply to 10,000 persons, socket pipes, 9 inches internal diameter, with 7-lbths of an
inch thickness of metal.
Assuming the pressure of water in town to be only 100 feet above the average
level of discharge, and the central point of supply to be 6 miles from the Reservoir,
this pipe will give a theoretical delivery of 22,393 gallons * per hour, equivalent
to a supply for 10,000 Inhabitants, per day of 12 hours.
* Hawksley's formula for the discharge of water pipeiunder pressure is as follows:—
/ h J
= y — (i5d)
where q = quantity discharged in gallons per hoar = ?
I — length of pipe in yards ...= 10560.
A = head of water in feet =     100.
<T= diameter of pipe in inches= 9.
<f 100 5
then q= V  (15x9)= 20606 gallons per hour.
1   10560
Beardmore's formula for ascertaining the same is:—
where q = quantity in cubic feet per minnte= ?
0= tabular number= for 9 in. pipe 1147.61.
I = length of pipe in feet= _    31680.
k = head of water in feet= „        100.
then q== 64.476 c. ft. per min.= 24180 gallons per hour.
I have assumed the mean of these two results as the quantity which will be delivered through oar
9 inch main.
It will be understood that the draft of the entire day's supply will be made upon the pipes daring
about only 12 hours, and that in order to avoid distributing Reservoirs in or near Town, the size of the
pipe must be regulated accordingly. [14]
Recommended"9inchC8not By reducing the pipe to an internal diameter of 7 inches
and fths thickness of metal, we shoald have a theoretical delivery barely sufficient
for existing wants, and a saving would be effected on my estimate of about ten
thousand dollars ($10,000). But this would, in my opinion, be a very false
economy, and I strongly urge the adoption of the 9 inch main provided in my
Pip\\rough0thcDim.trlplicatc In addition to the pipe at first proposed to be laidinto town the
estimates provide for two additional pipes being laid through the Dam, so that the
supply may be extended, from time to time, without interference with the head
works, as the increased population may require.
Di"™t^mml»dca!1Wn The supply might, of course, be increased to some extent
by constructing a distributing Reservoir in or near Town, so as to utilise the flow
of the Pipe during the night when there is little draft upon the Mains for general
supply. But by this means a portion of the "head" would be lost, and I sbould
be in favor of an increase direct from the main Reservoir.
IISBBf^ ta ""*" Unfortunately for the cost of the proposed works, the price
of all iron work in England is, at the present time, remarkably high. Pipes which
twenty years ago could be delivered for £5 per ton, would now cost from £9 to
X10 per ton, and from all I can learn, there is not much chance of any improvement in tht price. In addition to the main Conduit Pipe, we require pipes of
various sizes for distributing the water throughout the Town. Here again the
conditions are rather unfavorable; the streets are broad and long, while the houses,
for the most part, are few and scattered.
Tc*6r1Swum.ptribution'.,l,lr*1 It ■ appears to me, however, that in commencing a new
sygtem of supply, the plan should be, to bring the water as much as possible
within the reach of all, and, in order to do this, I cannot estimate the length of
distributing Mains required at less than 17,543 yards, or say, 10 miles of pipe, of
sizes varying between 9 inches and 2 inches in diameter*
Hp1£EttT.*eSS£.with'r" It is customary now to coat water-pipes, while hot, with a
preservative compound, with a view to retard the corrosion of the iron. The
extra charge for this is only six shillings per ton, and is provided for in my
The arrangement of distributing Mains, and the proportion of Town Lots occupied by buildings, is shewn on Plan No. V.
**%.? E*timated eoot °f An Estimate, in detail, of the cost of the proposed works is
appended to this Report.    The following is an abstract:—=
Head Works < $14,126
Main Conduit Pipe, &c.„  45,839
Town Distribution, &c  23,181
Contingencies, Sundries, and Superintendence,
20 per cent  16,620
Total Cost $99,766 1  t 15 J
shewing the total cost to be less than §100,000, or less than $10, say £2, per head
ot Population provided for.
cost per head of population     The average cost of the works of the London "Water Com-
supplied,   compared   with °
London water-works. panies, was jb2 as. 7d. per head. If we had a demand at
present for the whole amount of water which the Head Works are adequate to supply,
the comparative cost per head would appear much more favorable; as it is, considering the very unsatisfactory state of the Iron market, I think the estimated cost
of works is very moderate.
use of Plans and sections. The Plans, Sections, &c, accompanying this Report are as
follows :—
No. I.—General Plan of the District, shewing position of various Lakes, aud
lines of Surface Drainage;
No. IL—'Large Plan of General Survey from Elk Lake Valley to Victoria,
shewing gathering ground, proposed Reservoir, and line of Conduit Pipe;
No. HL—Section on liue of Pipes;
No. IV.—Section on line of Road;
No. V.—Plan of Victoria, shewing lines of distributing pipe and proportion ot
Town Lots occupied with Buildings;
No. VL—Comparative Sections on lines of Dams;
No. VII.—Detail designs for Dam and Waste Weir;
No. VJLLJL.—Detail design for Filtering Tower;
No. IX.—Designs for crossings on main line of Pipe.
N. B.—Several of these are too large to attach to this Report in its printed form.
^watermar^Jamet'^ The point to which the datum lines on the Sections, and
the levels generally, are referred, is a bench mark at approximate high water mark
under the North-west corner of James' Bay Bridge.
PUning°^Sa°nincommence" These Plans, in conjunction with the quantities and estimates, Will fully explain the proposed works. It may be well, however, for me
to describe the plan of operation more especially with a view to the time of com*
So soon as the work has been finally decided upon, the first step will be to order
the whole of the main conduit and distributing pipes from Liverpool or Glasgow*
The price of the pipes would be somewhat less in the latter place, but probably
freight would be more favorable from the former.
^"anda^Srf ta I suppose the pipes could be landed in Victoria in nine
months from date of order; in which case I think the water should be distributed
in the Town within one year and three months. Supposing the pipes to be ordered
in February, the next step will be to acquire the necessary Land, and so soon as
the spring rains are over, to commence the clearing of the willow swamp and land
to be submerged by the Reservoir, previously lowering the water in the Lakes
about a foot below its natural level, by removing a temporary wooden dam, and
sundry beaver dams, and blasting away a small amount of rock at the outlet.
The pipes and iron work required in the Dam and Filtering Tower would be
obtained at the local Iron Foundry, so as to allow the Dam, Waste Weir, &c, to be.
completed by the fall of the year, and ready to store the winter rainfall. C 16 ]
We should then have, by the commencement of the Summer of 1874, if my
calculations arc correct, a Reservoir stored with an, unlimited supply of
good water, and means for distributing it throughout the City.
I?yuS^ecnheWorfcitobe One very important point which will have to be decided,
is, "to whom is the work to be entrusted?" There may be said to be three
agencies available:
1st.    By direct Government control;
2nd.    By the Municipal Corporation of the City;
3rd.- By a Company of private Capitalists.
By Government. rpj^    ^^   objection   to   tJje   f^   first   appears   to   be,   that
special taxation or guarantee would be necessary, and that looking upon water as
pimply a marketable commodity, it is the result of experience that trading operations are better managed by private enterprise, than when under the control of
Governments or Corporations.
By corporation, On the other hand it-may be urged, with some show of
reason, that in view of the many costly works of an unremunerative character which
the City Corporation has before it, such as Drainage, Road making, Street lighting, &c, it would be only right that they should have, as a set-off against these,
the benefit to be derived from any reproductive work such as Water Supply.
This, however, is a point upon which it is not necessary for me to make any
recommendation, further than to slate that an undoubted want is felt for a plentiful tsupply, of good water, and if this want cannot be met in the ordinary course of
demand and nupply, then f would urge that the works be undertaken by Government or the Corporation, even at, the cost of special taxation.
In the latter ease an addition s;hould, I think, be made to my estimate to cover
the cost of laying the water within the property of every person taxed, say Six
Hundred house services at $J5, or about $7,000.
or by Privato companies. In the  event of the work being entrusted to a Private
Company, with a monopoly of sale for a certain number of years, then it will, of
course, be necessary to fix the maximum charge to be levied for the water, and a
limit of time both ..for the commencement and completion of the works. It
wonld also, X think, be highly desirable to make some provision whereby the Company should be bound to extend their mains to the properties of persons, outsMe the
system of pipes at present proposed, who may desire to avail themselves of the
water; say in every case in which the water rent to be paid by such person would
yield a return of eight per cent, upon the cost of the proposed extension,
"will it pay?" By whatever agency the work is undertaken, one question of
interest will be " will it pay V In estimating the amount of water at present required, I assumed the population to be Five Thousand. For the purpose of calculating the returns or probable income to be derived from the water, I will suppose
the population to be Four Thousand, which is certainly within the mark.
compared with San Francisco. First to examine the case of our neighbours in San Francisco;
I find from the published Share Lists that the " Spring Valley Water Company "
has a paid up capital of $8,000,000, and that it pays a dividend at the rate of 6 per cent, per annum: or, in other words, that it divides a nett profit of §480,000.
Assuming the cost of superintendence and maintenance to be 20 per cent, of gross
receipts, and the population supplied to be 150,000, it would appear that the annual
average charge for water in San Francisco is §4 00 per head of population.
Return would be at rate of 12 mi" .->• i       •     r       ,1      * ^       ^     •       -i /»
per cent. iaking this as a basis for the income to be derived from our
own water, and allowing 25 per cent of gross receipts for superintendence, maintenance, and minor extensions, we have a nett profit of §12,000, or a return upon
the estimated cost of works of 12 per cent, per annum.
"Tympany."'' Next to examine the charges of the "Spring Ridge WateF
Co.," to which Victoria at present owes its supply. And here I would express my
thanks to the Directors and Secretary for the very courteous manner in which they
have furnished me with information regarding the working of the Company.
Mn>Uy. If we take the Company's charge upon quantity, viz, 75 cents per 100
gallons, and calculate the income to be derived from the quantity which I have
proposed to supply, the returns would appear so favorable that perhaps I had better
not put them in figures.
Secondly. Taking the present Company's charges as at so much per house:—It
appears that 60 establishments are supplied by service pipes from which a monthly
revenue is derived of about $400, and that some 300 houses are supplied by cart
service, at an average charge throughout the year of about §2 per mouth. So that
the average monthly charge per house supplied is $2 75 or §33 00 per annum.
^"pTr 2S? Iat rate of u Taking this rate of charge and assuming that we have 600
houses requiring a supply, and allowing as before 25 per cent, for maintenance,
etc., there would be a return upon the estimated cost of nearly 15 per cent.
Lastly. Basing our calculations upon the actual income derived by the existing
Company at the present time—and I need not dwell upon the fact of the inferior
nature of the supply, nor upon the fact of the system being the most expeusive
that could be devised; the water having to be handled at least 5 times before it
enters into consumption—
or at the very lowest 9 per cent. The amount paid to the present Company for water supplied
will be seen from the figures given above to be $12,000 00 per annum. Allowing,
as before, 25 per cent, per maintenance, etc., which is ample under the "gravitating " system, we should have at the lowest and most unfavourable estimate a return
of 9 per cent, per annum.
Drainage must not be neglected. While, however, urging upon Government the construction of works for an improved water supply, I should not be doiug my duty if I
omitted to point out that it will be of great importance at the same time to undertake works for the drainage of the city. If this is neglected,—if a plentiful supply
of water is introduced, and no attention given to provide means for disposing of it
after use,—the result, according to all experience, will be an increased death rate.
The valley extending from the head of James Bay, toward Ross Bay appears to offer
a good line for an Outfall Sewer; but surveys would be required before a definite
opinion could be given. It is certain, however, that if Victoria is expected to become a
>f /
t 18]
populous city, the outfall should not be into the harbour. Even already, I believe,
the deposit caused by the washings of the streets, etc., has sensibly lessened
the depth of water along the principal wharf frontage.
I trast that I have put the water question before you in a satisfactory light, and
I re°ret that the repairs to the Alexandra Bridge, which necessitated my absence
for a month from Victoria, should have prevented my submitting this report quite
so early or in so complete a form as I could have wished.
Are the requirements fuifiied      Glancing back to the "requirements" which I proposed, I
pr^Jt?~ think you will find they are fuifiied in the project which I
As reo-ards " quality," I am satisfied of the excellence of the proposed supply,
The analysis alone is wanting to place it beyond doubt.
As regards " quantity," the supply at first is for 10,000 and capable of
extension, by simply the addition of extra pipies, to meet the wants of 90,000
The supply is oti the most economical system of "gravitation," and is derived'
from a reservoir with a head of 192 feet above high water mark in Victoria*
The cost of the Works is within the moderatesum of §100,000, upon which the
income, calculated at the lowest figure, would yield a nett return of 9 percent.;
a return which would increase very rapidly in proportion- to the growth of
the city.
I think Victoria may be congratulated upon having such an abundant supply of
Water, so  easily obtainable, and I hope I may see the day when it is all required*
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant*
Chief Engineer to Government^ British Columbia.
October 2Sth, 1872,
i t 19 1
ESTIMATE of Total Cost of Woeks for Supply from Elk Lake Storage Reservo]
Per. -Akoi
Impounding Dam5 of best Unconrsed Rubble Masonry, set in approved Hydraulic Mortar and Faced -with picked stones- All
external joints carefully pointed with Portland Cement.
Headers or bond stones not less than 2J feet in length inserted
through the work at distances of not more than 3 feet vertical,
and 6 feet horizontal: including preparing foundation and
blasting bed-rock where directed, to obtain a clean surface for
Masonry.. .-..Cubic Yards
PaYing and Coping to surface of Dam, of cut stone from Newcastle
| Island', or other approved Quarry, including setting in Port-
I land Cement.... ;> ;...,»........Cubic Feet
Waste  Weir.—Unconrsed Rubble Masonry, same   as  for Dam
Cubic Yards
Cut stone in Coping and Lip for Waste Weir, same as in Coping
for Dam » « Cubic Feet
Clearing overflow Channel from Waste Weir to old bed of Stream.
Filtering Tower.—Coursed   Rubble   Masonary   set in   Portland
' Cement, mixed in the proportion of one Of Sand to one of
Cement =Cubic Yards
Cast Iron lining td Tower, including fixing.. -..Terns
Cement Concrete for Tower > ..Cubic Yards
Filtering Materials, washed and placed Cubic Yards
Roof and Gangway to ditto ; ....:».. say
Laying  Main Pipe in triplicate through Dam, including fixing,
. 24 feet 9 inch pipe; 24 feet 12 inch pipe; and 24 feet 15 inch
pipe, to be cast in Victoria™ Tons
Screw Valves for ditto, four in number, with Gun Metal faces,
screws, and nuts, 2 of 9 inches; 1 of 12 inches; 1 of 15 inches
S 5 00 d yd
§" 2,750
2 00
5 00
2 00
c. root. I
c. yd. I
c. foot
12 00 c. yd.
10 00
2 50
c. yd.
c. yd.
Inspectors Cottage, Tool Honse, and Tools..	
Diversion of East Saanich Road Miles
Clearing Land of Willow Swamp, burning wood, &c Acres
Dry Land to be submerged by Reservoir; compensation and cost
of partial clearing Acres
Cost or Head Works........,$14,12*
Five miles*} 522 yards of-Cast Iron Socket Pipes; 9 inches internal
diameter; 7-16ths of an inch thickness of metal >
9,322 yards, at 134 lbs. per yard, = Tons, 53TJ.
Estimated Cost of One Ton t—
Prime Cost F. O. B. in England, per Ton $4
Extra for Preservative Coating „     	
Freight to Victoria, per Ton —
Insurance „        ..4	
Import Duty ,,       i...*.; ;...	
Wharfage ,,        ..->	
17 0
1 5
15 0
1   5
Total Cost per Ton delivered $72 75
600 00 mile.
30 00 acre.
40 Q0 acre.
Cost of laying Main, including carting pipes, opening trench, not
less than 2A- feet deep, lead, labor, ic, and refilling trench. I
Lineal Yards   9322
i 2 75 ton.
50 c. yd.
Carried forward.
59,340 [20]
APPENDIX A.—Continued.
Description ok Wok.
Brought forward
Special crossings on line of Pipe; 2 at $100, and 4 at $50 •„*—-I
Right of way for Pipe through private property 12 feet in width!
on length of 6,543 yards Acres
Cost of Mais Conduit Pipe $45,839
Ten miles (nearly) of cast iron socket pipes, of various sizes and
weights, as follows:
Size of      Thickness      Length of
9 inches.
8        "
of Metal.
7-16ths in.
7-16ths "
7-l6ths "
fths "
fths "
5-lGths "
Jth "
1th "
600 yards.
150 "
217 "
200 "
1,833 "
2,213 "
6,893 "
5,437 "
Weight per
134 lbs.
121 "
106 "
78 «
53 "
35 "
21| "
80,400 lbs
18,150 "
23,002 "
15,600 "
97,149 "
77,455 "
148,199 "
95,147 "
Total length, yards 17,543 yards. Total Weight   555,102 lbs.
Total weight, 555,102 lbs., or say Tons
Pes.   Amount.
$40 00 acre.
Cost of laying Pipes throughout the Town, including carting pipe,
opening and refilling trench, labour, lead, etc.; top of pipei
to be not less than eighteen inches below the surface ofi
ground  ..«ne..n.....^............M.................Yards|l7543
Pipe bends and joints at branches Number!     50
Cost of Town distribution.........$23,181
Contingencies and Superintendence, at 20 per cent.......	
Grand Total............... ..............~
80 00
15 00 each.
$99,766 00
Say $100,000.
Head Works............. ........................................ $14,126 00
Main Conduit Pipe, etc  45,839 00
Town Distribution, etc   -- ■ r - -  23,181 00
Contingencies and Superintendence.... ..«..  16,620 00
Chief Engineer to Government,
British Columbia. w
[21 ]
Table stowing the height of various points in Victoria above approximate High Water
Mark under James Bay Bridge.
Goyebnmbnt Street, opposite Humboldt Street.
Bridge at Gas Works.
Fort Street, opposite Broad Street.
"     Douglas   u    .
Blanchard Street...
Quadra " ...
Vancouver " ...
Cook " ...
Capt. Ella's house-
Moss Street	
Yates Street, opposite  Broad   Street	
P Douglas     "    	
I Blanchard"    	
" Quadra      "    	
lt Vancouver"    —
I Cook |    	
Pandora Street, opposite Broad   Street.,
a il Douglas       &
I " Blanchard   "
I | Quadra        "
H " Vancouver  "
« ,' " Cook <>
The late Female Infirmary	
Church Hill	
Upper Balcony of Driard's Hotel	
Plinth of Government House	
Elevation above
High Water Mark
James* Bay
  | 159
T. A. B
26 Feet.
c< J      5.
Table showing lengths and diameters of distributing mains throughout the Town.—
Vide Plan No. V.
Name of Street.
Internal Diameter of Pipes In Inches.
Total length
2 in.
2$ in.
3 in.
4 in.
6 is.
7 in.
8 in.
9 in.
Douglas Street.—Bridge Tavern tc
>     60C
I     65(
1     45C
>   180C
>              4,460
Branches on West side Douglas Street
do.         Branch in Store street
do          Branch in Store street
| ■
do    Branch in Government st.
do         do.       Store street	
do.        do.       Government St.
1 300
do         do.        Langley street..
do         do.       Wharf street...
Branch on East tide Douglas Street.
1,300 j
1,450 .
T. A. B.
iii?l"ji    i,ai»Bf'-
[  .   A. L. Bamchoft & Co. Lith. S.F. VICTORIA WATER SUPPLY
Comparative Sections   of   Dams.
Horizontal Seal,.- lOOFeet to one Inch.
Vertical Scale- 10 Feet to oneI/u/v.
9/L.. a. /5L^^r  


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