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BC Historical Books

The resources of British Columbia. Volume I, no. 2 1883

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Volume I,
No. 2.

A Monthly Journal devoted exclusively to the Moral and Material
Interests of British Columbia and the Dissemination of
correct Information regarding its great
and varied Resources. i
For the Emigrant, Touiatand tha fitstdant.
Published at Victoria by A. A. McARTHUR, Editor and Proprietor,
Terms:  One Copy one year, $2.  Single Copies, 25 Cts. COLONIST PRINT THE UNIVERSITY OF
umbia having established an Immigration and Employment Bureau at Victoria, all persons de^
ion abont the country are hereby notified to apply, either personally or by letter, to the Agent,
sriptive of the country and its resources will be supplied on application, free of charge,
sd and unskilled) in the province are hereby invited to  place  themselves in communica-
s, James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia,
lmunications to be addressed to
IsWioi, Employment li Boms
Immigration Agent.
Facts About British Columbia.
ring upon an era of great prosperity. Fully $3,000,000 are expended upon
ands of men are employed on the construction of the Canadian Pacific Rail-
bern coast of Vancouver Island is almost certain to be under construction soon.
y made at Esquimalt. The provincial industries are flourishing. Trade is
are annually increasing.
Labor is Much Wanted.
ine railway wutks ami'many of the provincial industries are hampered by want of labor. Every
man and woman able and willing to work can find employment. Wages are high. Board and clothing are
reasonable. Domestic servants are wanted. The supply of professional men, clerks and shopmen is perhaps
Climate, Crops and Fruit.
The climate is the best in America—serene and invigorating—its varieties ranging from the climate
of the South of England to that of a large portion of France. The Marquis of Lome, Governor-General of
Canada, says respecting it: " No words can be too strong to express the charm of this delightful land."
Soils are fertile. Crops do not fail. No drought. The wheat, barley, oats and hops of British Columbia beat those of California. The root crops of B. C. cannot be surpassed in any country. Fruit can be
raised to any extent and of almost every kind.
Gold mining keeps its place and is capable of great extension. Fields of coal and mountains of iron
lie side by side, and rich silver ledges abound.    Other valuable minerals exist in great variety.
The fisheries are boundless, and, although comparatively untouched, already yield about $2,000,000
a year for export alone.    Food fish can be had almost anywhere for the taking.
British Columbia has the most extensive and valuable forests in North America, and although this
industry is yet in its infancy, the annual product of manufatured lumber is about 30,000,000 feet.
Schools and Churches.
A free public school is placed within the reach of every child in the province, and high schools and
colleges are to be found in the centers of population. No state church, no tithes, but a fair supply of
churches throughout the country, including the Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist.
Political and Municipal Systems.
The political system is as free as man can desire—full self government, and citizenship easy of attainment by aliens. Any settlement of not less than thirty householders may form themselves into a municipality and manage their own local affairs.
Administration of Justice.
Law and order prevail in a high degree, and justice is firmly and fairly administered. Petit jurors
are paid from $1.50 to $2 a day for every day they attend, and witnesses are well paid.
Mail Communication.
Three or four mails a week reach the province from abroad, and the interior mail service is for the
most, part liberal.
The Land System.
British Columbia possesses one of the most liberal land systems in the world. Crown lands can be
pre-empted or purchased at one dollar (four English shillings) an acre, on easy terms of payment, and the
settler can have his homestead to the value of $2,500, and personal property to the value of $500, registered
and thereby effectually secured against all creditors.
All are Welcome.
Emigrants from every civilized country are cordially welcomed to this "glorious province" {vide Lord
Dufferin's speech). Aliens can purchase Crown lands and hold and convey real estate with every freedom.
Aliens can be naturalized after one year's residence, and thereafter enjoy all the-rights of citizenship. Taxation is light-and the utmost freedom compatible with law and order is enjoyed. by A. Anderson a Co.  For the Resouroos    op Br-Itish Columbia
A.Fr»ansen DeL.  ^p
~h—a^> i- ig: E ^
Resources ft/British Columbia
No. 2.      f
VICTORIA, B. C, APKIL 2, 1883.
I PER ANNUM, $2.00
(  Per Copt, 25 Ore.
Permanent and Profitable Industries.
A great portion of British Columbia is particularly adapted to dairying and stock-farming. In the
older provinces of the Dominion and in the neighboring States, a very lively competition is carried on
among breeders of cattle with regard to economic
values; the effects of different feeding stuffs are thoroughly tested and the cost of producing a pound of
beef, mutton, cheese or butter is figured as closely as
manufacturers of other articles are in the habit of
computing the actual cost of the production of their
wares. With them such careful calculations is a
matter of vital necessity, because their pasturage is
very limited and the demand for such products so
great that the fields must be carefully cultivated, and
that to their full productive capacity, in order to
furnish food supplies for the herds. In this province,
on the contrary, the natural pasture area is large,
almost unbounded, requiring of course no cultivation; the grasses are rich and succulent, the climate
well adapted to the operations of the dairy and the
raising of healthy stock, and the demand for these
products at higher prices than elsewhere, is one that
can as certainly be relied upon as that for bread.
The demand for one sort of produce is as permanent
as for the other. There can be scarce a doubt that
our verdant hills and fertile valleys are peculiarly
adapted to what is known as mixed farming, a system
best calculated to offset possible losses in one direction with certain gains in another, and, at the same
time lending to industry that diversity which brings
both wealth and independence. No other employment coiild here be so advantageously combined
with the cultivation of the soil as dairying and stock
raising. The work of the dairy interferes but little
with that of the farm; while its returns may diminish,
but never cease with all the changes of the seasons.
Stock raising becomes an incidental part of the
business, and contributes materially to swell its
profits. And finally, the return is bounteous, comprising the value of the dairy products proper, the
constant increase of stock and the addition to the
soil of a natural fertilizer. It is a matter of regret
that the business of dairying is, as yet, carried on in
this province on a scale so limited as to be entirely
inadequate to supply the home markets. Large
quantities of these products are imported every year.
The unhappy resident of the city is still compelled
to content himself with watered milk and to swallow
through several months of the year with what grace
he can, an imported commodity, sold for a round
price under the name of butter, but which may not
be butter after all. No addition to the industries of
this country will be hailed with more satisfaction as
contributing to the general prosperity than the extension of the dairy business and mixed farming.
Through no spirit of egotism do we now refer to
the cordial manner in which the first number of the
Besources was received by the press and the public
generally. On the contrary, we feel that the substantial patronage and hearty endorsement, so signally accorded to it, were largely due to the long felt
need of some such publication rather than to the excellence of the manner in which we have measurably
supplied that want. To say nothing of the gratitude
which such encouragement'naturally enkindles, we
would, in this respect, be grossly wanting in the
observance of one of the simplest requirements of
ordinary etiquette, did we fail to make due acknowledgment of these valued favors, however unmerited
on our part. Therefore, we hereby beg to tender to
one and all the assurance of our high appreciation
of, and sincere thanks for their liberal patronage and
moral support, and, in an especial manner to the
press of this province, which, with one trifling exception, has spoken only words of encouraging commendation in our behalf. In this connection we
will sav, once for all, that the Besources is to respectable and its space too valuable to give more than a
passing notice to the cur-like and unprovoked attacks
of. the snarling and churlish starveling referred to.
Having adopted for the conduct of our magazine, no
mediocre Standard and having started on our onward course from a correct Post, with our interests
constantly guarded by a faithful and acute Sentinel,
besides having the cordial endorsement of a Free
Press, together with the potent assistance and good
will of every enterprising and intelligent Colonist
and every worthy and true Columbian, we cannot be
expected to evince any other than a disdainful regard
for the puerile wrath of an imbecile, self-constituted
and jaundiced old a'uardian.
J^" Subscribe for the Resource's  of  British
Columbia, to which new and interesting features are
now being added.
WLmwtm of Intuit MnmYw
Editor  and  Proprietor
One Copy, one year,       -------
I One Copy, six months,       ------
All subscriptions payable invariably in advance.   Postage free to all
parts of the world.
jjgTAll matter intended for publication should be sent in not later than the
25th of the month.   Correspondence solicited.
In ancient lore are found but few names either of
witch or seer who did not predict evil and woe as sure
to betide the future. Sad and gloomy were their forebodings, and even the little good fortune awaiting the
few was, according to their morbid fancies, to be attained only through some direful calamity to befall the
many. Nor have our modern soothsayers and prophets,
the great Wiggins included, improved on the old style
in their blood-curdling horoscopes of alleged coming
events, unless, indeed, we except such amendment as
was made by the old woman to the soap when she put
more lie (lye) in it.
As our self-imposed task would be a very unpleasant one, were the prospect marred by any such sombre
and rueful aspects, we are glad to be able to adopt a
method affording more probable and agreeable conclusions than .those presented by the so-called prophets
referred to.
In attempting to briefly forecast the great future
of British Columbia, and first disclaiming on our own
part any knowledge of so-called occult science or any
powers of divination not enjoyed by ordinary mortals,
we will not, therefore, look to the starry heavens or
invoke the aid of familiar spirits, preferring, like the
philosophic poet to
" — Watch the wheels of Nature's mazy plan
"And learn the future by the past of man,"
And sharing his belief that the story of the veiled
future, aptly termed a sealed book, can only be read,
and that but very partially and imperfectly, by " the
light of other days." Yes, the venerable past, the
grave of every joy, the lethe of every woe, and Upon
which every star and every sun have set forever, contains nevertheless the most precious gems of wisdom
and teaches the grandest lessons of life. If for the
sustenance of man's physical frame the dead of animal and vegetable are of the first necessity, certainly
not less requisite for his mental food, are the chronicles of the ages, garnered from the great potter's-
field of entombed time.
The careful student of history will not fail to observe that the progress of empire and the march of
mind have been invariably in exact ratio with the coexisting physical conditions of the races. In other
words the possession of a sound body is, as a rule
necessary to the attainment and exercise of great
mental ability. Caesarian Borne with her citizen stalwarts and army of athletes was as grand in the senate
and the forum as she was invincible in the field. But,
unfortunately, the surpassing grandeur of Borne was
achieved through the greater spoliation or destruction
of surrounding nations. She laid waste more homes
than she ever established, and levelled more walls
than she ever built, bringing poverty and ruin to the
many and wealth and prosperity only to the few.
Under such circumstances the. decline of the Boman
empire was inevitable. Not a system of high-handed
rapine, but the building up and fostering of wealth-
creating industries, can alone insure national perpetuity. Her great wealth, wrung by the robber hand of
conquest from her weaker neighbors did not fail to
induce idleness and luxurious dissipation, conditions
sure to be followed by such- physical and mental degeneracy as marked the decline and final overthrow
of that once mighty empire. Nor were the conquests
of Tamerlane, who built a pyramid of 90,000
human heads on the ruins of Bagdad and boasted that
grass never again grew where his horse once trod, of
a more enduring character. On the contrary his career was like that of a rocket, its brilliancy being the
signal of its own destruction. Even the noble animal, burdened by this rude barbarian, would have
advanced but slowly and sorrowfully indeed if aware
that the measure of his fleetness marked the destruction forever of each field of verdure through
which he passed.
After the scepter of power passed from Rome,
the chief seat of the world's empire seemed to partake of a rather migratory character, and, according
to the fortunes of war, was moved about from place
to place as if it were only some titular dignitary of the
chess-board. National wealth and agrandisement
were sought and obtained only by the subjugation
and spoliation of weaker communities, and were
again lost as they were won by the varying fortunes
of the field. Nor was it until the last of these heroes,
"conquest mad," met his fate on famed Waterloo
that the scepter of Roman greatness found what may,
we think, be fairly regarded as a permanent abode,
when the Anglo-Saxons, happily blended races of
grand physique, became, as it were, the residuary
legatees of Rome—her laws, literature and martial
splendor. While it is true that Great Britain has
always pursued a policy of territorial expansion and
has not unfrequently added to the extent of her dominions by force of arms, yet in doing so, she has
rarely failed to bring to each of her acquired possessions the blessings of better laws and wiser government, and to elevate its people to a much higher state
of civilization by the introduction of capital and improved machinery and methods; adding to their numbers by immigration, teaching them the more advanced arts of peace and thereby causing their long-
neglected wastes to blossom as the rose. Through
this beneficent treatment of her differentdependencies
has the British empire expanded, so that to-day the
only map adequate to a representation of her vast
and varied possessions is necessarily a map of the
whole world. Reader, let us glance at it and note
the extent of this mightiest of empires: Besides the
original United Kingdom, consisting of England,
Wales, Scotland and Ireland, we have the empire of
India and Ceylon; then come the self-governing col-
onies and West Indies, embracing the Dominion of
Canada, Newfoundland, New South Wales, Victoria,
South Australia, West Australia, Tasmania, New
Zealand, Queensland, Cape of Good Hope, Natal,
Mauritius, Bahamas, Turk's Island, Jamaica, St.
Lucia, St. Vincent, Barbadoes, Grenada^ Tobago,
Virgin Islands, St. Christopher, Nevis, Antigua,
Montserrat, Dominica, Trinidad, British Guiana, and
Honduras. To these must be added the British military stations and trading settlements, namely, Gibraltar, Malta, Bermuda, St. Helena, Logos, Gold
Coast, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Falkland Island, La-
buan, Hongkong, Fiji and the Straits Settlements,
the whole forming a total area of more than 8,000,000
of square miles and containing a population of nearly
300,000,000 souls. More than half a century ago,
and her career has since been one of uninterrupted
progress, Daniel Webster, the Cicero of America, in
one of his inimitable speeches, referred to the supremacy and territorial greatness of the British empire as then being a power that had dotted the surface of the whole globe with her military possessions
and outposts, whose morning drum-beat, following
the sun and keeping company with the hours, had
encircled the earth with one continuous and unbroken
strain of the martial airs of England. Although the
military power of Great Britain was and still is an
important factor in the preservation and extension of
her dominions, yet to her manufacturing industries
and commercial activities and the consequent upbuilding of the physical and mental condition of the
people are mainly due the facts that to-day her grand
old flag floats triumphantly in the vanguard of the
great nations of the earth and bids fair to hold that
proud position for an indefinite period.
In every department of commerce and industry,
agriculture alone excepted, the United Kingdom is
far in advance of any other country on the globe.
The volume of business is, in fact, so prodigious as
to be beyond comparison with that of any other
country; and it is still growing at a rate which shows
that the business which a commercial and industrial
people, though limited as to their home resources,
can do, has in fact no limit. Capital and commercial
enterprise, as employed in the United Kingdom, command the resources of the world. With the world's
carrying trade in her hands Great Britain makes the
commerce of every other country pay tribute to her;
and to such extent has this been carried that she is
virtually beyond the reach of all competition.
Last year the value of her imports was $2,060,-
008,400, a sum largely in excess of the present debt
of the United States, and more by several hundred
millions than the amount of their imports and exports
taken together. Of home products Great Britain
exported a value of more than twelve hundred millions, and of her imports several hundred millions
were re-exported. More and more every year the
British islands are becoming a center for the distribution of the world's products. This is the natural
and inevitable result of the overwhelming ascendency
of her shipping on the ocean.
Of exports from Great Britain cotton manufactures stand at the head, the total for last year footing
up $389,058,000. Next in importance came articles
made wholly or in part of iron and steel, the total
value of this class of export sbeing $222,914,000, an
increase of upwards of $25,000,000 over the corresponding exports of 1881. Woolen and worsted yarn
and piece goods were shipped abroad in large quantities, their aggregate value being $110,939,000, or
$4,000,000 more than the shipments of the same articles in the previous year. The exports of linen
manufactures were valued at $29,837,000. One of the
greatest industries ©f the country is shipbuilding.
Last year 782 vessels were built, valued at nearly one
hundred million dollars.
It will thus be seen that the British empire is emphatically the empire of trade which rules the world,
and since her wealth is fed by streams from every
other country on the globe there would seem to be no
limit to the possibility of its increasing magnitude
and perpetuity; or, if there be such limit it will be
found only in the development of such country, possibly one of her present possessions, as may bear the
closest analogy to herself with regard to race, resources, and advantageous commercial and maritime
position. This brings us to the more direct consideration of our subject, the future of British Columbia. Assuming from the premises stated that Great
Britain will, at least for a very long period, control
the lion's share of the commerce of the world, and as
rapid transit over the shortest practical routes forms
the greatest desideratum of modern traffic and the
Pacific province being the connecting link on the
shortest route for the commerce of two hemispheres,
it requires not the gift of prophecy to predict for
British Columbia a future at once brilliant and inevitable, because it is the necessary sequence of a cause,
the corollary of a demonstrated theorem. It is universally conceded that like causes produce similar results, and if it be also true that history repeats itself,
then this province will certainly become in point of
population, wealth and commercial importance what
it is now geographically—a second Britain. Not only
do the physical features of the northwest coast of
Europe and America bear a striking resemblance to
each other, but the maritime position, climate and
resources of the one are closely simulated by those
of the other, with the single exception of their respective areas, that of British Columbia being much
greater than its European counterpart.     Bearing the THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
same relative position to North America as the United
Kingdom does to Europe, peopled by the same races,
living under the same laws, speaking the same language, forming a part of the greatest trading and
manufacturing nation on the globe and at the same
time possessing a genial climate and almost inexhaustible natural wealth together with the immensely
important fact that here will be the western terminus
of the greatest commercial highway of the world,
I there can be no reasonable doubt that this province
I is now about to enter upon a career of unexampled
I prosperity. The completion of the 0. P. R will afford a direct line of rapid transit from the United
Kingdom to the terminus on our western shore, where
I it will be met by numerous lines of shipping converging from every port on the broad Pacific and
laden with valuable products to be exchanged for return cargoes of textile fabrics and manufactured
wares from the looms and workshops of the British
Isles, and for the immense surplus of sea and river,
forest, field and mineral products of British Columbia. All the fundamental elements necessary to a
great and wealthy country exist here on a very extensive scale, and the necessary population and capital
for their development will not fail to come in company with the commerce of this great western thoroughfare.
Just here we would state, there is not the slightest reason to suppose that the western terminus of
the C. P. R. will be located in any other than British
territory. To carry it to Puget Sound would be an
act of folly that no management or syndicate would
be at all likely to commit. Here the company has,
already, all the requisite lands and timber, the advantage of safe and commodious harbors near which
are extensive coal and iron mines, besides owning a
belt of land twenty miles wide along the entire Hue
of road, the prospective value of which would be
greatly reduced by the adoption of any such suicidal
policy. Apart from these economic considerations in
favor of having: the terminus on one of our own maar-
nificent and excellent harbors is the important fact
that the location on the Sound of such extensive and
valuable lines of docks, wharves, warehouses, offices,
machine shops and all the other costly structures and
appendages necessary to the maritime terminus of a
great railway system, would be virtually placing them
in hourly jeopardy, exposed as they would be to almost certain destruction by malevolent sand-lotters,
communists and dynamite fiends who are now abusine;
the privileges of a free country by making it the base
of their nefarious operations against everything British or monarchical. To all this may be added possible
international complications which would render the
terminus in American territory of this great British
^highway of commerce very undesirable, to say the
least of it. The winter terminus of the Grand Trunk
Railway in Portland, Maine, being a climatic and commercial necessity affords no precedent in this case. In
view of these facts the statement, that the terminus of
the 0. P. R. will be located "beyond the border," presents this singular anomaly, that while it is unquestionably | Sound " enough, yet it has no foundation in
truth.    So much for termini.
History as well as. geography has its parallels;
and, inasmuch as the progress of empire in the old
world has been northward and westward until it seems
to have settled permanently in the British Isles, the
enquiry as to the existence of any cause or causes
tending to produce in America a counterpart of
European experience could not fail to be deeply interesting. In this connection the question is a pertinent
one, as to whether there is anything in the pathology
of "American nervousness " that would seem to indicate rapid physical degeneration after the national
physique ceases to be recuperated by the admixture of
new blood from an inflowing tide of immigration ; or,
how far does the fact, that the United States is fast
becoming a home and asylum for all manner of lawless vagabonds, nihilists, communists, sand-lotters and
dynamite fiends, go to prove that she is thus fostering,
perhaps unconsciously, and arming with the potency
of a free ballot the most dangerous elements of anarchy
and national disintegration? But as this article is already too lengthy for our space, we will defer the further
consideration of the subject for the present. However
we are happy to be able to say that in thus studying
the various phases of our subject, we find only commu-
lative assurances of a prosperous and brilliant future
for British Columbia.    So mote it be.
We are now in daily receipt of numerous letters
of enquiry from all quarters respecting the advantages which British Columbia affords as a field for
immigration, and in reply are constantly sending off
copies of the Resotjbces containing the information
required by each correspondent. We will from
month to month publish articles embracing in their
scope reliable information on the subjects of such
enquiries. With this purpose in view we have prepared the matter contained in the present number, -
so that after having carefully read and noted the import of all the letters received during the past month
we can therefore say in reply to one and all, " read
as carefully the present number of this magazine as
we did your respective letters, and in doing so you
will not fail to find a full reply 10 your several
But inasmuch as this publication is not subsidized by any government or corporation or in fact
from any extraneous source whatever, all its attendant expenses being borne by the publisher whose
private property it is, and as our regular " free list"
already embraces more than 200 addresses, we would
therefore suggest to those writing to this office for
information, sample copies &c, the evident propriety
and justice of enclosing at the same time, the sum of THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
25cts. covering the price of a copy of the magazine,
the only medium through which we could possibly
reply to the numerous letters received.
In conjunction with what is elsewhere given in
these columns, in answer to correspondents and as
information for intending emigrants, we subjoin a
very well written and authentic editorial article published in a recent number of the British Columbian
of New Westminster, the leading newspaper on the
Mainland of this Province. While clear and concise
in style, the article is no less remarkable for its
brevity than for its extended scope, embracing as it
does a great variety of subjects under one general
head. It is indeed multum in parvo, and we therefore commend it to the careful perusal of our readers:
"Enquiries about the climate and resources of
British Columbia are continually coming from Eastern
Canada, Manitoba, the United States and Great Britain
In many cases correspondents state that there are large
numbers of people in their several localities who are
desirous of coming to this country, if they could be
satisfied with respect to its advantages. At the risk
of wearying our provincial readers with the matters
with which they are already familiar, we propose to
state briefly a few facts for the information of intending immigrants. The climate of British Columbia is
undoubtedly the finest that can be found anywhere in
I British North America. This province, however, has
1 a large area (nearly three times the size of Great Brit-
I ain and Ireland), and its climate varies according to the
elevation and distance from the coast. Along the coast
and throughout a great part of the interior the thermometer rarely ever reaches zero, and the greatest
summer heat is about 75 to 90 deg. We have no bliz-
zards anywhere in the country, and no sudden changes
from heat to cold. Storms of any kind are very rare,
except on Vancouver Island, and there are nothing
compared with those experienced on the other side of the
continent. In the vicinity of thiscitythecoldestdaysof
winter are about 8 or 10 above zero, but such a low
temperature does not usually occur more than a few
days in the year. Some parts of the country are subject to extensive rainfalls; others, in the interior, are
more than usually dry. The quantity of rain on the
coast is from 45 to 75 inches, and from 10 to 20 inches
in the interior. As an illustration of the character of
the climate with reference to out-door labor, we are
informed by one of the railway contractors that his
entire force last season, working outside, averaged 23J
days per month, per man, for a consecutive period of
six months. Every person from the East who visits
this province is surprised and delighted at our climate.
Our resources are very great and varied. Much of the
country is mountainous, but there are thousands of
acres of arable land, and most of it is exceedingly fertile.
Hon. J. W. Trutch, Dominion Government Agefrt, has
estimated the quantity of fertile land west of the
Rocky Mountains at 140,000,000 acres. It is at least
certain that there is plenty good land for all who wish
it. The productiveness of our good lands is wonderful,
and high prices are realized for all farm and dairy
produce. Any person who engages intelligently in
farming or stock-raising in this country should realize
a competency in a few years. Every intending settler
may pre-empt 160 acres of land, for which he pays
the government Si per acre in four annual installments.
In addition to our agricultural interests, we have an
exhaustless supply of as fine timber as can be found
in the world. There are a large number of mills engaged in manufacturing lumber and spars for export
and local demand, and the industry is capable of indefinite expansion. The annual lumber producton now
amounts to nearly 30,000,000 feet.
Our coal fields are vast and rich. The Nanaimo
coal area is nearly 100 square miles, and that of Co-
mox about 300. Large quantities of coal are exported
to San Francisco and elsewhere. Our fisheries are
also vast in extent, and continually increasing. In
1882 the value of fish packed and cured in this province was $1,842,675. The capital employed is $631,-
670, and there are over 5,000 men engaged during
fishing season. Mining is, of course, very largely carried on, for everybody has heard of the mines of British Columbia. Our gold fields are very extensive, covering an area estimated at about 100,000 square miles.
There are also rich silver, copper, lead and iron mines
scattered throughout the country. The annual yield
of gold in Cariboo is now upwards of $1,000,000. Vast
regions of this country have never been explored, and
it will doubtless be found that some of the richest
mines have not yet been discovered. In this country
there is a steady and pressing demand for labor. There
is scarcely a single industry whose operations are not
hampered because of the scarcity of labor. The farms,
the mills, the fisheries, the logging camps, the public
works, the railways—all demand more help than the
present population can supply. Wages are higher, we
believe, than in any other part of the continent. For
common laborers the railway contractors are offering
from $2.50 to $3 a day, and for skilled mechanics from
$3.50 to $5 per day. Wages in other branches of industry are about equally high. The logging camps,
which employ large numbers of men throughout the
year, pay from $60 to $75 per month, and board. Farm
laborers get from $30 to $40 per month, and common
mill hands about $60 per month, and found. Board
for day laborers is from $4 to $5 per week. It will be
seen from these figures how great are the profits of labor in this province, The towns and settlements are
fairly well supplied with free public schools, churches
and other institutions usually found in civilized countries. The general laws and municipal regulations are
somewhat similar to those of Eastern Canada, and life
and property are as safe as anywhere on the continent.
We have the climate and natural resources to make a
nation, and what we most need is population. Since
the commencement of railway construction all branches
of industry have been forced into unusual activity,
and now is the time for immigrants to come. No person willing to work need be without employment at
2food wages in British Columbia.
His  Honor,  the  Lieutenant Governor,
and Her Majesty's British Columbian   Ministers.
Brief   Biographical   Sketches.
Some are born great, some achieve greatness,
And some have greatness thrust upon them.
It is scarcely necessary to say that The Resoubces
takes no part in partizan politics. In fact party lines
do not seem to be very closely drawn in the politics of
British Columbia. The " Ins " and the " Outs " appear
to be striving for the same general purpose, the speedy
advancement of the best interests of the country, but
differing widely as to the means which ought to be
employed for its attainment. The relative merits of
their respective methods of dealing with public affairs,
doubtless, can best be estimated by consequent results.
Although the debates of the present session of our
Legislative Assembly are occasionally spiced with
rather pungent acerbity, yet it is gratifying to observe
that no charges of official peculation, bribery or corruption are ever preferred against each other by the
contending parties ; the greatest specific gravity of the
several allegations consisting in the alleged incompetency, stupidity or negligence of the respective opposing
forces. While this fact may be accepted as evidencing the absence of any corruption or intentional maladministration on the part of those who have recently
had, or now have the direction of our public affairs, it
may also be regarded as a most reassuring augury of
the future prosperity of the province, and one that
cannot fail to be highly gratifying to the intending immigrant and tax-paying settler.
As we intend to add several new and, we trust,
interesting features to the general matter of this publication, embracing among other things, portraits and
biographical sketches of distinguished self-made men
of British Columbia, we have deemed it suitable to
commence the series with those of our present Lieutenant Governor and Executive Council.
Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia, is the third
son of the late Rev. Alan Gardner Cornwall, Rector of
Newington, Bagpath, Gloucestershire, England, and
Chaplain in Ordinary to her Majesty. He was born
in 1836, was educated at a private school and the University of Cambridge where he graduated B. A. He
was called to the bar of the Honorable Society of the
Inner Temple, England, and subsequently admitted to
practice in British Columbian Courts. In 1862 he
came to British Columbia and proceeding into the interior of the province, established himself at Ashcroft,
on the Thompson River, where he has since resided
and principally occupied himself as owner and breeder
of stock.    During the earlier years of the province,
Mr. Cornwall represented the Yale-Lytton District in
the Legislative Council in several sessions, always preferring election at the hands of the people to a nomination from the government which was more than once
pressed upon him, and at the date of Confederation he
was summoned to the Senate of the Dominion of Canada. During the years in which he attended its sessions he supported generally the Kberal-conservative
party, recognizing in its leaders men who had at heart
the interests of British Columbia and who were possessed of the requisite ability and statesmanlike qualities to enable them to discharge the onerous duties of
governing Canada and of stimulating and fostering its
settlement, its progress and its industries. In 1871
Mr. Cornwall married Charlotte, third daughter of the
Rev. A. G. Pemberton, Rector of Kensal Green, London, England, and in 1881 he received his commission
as Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia.
Premier of the Government and Chief Commissioner
of Lands and Works, was born in Northumberland,
England, in 1842; was educated at Whittington; and
in 1859 commenced business as a merchant at Newcas-
tle-Upon-Tyne, in which pursuit he continued for three
years, when he emigrated to British Columbia. Arriving at Victoria in the summer of '62 he entered the
service of the Hudson Bay Company, in which he remained until, in company with others^ he went to Cow-
ichan, and, locating on a farm, which he still owns and
occupies, became one of the first settlers of that important district. These were the memorable days of
gold — days that fired many an adventurous breast with
luring hopes of fortune, speedy, sure and countless.
It was scarcely to be expected of one whose ambition
had carried him into the midst of busy; bustling commerce at the early age of seventeen, and caused him,
ere he was yet twenty, to leave the cultivated society
of a quiet English home for the then wild and almost
unknown, far west shores of America, that he would,
in such exciting times, be content to follow the rather
tame and uneventful pursuits incident to the life of a
country farmer. Accordingly, he soon after took his
departure for the Leech River Mines and thence to the
famous gold fields of Cariboo, where he again engaged
in mining with varying success. Abandoning the gold
quest, and having spent some time in surveying at
Burrard Inlet, he next went to California in the spring
of '69, and soon after accepted a position on the staff
of the San Francisco Daily Chronicle. But the harsh
winds for which that city* is noted, seriously affected
his health; so much so that in '71 he resolved to return
to British Columbia, having great faith in the remedial
efficacy of its genial and health-restoring climate. Nor
was he disappointed, for soon after returning to his old-
farm in Cowichan, he regained his wonted health and
vigor, and, with characteristic industry, again went
whistling at the plow. In 71 he was chosen to represent the electoral district of Cowichan in the first par- THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
liament alter confederation, and has since been successively returned for the same seat at every election,
either by acclamation, or if contested, always at the
head of the poll. In 1872 he was appointed a Justice
of the Peace for the Province. In January, 76 he was
unanimously chosen leader of the oppositionbythe party
with which he affiliates, but on the defeat of the Walkem
government in February, 76, he resigned the leadership of his party in favor of Hon. A. C. Elliott who
then became premier, from whom, in July of the same
year, he accepted the portfolio of Minister of Finance
and Agriculture, and continued to administer the affairs of that important department until the defeat of
the Elliott government at the general election of June,
78. When parliament reassembled he was again
unanimously chosen as leader of the opposition, and on
the defeat of the Beaven government in January, '83,
he formed the present executive council at the request
and with the approval of His Honor the Lieutenant-
Governor, and thus became premier of the Government
of British Columbia. Besides being endowed with
unusual executive ability, his long public experience
has made him an astute parliamentarian, ready and
forcible in debate; and while possessing an intimate
knowledge of the needs and resources of the province,
he has an abiding faith in its great and inevitable fu-
ture. Being only in his forty-first year, and in the
enjoyment of vigorous health, the honorable gentleman
has a fair promise of many years of life and useful-
I ness before him.
The Hon. Alexander E. B. Davie is one of the sons
of the late Dr. John C. Davie, who emigrated from
England to this province in 1862 and whose memory
is cherished by early colonists. The Attorney-General
commenced the study of the law in the office of Mr.
Robert Bishop, completing his term of service with
Messrs. Drake & Jackson. He was admitted a solicitor
in 1868 and called to the bar in 1873, since which period he has been engaged in the active exercise of his profession. He represented the electoral district of Cariboo
during 1876 and 1877. In 1877 he was appointed
Provincial Secretary, a position which he soon afterwards resigned having been defeated on his return for
re-election. At the general election in 1882 he was
returned for the adjoining constituency of Lilloet at
the head of the polls and having accepted in January,
1883, his present office, was re-elected by acclamation.
In his professional vocation and political career he has
identified himself with the Mainland, throughout which
portion of the province he has been long and favorably known. Mr. Davie is a native of Somersetshire,
England, and received his education at Silcoates School,
Wakefield, Yorkshire, England.
Born at Perth, Ontario, of Scotch parents who emi-
•grated to Canada in the beginning of the present century; was educated there; followed commercial pursuits
at Perth, Montreal, Hamilton and Bayfield till 1859,
when he came to British Columbia, attracted by the
sold   discoveries.
A  vigorous   writer   and  forcible
speaker, he soon came to the front and took a leading
part in the struggles of the then Crown Colony for
representative government. Was editor and proprietor of the British Columbian (the pioneer and leading
newspaper on the mainland), established at New Westminster in the beginning of 1861. Was elected Mayor
of New Westminster in 1866. Is a Justice of the
Peace for the Province and holds a lieutenant's commission in the militia. Represented the important district of New Westminster in the Legislative Council from 1867 to 1870 inclusive, and took a
promment part in bringing about confederation with
Canada, the terms for which were formulated and
adopted by the Legislature in 1870. Was elected to
represent Nanaimo in the Legislative Assembly in 1871
and sat till the spring of 1875, when he accepted the
appointment of Paymaster of the Canadian Pacific Railway surveys west of the Rocky Mountains, which position
he continued to hold until its abolition in 1879. Resumed publication of the British Columbian in 1880,
and at the general election of 1882 was returned for
the District of New Westminster by the largest majority given by any constituency. Upon the defeat of the
Beaven ministry, on the 26th January, 1883, and the
formation of the Smithe administration, he accepted
the appointment of " Provincial Secretary and Minister
of Mines, and Minister of Finance and Agriculture,"
and, on returning to his constituents, received their
unanimous approval, having been re-elected by acclamation. His views on all public questions are liberal,
progressive and statesmanlike and his name is prominently associated with the history of British Columbia
and he enjoys the reputation of being the most vigorous newspaper writer in the Province and the most
forcible speaker in the Legislature.
President of the Executive Council of British Columbia, was born at Kingswalden, Hertfordshire, England,
and was educated at Charter House, after which he
studied law, .and, in 1851, was admitted as a solicitor
in the Queen's Bench. Mr. Drake came to British
Columbia in 1859, the period of the first gold discoveries in the province, and in 1869 entered public life,
when he contested the city of Victoria and was return-
as an opponent to confederation, which was then the
great pivotal question of the politics of the day. During this time he also took a prominent and active part
in the advancement of the educational interests of the
country, having been a member of the Board of Education from 1872 until 1878. He was called to the Bar
in 187$ and was again elected to a seat in the Legislature in 1882 as a representative of the Capital City,
Victoria. At the formation of the present government
in January, 1883, he was appointed President of the
Executive Council and is also one of H. M. Justices of
the Peace for this province. The honorable gentleman
is the senior partner of the eminent law firm of Drake
& Jackson, of Victoria. A man of recognized ability
and social standing, coupled with considerable
public experience, he is well qualified to discharge ef-
I ficiently the very important duties of the high office to
which he has so recently been called. THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
As a summer resort Victoria has a peculiar combination of unequalled advantages and is to be especially
recommended to health-seeking invalids — beautifully
situated on the southeastern extremity of Vancouver
Island, the largest of the group forming the North
Pacific archipelago. The city's atmosphere is charged
with ozone, peculiar to this place only. It originates
in the snow-cooled breezes on the Olympian range,
mixes with the salt sea air of the Pacific and has peculiar health-restoring and life-prolonging qualities,
which need only to be known abroad to make Victoria
the sanitarium of the Pacific.
Cadboro Bay and the Arm offer fine, safe saltwater bathing. At the extreme head of the inlet the
water often indicates
a,temperature of seventy degrees. A valuable spring of sulphur and iron has
been discovered at
Spring Park,fourand
one-half miles from
the city, and adds no
little to the attraction
of the place. Pleasure boats and yachts
can be rented at reasonable rates, and the
mossy banks and
shady bars of the
Arm make the pleasures of boating be-
witchingly attractive. The usual destination of boats is
the I Gorge," a narrow rapid some three
miles distant, and the
course on moonlight
nights, rendered lovely and picturesque
by the overhanging
banks of verdure, is
fairly alive with every description of small water craft.
Beacon Hill, which lies about a mile from the center of the city, is a natural park of unsurpassed loveliness, and in no part of the globe can the traveler find
a place of resort, adjacent to an important business
community, at once so charmingly rural and so easy of
access to those who toil for their living in the heart of
the city. Besides the rare beauty of the panoramic
view obtainable from Beacon Hill, the park is very
naturally a fashionable promenade,and being surrounded by a race-track it is often the scene of trotting and
running matches, whilst the youth of the city enjoy
its spacious levels with base-ball, foot-ball, cricket,'La
Crosse and other athletic exercises.
There are other charming spots to which allusion
might well be made, but for the purposes of this article it must suffice to state that the whole neighborhood abounds in interesting features—sylvan groves,
crystal lakes, mossy banks, flowery pathways, beautiful
drives, etc,, etc.
The large number of white emigrants seeking
permanent homes, who will doubtless arrive in this
province during the coming summer and those now
en route, together with the installments already received, has rendered necessary the establishment by
the government of an Immigration Bureau at Victoria
and the appointment of a competent officer for its management. Accordingly an office for
this purpose has recently been opened
in one of the government buildngs on
James Bay, convenient to the Land Office, and John Jessop,
Esquire, (late city editor of the Colonist), a
gentleman intimately acquainted with
the geography, resources and industries
of the province, has
been duly gazetted as
Immigration Agent.
The office will be
plenteously supplied
with hand-books,
pamphlets and maps
containing reliable
information for free
distribution abroad,
to intending emigrants and incoming
settlers and laborers.
-Employers of labor,
skilled and ordinary, should at once place themselves in
communication with the Bureau, in order that the wants
of the laborer and employermay be promptly supplied in
this respect; a mutual benefit to each as well as to the
province at large. Every friend of British Columbia
will heartily commend the establishment of a Bureau
of Immigration as a wise and timely act, fraught with
incalculable benefits to the best interests of the whole
country—its settlement and the development of its
great natural wealth. It may be unpleasant, but
truth compels the admission that we have heretofore
neglected to employ any adequate means to promote
the settlement of the country. Although all earnestly
desired increased immigration as the one thing abso- THE   RESOURCES   OP*   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
lutely necessary for the speedy development of its
vast and varied resources, yet no proper effort in the
direction of .securing it was ever made;  but with a
shiftless patience worthy only of Dickens' Wilkins Ma-
cawber, we have always been content "to wait for
something to turn up."    In view of the rapid progress
made in the settlement of less favored regions by the
adoption of a liberal immigration policy it becomes
more apparent that our do-nothing course has been a
penny  wise  and pound foolish one.    To this cause,
rather than to our isolated position, (for we have always had a grand ocean  highway leading to every
port in the world), is mainly due the fact, that this
most extensive  province  of the Dominion, although
pregnant with  wealth creating resources beyond all
others, is, to-day, little more than a sealed book—a
terra incognita to the outside world.    Business men,
and especially officials and journalists, are now constantly in receipt of numerous letters of enquiry from
intending emigrants,regarding the climate and resources
of  this country.    The increasing interest manifested
abroad in this respect is largely due to a happy, and,
to us, very fortunate circumstance, namely, the recent
visit of His Excellency, the Governor General and his
Royal Consort, the Princess Louise, who have since
written and spoken in unstinted praise of our country
and its climate, and to whom, for so kindly a service,
■ our people although truly grateful, must ever remain
1 very much indebted.    Heretofore this province has al-
I ways been an uncared-for waif of the British Empire,
I and like other waifs, it too has  often sadly neglected
many of the opportunities for self-advancement.    To
no friendly, helping hand or fostering care does it owe
its present position.    Often kicked but never caressed,
I the history of this long disregarded province is not unlike that of Mrs. Stowe's immortal "Topsy" as related
by herself, " I had no fadder, no mudder, no nuffin, I
'specks I growed."
Summary of  Land  and  Mining Laws.
Any person being the head of a family, a widow,
or a single man over the age of 18 years and a British
subject, or any other alien upon declaring his intention to become a British subject, may record any tract
of unoccupied, unsurveyed and unreserved CrownLands,
not exceeding 320 acres, north and east of the Cascade
or Coast Range of Mountains, and 160 acres in the
rest of the Province, and " pre-empt" or " homestead "
the same, and obtain a title therefor upon paying the
sum of $1 per acre in four equal annual instalments,
the first one year from the date of record. Persons
desiring to acquire land under this law must observe
the following requirements:
1st. The land applied for must be staked off with
posts at each corner not less than four inches square,
and five feet above the ground, and marked in form as
follows: (A B's ) Land, N. E. post. (A B's) Land,
N. W. post, &c.
2nd. Applications must be made in writing to the
Land Commissioner, giving a full description of the
land, and also a sketch plan thereof, both in duplicate,
and a declaration under oath, made and filed in duplicate, that the land in question is properly subject to
settlement by the applicant, and that he or she is duly
qualified to record the same, and a recording fee of $2
3rd. Such homestead settler must within 30 days
after record enter into actual occupation of the land
so pre-empted, and continuously reside thereon personally or by his family or agents, and neither Indians
or Chinamen can be agents for this purpose.
Absence from such land for a period of more than
two months continuously or four months in the aggregate during the year, subjects it to forfeiture to the
Government. Upon payment for the land as specified,
and a survey thereof at the expense of the settler a
Crown grant for the spine will issue, provided that in
the case of an alien he must first become a naturalizsd
British subject before receiving title.
Homesteads upon surveyed lands may be acquired,
of the same extent and in the same manner as upon
the unsurveyed, except that the applicant is not required to stake off and file a plat of the tract desired.
There is a Homestead Law, by which under due
registration, real and personal property is protected to
the extent of not more than $2,500 from seizure and
sale in bankrupcy.
Unsurveyed, unoccupied, and unreserved Crown
lands may be purchased in tracts of not less than 160
acres for $1 per acre, cash in full at one payment before receiving title by complying with the following
1st. Two months' notice of intended application to
purchase must be inserted at the expense of the applicant in the British Columbia Gazette and in any newspaper circulating in the district where the land desired lies, stating name of applicant, locality, boundaries and extent of land applied for, which notice must
also be posted in a conspicuous place on the land
sought to be acquired, and on the Government office,
if any, in the district. The applicant must also stake
off the said land as required in case of pre-emption, and
also have the same surveyed at his own expense.
Surveyed lands, after having been offered for sale
at public auction for one dollar per acre, may be purchased for cash at that price.
Provide that every person over sixteen years of age
may hold a mining claim, after first obtaining from
the Gold Commissioner a Free Miner's Certificate or
License, at a cost of five dollars for one year and fifteen dollars for three years. Every miner locating a
claim must record the same in the office of the Gold
Commissioner, for a period of one or more years, paying therefor at the rate of $2 50 per year.
Every free miner may hold at the same time any
 — id
number of claims by purchase, but only two claims by
pre-emption in the same locality, one mineral claim
and one other claim, and sell, mortgage, or dispose of
the same.
The size of claims are as follows:
The bar diggings, a strip of land 100 feet wide at
highwater mark and thence extending into the river to
the lowest water level.
For dry diggings, 100 feet square.
Creek claims shall be 100 feet long measured in
the direction of the general course of the stream and
shall extend in width frojn base to base of the hill, or
bench on each side, but when the hills or benches are
less than 100 feet apart, the claim shall be 100 feet
Bench claims shall be 100 feet square.
Mineral claims, that is claims containing, or supposed to contain minerals (other than coalj in lodes or
veins, shall be 1,500 feet long by. 600 feet wide.
Discoverers of new mines are allowed 300 feet in
length for one discoverer, 600 feet for two, 800 feet for
three, and 1000 in length for a party o£ four.
Creek discovery claims extend 1000 feet on each
side of the center of the creek or as far as the summit.
Coal lands west of the Cascade Range in tracts
not less than 160 acres, may be purchased at not less
than ten dollars per acre, and similar lands east of the
Cascade Range, at not less than five dollars per acre.
Good building sites in Victoria (60 by 120 feet)
where vacant range from at $250 to $500, according to
eligibility of position; at New Westminster (lots 132
x66 feet) and at Port Moody, probably about the
same; at Nanaimo, from $150 to $200. But, outside
of business precincts, and in the limit of a short walk,
such building sites, "in a. position privately more agreeable, can be obtained at cheaper rate.
House rent, generally, ranges as under: a four
roomed house, with kitchen and surroundings on a
town plot, (probably with a miniature garden), can be
rented at from $8 to 12 per month. Larger dwellings
at proportionate rates.
Cordwood (the Douglas Fir, an excellent fuel) is
delivered in town at from $4 to $4.50 per cord; coal
at $8 per ton. Water rates, when the public pipe-supply is used, from $1 to $2.50 per month, according to
stipulated demand, otherwise there is no general water-rate.
There is a general head-tax of $3 for educational
purposes, levied by the Provincial Government upon
all male residents over the age of 18 years.
Provincial assessed taxes, if paid on or before the
30th of June in each year, are collectable at the following rates, viz.:
One-third of one per cent, on Real Property.
Five cents per acre on Wild Land.
One-fifth of one per cent, on Personal Property.
One-half of one per cent, on Income.
If paid after the 30th of June in each year:
One-half of one per cent, on Real Property.
Six cents per acre on Wild Land.
One-fourth of one per cent, on Personal Property.
Three-fourths of one per cent, on Income.
The Municipal assessed tax, in Victoria, is one per
cent, on all property whether in house or land; but
Real Property in Municipalities is exempt from Provincial assessment.
There is also, in Victoria, a Municipal head-tax of
$2 for road purposes, payment of which before the 1st
of July in each year entitles the payer, if a British
subject, to vote at the election of Mayor and Councillors for the ensuing year.
The Wealth of the Canadian Pacific.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company is one of
the richest corporations in the world. It started out
with a grant of 756 miles of road built and in operation, another grant of 25,000,000 acres of land said to
be worth on the average $5 per acre, and a Government guarantee of a clear gift of $25,000,000, to be
paid by installments, so much upon the completion of
each section of seventy miles. Its charter exempts
the road, equipments and capital stock from taxes forever, and it has free right of way with all the materials for construction and equipment free from duty.
The whole mileage to be built by the company is less
than 2,400 miles, The eastern half of it will not cost
more than $15,000 a mile, or $18,000,000. The western half, including passage through two ranges of
mountains, may cost an average of $35,000 a mile, or
$42,000,000; a total possible cost of $60,000,000, of
which the government pays $25,000,000, leaving for
the company $35,000,000, which 7,000,000 acres of
their land grant from Winnipeg westward will. pay.
They will then have left their entire capital stock and
18,000,000 acres of land for the construction of con- i
nection and branches and equipment, and for the creation of connecting lines of steamships from Montreal
to Europe at the East, and from Port Moody with
Australia, China and San Francisco at the West. A
company so rich in funds and exempt from all taxes
forever, and having so large a surplus, together with
the advantage of the shortest possible route across the
continent, its road, when completed, will inevitably become the greatest commercial highway between the I
Atlantic and Pacific seaboards. Successful competition by any other trans-continental railway is simply j
Kicking Horse Pass.—The Ottawa Free Press of
February 15th says:—It is stated that the Kicking
Horse Pass, as a route for the Pacific Railway across
the Rocky Mountains, has been abandoned, and the
old line, via Yellow Head Pass, selected by Mr. Mc-
Kenzie, again reverted to.
Scarcity of Beef.—A Seattle dispatch says that
beef has taken another advance there, and now retails
at 25 cents a pound. For the first time in Seattle's
history, importations are made from British Columbia. THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
British Columbia.
All hail Columbia ! not least, though last,
Of treasures rare that nobly come to grace,
A glorious diadem! of unions past
Most welcome thine! cordial we give thee place,
Thou, the most potent center, honored heart,
Of Canada's Dominion!   Thine the fate,
An Empire to complete.    Our destined part
TJnpla/ed as yet, thou comest a new born state!
'Mid the twin oceans' foam we're grandly set
Like to a diamond pure of price untold,
In primal brightness sparkling, ere as yet,
By contact foul bedimmed, to kindred gold
Wedded alone, refulgent it displays
A common glory.    Thus on thy fair brow,
Fair Sister of the West, thy wealth portrays
That spotless maiden crown, thou hast till now,
Exclusive borne.    In destined time thou'rt wed,
Or like the priceless diamond, set in gold.
Be thine the lot, in after years, when read
Thy tale of wedded life, that aye be told,
High honor's scroll, no conquest thine to boast
That wades to glory through a sea of blood,
Climbing to power and wealth at the sad cost
Of orphans' tears and death in direst mood.
The victories already thine shall tit.ll,
Full many an age to come, how sweetly won
Thy famous battles, hardly fought and well,
By honored toil and counsel sage all done
Thy deeds of high renown.    Thou mad'st a state,
Will future ages say.    The mainland thine,
The Islands came, and thou at once wert great!
In union strong, now earnest, all combine,
•Stretch out their arms of power the land of gold,
Peaceful to hold, the foaming torrent span,
Wild mountains pierce, the forrest hoar and old
Strenuous subdue, and to the use of man,
Vast fertile plains and valleys grand unfold!
What strength in union's found, and what thy gain,
In days to come, to latest hour of time,
Let thine achievement tell, that casts thy chain
Through continent and isle, o'er all the clime,
On mountains' necks, like pearly necklace thrown,
O'er lakesNunfathomed, dashing torrents borne,
Till oceans meet, and wedded are thine own.
Thine own to dawning of the Atlantic morn!
Extend'st thine arm of might where sets the sun,
Thy magic wand out o'er the western sea,
And lo! ere yet thy work is well begun,
Vast continents and islands come to thee!
Cashmere and Thibet Welcdme tribute pay,
Her pent up treasures China willing pours;
• Japan, from rest of earth no more astray,
And India come, their wealth changing with yours.
How blest thy favored people in their store!
Earth's richest theirs!   Her pearls Arabia sends,
Her diamonds rare Golconda!   Thine, even more;
With these shall vie each eager clime that blends
Its lot with thine, and on thy ocean throne,
When greater than thyself, bright land, are gone.
Thou'lt raign, Columbia, o'er the sea,
" Hope, refuge, stronghold of the Free!
PROGRESS   OF  THE   C.  P.   R.
At the slide above the big tunnel, work is being
carried on night and day. There are about 100 white
men there, and it is expected that the slide will be all
moved by the 20th inst. From there to Skuzzy, seven
miles further up, the grading is all done, and bridges
alone have to be built to complete the work.
At camp 19, Boston Bar, there are 70 whites,
making bridging and building the trestle along Boston
Bar bluff; from there to camp 21, four miles above,
the grade is completed. There are at this camp 40
timbermen and 8 gangs of Chinese, who work from
there up.   Camp 22 is closed for the present.
At camp 23, opposite the 33 mile post, there are
70 white men and 16 gangs of Chinese ; four heavy
structures are being put up. Near this point, at camp
24, a mile and a half beyond, there are forty white
men, making timber and putting up trestling.
At the crossing where the iron bridge, built in
England, will be placed, gangs of men, about 60 in all,
are getting out stone for piers. The pier on the wagon
road side will be commenced in a few days.
From the crossing to Lytton there are 250 Chinese grading, and a gang of 25 carpenters putting up
trestling near Lytton. The company are running a
sawmill at Hautier station.
Just above this point, the largest bridge so far
built on the C. P. R. in B. C, has just been completed-
it is 123 feet high, built in four stories, and is about
350 feet long.
At camp 25, Salmon river, there are 4 gangs of
Chinese, 25 whites, and a number of Indians, taking
out foundations and framing Salmon river bridge. At
this point the company have a sawmill run by contract
by D. Smith.
At camp 27, opposite the 42-mile post, there are
65 white men making timber, and 22 gangs of Chinese
grading from Siwash creek to Lick flat, H. F. Rufers,
sub-contractor. There are 800 Chinese grading and
40 whites working, between Cisco flat and Fraser crossing work is all done with the exception of a little finishing required on McBride's sub-contract.
There are 60 white men employed above Lytton;
on tne lower portion of the road, the men will be put at work between
Lytton and Spence's bridge. It is anticipated that if
the season is favorable, the line will be completed to
Fraser River crossing by the coming winter.
two gangs of Chinese are filling in behind cut.
this time on, as work gets finished on the lower
Reasons Why Business Men Should Advertise
in the Resources.
Inasmuch as our terms to advertisers are as reasonable as those of any other regular publication in the
province, and as its circulation will be not only local
but also world wide, The Resources cannot fail to be
an excellent medium for business men through which
•to make their announcements. Besides assisting to
render self-sustaining a publication so advantageous to
the best interests of the country, and in promotion of
which all will be mutually benefitted, the advertiser
will, at the same time, secure that extended, publicity
of his business which the very large circulation of the
magazine necessarily guarantees. In view of these
facts, we hope that business men throughout the province will cheerfully give us a share of their advertising patronage. The reading matter of The Resources
will not be materially decreased to make room for advertisements, as the paper, if necessary, will be enlarged for that purpose.
The town of Esquimalt is situated on a small
peninsula which separates the Royal Roads from
Esquimalt harbor, and is distant about 3| miles from
Victoria, with which it is connected by a good macadamized road. The place is justly celebrated for its
beautiful harbor, which is capacious, easy of access and
well sheltered and is-the first one on the coast for 700
miles north, of San Francisco. Principally on account
of the facilities this harbor affords, and the general
healthiness of the locality, this place was selected by
the British Admiralty, at an early date, as the chief
naval stations for Her Majesty's ships on the Pacific,
and consequently the Admiralty has established an arsenal here, in which are stored large quantities of
naval ordnance supplies of all kinds. In addition to
the dock yard and arsenal are the naval hospital and
Esquimalt and Victoria. Leaving Victoria at 9 a. m.,
11:30 a. m., and 4 :30 p. m.; and Esquimalt at 10 a. m.,
1: 30 p. m. and 5 :15 p. m. The fare is 25 cents each
way.    The two places are connected by telephone.
Esquimalt district is studded with small farms and
pretty country residences, some of those along the
water being exceedingly picturesque. An Indian village and reserve lie on the notheast side of the harbor
and a Roman Catholic mission has been established
here. At some seasons of the year the waters of Esquimalt are visited by enormous quantities of herring,
and the curing of these at that time is quite a local
industry. During the summer months, whiting are
found in large numbers in all parts of the harbor.
Catching these delicious fish forms a favorite pastime
for boating parties, at that season of the year.
Taxada Island, in the Gulf of Georgia, is one mass
of minerals.
powder magazine, the latter being situated on Magazine Island, in the northern part of the harbor.
The dry dock, the second largest of the public
works ever undertaken in the province, deserves special
notice. Its length, is 400 feet on floor; entrance, 65 feet
wide; depth, 26 feet. The material used in its construction being Portland cement; concrete, faced with
sandstone. When finished this will be one of the largest docks on the coast, affording ample accommodation for the largest ships.
Esquimalt has two churches and two public
schools. The former belonging to the English Episcopal and Roman Catholic churches; and of the latter
one is situated in Esquimalt town and the other at
Col wood.
A stage carrying passengers and H. M. mails
makes three trips daily (Sundays excepted) between
As an item of interest to intending- settlers and
emigrants we publish the following:
To persons desirous of obtaining and settling on
unimproved or improved land, there are great inducements in the municipality of Surrey, New Westminster District. 1 h's municipality extends south from
the Fraser river to the international line and east from
the coast to Langley municipality, and contains one
hundred and twenty square miles of territory, about
one-half of which is imoccupied, and the land is first-
class in quality. There are schools and churches, eood
roads, navigable rivers, and a railroad projected through
this fmunicipality. For further information apply to
Clover Valley, Surrey, B. C. THE   RESOURCES  OF  BRITISH   COLUMBIA
In view of the great interest which the proposed
opening up of this remote and little known portion of
the  Province by a company of American capitalists
has created, it may be well to give at this time, a brief
description of that country and its resources.    This
extensive district is situated in the extreme southeastern portion of the province, and its area and boundaries may be described as being those of a right an-
gled triangle, or very nearly so, having 200 miles of
the 49th parallel from the Rocky mountains westward
as a base, a line extending northward from the western
and of thebasefor 200 miles to the footof MountBrown in
the Rocky Mountains, and thence southeasterly along
the eastern boundary of the province to the international boundary line, the place of beginning; embrac-
ing a total area of 20,000 square miles or 12,800,000
acres.    In other words, it is a triangular territory of
which the international boundary is the base, the Gold
Range, the perpendicular, and the  Rocky Mountain
chain, the hypothenuse.    The Kootenay District covers a wide area of mineral lands, embracing gold, silver and galena, and in this respect alone, to say nothing of its timber and grazing and arable lands, possesses incalculable undeveloped wealth.    The isolation
of its position, the high price of provisions and difficulty in traveling over it, or of obtaining supplies* for
prospecting or mining, have hitherto retarded its development, and, in a great measure, rendered it an almost unknown waste.    In the absence of any connecting line of transportation between the southern, and
at the same time most important and extensive portion
of this district and the C. P. R., it must long remain a
sparsely settled and comparatively unproductive region.
The portions best adapted for agricultural and pastoral
purposes are the valley of the Kootenay River and
that at the headwaters of the Columbia, known as the
I Lake Country.'''    In these two valleys there are many
thousands of acres of  land of the greatest fertility,
and also a wide expanse of wild hay land, together
with innumerable hill-sides and prairies, affording the
choicest pasture for stock.    In fact the few cattle that
have roamed over its ample swards, have thriven in all
seasons during the past twenty years.    Still there are
yet only a few small herds there, not even enough to
supply the wants of its present population.    Nothing
but the gold quest will induce men to remain long in a
country so isolated, however rich in natural resources.
In this age of railways, steamboats, daily mails, newspapers and telegraphs, the average emigrant, who has
doubtless been accustomed to live within reasonable
reach of these advantages, can scarcely be expected to
forego them all, and to settle permanently in a district
affording no prospect of their  speedy attainment.    It
is therefore apparent that every reasonable encouragement should be given to those proposing to construct
lines  of  railway  or other means  of communication
with such localities and thereby render them available
for settlement. We often hear a great deal said about
.enormous land grants to railway corporations, but it
ought also to be borne in .mind that from the time of
Adam until the advent of the railway these lands never
yielded a dollar to anyone, and farther, that for every
acre so granted, at least a hundred, as worthless
as the one granted had ever been, were made available
for settlement, and from nothing thereby increased in
value, not unfrequently to $50 and Si 00 per acre. We
have no fear that any such enterprises will fail to receive merited support from the Legislature now in session. The experience of , British Columbia in
the lack of railway facilities, has been a sore and
a life-long one, and she cannot now desire to perpetuate
in the the future what has been her bane in the past.
While unwilling to needlessly alienate any portion of
the public domain, yet every proper means will, we are
confident, be employed to promote and foster such public enterprises as will enable the province to move on
in harmony with the progressive spirit of the age.
British   Columbia's   Oppertunity.
So great is the demand for meat supplies in the
neighboring states that even milch cows are being sold
to the butchers at before unheard of prices and the
Webfooters, especially, are threatened not only with a
scarcity of beef, but they will also be compelled to be
content with azure milk or water strait. This morning's Standard contains the following advisory and
timely article on the subject of the meat supply of
this coast:
But a few years ago it was considered throughout
the entire leugth of the Pacific Coast that the stock-
raising capacity of Oregon and Washington Territory
was practically inexhaustible and that generations must
elapse before beef cattle, especially, could b) otherwise
than a drug in the market in those vast and well-
stocked regions. Events of recent occurrence have
proved the fallacy of this belief and demonstrated
the extremely unsubstantial nature of the grounds on
which it rested. An article in the Portland Oregonian
of a few days ago gives some significent facts, which
shows in the most pointed manner the utter collapse of
the stock raising interest in Oregon. It says that owing to the great immigration that has recently set into
that country and the consequent accupation and fencing
in of the land, stock-raising can no longer be conducted,
on a farge scale, and urges that farmers taking up land
should each raise a few head of stock to supply the
needs of the country. To support this recommendation it says that from this time forward beef cannot
possibly be any lower in grice than it is at present, and
that on the contrary there if every prospect of a steady
advance in price. To illustrate the dearth of beef in
Oregon it states that cattle for the butcher have recently been imported imported into, Portland from San 14
Francisco. Nor is it Portland alone that the scarcity
of this staple article of food is keenly felt. It is ex-,
perienced in an equal degree on Puget Sound. Already
several shipments of beef have been made to the Sound
and it is said that there is every probability that this
trade will become extensive in the future. This is the
golden opportunity which British Columbia has long
been waiting for. With hundreds of miles of the
finest pasture land in the world still unoccupied, the
facilities for raising stock presented by the Province
are unequalled anywhere else, and, as we have seen,
there is a profitable market waiting to take all that
can be raised. The climate is of the character best
calculated to bridg beef the greatest possible state of
perfection and at the earliest time. The winters are
not sufficiently severe to be detrimental and there is
no fear that the growth of the animals will ba checked
by disastrous droughts in summer. Besides beef cattle, one of the staples of the country, horses, are in
demand, and will continue so to be for many years to
come, in the Northwest, and these might also be profitably raised by the stock-raiser in addition to meat
cattle. Horses are always wanted for hearding purposes and it is more easy to raise than to purchase
them, and, as we have shown, the surplus stock can be
readily disposed of on the other side of the mountains
to the increasing population of the Northwest. To
these may be added the most easily-managed and per-
hads tee most profitable of all stock, sheep. There is
always a good' demand for sheep for the butcher within
the Province and now that communication with the interior of the Province will shortly be made easy and
cheap, all the wool produced can be sent out for shipment at this port at such rates as will leave a profitable margin to the grower. These three classes of stock,
cattle, horses and sheep, can be produced in any desired quantity and with less risk of loss than pertains
to any other business that we are aware of in any
country, and only a moderate capital is required to
commence with. The man who begins with a hundred
or a hundred and fifty head of stock will, in a few
years find himself the possessor of large herds of the
finest cattle in the world. And while they are increasing in number they will also increase in value for, as
we have shown, the price must increase with the increase of the demand and consequent requirement of
the market; we have instanced these three classes of
stock as they are perhaps the most important and
therefore the most desirable subjects for investment,
but there are other profitable ways in which agriculturists and others could invest their time, labor and
money, and to which we shall take occasion to refer in
another article. In the meantime it is sufficiently evident that the cattle ranges of the neighboring territories are exhausted and that from British Columbia must
come the chief beef supply of the future.
ISP3 Subscribe for the Resources of British
Columbia, to which new and interesting features are
now being added.
October ..
January ..
February .
The following abstract is from observations taken
on board H. M. S. Topaze, at Esquimalt, Vancouver
Island, during the year 1860, and will serve to indicate
nearly the ordinary conditions of the climate in Victoria and its environs:
i860. Deg-
Anril  Mean daily heat, 51.50 Fahrenheit.
M».v /.'....:'■.....'     "        "        "     55.25
"     61.00 "
«        ••        "     60.50 "
............!!!    "        1        " 63.25 "
"        I        " 57.25 "
«        «        << 53.00 "
I        " 50.50
..."'....    "        "        " 42.00 "
"        »        " 38.00 "
.     "        "        " 44.50
     "        "        " 46.00 "
Mean heat of the year, 51.81
The subjoined memoranda is taken from a recent
issue of the Colonist newspaper of Victoria:
1882.     1881.
Victoria :—Mean temperature of month December, 42. °    40. ° 05
Highest       " " I        53.°    58.°
Lowest " " "       22.°    24.°
Rainfall in inches, " " 5.37      6.13
Rainfall total for 1882, inches  27.85
"   1881,     "            37.99
The following is supplied by Mr. A. Peele, of New
Wesminster, who has for some years been assiduously
observant of the meteorology of that locality:
Mean temperature and rainfall at New Westminster, B. C, for six years, from 1874 to 1879.
Mean temperature Fahrenheit 48.05
Highest       I      " 92.
Lowest "          " 7.
Mean rain-fall, inches 58.95
"   height of Barometer, inches   29.993
Information recently received conveys the intelligence that at Hongkong a steam service between that
port and the northwestern ports of the Pacific coast
has been arranged. A steamer of 2,000 tons is already
on the way. The steamer C. T. Hook, which arrived here
last fall from Hongkong with merchandise and Coolies
and took back a cargo of coal, was the first steamer of the
new service. On the return of that steamer to the home
port the advisability of establishing a line of steamers
was considered, and it was finally concluded to inaugurate a new route by the sailing of monthly steamers.
The route has been considerably changed from that originally contemplated, with the object of securing
available return freights. So much of the course as
applied to the direct route from Hongkong to Victoria
has been recently altered so as to embrace Portland on
the return voyage, thence to San Francisco, where
Chinese wishing to visit their country would be taken
back, and those coming from China and having proper
certificates would be landed at that port. The vessel
would then visit the Sandwich Islands, making Honu-
lulu her last outside stopping place, and then sailing
for Hongkong. The steamers which will be engaged
in this lineJbelong to or are controlled by the firm of
Howard & Co., Hongkong. THE   RESOURCES   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
There went a boy from the parent fold
To learn the manner of earning gold.
He held his tears, and the rising sigh
When his mother's lips caught his warm "Goodbye.'
The world he met with ingenuous eyes
As soft and clear as cerulean skies.
His ruby lips and his cheeks^-why these
Were like the blossom of apple trees.
His breath was sweet as the smell of morn,
Wheu zephyrs rustle the.changing corn.
With earnest heart and untainted soul
The lists he entered for mammon's gaol.
And at the " Mart" for many days
He trod the city's devious ways.
And tempters many, with smiles demure,
Sought to disflower a bud so pure.
They strove in vain, for the parent stem.
Had grafted virtue too firm for them.
But another tempter came, alas!
And touched his lips with the ruby glass.
Then shone his eyes with a wilder ray,
And morning brought but the dread of day.
This first wrong-doing he strove to check,
But drank again at the tempter's beck.
And time rolled on, but it found him still
A captive bound at the tempter's will.
And his ruddy lips soon-lost their hue,
And his fair young face all haggard grew.
Yet close to the whisky fiend he kept,
And his father prayed, his mother wept.
And, when this Spirit from nether hell
Had served his horrible purpose well,
He held the glass at his parting breath,
Then gave him up to his crony, death.
Nothing  can  be a more valuable  boon  to  any
country under the skies than the possession of an equable and genial climate which will ensure that the products of the earth by which men live will be brought
to maturity and harvested in due season.    In various
parts of the earth during the past few years very unfortunate climatic conditions have been prevalent to
the great detriment of the farming interests.    A great
part of the most fertile regions  of the  continent  of
Europe has suffered from floods.    This year there is
little prospect that the harvest in England and Ireland
will pay expenses owing to persistent rains.    In Australia and Cape Colony prolonged droughts have prevented vegetation and caused a failure in the crops of
wheat and other cereals.    At the present time of writing it is reported that the  weather  on the  eastern
shore of the continent of America and in England is
excessively severe, as much so as to render the operations of the agriculturist impossible.    Farming cannot
be carried on and consequently the result will be that
there will be little or no crop to reap.    A -very gratifying and satisfactory contrast is presented by the cli
mate of this province. To-day the air is as balmy and
mild as is usual in May. The ground is fit for cultivation and there neither has been excessive frost nor
an overabundance of rain. This is by no means unusual in this province, the climate being uniformly genial and there being no such thing known as a failure
of crops from inclement weather if ordinary care is
used. But the present agreeable weather is worthy of
remark in view of the very different condition of affairs prevalent elsewhere. Here genial spring is in
full perfection, there it is still the depth of winter with all its accompanying disadvantages.—Standard, 16th ult., Victoria, B. C.
London is at present made up of an aggregation
of cities having at least a score of governing bodies-
The reform legislation which parliament is to enact will
do away with all this and make one grand municipality,
which will include the old city of London with a present population of 500,000, together with 23 civil parishes, 15 board of works districts, and a large number
of other queer little districts which at present have
separate  existence.     The new London will have  a
population of 4,764,312, equal to the combined population of the cities of New York, Boston, Philadelphia,
Providence, Brooklyn, Chicago, New Orleans, Cincinnati, St. Louis and Baltimore, or, to put it by states, a
population as great as the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Minnesota.   The annual revenue of the new city
will be almost equal to that of Belgium and twice as
much as that of the Dominion of Canada a few years
ago.    It will start out with a debt only five times
greater than that of the city of Boston, and but $20,-
000,000 in excess of that of New York city.    The debt;
per capita, of the new London will be about $28, while
it is nearly $75 in Boston and not far from $100 in
New York.    The new city of London will" be, from
every point  of view, the  chief municipality of the
world, and it will be very many years before it will
have a successful rival in the matter of population,
wealth or influence.
Bank of British Columbia.
The general meeting of the proprietors of this
bank was held at the City Terminus Hotel, London, on
the 6th March. The report shows that the net profits
for the half year were $25,000 in excess of the profits
of the preceding half year. The paid up capital is
$1,730,000; reserve fund, $220,000. A dividend at the
rate of six per cent, per annum with one per cent,
bonus added, clear of income tax, was declared. The
report has created a most favorable impression; 20
shares fully paid up are quoted at £22 10s. to £23—a
premium of about 11£ per cent.; £20 shares, £10 paid
up, rule at from £11 to £12. 16
Office of thh Resources of British Columbia, )
Monday, April 2, 1883.        J
BUTTER—Choice Island, 50c $ tb; Island
Roll, 624c; New Grass, Ca) , 75c $
CHEESE—Canadian, 30c ¥ lb; California,
25c; Eastern Cream, 30c; B. C, 25c;
Stilton, 374c.
EGGS—Fresh Island, 37c $ doz; S .und,
CORNMEAL—50c $ sack of 10 lbs.
OATMEAL—624c $ sack of 10 lbs.
FLOUR—Extra, $7 50 $ bbl; $2 $ sack;
Superfine, $5 75 ty bbl.
WHEAT -24@2f c $ lb.
BEANS—Lima, 8c f lb; Small White and
Bayou, 6c ¥ lb.
SPLIT PEAS—12£c $ lb.
VEGETABLES—Potatoes, l£c $ lb; Shallots, 5c; Onions, 3c $ ft; Celery, 374c
$ doz; Carrots, ljc $ lb; Rhubarb,
—c $ tb; Lettuce, —c $ doz; Cauliflower, 60c @ 25c $ lozen; Radishes, —c ¥ doz bunches; Squash,
—ceach; Turnips, 25c $ doz bundles;
Green Peas, —c ¥ ft; String Beans,
—e $ lb; Cucumbers, — c $ doz; Cabbage, 2c $ lb; Tomatoes, —c $ tb;
Green Ochra, —c $ ft; Chili Pepper,
25c <g lb; Green Corn, —c $ doz;
Vegetable Marrows, 75c 39 doz; Sweet
Potatoes, —c $ tb.
HAMS—Home Cured, 30c $ lb; Chicago,
30c $ lb; Oregon, 25c $ lb; Shoulders, —c $ lb.
BACON—Breakfast, 22£c $ tb; Oregon,
24c $ lb.
LARD—25c $ tb.
FISH—Cod, 6c ¥ lb; Salmon, 7c $ lb;
Boneless Cod, 16c $ lb; Soles, 6c $
lb; Halibut, 6c ¥ lb; Yarmouth
Bloaters, 25c $ doz; Salmon Bellies,
3 for 50c; Herring, 3c $ lb; Flounder,
6c $ tb; Smoked Oolachans and Salmon, 12Jc $ lb; Smelt, 6c $ lb; Sturgeon, 6c <$ lb; Whiting, 6c $ lb;
Shrimp, 25c $ lb; Salt Oolachans, 6c
$ lb; Crabs, 50@75c <g doz; Smoked
Herring, I2£c $ lb; S lmon Trout,
8c* tb
CANNED SALMON—1-tb tins, $2 $ doz.
'FRUIT—Lemons, 50@75c * doz; Oranges,
25@62Jc $ doz; Limes, 37jc $ doz;
Apples, 5c * lb; Cranberries, 75c $
gal; Quinces, 8c $ tb; Pears, —c $
ft; Grapes, —c * lb; Bananas, 50c $
doz; Cocoanuts, 124eeach; Cherries,
—c * lb; Apricots, —c $ lb; Strawberries, —c $ lb; Gooseberries, —c
$ lb; Plums, —c $ lb; Peaches, —c
$ lb; Tahiti Oranges, —c $ doz;
Pineapples, 75c@$l each; Watermelons, —c each;Muskmelons, —c each.
CANDIED FRUITS—Lemon, 50c $ lb;
Mixed, 50c.
CURRANTS—Zante, 15@16c $ lb.
fomia, 25c $ tb; Sultania, Valencia
and Elema, 25c $ lb.
FIGS—New, 50c $ tb.
MIXED SPICES—25c $ tin.
STARCH—$1 $ box.
TEA AND COFFEE—Coffee, ground,
50c * tb; green, 28c * lb; Tea, from
37^c to $1 25 $ lb.
SUGARS—Crushed or Cube, 6 lbs for $1;
Granulated, or No. 1, 7 lbs for §1;
D or No. 2, 8 lbs for $1.
NUTS—English Walnuts, 20c $ lb; Almonds—Paper Shell, 37§c $ lb; Jordan, 75c $ lb; Brazil, 37Jc $ lb;
Chestnuts, 374c $ lb.
Tongues, 75c each; Smoked Tongues,
SI each
BEEF—Choice Cut , 124c $ lb; ot er
cuts, 7@10c * lb; Soup Meat, 5@7c
MUTTON-Choice Joints, I24c $ lb;
Stewing Meat, 6@8c $ tb.
PORK—124c $ tb.
VEAL—12|c $ lb.
LAMB—Fore Quarters, $1; Hind Quarters, $1 25.
SAUSAGES—14 lbs, 26c.
SUET—124c $ tb.
SUCKING PIGS—$2 50@S3 each.
DUCKS—Tame, 75c@$l each; Mai ard,
624c ¥ pair; Teal, 374c each.
CHICKENS—624@75c each; Spring, 85
$ doz.
TURKEYS—25c $ tb.
GEESE—Tame, 25c $ ft; Wild, 50@75c
COAL OIL—£2 $ tin; $ case, $3 75.
OYSTERS—75c $ qu irt, Canned 374c.
HAY—$1 374 $ cwt.
OATS—2±c $ lb.
MIDDLINGS—2@2Jc $ ft.
BRAN—lie* ft.
Classified Directory of Leading and Reliable Business Firms of Victoria, 6. C.
Agricultural Implements.
FELLOWS & PRIOR, Yates St.    Easy and Profitable Farming, a certainty, by using our Machinery.
Auctioneers & Commission Merchants.
DA VIES, J. P. & CO., Wharf St, near Yates.    Liberal advances on consignments.
CARESCHE, GREEN & CO.    Also, Agents for W.
F. & Co.    Corner Government and Trounce Sts.
Books and Stationery.
HIBBEN, T. N, Importers.    Established 1858.    Masonic Building, Government Street.
Brick   Makers.
COUGHLAN & MASON.     Office, Cor. Government
and Broughton Sts. P.O. Box 210; Telephone 147;
Works, Saanich Road.
Commission and Brokerage Agents.
ENGELHARDT, J, Custom House, Shipping & Commission Agent.    Office on Turner's Wharf, Yates
street.    P. O. box 167.
TIPPINS, W. J.     Trade supplied at lowest rates;
Fort Street, between Douglas and Broad.
Crockery, Wooden and Glassware.
EWELL, HENRY.   Also, Tinware, Carpets, Cutlery,
Furniture, Wall-paper, &c.    Cor. Yates & Douglas.
LANGLEY & CO.    Prescriptions accurately dispensed. Toilet Articles, &c. Yates St. & Langley Alley.
Furniture and Upholstery.
WEILER,   JOHN.     Also, a magnificent stock of
Crockery and Glassware.    Fell's Block, Fort St.
General  Merchandise—Wholesale.
STROUSS, C, & CO., Commercial Row, Wharf street-
Importers and Dealers in General Merchandise.
Groceries—Wholesale and Retail.
FELL & CO, Importers.   Also, Wine and Spirit Merchants, Fell's Block, Fort Street.
AUNDERS, HENRY, Johnson Street.   Large stock.
Fresh Goods, also fine Wines and Liquors.
OPPENHEIMER BROS, Importers, Finlayson's
Block, Wharf Street.    P. O. Box 239.
Meat Markets.
QUEEN'S, by Goodacre & Dooley.    Wholesale and
Retail. Purveyors to H.M. Navy. Government St.
Real Estate and Insurance Agents.
EISTERMAN, H. F, & CO, Agents Phenix (fire),
Fireman's  Fund  (marine), Equitable (life), and
Lloyds (marine).    Langley Street.
MARKET EXCHANGE, Geo. Thomson, Proprietor.
Fine Wines, Liquors and Cigars.    Cor. Fort and
Wilcox Streets.
NCLE FRANK'S, Langley Alley.    Wines and Liquors, Cigars and Tobacco.
It is the only Paper exclusively devoted
to the Settlement of the Country
and the development of its
BRITISH COLUMBIAN.   Semi-weekly.   Terms: by
mail, S3 per year; by carrier, SI per quarter.  Rob-
son & Co, publishers, New Westminster, B. C.
GOLONIST. Daily and Weekly. Terms: Daily, by
mail, S10 per year; by carrier, Si per month.
Weekly, S3 per annum. D. W. Higgins, publisher,
Victoria, B. C.
REE PRESS.   Semi-weekly.   Terms:   S4 per year.
George Norris, publisher, Nanaimo, B. C.
NLAND SENTINEL.   Weekly.   Terms, $3 per annum in advance.    M. Hagan, Publisher, Yale, B. C.
STANDARD.  Daily and Weekly. Terms: Daily, per
annum, S10; per week, 25 cts.    Weekly, S3 per
year.    C. McK. Smith, proprietor, Victoria, B. C.
POST.   Daily evening.   Terms: per year, $10; deliv- I
ered by carrier, 25 cts. per week.    W. J. & M. G
McDowell, sole proprietors, Victoria, B. C. ii)t@i)ii
ft <
A   First-Class   Livery   Business   will   be   Conducted  at  their  Stables.
Horses and Vehicles of all Descriptions will be Kept Constantly on Hand for Sale.
Telephone Call, No. 129. . A M_0 u       pMi   &
r m    JAMES HAMILTON, Supt.
ill i«Alr©»©,© mjkwmm®
Government Street, Opposite the Post Office.
6EI6ER & BECKER, Proprietors.
Government Street, Victoria, B. C.       R. O. Box ©4.
Importer and Dealer in
fritisft m& Jarrtp lap, Jkwjj $00^0, £tap,
Telephone Calls : Factory No. 46; Residence No. 48.
Cox. Sro-u.g2a.toaa. aaa.cL Xism.g'ley Streets, "Victoria., S. C
YOBZ <fc LiEnsriz,
Wholesale and Retail Importers of
staple and Fancy Dry (goods, (Rents' furnishings, Etc.
Colt's Foot Rock for Coughs and Colds.   For Children nothing
Equals it.
0_A_3ST3Z)-5r    PACTOB.T.
Eort   Street,   above   Eell's   Block,
Government Street,
Victoria, British Columbia.
And Qent'a WwtmimMmW. & J. W. will be happy to give information concerning British Columbia to visitors and intending settlers.
(Established 20 years.    Eecommended for best value on the Coast.)
Corner Wharf and Johnson Sts.
!5P=The Largest and most Convenient Hotel in the
City.    Board and Eoom from $1 to $1.50 per day.
Government St., Victoria.
Ships supplied with Stores.     Goods delivered to any
part of the City.
Allsop & Mason,
S W§\S   ,55KS&  l
(Established 1863)
fowa ItQtg aadl Farming Lands for Sale on Raaaonable Terms.
§• C. BUI^IS,
Scl^Plans and Specifications furnished and the general
business of an architect attended to.
Office, Cor. Government and Broughton Sts., Victoria.

Government Street! Victoria.
Coughlan & Mason,
P. O. Box 210. Telephone, 147. Works, Saanich Road.
Office: Cor. Government and Broughton Sts., Victoria, B.C.
"Wholesale  anil   Retail   Dealer  in.
Corner Government and Fort Streets, Victoiia.
Especial attention paid to orders from the Country.
Government Street, Victoria.
BROWN & WHITE,     -      I      f     Proprietors.
The cheapest place for Dry Goods of every description;
Staple and Fancy.   Country Orders,,:,
promptly attended to.
Government Street, Victoria, B. C.
Importer of Dry Goods, Millinery and Carpets.
Terms—Cash only.
VICTORIA, j    «*«*-■•'««•     {BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ftie Leading Newspaper of the Province.
I^As a Family, Commercial and News Journal it has no equal.
Having the Largest Circulation it offers the best
advantage to Advertisers.
Color Book and Job Printing Executed with Rapidity and at Low Rates
D.  "VW HIGGINS,   Proprietor.


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