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Nineteenth annual report of the British Columbia Board of Trade : together with various appendices, list… Victoria (B.C.). Board of Trade 1898

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     NINETEENTH
ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
British Columbia
BOARD OF TRADE!
Together with Various Appendices, List of Members, Office Bearers, Commercial
Charges   etc.
OFFICE :   BOARD OF TRADE BUILDING, VICTORIA, B.C.
OCTOBER, 1898.
INCORPORATED OCTOBER 28th, 1878,
Victoria, B.C.
The Province Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd. Lty.
1898. CONTENTS.
Officers, 1898-99  3
Council  - ■ - • 3
Board of Arbitration  3
Standing Committees       . 3
Officers Chamber of Commerce, 1863
to 1878  4
Ltstof Past Officers from 1878 to 1898. 4
Membership Roll  5
ANNUAL REPORT.
Mining 11-16
Fisheries  17
\ Sealing  18
Lumber         iS
Agriculture  19
Industrial Establishments  20
Expansion of Foreign Trade  21
Ocea n Trade  22
Railways  23
Public Works  24
Telegraphs  25
Navigation  26
The Canadian Yukon  26
Trade Outlook  27-28
APPENDICES.
Immigration     29
Form of agreement with Colonists .30-31
"Wages paid in British Columbia 32-34
Additions to Library     35
Newspapers and Periodicals on file in
i    Reading Room      36
Quebec Conference  37-42
Agriculture in British Columbia ....43-46
Exports from British Columbia   ....    49
Exports into British Columbia 50-52
Detailed Customs Statistics from British Columbia    53
Detailed Customs Statistics—imports
into British Columbia     54
Imports into British Columbia for 27
years ending June 30,1898     55
Exports from British  Columbia for
27 years..     56
Exports from British Columbia, 1872
to 1898     56
58
69
69
Progress of Shipping	
British Columbia Shipping—Tonnage
Inland Revenue, Canada,   Divisions
37 and 38     59
Area of British Columbia     59
Shipping, Victoria, t,     59
Education 60-61
Mining Statistics  62-67
Salmon Pack by Canneries	
Salmon Pack by Districts 	
The Annual Salmon Pack 	
Salmon Shipments—Detailed	
Salmon Fleet    70
Recapitulation     71
Tonnage and Value of Fishing Boats
and Material 72-73
British Columbia Sealing Catch 74-75
Export of Lumber,  1897     76
List of British Columbia Trees     77
Strength of B.C. Timber      78
Land Returns      79
Game of British Columbia   ;. 80-83
Game Protection Act, 1895-97 84-85
Municipal Statistics    86
Climate     87
Rainfall and Snowfall     88
Meteorological Register, 1896     89
Postal Statistics     90
Post Office and Government Savings
Banks     91
Revenues   and Expenditures  of   the
Provinces of Canada, 1897    9;
Capital Invested in British Columbia   92
Scale of Commercial Charges 93-94
Rates on Storage of Merchandise    94
Pilotage and Port Charges        95
Pilotage Districts  of Yale and New
Westminster    96
Port Charges, Esquimalt and Victoria   96
Esquimalt Graving Dock    97
Esquimalt Marine Railway    97
ATLIN LAKE     98
Placer Mining Laws and Regulations
in British Columbia 99-101
Distances to Klondike, N.W.T  102
Distances to Atlin  Lake, British Columbia   102
ILLUSTRATIONS.
PHOTOS FROM LIFE.
Parliament Buildings frontispiece
Branch of British Columbia Plums... 10
Fisheries  18
Rounding up   Cattle in  British  Columbia   34
Government of British Columbia $20
gold coin, 1862  36
Branch of British Columbia Cherries. 48
Agriculture  50
Schools ,. 60
S.S.   "Islander,"  Victoria  and Vancouver Route  61
Mining  	
Lumber  	
Yachting in British Columbia	
Favourite  Camping Spot in British
Columbia	
Government of British Columbia $10
gold coin, 1862 '
Esquimalt Graving Dock	
The Animals	
Dawson City	 British Columbia Board of Trade*
OFFICERS 1898-99.
G. A. KIRK,     -
W. A. WARD,
F. ELWORTHY,
Simon Leiser,
D. R. Ker,
A. G. McCandless,
W. H. Bone,
R. Erskine,
COUNCIL.
J. H. Todd, '
H.HlRSCHELL-COHEN,
L. G. McQuade,
Lindley Crease,
F. B. Pemberton,
President
Vice-President
Secretary
Richard Hall,
J. G. Cox,
F. C. Davidge,
Ed. Pearson,
W. F. Bullen.
BOARD  OF ARBITRATION.
L. G. McQuade, E. G. Prior, Lindley Crease,
R. Erskine, A. G. McCandless,     Chas. Hayward,
F. C. Davidge, C. E. Renouf, l,. Pither,
Geo. Gillespie,
J. G. Cox,
Wm. Wilson.
STANDING  COMMITTEES.
FISHERIES.
J. H. Todd, M. T. Johnston, E. B. Marvin,
W. A. Ward, D. J. Munn.
MANUFACTURES.
D. R. Ker, Chas. Hayward, W. J. Pendray,
Ed. Pearson, W. T. Andrews.
HARBOURS AND NAVIGATION.
R. P. Rithet, John Irving, J. G. Cox,
F. C. Davidge, Geo. L. Courtney.
PUBLIC WORKS AND RAILWAYS.
B. w. Pearse,     a. C. Flumerfelt,     T. s. Futcher,
W. H. Langley,       W. F. Bullen.
FINANCE.
Geo. Gillespie, Gavin H. Burns,- A. J. C. Galletly.
MINING AND PROPERTY.
H. Hirschell-Cohen,   F. B. Pemberton, Lindley Crease.
AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY.
C. E. Renouf, M. Baker, Wm, Templeman. Officers of the Chamber of Commerce of Victoria, Vancouver Island.
From 1863 to Date of Incorporation, October 28th, 1878.
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
PRESIDENT.
VICE-PRESIDENT.
R. Burnaby  Jules David	
C. W. Wallace  Jules David .
Jules David  James Lowe	
James Lowe  Henry Rhodes . .
Henry Rhodes  Gustav Sutro	
Henry Rhodes  Gustav Sutro	
Henry Rhodes  Gustav Sutro	
Henry Rhodes  Gustav Sutro	
Henry Rhodes  Gustav Sutro	
Henry Rhodes  E. Grancini  	
Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
•Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
Henry Rhodes  T. L. Stahlschmidt.
SECRETARY.
A. F. Main.
A. F. Main.
A. F. Main.
A. F. Main.
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummer
Robert Plummefs
Officers and Membership of the British Columbia Board of Trade.
From Date of Incorporation, October 28th, 1878, to July 10th, 1897.
Oct.  28th
1878, to \
July 3, '8o
1880-I
I88I-2
1882-3
1883-4
1884-5
1885-6
1886-7
1887-8
1888-9
1889-90
1890-I
1891-2
1892-3
1893-4
1894-5
1895-6
1896-7
1897-8
PRESIDENT.
VICE-PRES ID ENT.
SECRETARY.
P. P. Rithet, J.P.
R. P. Rithet, J.P.
R. P. Rithet, J.P.
R. P. Rithet, J.P
R. P. Rithet, J.P.
R. P. Rithet, J.P,
JacobH.ToddJ.P
JacobH.ToddJ.P
Robert Ward, J.P
Robert Ward, J.P
Robert Ward, J.P
Robert Ward, J;P
Thomas B.Hall.
Thomas B. Hall.
A. C. Flumerfelt
A. C. Flumerfelt
D. R. Ker	
D. R. Ker	
I G. A. Kirk	
William Charles.
William Charles.
William Charles.. I
Rodk. Finlayson.
Rodk. Finlayson.
Mat. T. Johnston.
Edgar Crow Baker
Thos. Earle	
T. R. Smith  	
Thos. Earle	
Thomas B. Hall..
Thomas B. Hall ..
A. C. Flumerfelt. .
A. C. Flumerfelt..!
C. E. Renouf. I
C. E. Renouf.....
Gus. Leiser	
G.Leiser.GA.Kirk
W. A. Ward |
E. Crow Baker.
E. Crow Baker.
E. Crow Baker.
E. Crow Baker.
E. Crow Baker.
E. Crow Baker.
Wm. Monteith.
Wm.Monteith.
Wm. Monteith.
Wm.Monteith.
Wm. Monteith.
F. Elworthv..
F. Elworthy..
F. Elworthy..
F. Elworthy..
F. Elworthy..
F. Elworthy..
F. Elworthy.
F. Elworthy..
I Membership
83
69
67
83
83
90
99
97
93
67
99
132
154
170
161.
167
173
174
175 Membership Roll.
A.
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Anderson, W. J Builder.
Aikman, H. B. W Drake, Jackson & H....Barrister-at-Law»
Andrews, W. T Canada Paint Co Manager.
B.
Barnard, F. S B.C. Elec. Ry. Co., Ld..
Bullen,W.F.,J.P.,M.P.P.Esquimalt MarineRy...
Burns, Gavin H Bk. Brit. North America.
Byrnes, George	
Baker,  Col. Hon. Jas.. .M.P.P	
Boggs, B	
Bone,W. H T. N. Hibben &Co...
Beeton, H. C 33 Finsbury Circus	
Bodwell, Ernest V Bodwell & Duff.	
Belyea, A. L	
Bostock, Hewitt, M.P	
Brydenjno., J.P.,M, P.P.Albion Iron Works	
Bethune, J. T J. T. Bethune & Co...
Bell, H. P	
Brown, George McL Canadian Pacific Ry..
Baker, M R. Baker & Son	
Billinehurst, E. E B.C. Development Co.
Managing Director.
Manager.
Manager.
. Auctn'r. & Com. Mer.
. Insur. & Gen. Agt.
.Bookseller & Statn'r.
.London.
. Barrister-at-Law.
. Barrister-at-Law.
. Director.
.Mining Broker.
. Civil Engineer.
. Executive Agent.
. Hay and Grain
. Agent.
Croft, Henry Mining Broker.
Claxton, Fred. J Dalby & Claxton Land Agent.
Carmichael, H Assayer.
Cox, Capt. J. G E. B. Marvin & Co Ship Chandler.
Coigdarippe, J Retired.
Crease, Lindley Crease & Crease Barrister-at-Law.
Cuthbert, Herbert Auctioneer. 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Cassidy, Robert Barrister-at-Law.
Canadian Pacific Ry.... Agent.
Courtney, Geo. L Esq. & Nanaimo Ry Traffic Manager.
Cameron, W.  G Clothier.
Clarke, Chas. E Harbour Master.
Clearihue, J  J. & A. Clearihue Merchant.
Challoner, W. L Challoner, Mitchell & Co.Jeweler.
Cohen, H. Hirschell Cassiar Central Ry Man. Director.
Cowell, W. J. R Vic. Metallurgical Wks..Man. Director.
Dunsmuir, James M.P. P.Union Collieries President.
Dunsmuir, Alex Esquimalt & Nan. Ry. .President.
Davies, Joshua Auctin'r & Com. Mer;
Dupont, Major C. T Nel. & Ft. SheppardRy. Vice-President.
Davidge, F. C Davidge & Co Shipping Agent.
Day, Robert S Architect.
Dewdney, Hon. Edgar	
E.
Ellis, W. H Colonist P. & P. Co., Ld.Manager.
Earle, Thos., M.P Merchant.
Eberts, Hon. D.M., M.P.P. Eberts & Taylor Barrister-at-Law.
Ewen, Alexander Ewen & Co. (Westminster).Canner.
Erskine, R Erskine, Wall & Co Grocer.
Elworthy, F B.C. Board of Trade Secretary.
Earsman, John Earsman & Co Commission Agent.
Escolme, JohnH B.C. Development Co . .Agent.
F.
Flumerfelt, A. C Ames Holden Co., Ld., of MtL.Man. Director.
Foster, F. W (Ashcroft, B.C.) Merchant.
Flint, A. St. G Insurance & Gen. Agt.
Fairall, H. S. Brewer.
Futcher, Thos. S Merchant.
Forrester, J. L Paints, etc.
G.
Grant, Capt. Wm Ship Owner.
Goodacre, Lawrence Queen's Market (Meat)..Proprietor.
Galletly, A. J. C.
Gowen, C. N	
Giffen, J. B	
Gillespie, George.
. Bank of Montreal Manager.
.Vic. Brew. & Ice Co., Ld. Director.
.R. G. Dun & Co Manager.
.Bk. of British Columbia. Supt. of B.C.Branches. NAME.
MEMBERSHIP ROLL.
H
FIRM.
BUSINESS.
Higgins, Hon. D. W	
Harris, D. R Lowenberg & Harris.... Financial Broker.
Hayward, Charles Contractor and  Bldr.
Henderson, A Vic. Transfer Co., Ltd.. .Superintendent.
Hinton, Geo. C Electrician.
Holland, Joshua Insurance Agent.
Hunter, Jos.', M.P.P.   ... E. & N. Railway General Supt.
Helmcken,Hon.J. S.,J.P Physician.
Hall, R. H Hudson's Bay Co In charge.
Helmcken,H.D.,M.P.P..Drake, Jackson & H... Barrister-at-Law.
Hall, Richard, M.P.P Hall & Goepel General Agent.
Henderson, T. M Henderson Bros Druggist.
Holland, C. A B.C. Land & Invt. Agy. .Managing Director.
Hall, John A Victoria Chemical Wks.. Managing Director.
Harvey, J. S F. C. Davidge & Co., Ltd. Vice-President.
Hanna, W. J Contractor and Bldr.
Irving, Capt. J., M.P.P. .Can. Pac. Nav. Co Manager.
Johnson, E. M Financial Agent.
Johnston, M. T Findlay, Durham & B.. .Merchant.
Jones, A. W A.W.Jones & Bridgman. Insurance Agent.
Jamieson, Robert	
Jensen, William Hotel Dallas Proprietor.
Jones, Stephen Dominion Hotel Proprietor.
K
Ker, D. R Brackman & Ker Mill. Co. Ltd.. Man. Director.
Keefer, G. A Keefer & Smith Civil Engineer.
Kirk, G. A Turner, Beeton & Co Merchant.
King, Chas. R Manfg. Agent.
Loewen, Joseph Vic. Brew. & Ice Co., Ld.Director.
Leiser, Simon S. Leiser & Co Wholesale Grocer.
Lubbe   T Furs and Skins.
Luxton, A. P Davie, Pooley & Luxton..Barrister-at-Law.
Langley, W. H Martin & Langley Barrister-at-Law.
Lenz, M Lenz & Leiser Wholesale Dry Goods.
Lugrin, C. H Daily Colonist Editor.
w»..,«-wuftM >.x ;.w j.^r.»."»»j*ir BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
M
FIRM. BUSINESS.
,... E. B. Marvin & Co Ship Chandler.
NAME.
Marvin, E. B., J.P..
Mason, Henry S	
Miller, Munroe Printer& Bookbinder.
Mara, J. A (Kamloops) Merchant.
Munn, D. J (New Westminster) Cannery Proprietor
McQuade, E. A P. McQuade & Sons..   .Ship Chandler,
McAlister, John (San Jose, Cal.)	
McLellan, A. J Contractor.
Munsie, W Shawnigan Lake Lum. Co.. Manager.
Macaulay, H. C Spratt & Macaulay Coal Merchant.
Macrae, J. E Dodwill, Carlill & Co.. .Agent.
Macaulay, Norman  Shallcross, M. & Co.... Merchant.
Milne, G. L Physician & Surgeon.
Mitchell, James Manufacturers' Agt.
A. G. McCandless  McCandless Bros Clothiers.
Mason, C. Dubois Barrister-at-Law.
McMicking, R. B., J.P Electrician.
Morris, Walter Federation Brand Salmon Can. Co... President.
McQuade, L. G P. McQuade & Sons.. . .Ship Chandler.
More, A. W A. W. More & Co Ins. & Mining Broker
McKay, A.J Bradstreets Manager.
McGregor, M McGregor & Jeeves Contractor.
Mess. Bernhard C Findlay, D. & Brodie... .Assistant Manager.
N.
Nicholles, Major John.. .Nicholles & Renouf, Ld.Hdwr. & Agl. Impts.
Norris, Fred'k Sadlr & Harness Mkr.
Patterson, T. W Victoria & Sidney Ry.. .Manager.
Pooley, Hon. C. E., Q.C., M.P.P Barrister-at-Law.
Prior, Lt.-Col. Hon. E. G., M.P., E. G. Prior & Co., Ld., Hardware, etc.
Pendray, Wm. J Pendray & Co Soap Manufacturer.
Pearson, Ed., J.P Clarke & Pearson Hardware.
Pither, Luke Pither & Leiser Wine Merchant.
Pearse, B. W	
Payne, Robert Home... .Sperling & Co., 8 Austin Friars, London.
Piercy, J J. Piercy & Co Wholesale Dry Goods.
Pemberton, F. B Pemberton & Son Financial Agent.
Palmer, E. J Vic. Lum. & Mfg. Co., Ld. (Chemainus), Mgr.
Pike, M. Warburton Explorer.
Peters, Hon. Fred Tupper, Peters & Potts. .Barrister-at-Law. MEMBERSHIP  ROLL.
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Robins, S. M Van Coal Co. (Nanaimo).Superintendent.
Rithet, R.P., J.P R. P. Rithet & Co., Ltd. Merch't&Ship'g Agt.
Redfern, Chas. E Manufact'g Jeweler.
Renouf, C. E Nicholles & Renouf, Ltd. Hardw 're & Ag. Imps.
Robertson, Arthur Martin &. Robertson.... Commission Agent.
Spring, Charles Trader.
Saunders, Henry E. J. Saunders & Co Grocer.
Sayward, J. A Lumber Merchant.
Shotbolt, Thomas, J.P Druggist.
Smith, Thos. R Robt. Ward & Co., Ltd.Merchant and Ship'r.
Sehl, Jacob B.C. Furniture Co Manager.
Spencer,  C David Spencer Dry Goods.
Swinerton, R. H Swinerton & Oddy Land Agent.
Spratt, C. J. V Spratt & Macauley Coal Merchants.
Stemler, Louis Stemler & Earle Coffee and Spice Mills.
Scott, H.J Hamilton Powder W'ks. Manager.
Smith, H  M. R. Smith & Co Biscuit Manufacturer.
Shallcross, J.J Shallcross, Macaulay & Co... Merchant.
Strickland, G. A Klondyke M'g & Tr'd Co., Ltd.. .Manager.
Turner.Hon. J.H.,M.P.P.Turner, Beeton & Co Merchant.
Todd, Jacob H., J. P J. H. Todd & Son Wholesale Grocer.
Templeman, Hon. Wm. .Times Printing Co. Ltd.Managing Editor.
Taylor, Geo. A Mer. Bank of Halifax.. .Manager.
Temple, Ernest Hickman, Tye Co. Ltd. .Manager.
Voss, J. C Victoria & Queen's Hot'l.Proprietor.
W.
Williams, Robert T Publisher.
Ward, Robt., J.P 70 Basinghall Street London, E.C.
Wilson, William W. & J. Wilson Clothier.
Warren, Jas. D., Capt General Agent.
Williams, B Land Agent.
HW«*J)?»TT".PIlg'WW! BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Wootton, E. E McPhillips, Wootton& B.Barrister-at-Law.
Walker, Walter Coal Merchant.
Weiler, Otto Weiler Bros Furniture Manufact'r
Wilson, John....' John Wilson & Co Commission Merch't.
Wilson, H. B Molson's Bank    ... Manager.
Welsh, E. E B.C. Market Manager.
Wilkinson, C. H 53 New Broad St  London
Ward, W. A Robt. Ward & Co., Ltd.Merch't and Shipper.
Woolley, Clive Phillips Barrister.
York, F. M	
Memo.—All members of the Board,  unless  otherwise herein shown,
reside at Victoria, B.C.
BRANCH OF BRITISH COLUMBIA PLUMS. NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
British Columbia Board of Trade
To the Members of the British Columbia Board of Trade:
Gentlemen,—The progress of British Columbia has been
very satisfactory during the past twelve months ; with few
exceptions all branches of industry show substantial improvement.
Mining. Notwithstanding the'excitementcaused by the
discovery of placer gold in the Klondike region,
mining in British Columbia has not been neglected, and the
output of 1897 exceeded the previous year by 40 per cent.
The following table prepared by the Provincial Mineralogist shows the yearly output of all mines in the Province
since 1890:
Year.
Amount.
Yearly
Increase.
Per Cent.
1890  $2,608,803
1891.
1892.
1893    3.588,413
1894
1895
1896
1897
35
3.52JC>102	
2,978,53°	
  21
4,225,717  18
5,643,042  35
7.507.956  34
10,455,268  40
When it is considered that in 1892 the total output of
lode mines was only $100,000, against $7,050,000 in 1897, a
better idea can be formed of the progress made in silver-lead
and copper-gold mining.
U'—--.:Wfc^*»<^nf^^».i^ 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Since the foregoing figures were prepared a steadily
increasing monthly output has been maintained.
British Columbia mines now rank higher in the London
market than ever before, and foreign capital for mining
purposes is easily available for the purchase and development
of properties upon which sufficient work has been done to
enable mining experts to determine their values and report
favourably.
The wild speculation in the formation of mining companies, complained of a year ago, has disappeared. Many of
the properties are now in the hands of companies having the
necessary capital to properly work them.
The apathy which previously existed towards smelting
ores in British Columbia is fast disappearing, with the certainty that they can be treated profitably. In this connection
the following figures are interesting : 68,804 tons of Rossland
copper-gold ore, averaging $30.48 per ton, returned a profit of
$12 to $16 per ton j 33,576 tons of Slocan ore, assaying 108.5
ounces of silver per ton and 45.7 per cent, lead, gross value
$97.70 per ton, returned a profit of $50 to $55 per ton.
West
Kootenay.
The District of West  Kootenay contributed
over   95-  per   cent,   of   the   output   of   lode
mines in 1897.    This is accounted for as much
by   the   natural   waterways   and    short    lines    of   railway
which open it up and facilitate the shipment of ores as by the
richness or extent of the ores themselves.
Trail- In the Trail Creek Division, of which Ross-
land is the centre, developments of the past year
have tended to confirm the belief in the permanency of the
lode veins. Although the number of shipping mines has not
largely increased, the output nearly doubled that of the
previous twelve months.
It is well-known that many claims in this division are
unworked at present on account of the low grade of the ore. ANNUAL REPORT.
13
.A very hopeful future for these is found in the following
figures : In 1894 the average value of the ore treated from
the Rossland camp was $40.69 per ton ; in 1895 it was $35.67 ;
in 1896 it was $32.65 ; and in 1897 only $30.48 per ton.
Nevertheless, in the year last mentioned the profit was from
$12 to $16 per ton.
In 1897 the average smelting charge was $11 per
ton, but With cheaper fuel, combined with the
improved facilities and larger plant now being completed,
there is a possibility of Rossland ores being treated at $7 per
ton. Add to these conditions a reduction in the cost of
mining, and transportation expenses reduced to the lowest
point, there is a prospect of Rossland copper ore valued at
$12 being mined at a profit. At present this ore averaging
under $16 per ton will not pay.
Nelson. Considerable development work has been done
throughout the Nelson District. The output
was principally from one mine, which yielded 47,560 tons of
ore, at an average value of $16.81 per ton, as follows: 20.7
ounces of silver, .04 of gold, and 3.63 per cent of copper per
2,000 lbs. of ore. A dividend of $133,750 was paid to the
owners of the mine.
On another property a ten-stamp mill has been
operated. The value of 1,251 tons of ore was
$9.25 per ton, of which $7.70 was saved in the crushings and
$1.55 left in the concentrates.
Slocan. 'pb.e   silver-lead   mines   of   the Slocan paid
• about a million dollars in dividends in 1897, the
net production per smelter returns being 33,576 tons, against
16,560 tons in the previous year, and 9,5i4tons in 1895. The
average value of these ores in 1897 was $97.70 per ton. They
were smelted in the United States at a cost, including freight,
at $22 per ton, to which must be added United States duty on
the lead, cost of mining, sacking and delivering to shipping
ports; the profit was from $50 to $55 per ton.
13Q>; mr^r. ws ■bjuass m K BSW 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE,
It is worthy of note that some Slocan silver-lead mines
have lately been transferred to British Companies, whilst
others are being examined with the same object. Claims
upon which little development work has been done, and held
at high figures, can now be bought at prices likely to be
more attractive to capitalists.
East Kootenay. There was not much increase in the output
of East Kootenay mines, neither is any expected
until the Crow's Nest Pass Railway reaches Kootenay Lake in
September next; but a great deal of prospecting has been
done, and many locations made.
Cariboo. T/he  output  of the placer mines in Cariboo
was small in 1897.    The various  creeks have
yielded  thirty-five  million  dollars since   1858 ;  but the old
surface workings are now about cleaned up,  and there have
been no recent discoveries of importance.
Great efforts have been made to reach bedrock of
the principal gold-bearing creeks of the early sixties,
when Cariboo was known all over the world. Shafts
were sunk 50 to 125 feet deep, but in many cases,
just when the prize seemed within reach, the miners
were driven out by water. Attempts have continued for years
past, but the great cost in transporting machinery and provisions has proved a serious obstacle. It is believed that the
bedrock of these creeks can only be worked by draining,
which will require an outlay of much capital.
Hydraulicing is a costly undertaking in consequence
of the great distance between the gold-bearing gravel
and water at the required elevation; and the shortness
of the season during which the water has heretofore
been available is also a strong factor against big
dividends. In most cases where hydraulicing has been
carried on,  profitable  returns have  resulted. ANNUAL REPORT.
In the Quesnelle District, exploration work is progressing by sinking shafts in the gravel of an ancient
channel. Bedrock has been reached at 275 feet, but
is found pitching at the rate of one in two; sinking
along this bedrock is now proceeding. Should 'good pay
gravel be found, the result will be the opening up of
enormous works in these old channels.
Another scheme, the outcome of which is looked
forward to with great interest, and will probably be
determined before the end of the present year, is
the damming of the South Fork of the Quesnelle
River, which it is expected will permit of mining many miles
of its bed. In the past much gold has been taken from the
bars and bottom of this river, but only a small portion could
be worked by the method employed. This dam will cost
fully $250,000.
Dredging in the Upper Fraser continues, but there
is little   information   at   hand   as   to   the   result.
Much money is being spent in various mining works in
Cariboo, affording employment to a large force of men.
Foreign capitalists are watching these operations with
great interest.
Vancouver       Prospecting  and  development work  has in-
Isiand.      creased in Vancouver Island, and it is probable
that shipments of importance will be made at an
early date.    The ore veins mainly resemble those of Trail, but
there is free milling quartz as well, and a stamp mill is being
erected at one of the'latter claims.
Free Milling      Free milling quartz is receiving more attention
Quartz.      than heretofore.    It is known to exist throughout British Columbia, and two properties of that
character have been working profitably for some years past.
' WlHliJJi JIWiWU
■»■-? s rw. ff\wir
wwHijrsr BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Placer Gold. The districts of Cariboo, Cassiar, Omineca,
Skeena and Stickine afford a very rich field tor
prospecting for placer gold, and are now receiving the attention of hundreds of miners, who believe them to be as rich as
the country farther north. ,The climate is at the same time
less rigid. Strong points in favour of placer mining in British
Columbia are: The absence of royalty on the output, no
claims reserved for the Government as in the North West
Territories, and a license costing only $5 instead of $10.
Coal. The output of Vancouver Island coal in 1897
was 892,295 tons, of which 619,860 tons were
exported. About one-third of the coal imported into California during the same period was from these mines. The
manufacture of coke is progressing satisfactorily, 17,831 tons
being the output of 1897. This is a new industry ; only
1,565 tons were produced in 1895-96.
Iron, Etc. Besides the minerals mentioned there are immense deposits of iron ore of very high grade,
many situated near good harbours, with the fluxes required
in smelting conveniently near; also quick-silver, cement rocks
suitable for making Roman and ordinary cements, white and
grey marble, and several varieties of building stones. Mica
in large quantities, clear and of very pure quality, is obtained
within a few feet of the surface. Gypsum, free of colouring
matter, has been located in large bodies. These minerals
await the capitalist to put them into marketable form.
The mining outlook all over British Columbia is excellent.
Late development work in the shipping mines have brought
to view large bodies of ore which alone assure a continuance
of the monthly increasing output, and the completion of the
railways under construction, and those projected, will enable
many valuable properties to ship and swell later returns.
The cost of transportation and treatment is being reduced,
with the result that many properties which no one would work a
year ago are now operated profitably. ANNUAL REPORT.
17
The prospecting work done in divisions not traversed
by railways is most encouraging, and satisfies those best
acquainted with the country that mining in British
Columbia is  yet only in its initial stage.
Claim owners seeking capital should not rely too much on
these conditions, but should be encouraged to make extraordinary efforts to develop their properties sufficiently, at least,
to satisfy experts in search for profitable investments.
A matter deserving the attention of the Provincial Government is the re-staking of claims. A mineral claim is
recorded for a small fee, but to hold it, what is called "assessment-work" must be done during the year to the value of
$100, or the claim may be held by paying this sum into
the Provincial Treasury. It appears that in some cases neither
is done, but upon the date the claim becomes Crown property
by neglect, a friend of the holder re-stakes it, and it is possible
by such proceedings to keep valuable property tied up until
the original holder can find a purchaser. It is desired that
the Mineral Act be amended to meet such cases.
Fisheries. . it was expected that the salmon pack of 1897
would be large, but the total pack of 1,015,577
cases, an increase of 58 per cent! over and above the previous
highest record, exceeded the hopes of the most sanguine. The
increase was almost exclusively from the Fraser River, and is
accounted for principally by the hatchery established there in
1884; the diminution of seals in the Pacific Ocean is also
believed to have had a beneficial effect on the salmon run.
A combine of the principal salmon canners in British Columbia was formed in December last for the purpose of preventing undue competition in the British markets. This has had a
beneficial effect, and has worked satisfactorily in the interests
of all  concerned.
There were no changes in the fisheries regulations
last year, neither was the recommendation of the Joint
Fisheries  Commission   acted   upon    for    a   common   close 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
fishing season  in  the  United  States  waters  contiguous  to
British Columbia.
The Dominion Government receipts from salmon fishing licenses in British Columbia amounted to about
$50,000 in 1897, whilst the total expenditure of the Department of Fisheries was not much over $10,000. The knowledge
of these facts adds to the disappointment caused by the
Department's failure to comply with the canners' requests
that salmon hatcheries be established on the Skeena and Naas
Rivers and on Rivers Inlet, and additional hatcheries on the
Fraser River. It was expected, further, that a specialist
would be stationed in British Columbia for the purpose of
studying fish life more completely.
Oysters and lobsters have been brought from the Fast
and planted in British Columbia tidal waters, and the first
report of these experiments were favourable.
Halibut and sturgeon fishing continues on a small
scale, and until reciprocal trade with the United States
is arranged, no very great expansion of these industries may
be looked for.
Sealing. The sealing industry continues to suffer from
the restriction placed upon it by the Behring Sea
arbitration in 1894, in which year the season's catch was 97,474
seals ; last season the catch was only 30,410 seals.
The arbitration's award of $463,454, as' determined
by Her Britannic Majesty's Government and United States
Commissions, has been paid to the Dominion Government,
and the preliminary steps are now being taken for its
distribution amongst the claimants.
Lumber. q^e  foreign  demand   for lumber has  lately
improved, but in consequence of the combine
between the principal North Pacific exporting mills having
terminated, competition is very keen.   ANNUAL REPORT.
19
There are ninety sawmills in the Province, with a daily
capacity of 1,693,000 feet. The wooded area is about
285,000 square miles, and includes forty kinds of timber ;
502,617 acres of timber lands are leased. The present
output of the lumber mills does not deplete the forest
lands to any great extent, but there is considerable loss
caused by the forest fires which occur yearly.
The recommendation of this Board that all lumber for export be graded has not been carried out. The necessary Act was
passed by the Legislature, but it has not yet been proclaimed.
This is to be regretted, as such specific grading would protect
the millmen and simplify the work of the purchaser when
placing orders.
Agriculture.      Agriculture in British  Columbia  never appeared more favourable for success than at the
present time.    The increased demand of the past two years,
and the good crops, have done much toward re-establishing
the  confidence  of the  farmers.
The harvest of 1897 was especially good, and prices
were greatly advanced as the result of the mining
activity and the Yukon movement. As a consequence,
stocks have been well cleared out, and farmers
have realized above the average. The acreage this year has
considerably increased, and the weather having been very
favourable throughout, the harvest promises to be a bountiful
one. The hay crop, especially, is large, and the acreage
extensive.
The fruit crop is not so favourable this year as
last, and the yield will be short. However, fruit-growing as
an industry is progressing rapidly, and the home market is
well supplied. An outlet is provided in Manitoba and the
North West Territories, and the export in that direction
promises well, and is practically unlimited.
The canning and preserving industry is steadily grow-
^ar*-^^ BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
ing, and affords profitable outlet for the surplus fruits.-
Great improvement is seen in the packing of fruit for
market. From a commercial point of view, it is
noteworthy that the B. C. Fruit Exchange, in the
New Westminster District, and the Vancouver Island Produce
Society, with headquarters at Victoria, is each doing a fair
business on a co-operative basis.
The dairying industry is progressing very favourably. Butter produced by local creameries is preferred
to the imported article, and finds a ready sale at
good prices. Commission merchants dealing in imported
goods state that they observe a very material difference in supplying the local products, and this is a factor with
which they have to cope to a greater extent each year. The
fact that imports in the aggregate have not diminished is due
to the great increase of population and the extraordinary
demand created by mining development and the Yukon trade.
In all districts favourable to the dairying interest a greater
attenton is being paid to this subject. On the Delta of the
Fraser River and at Victoria there seems to be a good opening
for the canning of vegetables.
industrial       The capacity of the smelter at Trail is being
Establish-   increased to 500 tons per day,   and  two lead
ments-      stacks are being added.    Although the plant is
not operating at present,  the Company owning
it is purchasing all the ore offering,  and contracts for treatment are being entered into at a considerable reduction on last
year's rates.
At the Nelson smelter improvements and enlargements of the plant have been effected. A new copper
stack has been built, which will treat 300 tons per day. The
old one, with a capacity of 100 tons per day, has been converted
for lead smeltiner.
The Pilot Bay smelter has not run during the year. ANNUAL REPORT. 21
At present Kootenay is producing enough lead to
supply the whole of Canada; still all the lead ores are being
treated in the United States, the mine-owners paying United
States duty, $30 per ton, for lead contents on ore mined.
Canada imports all its lead and manufactures of lead, paying
duty therefor 40 cents per 100 lbs. The fact that two smelters
in Kootenay, which have heretofore handled only copper ores,
are now preparing to treat the lead ores also encourages the
hope that ere long British Columbia lead ores will be smelted
in the Province, and thus create the attendant manufacturing
of lead.
In this connection it follows that a refinery must be
built in Canada.
This Board has asked the Dominion Government
to increase the duty on lead and manufactures of
lead to correspond with the United States tariff on these
articles, in order to protect the new industries mentioned.
The shipyard and iron works have been very busy in meeting
the demand for steamers on Yukon routes ; in fact, every
industry has been more or less affected by the large number
of gold-seekers which have gone into the northern country.
The disposal of fish offal has long received the attention of
canners, especially on the Fraser River ; this now seems in a
fair way of settlement by the establishment of works for the
manufacture of guano, glue and fish oil.
Expansion       There are several articles imported into Japan
of Foreign   which should be supplied from British Columbia.
Trade.       While the demand for lumber in Japan is stated to
be " enormous," the exports from this Province
during the past year were only some few million feet.   Shingles
also are used extensively. As coke is imported from England and
Germany, there is no apparent reason why British Columbia
should not monopolize that market.    Japan also furnishes a
market for barley for malting and other purposes,  and hops,
oatmeat and breakfast foods, canned fruits, jams and jellies. 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Apples are in demand. British Columbia salted salmon
already finds a market there and shipments are increasing.
Explosives are wanted for blasting purposes, and a good
opening for business is reported. The foregoing are all the
products of the established industries of British Columbia.
Japan imports pig, bar, plate and sheet iron to the value of
over seven million yen per annum. The development of
railway work in that country, China, Corea and Formosa, will
add enormously to the demand for manufactures of iron. It
is therefore surprising that the iron ore deposits of British
Columbia do not receive more attention. With proper blast
furnaces, rolling mills, and the usual attendant machinery,
British Columbia should secure a large share of the iron trade
of the Orient.
The forests of this Province are being looked
to with the view of the manufacture of wood pulp. As Japan
now imports wood pulp from Germany and Sweden, there
should be a market for the pulp of British Columbia.
A paper mill will be operated at Alberni within a few
months, and will depend largely on export trade.
The Canadian Pacific Railway's steamships, en-
gagedintheChina-Japan trade, have continued the
regular service every three weeks in the summer
and monthly during the winter. The very full freight and
passenger lists have been maintained. The Northern Pacific
Steamship Company have four steamships on the route, which
also call at Victoria regularly. The Company have three other
steamships in the China-Japan trade, with headquarters at
Portland, United States of America. These will call at Victoria
hereafter, as occasion requires.
Trade   with   Australia   continues    satisfactory.       The
steamships of  the Canadian  Pacific  Railway give    a four- ANNUAL REPORT.
23
weekly service, calling at Honolulu, Suva (Fiji),  Wellington
(New Zealand), and Sydney (New South Wales).
Railways. The Crow's Nest Pass Railway from Leth-
bridge will be open to Kootenay Lake, in September next, a distance of about 300 miles. The opening up
of this line will be beneficial to Kootenay, giving direct communication to Eastern Canada and solving the great question
of cheap fuel for the mines. Several mines in East Kootenay
which have not yet shipped ore on account of the transportation difficulties will soon be in a position to add to the yearly
increasing  mineral  output  of the  Province.
is    being
has    been
The   line   between
commenced,     and
country,    a   district
The railway between Rossland and Trail
widened to a standard gauge, and the line
extended from Trail to Robson.
Robson and Penticton has been
will open up the Boundary Creek
highly mineralized and likely to become an important producer.
Location surveys are now being prepared for the continuation
of the line last mentioned to the Coast, towards the construction of which the Provincial Government has voted a subsidy
of $4,000 a mile, one of the conditions being that the Company receiving it shall equip and maintain a ferry suitable for
freight and passenger cars between the Mainland and Vancouver
Island.
The local Legislature has also voted a grant in aid of
230 miles of railway between Butte Inlet and Quesnelle, at
the rate of $4,000 per mile, but it is not known that construction will be advanced in the near future.
For some months past the attention of the merchants of the Coast cities of British Columbia has
been directed to the building of a railway into the
Yukon country, via an all Canadian route, in order to
divert the Klondike trade into Canadian channels. It was
thought   that a  short line,  about  130  miles  only between BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Glenora and Teslin Lake, would meet the requirements of this
year, the intention being to utilize the Stikine River to Glenora,
the head of navigation.
The Provincial Government voted the sum of $4,000
per mile for this railway and its continuation to some
good port on the coast of British Columbia-, which
would obviate the transhipment of freight and passengers at Wrangel in Alaskan territory, it being expected
that some assurance would be received from the Dominion
Government of additional assistance which would induce the
contractors to proceed with the work at once. Parliament
prorogued without giving such assurance.
Operations have commenced in connection with the
Cassiar Central Railway. This line will start at Glenora
and terminate at Dease Lake, a distance of about 99 miles.
The  exploratory surveys  are  completed.
Public Works.        The Provincial Parliament Buildings, the
foundation of which was laid in  1893, were
completed, and the last session of the Legislature, commencing
February 10th, was held there.
Extensive additions to the asylum at New Westminster were commenced, and gaols were erected in
Kamloops and Nelson in 1897. These constitute the most
important works of the local Government.
The Post Office and Customs Buildings at Victoria, erected
by the Dominion Government, have been completed and will
be occupied immediately.
The dock at Williams Head Quarantine Station is
to be extended, for which purpose $6,000 has been
voted. Grants have also been made for improving
Nanaimo Harbour, the Columbia, Skeena, Kootenay and
Fraser Rivers.
This Board asked the Dominion Government to increase mss-
ANNUAL REPORT.
25
the appropriation for the improvement of the channel
of the Fraser River this year, believing it to be more
economical to spend a large sum in one season than to distribute the same amount over a number of years.
Telegraphs.        The telegraph service to Vancouver Island
has been greatly improved within the past few
months.    The rates also have been  lowered.
In April last the Western Union Telegraph Company extended its service to Victoria, and intend
to connect with points on the Mainland at an early date.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company's Telegraph
has laid a new cable between the Mainland and
Vancouver Island, and has utilized the old cable as an alternative line via Juan de Fuca Strait.
The Dominion Government has been asked repeatedly
to put the important station of Carmanah in uninterrupted connection with Victoria. Appropriations
have been voted for a new wire via Alberni. This
Board's recommendation that Esquimalt be connected
by telegraph  has been  carried  out.
An appropriation has been voted by the Dominion
Parliament for weather forecasts on this Coast. Such forecasts will be of great value to the increasing shipping.
Navigation.
Lighthouses have been established at Pros
pect Bluff, at the entrance of the First Narrows,
Vancouver, and at Cape Mudge. Another is under construction on the Sisters in the Gulf of Georgia, and contracts
have been awarded for others on Egg Island and Surf Island,
Millbank Sound.
Beacons have been erected at Gibson's Landing,
Howe Sound and at Welcome Pass. Work is proceeding at Brotchie Ledge, where a stone beacon with electric
light  is to  be established.
lllWIWlUJJiJJ BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD  OF TRADE.
New buoys have been placed at Ripple Rock, Johnston's
Straits, Dall Patch, Seaforth Channel, and at Kie-Kish
Narrows,   and at  Finlaison Channel.
Other aids to navigation have received the usual annual
attention.
The chief engineer of the Department of Marine has
recently visited British Columbia, and it is understood
that other works are under consideration, including a light
on Fiddle Reef.
Semaphore stations have been established at Little
Canyon, Stikine River.
On the northern route and West Coast of Vancouver
Island, many important works have been requested for the
greater safety of shipping.
The Canadian        The   discovery of  gold  in   the  Canadian
Yukon Yukon  country was reported at this Board's
previous annual meeting, and very soon afterwards it commenced to arrive by steamships from St.
Michael's.
It is difficult to state the exact output of that
country, but it is certainly large for the number of persons
employed and short season during which mining is carried
on.
Immediately upon arrival of the gold there was a rush
of miners and prospectors from all parts of the world, but
principally from the United States. The majority of the
newspapers generally referred to these new gold discoveries
as being in Alaska, and this, together with the fact that
there was an established trade between Alaska and the
United States, induced the early argonauts to outfit and sail
from the headquarters of the Alaska Companies. The merchants of the coast cities of British Columbia promptly made
preparations for  handling  the   enormous  trade  which  had ANNUAL REPORT.
27
sprung up so suddenly ; steamships were put on all the
routes, and the business which followed appreciably affected
nearly every industry in the Province. The heaviest traffic
was during the months of January to April, inclusive. Since
the month last named travel has fallen off, and at present is
almost nil, but it is believed that many persons who intended
to go to the Canadian Yukon country are only holding back
for the results of the wash up of last spring. The reports
received are very conflicting.
Trade and Increasing interest and knowledge of British
Outlook. Columbia has resulted in unmistakable expressions of confidence. The opening up of so
many branches of Eastern Canadian Banks, the extension of
the Western Union Telegraph Company's system, and high
standard of the Provincial Government securities and Municipal  debentures, are   worthy of note.
The Province offers numerous and varied opportunities for profitable investment, requiring only investigation by experts to satisfy capitalists that there is a
rich and paying field for the employment of any amount
of money.
The tables of export and import, appended hereto,
show the volume of trade to have increased annually, with
the past twelve months well in advance of any previous
year.
British Columbia's contributions to the Dominion
treasury, now amounts to over two million dollars per
annum, and is very high per capita compared with the
other Provinces. The expenditure falls short of this sum, and
larger appropriations have been asked for increased aids to
navigation, harbour improvements, dredging in the Fraser
River, and assistance to railways. Much disappointment was
felt upon the prorogation of Dominion Parliament without aid
being granted towards the construction of the Stikine-Teslin
Lake   Railway.     Any  railway  which  will open  up British
llMWUWHIIl .■..■lll.«
.^wm»^Mt.MLpf.wfcj BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Columbia and increase settlement, substantially benefits the
whole Dominion. It is therefore unfair, especially in the
face of the large excess of contributions to the federal
treasury over expenditures, that the progress of this Province
should be retarded by the withholding of a fair measure of
recognition.
The statistical information presented herewith will
be found complete and, as far as possible, up to date.
Space forbids anything like a report which will do justice
to the mineral wealth and other natural resources of British
Columbia, but additional information will be furnished upon
application to the Secretary.
The Board will begin the new year with the largest
membership in its history, and the increased business
which has lately fallen upon the Council and standing
committees augurs well for its future usefulness.
All of which is respectfully submitted,  this   15th day of
July,   1898.
G. A. KIRK, President.
W. A. WARD, Vice-President.
F. ELWORTHY, Secretary.
NEW PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS. APPENDICES.
REPORT ON IMMIGRATION.
The remarkable and far-reaching Klondike excitement, and the
sudden falling off of that impetuous rush to the North during the past
year, completely overshadowed immigration in agricultural" and other
lines. It is likely that the Spanish-American war also tended to prevent people in the States from seeking homes on the Pacific Coast of the
Dominion, and also to reduce the number of enquiries by letter at the
Immigration Office about British Columbia from more than a hundred
a month at the beginning of the year to less than fifty late in the
summer. Another revival, however, is now commencing in correspondence re agricultural lands and homesteads, and the market in labouring,
mechanical and mercantile lines.
Representatives from different parts of the States, wishing to form
free grant colonies of Scandinavians chiefly, are seeking information
relating to this Province with a view to selecting locations for settlement
of numbers of these agriculturists. The latest application in this direction is from a Mennonite settlement in Texas, where the people are not
in harmony with their surroundings or the climate of that part of the
country. Both Scandinavians and Mennonites, after undergoing a
special training on United States Government lands, are likely to prove
very acceptable and industrious settlers.
Of the three free grant colonies already established, the Danish one
at Cape Scott, although the youngest, seems to be working the most
energetically in getting their holdings under cultivation. The Bella
Coola and Quatsino Norwegians, instead of devoting all their time and
labour to clearing land, spend too much of both at the salmon canneries and prospecting for minerals. With all the governmental
expenditure in these settlements, of which the people have received
nearly the exclusive benefit, they should all of them at this date not
only raise produce and stock enough to keep themselves and families,
but have considerable for marketing in the most available centres of
population.
That the climate and soil of the northern end of Vancouver Island
are most favourable for agricultural purposes is abundantly proven by
produce recently sent down by Mr. H. Varney, who has been less than
two years at Quatsino; while Bella Coola Valley is even more fertile,
though subject to heavier snowfall and greater extremes of temperature.
October 14th, i£
JOHN JESSOP,
Immigration Agent.
*>nm * m? i bx. : -1 ^m*n
■ iwmnwKwwji 30
BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
Form oe Agreement made Between the Government of British
Columbia and Colonists.
This Indenture made the day of A.D. 189   .
Between the Minister of Immigration for the Province of British Columbia, acting under authority of an Order of the Lieutenant-Governor-
in-Council, approved on the day of
189   , (hereinafter called the Grantor) of the first part,
and (hereinafter called the Grantee) of
the second part;
Whereas the Grantee is a member of a group of intending settlers
in British Columbia, which includes thirty or more families, who, with
their families, are hereinafter referred to as the "Colony," and the
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, for the purpose of encouraging immigration, has agreed to make a free grant from the public lands of the
Province to each head of a family in the said Colony, upon the conditions hereinafter mentioned, which conditions have been accepted by
the Grantee, as well as by the whole Colony.
Now, therefore, this Indenture witnesseth that in consideration of
the performance by the Grantee of the covenants and stipulations to be
observed and performed by and on the part of the said Grantee, the said
Grantor, acting herein on behalf of the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council,
as aforesaid, and as far as the Crown hath power to grant the same, but
not further or otherwise, doth hereby covenant and agree upon the
termination of five years from the date hereof that the said Grantee
shall receive a Crown grant of all and singular that certain piece or
parcel of land, lying and being in the District of
in the Province of British Columbia, and being composed of
lot number , in said District, containing by admeasurement
acres of land, be the same more or less, and which may be
more particularly described as follows:—
Which said grant shall be subject to and in the form provided by
the Land Laws of the Province for the time being in force.
And the said Grantee doth hereby for himself, his executors,
administrators and assigns, covenant with the said Grantor in manner
following; that is to say :—
That the said Grantee possesses in cash the sum of three hundred
dollars, and is worth that sum over and above what will pay and after
payment of all just debts of the said Grantee.
That the said Grantee will, within from the date
hereof, enter upon the said land and bona fide occupy and improve the APPENDICES.
same to the satisfaction of the Grantor, and will continue to reside
thereon with his family and to occupy and improve the same during the
term of five years from now next ensuing.
That the said Grantee shall, at the termination of the said period of
five years from the date hereof, have made improvements upon the said
land to the value of five dollars per acre thereof.
That the Grantor may at any time during the said five years, by
himself, his servants or agents, enter upon the premises and view the
state of the property and the improvements theretofore made.
That the Grantee will observe and obey all such reasonable rules
and regulations as may be made by the representatives or managers of
the said Colony for its good government and internal administration,
provided the said rules and regulations have been first submitted to and
approved by the Grantor.
That the Crown grant herein provided for shall be conditional upon
the continued residence and performance of the conditions of similar
leases, issued concurrently herewith, by the other members of the
Colony to the number of not less than thirty, it being the intention that
the said Colony shall remain entire and be of a number of not less than
thirty at the conclusion of the period of five years when the issue of
Crown grants is provided for.
Provided that in case of non-performance by the Grantee or by the
Colony of the terms of this agreement to his satisfaction, the Grantor
may, by notice published in the British Columbia Gazette, cancel this
agreement and enter upon the aforesaid premises.
And the Grantor hereby covenants that so soon as each member of
the Colony, to the number of thirty in all, has erected a dwelling-house
upon the land comprised in the respective leases, or so soon as the said
Grantor has satified himself of the bona fide settlement of the Colony
upon the lands allotted to the members thereof, there will be made and
constructed a waggon road through the land occupied by the Colony.
MIW^IW BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
WEEKLY WAGES.
BUSINESS.
Foremen.
Bookkeepers.
Clerks.
Journey
men
$25 00 to $35 00
25 00
l8 00    H     20 00
25 00
$20 00 to $30 00
20 00 y 25 00
18 00 & 25 00
20 00
$10 00 to $20 00|
18 ooj
£15 00 to
15 00 "
15 00 "
15 00   &
15 00   &
$21 00
iS 00
18 00
12 00    "     l8 OOi
18 00
Blacksmiths and Car-
18 00
21  00
28 00
20 Od
25 00
20  00    "      25  00
25 00
25 00
30 00
15 00   *'    18 00
Boot and Shoe Factory
Cooperage "Works	
23 00
15 00
25 00
15 00 " 18 00
20 00
15 00 a 20 00
15 00
12 00 "
15 00  B
15 00  |
16 00 I
15 00 "
15 00 "
18 00  "
18 00
15 00    "     20 00
18 00
20 00
20 00
Building andCon tract-
18 00
20  00     "     25   00
20 00
23 00   1   28 00
15  00    "      20   00
15  00    "     20  OO
to Ol O1O1
0000
O  O  Q O
O 01 to •
O 0 0 '
O O 0 1
w to >-• •
OOO'
15 00  "
18 00
Dry Goods	
General Stores	
Note—Supply equal to demand in all lines.
SPECIAL TRADES.
Occupation.
Wages Paid.
Millers (flour)  per day|$
Firemen        "
Horseshoers         "
Carriage Painters        "
Carpenters         "
Sawyers (saw mill)    weekly
Machinists (saw mill)         "
Stablemen (saw mill) monthly
Mates        I
Engineers per day
Blacksmiths        "
Wheelwrights        "
Cabinetmakers        "
Filers (saw mill)    weekly.
Engineers (saw mill)        "
Tallymen (saw mill)         "
Captains monthly
Waiters  "
$     2
50
to $   4 50
2 00
3 25
3 00
3 00
27 00
15 °o
50 00
85
00
I     120 00
3
00
3 50
2
75
■         3 00
3 00
2
5°
"        3 00
36 00
15 00
15 0°
100
00
"     175 °°
35
00
"      50 00
Note—Supply equal to demand in all lines.
It may be stated to those seeking employment as clerks, bookkeepers, and in secretarial and general office capacities, there is a
surplus, and emoluments are proportionately limited. APPENDICES.
33
Victoria Typographical Union, No. 201—Day-work: Foremen, $23
per week; time work, $20 per week of fifty three hours; piece-work,
book, 42j^c, news, 40c. per 1,000 ems; linotype operators, $3.50 per day
of eight hours. Night work : Foremen, $28 per week ; piece work,
42jS^c. per 1,000 ems ; linotype operators, $4.25 per night of eight hours.
International Iron Moulders' Union, No. 144—13.25 and $3.50 per
day of ten hours.
Local Union of Shipwrights and Caulkers—$4.00 per day of nine
hours.
No. 492, Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and Joiners—$2.50 to
$3.00 per day of nine hours.
Note—Supply equal to demand in all lines.
RAILWAY EMPLOYEES.
Salaries vary very much, and it is difficult to obtain accurate returns
in every instance. However, the following will be found approximately
correct:—
Occupation.
Per Month.
Operators	
$ 60 00   to $125 00
85 00    "     125 00
40         "       60 00
90 OO    "     no OO
100          I     135 OO
65 00    "       90 00
50 00   "      85 00
50 00   "      75 00
25 00    "      65 00
50 00    "      65 00
Conductors	
Drivers 	
Pirp-mpTi .        ,
Brakemen	
Note—Supply equal to demand in all lines.
The above does not include, of course, first-class clerks and specialists in various departments who receive emoluments according to
responsibility and work attached to office, usually on a liberal scale.
DOMESTIC HELP.
Occupation,
Etc.
Per Month.
$ 10 00   to $ 25 00
25 00    "       35 00
15 00   "      20 00
6 00   "       15 00
20 00   "      30 00
15 00   "       25 00
* Good demand at all times. BRITISH   COLUMBIA BOARD  OF TRADE.
Teachers' salaries range from $60 to $100 per month, according to
location and position held.
Note—Supply equal if not in excess of demand.
VANCOUVER TRADES.
occupation.
Machinists	
Moulders	
Boilermakers	
Cabinetmakers (no union)	
Upholsterers (no union)	
Carpenters	
I (C.P.R. shops)	
Bricklayers I	
Stonemasons and Cutters, same as Victoria	
Builders' Labourers	
Painters	
Bakers per month     12 to 18
Deck hands (including board)     "       "
Mates     "        I
S.S. Firemen     "        j
Tailors	
Job Printers	
Operators—Printers	
Evening Papers	
Morning Papers	
Motormen and Conductors on Tram Cars per hour
Wages Paid.
$ 2 75 to $ :
2 25 to
2 00
20 00
2 75
3 25
2 50
2 50
3 75
2 50
3 35
2 25
3 00
35 00
40 00
50 00
40 00
3 00
3 5°
3 60
3 75
Note—Supply equal to demand in all lines.
BOARD.
Exclusive of regular board at high-class hotels, which is about $60
per month, first-class board is about $8.00 to $9.00 per week ; second-
class, $5.00 to $6.00; third-class, $3.50 to $4.50. Transient rates in
hotels vary according to class from first, $3.00 to $5.00 per day; second,
$2.00 to $2.50; third, $1.00 to $1.50.
ROUNDING UP CATTLE. APPENDICES.
35
ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY.
Board of Trade, Montreal, Annual Report   1897
"      Toronto, Ont., " "           1897
"     Peoria, " "        j.897
Chamber of Commerce, Freemautle, " "        1897
Georgetown,        " "          1896-7
" " Sydney, " "         1896-7
" Port Elizabeth,   " "         1896
I " Milwaukee, " "         1896-7
" " Charters Towers," "         1896-7
Napier, "       -      "         1897
" " Canterbury, " "         1897
" Trinidad, " "         1897
" " Seattle, " "          1897
" " Montreal, " "           1897
" " San Francisco,    " "         1897
" " Rockhampton,    " "         1897
I " Newcastle, " "   1897
" Egypt, " "        1897
" I Port of Farnmouth, " "        1897
Port Elizabeth. " "      ..:    1897
Provincial Librarian.   Vancouver Board of Trade Report 1897
Dominion Government, by request of Thomas Earle, Esq., M.P.,
Dominion Government Blue Books and Sessional Papers (as
published).
Provincial Government. All reports, Sessional Papers and Gazette
(as published).
British Columbia Fruit-Growers.    Seventh Report.
Queensland Government.   Acts relating to mining in Queensland.
West Australian Government.    Imports and exports into and
from West Australia   1892-6
Fiji Government.    Handbook to Fiji.
Chamber of Commerce, Melbourne.   Directory of Melbourne.
S. Sbimiza.    Report of foreign trade for Japan   1897
Thomas Earle.    The Canadian Live Stock Annual   1898
" " Statistical Year-Book   1896
R. E. Preston.    Reports of the Director of the Mint, Washington.  D.C    1896-8
Minister of Trade and Commerce.    Tariffs of different nations..  1897-8
Hydrographic Office,  Port Townsend, Wash.    Monthly Charts
of Pacific Ocean.
E. Baynes Reed, Esq.   Weather Maps, monthly. 36
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.
LIST  OF   NEWSPAPERS   AND   PERIODICALS ON   FILE   IN
READING ROOM.
DAILIES.
The Colonist Victoria, B'. C.      The Globe Toronto, Ont.
TheTimes        | | The Star Montreal, Que."
The World  Vancouver, B. C.
WEEKLIES.
B. C. Gazette Victoria, B. C.
Miner Nelson, B. C.
Miner Rossland, B. C,
Trade Review Montreal, Que.
Winnipeg Free Press Winnipeg, Man.
Colonies and India London, Eng.
Statist         I
Financial News        " "
Empire London, Eng.
Times        | |
Canadian Gazette        " I
Canterbury Times Christchurch
South Australian Register Adelaide
Western Mail Perth, W. A.
Dun's Review New York
WEEKLIES, ILLUSTRATED.
Illustrated London News. .London, Eng.
Graphic        | "
Punch        " "
Harper's Weekly New York
Scientific American         "
MONTHLIES.
British Trade Journal London, Eng.
Imperial Institute Journal        " |
Mining Record Victoria* B. C.
New Zealand Trade Review... Wellington
Sydney Trade Review Sydney
Queensland Mercantile Gazette. .Brisbane
Many other papers reach the Board Room, but not regularly
FACSIMILE OF $20  GOLD PIECE. APPENDICES.
37
QUEBEC   CONFERENCE.
Victoria, B.C., 16th August, 1898.
To the Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade, Victoria :
Dear Sir,—We, the Committee on Harbours and Navigation, after
carefully reviewing the questions referred to us for consideration, viz.:
" Reciprocity in Wrecking and Coasting on this Coast," do report as
follows:
We do not consider it would be to the interest of this Province to
have reciprocal arrangements with the United States in wrecking, as at
great expense to our people, suitable docks and slips have been constructed and wrecking appliances purchased sufficient to assist vessels
meeting with accidents in our waters.
The long stretches of our inland waters comprise the most dangerous navigation on this coast, and to allow American wreckers the privilege of salving vessels on this part of our coast would mean a severe
loss to our people, in view of the fact that so much money has been invested in wrecking plants and repairing yards at our ports.
And further, while anxious to be parties to any movement conducive to a closer friendship and a freer exchange of business with our
neighbours, we have to report we cannot find good reasons for suggesting any change in the present existing laws governing the coasting
trade of Canada, that would be beneficial to British Columbia.
We have the honour to be, Sir,
Your obedient servants,
JOHN G. COX,
F. C. DAVIDGE,
F. W. VINCENT,
GEO. L. COURTNEY.
IMIilU»ll.'XWWllHHMIBWI»»
H3BH8HMSI S&BM
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
Victoria, B.C., 16th September, 1898.
To the Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade, Victoria :
Sir,—In reference to the letter handed us from Captain John G.
Cox, dated Ottawa, September 4th, we have the honour to report that,
after consulting carefully with all of the various firms connected with
the shipping industry, we find it is unanimously considered the best
policy that no change be made in the present laws relating to wrecking
in contiguous waters of the United States and Canada.
In reply to the direct question "What are contiguous waters ? " we
hold to the definition as " waters being directly between the shores of
the two countries," and so far as our waters are concerned, only comprise the waters of Puget Sound and the Portland Canal. The limits
in the waters of Puget Sound we would strictly define by taking latitude 49 due east and west, and a longitude drawn from Cape Flattery
due north and south. The contiguous waters of Portland Canal would
be its entire length from the ocean to the head of the canal.
Further, we have strongly to recommend that the proposition of
any twenty, thirty or forty mile limit from such lines of demarkation
should be in no way entertained, but the hard and fast lines above mentioned strictly adhered to.
For committee on Harbours and Navigation,
F. C. DAVIDGE,
GEO. L. COURTNEY.
Victoria, B.C., 22nd August, 1898.
To the Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade, Victoria :
Dear Sir,—The Sealing industry of British Columbia comprises
sixty-five schooners, with a tonnage of 4,292 tons, and a value of
$643,800.00. There are 807 white men employed, and 903 Indians,
making with their wives and families, 8,500 people directly depending
on this industry. For several years the annual averages of the money
brought into the country by the sale of the season's skins will run to
about $750,000.00.
Previous to the year 1893, in which the regulations formulated by
the Paris Tribunal were put in force, the industry was a very profitable
one, but by the enforcement of those regulations the sealers of British APPENDICES.
39
Columbia were deprived (for no other than State reasons) of the most
profitable portion of the Sealing season, viz., the months of May, June
and July, during which sealing was prohibited,
The sealers also lost a zone of fifty-seven miles around the Priby-
loff Islands in Behring Sea by the regulation passed at Paris.
Since 1893 the sealing business has been carried on under great
difficulties and with uncertain success, partly owing to the restrictions
referred to, but in a great measure owing to the interference of the
United States patrol fleet with our schooners while sealing.
As the case of our sealers has been laid before you in a memorial
setting forth all the difficulties from which the business is suffering, and
clearly describing the present position of the industry, I need not go
into those matters here, but simply ask your kind consideration of our
case, with a view to your passing resolutions which will be transmitted
to the Conference shortly to be held at Quebec, to finally settle this
question which has been the cause of so much ill-feeling between Great
Britain, Canada and the United States for so many years.
We contend.that the sealers should have restored to them their
hereditary rights which were taken away by the passing of the Paris
regulations, the Government of the United States having failed to show
adequate reasons for the further continuance of these unprecedented
restrictions.
We would earnestly ask you to kindly advocate, either the restoration of our rights, or that before any further legislation is enacted, a
sum fully sufficient to recompense the sealing owners of British Columbia, for all their outlay and losses, should be agreed on by all parties.
I am, Gentlemen,
Your obedient servant,
JOHN G. COX.
Victoria, B.C., August
To the Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade, Victoria :
Dear Sir,—Your Special Committee beg to report with reference
to the provisions for the transit of merchandise in transportation to and
from either country across the intermediate territory, whether by water
m wmwm'i B»».iwMf>i mm mm -■ w ■"! ' x' unmrnt 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
or land, including natural and artificial water ways, and intermediate
transit by sea, that it is of the utmost importance to the Dominion
of Canada to arrive at some reciprocal arrangement in connection
herewith.
Your Committee also beg to report with reference to the provisions
relative to transit of merchandise from one country to be delivered to
points in the other country beyond the boundary, that the present system in vogue is a very satisfactory one, and that it be continued.
Your Committee urge that the arrangements for the more complete
defining and marking of any part of the frontier line by land or water,
where the same is not sufficiently defined or marked as to be liable to
dispute, should be completed without delay, especially in view of the
valuable mining interests in this Province.
All of Which is respectfully submitted for the Committee.
W. A. WARD.
Victoria, B.C., August 17, 1898.
To the Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade, Victoria :
Dear Sir,—The Committee on the Fisheries beg to make the
following recommendations :
(1). With reference to those waters adjacent to the boundary line
between British Columbia and the State of Washington, and which are
traversed by the main body of Sockeye salmon. This comprises the
Straits of Fuca and those parts of the Gulf of Georgia and Puget Sound
lying between the parallels of 480 10' and 490 20' north latitude, together
with their adjacent bays and tributary streams. We consider, however,
that it would be advantageous to extend the scope of any joint regulations which may be agreed upon to all parts of this enclosed sea, and the
information necessary to accomplish that purpose satisfactorily could
readily be obtained.
(2). Re the salt waters in the State of Washington, the Commissioners, Richard Rathbun, representing the United States, and William
Wakeham, representing Great Britain, in their report dated Washington,
December 31st, '96, stated thas there was no reason for prohibiting up to
that time any kinds of apparatus employed in the salt waters comprised in the State of Washington, viz., trap nets, purse seines, drag
seines, reef nets and gill nets; the bulk of the Sockeye catch being APPENDICES.
4i
made in the form of net first mentioned, and is still the chief mode of
catching these fish. The number of trap nets at that time was confined
almost entirely to Point Roberts; at the present time the number of
these trap nets, seines, etc., are greatly increased, and extend from
Salmon Banks at the extreme south-west end of San Juan Island on all
suitable points up through the waters of the State of Washington to
Point Roberts, and to a great measure prevent the salmon from reaching the Fraser river, all sizes of salmon being caught and destroyed,
which is greatly to the detriment of the fishing industry.
(3). The Canadian regulations which restrict commercial fishing on
the Fraser River and off its mouth, to the use of drift gill nets, are satisfactory, and we recommend that the rivers in Washington be subject to
the same regulation.
(4). The mesh in trap nets to measure in extension not less than
three inches in the crib and six inches in the leader when actually
in use.
Trap-net leaders not to exceed 2,000 feet in length.
Not more than two traps to be placed in one-^continuous line, and
when so arranged to be separated by a gap of at least 100 feet
between the inner crib and the beginning of the outer leader.
All traps or strings of two traps to be separated by lateral passageways of at least 2,500 feet.
The inner end of all trap net leaders to begin in a depth of not less
than one fathom at low tide, and the space intervening between
it and the shore to remain entirely unobstructed.
All trap-net stakes to be removed from the water, in the interest of
navigation, within  thirty days from the  close of the  fishing
season.
(5). Drift gill nets not to exceed 150 fathoms each in length.
The drift gill nets employed for taking Quinnat salmon to have
not less than 7 % inch mesh extension measure.
The drift gill nets employed for taking the Sockeye salmon to have
not less than 5% inch mesh extension measure, and to be used
only from July 1st to August 25th.
All drift nets, when in use, to be kept at least 250 yards apart, and
to obstruct not more than one-third of the width of the river.
The drift gill nets employed for taking Cohoe and other species of
salmon, to be in force from September 15th to October 25th.
The drift gill nets for the taking of Dog salmon outside of the waters
of Fraser River, to be used from 25th September until 15th of
December.
MMu...iiw»..,»nmwmnui!i.xim«Hn 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
(6). It is recommended that in all rivers, commercial fishing with
nets be restricted to the tidal part of the river.
(7). We consider it very important that the movement of the
salmon toward their spawning grounds be facilitated by weekly close
times of thirty-six hours duration, which we suggest extend from 6 a.m.
on Saturday to 6 p.m. on Sunday of each week during the continuance
of the fishing season.
(8). We recommend that the Indians be allowed to fish at all times
by their customary methods, except the use of drift nets and spears, on
the rivers during the close seasons during which periods, moreover,
they should be permitted to take salmon only for the purpose of supplying themselves with food, and not for sale or barter.
(9). That evidence of an increase in the abundance of the salmon
species has been obtained, and we feel justified in recommending joint
action in the matter of other artificial propagation. While we feel
confident that the natural supply can best be maintained by an early
compliance with suitable protective measures, we find it generally
admitted that the efforts made by the Canadian Government to increase
the stock of Sockeye salmon on the Fraser river by fish-cultural
methods have been beneficial, and we urge upon the Government that
further efforts be made to increase the number of hatcheries on the
Fraser River, the expense of which to be borne by the Governments of
the United States and Canada, proportionately. In view of the growing
demand for the shipment of Quinnat salmon in a fresh condition, which
may, sooner or later, come to exceed the supply, we venture to suggest
the possibly greater advantages to be gained by the artificial hatching
of that species.
If the contention of the United States that the British sealers
destroy the seals on their way to the sealing grounds to the detriment
of the industry is sustained by them, we think that our contention that
they destroy the salmon in the traps, purse seines and drag seines, on
their way to the Fraser River, is detrimental to the preservation of salmon
in the Fraser River, and if their contention is sustained we submit that
our contention be likewise, and that traps, purse seines, drag seines and
other similar methods for catching fish should be abolished.
With reference to the deep sea fisheries on the coast of British Columbia, nothing can be done in developing these until some reciprocal
arrangement is come to with the United States in this article.
All of which is respectfully submitted for the Fishing Committee,
W. A. WARD. APPENDICES,
43
AGRICULTURE   IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
(By R. E. Gosnell, Ex-Provincial Librarian.)
The place of agriculture among the industries arising out of the
natural resources of the Province is by no means yet determined.
There are two extremes to avoid : One is the hastily formed conclusions of new comers, who, judging by the standards of older and more
settled farming communities, attach no importance at all to the prospects in British Columbia, and either go away wholly disappointed, or
settle down to some other calling, satisfied with the futility of making
farming pay in a country like this. The other is the .too enthusiastic
anticipations of those who have not a very clear or practical knowledge
of the conditions of successful farming in any country, and, who, judging from exceptional results under favourable conditions, have an exaggerated notion of what is possible in an average way. The taking of
both extremes is of common occurrence, and it is, therefore, somewhat
difficult for any but a practical and experienced farmer to give a fairly
accurate estimate of the agricultural capabilities of the Province. In a
Province like Ontario, where conditions are more or less uniform over
certain large areas, and where farming according to modern methods has
been carried on continuously for a number of years, the maximum and
minimum of results are fairly well determined. In British Columbia
the industry is still in an experimental stage, and owing to the disparity of conditions and the numerous local variations which exist it.is
quite unsafe to make definite statements or predict confidently as to
the future. A great deal of misapprehension has arisen and not a little
mischief has been done by too general and confident conclusions both
favourable and unfavourable.
I have referred to the different local conditions which exist, and this
is a phase too apt to be overlooked in any consideration of the subject.
There are many variations of soil and climate within limited areas,
materially modifying the theories which experiences in one locality
alone would suggest as applicable to some other locality. This is
accounted for by geological formation and physical environments generally, which, as we all know, are greatly differentiated. Taking Vancouver Island, for instance, the conditions in and around Victoria,
Saanich, Metchosin, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Comox and Alberni, are all
different, and in some respects radically so. The rainfall, relative humidity, soils and substrata, the influence of timber, the contiguous
mountains—these and other things affect the kind of crops and
the varieties that may be grown, and constitute influences that
render uniform deductions from individual experiences unsafe for prac-
'BnswMisaH
!!■»"'.- 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
tical purposes. Even two farms lying alongside of each other may
differ as to their suitability for certain varieties and as to the methods
that should in-detail be employed. This is to my mind the most important factor to be considered in connection with the discussion of agricultural capabilities and possibilities, and suggests what is being felt
as a rapidly growing need, and that is the introduction of a system of
local experimental farms, apart from and in addition to the Dominion
Experimental Station at Agassiz, one of which to be located in each of
the principal districts of the Island and Mainland ; for, in regard to the
latter, the same general remarks apply as to the former. The dry
elevated table-lands and valleys of the interior are as different in
local conditions from those of the Coast districts as well can be within
the limits of a single province, and its various parts also differ from
each other materially. Such local experimental stations are suggested.
to be on a small scale, and the operations confined to practical work,
having in view the special needs of the districts within which they are
located.
It may be remarked here that one of the difficulties with which
farmers are confronted in British Columbia, is in the acquiring of local
experience, which is often bought dearly, not the result of ignorance in
farming or incompetence, it may be added, but lack of that special
knowledge to which there is no guide but experiment, and it appears to
me that such knowledge could be best and should be acquired by the
Government for the benefit of all. The number of persons who think
they know all about it and don't, is large ; while the number of those
who can speak with authority are few. Personally, while I appreciate
the nature of and have endeavoured to some extent to study the problems
affecting agriculture in this Province, I confess to my inability to deal
specifically with them, and I hesitate to write on details with a view to
giving the information of others.
Coming back to the possibilities of the industry, though still largely,
as stated, in the experimental stages as yet, sufficient has been demonstrated to place it on a permanent basis as an important factor of Provincial wealth. There are many obstacles besetting the path of the farmer
here, but there are also some compensating advantages, which will
eventually turn the balance in his favour. The difficulties and advantages I wish to refer to are those in a sense peculiar to British Columbia.
I have already spoken of the great variety of conditions, which limits
the benefits arising from the experiences of others except under very
similar circumstances. There are, of course, general and predominant
characteristics, but in matters of detail, which determine the success of
farming, every farmer must be a law unto himself.
To take soils,  the characteristic and predominant poil,  except on APPENDICES.
45
bottom lands, is a brown loam, varying in quality and texture from a
fine friable mould to a coarse granitic wash. The subsoil also greatly
varies, being in places clay, hardpan, sand and gravel, and the value of
the land is determined in a great measure accordingly. Many conditions, however, govern the latter. It depends largely in the first place
on the amount of timber to be disposed of. Land that requires from
$50 to $150 or more per acre to clear, though it may be made cultivatable
and fertile thereafter, involves an expenditure of capital that renders
the investment a doubtful one. The quality of the land itself, nearness
to market and means of communication must be taken into account in
that connection.
Bottom lands such as meadows, alder bottoms, "hardack" and
swamps are the most fertile and easily made available ; but unless in
the case of prairie or peat bogs, are usually covered with a very heavy
second under growth, and require almost invariably ditching and
draining, and in some cases dyking, so that in all but the most favourable instances clearing and making ready for cultivation are expensive
and laborious.
Vancouver Island is supplied with good roads, but as a rule throughout
the Province, communication away from a line of railway or steamboats, is, as in all new countries, usually not of the best. As political
economists point out, this is a very material factor of success in the
business of a farmer, because in latter years the rates of transportation
have not fallen proportionately with the prices of produce, and to the
farmer the road leading to the market stands much in the same relation
as the rates of transportation.    It affects him in the same way.
Then we have other obstacles to deal with. A Province blessed with
fertility of soil, aud a mild, equable climate,: is also fertile in weeds,
described as plants out of place, and is favourable to the development
of disease and insect pests. That is to say, plant and insect life is
prolific, and the careful fanner is ever on the alert to keep his farm
clean, and in preventing and exterminating the enemies of his crops.
There are also in some localities animal pests, such as destructive
birds, coyotes, etc.
Competition with imported farm products is another thing the farmer
has to contend with. In former years, in fact until very recently,
merchants imported all kinds of farm produce from the neighbouring
States and from the East, and dealt very little in home farm products
for the reason that the latter was for a long time insufficient, and very
irregular and uncertain in supply, and badly marketed. This was a
condition very hard to overcome, because the farmer could not deal
with the merchant and was obliged to find private customers.   This was
I H!EESn»WSM!_"iH
MMMIW ««HWWIBWIII BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF  TRADE.
finally, and is being continually more and more broken down by the
establishment by the farmers themselves of local markets, and home
products now largely supply the market in a number of lines.
The advantages which the British Columbia farmers possess are the
active local demand; the rapidly growing market, the result of increasing population and mining activity; the distance from competitors and a protective tariff, which tends to keep up prices ; the mildness of the climate; and as a rule the extraordinary fertility of the soil
and the largeness of the yield.
Referring again to the supplying of the local market, home production
is increasing so satisfactorily as to have wholly displaced in some lines
imported articles, and to such an extent as in a few years to form a
surplus for export. Indeed, an export trade has already been opened
up with the Northwest in fruit—small fruit, plums and apples. The
department of agricultulture that has made the greatest advance the last
two or three years is dairying, and from practically no local supply,
except from a few individual farmers, there are about half a dozen cooperative creameries, producing an article of good quality and finding
a large sale.
Owing to the contiguity of the Oriental markets, and the openings
afforded in the Northwest, there is likely to be developed a large amount
of trade, and industry in several special lines. The Northwest, including
Manitoba, will take great quantities of fresh fruit, probably all that can
be grown ; while dairy products will be shipped to China and Japan
where a good market, among the European population, exists for
butter and cheese of extra quality. British Columbia, it may be reasonably anticipated, will yet produce an industry of great magnitude in
canned fruits and vegetables, and it is not unreasonable to predict that-
firms comparable with Cross & Blackwell and Lea & Perrin, will yet
come to the front in goods similar in character to those manufactured
by them, and of world-wide fame. This is suggested by the prolificness
with which small fruits, plums, pears, apples, and all kinds of vegetables
are grown, and the facilities there are for export.
It is quite impracticable within limited space to review fully the
entire field, but briefly it may be stated that the special products which
the adaptabilities of the Province suggest are : Condensed milk, hams
and bacon, preserved meats, tobacco, leather, canned goods, paper,
flax and sugar beet. In regard to the latter two named, while there can
be no reasonable doubt as to their being successfully grown, as capable
of creating industries on a large scale they may be regarded as problematical as yet. Tobacco is grown and manufactured in the Okanagan
Valley, and results are claimed to be satisfactory so far as operations
have gone. APPENDICES.
47
Such fruits as peaches, apricots, grapes, tomatoes and melons (the
latter two being usually classed as fruits) ripen and do particularly well
in parts of the interior, but, generally speaking, are only cultivated in
favoured localities on the Coast.
A possible future large industry belongs to the Interior in the way of
cold stored meats. The loss of and depreciation in cattle during the
winter season have caused attention to be drawn to the feasibility of
erecting cold storage and slaughter houses at some convenient point,
say Kamloopg, to which the cattle in the fall, when in good condition,
could be driven and killed and stored. An annual saving, as well as
great direct gain, could thus be effected, and the ranges would in an
important degree be thereby conserved. Live stock has not heretofore
been notable as a success, and from a variety of reasons; but with
improved methods should become very profitable. This applies to
cattle, pigs and poultry especially. Sheep are regarded as objectionable to
breed on the interior ranges on account of their effect on the pasturage,
and the Coast climate is too wet in fall and winter for them without
proper shelter. On Vancouver Island and some of the contiguous
islands, however, they do well. No doubt, in time, many of the islands
and side hills as well, now waste, will be utilized for running them.
Poultry and pigs should be extensively bred.
With the exception of the Delta prairie lands of the Fraser and the
valleys of the Interior, where farming is and can be carried on on a
large scale in hay, cereals and stock, the future of British Columbia in
agriculture lies in small holdings and intensive methods. Cheaper and
better methods of clearing and draining are being employed, and
will greatly increase the area under cultivation. The areas suitable for
farming are to a considerable degree detached and irregular; but careful investigation will show that much more good land is available than
is generally supposed ; and much good land is in the hands of private
parties that has for a long time lain unproductive. The taking up of
land for speculative purposes accounts for this condition of affairs,
which will gradually be remedied. At the present time there is not
much demand for farm lands, and as security for loans, are not in the
great majority of cases accepted by the loan companies at all.
It may be assumed that so long as the stronger inducements afforded
by mining and speculation exist, agriculture will not receive that
attention it deserves. Speculation has ever been unfavourable to the
cultivation of the soil, which requires steady and persistent energy in
one direction, and intelligent industry ; but sooner or later the other
influences at work will react on it, and it will become more prominent
among the wealth-begetting agencies of the Province. Practically
speaking, the inception of agriculture dates back to only about fifteen
pww.ynumjt'twjmTxinwjx'twnwjwiwsW'CTWWBiMi COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
years ago, and is therefore making rapid progress. What has been
accomplished is probably best illustrated in the products exhibited at
the recent Provincial Exhibition held' at New Westminster. No
Province in Canada could make better (I was going to say so good a)
showing of fruit, which was really a remarkable feature. Grains were
limited in quantity but superlative in quality. Horses and stock made
a fair showing ; sheep and pigs, poor ; poultry, good ; vegetables, as
good as could be expected from so dry a summer. Altogether, the show
afforded an object lesson. Certain it is that all those who have entered
seriously into farming in British Columbia and exercised good judgment in selection, worked intelligently and industriously, eschewed
outside speculations, and kept the goal of success steadily in view have
prospered.
A   BRANCH  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA   CHERRIES. APPENDICES.
Exports from British Columbia
49
To Countries outside of Canada of Products of Agriculture and its Branches, tor three
years ending 30th June, 1897.
(The Exports to the other Provinces in the Dominion are not included.)
Live Stock.
Horses head
Horned Cattle    "
Swine        " '
Poultry and other animals "
Meats, Etc.
Hides, horns and skins (not
fur) 	
Bacon lbs.
Beef    "
Hams   "
Pork    I
Sheep pelts No.
Wool lbs.
Grain, Seeds, Bread-
stufes and products of.
Bran cwt.
Barley bush.
Oats          "
Peas     I
Wheat     I
Flour    bbls.
Biscuits and Bread...  cwt.
Oatmeal and all other bbls.
All other seeds     "
Fruits and Vegetables.
Apples (green) bbls.
Fruits (canned)     lbs.
Other fruit      "
Potatoes bush.
All other vegetables	
Dairy Products.
Butter lbs.
Cheese :  "
Miscellaneous.
Eggs doz.
Hay     tons
Straw    I
Trees and bushes   	
Hops  lbs.
Bones cwt.
Tallow     lbs.
Honey    "
Malt bush".
Other articles	
Total
Year ending 30th,Year ending 30th
June,  1896.
June, 1895.
Value.
Quan
tity.
Quantity.
36
4
257
260
1,442
600
205
172
55.752
41
35
81,461
214,897
Value.
58o
250
II
39,290
1,156
170
1,275
150!
49,238
2°.565I50,77°
2,883 695
. 5,500
11
30
:5
7.47i;
6,201
I
i
12,402
4
32
426
168
53
18
7
7i
1,953
812
810
30
28
62,965
2,520
1
124
42
1,379
12,828)
957'    0,9351
10
3i
42,633
485!
19.978
108
6,399
175
640
4.815
[147,066
67.391
443
18,235
92
33
Year ending 30th
June, 1897.
Quantity.
Value.
97 4,395
1   30
351
86,131
167
15
173
7
17,618
14.759
229
456
13
31
37.900
8,447
4
790
257
189
19
*42
444
15
3.659
1.239
19
77
13
6
H.757
341
634
27
82
4,405
130
260
86,385 86,385
984   118
T.4i9
253
38,347 12,958
166,11t 15,561
63.471
19,880
157
1
20
34
23.970
76,548
1,140
7
5i6
4
254
211
442
3.172
6,845
29
4
I9L1571
956
4
254
151
442
979
969
13
25
45
161
15.264
1,924
93
20
37.920
824
22
6
228,407
HHBBWHWWJiagmm
j ii xi uijm«i»i»ni«»i»Biiimm»iw'imKwimn
1IXWJX   XUM«B»»~jSL»J BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.   APPENDICES.
51
Bran and
Other bre
Barley,
Beans,
Indian Co
Buckwhea
Oats,
to"
CQ
Ph
Flaxseed,
Beet, carr
Other,
Apples (d
1     an
Plums an
Almonds
Apples (g
Small fru
Cherries,
Cranberr
Currants,
Peaches,
Plums,
Quinces,
Canned f 52
BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
53 54
BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
55
IMPORTS INTO THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR TWENTY-
SEVEN YEARS ENDING JUNE 30TH, 1898.
Value of
Total
Imports.
To 30th June, 1872 $1,790,352
From Canada       22,215
To 30th June, 1873  2,191,011
From Canada       75,604
To 30th June, 1874  2,085,560
From Canada       66,104
To 30th June, 1875  2,543.552
From Canada  117,054
To 30th June, 1876  ',997*597
From Canada  129,735
To 30th June, 1877  2,220,968
From Canada  163,142
To 30th June, 1878  2,244,503
From Canada  144,754
To 30th June, 1879  2,440,781
From Canada  184,951
To 30th June, 1880  1,689,394
From Canada  208,072
To 30th June, 1881  2,489,643
From Canada  387,111
To 30th June, 1882  2,899,223
From Canada  449,768
To 30th June, 1883  3.937,536
From Canada     624,207
To 30th June, 1884  4,142,486
From Canada      789,287
To 30th June, 1885  4,089,492
From Canada      927,054
To 30th June, 1886 3.953,299
To 30th June, 1887 3.547i852
To 30th June, 1888  3,5°9>95i
To 30th June, 1889  3,763,127
To 30th June, 1890 4>379>272
To 30th June, 1891 5,478,883
To 30th June, 1892  6,495,589
To 30th June, 1893  3>934,°66
To 30th June, 1894 5,32o,6i5
To 30th June, 1895  4.4°3i976
To 30th June, 1896  5,563>°95
To 30th June, 1897  7,l3°,38l
To 30th June, 1898   8,548,375
Goods Entered for Home Consumption.
Dutiable Free ~ | , Duty
Goods. Goods. lotai. Collected.
$1,600,361 $  166,707 $1,767,068 $   342,400 48
  22,215 22,215
1,569,112 507.364 2,076,476 3o2,H7 65
  75,604 75.604
1,676,792 371.544 2,048,336 336,494 47
  66,104 66,104
1,924,482 566,111 2,490,593 413,921 50
  117,054 "7,054
2,237,072 707,906 2,944,978 488,384 52
  "9.735 i29,735
1,820,391 346,318 2,166,709 403,520 21
  163,142 163,142
T»905»20i 367,926 2,273,127 426,125 14
  134.754 144,754
T,997ii25 320,326 2,317,454 484.704 04
  184,951 184,951
1,614,165 122,451 2,457,116 450,175 43
  208,072 208,072
2,214,153 242,963 1.736,616 589,403 62
  387,m 387,"1
2,472,174 404,287 2,875,461 - 678,104 53
  449,768 449,768
3,331,023 550,833 3,866,855 907,655 54
  624,207 624,207
3,337,642 702,693 4.040,335 884,076 21
  789,287 789,287
3,458,529 564,923 4,023,452 966,143 64
  927,054 927.054
2,851,379 1,060,347 4,011,726 880,266 65
3,065,791 560,348 3,626,139 883,421 53
2,674,941 729,266 3,401,207 861,465 14
2,002,646 807,140 3,809,786 974,675 69
3,357,111 1,030,375 4,287,486 1,075,215 20
4,261,207 1,074,983 5,336,190 1,346,059 42
4,423,414 1,803,005 6,226,419 1,412,878 00
3,662,673 1,255,495 5,918,168 1,366,250 32
3,582,333 1,738,282 5,336,961 1,308,631 23
3,131,490 1,236,935 4,368,425 1,137,727 49
3>993,650 1,532,840 5,526,490 1,406,931 91
5,048,755 2,028,653 7,087,048 1,702,512 16
6,493,123 2,024,749 8,517,872 2,064,527 76
miiii.iuimniiiinmMiiiw* BRITISH COLUMBIA   BOARD OF TRADE.
Exports the Produce of Canada  From the Province of
British Columbia for 27 Years, Ending June 30,1898.
Animals
and their
Agric'l.
Miscel
Yea
r.     The Mine.
Fisheries.
Forest.
Produce.
Products.
laneous.
Total.
1872
.... $1,389,585
$    37,707
$214,377
$214,700
$    142
$   1,540
$1,858,050
1873
....   1,224,362
43.36i
211,026
259,292
2,885
1,197
1,742,123
1874
....   i,35i,i45
114,118
260,116
320.625
5,296
443
2,051,743
1875
    1,929x294
133.986
292,468
411,810
9,727
2,777,285
1876
    2,032,139
71,338
273.430
329,027
3,o8o
68
2,709,082
1877
    1,708,848
105,603
287,042
230,893
3,083
i,5°°
2,346,969
1878
....   1,759,'71
423.840
327,360
257,314
462
2,768,147
1879
    1,530,812
633,493
273,366
268,671
2>505
57
2,708,848
1880
....   1,664,626
317,410
258,804
339,2i8
3,843
IOO
2,584,001
1881
    1,317.079
400,984
172.647
350,474
248
22
2,23I,554
1882
....   1,437,072
976,903
362,875
300,429
946
2,616
3,080,841
1883
    1,309,646
1.332,385
407,624
287,394
6,791
443
3,345,263
1884
    1,441,052
899,371
458,365
271,796
1,745
1,413
3,100,404
1885
    1,759,512
727,672
262,071
414,364
2,324
5,948
3,172,391
1886
    1,720,335
643,052
194,488
329,248
1,907
2,811
2,891,811
1887
    1,832,827
910,559
235,913
380,126
10,265
1,911
3,371,601
1888
    1,889,805
1,164,019
441,957
318,839
27,631
85,826
3,928,077
1889
....   2,377,052
993,623
449,026
397,685
14,831
102,089
4,334,306
1890
    2,375,770
2,374,717
325.881
346,159
9,823
113,271
5.545,621
1891
 .   2,030,229
2,274,686
374.996
294,646
5,oi7
20,434
6,257,158
1892
    2,979,470
2,35I.°83
425.27S
390,584
25,018
31,976
6,574,989
1893
..  .   2,898,947
■,501,831
454,994
310,621
30,173
446.231
5,642,797
1894
    3,521,543
3,541,305
411,623
149,269
23,323
196,895
7,843,950
1895
    4.615,452
3,264,501-
500,080
457,373
21,774
261,918
9,121,098
1896
....   5.763-253
0,288,776
685,746
437,864
61,414
338,471
10,576,524
1797
    8,909,592
3.567,815
742,173
307,845
104,744
552.539
14,184,708
1898
.... ",973,671
3,846,951
425,751
285,007
78,977
262,834
17,239,197
1872-3
1,858,050
1873-
1,742,123
1874-
2,05i,743
1875-
2,777,285
1876—
2,709,082
1877-
2,346,969
1878-
2,768,147
1879--
2,708,848
1880—
2,584,001
1881—
2,231,554
1882—
3,080,841
1883-
3,345i263
1884—
3,100,404
1885-
3,172,391
1886—
2,891,811
1887—
3,371,601
1888—
3,928,077
1889—
4,334,306
1S90—
5,545,621
1891—
6,257,158
1892—
6,574,989
1893-
5,642,797
1894—
7,843,958
1895-
9,121,098
1896—
10,576,524
1897-
14,184,708
1898—
■7,239,177
Exports for Each Year From 1872 to 1898, Inclusive.
Scale, $1,000,000.00 =- % inch. APPENDICES.
57 BRITISH  COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Registered sea-going tonnage carrying cargo into and out of the
Province, by five-year periods, with yearly averages and percentages of
increase or decrease :
1874-78 1   I,439,8i7 287,963     	
1879-83     2,358,885 47L777 + 63-8
1884-88     4,089,788 817,958 +  73-8
1889-93     8,927,979 1,785596 +118.3
1894    i,979,96° +10.9
1895   2,228,047 +  12.5
1896  2,177,799 —   2.7
1897   I 2,135,443 1.5
istered sea-going tonnage carrying cargo out of the Province,
Yearly
Average.
Per cent.
Yearly
Average.
147,187
211,713
387,017
785,628
830,408
9i4,53i
953,3oi
913,886
Per cent.
■ 43.8
82.8
■ 103.0
5-7
•  10.1
- 4.2
- 4-1
out of the Province.
Yearly
Average.
Per cent.
140,776
260,064
430,94o
698,968
1,149,561
13,516
1,214,496
1,221,557
+ 85-0
+ 657
+132-0
+ I5'0
+ 14*3
+ 7-5
+ o-6 APPENDICES. 59
INLAND   REVENUE,   CANADA,
Divisions No. 37 and 38.
Entered for Consumption luly ist ^897, to June 30th, 1808
No. 37, No. 38,
"Victoria, B.C.   tVancouver, B-c-
Spirits proof gallons.              68,816.84 75,6i9-77
Spirits, exported           "                             2,325.88 272.31
Malt lbs.          1,446,074 1,566,376
Manufactured Tobacco lbs.            123,223 159,648
■                   §      exported    "                  '   590}^ 824%
Raw Leaf                "           "                  34,583 53,973
Cigars, ex-warehouse No.             151,550 105,025
I       ex-factory   fj                 125,125 2,403,625
Malt Liquor gallons.             501,798 620,065
Petroleum          "                  32,26983 480,998.30
Total receipts. j||||||||l;               194,259.01 230,952.14
* Vancouver Island only.
t All outports in British Columbia except Vancouver Island.
This Board is indebted to the kindness and courtesy of the Collectors of Inland
Revenue at Victoria and Vancouver for the above information.
AREA   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Land  382,300 square miles.
Water       1,000      " "
Total  383,300      " "
Wood area, estimated  285,554      "
Shipping.
The Board is indebted to the courtesy and kindness of Mr. A. R.
Milne, Collector of Customs, for the following shipping information :
Vessels employed in the coasting trade of the Dominion of Canada
arrived at and departed from Victoria, B.C., during the year ending 30th
June,  1898.
Vessels Arrived. Vessels Departed.
No. No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage.
1494 533,914 32,421 1491 533,889
Vessels entered inwards for sea at Victoria during year ending 30th June, 1898.
With Cargo. In Ballast.
No. No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage.
746 527,903 28,730 446 431,317 22,400
Vessels entered outwards from sea during the year ending 30th June, 1898.
With Cargo. In Ballast.
No No. No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage. Crew.
585 510,455 27,134 636 444,997 26,004
Number aud tonnage of vessels built and registered at Victoria, during the year
ending 30th June, 1898.
Built. Registered.
No.' Tonnage. No. Tonnage.
18 4222 2 254
No.
Crew.
32,334
No.
Crew.
x«m-a« 60
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF  TRADE.
EDUCATION.
The school system of British Columbia is free, non-sectarian, and equally as
efficient as that of Ontario or any of the Eastern Provinces. The Government
builds a school-house, makes a grant for incidental expenses, and pays a teacher
in every district where twenty children between the ages of six and sixteen can
be brought together. High schools are also established in cities, where classics
and higher mathematics are taught. Several British Columbia cities also now
have charge of their own public and high schools, and these receive a very liberal
per capita grant in aid from the Provincial Government. The minimum salary paid
to teachers is $50.00 per month in rural districts, up to $110.00 in city and high schools.
Attendance in public schools is compulsory. The Education Department is presided
over by a minister of the Crown. There are also a superintendent and five inspectors
in the Province, also boards of trustees in each district.
The following statistics are taken from the report of the Honourable the Minister
of Education :—
Number of Schools in Operation.
High Schools  4
Graded Schools  22
Common Schools  213
Ward Schools  5
Statistical Abstract of Attendance for 1896-97. 244
Number of pupils enrolled during the year  15.798
Increase for the year .'  1,338
Number of boys enrolled  8,105
Increase for the year         668
Number of girls enrolled   7,693
Increase for the year         670
Average actual daily attendance  9,999.61
Increase for the year         745.36
Number of pupils enrolled in High Schools         461
Increase for the year  1
Average actual daily attendance in High Schools         279.68
Average actual daily attendance in Graded and Ward Schools  5.91206
Average actual daily attendance in Rural Schools  3,807.87
Number of School Districts at the close of the year  199
Increase for the year  6
I
HIGH SCHOOL.
CENTRAL SCHOOL. APPENDICES.
61
The gradual growth of the schools, as well as the cost of maintaining the same, is
fully shown by the record of attendance and expenditure given in following exhibit:—
Comparative Statement of Attendance and Cost of Public Schools
from 1872-73 to 1896-97.
Year.
1872-73- 
1873-74.-
1874-75.
1875-76.,
1876-77..
1877-78.
1878-79..
1879-80..
1880-81..
1881-82 .
1882-83..
1883-84.
1884-85.
1885-86
1886-87.
1887-88.
1888-89.
1889-90
1890-91.
1891-92.
1892-93.
1893-94.
1894-95.
1895-96.
1896-97.
Number of
School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
37
41
41
42
45
45
47
48
50
59
67
I6
86
95
104
109
123
141
154
169
178
183
193
199
1,028
i,245
1,403
1,685
1,998
2,198
2,301
2,462
2,571
2,653
2>,693
3,420
4,027
4,471
5,345
6,372
6,796
8,042
9,260
10,773
11,496
12,613
13,482
14,460
15,798
575
767
863
984
1,260
1.395 50
1,315.9°
1,293.93
1,366.86
1,358.68
1,383-00
1,808.60
2,089.74
2,481.48
2,873-38
3,093.46
3.681.14
4,333-90
5.I34-91
6,227.10
7,111.40
7.785-50
8,610.31
9.254-25
9-999-61
Percentage
of
Attendance.
Half-year.
55-93
61.60
61.51
58.39
63.06
63.49
57-19
52.56
53-i6
51.21
51-36
52.88
51-89
55.50
53-75
48.54
54.16
53-89
55-45
57.80
61.85
61.72
63.86
64.00
63.29
Expenditure
for
Education
Proper.
$ 36.763 77
35,287 59
34,822 28
44,5o6 ii
47,129 63
43 334 01
*22,IIO 70
47,006 10
46,960 69
49,268 63
50,850 63
66,655 15
71.151 52
79,527 56
88,521 08
99,902 04
108,190 59
122,984 83
136,901 73
160,627 80
190,558 33
169,050 18
189,037 25
204,930 32
220,810 38
STEAMSHIP   "ISLANDER,"  VICTORIA-VANCOUVER ROUTE. 62 BRITISH  COLUMBIA BOARD  OF  TRADE.
MINING STATISTICS.
Report of Minister of Mines, December 31st, 1897.
TABLE I.
Total Production for all Years up to 1898.
Gold, placer $ 59,317,473
Gold, lode  4,300,689
Silver  7,301,060
Lead  2,971,618
Copper  521,060
Coal and Coke  36,626,585
Building Stone, Bricks, etc  1,350,000
Other metals  25,000
$112,413,485
The following table shows the steady rate of increase during the
past seven years, and of the marked increase during the past year of
1897. As stated before, the influence of lode mining begins to be felt
in the year 1892, since when the rate of increase has been entirely due
to the production of the metalliferous mines, as the output of the
collieries has not increased.
TABLE II.
Production eor Each Year from 1890 to 1897 (inclusive).
Year. Amount.
1890 $ 2,608,803
1891  3,521,102
1892  2,978,530
1893  3,588,413
1894  4,225,717
1895  5,643,042
1896  7,507,956
1897  10,455,268
Yearly
Increase.
•35 P-c
.21 p.c.
.18 p.c.
• 33 P-c
•34 P.c
.40 p.c. APPENDICES.
63
Table III. gives a statement in detail of the amount and value of
the different mine products for the years 1896 and 1897. As it has as yet
been impossible to collect the statistics regarding building stone, lime,
bricks, tiles, etc., these are estimated for 1897, but not estimated for or
included in the output for 1896.
However, although 1896 showed a very decided increase over 1895,
1897 shows a still greater advance in the production of gold, silver, lead
and copper.
TABLE III.
Amount and Value of Materials Produced, 1896 and 1897.
Customary
Measures.
1896.
1897.
Quantity
Value.
Quantity
Value.
Gold, Placer	
Oz	
27,201
62,259
3,135,343
3,818,556
24,199,977
894,882
615
? 544,026
1,244,180
2,100,689
190,926
721,384
2,688,666
3,075
15,000
25,676
106,141
5,472 971
5,325,180
38,841,135
882,854
17,832
"     Lode	
Oz	
2 122 820
Silver	
Oz	
Lbs	
3,272 836
266,258
1,890 517
Copper 	
Lead	
Lbs	
Coal   	
Tons, 2,240 lbs.
2,648,562
89,155
151,600
Coke   	
$ 7,507,946
?10,455,268
TABLE IV.
Production of Metals per District and Division.
Name.
Cariboo	
Barkerville    Division.
Lightning Creek   "
Quesnellemoutb.  ''
Keithley Creek     "
Cassiab	
Kootenay, East	
Kootenay, West	
Ainsworth Division ...
Nelson "
Slocan I
Trail Creek     "
Other parts	
Lillooet 	
Yale 	
Osoyoos  	
Similkameen	
Yale	
Other Districts	
Divisions.
1896. 1897.
82,900
53,000
51,100
197,050
$ 65,000
25,000
35 000
200,000
Districts.
1896. 1897
1,050
315,626
545,529
1,854,011
1,243,360
14,209
440,545 .
789,215 .
3,280,686 .
2,097.280 .
157,977 .
*21,000
154,427
4,002,735
33,665
206,078
325,000
37,060
163,796
6,765,703
39,840
226,762
181,220
9,000
65,108
142,982'.
25,100
58,680
15,000
9,390
'? 4,816,955' $7,567,551
*For Cassiar, the production of ?25,000 in 1896 from Omineca was lately reported.
For more detailed statements see report on Slocan and Trail Creek Division.
UWBJtRWWJUtPMW WMWIW 1 ■» m 1
HW*WiWB 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.
Placer Gold,
Table V. continues the yearly production of placer gold to date as
determined by the returns sent in by the banks and express companies
of gold sold to the mints, and from returns sent in by the Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders. To these yearly amounts one-third
was added up to the year 1878, and from then to 1895, one-fifth, which
proportions were considered to represent approximately, the amount of
gold sold of which there was no record.
The gold output for 1897 shows no advance over 1896. This placer
gold contains from 10 to 25 per cent, silver, but the silver value has not
been separated from the totals as it would be insignificant.
TABLE V.
Yield of Placer Gold per Year to Date.
1858
1859
i860
1S61
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
.1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
7°5i
,615
,228,
,666
,656;
.913,
,735,
,49i,
,662,
,48o:
,372
,774.
,33°,
,799
,610.
,3°5i
,844,
,474,
,786.
608,
000
070
543
118
903
563
850
205
106
868
972
978
956
440
972
749
618
004
648
182
1878.
1879.
1880.
1881.
1882.
1883
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1092.
1893-
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
T,275
1,290
1,013
1,046
954
794:
736
713
903
693
616
588;
49°
429
399
356
4051
481
544
,204
,058
,827
,737
,085
252
165
738
65 x
709
73i
923
,435
811
,526
T3T
5i6
683
026
Total $59,317,47 *
TABLE VI.
Since last report further information has been secured that has
modified in some details this table as it then appeared, more especially
in reference to the production of lead. This information of production
in the earlier years is obtained from the " Mineral Statistics and Mines
for 1896," Geological Survey of Canada. APPENDICES.
65
PRODUCTION OF LODE MINES.
Gold.
Value.
m-
18891
1890'
1891;
1892
1893
1894
1895
1898'
1897,
T'ls
Lead.
Pounds.
17,690
79,780
53.192
70,427
4,500
77,160
!27,000
746.379
I,I70| 23,404
6,252!      125,014
39,264       785,2711,496,522
62,259   1,244,180 3,135,343
106,141    2,122,820[ 5,472,971
$
17,331
75,ooo
47,873
73,948|
4,000
66,935
195,000
470,219!
204,800
674.500
165,100!
Nil
Nil
808,420
2,135.023
5,662,52;
977,22916,475,464
2,100,08924,199 977
3,272,836138,841,135
215,086 $4,300,68911,380,964 $7,301,06089,166,942 $2,971,618.10,421,256 $521,060 15,094,427
Value.
),2l6
),8i3
i,498]
Copper.
Pounds. I Value.
Total
Values.
[,064!	
1,996	
1,875 324.680 16,234
i.255 952,840 47,642
.384 3,818,556 190,926
',517 5,325,1801  266,258'
26,547
104,813
54-371
73,948
4,000
99.999
297,400
781,342
2,342,397
4,257,179
7,052,431
See reports irom Slocan and Trail Creek Divisions for more detailed statements.
Coal,and Coke
Year.     Tons (2,240 H)s.)
1836-52.
1852-59...
1859(2 mos)
i860	
10,000.
25,39°-
1,989.
14,246.
13,774-
18,118.
2i,345-
28,632.
32,819.
25,115-
3i,239-
44,005.
• $
TABLE   VII.
Production per
coal.
Value.    Year.
1880	
Year to Date.
1861....
1862....
1863....
1864....
1865....
i866"--
1867....
1868....
1869       35,002	
1870       29,843	
1871-2-3.    148,549	
1874       81,547	
1875     110,145	
1876     I39,I92	
1877     154,052	
1878       170,846	
1879     241,301	
40,000
101,592
7,956
56,988
55,096
72,472
85,380
115,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
493,836
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
512,538
723,903
1881.
1882.
1883.
1884.
1885.
1886.
1887.
1888.
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
1893-
1894.
1895.
1896.
1897.
Tons (2,
267
228
282
213
394
265
326
413
489
579
678
1,029
826
978
1,012
939
896
882
240 B>s.)
595- ••$
357-
mm
299.
070.
,596.
636.
360.
301.
830.
140.
097.
335.
294.
953-
654-
222.
854.
Value.
802,785
685,071
846,417
639,897
1,182,210
796,788
979,908
1,240,080
1,467,903
1,739,490
2,034,420
3,087,291
2,479,005
2,934,882
3,038,859
2,818,962
2,688,666
2,648,562
Totals.      12,081,687     $36,626,585
1895-6 .
COKE.
.17,831.
J 7,825
• 89,155
Total  19,396 tons. $96,980
The above table shows little change during the past year in the coal
production, but a decided increase in the output of coke, of which the
bulk has been shipped to the Kootenay smelters.    All of this coke came
from the coke ovens at Comox, Vancouver Island.
A new and important market for this coke is now opening in
Mexico, where one shipload has already been sent to one of the large
smelting works situated not far from the coast. 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE.
TABLE  VIII.
Production in Detail of the Metalliferous
Districts.
Tons.
Gold—Placer.
1
Gold—Lode.
■< 1
!* 1
Ounces   Value.
Ounces   Value.
I
1
Barkerville        Division 	
1896	
1897|	
4,14£
3,25t
2,65(
1,25C
2,55£
1.75C
9,853
10,000
1,050
1,853
1,054
*600
82,900
65 000
53,000
1891
189"
189E
1895
1896
1897
1896
1897
1896
1897
	
2,497
Quesnellemouth       "      	
25,00(
51,100
35,000
Quesnelle Forks, Keithley Creek
200,000
21,000
37,060
21,076
12,000
1896
1897
1896
1897
1896
1897
1896
1897
1896
1897
1896
1897
XX  1      -
5,556
30,160
50,014
16,560
33,667
88,075
68 804
58
1,781
755
275
5,500
236
4,720
41,520
162
193
55,275
97 024
35
9
Trail Creek      "      	
3,040
3,860
1,104,500
1,940,480
Other                "      	
231
300
1,683
1,874
4,627
6,000
33,665
700
180
Yale 	
37,480
118
2,360
Osoyoos         Division	
1896
L897
1896
1897
1896
1897
897
897
896
897
6,561
6,674
6,098
290
440
'   450
1,175
3,255
2,934
250
8,800
9,000
23,500
65,108
58,680
133,480
Yale                    "      	
5,000
47
940
Totals 	
|
169,362
27,201
25,676
$544,026
$518,520
62,259
106,141
$1,244,180
$2,122,820
•No returns or placer gold. f Yield of platinum for 1897, $1,600.   APPENDICES.
67
t Mines for 1896 and 1897.
Silver.                  Copper.
Lead.
Totals for
Divisions.
Totals for
Districts.
Ounces
Value.   Pounds.
Value.
Pounds.
Value.
1896
1897
1896           1897
$
$
?
$
$
?                $
I
82,900
65,000
25,000
53,000
51,100
35,000
200,000
197,050
 '*"3|hH
21,000
37,060
73,796
49,443	
2,808,411
2,291,451
83,908
82,036
154,427
116,657
69,760	
163,796
4,002,73"
6,765,703
371,097
250,665	
3,186,592
3,543,237
94,961
126,848
345,626
440,545
524,578
313,697   	
423,413 2,237,921
574,752 3,4>3,644
1,309,353	
111,896
172,682
631,960
545,529
1,854,011
961,124
7,291
18,165,074
30,707,705
261
541,618
1,099,336
789,215
1,954,258
3,641,287
89,285
2,177,490 ..
3,280,686
59,830 1,580,635
65,821 1,819 586
7,985	
79,030
90 979
1,243,360
14,209
110,068
29,900
2,291,451
897
82,0*6
2,097,280
11917
116,657
69,761	
157,977
33,665
	
39,840
206,078
226,762
131,220
1,174
702
142,982
9,000
25,100
65,108
|
58 680
1426
' 853       51,950
2,597
	
9,390
150,000
$190,926
266,258
24,199,977
38,841,135
3,135,343
$2,100,6891 3,818,556
3,272,836 5,325 180
$ 721,384
1,390,517
$4,801,955
$7,317,465
$7,717,551
unnjuwwiwimil'Mmww1 68
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
69 BRITISH COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.
SALMON   SHIPMENTS   IN    DETAIL.
1897
Cases.
1896
Cases.
I
1895        1894
Cases.     Cases.
1894
Cases.
England—
• London direct	
Liverpool direct	
overland...
Via other ports	
Overland (previous ye
Eastern Canada	
335,966
4,957
407,738
38,373
ars)   ...
130,815
28,579
226
4,823
74,000
182,253     96,459     94,203
9,076           	
322,364   256,301   222,345
11,405          	
       29,590     59,296
       65,647     20,424
51,051     79,283     76,009
11.60Q 1     8.8^2     1^.078
148,332
253,833
25,703
27,445
114.792
8,830
Other destinations	
Local Sales 	
Stocks on hand 	
2,128
3,844
7,850
4,326       2,642
25,952       4,374
150
2,93i
8,213
Total	
1,015,477
601,570
566,395 | 494,371
590,229
Br. ship
Br. str.
Br. ship
Ger. bark
Br. bark
>Ger. ship
Br. bark
Ger. ship
Br. str.
Br. bark
Swed.ship
Dan. bark
Br.     ship
SALMON   FLEET, SEASON  1897.
Irby  Sailed
Tekoa  "
City of Benares  "
Seestern     ''
Lebu  "
Adelaide  "
Oct.   8th 60,452
Oct. 22nd 45,198
Nov. 5th 68,707
Nov. 15th 65,954
Dec. 21st 31,362
Uec. 31st 54,293
CASES.
To London direct.
5,966
Balmore  Sailed Oct.
Kehrewieder
Tekoa 	
Silberhorn ..
Lady Lina...
Irvine	
Iolanthe	
5th 67,533
12th 54.571
22nd    51,721
25th   84,107
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Nov. 10th  56,249
Nov. 18th  27,080
Nov. 23rd   66,577
To Liverpool direct.... 407,738
Total by sea to England   733,7°4 APPENDICES.
71
RECAPITULATION
Of the Yield and Value of the Fisheries of British Columbia for the Year 1896.
Kinds of Fish.
Salmon, in one pound cans  Lbs.
"      fresh     '<
I      salted  Brls.
■       smoked jjg,  i,bs.
Sturgeon, fresh, dressed  "
Halibut, fresh .  ..13?.    "
Herring, fresh     <<
''        smoked     "
I salted 18  Brls.
Oolachans, fresh  Lbs.
i        smoked      "
I salted ".  Brls.
Trout, fresh  I,bs.
Fish, assorted and mixed     |
Smelts, fresh  a
Codfish, fresh ."...    "
Skill, salted Brls.
Fur-sealskins   No.
Hair-seal skins     " .
Sea otter     "
Clams .la Bush.
Mussels     ((
Oysters	
Clams, canned in one pound can	
Crabs
Quantity.
Abelonies	
Shrimps and prawns,	
Caviare  Lbs.
Isinglass ,§||	
Fish oil Galls.
Estimate of fish consumed in the Province and not
included in the above   	
Total.
29,853
1,229,
2
41
380
2,276
191
360
9:
I
64
425
55
287
55
3
Price.
,056
595 I
413
350
,500
,556
,000
050
,000
000
50°
,060
500
,400
,000 I
200
70
677
,700
23
8,000
16,944
2,780
61,500
05
05
03
10
5 00
°5
10
10 00
10
05
°5
05
10 00
9 00
75
175 cm
15
30
Value.
$2,985
122
24
10
19
6,45
,305 60
,959 50
.,130 00
,337 50
,025 00
,827 80
,730 00
,105 00
,,000 00
,000 00
950 00
',600 00
,450 00
,270 00
,75° °°
,360 00
700 00
,093 00
:,775 00
.,025 00
i,ooo 00
480 00
.,800 00
1,541 60
,,ooo 00
600 00
,000 00
830 00
750 00
.,600 00
250,000 00
501
$4,l83,999 °°
Capital invested in Fisheries and Fishing Material in British Columbia, including
the Fur-seal Fleet, Boats, etc., for the Year 1896.
Material.
Value.
59 salmon canneries, complete      $ 20,000
12 oil factories  	
4 freezers and cold storage    	
6 salteries I	
129 vesssel	
3,718 boats employed in fishing	
618,325 fathoms of gill nets	
10,340 fathoms of seines	
Scows and flat boats	
Halibut and sturgeon fishing gear	
m
64 vessels employed in fur-sealing
263 boats " "
442 canoes        " "
Grand total.
379,98o
26,300
11,050
Total.
$1,180,000
38,000
30,000
3,000
266,415
164,130
464,400
15,800
19,591
15,912
12,197,248.
417
$2,614,578
Hands employed in boat fishing, curing and canning fish 13.854
1 I fishing vessels      373
Sailors and hunters in sealing fleet (white)      809
" Pwi       "       " "    (Indians)     889—15,925
"WMSWLiUH 72
BRITISH  COLUMBIA BOARD   OF TRADE.
Return  showing the Number, Tonnage   and Value of  Vessels
tity and Value of Fishing Materials, Kind and Quantities ol
Vessel's and Boats Employed.
Vessels.
Boats.
si
S
d>
o
,o
©
2
_j
a
0
cu
a3
jg
1
rA
I
1 Fraser River District	
2 Rivers Inlet District	
3 Skeena River District	
4 Naas River District	
5 East Coast Queen Charlotte Island
6 West Coast Queen Charlotte Island
7 Cape Scott to Comox	
8 Comox to Victoria	
9 Victoria to Cape Beale  	
10 Cape Beale to Cape Scott	
Totals
KlHD OF
Districts.
S3
d
1
-    1
JHJII
bo
-*d     J0
a>
0
bog    too
,u
c^    o5
H
bs e-a
efl
a)
£
m
K     ltd
1 Eraser River District 	
2'Rivers Inlet District	
3 Skeena River District ;,.';	
4|Naas River District	
5 East Coast Queen Charlotte Island.
6|West Coast Queen Charlotte Island.
7 Cape Scott to Comox	
8 Comox to Victoria	
9 Victoria to Cape Beale	
10 Cape Beale to Cape Scott	
Totals.
2276556 190000
210501000
Catch of Canadian fur seal fleet 3§	
Oysters, $4,800; clams, $6,000; mussels. $480; shfjiaps and prawns, $4,800 	
Crabs, $18,000; abelonies, $60iSslnglass, $750	
Caviar, 2,780 lbs. at 30c, $834; cans clams, 16,944 lbs. figlSc., $2,541.60 	
Estimated value of fish of various kinds consumed in the Province and not included
Grand total APPENDICES.
73
and Boats, and the Number of Men engaged in the Fisheries, Quan-
Fish, etc., in the Province of British Columbia, for the year 1896.
Fishing Materials.
Kinds of Fish and Fish Products.
Sturgeon
Gill-Nets.
Seines.
Lines and
Nets.
ft
.a
Ofc
a
O
CD
o
CI
CO o
QJ
o
,1-j
0
si
3
3 «
3
a
c3                CS
m
>
fcl
>
>
>
CQ
O o
Si
§a
396900
75000
llf025
21700
3000
1200
1500
3000
2000
2000
$
295425
56.!-01
86250
16275
3000
1200
1000
2000
1500,
1500
2000
310
1450
250 '
300
350
4000
1000
680
$
3000
465
2175
375
450
475
6000
1500
1360
618325 464400 10340 15800
$
14566
7012
1000
3025
50
1000
100
1000
30'i
250
3000
4000
200
19591
15912
793
120
500
200
50
902595
105110
150000
10000
1500
50
50
150
500
25000
100000
25000
5000
2413 1229595
8000
5000
750
10000
2000
600
5000
7500
2500
41350
18016544 355500|
5295888
5595312
703152
25000
242160  10
29853056 380500
Fish and Fish Products
Value.
■s
o
1    £
OS    .     So
Asi   \szM
o*    OO
oj o>   \-z a
OVh      o «1
o    p
m
Si
O
X.
I
GO      1
Is   |
<sa | £
01
01
O
1 °^
.3
ol   1   a,
S     ™ d
3
ax
ol
W
of
M
ol
£1
^ d
HI
CO
ox
8
x4
S
2
100
23MXX) 1000
10000 1000
10000   500
45000 2000
26500
500
1000
1000
125000
1400
25000
110000
5200
1        1
$      cts.
2,047,751 70
537,953 80
586,318 70
86,002 70
16,390 00
8.007 50
8,655 00
58,955 00
9,725 00
35,141 00
1
135
400 ...
1000      4
250	
1000      2
650    12
        5
200 ....
2000
2500
5000
25000
6000
5000
10000
1000
5000
2
250
3
500
1000
4
isnno
3000
10000
5000
150000
8000
6000
5
25000...
10000    5000
225000   25000
U-000   	
80-0   	
60
6
60000 5666
12500
13000
5000
5000
8
9
10	
200   ...
10
1060
360000 9500
64500
425400   55000
287200
70
55677
3700
23
61500
3,394,900 40
501,093 00
15,280 00
19,350 00
3,375 60
250,000 00
	
$4,183,999 00
WMWfiLiSS 74
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
BRITISH   COLUMBIA  SEALING   CATCH,  1897.
Tons.
Particulars
3F Catch.
Total.
5 oi
British
Columbia
Coast.
Japan
Coast.
t/i
V
oi       '3
v         £
2     8
3        ft
Vicinity
Copper
Island.
Behring
Sea.
v a
&41
co.y
Vessels.
41
i    |
S     8 :
S   1  ft
1
1
01
01
a!
V
ft
oi
1      V
8       "*
^     (    ft
3GG
21
* Agnes McDonald...
Ainoko	
i
75
??
18
82
86
66
39
63
5'
76
46
87
94
96
69
80
58
21
93
25
43
63
97
46
73
23
83
86
1
70
76
56
109
21
6i
98
99
60
60
66
'308
1
489
1.331
640
20
1,298
1,064
737
626
1,064
302
1,438
463
1,052
1,339
1,250
553
353
491
27
804
944
290
20
22   385
286   354
1     19
26    45
96    71
103    55
....
512
412
IO
12
21
Annie E. Paint   	
373
446
6
9
136
368
217
66
257
529
362
246
8
35
27
154
432
154
430
2
49
4
139
14
5     9
147      '55
62      no
39           22
I           3
52         33
■ 154       123
2
C. D. Rand	
C. G. Cox	
City of San Diego ..
381
637
85
163
II
182
220
34
56
127
rS
558
396
134
299
233
696
577
381
254
207
30;
15
37
4"i
40
7        20
14        11
So 1   229
123      167
59        42
12      139
5          7
130        37
128        65
9        15
80         in
24
120
269
88
249
25
53
9
39
195
370
I
4
f MaudS	
29
403
492
99°
1,123
12
959
1.021
24
822
878
899
98
1
848
1,760
1,008
54°
776
827
1,018
33
a68
40
102
25
449
404
343
424
36
Otto	
32
1   2j
292
10
88
411
3
164
?6
210
392
128
135
18
430       217
J9
68
"18
142
3°
1
35
67
16
235
690
48
114
96
399
560
861
142
150
680
264
18
433      385
152      124
6
22
44
Zillah May	
125
39
31
! 2,708
3,644
454
928
2,263
2,819
3,677
6,549
9.058
30,410
* Wrecked 5 mile
s soxit
1 of A
iishi,
Japan
2rstJ
une
1897
•     f«
rrecke
d, catch
of 11
skins lost, Queen Charlotte Islands, April 23,1897.     J Burnt at sea,lat.
I25b557 ^) April 23rd, 1897.    $ Indian Catch, B.C. coast.
Recapitulation.
30' N. long
[White.
495
Indian.
587
Total.
1,082
Boats and Canoes.
Boats. I Canoes. | Totals.
149
288
437
Sealing Stations.
Males.
Females.
Totals.
2,263
3>677
454
6,549
2,819
3,644
928
9.058
Japan Coast    	
7.321
1,382
is.60?
Copper Island Coast	
Behring Sea	
Total	
; 12>943
i6,449
29,392
1,018
Indian Canoe Catch    *....,
•   Grand Total 	
30,41° APPENDICES.
75
The Sealing Catch for the Past Eight Years has Been :
1889  35.3io 1894  97.474
1890  43,325 1895  74.124
1891  52.365 1896  55.677
1892  49,743 1897  5°.4io
1893  70.592
List of the Claims for Compensation and Awards in Respect of
the Seizures of British Vessels in Behring Sea by the
Authorities of the United States.
Year.
Vessel.
Amount
♦Claimed.
1886.
Amount
Awarded.
Carolena  $ 38,089 25 \$ 22,362 43
Thornton       42,163 04 22,663 63
Onward       45.570 10 I5.7I5 74
Favorite        6,202 00 5,367 08
Black Diamond         10,687 °° 8,075 °°
1887.
1889.
1
|W. P. Sayward | 47,984 96
Anna Beck  54.3°9 °8
Alfred Adams  20,746 00
Dolphin  68,897 71
Grace  64,498 25
I Ada  61,003 07
Triumph
5,325 50
Juanita  32,481 00
Pathfinder  34,622 00
Black Diamond  41,901 00
Lilly  34,574 °o
Minnie  40,407 00
Triumph  40,950 00
Ariel  20,061 00
Kate  22,384 00
Wanderer  18,897 00
1890.
1892.
Pathfinder.
Henrietta  21.404 10
Oscar and Hattie  ' 11,365 °o
Winnifred  6,633 05
Costs in Sayward case.. 62,847 12
20,262 72
35,058 69
16,362 07
50,883 38
42,339 17
33,782 70
2,828 29
17,195 45
20,641 12
22,701 31
17,571 48
12,657 57
23,H5 77
7.4o6 03
4.565 31
1,170 67
12,021 04
2,965 05
4,344 57
Personal Claim.
51,091 17
Total $857,702 23  $473,145 44
♦Interest on above at the rate of 7 per cent., from dates mentioned in
the particulars until payment.
UNBIMW
BBSS BOARD   OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
77
List of Trees of British Columbia.
BOTANICAL NAME.
ENGLISH NAME.
FRENCH NAME.
Abies amabilis	
White fir	
Sapin blanc
Gros sapin
Sapin des monts
Erable
Acer macrophyllum .   .
Western white fir	
Mountain balsam ....
Large-leaved maple ..
Vine maple .,	
Alnus rubra 	
Red alder	
Aune rouge
Arbute
Rouleau
a canot
Cornouillier
Cedre rouge
Epinette rouge
des monts
''         rouge
Petite epinette
Epinette noir
Grosse epinette
Epinette blanche
Cin blanc
Cyprus
Pin blanc
Cypres
Pin jaune ou rouge
Betula occidentalis ....
Cornus Nuttallii	
Juniperus Virginiana ..
Larix Americana
|    Lyalli	
occidentalis	
Western birch 	
Canoe birch	
Western dogwood ....
Red cedar	
American larch	
Mountain larch	
Western larch	
White spruce	
''    Engelmannii....
Western black spruce.
Black spruce	
''     Sitchensis	
Pinus albicaulis	
Western white spruce.
Scrub pine	
''     monticola	
''     Murrayana	
White Mountain Pine.
Black pine   	
"     ponderosa	
Yellow Pine	
Western crab-tree ....
Balsam Poplar	
Cottonwood	
Populus balsamifera...
"         monilifera....
Paumier
Biard
"         tremuloides...
Aspen 	
Lremble
''         trichocarpa ...
Tiard
Cherry	
Lerisier
i c
Pseudotsuga Douglassi.
Quercus Garryana	
"   lasiandra	
Taxus brevifolia	
Thuya gigantea	
''      excelsa	
Western white oak ....
Lance-leaved willow...
Willow	
Western vew	
Giant cedar	
Yellow cypress or cedar
Pin d'Oregon
Chene
Saule
If
Grand cedre
Cedrejaune
Pruche
X c
Tsuga Mertensiana....
"      Pattoniana	
Statement showing the timber cut during 1897,  not including that
from the Dominion and the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway lands:
FEET.
On Crown lands     61,961,647
On timber leaseholds     39,014,010
On private property       4.963.74°
Total   105,939.397 feet.
iw,MHBnnj»iMm.m 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA   BOARD OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
79 BRITISH  COLUMBIA BOARD  OF TRADE.
GAME OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By R. E. Gosnell, Ex-Provincial Librarian.
British Columbia is a Province of big things—big mountains, big
trees, big fish, big ideas and big game. In time it will probably breed
a generation of big men. For the sportsman it possesses many attractions ; and although it cannot boast of such royal beasts as inhabit the
jungles of Africa or India, or afford such excitement as is afforded by
the pursuit of wild boar in the f oreife of Germany, yet it is tolerably
proud of its grizzly, its big horn sheep and|j|s mountain goat, and its
panther and black bear. It has also those noble animals the wapiti,
the cariboo and moose, while the black bear and wood wolf are not
uncommon. Once upon a time it included within its limits the buffalo,
and may yet in its most northwesterly confines contain a few wood
bison. It was once, too, a prolific breeding ground for beaver, otter
and fox; and although the numbers of these have been greatly reduced
they are hunted still.
In feathered game the list is a long one, including varieties of
grouse, ducks and geese, and pheasants have been added to the number
and are spreading rapidly in the Coast districtalfc There are also the
swan, heron, bittern, loon and pelican. Eagles, hawks and owls
abound.
Needless to say our waters, ocean and inland, teem with fish, the
principal sought as game being trout and salmon; but food fishes
generally, such as halibut, sturgeon, cod, sMl, herring, oolachan,
smelt, sea bass and anchovy are found in great abundance. Those who
even wish to hunt whale, blackfish and seal, either for fun or profit,
may have their wishes gratified. So that there is neither lack of
abundance nor variety for sportsmen, professional hunter or collector.
In fact, there is no element of good sport, danger, adventure, hardship,
excitement or pleasure lacking. There is a plenitude afbstimulatdng
scenery—mountain and vale, forest and stream, lake and river, inlet,
promontory, fjord and glacier, and cataract, and an invigorating atmosphere, pleasant and salubrious, a combination of favourable conditions
and rare effects, a sportsmen's paradise.
In the list of big game entitled to first consideration is the grizzly,
the monarch of the Rockies, appropriately designated ursus horribUia,
because no other animal is so well calculated to inspire terror. He is
found distributed over the whole of the mainland of British Columbia,
from the south to the extreme north. His home is in the mountains,
where it is well to leave him. unmolested unless equipped with a stout APPENDICES.
8r
heart, a sure aim and an unerring rifle. The black bear is quite
common everywhere, but keeps himself well secreted as a. rule, and is
rarely seen within the precincts of civilized life.
Next to the grizzly in importance is the big horn or mountain sheep
(ovis canadensis). He is distributed over the interior mountains of
the Mainland from the 49th parallel up into the Cassiar, and his pursuit
affords the rarest sport. A favorite resort is in the mountains of the
Similkameen country, near the boundary line, where many go to
hunt him. The head and horns of the male are greatly prized as
trophies, and on this account the big horn has been ruthlessly slaughtered,
especially by Indians, and is becoming rather scarce. On the Arms of
the Province this animal is associated as supporters with the noble
wapiti, or American elk (Cervis canadensis), representing in a fitting
way the union of the Mainland and the Island, the one having its
habitat on the former and the other on the latter, and typifying
strength and dignity. The wapiti formerly inhabited the southern
Mainland as well, but is now exclusively confined to the Island, and is
tolerably abundant, chiefly through the interior, west coast, Comox
and to the northward.
Associated also in the minds of sportsmen with the big horn is the
mountain goat, otherwise known as antelope, goat and white goat
(Mazama Montana). He is found in nearly all the mountains of the
Mainland, but in greatest numbers along the summit of the Coast
Range. Although frequenting high and comparatively inaccessible
places, this animal is much easier prey than the big horn and is very
abundant.
After the elk the two more important members of the deer family
are the woodland caribou (Rangifer caribou) and the moose (Alee
americarvus). The former of these noble animals inhabits the interior
of the Mainland throughout, and is abundant in places. The latter is
found only in the northerly limits of the Province and mainly on the
Arctic slope.
The other members of the family are the black tailed deer (Cariacus
columbianus), abundant everywhere west of the Cascades, including
the Islands; the mule deer (Cariacus rnacrotis), abundant on the
Mainland, east of, including the Cascades, from Kootenay to Chilcotin,
and the white-tailed or " common " deer (Cariacus virginianus),'less
common in this Province and confined to Okanagan and Kootenay,
The musk ox (Evidos moschatus), of which a fine specimen is to
be seen in the Provincial museum, belongs to the barren lands of
Canada, very far north.
If we except the panther, wolf, lynx, wolverine and fox, the fore-
I
WWBLftfiBBHBH
m mu.mj hiiiumwjihwi hvi BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD   OF  TRADE.
going would complete the list of big game. The panther (Felis con-
color), sometimes referred to as the mountain lion, and identical with
the puma or cougar, farther south, is not the ferocious animal usually
pictured, rarely, if ever, attacking man, but very destructive of sheep
and pigs. It is found on the Mainland, but is much more common on
the Island of Vancouver. The grey or wood wolf (Caius occidentalis)
is found throughout the Province at large, but is a solitary beast and
avoids the settled districts. The coyote, or prairie wolf (C latrans)
is common in the southern interior, where it is understood to be on the
increase and described by the farmers as a nuisance. The Canada
lynx (Lynx canadensis) and wild cat (L.pasciatus) are-both found on
•the Mainland, but neither is abundant. The wolverine (Gulo luscus)
has its habitat on the Mainland, though not unknown on the Island.
On the Mainland, east of the Cascades, the cross fox is found. •
Among the lesser animals that may be included as- game, are the
northern hare (Lepus ainericanus), east of the Cascades; Jack rabbit
(L. texianus) and Baird's hare (L. bairdii), both belonging to the
Okanagan district; the raccoon (Procyon lotor), coast line of the
Province; land otter (Lutra canadensis), throughout the Province;
the beaver (Castor fiber), likewise general; musk rat (Fiber zebettu-
cus), on the Mainland; the pocket gopher, in the southern interior; the
western porcupine (Erethizen epizanthus), Mainland at large; and
the flying squirrel, several varieties of marmots, the brown weasel,.
and the American badger.   The foregoing are nearly all represented.
Among the larger mammals reference may be made to the northern
sea lion'(i?. stelli), the hair and fur seal, the bay porpoise, whale and
sea otter.
The game fish are practically
these are widely distributed and
every lake and river and water in
local classifications of trout, such
trout; but these are all identical
one to fifteen to twenty pounds, ;
lakes. White fish are found in
fall of the year salmon may be tr
and afford excellent sport.
limited to salmon and trout, although
very numerous, and to be found in
British Columbia. There are several
as sea trout, lake trout and mountain
in species, and varying in size from
ind sometimes larger in the interior
some of the northern lakes. In the
oiled for in any of the bays or inlets
.When we come to the feathered tribe we have a much greater
variety to choose from. Principal among them is the large family of
grouse. West of the Cascades we have the Oregon ruffled grouse and
blue grouse in abundance, and in the valleys and brush lands and open
spaces—in fact, wherever there is feeding ground there they are. In
the Cascades and east are the ruffled grouse, Richardson's grouse, and
Columbia sharp-tailed grouse.   Willow ptarmigan is found north in   5ffis
APPENDICES.
85
Cassiar country, the white-tailed ptarmigan at the summits of the
Mainland mountains, except the coast range, and the rock ptarmigan
at the summits of the mountains generally. The California quail and
partridge are becoming common on Vancouver Island, having been
introduced from California.
Water fowl .are, as might be expected, very abundant, and the
mouths of rivers, bays and-inlets, as well as inland lakes, marshes, etc.,
swarm with ducks and geese in the fall and winter seasons. There are
about twenty-six species of ducks represented, of which the mallard,
the American golden eye, butter ball, and other familiar species, are
very abundant. Of geese, the black brant, Canada goose, Hutchins
and American white-fronted, are the most common. Both ducks and
geese are shot in great numbers in season. Snipes and plovers, in each
of which there are several varieties, are'more or less common and
widely distributed.
The above constitute the principal of the game animals and birds,
more extended reference to which, in detail, is impracticable. The list
is along one and the Province a wide one, and to do the subject justice
would require a volume, to be written by such an authority as Mr. John
Panning, Curator of the Museum, to whose check list much of this
information is to be credited. The extent of country and variety of
conditions which exist in this Province promise a greater permanency
for game than in most countries; but, notwithstanding that,- a decided
decrease is noticeable already in some kinds. A special effort should
be made to preserve such noble animals as the big horn, cariboo and elk,
else, like the buffalo of the prairie, they may become extinct.
Trrir '-^'i   '■   -"**^SW5—♦«■nW
Bamii.t. =»~
YACHTING I1N   BRITISH  COI/UMBIA.
wwwwwwb waii.i.mummn»4.HPWT 84
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD OF TRADE. APPENDICES.
85 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA  BOARD   OF  TRADE. APPENDICES.
87
CLIMATE.
No general description will serve the purpose in speaking of the
climate of British Columbia.   On the Coast it varies considerably, while '
in the interior the variations are yet more plainly marked.
Dr. Bryce, in "The Climates and Health Resorts of Canada," says :
"In all this country," from south of Vancouver Island to the Queen
Charlotte Islands, " the fruits of temperate climates grow well, and
farm animals live out doors the year round. The rich bottoms of the
Fraser delta have long been famous for their great hay crops and pasture
lands ; but here the extreme of rainfall is met, the mean for six years
being 59.66 inches at New Westminster. The climate of the great
Island of Vancouver, running north-west across two degrees of longitude and two degrees of latitude, presents every variety from that at
the sea coast, with, as at Esquimalt, a very low daily range, and no
annual extremes — the lowest temperature in two years being 8 degs.
F., the lowest monthly average being 20 degs. F., and the highest in
summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above Alberni on the west coast,
where the Vancouver range rises first into a plateau to 4,000 feet, and
even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak."
" Apart from the mineral wealth of Vancouver Island, its climate, with
every variation possible, becomes most attractive. Its seashore climate
is milder than many parts of England, with less rain and less seasonal
variations."
Attention is directed to the following tables :
A FAVOURITE CAMPING SPOT.
mmmi*uw'r<miHMr.m.nwjmnKn*rLmmmmnn*jiiuiim*mm-'Ul>l!xi>'*!5Xme. BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF   TRADE.
AVERAGE MONTHLY AND ANNUAL RAINFALL AND
SNOWFALL
In inches at ten principal stations in British Columbia, derived from a
group of years.
1896,
4.85  1.10
3!97   6! 74
20  1.29   1.85  0.36
1.62  0.40
6!25 "6188
6.66  0.63
.611 7.81  8."<4
.7    2.8    4.5
.90  7.51   8.67
.4    6.4     7.6
.28156.82 61.96
.0028.6   48.9
0.88  0.66  0.34?
9.2     9.7   26.2  i
0.00  0.05   0.17
3.0    5.4   24.3A
0.01   (1.63   0.08
1.0    3.0   18.1
0.50| 0.94| 0.51.
2.1
1.64
3.02
k'As
1.3
1.45
9.7
1.01
25.9
0.07
36.8
17.94
161.2i
0.65  0.62
....   0.4
0.51   0.37  0,96
8.3  11.5  12.2
0.44   0.28  0 59
8.6025.0     7.2
6.87  5.52 11.30
28.8  59.7 140.00
COMPARATIVE TABLE OF THE AVERAGE RAINFALL
In inches at ten principal stations in British Columbia in the months
April to September, derived from a group of years.
5.68
4.57
4.56
5 20
7.79
10.03
«
n
<!
<
<  '
'S
CO
K)
«S
a (A
*J
"5
O CD
Si
XX)
*-
■a!
<!
CO
o
5.31
5.45
0.50
048
0.94
438
4.81
1.10
1.57
1.64
3.96'
8.97
0.74
0 89
1.32
1.29
1.55
0.86
0.88
102
1.33
1.62
0.40
0.48
1.05
5.12
5,25
0.88
1.51
1.95
0.51
2.12
3.18
2.76
8.02
3.18 APPENDICES.
89 go
BRITISH COLUMBIA   BOARD  OF TRADE.
POSTAL STATISTICS.
Statement showing the accounting offices in operation, the gross
postal revenue ; the number and amount of money orders issued and
paid ; the amount of commission thereon, during the year ending 30th
June, 1897 :
Namj of Office.
Gross
Pustal
Revenue
Nanaimo     $   5,747 37
New Westminster       9,416 43
Vancouver      37,702 03
Victoria     44,060 Oi
Other offices    107,282 73
Total $204 218 61
Number
of Money
Orders
Issued.
5,245
4,544
10,976
12,650
44,576
Total
Total Amount Commin'n
of Money        Received
Orders Issued.      from
Public.
$ 67.988 02
53 879 34
147,040 24
145,079 29
728,986 71
654 84
509 46
1493 87
1,584 94
6,118 87
',991
$1,142,973 60      $10,361 98
Total
Amount of
Money
Orders
Paid.
$ 35 821 74
3°,(96 93
143,075 76
171,02 x 52
216,622 00
$606,239 95
Table showing the number of post offices in operation, extent of
mail travel, estimated number of letters and other articles of mail
matter posted in British Columbia during the years ending 30th June,
1896 and 1897:
1896. 1897.
Number of offices in operation on 1st July. 274 293 .
EXTENT OP MAII, SERVICE.
Number of miles of post route         6,640
Annual travel thereon !,395x3*8
Estimated number of letters and other
articles of mail matter posted in British Columbia during the years ending 30th June, 1896
and 1897 :
Letters 4,175,000
Post Cards  398,000
Registered Letters  118,000
Free Letters  129,800
Number of transient Newspapers and Periodicals, Packets, Circulars, Samples, Patterns,
etc  461,000
Number of Packages of Printers' Copy, Photographs, Deeds, Insurance Policies, etc  88,000
Number of Packets of Fifth Class Matter, Ordinary Merchandise, open to examination  43,500
Number of Parcels by Parcel Post  30,000
Number of Closed Parcels for the United Kingdom and other countries   2,100
4,850,000
505,000
142,000
148,500
400,000
46,500
16,000
1,850 APPENDICES.
91
Post Office and Government Savings Banks.
Table showing number of depositors in British Columbia, the
amount on deposit, and the proportion of that amount per head of population on 30th June, 1897 :—
Government
Post Office      Savings Bank,
Savings Bank.        "Victoria.
Number of offices :  26 I
Number of depositors  2,392 3,229
Amount on deposit    $578,690.00      $955,804.00
Average amount to every depositor.. 241.93 296.00
*Average amount per head of population                3.84 6.34
•Average amount per head of popu-   1892    1893   1:894   *895    1896   1897
lation, Govt. Savings Bank $10.18 $9.81  $9.02  $8.91 $9.i5$io.6i
* Average based on population of the Province census of 1891.
Revenues  and   Expenditures of the Provinces of
Canada, 1897.
Provinces.
Revenue.
Amount
per
Head.
Expenditure
Amount
per
Head.
Ontario*	
$ 4,139,848
3,877,466
832,240
745,203
683,706
1,383,048
272,550
$1 85
2 46
1 82
2 32
3 33
9 T7
2 50
■$ 3,767,676
4,892,282
853,699
727,187
780,109
1,569,071
3io,752
$1 68
Quebecf	
Nova ScotiaJ	
3 10
1 87
New Brunswick*	
Manitoba*	
2 26
3 80
British Columbia^	
10 41
Prince Edward Island* ....
2 85
' Total	
$11,934,061
.$2 36
$12,900,776
$2 55
*Year ended 31st December.
fYear ended 30th June.
JYear ended 30th September.
ImmM
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FACSIMILE OF  TEN DOLLAR  GOLD PIECES.
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SSSS BRITISH COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
CAPITAL   INVESTED.
Under this head an estimate has been based on most comprehensive
and, generally speaking, very complete data contained in the numerous
returns from all over the Province and from information obtained from
a variety of sources. These have been carefully compiled and the
results arrived at, after taking into account every business interest in
the Province—involving labour of such magnitude—will be surprising
to even those familiar with the affairs of the Province. It is not claimed
that the figures are absolutely correct, as in some instances, where
actual returns were not available, they are based on estimates, which,
however, are approximately correct, and a complete return would probably modify the total to some extent. Nor do they include by any
means all that has been invested in the Province in various ways, but
only what may be regarded as in the main live and productive capital.
The figures are :—
Description.
Amount.
Miscellaneous Industrial Establishments	
Electric Light and Railways	
Telephone    	
Waterworks	
Railways and Telegraphs	
Steamships and Navigation	
Mining Plant and Smelters	
Coal Mining	
Sealing, Salmon Canning and Fish Curing I
Churches and Schools	
Bank Deposits	
Municipal Assessments	
Municipal Public Works and Buildings	
Provincial Public Works and Buildings	
Provincial Assessments	
Dominion Public Works and Buildings	
All Commercial Establishments    j
Timber, leases and privately owned (value estimated).
Private wealth, less public assets and values, assessed
in above 	
$16,260,000
00
2,000,000
00
200,000
00
2,100,000
OO
47,500,000
00
3,000,000
00
10,500,000
00
3,000,000
00
3,250,000
00
1,850,000
00
6,500,000
00
45,000,000
00
925,000
00
5,500,000
00
51,500,000
00
2,800,000
00
5,500,000
00
100,000,000
00
$307,385,000
00
$280,000,000
00
By the census of 1881 it was shown that there was $2,952,835 invested
in industries, and in 1891 that amount had increased to $7,246,662. The
wages paid was $929,213 and $5,119,258 respectively, and of the hands
employed 2,871 and 11,507 respectively. APPENDICES.
93
SCALE  OF  COMMERCIAL CHARGES.
Whenever no special agreement exists,  the following shall be
collectable:
1. On the purchase of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of
securities, including the drawing of bills for the
payment of the same  2^ per cent.
2. On sale of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of securities,
including remittances in bills and guarantee  2^ "
3. On purchase and sale of specie, gold dust and bullion.  1 "
4. On sale of bills of exchange with endorsement   2J4 "
5. On sale of bills of exchange without endorsement....  1 "
6. For endorsing bills of exchange when desired  2^ "
7. On sale of produce,  etc., from foreign ports, with
guarantee   7^       "
8. On goods received on consignment and afterwards
withdrawn  2^       ''
9. On goods received on consignment and afterwards re
turned by the consignee  No charge.
10. On purchase and shipment  of merchandise, with
funds on hand, on cost and charges   5 "
11. On purchase and shipment of merchandise, without
funds on cost and charges  7%       "
12. For  collecting  and remitting delayed or litigated
accounts 10
13. For collecting freight by vessels from foreign Ports,
on amount collected   5
14. For collecting general claims  5
15. For collecting general average, on the first $20,000, or
any smaller amount  5
16. For collecting general average, on any excess over
$20,000  "2-Yz       "
17. On purchase and sale of vessels  5
18. For  "Port Agency"  to vessels with cargo or pas
sengers Irom foreign Ports, as under:
On vessels under 200 tons register $ 50 00
" of 200 to 300 tons register,.. 100 00
" of 300 to 500 " ... 150 00
"        over 500 tons   200 00
19. For disbursements of vessels by consignees with funds
on hand '  2/^
20. For disbursements of vessels by consignees, with funds
on hand  5
21. For procuring freight or passengers  5
9b\ WWWW^^^I™^^*^
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BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD OF TRADE.
22. For chartering vessels on amount of freight, actual
or estimated, to be considered as due when the
"charter parties," or memorandum of their conditions, etc., are signed  5 Per
23. On giving bonds for vessels under attachment in
litigated cases, on amount of the liability  2% '
24. For landing and re-shipping goods from vessels in
distress on invoice value, or in its absence, on market
value  5
25. For   receiving   and  forwarding  goods  on  invoice
amount  2^
26. For advancing on freight to be earned  5
27. For effecting marine insurance on the amount in
sured ...._.     J4
28. The foregoing commissions to be exclusive of broker
age, and every charge actually incurred.
29. Vessels to pay clerk hire and the labour on wharf,
sorting and delivering cargo.
30. The receipt of bills of lading to be considered equiva
lent to receipt of goods.
31. Guarantee or security for contracts or liabilities 5
32. Acting as Trustee on assignments  5
33. On investments made on mortgage or otherwise   1
N.B.—Auctioneer's commission and brokerage to be
charged when incurred.
34. Land agents for commission on sale and purchase of
real estate   5
35. Interest on advances for duty, freight and lighterage,
and on accounts current, per annum I per cent,
over current bank overdraft rates.
cent.
RATES ON STORAGE OF MERCHANDISE.
STORAGE PER MONTH.
On measurement goods, 50 cents per ton of forty cubic feet (40 c, ft.)
On heavy goods, 50 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds. Or in either case,
the amount actually paid, if more. The consignee to have the option
of charging by measurement or weight. Any fraction of a month to be
charged as a month.
REGULATIONS.
(a.) Concerning the delivery of merchandise, payment of freight,
etc.: When no express stipulation exists per bill of lading, goods are to
be considered as deliverable on shore. APPENDICES.
95
(b.) Freight on all goods to be paid, or secured to the satisfaction of
the captain or consignee of the vessel, prior to the delivery of the
goods.
(c.) After delivery to the purchaser of goods sold, no claims for
damage, deficiency or other cause shall be admissable after goods sold
and delivered have once left the city.
(d.) When foreign bills of lading expressly stipulate that the freights
shall be paid in a specific coin, then the same must be procured if
required, or its equivalent given, the rate to be determined by the
current value at the time at the banks.
The foregoing scale of Commercial Charges and Rules and Regulations were approved at the Quarterly General Meeting of the British
Columbia Board of Trade, held October 21st, 1898.
Pilotage and Port Charges.
NANAIMO  PILOT GROUND.
The limits for speaking vessels bound for Nanaimo are at or outside
a line drawn from Schooner Point, Gabriola Island, to Lighthouse
Island, and from Lighthouse Island to Horsewell Bluff, Vancouver
Island.
Vessels entering by way of Dodd's Narrows (it not being a ship
channel) will be charged half Pilotage whether spoken or not, if the
Pilot boat be on the cruising ground.
DUES.
The rates of Pilotage both inward and outward are as follows :
(a.) For all vessels, irrespective of draught, $3 per foot.
(b.) For all vessels in tow of a steamer, $2 per foot.
(c.) For all steam vessels, other than foreign tugs or tug boats
or steamers employed as such, whose master or mate has
not a Pilot's license, one-third (%) less than the above
rates if a pilot be employed.
iMiuwjnw»xjtHe.wiuniiiwm immmmtammmmm 96 BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
PILOTAGE DISTRICT OF YALE AND NEW WESTMINSTER.
The Ports of the Pilotage District of Yale and New Westminster
are as follows :
Port of Vancouver;
Port of New Westminster;
Port of Yale and the several landings on the Fraser River.
(I.) The limit of the Port of Vancouver is inside a line drawn from
Point Atkinson to the red buoy on Spanish Bank.
(2.) The limit of the Port of New Westminster is inside a line
drawn between the outer buoys and north and south sandheads, at the
entrance of Fraser River.
DUES.
For vessels entering or clearing from the Port of Vancouver the
rates of pilotage are as follows :
Vessels under sail $4 oo per foot.
''     in tow of a steamer  2 oo       "
"     under steam   I 50       "
PORT CHARGES.
PORTS OF ESQUIMALT AND VICTORIA,   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Vessels bound to other ports, and coming to an anchor in Royal
Roads, the Pilotage is free, except the-services of a Pilot are employed,
when Pilotage to the following graduated scale shall be payable :
Inside or north of Race Rocks to Royal Bay $0 75 per foot
Beachy Head to Royal Bay   1 50       "
Pillar Point to Royal Bay  3 00       "
Cape Flattery to Royal Bay  6 00       "
For vessels entering into or clearing from undermentioned ports,
the rates are as follows :
Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours (under sail) $3 00 per foot
(under steam or in tow) 2 00       "
"       (steamers)   1 50       '*
When a vessel is bound to or from any other port in the Province,,
either laden or in ballast, and does not discharge or receive any cargo,
passengers or mails, but simply enters it as a harbour of refuge, such
vessels shall be exempt from Pilotage into and out of Esquimalt,
excepting in cases where a Pilot is actually engaged by the Master for
such services. APPENDICES. 97
ESQUIMALT GRAVING DOCK,
i.    Length of dock to gate, 450 feet, level with keel blocks.
2. Width of gates, 65 feet.
3. Depth of water varying from 27 feet to 29 feet 6 inches at springs,
according to season of year.
The use of the dock will be subject to the following tariff, viz.:
For the For each following
Gross Tonnage of Vessel. first day of day, including the
docking. unlocking day.
For all vessels up to 1,000 tons     $3°° °° 5   cents per ton
From 1,000 to 2,000 tons       350 00 4^4    " "
(   400 00 4       " "
For all vessels above 2,000 tons } Up to 2,000 tons, and 2 cents per
f     ton on all tonnage above 2,000.
All fractional parts of 50 tons to be counted and paid for as 50 tons.
ESQUIMALT MARINE RAILWAY.
Cradle, length      3°o feet.
Beam,        ■'        60    "
Capacity  3.005 tons, d.w.
For scale   of  charges,   apply  to   the   Manager,  W.    F. Bullen,
Victoria, B.C.
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KJMKMBJI»WlVX»ffAHIUWH«HaiHB*m*HWWBlW BRITISH   COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF   TRADE.
Recent Important Placer Gold Discoveries in British
Columbia.
ATLIN   LAKE.
Just recently important finds have been made this side of the Yukon
boundary line in British Columbia, which have attracted a good deal of
News of the finding of rich placer diggings on Pine Creek, a little
stream emptying into Atlin Lake, in the northern portion of British
Columbia, reached Skagway on August 5th, and on the 13th the first
reports reached Victoria by steamer. The discoverer was a man named
Miller, who struck gold there a couple of years-ago, but kept the secret
until recently, when he, his brother and some friends made a location,
and in two days are reported to have taken out $800. The news spread
rapidly, and in a few days hundreds of prospectors had gathered on the
creek and staked claims. E. E. Tennant, who was among the first to
go in with the rush, reported that on Discovery claim the owners, with
two sluice boxes of 20 feet each, took out from $1,400 to $2,000 in
three days as the result of three men's work. Other reports have been
received, stating that the dirt panned from 10 cents to $7.50, and that
this had been found on the six miles of Pine Creek prospected. The
diggings are easy of access from Bennett, and the country is of a rolling,
open nature, with good timber available. The pay dirt begins at a foot
from the surface, and bed rock is struck at five feet depth. The gold
taken out is remarkably pure, and is reported to be worth nearly $18.00
an ounce. The new diggings can be reached in less than four days
from the coast, going in by the way of Skagway. Pine Creek is in the
extreme north of British Columbia and just south of Atlin Lake, into
which it flows. Fom Lake Bennett the distance is 120 miles to the
mouth of Atlin River, where it empties into Taku Arm ; then there is
a mile and a half portage over a level country, where a tram is already
being built. From here the distance to Discovery is 15 miles, the first
seven by water and the remaining eight by trail.
Latest advices received at time of going to press, 15th November,
confirm the richness and great extent of the gold-bearing area in the
vicinity of Atlin Lake. Up to September 15th over 1,900 claims had
been staked on fourteen creeks and gulches, and a still greater number
of bench claims had been staked. It is said that many of these claims
will have to be relinquished on or before June 1st, 1899, in consequence
of the same person having made more than one location.   APPENDICES.
99
PLACER  MINING LAWS AND  REGULATIONS
IN   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Placer mining is defined as the mining of any natural stratum or
bed of earth, gravel or cement for gold or other precious minerals or
stones. Placer claims are divided into four classes ; and, as the size
and location of claims vary, according as they fall within one or other
of these classes, it will be advisable, as a preparatory measure, to become
familiar with the mode and effect of the classification. The following
table contains a compilation of the legislation relating to this matter;
the claims being measured horizontally, irrespective of inequalities on
the surface of the ground.
"Creek diggings" shall mean any mine in the bed of any river,
stream or ravine, excepting bar diggings; and a "creek claim" shall
be ioo feet long, measured in the direction of the general course of the
stream, and shall extend in width from base to base of the hill or
bench on each side, but when the hills or benches are less than ioo
fe"et apart the claim shall be ioo feet square.
" Bar diggings " shall mean any mine over which a river extends
-when in its flooded state ; and in "bar diggings" a claim shall be a
strip of land ioo feet long at high water mark, and in width extending
from high water mark into the river to its lowest water level.
" Dry diggings'' shall mean any mine over which a river never
extends, and in "dry diggings " a claim shall be ioo feet square.
" Bench diggings " shall mean any mine on a bench, and shall, for
the purpose of defining the size of a claim in "bench diggings," be
excepted from "dry diggings;" and in "bench diggings" a claim
shall be ioo feet square : Provided, that the Gold Commissioner shall
have authority, where a bench is narrow, to extend the limits of the
claim beyond the limits of the bench, but not to exceed ioo feet square.
" Hill diggings " shall mean any mine on the surface of a hill, and
fronting on any natural stream or ravine; and in "hill diggings" a
claim shall have a base line or frontage of ioo feet, drawn parallel to
the main direction of the stream on which it fronts. Parallel lines
drawn from each end of the base line, at right angles thereto, and
running to the summit of the hill, shall constitute the side lines
thereof. Legal posts shall be placed ioo feet apart, on both the base
line and side lines, and no claim shall extend beyond the posts so
placed.
I ^^ffi^WflU--*^!**.^-*-.*
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BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF  TRADE.
In addition to these classes there is a subsidiary class relating to
precious stones alone, a further reference to which will be made when
dealing with the granting of leases. The definition " Precious stone
diggings " shall mean "deposit of precious stones, whether in veins,
beds, or gravel deposits."
A special right is given to discoverers of new diggings, this being as
follows:—
If any free miner or party of free miners, discover a new mine, and
such discovery be established to the satisfaction of the Gold Commissioner, placer claims of the following size, in dry, bar, bench, creek or
hill diggings shall be allowed, viz.:—
To one discoverer, one claim 300 feet in length.
To a party of two discoverers, two claims, amounting together to
600 feet in length.
To a party of three discoverers, three claims, amounting together to
800 feet in length.
To a party of four discoverers, four claims, amounting together to
1,000 feet in length.
And to each member of a party beyond four in number, a claim of
the ordinary size only.
A creek discovery claim shall extend on each side of the centre of
the creek as far as the summit of the hill, but not exceeding 1,000 feet.
A new stratum of auriferous earth, gravel or cement, situated in a
locality where all placer claims are abandoned, shall be deemed a new
mine, although mines in the same locality shall have been previously
worked; and dry diggings discovered in the vicinity of bar diggings
shall be deemed a new mine, and vice versa. A discoverer's claim shall
be considered as one ordinary claim, in respect to recording, working
and representing.
Every free miner has the right to enter, locate, prospect, and mine
for gold and other precious metals upon any land in British Columbia,
whether vested in the Crown or otherwise, except Government reservations for townsites, land occupied by any building, any land falling
within the curtilage of any dwelling house, and any orchard, any land
lawfully occupied for placer mining purposes, and also Indian reservations. Previous to entry upon lands already lawfully occupied, security
must be given for any loss or damage to be occasioned by the miner,
and the amount due for such loss or damage if not paid by the miner,
may be collected by process of law. A free miner has also the right to
kill game for his own use at any time of the year. APPENDICES. 101
A placer claim must be as nearly as possible rectangular in form,
and marked by four legal posts at the corners thereof, firmly fixed in
the ground. One of such posts shall be marked as the " initial post,"
and on that post shall be placed a legible notice in writing, stating the
name of the claim, its length in feet and general direction, with the
date of the notice and name of each locator. If any side line of any
claim shall exceed ioo feet in length, legal posts shall be placed along
such side line, at distances not exceeding ioo feet. A "legal post"
means a stake standing not less than four feet above the ground, and
squared or faced on four sides for at least one foot from the top, and
each side so squared or faced shall measure at least four inches on its
face so far as squared or faced, or any stump or tree cut off and squared
or faced to the above height and size.
TABLE OF CHARGES.
For every free miner's certificate issued to an individual $   5 oo
For every free miner's certificate issued to a joint stock company :—
(a) Having a nominal capital of $100,000.00 or less...    50 00
(b) Having a nominal capital exceeding $100,000.00   100 00
[1897, c. 28x s. 22.]
Every substituted certificate       1 00
Recording any claim       2 50
Recording every certificate of work       2 50
Recording any " lay over," or every other record required to be
made in the '' Record Book "       2 50
Recording every abandonment, including the memorandum to
be written on the record       2 50
For any other record made in the " Record of Abandonments ".      2 50
For recording every affidavit, where the same does not exceed
three folios of 100 words       2 50
For every folio over three, per folio  3°
The above rate shall be charged for all records made in
the " Record of Affidavits "	
For all records made in the "Record of Conveyances," where
the same do not exceed three folios       2 50
For every folio over 3, a further charge per folio of.  3°
For all copies or extracts from any record in any of the above-
named books, where such copy or extract shall not exceed
three folios, per copy       2 5°
Where such copies or extracts exceed three folios, per folio for
every folio over three  3°
For filing any document  25
For a Crown Grant       5 °°
■■■WWfWP^lwwnMMWHWMHMWaHf'MJIW.WWWMWWBWWt BRITISH  COLUMBIA BOARD OF  TRADE.
KLONDIKE,   N. W. T.
VIA YUKON RIVER.
Victoria to Dawson  City (Klon-
dyke) via St. Michael, about	
VIA DYEA.
DALTON TRAIL.    .
Miles. Miles.
Victoria to head ot Chilcat Inlet.      1,000
4,425       Head of Chilcat Inlet to Fort Selkirk                               3°°
Fort Selkirk to Dawson City^.... 140
Total.
Victoria to Dyea 	
Dyea to Tagish Lake	
To Head of March Lake	
Foot of March Lake	
.   Head of Miles Canon	
Foot of Miles- Canon	
Head of White Horse Rapids
Foot of White Horse Rapids..
Taheena River  ....
Head ot Lake La Barge     ....
Foot of Lake La Barge	
Teslintoo River	
Big Salmon River	
Little Salmon River	
- Five Finger Rapids	
Pelly River 	
White River	
Stewart River	
Sixty Mile Creek	
Dawson City	
Total.
1 1.000
72.25
4.90
19.06
25-73
.62
1.39
•3»
■4-59
13-15
3345
36.21
59.2§
58.46
95-82
9.80
21.50
45-29
t.575-70
VIA SKAGWAY.
Victoria to Skagwav	
Skagway to Tagish Lake
Tagish Lake to Dawson City.
1,440
Milts.
9951
Total	
VIA STICKINE RIVER.
'Victoria to Wrangel (ocean steamship)	
Wrangel to Telegraph Creek (river steamers)	
Telegraph Creek to Teslin Lake
(trail).   	
Teslin Lake to Dawson City
(Klondyke), (boat)	
Total	
i.567
Miles.
750
150
150
584
i,634
ATLIN   LAKE,   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Victoria to Skagway, ocean steamship	
Skagway to Lake Bennett, train and waggon road
.Lake Bennett to Atlin Lake, water and trail	
Miles.
995
49
120
1,061
DAWSON CITY—JUNCTION OF YUKON  AND   KLONDIKE   RIVERS. 0*
VIEW TAKEN FROM MOUNT TOLMIE 2*/2 MILES DISTANT, JULY, 1898 v*.^-..*
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Scale of Statute Miles
AND PUBLISHED BY THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA BOARD OF TRADE oium, 23 1
VICTORIA, B.C. °kafna» **88 miles
" to Auckiabd., 7988 miles
Entered according to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year 1897, by the *   q ^    T    ' \   " "* 1" '"X"*"
Province Publishing Co., Ltd., at the Department of Agriculture.   tO Sydney, 8602 1111168 \       " " "    Victoria \tO San Francisco, 7lj6 miles
"T&e-
wr
AP OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FREE ON  APPLICATION  TO   SEORETARY OF BOARD OF TRADE
LARGE MAP OF KLONDIKE AND CANADIAN YUKON, 50 CTS.

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