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No dynasty in North America. The West between salt waters. Hudson Bay a free basin like the Gulf of Mexico.… Fernon, Thomas S. (Thomas Sargeant), 1818-1896 1878

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Array 
No Dynasty in North America. 
THE WEST BETWEEN SALT WATERS.
HUDSON BAY A FREE BASIN LIKE THE GULF OF MEXICO.
HUDSON STRAIT A FREE GATE LIKE THE
STRAIT OF FLORIDA.
f      MANITOBA LIKE LOUISIANA A MARITIME STATE.
NORTH AMERICA FOR CITIZENS, NOT FOR SUBJECTS.
THE WEST AND ITS WAYS OUT TO THE COAST
AND IN FROM THE OCEAN.
MISCELLANY.
BY
1 t *SK       IN? \
THOMAS   S. FEElSTOlN".
;T.
FOR   SALE   AT
BRENTANO'S LITERARY EMPORIUM,
39  Union  Square,  New  York.
PEICE, FIFTY CENTS.  No Dynasty in North America.
THE WEST BETWEEN SALT WATERS.
HUDSON BAY A FREE BASIN LIKE THE GULF OF MEXICO.
HUDSON STRAIT A FREE GATE LIKE THE
STRAIT OF FLORIDA.
MANITOBA LIKE LOUISIANA A MARITIME STATE.
NORTH AMERICA FOR CITIZENS, NOT FOR SUBJECTS,
THE WEST AND ITS WAYS OUT TO THE COAST
AND IN FROM THE OCEAN.
MISCELLANY.
BY
THOMAS   S. FEESTOK
PHILADELPHIA:
PRESS   OF   HENRY   B.   ASHMEAD,
Nos. 1102 and 1104 Sansom Street.
1878. 
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1878, by
THOMAS S. FERNON,
In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 1
NO DYNASTY IN NORTH AMERICA.
O
H
CHAPTUR I.
The atlas of the world contains no political outline so " ragged
edged" as the Dominion of Canada, made up of misallied provinces
in single file like Indians on a trail, nowhere two abreast; and of which
it may be said, could the autonomic wonder be described, that Manitoba is its chest, with one lung thawed in the grain-growing summer
solstice, the other lung blockaded with ice throughout the year: its
waist the wasp girth of ground between Lake Superior and James
Bay; Nova Scotia its heel; and Newfoundland the big toe of its
"best foot put foremost" among the fishes.
The Dominion of Canada was organized contemporaneously with
the military adventure of Napoleon the Third in Mexico, during the
rebellion of the Potomac Rio-Grande States, 1861-65, in expectation
that secession would succeed and the American Union be dissolved.
To profit from this * disaster France and Great Britain made mutual
preparations.    But the "wayward sisters" that loved secession "not
wisely but too well," when they went out at the side doors open
south, are reinstalled in their old places and duties under the invincible Constitution, which, to preserve liberty in the Republic and union
among the States, can take shape to meet necessities, can carry guns
like a ship and be reefed and unfurled like a sail, to suit the weather
of the times; and the prodigal sons of secession) willing to serve the
country, break bread in Washington and divide appropriations in
Congress with representatives of the States that continued steadfast;
and so the four quarters of the  country, named after the cardinal
points, are all cemented in the joints dovetailed in the Union shield,
and every State is a standard star on the national flag.
The American citizen is always and everywhere gladdened by the
ensign of his nationality ; and the subject in political fetters is cheered,
by the stars and stripes, radiant in the ports of the world penetrated
by American ships, with colors at the mast-head, free in the wind and
bright against the heavens, the banner an inspiration, the background
the resting place for hope.    What a contrast between freedom and
<*
\
1*
1 despotism ! What a transition from bondage of the mind to liberty
of speech and action ! Through its flag the American Union is visible,
as through the firmament the universe is comprehensible; and the
harmony among the States that move in the Union is identical with
the harmony among the orbs that move in space. Lift up your
thoughts, oh ye politicians in Congress, and look over North America,
ye rulers in Washington !
Beyond the Rio Grande neighbor Mexico is an independent Republic ; whereas the Dominion north of a boundary line of many crooks
and few tangents, though cradled in "great expectations," an empire
in embryo, for a Prince of the House of Hanover, or some one of its
choosing, is uncultivable for cereal and fibrous crops in two-thirds or
more of its superficial square miles.
" Only partially thawed in summer," says the geographical chart,
on the polar side of a climate line through the British Possessions;
and white-bear, reindeer, and walrus, says the same chart, above a
climate line described as the "northern limit of barley and trees,"
which crosses Slave Lake and intersects Hudson Bay near the mouth
of Nelson River.
The arctic highlands and islands and the icy seas and sounds
between Alaska and Baffin Bay, and from the sixtieth parallel to the
pole, may be considered British territory to expand the circumference
of empire, and perhaps commend the Dominion to adventurous trappers, sanguine fur traders, and rash navigators in search of the
magnetic point and the northwest passage; but for governmental
purposes these considerations are of minimum account, even though
the Esquimaux be assessed as tributers for mining for fishes in fissures
in the ice.
And Europeans, when they compare localities in high latitudes in
North America with localities on corresponding lines in their own
country, ought always credit their milder home climate to the Gulf
Stream which passes.a tepid river between banks of colder water from
the Florida Strait to the British islands, and via the North Sea to
Norway; whilst the arctic current, with Greenland's icebergs adrift
in its waters, cold almost to the freezing point, prolongs the embargo
of winter in the St. Lawrence, and defers the opening of navigation
to Quebec and Montreal till more than half the season of spring,
always a busy time, is past and gone.
Moreover, it is wicked, because it is deception, to inscribe on a map
of the Dominion of Canada "latitude of London 50° 30'" athwart
Lake Winnipeg, where in midwinter the mercury sinks to fifty decrees
below zero, and has been cast into balls in bullet moulds, for ocular
demonstration/ 1
True, there are prairie bottoms, upland terraces, and littre and large
oases in the Winnipeg basin, between the international boundary fence
and the isothermal limit to agriculture. And the Dominion govern"
ment, with the proceeds of loans negotiated in the "mother country,"
is traversing Dominion territory with the Canada Pacific Railway
through twenty-seven hundred (2700) miles of wilderness, from Montreal via Ottawa, Serlick, and Yellow Head Pass, to the Pacific waters.
But it is, nevertheless, a fact disparaging to the Dominion that, of
the Europeans who first land in Canada, many soon push on through
it into the States ; so an emigrant via the Dominion is an immigrant
in the Union, and hence, notwithstanding that Quebec was founded
in 1608, and is older than New York city, and Serlick in Manitoba
was settled fifty years before Minnesota, New York city to-day contains as many inhabitants as twenty Quebecs, whereas the white
population in Minnesota is more than thirty-six times the white and
half-breed population of Manitoba. New York State contains a larger
population than the whole Dominion of Canada, although Jacques
Cartier, a French navigator, sailed up the St. Lawrence in 1535, and
it was not till 1609 that Hendrick Hudson, in the Dutch service,
entered the waters of New York Bay.
In British Columbia gold was discovered in 1858, twenty years
ago; but Washington Territory, on the Union side of the temporary
boundary fence, and which never allured gold-hunters, contains more
than twice the population of its British neighbor. Why ? Because
one is part of the American Republic, the other is a dependency of
a foreign kingdom. In one place the man is a citizen, where partent-
rights are restricted to discoveries and inventions in the sciences and
arts; the other is a subject who owes allegiance to a far-away dynasty,
where titles are inheritable and society is portioned into castes, as
railway freight is portioned into classes.    Witness :
Washington Territory
Square Miles.
Census.
White Population
69,994
187,0
22,195
213,000
1871
10,586
British Columbia,
)
The Hudson Bay Company's charter, dated May 2, 1670, expired  £a PJajnh
in 1859.    Lord Serlick, obtained a grant of land on  Red River in
1811, and in 1816 he arrived at his colony with a military escort.
In 1816 the site of Chicago was in the Northwest Territory, and
the Missouri Territory west of the Mississippi River was bounded on
the south by the State of Louisiana, and on the north by British
America. Indiana was the frontier State, admitted into the Union
December 11, 1816. When, therefore, Lord Serlick visited his settlement on Red River, in 1816. via Hudson Bay and the portages 6
between ".York Factory" and Serlick, Union domain was wilderness
west of Lake Michigan ; for Minnesota was not organized as a Territory till March 3, 1849, and was not admitted as a State till
February 26, 1857.
Comparison.
Minnesota,
Manitoba,
squa
Miles
83,531
2,891,734
Census.
1870
1871
Population.
438,257
11,963
The population at the settlements on Red River and the Assini-
boin in 1843 was 5143.
In Minnesota the whites only are counted; in Manitoba, census of
1871, the half-breeds are included with the whites.
At the time of Lord Serlick's visit to Red River in 1816, there
were only eighteen States in the Union, all east of Lake Michigan
and the main Mississippi River, except Louisiana;. whereas now
there are in the Union thirty-eight States, and eleven Territories,
containing more than eleven embryo States.
There will be sixty millions of inhabitants in the Union before
there will be five millions of inhabitants in the Dominion; for, in the
ten years ending 1871, the Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Bruns-
wick, and Nova Scotia increased only 395,265, whereas, in the ten
years ending in 1870, the State of Pennsylvania increased 595,941,
and the Union, notwithstanding four years of sanguinary civil war,
increased 7,075,877, which is more than twice the total of Dominion
population.
Here is what Minnesota, Manitoba's neighbor, has done in the way
of growth and increase:
Population,
Minnesota,
1840.
0
1850.
6,077
1860.
172,0^3
1870.
438,257
Manitoba, in 1871, contained of whites and half-breeds 11,963.
This, indeed, is a contrast in increase, in considering which it is
well to remember that the French fur traders had penetrated into the
Red River region from Hudson Bay, and also from Lake Superior,
more than a hundred years anterior to Lord Serlick's visit in 1816.
Fort Bourbon, now York Fort, was built by the French, who held it
from 1697 to 1714, when possession was surrendered to the English.
Manitoba, therefore, cannot urge insulation as a cause of its small
population, because its two routes with portages gave it as good
communications to the seaboard as were available across the Allegheny
Mountain to the Ohio River, prior to the opening of the Baltimore
and Ohiu Railroad to Wheeling, 11th January, 1853, and the Pennsylvania Railroad to Pittsburgh, 14th February, 1854.    Ohio con- tained over two millions of population before a railway track crossed
its boundary line. "The star of empire westward took its way" at
a very early day across Pennsylvania and Yirginia, and the frontier
«/ «/ ft/ fc ^3 /
State was on the west bank of the Mississippi River, opposite the
mouth of the Ohio River, before the railway was in public use even
in England, the land of its invention and first construction. No, no,
it is as a State that Manitoba may more reasonably expect to attract
immigration, for the stranger from afar would then find within it the
"liberty, equality, and fraternity" which he crossed the ocean to
enjoy, in personal experiences and domestic comforts.
There are no flanged family shoes worn in the Union to keep the
son on the father's track, like a car with flanged wheels coupled to a
car ahead, for here man is free to make a self-propelling motor of his
brain power; whereas to move a train, or even a car, a steam engine
is a necessity. Self-reliance in mundane matters is the American
mental characteristic, and the observant alien plants his boy in American ground to grow an American citizen and enjoy freedom in manhood. The scion is not expected to trudge behind his sire, who
succeeded his grandsire, but, on the contrary, to strike out for himself,
when moved by inward capacity for advancement.
Where there are privileged orders to be fed and kept fat for society
show-beef and birds, and honors, commissions, and offices are dispensed by royal favor, or by royal proxies, the wheel of fortune is
turned by hand, clean or dirty as the case may be, like the wheel of
a lottery containing a few prize numbers and many blanks; but where
the goddess Fortune is neither fettered nor blindfolded, and there is
free admission to the industries and the professions, and all the human
pursuits which employ civilized society are open opportunities to
necessity and ambition, fortune has nothing to do with the choice of
service, but only with the delivery of the compensations and prizes in
dollars and distinctions. And hence we see in the high places in
Washington and in the States, and at the head of the industries and
the professions, men moved by mental power and moral worth from the
ranks of the honest poor to the foremost and uppermost positions.
All men work up or down, for no sane man is content to stand still
on the same step in a flight of stairs between two floors ; and to move
forward is to go up and to go backward is to go down. Fame must be
won else it cannot be worn ; fame must be built of deeds substantial
as monumental stones, or it cannot be perpetuated, for fame is the
evidence of things seen with the eye of the understanding; but
wealth amassed by a hoarder of dollars, like a hay-stack after a
mower has pitched to its top his last forkfull of grass, is apt to
diminish, for farm stock must have fodder, and heirs have voracity the same as rats; expansion and contraction are parts of one law, as
the up and down ends of a seesaw are parts of one board.
There is a standard measure and rule and a true balance; and
persons and things measured and weighed are sometimes short, sometimes light; but despite the imperfections and inequalities in human
nature, there has been nO recent reaction in the progress of the world,
for Christian peoples now girth the globe, and new ideas grow among
the old traditions. Public opinion is a pervading power, tending
more and more to a prevailing influence in cabinet, council, and camp.
Trust in God and His purposes, and meantime rely on yourself,
and in honest ways strive for honorable ends. And this is true of
nations as of individuals; for a nation in its governing force is one
man multiplied by many, as, indeed, is the population of the earth the
posterity of one mated pair—Adam and Eve. For evidence of the
past look to the books, which, however imperfect, are the only witnesses that survive for history except ruins.
Before attempting to forecast probabilities, watch current events,
and weigh the men in high places, as weather doctors consult the
barometer, to ascertain the pressure of the atmosphere, and the thermometer, which tells the degree of temperature.
Thus the weather-vane and mercury-tube do much for man; and
the equivalent of whatsoever has been accomplished is possible of
repetition ; and where the people are intelligent, and incumbents of
office are patriotic to country and true to duty, the ends attained
tend to the common good of mankind; for developments due to mental and moral causes dispel superstition and illuminate darkness.
France is a flame in a lighthouse lantern on a coast strewn with
wrecks, and Paris is an illuminated clock to the capitals of Europe,
where chronometers are not corrected to the sun on the meridian, but
are regulated to the phases of affairs, on different faces for separated
places, like a time-piece with dials showing the hour and minute in all
the principal cities around the globe.
There are other eruptions besides volcanoes which bury cities, and
there are subterranean fires other than those in the bowels of the
earth, which make its surface tremble and its crust crack ; for public
opinion aroused in anger can pour out a wrath as sure to overwhelm
as lava poured from a crater is certain to harden in a winding-sheet.
Under the Republic, since February, 1871, France has achieved
more than appeared possible in so few years. Hence France is an
exemplar for other nations, and the United States of Europe is a consummation possible to the masses, in whom there is a latent fire
like electricity, which, though invisible in the atmosphere, is irresistible in the thunderbolt.    And, as a storm with lightning purifies the n
9
summer air which human beings breathe into their lungs, so revolu- *
O O    7
tion, with its elements in anger, is a sanitary agent where dynastic
abuses offend the sense of practical economy and deteriorate the public
morals and political health. A dynasty is a piece of ground watered
by irrigation like a cranberry patch or a rice plantation, and produces
results according as it is fed with the rainfall of other land, through
the works of other hands. A republic of free states is an orchard of
fruit-trees; it blossoms and bears.
A plough turns a furrow and breaks the ground for a new crop.
And revolution turns the subsoil uppermost to bury the weeds turned
down, and give the corn planted room to grow and ripen into golden
ears. Without revolution the " Dark Ages," which cover with night
more than half the Christian era, would have been prolonged through
more centuries. To revolution humanity is indebted for the American
Union, the climax of free government, at the date of the Declaration
of Independence, and also at its centennial celebration. Revolution
is public opinion expressed successfully; and no government can defy
or ignore public opinion with impunity, for it is everywhere the supreme
power, when it approximates unanimity in judgment and action. How
careful and prompt are the ambassadors and ministers of kings and
queens on the chess-board of Europe, to make a case or an excuse for
a transaction or a treaty ! How anxious they are to make sharp practice pass for fair play ! as, for instance, when Austria was told to carve
two bones off Turkey, through muscles and sinews, the Berlin Con-
*/  7 O
gress gave the appropriation the appearance of an European mandate
rouged in the interest of peace; but Bosnia and Herzegovina were not
to be assigned without protest with weapons, and the Berlin pretext
deceived nobody, for nowadays important facts are communicated simultaneously to all men who read newspapers and draw conclusions.
The telegram travels faster in wire to circulate the news, than the
earth turns on its axis to greet the sun; steamships straight-line the
oceans, and locomotive engines race-course the continents.
The Congress of Berlin, called to consider the treaty of San Ste-
fano, determined fewer issues than it deferred; and hence the uncertainty which prevailed before it met has not been diminished since it
adjourned. International questions put off to sleep are in a condition
of quiet which may be broken at any time, and the recuperated party
roused refreshed for another strife. What Russia needs to satisfy its
necessities—national and international—is forecasted and understood;
but how many months or how many years Russia may have to wait,
and how and where Russia may have to venture and strike, to reach
its goal is, of course, problematical.
The cause of Russia can have but one finality; its course is to a
ft/    / 10
destination not in doubt, for it is the most conspicuous objective point
in the Eastern Hemisphere, by reason of its ancient time and modern
-date antecedents and the jealousies and cross purposes which perplex
the European situation.
Unquestionably the war indemnity mentioned in the San Stefano
treaty, in a clause which the Berlin Congress did not supplement, is
an ember in hot ashes, where a little stirring will make a smoke and
start a fire. And before the Russians recross the Balkans, homeward
bound, and evacuate Varna, and leave Bulgaria among the buzzards,
there are sundry settlements to be made, in which the army of occupation can cooperate with St. Petersburg like a fleet with London.
Anti-Russian diplomacy exceeds equivocation when it professes to
believe that the Russian people will rest on any treaty as final and
conclusive which does not assure to Russia military and naval facilities to keep the straits open to Russian ships. Nothing short of such
security will satisfy Russia or make peace permanent.
And as the map of the American Union will not be finished till its
northern boundary, where it is a tangent fence be taken down, and
sunk out of sight where it is a water-course, neither will the map of
Russia be finished till more acquisitions in Europe and in Tartary are
included in its consolidated empire; for the Black Sea is in verity a
bottle, of which Constantinople is the cork; the cities in the basin of
the Oxus—the theatre of momentous events in past times—are, in
these latter days, only way stations. The mountain water-shed be-
tween the Oxus, which flows north, and the Indus, which flows south,
is the main divide between India, under the rule of a foreign country
on an ocean island far away, and Khanates which are dovetailed
parts of the Russian Empire, with commercial interests in common
with Orenburg and Astrakhan: because it is the policy of Russia to
seek and strive to Russianize wheresoever it reaches and holds fast;
whereas, Great Britain has, in no sense, Anglicized India, which it
manipulates as if 1,558,254 square miles of territory were a plantation, and 240,000,000 inhabitants were so many chattels, utilized
for the profit of absentees, less the cost of administration.
CHAPTER II.
The 1814-15 Congress of Vienna could not be repeated; nor can
any one read the proceedings of that body in Thiers' "Napoleon"
without indignation that Austria, which merited so little from Napoleon's overthrow, was allotted so many spoils, largely at the expense
•» 1 O      »/ ST 11
of France. But, since 1815, Germany has been organized and Italy
united; Rome is restored to the ruler of Italy, and Berlin is the court
of a great power. Russia, like the United States, has a mission to
prosecute and frontiers to rectify; neither of the two, however, has
dreams for trans-ocean empire. England's policy has made "the rich
richer and the poor poorer," till now the poor of the British Isles are
the poorest among the peoples of Europe; and that British exaction
in India makes human food for famine in that naturally bountiful
land, official records abundantly prove and demonstrate. In "The
Nineteenth Century," a London monthly review, dated August, 1878,
Miss Florence Nightingale, in an article which is an indictment of
Great Britain for wholesale murder, says: " In Southern India, that
is, in Mysore, Bombay and Madras, our loss in one year's famine has
not been far short of six million souls!" Austria is held together, not
by a fusion of particles, like a car-wheel cast in a mould on a foundry
floor, but like a wheel consisting of a hub, spokes and fellies, made by
a worker in wood, and held together by an iron tire, put on by a
blacksmith. Turkey made conquest in Europe with the sword, and
threatened to extirpate Christian civilization. And when, finally, its
reverses checked its progress, its conquests were still large, for the
Black Sea was a Turkish lake, entirely surrounded with Turkish territory, till 1774, when Russia made its frontier on the Black Sea, west
of the Crimea, and, in 1783, added the Crimea to its acquisitions.
Through subsequent wars between Russia and Turkey, Russia
acquired more and more Black Sea border from Turkey; and so
Russia obtained territory on its south side in the Black Sea basin by
conquest, as the American Union obtained territory on its south side
in the Mississippi basin, by purchase. And Europe and America are
both bettered thereby.
What Louisiana was that Manitoba is, and what Louisiana is—a
State in the Union, abutting on the Gulf of Mexico—Manitoba will
be—a State of the Union abutting on Hudson Bay. Then the Union
will have the sea on all sides, east, west, north and south; for its
shores will be washed by the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the
Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay ; and its structural anatomy will be
complete with the body of the continent divided into free states, united
for national objects, into a Union which has withstood the trial of
foreign wars and the severer test of civil strife. There is no line for
the partition of the North American Union, nor for the permanent
partition of the North American Continent. The West, the core of
the country, will have at command and in use facilities for communication with Lake Winnipeg via Pembina, as it now has with Lake
Michigan, via Peoria, by river and canal; and with Hudson Bay, by
J 12
rail, as it now has with the Gulf coast and the Atlantic coast, by rail,
to all the seaports from Texas to Maine.
To be sure, there will be detractors who will disparage Hudson
Bay, depreciate its navigation facilities and exaggerate its obstructions-
from ice; but it cannot be gainsaid that it has a summer season of
open  and safe navigation, and that the Hudson Bay Company did
utilize it throughout its long and eventful history.
In sooth, in Smollett's " History of England," on the reign of
George the Second (time 1748), a hundred and thirty years ago, it is
mentioned that Parliament was petitioned "that the trade of Hudson
Bay might be laid open;" but the Company, having an exclusive
patent, resisted the proposition, which was given the go-by, on the
ground that it would entail "public expense," the aim being then, as
since, to make the St. Lawrence the commercial base of operations
across the continent, on British territory. But the St Lawrence
route is an open navigation for only half of the year, and its outlet
is high up in the north, compared with the Erie-Canal-Hudson-River
route. Hence, for Dominion interests to demur to the use of Hudson
Bay for a tide-water terminus for overland rail and inland water-line
traffic, will be regarded by the West, when the subject attracts its
serious attention, about as if Buffalo were to protest that western
traffic ought not be forwarded east from the Mississippi River, via
Florida Strait.
Precisely as the western part of Pennsylvania—an eastern State—
is in the Mississippi basin, and Pittsburgh has its main market in the
West, so the northern parts of Minnesota and Dakota—a western
State and a western Territory—are in the Winnipeg basin ; and Lake
Winnipeg will be put in artificial water-line communication with the
Mississippi River system of boat navigation, via the Red River of the
North, to the Upper Missouri and the Upper Mississippi, exactly as
Lake Michigan is connected with the Mississippi River system by canal
from Chicago to the Illinois River.
There is no international line between New York and San Francisco, and the international line between NeAV Orleans and Winnipeg
will be obliterated; for the water-shed between Hudson Bay and the
Gulf of Mexico is a roof with little inclination and a low apex, and
which sends the drainage of its north side down the Nelson River
spout, and from its south side down the Mississippi River channel to a
common level in seas which commingle their waters in the Atlantic
Ocean, via Hudson Strait and the Strait of Florida.
The French Republic, first established in 1792, was usurped by
Napoleon, who was declared First Consul in 1799, and was proclaimed
Emperor and crowned by the Pope in-1804.    The second Republic 13
was organized in 1848, and Louis Napoleon was elected President;
he destroyed it by the coup d'etat December 2, 1851; was declared
Emperor December 2, 1852. Coveting the Rhine Provinces, war on
Germany was declared July 15, 1870; on the 2d August he telegraphed to the Empress that at the storming of the heights of Saar-
bruck the Prince Imperial "Louis has received his baptism of fire."
Thirty days thereafter, September 1, he surrendered with MacMahon's
army at Sedan, and on the 4th September the Empire succumbed to
the popular indignation, and the Republic was proclaimed, in the Hotel
de Ville. And the third Republic is a field oak with roots and
branches, bearing seed acorns for other soils and leaves for wreaths
on decoration days.
By peace, patience and perseverance the third Republic in seven
years made France prosperous and potential; and the third Republic
is built to stay and stand, for it is the choice of France, over and over
again confirmed, as a necessity to its harmony and happiness, against
the remnants and shreds of dynastic factions made up of Bourbons,
Orleanists and Buorapartists, some of whom would exterminate where
not permitted to reconstruct, with old material found in ruins; the
third Republic, however, is approved, vindicated and justified, as the
elections continuously attest; and thus the third Republic, as developed under the quickening power of Thiers, and Gambetta, and a host
of steadfast men wise in experience and keen in forecast, is a covenant of promise against a background of despotism, conspicuous in
its colors as a rainbow against a cloud after a storm.
The eight provinces which (including Newfoundland) make up the
Dominion of Canada are hitched together behind a pilot motor called
a Governor-General, appointed by the occupant of the British throne,
as cars are coupled in a train behind a steam engine called a locomotive, and do not constitute a congruous governmental machine,
symmetrical and homogeneous in its political parts; whereas the
Union may be likened to a political planetarium, in which the States
move in orbits with the harmony of the heavenly bodies, and where
the Constitution, effulgent as the sun, is a source of light to the nation
and a beacon of hope to man, under clouded skies, in other lands.
Nor can the Dominion machine move without friction, because it is
engineered  in London, through submarine wire-shafting, otherwise
known as the Atlantic cable, liable to abrasion on the ridges in the
©
ocean's floor and accident from other causes.
The States of the Union, moreover, are the offspring of a co-operative compact which has a seat of reason, inductive and deductive, in
universal education in public schools of grades that rise like pyramidal
steps from a base in the alphabet to a summit in the sciences, and 14
a nervous system sensitive to right and wrong, and quick to respond
to whatever concerns the common country; for no matter where menaced or by whom assailed, order must be maintained in society and
unity preserved in the government; because the Union is a political
body permeated and pervaded with the influences and laws of attraction, cohesion and gravitation, which jointly fit it for its mission among
the nations, as the earth is adjusted and charged for perpetual motion
in the universe.
The Dominion, in contradistinction to the Union, is a new evolution from an old idea conceived in Europe, and, though sent hither to
hatch mischief, is impotent to realize expectations either in practice
or prospect, as where a reptile hatched out of a snake's egg, put into
a hen's nest to scatter a brood of chickens, was scotched before it had
fangs to bite.
True, the Dominion is susceptible of congelation into a solid mass
by the agency of cold in winter, when it is cemented with ice and
asleep under the snow. In midsummer, however, when the Winnipeg
basin is in its beauty, there is a-partial thaw in the walrus region, and
ice-cakes, frozen in the wind from the north pole, drift out through the
sounds and channels into Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, and float down
the coast in the arctic current, making the air thick with fog and the
provincial nose " blue " as the sky overhead, when the weather is
exceptionally clear.
And if the Dominion, in a political thaw, were to break into pieces
like the principal staple of its walrus region, British Columbia would
drift into the Union via Puget Sound, Manitoba'would tie fast to
Minnesota, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick would enter through
7 O
open doors into the sisterhood of New England States, for political
worship at a common national shrine.
Halifax would then in verity be the east portal open to Europe, as
San Francisco is the west portal of America open to Asia. And as
Halifax is on and of the seaboard, not in nor of the St. Lawrence, it
ought to aspire to be the front door of the Union rather than the side
door of the Dominion, for alternative use in winter time, when the
St. Lawrence, its main artery, is closed with ice against Quebec and
* ft/ * o ^*
Montreal.
Halifax, notwithstanding that it was founded in 1749, a hundred
and twenty-nine years ago, is to-day surpassed in population by more
than thirty cities in the United States, and by three cities in the
Dominion (Quebec, Montreal and Toronto), one on Lake Ontario, two
on the St. Lawrence, all rival and antagonistic to Halifax, when not
under embargo from ice. Contrast Halifax, as the Atlantic end of an
overland railway route through the Union to the Pacific in California, 15
with the projected overland railway route through the Dominion to
the Pacific in British Columbia. Consider Halifax as a winter harbor
for its three Dominion rivals, that evade it when navigation is open,
with Halifax in the "mind's eye" as a naval station, commercial
dock and warehouse in the Union, at the shortest ferry across the
ocean that divides the new world from the old. Halifax in the Dominion is out of its legitimate sphere, like a ship caught in ice and
borne away from its true destination.
But reaction is not uncommon, in subject populations, where the
yoke galls man, wisely made less patient than the ox, so that he may
emancipate himself out of servitude to mortals of kindred clay, mould
and manufacture, for sometimes the loftiest in the sight of the world
are the lowliest seen from heaven. The words devil and tyrant are
synonymous, because both typify the spirit of evil; and as it is meritorious to cast out a devil, so is it meritorious to overthrow a tyrant
or a despotism. Therefore, where there is oppression, revolution is a
righteous remedy; and forced provincial allegiance is oppression,
because the provincial condition differs from the national condition as
apprenticeship differs from journeymanship, with the option of mastership open with conditions common to all. In the Union a citizen
may be content to vote, or he may aspire to candidateship, as an
apprentice, after having served out his time, may be content to work
for an employer or aspire to mastership in his calling or art; and
Nova Scotia, having first refused to enter the Dominion, subsequently
consented to be counted in with Quebec and Ontario, with which
provinces it has little affiliation and not much intertrade. Indeed,
in the company of the cities of Quebec and Montreal at Ottawa, Halifax is not unlike a third person present where there are two friends
mutually anxious for a private conversation.
New Brunswick and Maine abut against each other, divided by a
treaty fence, the first a province with a population of 285,594 in
1871, the latter a State with a population of 626,915 in 1870. New
Brunswick was settled by the French in 1639. Maine was admitted
into the Union in 1820.
Nova Scotia was visited by Europeans in 1497 and colonized in
1604, sixteen years before the first settlement in Massachusetts was
made by the Puritans at Plymouth Rock. Nova Scotia, too, has
developed coal deposits, Massachusetts has none; and yet in 1870
Massachusetts contained 1,457,351 of population on 7800 square
miles of territory, against 387,800 of population in Nova Scotia on
18,600 square miles of territory. Boston, the principal city of Massachusetts, has New York and the Hudson River between it and the
West, its main market, and back of Boston is Montreal, with commu- 16
nications west into the interior and east to the seacoast.    Contrast
Massachusetts with Nova Scotia, Boston with Halifax, and credit the
difference in favor of the American citizen over the British subject,
to the political circumstance that Massachusetts is a sovereign State
loyal to free institutions, Nova Scotia a subject colony allegiant to a
foreign kingdom twenty-five hundred miles away.
© © j j
The "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland" contains
Britons in England, Scotland and Wales, and Irishmen in Ireland.
o 7 *
But a Nova Scotian in the Dominion of Canada is a provincialist, and
the Dominion is a colonial dependence, not an independent nation.
In 1283 Wales was finally subdued by England and annexed by
conquest; and yet there are at this day thousands in Wales who use
the ancestral tongue and do not understand the English language.
The Scotchman is never an Englishman, though he may be more pronouncedly British than English or Welsh Britons.
In the Union the native-born and the adopted from abroad bear
one common name—American citizen. The American race, made up
of many breeds and crosses bv immigration and intermarriage (but
J V © © V
not by invasion like that of William the Norman, who stayed where
he conquered), dominates North America with free institutions, alongside of which the European transplant will fail of propagation and die
of frost in the bud.
Hudson Bay is to the hydrographic basin of Lake Winnipeg, which
discharges its waters down the Nelson River, precisely whfat the Gulf
of Mexico is to the basin bounded on the east and west by the Rocky
and Allegheny Mountains, which sends its waters down the Mississippi River.
And Hudson Strait is the Seagate of the Saskatchewan Valley via
Lake Winnipeg, as Florida Strait is the Seagate of the Mississippi
Valley via the Gulf of Mexico.
«/
The St. Lawrence is a narrow basin, and the group of connected
lakes which empty into it, albeit they are inland seas in a fresh-water
navigation sense, drains but an inconsiderable area of Dominion territory, compared with the area of Manitoba territory in the basin of
Lake Winnipeg.
Moreover, Lake Erie, which is the distributing pool of the three
lakes west and northwest of it, is connected with the Hudson River
by the famous Erie Canal—an artificial work equivalent to a river in
capacity and importance; and exactly as Lake Erie is connected with
the Hudson River by a water-line of cheap and easy navigation, so
may Lake Winnipeg be connected with the Mississippi River system
of boat navigation via the Red River of the North, and, it may be,
Lake Traverse and the Minnesota River Valley.    From Lake Tra- 17
verse, considered as a summit reservoir, the descent north to Lake
Winnipeg is only 366 feet, and the descent south to the Mississippi
River at the mouth of Minnesota River is only 299 feet. The moderate altitude of the Lake Traverse summit-level establishes the practicality of artificial navigation between the Minnesota River and the
Red River of the North; but as the paramount consideration is a
boat communication between the Mississippi River and Lake Winnipeg, the best route is a question which only intelligent engineering
and summit-level water supply can decide.
Here are the elevations above sea-level:—
Feet.
Lake Traverse, at head-waters of Minnesota River and the Red
River of the North, 994
Lake Winnipeg, into which Red River empties, .        .        . 628
Difference of elevation in about 650 miles distance,
Lake Traverse, as before,        ....
Mississippi River, at mouth of Minnesota River,
Difference of elevation in 256 miles,
Red River, low-water mark, at Moorhead, where Northern Pacific
Railroad crosses it, .
Lake Winnipeg, as before,       ....
Red River, at Moorhead, above Lake Winnipeg,
Lake Traverse, as before, ....
Red River, at Moorhead, as before,
366
994
695
299
. 875
. 628
. 247
. 994
. 875
Elevation of Lake Traverse above Red River, at Moorhead,      . 119
Moorhead is the head of steamboat navigation and Breckenridge
© ©
the head of boat navigation on the Red River of the North.
Canal excavation in the prairie bottom into which the Red River
of the North cut its channel would be easy work, and would shorten
distance south of Moorhead.
Indeed, by a bold cut, like the one through the peninsula summit
on the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, a great saving of distance
may be accomplished between the Red River of the North and the
Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, or either of them. Canals that connect navigable waters have lost none of their consequence, but, on the
contrary, annually acquire additional importance, as witness the Delaware and Raritan Canal between Philadelphia and New York, the
Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, the Erie Canal, the Welland Canal,
and the Illinois and Lake Michigan Canal. 18
The Welland Canal, a Dominion work which connects Lake Ontario
with Lake Erie, has 330 feet of lockage in 27 miles of distance ; and
so there are 31 more feet of elevation between Lakes Ontario and Erie
than there are between the Mississippi River at the mouth of the Minnesota River and Traverse Lake, in a distance of 256 miles, and 211
more feet of elevation between Lakes Ontario and Erie than between
Traverse Lake and Red River at Moorhead.
The Red River of the North has an average descent of less than
seven inches in the mile ; is navigable for steamboats 275 miles, and
available for small boats and barges a longer distance. The Red
River of the North can be utilized for the joint accommodation and
mutual interest of Winnipeg, Pembina and St. Paul, and other centres
of inland intertrade. Railroad bridges across it, but a few feet above
high-water mark, can be elevated or provided with draws as on other
rivers.
The Northwest had a very small population when the Erie Canal
was opened in 1§25, but look now at its tonnage and consider its importance as an artery of trade*. And from Albany and Buffalo turn
to St. Paul and Winnipeg; cast the horoscope of Minnesota, and discern first a million, next two millions, and after that more millions of
population,-with St. Paul expanded into an emporium of trade correspondingly conspicuous, boats plying the navigable water route and
cars speeding the railway track between St. Paul and Winnipeg;
Manitoba a State of the Union, and the population of the Mississippi
Valley counted by more millions than are at this time in North
America, north of Mexico; not crowded as in China proper, however,
where in an area of 1,534,953 square miles there are 405,213,152
human beings, the territory occupied being less than half the size
of the United States; and where, in the province of Ganhwuy, on
58,468 square miles, there were years ago 36,596,858 inhabitants;
as close together and densely packed almost as honey bees in a hive,
and not unlike the honey-bee-housekeepers in industry to provide and
economy to save; but in the ratio of Europe west of the longitude of
Belgrade and Warsaw, comprising Germany, Italy, France, Spain,
Belgium, Holland, and Great Britain.
Nor is there fancy or exaggeration in this prospect; for already
in matters appertaining to middle North America the word West—a
term of magnitude like the term East in Europe applied to Asia—has
absorbed the far west, southwest and northwest, and, along with the
basin of the Mississippi River, includes the basins of the lakes west
of Niagara Falls, and all the region between salt water in the Gulf of
Mexico and Hudson Bay.
From Washington, New Mexico and Montana, and all between, are 19
in the West; as from London, Hindostan and Siberia, and all between
and beyond, are in the East.
The imagination is not chargeable with extravagance where prediction has been surpassed by performance and dreams have been realized in persons and things substantial.
Consider: A zone checkered with States across the continent where
it is three thousand miles across, between the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans; an interior basin, with thirty-six degrees of longitude between
its rim in the Alleghany Mountain in Pennsylvania and the Rocky
Mountains in Montana; its diameter one-tenth the circumference of the
globe } its area ten times the size of Great Britain and Ireland, and
six times the size of France; and which interior basin between mountain watersheds, if peopled in the ratio per square mile of France in
1872, would contain 216,000,000 of inhabitants; a basin dotted with
cities from Pittsburgh to Denver, from New Orleans to St. Paul, into
O ' 7
which cities are gathered for market the plenteous harvests from
prairies and plains, from valleys with rivers in their laps, and from
table lands among the mountains; a belt of earth made luxuriant and
bountiful by nature, containing millions of acres under tillage, producing crops not equalled in other climes, and millions of acres open
for settlement and cultivation to immigrants from foreign lands, and
to native citizens prone to withdraw from large towns and small
farms, to enjoy a preferred life on the frontier, remote from neighborhood and noise.
CHAPTER  III.
At the beginning of the present century there was no State west
of Pennsylvania, north of the Ohio River. Since January 1, 1802,
twenty-two new States have been admitted into the Union—one for
every three years. At the date mentioned, Pennsylvania was the
frontier State on the fortieth parallel of north latitude ; but there are
now on that geographical line, west of the " Keystone" of the original
thirteen States that won independence and framed the Constitution—
twin achievements and a double fame—eight States and one Territory,
admitted at these dates, to wit:
Ohio,
1802
Missouri,
1821
Nevada,
1864
Indiana,
1816
Kansas,
1861
California,
1850
Illinois,
1818
Colorado,
1876
Utah, Ter.,
1850 tl
20
North of the fortieth parallel, since 1800, there have been six
States and six Territories admitted, at these dates, to wit:
Michigan*,
1837
Wisconsin, 1847
Minnesota, 1857
Iowa. 1845
Nebraska, 1867
Oregon, 1859
Dakota, Ter., 1861
Montana, Ter., 1864
Idaho, Ter., 1863
Washington, Ter., 1853
Wyoming, Ter., 1868
Alaska, Ter., 1868
318,572 square miles.
u
Area of the thirteen original States,
Area of the thirty-eight  States and eleven
Territories, .        .....    3,580,238
In 1800 there were sixteen States in the Union, and the
population was      .......    5,308,483
In 1870 there were thirty-seven States and twelve Terri-
t/
tories in the Union, and the population was    .        . 38,558,371
In 1878 there are thirty-eight States and eleven Territories in the Union, and the estimated population is 47,000,000
Minnesota State and Dakota Territory both abut on Manitoba;
and how rapidly the public lands in Minnesota and Dakota are being
disposed of by the United States appears in the following comparative statement for the fiscal years ended June 30,1877, and June 30,
1878, the same price per acre prevailing in both years:
Total, 1878.
Minnesota,     $1,041,203 12
Dakota, 1,461,801 73
Total, 1877.
^279,847 02
218,378 20
Increase.
$761,356 10
1,243,423 53
Total,
$2,503,004 85
$498,225 22        $2,004,779 63
Increase in one year, four hundred and two (402) per cent.
In British America a very large percentage of the territory is un-
cultivable; and north of the sixtieth parallel of latitude the population will always be exceedingly sparse, if human beings only be
enumerated, and migratory fauna, fish and fowl not counted.
South of Texas the coast lines converge to the Isthmus of Tehuan-
tepec, and at the Isthmus of Panama they are but a span apart.
In the manifested destiny of nations North America is reserved for
free institutions, for within it monarchy has perished in ignominy each
time that it was tried ; and the principal success in North America is
the Republic of the United States, which comprises its best parts, and
will include more and more of it, from time to time, howsoever British
diplomacy may plot to prevent. For no dynasty can be exalted in
America, where the supreme power is in the people, who put lunatics
in infirmaries, and disbelieve in thrones and titles, and where kings
I 21
and princes are tolerated only in mimic parts in theatrical amusements.
Aged penitents who were peculators and speculators before fortune
made them conservativeSj sycophants destitute of manhood pride, and
title-worshipping snobs and obsequious flunkeys may pretend otherwise, and ask for more license from London; but the precedents furnished by Mexico are fitted for Canada.
Personally, Maximilian was unexceptionable; but politically, he
was intolerable, and in the order of events fell a victim to one of the
messengers of death imported in his behalf to make Mexicans his subjects by force of arms. Subjects in America, forsooth ! The word may
be blotted out of the politics of Europe, for the citizen may succeed the
subject in Europe, as well outside as inside of France, where all forms
of government have had trial in peace and in war, and where the Republic, which, in 1870, succeeded the empire, is a pronounced success,
with a record that is a marvel among the nations.
Mexico, as a Republic, has a mission in America, where the two
Republics do not jostle each other, for there is room for two, side by
side. The city of Mexico is well situated for communication with the
interior country and the sea coasts; whereas, Ottawa, the capital of
the temporary Dominion of Canada, distant only fifty-five miles from
JT «/ »/ «/
Ogdensburg, in the State of New York, will be twenty-six hundred
miles distant from the Pacific waters, by the Canada Pacific Railway,
when built, from Ottawa to Port Moody, in British Columbia ! The
railways of the Dominion, financially considered, may have had blossoms in prospectuses, but have not had fruits in profits; but, bad as
the fiscal showing is in the official reports of roads years in use, there
will be still less comfort derived from the earnings of the Canada
Pacific Railway, to offset its prodigious cost; for its route, like much
of the route of the Inter-Colonial Railway, is through a region of
minimum local resources; and what its through traffic is to consist of,
and whence it is to come, is an inquiry adjourned till after it shall
have been inaugurated, and then—what? Why, then, the farce
annually repeated at the Canada Grand Trunk Railway meeting will
be played simultaneously on two stages, where pay-roll officials are
the actors and investors make up the audience of dupes.
A railway from Frazer River southward to a connection with a line
to San Francisco would be worth more to British Columbia than the
Canada Pacific Railway can be, east of Manitoba; and the same is
true of Manitoba and the railway via Winnipeg and Pembina, against
the Canada Pacific Railway extended east of the Red River of the
North to Ottawa.
Contemplate the intertrade of the Atlantic States, and think of
British Columbia along with Washington Territory and the States of
© © j 22
Oregon and California. Think of the intertrade between Ohio river
towns and New Orleans and throughout the Mississippi basin, from
Pittsburgh to Denver, and consider Manitoba as a State in sympathy
with Minnesota and in cooperation with other States, down to the Gulf
of Mexico. From Manitoba the outlook is south, not east, and the
interest of Manitoba is—and its aspirations ought to be—to advance
from an inland province into a maritime State like Louisiana.
Indeed, it is a hypothesis founded on ancient watermarks and topographical indications that time was when the surface of Lake Winnipeg was higher than its present level, the prairie bottom of Manitoba
under water, and the outflow to the sea via Traverse Lake and down
the Minnesota valley into the Mississippi River, till a break was made
through the ridge which walled in the great reservoir on its north
side, and the channel in which flows Nelson River was opened to Hudson Bay, now Middle Sea.
Chautauqua Lake, in the southwest corner of New York, is 1306
feet above the level of the sea and 738 feet above the level of Lake
Erie, from which it is only seven miles distant; but Chautauqua Lake
discharges its waters not into Lake Erie, seven miles distant, but into
the Gulf of Mexico, twenty-four hundred miles away, via the Allegheny, Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
But, whether the waters of Lake Winnipeg priorily flowed south,
down a gentle incline, or escaped north, down falls and rapids, the
substantial fact remains, that Manitoba may be put in navigable communication with the Mississippi River, so that boats may be passed
from Winnipeg to St. Paul, and even from Hudson Bay to the Gulf
of Mexico; as boats can now navigate a continuous water-route between
New Orleans and Quebec, via the Illinois River and the canal thence
to Chicago, whence the way is open to the lower St. Lawrence.
Lake Winnipeg may be made a commercial dock or pool like Lake
Erie, if its navigation be connected by canal with the river navigation
of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, as Lake Erie is connected with
tide-water in the St. Lawrence, via the Welland Canal, and with the
Hudson River by the Erie Canal, a work to which New York State is
indebted for its "empire" rank, and New York cityfor its commercial
supremacy.
The Saskatchewan and the Missouri are kindred rivers, whose
sources are near together in the Rocky Mountains, and the communities along the sister river banks will develop affinities for intertrade
that will promote commercial intercourse and political co-partnership;
for the Frazer River and the Columbia River, the Missouri River and
the Saskatchewan River, like the rivers which flow from fountains
among the peaks of the Allegheny Mountain, down both its' sides, 23
all drain parts of one country, pervaded by a common sympathy, which
an artificial line cannot dissever nor distract.
St. Paul is an important steamboat terminus and ^a conspicuous
centre of railway traffic. From St. Paul there are 1940 miles of
steamboat navigation southward to New Orleans, and 1913 miles of
steamboat navigation eastward to Pittsburgh. On the Mississippi
river and its principal tributaries there are 16,674 miles of river navigation.    Verily, the Mississippi River system is an inland wonder.
Surely to Manitoba it is of paramount importance that from Lake
Winnipeg there should be a boat navigation to the Mississippi River,
as there is from Lake Michigan a boat navigation to the Mississippi
River. The level of Traverse Lake is only 299 feet above the Mississippi River at St. Paul, and 366 feet above Lake Winnipeg; but
only 119 feet, or thirty-three per cent, of the latter difference would
have to be overcome bv lockage, because to Moorhead the Red River
of the North is a steamboat navigation, and at Moorhead. the surface of Red River is 247 feet above its surface at its mouth in Lake
Winnipeg.
Between Buffalo and Albany, on the famous Erie Canal, there are
642 feet of lockage, and from Lake Erie to Montreal there are 568
feet of lockage.
Between the head of steamboat navigation at Moorhead, on the
Red River of the North, and the head of navigation on the Mississippi
River at the mouth of the Minnesota River, the lockage would be only
418 feet, 150 feet less than the lockage between the Lake Erie head
of the Welland Canal and Montreal on the St. Lawrence.
No one can examine the question of the basin of the Mississippi
main river and its tributaries and not be convinced that the Red
River of the North, which is divided from the affluents of the Mississippi River and the Missouri River by a phenomenally low prairie
divide with innumerable lakes, will be connected by canal with the
navigable streams so very near it on both sides, east and west.
Between Fort Garry, on Red River, and Lake Superior, the Dominion government has in operation a route consisting of 140 miles
of road, 8' miles of portages and 304 miles of water navigation; total
length 452 miles. The summit-level swamp on this route, distant 74
miles from Prince Arthur Landing, Lake Superior, is 1483 feet above
the level of the sea, and 489 feet higher than Lake Traverse above
the sea; so that from the swamp summit to Lake Superior, which
latter is 600 feet above the sea, there is a descent of 883 feet, against
299 feet from Lake Traverse summit to the Mississippi River.
During the year ended June 30, 1876, there were carried over the
Dominion summer route, between Lake Superior and Fort Garry, 24
2172 passengers, a small number, considering- the force employed on
the Canada Pacific Railway, additional to resident population, emigrants going out and immigrants coming in.
During the year ended June 30, 1876, the Northern Pacific Railroad carried 3645 passengers to and 6951 passengers from Moorhead
on Red River.
By the Canada Pacific Railway route the distance from Fort Garry
on Red River to Lake Superior at Fort William is 410 miles. From
Fort Garry the air-line distance is 50 miles less to Duluth in Minnesota than to Fort William in Ontario.
From Fort Garry the railroad distances south and east are: To
the Minnesota line, by the Pembina branch, 85 miles; to Brecken-
/ft/ j
ridge on Red River, 287 miles; to St. Paul on the Mississippi River,
504 miles; from St. Paul to Chicago, 409 miles; Fort Garry via
Breckenridge and St. Paul to Chicago, 913 miles. The distance by
rail between Chicago and Fort Garry can be shortened a hundred
miles via Milwaukee and Thomson.
From Chicago to New York by shortest route via Pittsburgh and
Philadelphia, operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, the
distance is 913 miles, precisely the same as the distance from Chicago
via St. Paul and Breckenridge to lower Fort Garry, where the Canada"
© »/   '
Pacific Railway crosses Red River. Total distance from Fort Garry
through Breckenridge, St. Paul, Chicago and Philadelphia, to New
York city, 1826 miles. From Fort Garry to Halifax by Canada
Pacific and Intercolonial Railways via Ottawa, Montreal and Quebec,
the distance is 2308 miles, all on Dominion territory.
As, however, the St. Lawrence is ice-bound for half the year, comprising a part of autumn, the whole of winter, and more than two-
thirds of spring, the ports of Montreal and Quebec are of course
closed to navigation all that time; and as Halifax is 482 miles farther
distant than New York city from Fort Garry, the foreign trade of
Manitoba, if allowed to choose its own channel, will be across Minnesota and through Union seaports to Europe.
The ambition to have a through route on Dominion territory is,
O «/ 7
therefore, beset with drawbacks to realization insurmountable in practice. The untrammelled intertrade between the States of the Union
will not be overlooked by Manitoba, which will hardly consent to be
"bottled" for political reasons formulated at Ottawa, by a propaganda
that would transplant to the new world the political society shams of
the old world, outside of Switzerland and France.
Why should England endure a titled aristocracy that withholds
from cultivation millions of acres in a country that imports much of
its breadstuff's, pays but little tax on landed estate, arrogates social
V 25
superiority, enjoys the highest office honors, and revels in fashionable
dissipation, with wealth to command the luxuries of life, where comforts are so scarce among the masses ?
In the Union only commodities are classified, and all honors and
opportunities are open to free competition. In Great Britain title
and position are inherited and transmitted, and there the ballot can do
but little good until the laws of primogeniture and entail be repealed.
Under a dynasty, man-power, horse-power, and steam-power are all
alike considered available for utilization in the economy of government. And thus man, " immortal man, made in the image of his
Maker," is degraded to a brute and equated to a machine. His
natural rights are restricted beyond the necessities of a legal code
essential for order and administration, and his privileges are circumscribed to a minimum radius of option; for he is the subject of the
crown, and is told to be thankful for the royal condescension that
makes life bearable, under conditions which provide palaces and parks
for inheritors of ancestral distinctions, life tenures, and entailed
estates, and reduce the millions to an existence beset with more
penalties than compensations, often clouded by day, seldom bright by
night; a purgatorial life between a worse condition under barbarism
and a better condition under uniform rights.
©
In a republic birthright is equality under the law, and free competition for the public offices and honors and in the professions and
pursuits.
In a monarchy titles and honors are reserved out of the common
if
stock of the state, which in a republic comprises the whole people,
whereas in a'monarchy the state is an establishment administered and
enjoyed by a law-favored class; an aristocracy not of mind or superiority of brain capacity, but of birth under a dynastic code wherein
prerogatives are perpetuated, contrary to the republican practice and
the wise course of nature which with impartial hand scatters its gifts in
the soils and rocks, where they reward the finder according as he
earns success by his own industry and effort.
The seasons come and go, and after every departure there is a
return in the circle run, for nature has fixed laws which survive vicissitudes in the weather; the day runs its rounds to true time, and only
the air is fickle in its temperature.
Human government is comparative, and at best imperfect, because
ambitious man is prone to discontent, and from a step mounted strives
to climb a step higher and is overturned; for a ladder must have two
rests, one on the ground, the other against an object to prop its
elevated end; and if a pit under it be opened or its support be removed, its own gravity will cause it to fall; so government must be founded in impartial justice, and be supported by public opinion, else
it will incline from the upright, and in its tumble down take with it
to the ground those who made of it a ladder for selfish exaltation, in
forgetfulness of the special providence that its top round was below
the lookout summit where public opinion, in a republic, is a law of
gravitation to bad men who aspire to leadership among the people.
In a dynasty there is a standing army of bayonets; in a republic the
adult population is armed with the ballot, which at the poll is the
equivalent of a ball in battle.
Louisiana is a conspicuous  State in the Union by reason of its
sugar and cotton plantations, and because it abuts on the Gulf of
Mexico and contains the focus of Mississippi River and seaboard and
trans-Atlantic trade in the city of New Orleans, which occupies one
of the most commanding sites on the world's waters, for domestic
and foreign trade, having thousands of miles of steamboat naviga-
© © ©
tion on the fresh-water rivers in its rear, and tens of thousands of
miles of steamship navigation in the ocean currents on its front and
flanks.
As a State in the Union, Manitoba would attract observation and
acquire distinction, because it abuts on Hudson Bay or Middle Sea,
which is a summer-door to the ocean from Minnesota and the West,
but which, notwithstanding British professions of free trade when an
Englishman opens his mouth in Washington, is shut and barred to
force tralfle down the St. Lawrence. Consider the geographical situation of Hudson Bay, which continues the sea into the West more than
half way across the Canada main, between the Atlantic and Pacific
Oceans. With Hudson Bay declared a free and open sea, Manitoba
as a maritime State would profit from a back-door on the north open
to Europe, as Louisiana profits from a front-door on the south open
to the West Indies and all the Atlantic coasts.
Manitoba, as one of six States across the Union, where its axle
would then turn on six wheels, Louisiana, Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa,
Minnesota, and Manitoba, between two seas, one called a bay, the
other a gulf, would have communication in all directions between the
haunts of Newfoundland whales and Aleutian seals, tropical alligators
and polar bears.
True, Nelson River has rapids and falls, and so has the St. Law-
rence and other lake and river routes, rapids and falls; but these
natural obstructions to navigation have been overcome by the judicious
expenditure of money in works engineered with skill; and thus
through ways of art, works of nature are utilized. And compared
with what has been expended, and wisely expended, on artificial aids
to navigation between Lake Superior and tidewater in the St. Law-
Hi 27
rence, the sum needed would be small, to provide artificial aids to
navigation from Lake Winnipeg to Hudson Bay.
It is but a short distance from Lake Winnipeg to Hudson Bay,
from Lake Superior to James Bay. And if the Canada Pacific Railway be located on the north side of Lake Nipigon, a short branch
road would suffice to reach a harbor on James Bay.
Apart from British considerations, which in the Dominion run
counter to the logic of American events, it is its commercial merit as
a portage railway between the Gulf of Georgia and Hudson Bay,
through British Columbia and Manitoba, that gives the Canada Pacific
© ©
Railway much of the interest it awakens. And as it is certain that
Montreal will advocate branches from the Canada Pacific main line to
ports on near-by tidewaters, Montreal cannot demur if Manitoba insist
on a branch road to a terminus on the James Bay arm of the ocean,
so very much nearer than tidewater in the St. Lawrence.
The railway from Fort Garry to a junction with a Minnesota road
from St. Paul to St. Vincent, opposite Pembina, will, at the boundary
line, put Manitoba in railway communication with Minnesota, Winnipeg with St. Paul, and the railway network of the Mississippi States—
a consideration which a Manitoban will not overlook, but which he
will be careful to weigh and turn to account.
A link of road from the junction of the Northern Pacific with the
Duluth and St. Paul line at Thomson, to the Canada Pacific Railway
on high ground west of Fort William, where it deflects  northward
© © '
and possibly will pass around Lake Nipigon, would make a seaport on
James Bay, to be called Middlesea, the northern terminus of the
Mississippi railway system, which now has its northernmost station at
Duluth, Lake Superior, a fresh-water reservoir, not a part of the
salt-water sea like James Bay.
Undoubtedly Middlesea will be a grain port—a sort of Odessa—
measured by its bushels, on James Bay, whence Hudson Strait opens
a way to Europe, on the old track of the Hudson Bay Company's
ships, where the season of navigation has. not been shortened.
The incorporation of British Columbia and Manitoba with Ontario,
Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward's Island,
was a political misalliance that will make incompatibility manifest in
domestic discord; for whilst Manitoba will have warm fellowship with
Minnesota, it will have only cold acquaintance with lower Ontario and
Quebec; and whilst British Columbia will cultivate intimate relations
with the Pacific States, and especially with the city of San Francisco,
the Atlantic provinces of the Dominion will remain strangers to it,
for Halifax is farther from it than is New York city. And the
Canada Pacific Railway, failing to cause an exodus into the wilderness
J 28
of rigors, but serving as well to carry dissatisfied emigrants thence as
© ' © J ©
deceived immigrants thither, will disappoint the sanguine temperaments of London, where
" 'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view,"
And gilds the iceberg with the guinea's hue.
Between Lake Superior and James Bay a temporary boundary,
beyond which the Dominion may not go, is indicated in probabilities
*/ «/ ©    j ±
which are as blossoms of future fruits, depending for maturity on
season, circumstance and time.
A subject is not a citizen; a subject is required to be allegiant to
a dynasty to which are mortgaged the natural rights of his posterity,
ft/*/ ©     © © X^ •/   7
from generation to generation ; a citizen, on the contrary, is loyal to
© © 7 »/   J •/
his government, of which he is a vital part, and which he operates
through proxies appointed by the ballot that thinks and counts, and
therein differs from the bavonet, which is only a tool; and as the
ft/ ? •/ '
judicious citizen is careful of his own body, to preserve his health and
prolong his life, so is he also watchful of the republic, especially when
danger lowers and a crisis impends, ready and anxious with the remedy
© J. */ */
which the ballot contains, to cure abuses that degrade localities and
deteriorate the civil service.
Since the first pair were cast out of Eden, and Adam was told "to
till the ground from whence he was taken," there has been no paradise
on the earth. But a republic approximates paradise, compared with
other governments, as Christian piety approximates perfection, compared with Turkish brutality and Mahometan absolutism.
Personal government is despotism, illustrated in the First and the
Third—the big and the little Napoleon—who both waged war for
aggression, and both caused the temporary prostration of France at
enormous cost in treasure and life.    And for what ?    Vain glory!
And so-called responsible government, where there is a crown or
life tenure, with a right of succession, and an aristocracy with personal
prerogatives and class privileges, is a " counterfeit presentment" of
constitutional power, because it represents only a portion of the people
ruled, and where all are not represented the rights of the unrepresented are usurped.
In Europe, France and Switzerland excepted, the masses, deprived
of the exercise of rights essential to free and equal government, are
graduated in the scale of life farther below their oppressors, who rule
over them, than they are marked above the flocks and herds, notwithstanding that, in the order of nature, the prince and the peasant
die by the same process—dissolve into common dust—and go to iudg-
ment together on their merits. 29
The American citizen, from the political level on which the people
stand, may mount the winding stair of promotion to its topmost step,
and there elevated wield the presidency of the United States; but at
the end of his term he descends from his high office of human greatness, and, having witnessed the inauguration of his legal successor,
quietly resumes his citizenship, without a pension or other reward
than the affections of a constituency faithfully served, and which he
reciprocates and is grateful for.
In a province where the subject owes allegiance to a foreign power,
there is a condition of dependence not congenial to manhood aspirations for distinction and progress. And it is called "recruiting the
aristocracy from the ranks," when a commoner, no matter for what
reason, is given a title to distinguish him from his fellows. But pre-
fixion and suffixion are dropped from the immortal names best known
throughout the world, as, for instance, " George Washington," who was
commander-in-chief of the armies during the revolution, and the first
President of the United States. The world identifies indelible names
with indelible deeds, and does not cite titles when it quotes heroes and
benefactors. Why, then, are titles made inheritances in kingdoms ?
Because they represent civil prerogatives and social distinctions, reserved from the people despoiled of their rights ! The unrest of the
people makes the dynasties of the Old World shake like a cradle on
rockers. And for a cause of the prevailing unrest look at the inequalities in the condition of the masses, oppressed ^ith national debts,
standing armies, heavy taxes and poor pay for hard work. Intellectual superiority, where not bound or bottled, will assert itself, compel
recognition, and command acceptation and admiration, too, if its tendencies be sympathetic and patriotic. Cavour, Thiers and Bismarck
are three illustrious examples of individual influence in national councils in recent times.
Reigning houses in Europe do not abound in ideas, and their cost
as establishments is not alone in disproportion to their availability to
the state, but is equally in disproportion to the capacity of the people
to pay. Retrenchment which begins by reducing the compensation
of the lowliest, whose per diem is least, is false economy ; for as prices
go down, the purchasing power of the dollar goes up. Hence, those
who escape reduction of salary by the year are benefited by the misfortunes of those who suffer reduction of compensation per day and
hour.
Contrast the revenues of the royal family of Great Britain from the
national treasury and other sources, with the pay-roll of all the operatives in the " black country" of Lancashire, and the cost of royalty,
with its immunities and impunities,twould be apparent.
J In the United States abuses crop out in the newspapers, and the
delinquent is discussed and retired on the black list.
In Great Britain the consequences of abuses are visited on the
struggling workingman, who is the bottom rock in a social system
©O © © 7 *>
which has more degrees and gradations than there are formations in
o ©
the stratification exposed in a shaft, from the surface of the ground to
the bottom of a deep mine.
In the United States the avenues of preferment are as numerous
and as open as the public roads, to the honors of station and the prizes
of fortune. And herein America is utterly unlike Great Britain,
where there are laws of primogeniture and entail, and a nobility titled
by patent right, like devices in the mechanic arts. Hence, subjects in
the over-peopled countries of Europe (particularly parents of children), who look abroad oven the earth in search of fields wrherein
opportunities invite enterprise and industry, are fortunate if they
elect to train for citizenship of the United States, where the Celtic
and Teutonic branches of the Caucasian race are conglomerated in a
new type of advanced humanity, builders of States in a cemented Union
which has a base broad as the continent and a roof higher than the
clouds.
Into this  Union, Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, acquired from
Russia in 1867—an acquisition geographically strategic and politically
significant—was the admission of latest date.
©
The admission of Manitoba and British Columbia will follow, because in the Dominion they insulate Alaska from its sisters, and are
in political association—not with neighbors next door, with whom
alliance would be the result of natural laws—but with distant relations, through unhappy contract into which they were inveigled when
too weak to resist persuasion.
The retrocession of the territory ceded to Great Britain by the
treaty of June 15, 1846, prior to which it had been avowed by the-
Polk administration that the title of the United States to the Russian
line at 54° 40' was "clear and unquestionable," "will quicken a Pacific
coast province into a Pacific coast State, and give the Strait of Juan
de Fuca rank and consequence with the Golden Gate of San Francisco.
And Manitoba, separated from the province of Ontario by a temporary boundary line from the north side of Minnesota to the-south
end of James Bay, will no longer be in solitude, cold as its ice and
cheerless as its north wind, for annexation will do for Manitoba what
annexation did for Texas-, as witness: 31
Population of Texas, census of 1870,     .        .        818,579
States of Mexico on the Rio Grande river:
Population of Tamaulipas,     .        .        .    108,514
Population of Coahuila,         .        .        .      67,691
Population of Chihuahua,      .        .        .    179,971
Total as per report of commission from
Mexico  to Philadelphia Centennial
Exhibition, ....      356,176
Texas in excess of three Mexican border states,      462,403
As a state of Mexico, Texas would have remained undeveloped,
exactly as Manitoba has remained undeveloped under British jurisdiction, notwithstanding the attempts made to colonize it; for Texas,
was discovered by La Salle in 1580, and Manitoba, too, is venerable,
the Hudson Bay Company's' charter bearing date 1670—eleven years
before Penn founded Pennsylvania—and the Serlick settlement on
the Red River of the North was visited by Lord Serlick with a military escort in 1816, at which time Indiana was a border State and
Illinois a Territory.
Mineral discovery, agricultural development, material progress,
and widespread prosperity, have added State after State to the American Union in rapid succession, meanwhile that British territory north
of the forty-ninth parallel, and Mexican territory south of the Rio
Grande river, is still most of it wilderness, though explored before
the thirteen British colonies became the thirteen original American
States of the Union since made continental, and which now contains
thirty-eight States and eleven Territories.
Truly this grand result is a glowing credit to free institutions,
which tolerate no patent political classes, but treat all citizens politically alike; nowhere else are opportunities so abundant, nor is success so frequently attained by individuals endowed with mental gifts
and moral worth, and who study for success with honest zeal and
manly purpose, never wavering in fidelity to the Testament, the Constitution, or the common weal. The political creed of the American
citizen is: Allegiance to God, the sole sovereign in nature, and of
whom an earthly sovereign is a poor counterfeit, a mite in matter;
faith in Christ, but not in crowns; duty to self with minimum selfishness ; fidelity to the Republic, which is a panoply over North America studded with States that glow in the political firmament like stars
in the azure arch beneath the spirit world of heaven overhead. 32
CHAPTER   IV.
The basin of Lake Winnipeg is drained by rivers which flow down
from the west, south and east, including the Red River of the North,
that spreads its sources and affluents over large portions of Minnesota
and Dakota, there interlocking on low water-sheds with tributaries of
the Missouri and the Mississippi; and also including the Saskatchewan, whose headwaters are among the fountains of the Columbia River
in the Rocky Mountains.
The area of Lake Winnipeg basin is 360,000 square miles, eight
times the size of the State of New York, and seventy per cent, larger
than the basin of the Ohio River from its source in Pennsylvania to
where it disembogues in the Mississippi River at Cairo in Illinois, a
distance of 1265 miles.
Lake Winnipeg basin, moreover, contains the cultivable British
territory, available for agriculture, between the watershed near Lake
Superior and the Rocky Mountains. To be sure, the fur-trader may
penetrate farther north into  the walrus region—which ought to be
r © ©
called the province of Walrusia, or reindeer reservation—but the
farmer will not accompany him with his plough, for frozen ground is
not arable where the sun in summer only thaws the surface of the
earth and Flora pays short visits to her wild flowers.
In the early days of American discovery, France colonized a strip
of territory from the mouth of the St. Lawrence via the lakes and
the Ohio to the mouth of the Mississippi. And France first established forts on the inland sea afterwards called Hudson Bay ; but the
fortune of war deprived France of Canada, and subsequently France
sold Louisiana to the United States, thereby preventing its possible
conquest and occupation by a rival European power, and assuring to
its inhabitants a destiny identical with the Mississippi valley States.
In this transaction, which occurred in 1803, Napoleon, then Consul
for life, exhibited both foresight and wisdom; for, had France been
dispossessed of Louisiana by the conqueror of Canada, the trespass
would have irritated the American people and provoked a war, because
self-preservation, to say nothing of "manifest destiny," made it clear
that the whole of the Mississippi basin should be in and of the Union.
The battle of New Orleans, fought by General Andrew Jackson, January 8, 1815, is a record of what the West will do to keep the Mississippi basin intact and tight, to hold together the States within it for
mutual protection and a common aim, these love-bound States meantime serving as political models for imitation by colonies subjected to
foreign jurisdiction and slower growth. 33
The American citizen is a new graft on the Caucasian tree; the
British subject is a transplant that will not bear British fruit in
American soil, for nativity in the Republic is nationality, whereas
the colonial condition is political bondage; nor can an intelligent,
free-will native of France, Ireland, Germany, Holland, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Austria, Sweden, Denmark or Spain stay in a Canadian province and owe allegiance to England afar off, when he can
X © ©
move into a near-by State and become a citizen of the American
Republic, where political equality dwells, and immigrants can thrive
and be happy in their own homesteads.
In Manitoba no man can shut his optic nor his mental eye to the
fact that the outlook south down the Mississippi is brighter and
warmer and more genial than east down the St. Lawrence, to where
© 7
icebergs float in fleets, fog-banks envelop the coasts, and the inhabitants, in compliment to the climate, are called "blue-noses."
Manitoba, therefore, will evolve out of a province into a State, as
Texas did, and so illustrate the doctrine of evolution applied to political institutions, and as demonstrated in Louisiana in 1803, Florida
in 1819, Texas in 1846, California in 1848, and Alaska in 1867, all
acquisitions surpassing assessment or valuation, all evolutions since
the revolution of the thirteen colonies into thirteen States, the fatherland of the twenty-five additional States admitted into the Union,
east of the Hudson River and west of the Allegheny Mountain.
As a maritime State on the Hudson Bay (Middle Sea), Manitoba
will not be unlike the maritime State of Louisiana on the Gulf of
Mexico; for as New Orleans has communication with Europe via
Florida Strait, so will the principal city of Manitoba, through a seaport in Manitoba on Hudson Bay, or in Ontario on James Bay, have
communication with Europe via Hudson Strait, when open to navigation the same as the St. Lawrence, after the annual thaw which ends
the embargo of inevitable ice.
©
In the organization of the Dominion of Canada, the province of
Ontario in 1867 had assigned to it that portion of Canada included
prior thereto in the province of Upper Canada. And Upper Canada
ended on the west where the Hudson Bay Company's territory commenced on the east, to wit, at the Kaministiqua River, at the mouth
of which is Fort William, Thunder Bay, Lake Superior. The Hudson Bay Company, whose charter, granted in 1670, expired in 1859,
was bought out and succeeded by the Dominion of Canada. But
Ontario claimed that its territory extended to the Rocky Mountains,
if not to the Pacific Ocean, and a boundary commission was appointed
to arbitrate between the Dominion of Canada and the Province of
Ontario. The award of the arbitrators is dated August 3, 1878.
3 1
34
The new boundary established by the commission leaves James Bay
at the mouth of the Albany River, thence up the said river and via
Lake St. Joseph, thence to the headwaters of the English River, and
thence westerly to a meridional line drawn from the most northwesterly
angle of the Lake of the Woods, and thence south to the national
boundary. This decision cuts into Manitoba and extends Ontario
about two hundred miles west of its original limitation. What use
Ontario will make of its acquisition time will unfold. . Manitoba,
however, will very soon enjoy unbroken rail communication between
Winnipeg and St. Paul via St. Vincent, opposite Pembina. And the
exclusion of Manitoba from its frontage on Lake Superior at Thunder
Bay, and thence to Pigeon River at the Minnesota line, will tend to
identify Manitoba more and more with Minnesota and the Mississippi
valley. Not an inch of Manitoba territory is left in the basin of
Lake Superior; but, on the contrary, Ontario's new boundary line
runs along the west side of the watershed between Lake Superior and
Winnipeg, completely insulating Manitoba from Lake Superior.
. The State of Pennsylvania was not content to continue insulated
from Lake Erie, and purchased territory on Lake Erie whereby it
acquired a lake harbor at Erie  City.    Manitoba had territory and
JL «/ »/
harbors on Lake Superior, but Manitoba has been this present year
deprived of its Lake Superior frontier, to aggrandize Ontario ! True,
Manitoba still has Duluth in Minnesota for an objective point on Lake
Superior, instead of a landing place on Thunder Bay in Ontario.
Nevertheless, it was unkind to drive Manitoba out of the St. Lawrence basin, which includes Lake Superior and its affluents, to extend
Ontario into the Winnipeg basin, even to the " most northwesterly
angle of the Lake of the Woods," covering-a large area of land, and
CD 7 © ©
lakes, and rivers, which constitute portions of the Winnipeg system of
water navigation. In this diplomatic adjustment of boundary line
Manitoba is the sufferer; and if Manitoba was previously distrusted
at Ottawa, and therefore in precaution against possible future movements in the West, which returns its rainfall to the sea through the
7 ©
Mississippi and Nelson Rivers, the Province of Ontario was extended
over portages, rivers and lakes to the Winnipeg River, the loyalty of
Manitoba to Ottawa and royalty will hardly be increased by its sever-
** V V ft/
ance and expulsion from the St. Lawrence basin, between Pigeon
River and Thunder Bay; for now Manitoba, cut off from Lake
Superior by the new frontier of Ontario, is in complete identification
with Minnesota, which has a Mississippi River harbor at St. Paul,
a Lake Superior harbor at Duluth, and railways in all directions.
Michigan and Wisconsin as well as Minnesota may look to James
Bay for an additional outlet to the ocean; and if Ontario demur to
1 35
right of way from the north shore of Lake Superior to James Bay,
Ontario cannot expect to enjoy unlimited facilities in Michigan, to
reach Chicago. Are not Dominion interests promoted by the ferry
across Lake Michigan, between Milwaukee and Grand Haven, by the
ferry across Detroit River, between Detroit and Windsor, and by the
ferry across the Strait of St. Clair, between Port Huron and Sarnia?
And when necessity or convenience shall require ferry accommodations between the south shore of Lake Superior, occupied jointly by
Michigan and Wisconsin, and the north shore, all in Ontario, to
facilitate communication with James Bay, and with Europe via
Hudson Strait, will Ontario or the Dominion grant the necessary
legislation for a lake ferry and a portage railway, or venture to withhold it?
Great Britain is not satisfied with the open sea route to India via
the Cape of Good Hope, but fusses and blusters about the Suez
Canal, as if anybody intended to shut it; and about the Euphrates
valley, as if anybody not British intended to build a railroad in it,
when there is better ground for a shorter route to India, from Paris,
Berlin, and St. Petersburg, north of the Black Sea!
The West, which comprises the basin of the Mississippi River and
the basins of the lakes west of Niagara Falls, will also comprise the
basin of Nelson River; and then the West will cover and include all
the territory between the salt waters in the Gulf of Mexico and Hud-
ft/
son Bay, and from the Allegheny Mountain, where the Atlantic
slope ends, to the Rocky Mountains, where the Pacific slope begins.
There is only one West in North America, and that has mountain
watersheds on the east and west parallel with the two oceans, and
reservoirs of seawater on the north and south.
Hudson Bay will be made available for a distributing basin in
*/ ©
summer time. Compared with Hudson Strait the St. Lawrence route
through Quebec and Ontario is a sinuous way to the sea, from the
wheat belt in the West, to which England is indebted for much of its
bread, as it is likewise indebted to the Union for meat to eat and
cotton to wear. Great Britain, with its entailed estates and areas of
cultivable land reserved from cultivation, and its titled aristocracy to
support in luxury, is a' heavy buyer of breadstuffs.
Among the nations where government is wise and domestic policy
is far-sighted, it is the aim of each to manipulate its own ores and
fibrous productions into manufactures for consumption and exportation, a discriminating practice which will tend to modify foreign com-
7 D   JT «/ O
merce into intertrade in surplus commodities; for a nation will not
continue to pay out for labor, in another land, money which may be
distributed for labor at home.    The machine-man is on his travels, 36
I
busy at every World's Fair, and the distribution of labor on a new
basis, not British, is his grand mission.
The original thirteen States which cut the colonial knot to terminate
allegiance to Great Britain, and which, after winning with the sword
the title of " free and independent States," established the Union
under a Constitution framed with rare wisdom and prophetic adaptation to human wants, were all in a row along the Atlantic coast, east
7 O J
of Florida, afterwards acquired from Spain. Now, the Union has an
ocean boundary west as well as east, and a gulf border on its south
*/ ©
side; but the Union also needs Hudson Bay, i. e., Middle Sea, for an
Atlantic dock, to facilitate and cheapen intercourse and intertrade
between Europe and the Mississippi, the Rocky Mountains and the
Pacific States, Manitoba and British Columbia, as States of the Union,
likewise inclusive. Then, the Union will have two seas for boundary
docks, and axis ends midway between its two ocean shores; and frpm
its two principal inland cities, Chicago and St. Louis, marts of rapid
and vigorous growth, straight lines drawn to the four cardinal points
will all intersect tidewaters, open to free navigation around the world.
When head winds delayed the mariner, and blew his ship off its
course, long voyages, as living persons can testify, were tedious undertakings ; but, nowadays, the steamship runs to schedule time, on paths
across the waters, as the locomotive engine runs to schedule on rail-
7 O
ways overland, whereby the time-table and the time-piece regulate the
affairs of foreign trade conducted under treaties; and so, in a practical dollar sense, apart from the more elevating intellectualities and
sublimer divinities of the theme, the intertrade movement is but an
international show held in a single spot, as in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, in 1876, magnified and expanded to the true areas of the
nations and the true quantities and values of the import and export
trade over the whole earth.
And the nations that were separated by distances in miles, beset
with difficulties which delayed transportation and increased its cost,
can, in these times, advanced into the interior of civilization, deliver
the commodities of intertrade by sure, swift and cheap conveyance,
on contracts and messages passed through submarine cables and overland wires that " put a girdle round about the earth" in considerably
less than Puck's minimum of "forty minutes."
Although the fortune of war deprived Great Britain of thirteen
colonies, which became thirteen States, containing 318,572 square
miles of -surface, since expanded into thirty-eight States and eleven
Territories, Great Britain plans and builds railways to keep the provinces of the Dominion together with iron bands, as the staves of a
barrel are held together with iron hoops; and to make a spread of
I 37
empire on paper, Great Britain claims jurisdiction underneath the
Aurora Borealis even to the North Pole, not yet visited.
Well, as France still retains St. Pierre and Miquelon Islands, near
Newfoundland, notwithstanding that Canada was confirmed to Great
Britain by treaty, signed in 1763, so Great Britain might retain the
Queen Charlotte Islands, in the Pacific Ocean, north of Vancouver
Island, after the temporary boundary fence from Lake Superior to
the Pacific Ocean, and from 54°40/ to Demarkation Point in Beaufort
Bay, shall have been modified into a partition with communicating
doors between compartments, for Alaska the Russian-born Territory,
and its neighbors also adopted into the Union family.
As Eastern Texas has prospered on cotton, so may Southern Manitoba prosper on wheat; but the development of Texas succeeded its
admission into the Union, and Manitoba must ask to come in, and get
in like Texas did, before it can attract immigration as Minnesota and
©
Dakota do, alongside Manitoba, but inside the Union.
Serlick, on Red River, where the Canada Pacific Railway crosses
and the Pembina branch begins, Moorhead, on Red River, where the
Northern  Pacific Railroad crosses, Omaha, on the Missouri River,
where the Union Pacific Railroad technically ends, and Galveston, the
principal seaport of Texas, distinguished for its export of cotton bales,
are all on or near the same degree of longitude.    Omaha, too, is mid-
© . © *
way between the mouth of Nelson River, in Hudson Bay, and the
mouth of the Rio Grande, in the Gulf of Mexico. And the distance
from Omaha to San Francisco is shorter than the distance from
Omaha to Halifax.
From Port Moody, the terminus of the Canada Pacific Railway, on
Burrard Inlet, mouth of Frazer River, to Port Nelson, Hudson Bay,
the distance is shorter than from Port Nelson to Halifax. And as a
harbor can be provided on a river emptying into Hudson Bay, if not
on the Nelson, certainly on the Churchill River, then the trunk-line
portage railway between the Pacific waters in or near Frazer River
and a river port west of and accessible from Hudson Bay will, of
course, be shortened correspondingly.
Consider a route from Europe to San Francisco, the Pacific States,
and Asia, via Hudson Strait and Juan de Fuca Strait, with a portage
railway between Frazer River and Hudson Bay, versus the Canada
Pacific Railway via Ottawa to sea water and winter ice in the St.
Lawrence.
The Hudson Bay Company throughout its long career sent its ships
into Hudson Bay, and established numerous forts and fur factories on
its shores. As to falls and cataracts in Manitoba, recall the condition
of the St. Lawrence route between Port Colbourne and Montreal before 38
the Welland arjd St. Lawrence Canals provided artificial navigation
from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario to tidewater in Canada.
But whatever artificial works may be needed ought to be provided,
to improve a river emptying into Hudson Bay, to facilitate the transhipment of commodities to and from Hudson Bay, which, in verity,
is a sea, and the Pacific coast and intermediate points; and also to
improve a river emptying into James Bay, or a harbor on James Bay,
to facilitate the transhipment of commodities carried to and from the
sea in James Bay and the Mississippi valley States; for where freight
is bulky and weighty it is a consideration to shorten overland distance
to tidewater navigation, because once on tidewater the way is open to
destinations along the coast and across the ocean, by the cheapest
known mode of transportation.
Meditate the tonnage between Chicago, Milwaukee and other lake
ports and New York city, via the Erie Canal and the Hudson River
tideway. Then count the meshes and the miles in the network of iron
track from the Atlantic and Gulf ports from Galveston to Portland,
inland and over the interior to cities on the lakes, from Oswego to
7 O
Duluth. Lastly, extend this connected network, most of it of the
standard 4 feet 8A inches gauge, northward to James Bay and Hud-
-. O O     7 ft/
son Bay, and westward to the Pacific Ocean. Assuredly from Manitoba the outlook is broader and brighter southward and westward,
© 7
than eastward via the Canada Pacific Railway, considered as a route
to Montreal in summer, and to Halifax in winter, not to be intersected in Manitoba by cross-cut railway portages to Hudson Sea and
James Bay !
The Canada Grand Trunk Railway, a rate-cutting competitor for
Boston and Chicago traffic, in 1877 received per ton per mile, for
freight carried, the average of only eight mills, or eight-tenths of one
cent; and the travel over the Canada Grand Trunk, in 1877, averaged
only fifty-eight passengers per train. Why ? Because its revenue
(profit unconsidered) would be still less than it is if its operations were
restricted to the Dominion and Maine, and it had no ally in Vermont
and Massachusetts.
And so, Manitoba, to prosper, must intertrade south as well as
west; for with the eastern provinces of the Dominion it will have
less intercourse and lighter intertrade than with the Western States
of the Union, when its near-by bays, on which it abuts, shall have
been made available for communication, via salt water, with the commercial world, in summer time. 39
CHAPTER  V.
The treaty with Great Britain, signed at Washington May 8,1871,
for arbitration of the Alabama Claims, Fishery Question, the San
Juan boundary, &c, a treaty in the negotiation of which Hamilton
Fish, Secretary of State, was weighed, measured, and outwitted by
his diplomatic adversary, and out of which grave mistake of President
Grant's administration in forfeiting a "golden opportunity" has
grown a grievance on the Fishery Question to be redressed hereafter,
provides that:
" The navigation of the rivers Yukon, Porcupine, and Stikine,
from, to and into the sea, shall forever remain free and open for the
purposes of commerce, to the subjects of her Britannic Majesty and
to the citizens of the United States."
The Porcupine River is a branch of the Yukon River, which
empties into the Behring Sea north of the Aleutian peninsula, and
the Stikine River empties into the Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of
Sitka.
When Hamilton Fish, Secretary of State, in 1871, made the rivers
of Alaska " free and open" to British subjects, why did he not stipulate that Frazer River in British Columbia, and the Red River of the
North, and Lake Winnipeg and the rivers to it from the west, and the
river from it to Hudson Bay, should be "free and open" to citizens
of the United States ?
The omission of the Red River of the North, which is four parts
in Minnesota to one part in Manitoba, is extraordinary; and to suppose a blunder equivalent to it, one must imagine Austria, which pours
its waters into the Danube, far above its mouths, omitted from treaties
regulating its navigation to the Black Sea!
© © ©
Hudson Bay is Middle Sea, and Minnesota and Dakota stand to it,
via the Red River of the North, which enipties into it under another
name that does not change its nature or its course, as Austria and
O 7
Servia stand to the Black Sea via the Danube, which has different
names for its several mouths.
President Grant's administration had a national grievance proved
against Great Britain, and reparation or war was the alternative; and
yet Secretary Fish, in a negotiation to prescribe the measure and
method of satisfaction—keep this in mind—permitted the insidious
and ever-scheming enemy of his country (that aided rebellion in underhand ways and promoted piracy with English-built Alabamas, till
American ships were almost swept from the seas and Great Britain
became the monopolist of the ocean-carrying trade) to arbitrate, that
is, to liquidate an injury to the United States which continues to inure 40
to the advantage of Great Britain through its ocean ships, with a
money consideration to be ascertained by a throw of dice or shuffle of
cards—for what is arbitration but a game of chance, especially where
a majority of the commissioners owe their nomination to foreign
powers ?
True, the San Juan Island arbitration resulted in favor of the
United States by the decision of Frederick William I., Emperor of
Germany, October 21, 1872. But the British claim to the island of
San Juan under a forced interpretation of the treaty of June 15, 1846,
was an act of British finesse and attempted bluff, to which the fitting
answer would have been a notice that, after a date given, joint military occupation should cease, and that thereafter the army of the
United States would occupy San Juan Island.
How the British intrigued at Berlin in 1872, and how Emperor
William was beset to decide in favor of Great Britain, is matter of
history. And it is to the impartiality of Emperor William of Germany, not to the diplomacy of Hamilton Fish, that the people of the
United States are indebted for the possession of the strategic island
of San Juan, acquired by treaty dated June 15, 1846, imperilled by
arbitration authorized by treaty dated May 8, 1871.
The Halifax Fishery award, however, of $5,500,000, made November 22, 1877, by Maurice Delfosse, Belgian Minister at Washington,
and Alexander T. Gait, appointee of her Britannic Majesty, for fishing privileges only worth a license to fish, not a ransom for fish caught
in the saltwater highway—as brigands ransom tourists captured on
the stage-travelled highways in Italy and Greece—will doubtless put a
quietus on the international arbitration humbug, as between America
and Europe.    Ensign H. Kellogg was Commissioner for the United
JT © - ©©
States, outvoted at Halifax.
The Congress of Vienna, 1814-15, distributed European territory
and population, and exercised other powers, with as little remorse.and
not more penitence than a banditti distributes its spoils, made up of
the proceeds of rapine on the highway and hearthstone.
France was prostrated and exhausted, a Bourbon was on its throne,
and Napoleon had met his fate at Waterloo; so there was no military
Satan abroad to make Europe afraid; but that very fact, for which
diplomacy should have been thankful, made dynastic parties greedy,
covetous and cruel. The Vienna Congress served the devil best, and
set portions of Europe back (not including Austria and England) a
period of time equivalent to two generations of men. And diplomacy
did that fell work when war was at an end.
Turn, too, to the 1878 Congress of Berlin. The infidel Turk invaded Christian Europe and captured Adrianople in 1361, Constanti- 41
nople in 1453. Turkish rule in Europe has been an outrage on
humanity, christianized, through centuries of time ; at irregular intervals the barbarities inflicted on the Christian subjects of the Porte
have made their fellow-Christians shudder in all lands. And whatever was done to make Turkey relax her grasp on the Christian's
j or
rights in Europe, is mainly due to Russia. But for Russia the alternative would have been Islamism or massacre long ago.
©       ©
After such atrocities as had never been surpassed anywhere (not
even by the British in India, when, on the suppression of the mutiny
of 1857, human bodies were discharged from the cannon's mouth),
Russia, the chief champion of the Christian populations in the Provinces of Turkey, declared war against Turkey on the 24th of April,
1877.    This war England could have averted by cooperation with the
O */ 1
other signatory powers to the Paris treaty of March 30, 1856, but
O */     x «/ 7 J
England, "perfidious Albion," refused. The treaty of San Stefano,
dated February 19, 1878, inside of ten months from the declaration
of war, attests the triumph of the Russian arms, for the Russian
forces fought their wav across the Balkans through the rigors of
© c © ©
winter, occupied Adrianople, and at San Stefano were at the very
gates of Constantinople.
And then it was, after the Turk has been whipped, that British
bluster broke out; the British fleet of iron-clads, in violation of the
treaty of Paris, and against the remonstrance of Turkey, steamed up
the Dardanelles ; the Parliament of Great Britain voted money, osten-
7 ft/   7
sibly for military and naval preparations, with a percentage for subsidy understood ; for official servitors of impecunious dynasties include
cheap human chattels, and as a little fuel will raise steam to blow a
whistle, so will a few dollars raise wind to make a noise.
A scrap-book made up of official British correspondence and cuttings from the London newspapers, beginning with the Berlin Memorandum dated May, 1876, which Great Britain refused to sign, and
*/   ' * ©        7
which would have averted the war so disastrous to Turkey, by con-
*/   7 U
straining that doomed despotism to grant the concessions asked for
by the continental powers, would illustrate hpw the British lion was
made rampant with imitation anger, till it swallowed an island belonging to its ally, and so with Cyprus appeased its hunger; for when
British hunger is appeased, British pride is satisfied.
On the 13th June, 1878, a Congress of seven powers—Russia,
Turkey, Italy, France, Austria, Germany and Great Britain—met at
Berlin to discuss the treaty of San Stefano and preserve the peace
with diplomatic chess; for secret societies and attempted assassinations had begotten a common dread that a general war might develop
a new danger in social and political  elements, antagonistic to the t
42
ruling powers represented by the Berlin plenipotentiaries, and which
might in some places profit by war to. promote revolution; since,
however powerful a potentate may seem, he must have his people on
his side, and must conform to public opinion in his action, to assure
stability and justify succession in his line. Moral responsibility is
inherited at every birth and pervades every life; and possession and
power are identical only where the ruler and the ruled are cordial in
cooperation. Hence ministers are slow to abet war where the people
are not in accord with the aims of the administration in office, whether
its chief wears a crown or holds a certificate of election ; unless,
indeed, where a man commands confidence from belief in his patriotism and greatness, and even then if he fall short he will fall far, for
the nation is paramount and the individual must succumb.
On the loth July, 1878, after a session of one month, the Berlin
Congress signed a treaty and adiourned.    If it did much, it left more
© © j j
undone, for its articles are only temporary trestles where arches of
enduring masonry are necessary in a permanent way over a crisis
which will periodically reappear, till the Turk return to Asia, whence
he came to curse Europe with his false religion and his beastly vices.
IT © »/
In the Congress of Berlin the course of the ambassador of France
©
is incomprehensible, save on the hypothesis that, because France
under the first Napoleon sought to embarrass and thwart Alexander
the First, till Moscow consumed his ambitious hopes of colossal empire
in its ashes, and made him a fugitive from Russia, where his army
left its bones in evidence of its destruction, therefore: France, wrong
7 ©
after the interview of 25th June, 1807, on the raft in the Niemen at
Tilsit and the occult treaty of Tilsit of 8th July, 1807, wrong in the
I/ ft/  j 7 o
Crimean war of 1854—56, which was conceived and waged to make
Russia a Baltic state like Sweden, must, to be true to its Russo-
phobic wrong-doing, commit a final blunder at Berlin in 1878; where,
after having voted against Russia and with England, it was made
O O ©
wise, when too late, with the information that meantime Great Britain
was pettifogging and shystering for the Turk at Berlin, to play its
high moral part in the European drama, it had negotiated a secret
treaty with Turkey for its own aggrandizement in the Mediterranean,
J *J ©©
geographically in Asia, it is true, but politically and commercially,
and in a naval and military sense, in Europe; in a place, too, where
Cyprus under the British flag is a defiance to France, to say nothing
of Italy and Spain.
In its foreign diplomacy, in which France was preeminent before
the Buonapartes, France, since its seduction by Great Britain, has
obviously declined; and among Britons and pro-Britons it is an opinion expressed with satisfaction that France has culminated in Euro- 1
43
pean politics, which is understood to imply that France is in its decadence ; an erroneous opinion, which the Republic, when it ceases to
repeat old history, and makes new history for Europe and mankind,
will take care to eradicate.
Great Britain distrusts both France and Germany, because Great
Britain knows and foresees that Belgium and Holland would be val-
uable acquisitions to France and Germany, inasmuch as they contain
available harbors on the English Channel and North Sea, which in
© 7
French and German ownership, by partition, would give prestige to
French and German commerce in the waters of the world.
As to the morale of European politics—not as professed and propagated in debates and newspapers in Great Britain, but as practiced
by Great Britain in its foreign affairs—it will suffice here to quote
the reported words of Lord Derby in the House of Lords on the 18th
July, 1878, after Lord Beaconsfield, on his first appearance fresh from
the Berlin Congress adjourned, had made his statement:
" Lord Derby generally approved of what had been done in Europe,
" but he questioned the value of Cyprus, and declared that he quitted
"the cabinet because he dissented from the decision to seize a naval
" station in the eastern Mediterranean, consisting of Cyprus and a
" point on the main land, by a secret expedition from India, without
"the consent of the Sultan."
Great Britain's role, as the ally of Turkey, was to cooperate with
Turkey against mutual enemies, and to cheat Turkey for British private account. But the official Turk, first soundly thrashed by the
Russian, and secondly bribed or biased by the Briton, was too thoroughly demoralized to stand on the San Stefano treaty, in which he
was one of two negotiating parties, or to say " no" to an ally which
bears and wears the prefix "perfidious" to its "Albion."
Every impartial observer the world over can foresee that the great
power of the north, giant Russia, will never cease its efforts till the
Bosphorus and the Dardanelles are so held and controlled that Russia shall have free and unrestricted passage for its commerce through
the straits between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, as Great
Britain has for its commerce through the Strait of Gibraltar between
the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
The Mediterranean Sea is to Russia precisely what the Gulf of
Mexico is to the Mississippi valley. The Baltic Sea is closed by ice
to navigation in winter, like the American lakes and the Hudson and
© 7
St. Lawrence Rivers; but the straits to the Mediterranean are open
throughout the year, like the Mississippi to the Gulf. And as the
first Napoleon through his Moscow campaign, and the third Napoleon
through his Crimean campaign, both failed to drive Russia back from 44
1
the Black Sea towards the Baltic, the "manifest destiny" of Russia,
in the providence of nations, should have made France in 1878 wise
to prefer the Russians on the Bosphorus and in Constantinople, to
increase of British jurisdiction in the Mediterranean basin.
Spain, France, Italy, Austria and Russia are the five principal
powers which have common interests in Mediterranean navigation,
whereas Great Britain's interests are mainly in India, and her ambition is to dominate the Mediterranean to protect her preferred route
to the East. France built the Suez Canal across Egypt against the
opposition and misrepresentation of Great Britain, but subsequently
France allowed England to acquire part ownership of the Suez Canal.
And this present year France, in shortsightedness akin to blindness,
and as if in remembrance of Moscow and forgetfulness of Waterloo,
cooperated against Russia in a way that aggrandized Austria and
Great Britain, the two powers which in the Congress of Vienna,
twenty-four years ago, impoverished and humiliated France to ag-
ft/ ft/ O      7 |7 O
grandize and exalt themselves.
But the Berlin Congress is over, and to the shame of France, which
returned home from the Congress of Berlin empty-handed, if not a dupe,
Great Britain has added Cyprus to its Malta and Gibraltar fortifications for its army and navy in the Mediterranean (a Berlin Congress
made British Lake), where France, Italy, and Spain ought to be
absolute, but are not; and where, too, had France and Italy at
Berlin been wise, they might always have Russia for a safe and sure
*/ © ■/
ally, which Great Britain never is, by reason of its shifting policy of
expediency and interest; because the Black Sea is no more than an
affluent of the Mediterranean Sea, whence the Atlantic Ocean is
reached, as Lake Superior is but an affluent of Lake Erie, whence
the Atlantic Ocean is reached; and because, also, Russia at Constantinople could protect the waterway to the ocean-world.
The Black Sea and its tributary rivers, which pass their waters
through the straits via Constantinople, are all within the hydro-
graphic basin of the Mediterranean Sea, as the Ohio and Missouri
Valleys are within the hydrographic basin of the Mississippi River;
and Constantinople is to Odessa what New Orleans is to St. Louis;
for St. Louis can only reach the ocean by natural waterway via New
•/ ■/ ft/
Orleans, and Odessa can only reach the ocean by natural waterway
via Constantinople. And Russia at Constantinople would be no more
a menace to the Mediterranean powers than is the American Union
on the Gulf of Mexico a menace to the West India Islands. The
Russian programme, which Great Britain has magnified into a pandora box to poison the Mediterranean air with suspicions, in truth
makes Russia not the threatening enemy but the natural ally of the 45
Mediterranean powers, comprising France, Italy, Spain, and Greece;
Great Britain, the task-master of India, not included.
To regain Gibraltar is a legitimate aspiration in a heroic Spaniard,
and Spain has a history to beget patriotism and arouse ambition. And
what better political purpose Spain can urge than the retrocession of
Gibraltar, is past our comprehension.
To guardian the Suez Canal is a legitimate French ambition, for
© ©
France promoted the Suez Canal when Great Britain underrated it,
and disparaged and opposed it. Over Egypt, too, France should have
retained the control it had when the Suez Canal was opened, under its
auspices and through its material aid, and when Great Britain was in
the background, wondering if the prodigal Khedive would soon sell
© 7 Q JT ©
or hypothecate his Suez Canal shares. In truth, France, had it been
less jealous of Russia and more suspicious of Great Britain, might
have sustained its appropriate role as the chief Mediterranean power,
instead of surrendering to Great Britain that proud distinction,
wrested from France by diplomacy that overreaches and by intrigue
that undermines.
But the friends of the Republic of France need not despair nor
despond, for its diplomacy may be revived and its prestige restored,
under a progressive President elected by popular vote or its equivalent,
as in the United States.
Possibly Great Britain may strive to anticipate France and make
itself the ally of Russia, for Great Britain is a money power and its
"interests" are chameleon in colors. But Russia has aims in Asia,
and can there cause Great Britain tribulation, and so France and
Italy may vet with Russia consult the "sick man" on his straits.
What Russia proposed to Great Britain anterior to the Crimean
war is of record in official correspondence; and the acquisition of
Cyprus Island by Great Britain is a testimony of the foresight of the
•/ JT «/ v. ©
Emperor Nicholas, as the fate of the first Napoleon is an evidence
that the alliance proffered to France by Alexander the First would
have spared France disaster in the field and loss in treasure and life.
But the ways of diplomacy are " past finding out" in advance, though
after events bear the marks of its visitation in scars impossible of
misinterpretation. For is not the bomb of celestial fire a convincing
proof when it explodes that electricity is a force in nature ?
Is not Turkey shattered where riven by the Russian bolts of war
in European Turkey and Asia Minor ? Is not Turkey shorn of the
island of Cyprus by its defensive treaty with Great Britain, signed
•/   JT »/ t/ 7 Q
June 4, 1878, whereby the latter stipulates to assist Turkey " if any
attempt shall be made in future time by Russia to take possession of
any further territories of his Imperial Majesty the Sultan, in Asia "— iT
46
not in Europe, be it noted and observed? And is not Turkey also
shorn of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the treaty of Berlin, signed
July 13, 1878, which prescribed that the two provinces named shall
be occupied and administered by Austria? Is not the evidence conclusive that Great Britain and Austria cooperated against Russia,
after its victories in war and its San Stefano peace treaty, to aggran-
Jr •/ 7 o©
dize themselves at the expense of Turkey ? An orchardist anxious
to save a tree stripped of some of its branches by a storm in an
angry wind, does not cut off its remaining sound limbs. And yet,
Austria and Great Britain, after the tree of Turkey had been trimmed
with Russia's sword, from its top limbs to the ground, lopped off
Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Cyprus, leaving the tree of Turkey like a
weeping willow, with branches broken off by a tempest and limbs cut
away with the axe—the first a consequence of war in the field, the
latter of craft in the council.
Dynasties are not governments, crowned heads are not nationalities.
Public opinion, founded not in prejudice or passion, but in conclusions
baised on reason, is the paramount power. And a dynasty that forfeits the confidence of the people it reigns over may be cast overboard
without injury to the state, as a dead marine may be cast overboard
by an admiral without inmry to his fleet. Is not the Queen of Eng-
land an ornamental feather in the scales that weigh political power in
Great Britain ? Did not the people of France, through their deputies in the Assembly, make it palpable to an equivocal Republican
President and to Buonapartists in 1877 that the coup d'etat of December 2, 1851, is not possible a seeond time ? And if in past time the
voice of the people was smothered in superstition and ignorance by
craft and chicanery, in present time " the voice of the people is the
voice of God," in verity and earthly power.
The people of France and the people of Italy know and realize that
their ambassadors to the Berlin Congress of 1878 were as clay in the
hands of the potters who manipulated that, conclave of jugglers, who
adjourned grave questions and settled only minor matters.
In the Congress of Berlin the British ambassador, a lord by patent,
sat with a secret treaty with Turkey in his pocket. In a congress of
boys, a boy ambassador detected with a secret treaty in his pocket
under similar circumstances would have been evicted for turpitude
and disgraced among boys. But the Russian-Turkish war of 1877—78
is of record, and the San Stefano treaty is a historical milestone in
the road from Moscow to Constantinople, Russia's ultimate destination, to which she directed her aims when the Black Sea was a Turkish
lake, and the Crimea Turkish territory, as the American Republic
looked hopefully and expectantly down the Mississippi River to the CHAPTER  VI.
In the Berlin Congress, which met June 13th, and adjourned
July 13, 1878—a Congress wherein Italy and France fell short of
the opportunity and the occasion—Russia did not have the hearty
cooperation of a single power to assist it to maintain the concessions
to the Christians it had won in war and secured by treaty. On the
contrary, the powers present appeared to make common cause to
harass Russia to the limit imposed by that victor on its capacity for
endurance, to preserve the peace of Europe; for a war that, at its
outbreak, would include Russia, Turkey, Great Britain, Austria, Ser-
via, Montenegro and Roumania, would soon involve Italy and Greece
7 © 7 ft/
and Germany and France, and so become general throughout Europe,
47
Gulf of Mexico, when Louisiana belonged to France and Florida to   .
7 O
Spain. Happily for the United States only one foreign power, Great
Britain, was jealous of its acquisitions. But unhappily for Russia,
which is a creditor nation by great odds in its account with other
nations of help rendered and received, it has enemies and jealous
neighbors who begrudge it what it wins, and plot to withhold from it
what it deserves and will work on to achieve, for the betterment of
Christian Europe.
Notwithstanding the jealousy of its enemies and neighbors, however,
Russia, by the San Stefano treaty of 1878, even as modified by the
Berlin Congress, changed the map of Europe; for it made Servia,
Montenegro, and Roumania independent nationalities. True, Roumania showed its unworthiness of independence by its baseness to its
benefactor; but nevertheless, Roumania is wrested finally from Turkey,
and if portioned away hereafter so much the better, for on its inhabitants is imposed an imported prince impotent to prevent the retrocession of Bessarabia to Russia, or block the Russian's way to Constantinople. Servia is a national nut which diplomacy cannot crack to
divide its kernel; and Montenegro is a star state, not a mould candle
to be extinguished with Austrian or British snuffers.    In a word,
O 7
there are Christian fruits of wars past and germinating seeds of wars
to come, on the Black, the iEgean, the Adriatic, and the Mediterranean Seas, which will restore to Christian rule its ancient sites, and
make the Mediterranean a distributing basin under rights common to
© ©
all the nations that have possessions within it, from Gibraltar to
Odessa and the forks of the Danube.
I
i w
48
where the embers of revolution were aglow, ready to blaze, in the
summer of 1878. And against oppressed peoples roused to arms, the
network of dynastic government is but as a spider-web. Peoples in
anger are forces in nature, resistless as lightning, hurricane and flood.
Nor was Great Britain, with all its diplomatic brag and newspaper
bluster, its parliamentary buncombe and its noisy preparation for war,
including its dramatic transport of troops from India to Malta—a
movement which included a hint to Italy and France—anxious for
. actual hostilities; because British ships in the carrying trade around the
world would have afforded fat prizes to fast-going Alabamas incorporated
into the Russian navy; for, clear as blue sky at noon-time, in sunshine, is the fact that, in a war between Russia and Great Britain,
Russian ships of the Alabama style will scour the seas and make
prizes of merchant ships. Great Britain breaks-treaties and ignores
treaties; and, as " curses come home to roost," Great Britain will
suffer the consequence of her own practice, when she plotted the
destruction of American commerce, with English-built Alabamas,
manned with English crews, to prey on the commerce of the United
States.    England's aim was to sever the American Union, make a
© 7
commercial ally of the cotton Confederacy, and strip the North of its
ships on the seas, so that England could command the ocean-carrying
trade of both sections. In the war of the Rebellion, England—abolition England—cared as little for the fact that human slaverv, against
© ^    7 O
which it had long kept up a loud outcry, was the basis of the Southern
Confederacy it gave aid to in every conceivable surreptitious way, as
England, in the war between Russia and Turkey, cared for the fact
©7 ft/  7
that the issue involved Christian emancipation from Mahometan servitude.    At Berlin, Great Britain intrigued to divide the Bulgaria
7 © ^ ©
created by the treaty of San Stefano, so that Turkey might receive
back Christian subjects released from its rule by Russia, and thereby
prolong its stay in Europe, where it is a trespasser.
Great Britain has party cries, but no political principles. In its
cooperative sympathy with the Southern Confederacy it forswore its
moral convictions against human slavery and belied its loud-mouthed
© *7
professions of philanthropy for the African in bondage. In its zeal
for Turkey, so that for service in Bulgaria it might take pay in Cyprus,
Great Britain, at Berlin, plotted and intrigued against the followers
of Christ, in Bulgaria, to delay their deliverance from the followers
7 © 7 »/
of Mahomet, in Constantinople !
On the stage an actor can change his part according as he may be
© © r/ © J
cast—in one play a patriot, in another play an apostate—because it
is his profession to " hold the mirror up to nature" in his imitations
of the characters in his text, from night to night.    But nations are
7 O O 49
aggregations of individuals, and character does not consist of words
spoken of a man, for that is reputation—a thing of newspaper manufacture—but is the product of a life, public and private. Character
is pure metal, whereas reputation may be made up of alloys that swell
size, but do not augment value. Thus, when, for illustration, the
London Times says so and so of a British politician, its praise exalts
and its censure depreciates reputation; but it does not affect character, for that is made up not of words, which are wind, but of deeds,
which are weights and measures. Hence, Great Britain, long ago
called "Perfidious Albion," is perfidious still, because, whilst it professes moral principles, it plays unworthy tricks for shop-keeper and
money-lender ends. In the drama of progress, in the interest of
civilization, in the last hundred years, Great Britain is immeasurably
behind Russia; for Russia is not a rover, seizing here and there, but
a progressionist, that pushes out its frontiers in the domains of anti-
Christ, to spread civilization and develop the industries and the arts.
Hence, Russia is a growing power, with a destiny to fulfill, whereas
Great Britain is a moneyed power that makes the credit side of its
profit and loss account paramount to its moral principles and religious
professions. Russia abolished serfage, and will make other reforms as
bold, after it secures peace on lasting terms.
Great Britain had opportunity to succor Turkey as an ally and
co-belligerent, when Plevna surrendered and before the Russians had
crossed the Balkans; and prior to the Russian occupation of Sophia
and Adrianople, British and Austrian cooperation might have checked
the progress of Russia, and so preserved Turkey nominally intact in
Europe, leaving it to make concessions only to public opinion in
matters of administration, without surrender of territory ; for, rather
than see the Christian Greek Church re-established in Constantinople,
Catholic Austria and Protestant England would plot against Russia,
and repeat the treachery of Judas to Jesus Christ. The over-fed
priest-politician and the over-paid rector-politician are unworthy followers of the Saviour and His apostles; for, with the politician in
robes it is self, self, self, whereas with the apostles it was everything
for the cause of the Son of God on the earth, in a kingdom founded
in unselfish sacrifice for the common good of mankind.
But Great Britain, the miscellaneous money-lender, whether for
7 v '
account of heaven or hell, and the promiscuous dealer in the necessaries of life and the poisons of illicit commerce, let perish the opportunity which tarried at Plevna and invited interference; and, in
selfishness, looked on the sanguinary strife till Turkey was crushed
and the San Stefano treaty had made peace between the belligerents.
And by the San Stefano treaty between Russia and Turkey, the inde-
4
i 50
pendence of Servia (God bless Servia !) and Montenegro (God bless
Montenegro!), and Roumania the treacherous, was secured; and these
three new independent nationalities were, by the Russian-Turkey
treaty of San Stefano, added to the European powers. Bulgaria, too,
after long suffering in servitude, was made an embryo nationality,
with enlarged boundaries and a comprehensive programme.
The Berlin Congress, however, was called, and by that wire-worked
conclave of wizards and dupes, the San Stefano treaty was revised, in
common jealousy of Russia and in the special interest of Austria and
England, because the ambassadors of Italy and France were unfit for
© J
their momentous missions—a fact which all intelligent and impartial
Italian and French republicans feel and realize; and Austria, in
exultation over Italy and France, occupies Bosnia and Herzegovina,
and Great Britain, by a secret treaty, is in possession of the island
of Cyprus, whereby its Mediterranean possessions are enlarged, and
Italy  and  France  are correspondingly  belittled as   Mediterranean
«/ 1 O   »7
powers. And thus meantime that the Turk—cruel to the Christians
and treacherous to the Russians—was mulcted by the Austrians and
Britons, Italy and France were treated as gulls, and appeased with
words.    Woe to the Berlin ambassadors of Italy and France!
What next may transpire in European Turkey is in the future,
sealed from the knowledge of man. But that the Berlin treaty which
ignored Italy and France as Mediterranean powers, aggrandized Austria and inflated Great Britain with bluster, is merely a postponement
of a final settlement which the powers did not then dare to make, in
the face of the socialistic and other agitations antagonistic to dynastic
shams, frauds and pensions, is patent to every unofficial subject in
Europe. Servia and Montenegro, however, both now independent—
for the Berlin Congress did not venture to ignore the Servia and
© ©
Montenegro provisions of the San Stefano treaty—occupy positions
which justify expectations of aggrandizement. In truth, the theme
of European Turkey bristles with possibilities which change shape
according to circumstances, as sea waves take form and derive their
force from the prevailing wind.
Russia and Turkey, as the two principals in the war, did their best,
and Turkey made peace to keep the Russians out of Constantinople;
for if the Porte had crossed the Bosphorus and fixed its head-quarters
in Asia Minor, and a war of the powers had ensued, it is safe to
predict that Turkish reign in European Turkey would have ended;
though how the spoils might have been divided it is useless to consider.
However, with Turkey razeed into disproportion to Russia as a
military power, Russia can contemplate the stay of the Turks in Constantinople as citizens of the United States contemplate the Spaniards 51
in the island of Cuba. As a Spanish possession Cuba is not a menace;
but the United States would not tolerate the transfer of Cuba to
Great Britain, Germany or France. The Americans do not covet
Cuba nor want it annexed to the Union, but the Americans would
interpose to prevent the transfer of Cuba from the possession of Spain
to a power rival or competitor to the United States; for with Spain
the United States can cultivate reciprocal commercial relations, without danger of serious misunderstanding.    And so, in like manner and
© ©
from corresponding cause, Russia could contemplate Turkey, as left
by the treaty of San Stefano, in possession of Constantinople, because
Russia and Turkey could themselves carry out their own treaty and
jointly regulate the navigation of the straits from the Black Sea to
the Mediterranean. This reasoning, clear when the treaty of San
Stefano was signed in February, 1878, is conclusive since the Berlin
treaty of July, 1878.
,/ »/   7
True, the British, who have money to bribe corrupt men in office,
and who wear brass to hide blushing, say that it is Russia which has
been deprived of the fruits of conquest, waged for the deliverance of
Christian populations from oppressions that darken' history through
generations of time; but the truth is, Turkey has been surgeoned
where previously it had not been even singed; and to appease British
lust, Christian emancipation has been indefinitely postponed, though
Turkey is weaker if not smaller than it was left by the treaty of San
Stefano ; whereas Russia, with Bessarabia regained to the Danube
and Pruth, and Batoum and Kars and about nine thousand square
miles of contiguous territory annexed in Asia Minor, can recuperate
in patience for another struggle when a propitious opportunity recurs;
for Russia, vast and powerful as it is, cannot stay its march nor stop
its wars whilst the Turk as an enemy patrols the Straits and lingers
in Europe, a scandal to the Christian Church and a reproach to civilized mankind.
And perchance, whilst dynasties and churches plot and counterplot,
the masses may exercise the inherent right of revolution, and make
the crowned heads of Europe bend and bow down in the popular blast
against tyranny and titles, like reeds and willows in a storm.
© •/ */ 7
Russia Russianizes where it overruns, and the United States
Americanize where they annex. France contains nothing but Frenchmen in a national sense, and all Germany is fatherland to Germans.
Italy, too, is .homogeneous, and Spain is a unit. But Austria is a
cabinet-piece, stuck together with diplomatic glue, not a fusion of
affiliating metals cast in a mould, as bronze is a fusion of copper and
tin fluxed with zinc and lead to make it a limpid fluid for a casting
satisfactory to the artist's eye and cohesive to withstand the weather. 52
Hungary is a seed-garden of discontent; and when the hydro-
graphic basin of the Elbe shall have been made the model of a political potter's crock, Bohemia will be in Germany.
Lord Beaconsfield is Colonel Mulberry Sellers developed into Macbeth the ambitious, with his witches, only that his Duncan is in Con-
7 ' ft/
stantinople and his witches are in India.
If a Cromwell were to rise in England, a Wallace in Scotland, and
an Emmet in Ireland, and the labor organizations in Great Britain
would simultaneously proclaim a Republic, the Houses of Lords and
Commons would become the Senate and Assembly of a new Republic,
and the British Islands would be United States, with a neighbor
Republic in France, across the English Channel, and a sympathetic
Republic in America, between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
The case of R. A. Ammon, the brakeman, who successfully operated a railroad during the Pittsburgh riots in July, 1877, when mob
© © J 7
rule prevailed in that city, where destruction was rampant from
Saturday night to Sunday eve, under circumstances indelibly disgraceful to its military and police authorities and civic population, is
an illustration of-how an improvised administration, intuitively organized, might succeed in revolution organized out of riot, without dis-
7 © © 7
order in civil administration. The people have only to organize their
power with wisdom and apply it without rashness, to make revolution
out of bondage into freedom a success in permanent reform.
And if this be deemed too hopeful a view of American adaptability
or human intuition under free institutions which germinate ideas and
©
expedients for exigencies unexpected and surprising, the example of
General U. S. Grant should give peace to the doubting mind.
In May, 1861, U. S. Grant, a private citizen of Galena, Illinois,
raised a company of volunteers in his own neighborhood, marched
with it to Springfield, the capital of Illinois, and tendered his services
to Governor Yates, who turned his constituent's experience to practical account in organizing the State troops; for U. S. Grant had
served in the Mexican war, and was, moreover, a graduate of West
Point, the national military school. Here, then, was material for a
military schoolmaster, in a soldier trained and tried.
In time of peace he had retired to private life; but when secession
appealed to the sword, he reappeared in behalf and defence of the
I Union; and how persistently and successfully he waged war and won
battle is accepted truth in the familiar history of a pure patriot and
great commander.
The unexampled cosmopolitan attentions paid U. S. Grant in foreign lands attest to a worldwide appreciation of his conspicuous mer- 53
its, effulgent in fidelity and heroism to cause and country in civil war,
7 O «/ «/ 7
and afterwards in good intentions in trying times.
From a private citizen U. S. Grant ascended step by step to the
top-landing of commander-in-chief of all the armies of the United
States; after a civil war of four years he was twice elected President
of the United States; and on the expiration of his second term as
Chief Magistrate, March 3, 1877, he again returned to private citizenship.
Honors are not titles, nor are titles merits. Deeds are finally only
represented by names, and hence in after time, and to posterity, the
name expresses all, is the symbol of everything. Wherefore Ulysses
Simpson Grant, or otherwise and popularly and significantly United
States Grant, stands for the whole subject full and complete, without
abbreviation, reservation or contraction.
And when the European subject looks on the American citizen
U. S. Grant, and sees in him an unassuming man without pretension
and without title, surely the sight must suggest to his sober reflection
the vanity of hereditary titles and the costliness of royal perquisites
and pensions paid to the progeny of dynastic wedlock.
Grant rose out of the people, one of themselves, and, after public
service in war and in peace, returned back to the people, one of themselves ; and his example will be illustrious forever in a name aflame
with patriotic fame; for in him is represented and embodied the trinity of duties only possible in a republic—private citizen, commander-
in-chief, chief magistrate.
Those who advocate a third-term President would mar the finished
picture of the man, for the third-term thought implies more than it
expresses, and is not consonant with the precedent set by Washington
and since observed as a law of sacred import, which cannot be misin-   '
terpreted to the American people.
When France welcomed liberty back to Paris, and drove the red-
t/ 7
handed and incendiary torch-bearing communists from her temple
desecrated by their diabolism, and for the third time consecrated the
sacred edifice whose altar-fires had been twice before extinguished,
France achieved a grand glory for army-ridden Europe.
To liberty in its dwelling-place in a republic a mob is a foe as dangerous and destitute of reason as a dog with the hydrophobia; for
intelligent human beings prefer any and every form of government to
© ©       J. »/ •/ O
anarchy; and as the bayonet as an instrument of order is the basis
J    7 J
of despotism, as the ballot as an expression of power is the basis of
republicanism, the enemies of order in free government are more than
disturbers of the peace, and are to be treated, after notice reasonable
to all not demons, like animals inoculated with the saliva of madness ; 54
I;
' because between anarchy and order in a republic the law must prevail or liberty succumb to anarchy, the precursor to despotism; for
trust breakers in office and charter-clad offenders who betray investors and wrong employe's and transporters would barter away a state
to a central authority for protection, and sell liberty to enjoy spoils;
but where intelligent use is made of the ballot at the polls, abuses in
the public service, in corporation practice, courts of law and elsewhere, can be reached and abated, and remedies provided for all evils
curable by pure legislation and honest administration, from the chief
justice to the street-sweeper. For as " the last shall be first and the
first shall be last," so in a republic the bootblack-boy may rise above
the chief justiceship to the presidency of the United States, and the
born heir to fortune may die a beggar. The few make the noise, the
many do the honest work of life; the tribunals try but a small percentage of the population for offences, and the jails are few and far
apart, showing that fidelity to law and duty to society is the rule, disobedience to law and dishonesty to fellow man the exception; where
there is ventilation in the newspapers, a foul transaction smells farther than an orchard in blossom, yet the fruit ripens in its season, by
which time the rotten aspirant is in disgrace; modest merit survives
in exquisite memories in the affections and in the books, but corrupt
selfishness, like an ignis fatuus in foul air over decaying matter in a
morass, is a luminous exhalation that misleads and disappoints; the
bad man is on a trap-door with a possible rope overhead, sure oblivion
beneath his feet, except as he may serve for an admonition in the sermons of prison chaplains and moral instructors of youth. Apathy,
too, is sometimes deadly to liberty, as sleep is sometimes death in a
disguise that disarms suspicion. In a republic inanition in a citizen
is a crime against society, which can protect itself from a lunatic by
confining him in an infirmary, whereas the citizen who omits to dis-
c «/  '
charge his moral responsibility under the civil code is protected
against incarceration, because to personal freedom he has a natural
right not forfeited to the statute; for, though mentally defunct to
political duty, he is physically alive in the social condition; information and experience are knowledge and wisdom, and government is
exalted and pure in proportion as the governed participate in public
affairs and adjust official conduct to a standard that will bear scrutiny, satisfy conscience and command respect. The individual must
be a creditor in his account with the community in which he is an
atom, possibly a light; and in proportion as he shows a balance to
his credit large or small will he be esteemed much or little in the circumference of the circle rippled by his proceedings; for status is a
valuation put not on promise but on performance;  and herein is a 55
reason why a man in conspicuous office or position who misdirects its
influences and misapplies its patronage and powers, out of office sinks
out of sight, and after burial in the earth is lost in oblivion deep as
a thousand years ; having strayed into forbidden ways and practiced
unworthy arts, his name is cast out of the vocabulary of his cotem-
poraries, his coadjutors reproach him to excuse themselves, and the
public know him no more; and as a luminary falls, so will its satellite disappear out of the firmament of preferment, where its borrowed
light is shed in baleful beams. A community of stockholders has
twice as many eves and ears as tongues, and sees and hears more
%7 •/ © 7
than it says. The wicked vanity that underrates the constituency it
abuses, and trusts fortune to prevent its conviction in the courts, is
helpless and without defence in the tribunal of the people, where lawyers' words are vapors, and lies, like damp rockets, will not coruscate.
The Philadelphia soldiers of the Pennsylvania National Guard who
were abandoned to the mob and multitude at Pittsburgh, Saturday
night, July 21, 1877, under circumstances indescribably disgraceful
© 7 ft/ »/ O
to the local military and police authorities, and who, having successfully defended themselves throughout the night, in a Round House,
whither they had been improperly ordered by Major General A. L.
Pearson, of Pittsburgh, marched out of that city Sunday, July 22,
1877 (pursued by a mob of baser beasts than bulls in a herd, which
mob fired all its shots from the rear, and so did deeds of murder on
the holy day), afterwards returned to Pittsburgh with recruits arrived
*i J J7 ©
out from home and fellow-soldiers from the interior and border
counties, and reoccupied the scene of riot; in order that Pittsburgh
should see and know, and to make Pittsburgh feel and realize in the
7 ©
spectacle of its submission, that the law is paramount and the State
supreme in every part of Pennsylvania.
Where the law is defied free government does not discuss the cause
of outbreak against order, life or property. It restores peace, makes
arrests, assesses damages, and considers a remedy for prevention.
And the Union is so extensive, and its spread-out population of readers
and thinkers is so well informed on events past and preseut, that a
local demonstration, whether aggravated for political party purposes
or for arson, pillage, and murder, is followed by instant preparation
to occupy the scene of riot; yes, that is the word—riot—for insurrec-
1   V *        ft/ )
tion is farther from the intentions of a Pennsylvanian than is a vigilance committee in time of disorder for redressment. And the arson
and pillage-approving population of Pittsburgh, quiescent where the
Sunday mob in the public streets assassinated four strangers of the
Pennsylvania National Guard, sent to Pittsburgh from Philadelphia
by the State officers in authority at Harrisburg, was meek and quiet 56
I
(and contrite concerning damages), whilst the military possessed Pittsburgh and forced it to eat "humble pie," meantime. that railway
traffic was resumed and trains departed and arrived on schedule time.
When Governor J. F. Hartranft arrived out at Pittsburgh with
Pennsylvania troops, R. A. Ammon, the brevetted brakeman, resigned;
»/ IT     7 7 O *
and then Pittsburgh had opportunity in leisure to meditate the consequences of its mob sympathies, its Saturday night treacheries, and
its Sabbath-day depot fires and highway murder of strangers under
•/IT O *7 O
orders, in the service of the Commonwealth.
The crater of a volcano in eruption is an insecure place against the
lava, cinder and muddy matter cast up out of a "bottomless pit;"
but the place of torment for sinners doomed, with its mayor in a
paroxysm, its police in a frenzy, its mob cantankerous and contentious, and its stokers overhot from overwork at its fires, as described
by painters in colors and poets in words, is a place of mercy compared with pandemonium Pittsburgh on that saturnalian Sunday,
July 22, 1877.
Dyeing certain colors is a lost art; and lying, notwithstanding the
antiquity .of the practice, is still an imperfect disguise and a poor
substitute, else the efforts of the willing wills and weak minds that
©
attempted to mitigate the guilt of Pittsburgh by the manufacture of
imitation truth in crooked afterthoughts would have had a less mor-
©
tifying termination ; but the charcoal in the pyres along the railway
tracks Was too black, and the blood of the soldiers shot from behind
was too red on the stones, and the crime of Pittsburgh was too fully
recorded in its own and other newspapers of the day and in after
documents and reports, for lie distilled from fiction to wash out its
stains. And so Pittsburgh, over its dress suit of smoke, has a sur-
tout of bills for Allegheny County to pay. The "insurrection " plea
was a false key to open the Sinking Fund of Pennsylvania, which
contains assets coveted for damages payable for the property destroyed
during the Pittsburgh riot in July, 1877, due not from the State but
O © ft/ 7
from Allegheny County. The Governor of Pennsylvania, however,
is a vigilance committee of one, with the veto; and in 1870 Governor
Geary, with a veto that exploded like a bombshell, saved the Sinking
Fund of Pennsylvania from robbery. The people of Pennsylvania
all know who is Governor, and hold that functionary responsible for
all legislation, except bills passed over his veto. Deriving the veto
power from the Constitution, he is expected to use it for cause, or
pass out of office and disappear from political life. To assent that a
riot was an " insurrection," to substitute the  State for Allegheny
7 ^J t/
County in the matter of damages, would sink the Governor out of
sight.    But before it can reach the Governor a bill must be passed by
i 57
both branches of the Legislature. Allegheny County is liable, and
its resources are ample, and that is enough for justice.
And thus will it be again, if that European transplant called
" socialism " and " communism," both parasites in a republic, should
rise in arms against the authorities in any city in the United States.
o »/ t/
When peace is disturbed the law is not palaver but process with force,
and order is to be maintained at whatsoever cost to its enemies ; application for military aid is a dernier resort, but where invoked for
v 7
sufficient cause it ought to be used with discretion and made effective
against disorder.    Especially is the American Union the wrong field
O X tf ©
for the agrarian from abroad, because his certificate of naturalization,
© 7
which is proof of his promotion to citizenship, is not a license to sow
treason, seize property, or overturn the social system which is the product of civilization since the deluge. In a republic the state is the
aggregate of all the people in it, held together by its laws, enacted
by representatives chosen by ballot at the polls. The minority cannot
enact new laws, but by discussion and appeal may make proselytes to
its opinions, till it reverses positions with the opposition and becomes
in turn the majority party; whereupon it may graft its measures on
the statutes.    Violence or intimidation,  however,  is not only not
7 * */
allowable but is punishable, and as law-breakers, life-takers, and
property-wreckers incur punishment, so their abettors, for head and
heart guiltiness, deserve more than reprobation. If a discontented
adult could on option turn political surgeon and butcher the law,
according to his interest or  his  hate, the  hand  that would  smite
© 7
the   state  would  be  lifted  against  life,   and  society would  retro-
O 7 ft/
grade. And this consideration makes the demagogue an outlaw in
manhood, for he knows the end to which his arts tend; but the
domestic and imported mischief-makers are few, and mob outbreak
like yellow fever is only an occasional visitation in malarious spots,
here and there,. in the Union ; an uprising of wicked malcontents
would provoke a concentration and explosion of opposition force that
would disperse them to the four winds, as a dynamite blast scatters
quarry stones in atoms through the air.
The world craves not a new religion, nor will it abandon itself to the
moral darkness of irreligion.    Christianity has done for mankind more
© «/
than all other religions summed together; and if the Turk reign at
■ © © ' ©
Philippi where Paul preached, that is because in 1878 England had
for its idol of popular worship the boastful "Disraeli," the Queen of
England being "Empress of India," where there are 240,000,000 of
Hindoos and Mahometans, against 31,857,338 Christian subjects in
Great Britain and Ireland. England's temple is the shop and workshop, and  England's  God is the "almighty dollar," to which her
< 58
homage is loyal, if selfish; England's religion is not Christ crucified,
© *7 © ©
but interest money accrued and to accrue. On " British interests,"
expressed and reserved, hang all the Acts of Parliament, all the
Proclamations of the Queen. For the world, England, through half
a century, has been commercial broker and commission agent.    But
J 7 ©
this business is now open to competition, and in commercial supremacy
Great Britain is each year less absolute. Of course, as she " weakens
in the knees," she becomes lustier in the lungs, to frighten capital
7 ©    7 © C
where she cannot harm it. England is overpeopled and London is
overgrown, considering its proximity to the land's end in England,
© © XT »/ ©
Wales, and Scotland, which have these areas and populations, to wit:
i:
England,
Wales,   ....
Scotland,
Total, Great Britain,
Ireland, ....
Isle of Man and Channel Islands,
Army, Navy, Merchant Seamen,
Great Britain and Ireland,
New York,     ....
Connecticut,  ....
New York and Connecticut,
Square Miles.
Census.
Population.
50,922
1871
21,495,131
7,397
1871
1,217,135
31,324
1871
3,360,018
89,643
26,072,284
32,481
1871
5,411,416
394
1871
144,638
1871
229,000
122,518
47,156
4,674
51,830
1870
1870
Oi    OCT   OOO
ol,oof ,ooo
4,357,647
537,454
4,895,101
New York and Connecticut, which in joint area are larger than
England, jointly contain but 22 per cent, of the population of England ; so that England contains more than four times the joint population of New York and Connecticut, notwithstanding that New York
7 ^3
State contains New York City, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Albany, Rochester,
indeed eight of the fifty principal cities in the United States; and
Connecticut contains New Haven and Hartford, two of the fifty principal cities in the United States.
1841. 1851. 1861. 1871.
Population of Ireland,   8,175,124   6,515,794   5,764,543   5,411,416
The famine in Ireland, in 1847, caused by the failure of the crops
of that year, particularly its food staple, the potato, is not an explanation of the steady decrease in population in each decade since 1841.
Great Britain imports more than half the wheat consumed by its population ; and, as the palmy days of its foreign trade are past, emigration 59
from Great Britain will unquestionably increase and resident population diminish in England as in Ireland.    Foreign trade is uncertain ;
© ©
and as Great Britain loses its industrial prestige and customers for
its manufactures in foreign markets, will not London, which by the
© 3 7 ft/
census of 1871 contained 3,251,804 of population, decline like other
commercial centres that preceded it in Europe? London is too large
to subsist on the home trade of an island in the ocean, not twice the
size of Newfoundland. From London to Liverpool, by railway across
England, the distance is 201 miles.    From New York to San Fran-
© 7
cisco, across the United States, by railway, the distance is 3321 miles.
Between the Atlantic and the Pacific seaports of the American Union
there are three thousand miles of prolific interior country, sure to
contain, in time not distant, two hundred millions of inhabitants.
Here is a prospect for a home trade very different from, the outlook
from London and Liverpool.    Venice and Genoa had a distant trade,
and lost it.    The glory of foreign empire has departed from Rome,
yet Rome is the capital of Italy nationalized, and is grand in its
ancient ruins.    And although the glory of commercial dominion over
© ©    j
a vast area will leave London, yet London will still be the capital of
the island of Great Britain; and Macaulay's New Zealander, who
will inevitably appear, may contemplate its ruins, and contrast its
vastness in desolation with its illustrious predecessors that flourished,
each a cynosure for a time, and then declined towards oblivion, but
not into it; because the historical inventory of the ruins of cities
abandoned to decay is a perennial entertainment to the antiquarian
and the student, which latter comprises all the ages of man ; for the
wise are seldom young, and the cultivated man at three-score years is
as zealous a student as the better boy at school. The male animal
that is a baby, boy, and man, in succession, if endowed with more
ft/ / ft/ / j /
than average intellect, is a thinking and remembering machine, from
© 7 © ©
the time he can con the alphabet till reason leaves his head or life
abandons his body.
"The Mutual Admiration Society," made up of rich and prosperous
Americans and titled and snobby Englishers, which was in full blast
J © 7
preparatory to the negotiation of the Washington treaty of May 8,1871,
that was to do much for mankind, and elevate human nature to a
higher standard in this world, preliminary to a still higher one in the
© 7     1 ft/ O
next, seems to have moved the unbelief of one observer of men and
matters, who wrote the following letter, copied from a newspaper of
November 15, 1876. Its date, April 10, 1871, it will be seen, is
anterior to the Washington treaty, signed May 8, 1871; and its publication, November 15, 1876, it will also be noticed, is prior to the
Halifax Fishery award, made November 23, 1877.
< 60
"English Tactics in America.
" Gen. IT. S. Grant,
" President of the United States.
April 10, 1871.
" Honored Sir :—Distinguished men in distinguishing office are
■ © © ©
beset with too many flatterers and hear too few truth-tellers. And
yet, to rulers of men, facts are as indispensable as food.
"Your answer to General Buckner, in 1862, drew my attention
to you, and enlisted my confidence and good wishes.    Your military
«/ 7 ft/ O */
case, however, as you know, is made up in the record of the rise and
fall of an unholy rebellion.    And now, in the high office which is the
«/ ©
people's reward for services rendered them in the field, in a crisis
which put in jeopardy the aspirations of mankind, you are again on
trial, this time- as Civil Magistrate, charged with the administration
of the affairs of a great nation.
©
"And now to the purpose of this letter, which is, to caution you
to beware of British diplomacy, which, like all European diplomacy,
literally translated, is simply lying according to law I
" The Dominion of Canada was conceived in hostility to the United
States; and American statesmen owe it to their posterity to sunder
the zone of British territory which flanks the Republic on the north,
and has its termini in the far apart islands of Newfoundland and
Vancouver.
" The treaty of the 15th June, 1846, between the United States
and Great BritaiD, which surrendered an opportunity to abut our
boundary against Russia, at 54°40' to which line Polk and Buchanan
*/ © '- 7
avowed that our title was ' clear and unquestionable,' is a standing
shame to American statesmanship. And the interpretation subsequently given to that treaty, by Great Britain, to cover the island
of San Juan, is a lesson which should not be forgotten at this time.
7 ©
" I have been in England, and do not much wonder at the temper
of its waning ruling class towards the United States.   Jealousy, envy,
© ©       ■ •/  •/ ft/   7
covetousness are feelings difficult of eradication. The United States
are overshadowing the British Isles. England's power is faded on the
continent, and she is in dread lest her hoarded wealth be molested.
" But instead of looking to Africa, Australia, etc., for new fields
and new markets, she continually aims to clog and thwart what, to a
•7 ©
comprehensive vision, is the ■ manifest destiny' of these States.
" If Great Britain were driven out of American waters, the two
nations could, thereafter, be brought into relations of genuine fraternity. And until that event takes place, or British rule be limited to
territory east of Lake Superior, the American heart which may yearn 61
to find in Great Britain a Mother Country, will continue to find instead
a step-mother country given to officious intermeddling.
JT ft/      © ©
" British territory cannot be Americanized under British rule, as
witness the animus of the indwellers of that strip of land between
Niagara and Detroit Rivers, across which railroad companies send
freights and passengers to and from New York and Michigan.
" The valleys of the Saskatchewan and Red Rivers will never be
Americanized whilst under the jurisdiction of the Dominion, or any
other British authority, even though, of necessity (not choice), the
railroads which may traverse them be connected with the railroads of
Minnesota.
" British jurisdiction fosters opposition to the United States, exactly
as a long British border tempts and promotes smuggling into the
United States.
" Diplomacy and policy, more than arms, made the greatness of
Britain. By diplomacy and policy she will make a bad neighbor of
the Dominion of Canada, even as she makes corrupt tools in the
Washington lobby.
" Do not mistake me. I am not an enemy to Great Britain. On
the contrary, I appreciate the bulwark she made herself against the
reactionary revolutions and usurpations of the continent. Nevertheless, Great Britain must be made to ' accept the situation' in the
New World, and to back out of the way of American expansion and
progress.
" You, yourself, know full well that what Great Britain did during
7     |/ 7 <0
the rebellion, prolonged the rebellion; that her acts, alike of omission
as of commission, disclosed an impatience to see the Union dissevered;
that she did cause the disappearance of American shipping from the
ocean carrying trade between  American  and foreign  ports'.    You
ft/ O <-7 X
know, too, that, before the American public, Great Britain is under
indictment. And now, finally, what the American people have a
right to expect is, that British diplomatists shall not once more humbug American politicians !
"Seward's Alaska purchase and diplomatic expulsion of the French
from Mexico will jointly perpetuate his statesmanship.
"What page in American history is more important than Jefferson's acquisition of Louisiana ?
" Polk's administration acquired California—a most potential and
momentous acquisition; but the treaty of the 15th June, 1846, with
Great Britain, was the mill-stone which sunk into oblivion the good
deeds of Polk's reign.
" Under the indictment found against Great Britain, in the early
documents of your administration, newspaper opinions, in England, 62
were expressed in deeper contrition than at present time. Then it
was even suggested, here and there, in some of the newspapers, that
in settlement of the Alabama claims British territory might be ceded
•/ ©
to the United States.
" Latterly, however, expounders of English public opinion have
grown less penitent; and in lieu of willingness to eat l humble pie,'
the British lion is pricked into effort to imitate the ominous growl of
yore, when it roamed the iungle in India, and before it was made a
*/ ' ml O *
meek denizen of the zoological garden in London."
As in present time the administration of Thomas Jefferson is universally commended throughout the Union for the acquisition of
Louisiana, and the administration of James K. Polk is credited without stint for the annexation of Texas and the acquisition of California,
so hereafter and in full measure of thankfulness will the administration of Andrew Johnson (W. H. Seward, Secretary of State) be
praised for the acquisition of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands;
whereby Russia and the United States clasped hands across Behring
Strait, and the rover of the seas and squatter on islands where the
owner is in poverty or the natives are defenceless is shut out from
fortifying a Malta in the North Pacific Ocean.
The precedent furnished by Great Britain in the ruthless extinction
of the Transvaal Republic in 1877, and the annexation of its territory
to her possessions in Africa, would justify the United States, as
against Great Britain, in converting the provinces of British Columbia and Manitoba into Territories and embryo States of the Union.
ft/
And why should not Great Britain have the "ingredients" of her
ft/ ©
drugged " chalice" " commended to her own lips "?
©© 1
CHAPTER VII.
Since the 4th July, 1776, when the thirteen colonies, all on Atlantic tidewater (New Hampshire the northernmost, Georgia the
southernmost, Pennsylvania the "keystone"), resolved themselves-
into " free and independent States," marvellous events have transpired, tending to overturn dynasties, expose the sham of kingcraft,
and ameliorate the condition of mankind, under ratified treaties and
written constitutions.
The fiction of "the divine right of kings" has perished from the
earth; hereditary subjects have wrung concessions from hereditary 63
rulers; Europe has been rectified in places, remodelled in parts;
Russia, developed into a colossal civilizing power, grows and spreads ;
Germany is moulded into a homogeneous empire; Italy is a compact
and intact nationality. And France, the fore-front of the world's
stage when.nations were in the cast of actors, in the seven years
since the German war, has shown wise humility in calm self-restraint;
has elevated still higher than before the arts of peace; and meanwhile
has evinced a trust in her own capabilities and resources, under cir ■
cumstances and in ways that vindicate the Republic, raised up out of
the ruins of the empire and the ashes of the commune, as the form
of government best fitted for the French people, in this third generation of political revolution, furnace ordeal and fiery trial. The third
Republic, which demolished the empire and destroyed the commune,
its two enemies and adversaries, one on either side, now stands " a
pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night;" and no despot
can make it vanish nor demagogue make it dark. ■
© © _
True, the face of Europe is still freckled with Heligoland, Malta
and Gibraltar, and with spot powers in court-plaster patches between
Skager Rack and Dover Strait, and between the river Pruth and the
Strait of Otranto. But considering how much has been compassed
in the rectification of European boundaries in the last twenty years,
the prospect is cheering that the time is not distant when Europe will
be apportioned among less than half a score of nationalities all Christian, the Turk retired ; and that then the nations of Europe will at
last be wise enough to live in peace with each other, content to allow
distant peoples to govern themselves, and leave intercontinental intertrade to regulations prescribed in treaties.
The time will soon have gone by for partitioning off the earth among
© J x O ©
dynasties supported sumptuously for breeding stock through royal
marriages for diplomatic ends; in Europe nowadays nationalities command paramount consideration, and the reigning houses rule not by
" divine right," but as the constituted and installed heads of the gov-
© 7 ©
ernments; for, after all, an empire is but another name for a state,
and from an autocracy to a democracy the distance is but a bridge of
spans on different plans, whatever may be said about constitutional
monarchy, with a pensioned household and a class made noble by
patent, as if a patent of nobility were a gauge of merit, when it is
only evidence of a machine-made honor or a prize-ticket gift; for a
patent cannot ennoble a name or make a name great, because true
greatness is the homage paid by mankind to public benefactors for
unselfish service; and it is with men as with books and battles, only
one here and there serving to make a fame or mark an epoch or era
in the chronology of time. 64
Great events in America, due to patriotic effort and self-denial,
have wrought out grand results to universal man in a new*nation and
© ©
in the old world. The government of the United States has withstood
attack from without and also from within, has had foreign wars and a
civil war, and was strong enough to triumph in both ordeals. Slavery,
the graft of Great Britain, has been extirpated, and now there is not
a seed of poison in the Constitution to germinate a parasite or justify
a reproach. And the corrupt lobbyist, bribe-taker and trust-betrayer,
the corporation anaconda and the ring boa-constrictor, would fain rehabilitate as conservatives good as Tweed and his coadjutors, who,
having amassed millions contrary to honesty and duty, if let alone
and not molested or exposed, would advocate low taxes, civil service
reform, economy in corporation practice, and dividends to stockholders. But the sword of justice is unsheathed, and offenders fear
lest where it may not smite with its edge it may smack with its flat
side. The uneasy sinner is the dishonest man found out. And for
the hypocrite who delivers himself of his moral lecture from the chimney-top, and descends thence by the flue to emerge sooted from the
cellar, or makes the editorial column or the official corporation report
a vehicle for deceptive untruth, exposure is sure disgrace as contempt
is sore punishment; because the offender who may indurate his face
and banish the blush from his cheek cannot deaden the sensitive
nerves between his five senses and his mental reflections.
For bankrupts in reputation look not alone among delinquent
debtors in ordinary and unofficial transactions, but also to those who
betrayed official trust, and after investigation or trial were hurled
down from the pinnacle of high esteem into the dusty way where the
tramp travels.
As a political coupling the Constitution is potential to hold together
the train of States from Maine to California; and all the mending
7 O
the Constitution needs is to make the presidential term six years instead of four, render the incumbent ineligible for re-election, and
guard the franchise and the electoral return against fraud.
All attempts to found royalty in North America have failed, tragi-
X v «/ 7 O
cally and ignominiously.    Mexico has had two emperors, Iturbide.
and Maximilian, whose short reigns are bloody chapters in its eventful history; the first-named was shot after a trial in 1824, the last-
named was shot after a trial in 1867; and these two tearful lessons
will not be lost on diplomatists, adventurers and demagogues.
The progress of population in the nation of the United States is
without precedent, as will be seen in what follows.
The estimated number of inhabitants in the colonies represented in
the Congress at Philadelphia in 1775 was 3,000,000. 5
At that time the colonies ranked in population Virginia first, Massachusetts second, Pennsylvania third, Maryland fourth. New York
was equalled by Connecticut, North Carolina and South Carolina.
Maryland contained 62,035 more of population than New York, and
62,034 less than Pennsylvania. The original colonies all abutted on
tidewater, and among the three millions of population are included
Tories who were averse to independence and non-combatants in love
with peace.
The first census of the nation of the United States was taken in
1790, so that in all there have been nine decennial censuses, beginning
with 1790 and including 1870. And here is the record made of the
aggregate population at each census :
1790.    1800.    1810.    1820.    1830.    1840.    1850.    1860.    1870.
3,929,214 5,308,483 7,239,881 9,633,822 12,866,020 17,069,453 23,191,876 31,443,321 38,558,371
According to the ninth census of the United States, taken in 1870,
© 7 7
there were of native-born inhabitants 32,901,142.
Foreign-born inhabitants 5,657,229.
The population of the United States, consequently, in 1870 comprised eighty-five per cent, of native-born and fifteen per cent, of
foreign-born population.
Unfortunately America is a misnomer, as to call England Anglo-
j © ©
Saxon is a misnomer; for Christopher Columbus, not Americus
Vespueius, discovered America, and England is Saxon-Norman, and
America is Celtic-Teutonic. In proof of this, attention is invited to
the nationalities of the foreign-born population of the United States
in 1870.
Ireland, . . 1,855,S27
All Germany, . 1,690,533
England, . . 550,924
All British America, 493,464
Scotland, . . 140,835
Prance,        .        .      116,402
Norway,
Sweden,
Switzerland,
All Austria,
Wales,
China,
114,246
Mexico, .
97,332
Denmark,
75,153
Italy,      .
74,534
Belgium,
74,533
West Indies
42,435
30,107
17,157
12,553
11,570
4,644
63,042 .| Russia,   .
The first battle of the revolution was fought at Lexington, Massa-
chusetts, April 19, 1775. On the 19th October, 1781, Lord
Cornwallis with his army surrendered to General Washington, at
Yorktown, Virginia. Provisional Articles of Peace were signed
November 30, 1782. An agreement that all hostilities should cease
was signed January 20, 1783. On the 19th of April, 1783, exactly
eight years after the battle at Lexington, which opened the war, a
proclamation of peace was issued by Washington.
From the achievement of Independence the American Republic has
been an attraction to immigrants, particularly from Ireland and
Germany; and from these Celtic and Teutonic sources the Union has
•/     7
5 m
derived the bulk of its foreign, the basis of its native population.
And as the issue of foreign parents are native Americans, and the
process of fusion has been in operation since Europe peopled
America's shores, the American race is a Celtic-Teutonic, not an
Anglo-Saxon type of the human species. It was the Norman graft
that made Britain great. And where the Normans grafted there they
grew.
What happened to Adam and his posterity may be left to historians, prophets, and preachers to descant, for an initial in Noah and
the ark-load which he landed on Ararat; since this brings us down to
7 ©
a period relatively modern, and gives the human family a new departure from Armenia, not far from Eden and all in Asia.
The Dominion of Canada, organized as a propaganda, cannot crown
a ruler, install a dynasty, nor manufacture an aristocracy by patent-
right; for exotic shoots from royal roots, or suckers from noble stumps,
© 7 ft/ I /
do not sprout after transplant to North America, where old States
sow pioneers and new States grow from home increase and European
overflow.
The Union is the product not of birthright but of honest industry,
Christian toleration and educated self-reliance. The people reign
and the people rule; and incumbents of conspicuous office, not conspicuous for merit, may flash in the political sky like a rocket in the
night air, but are sure to disappear from public office, public consideration, and public sight. True, parasites abound in political life as in
animal and vegetable life; but dishonesty begets opprobrium, and the
unfaithful public servant sinks into obscurity and is heard of no more,
save to "point a moral and adorn a tale." To be sure money will
buy praise, but the promiscuous flatterer is like the fly which leaves a
speck of dirt where it finds a grain of sugar.
The robust man is not always healthy in all his vital organs, but
the tendency of nature is to health, and unless the wrong medieine is
administered he soon recovers.
So the political body may not be perfect in all its parts, yet it may
be complete in most of its functions, and only need repair where there
is discovered imperfection. The duration of office is limited, and constitutions and laws are open to amendment. The bullet is the
unthinking instrument of force, used against the subject if he claim
the rights which it is the duty of the citizen to exercise. Man can
nowhere be free but in a republic. And if the subject boast of the
pure blood of his prince, the citizen can cite the purer blood of the
race-horse, which receives a physical training superior to a prince
in paternal antecedents and safeguards against indulgences and indis-
X o o o
cretions. 67
As a large percentage of the patent medicines sold in the shops are
quack nostrums, so a large percentage of patent title-bearers are spurious compounds, labelled to circulate at a social price above intrinsic
value. And the divorce courts of Europe attest that tempted virtue
is sometimes weak to resist vice as well where rank is acquired by
inheritance in circles professedly exclusive as among less pretentious
people.
England produced Shakspeare, America produced Washington.
Neither of these men inherited a title, yet each left a fame that time
brightens, as royalty dims, in the shadows of " coming events."
© . 7 J J 7 ©
A living body, the planetary system, the universe of God, are all
machines in motion, operating to the schedule of the Supreme intelligence, the Creator of the earth and of Adam in Eden, and all things
between and beyond the outermost orbs in space, visible through the
magnifying aids to science and research.
The astronomer contemplates the heavens and is filled with adoration of the Maker of the firmament.    The statesman with his finger
©
revolves a ball mapped with the nations of the world, and, contrasting the imperfect machinery of human government with the order in
nature, applies himself to the improvement and aggrandizement of
his country.
The nations of Europe, though the issue of a new departure out of
Noah's ark in Armenia, after the deluge, are nevertheless a spread-
out of patches cut with swords and held together with treaty tape;
and in this patchwork of centuries  every rent makes two " ragged
i «/ ©O
edges," one of which is pieced out, the other cut away, as when Savoy
and Nice were scissored from Italy and fitted to France, and Alsace
and Lorraine were sworded from France and sewed to Germany.
Or later, as when the Berlin Congress in 1878 donated to Austria,
for reasons not founded in truth nor of a justifying nature, the
Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, for Austria did nothing
whilst Russia and Turkey were at war, but chorus with Great Britain
in bluster and preparation, not however, as the sequel shows, to fight
Russia and risk an European conflagration, but to steal from Turkey
in its extremity; because it was - clear that Russia would not vacate
Bessarabia, Batoum or Kars, having vanquished Turkey in war ended
by the treaty of San Stefano between the two belligerents. And
therefore, Great Britain and Austria negotiated and threatened in the
interest of Turkey, against Russia and the San Stefano treaty, till
v  7        © «/  '
the map of Turkey was-rectified by the Berlin Congress, which portioned off Bosnia and Herzegovina to Austria, and Great Britain
obtained Cyprus Island through a secret treaty.
Turkey's volunteer attorneys divided part of their client's assets 68
between themselves, and then conciliated their phindered dupe with
the excuse, that it had better part with Bosnia and Herzegovina to
Austria and Cyprus Island to Great Britain, than carry out with
Russia the provisions of the San Stefano treaty. And when the
Berlin Congress prescribed for Austria's aggrandizement, its "mandate" was equivalent in dishonesty to a military order to billet troops
in a bank to manipulate its affairs, lest thieves might break into its
vaults and steal its deposits. It is because the diplomacy of Europe
is operated in the interest of dynasties, sometimes in disregard of the
populations governed, that extreme opinions are promulgated through
secret societies, and imperial rulers live in political twilight and intellectual unrest.
In horse-power times gone by, the weight of a four-footed animal
on a treadmill which turned under its feet propelled a boat across a
ferry, and caused light machinery to move in a mill; but nowadays
ft/   7 Q »/ / •*
the steam-engine hauls trains of cars over mountains, propels ships
across seas, and drives looms in factories. And as the steam-engine
is a motor in machinery, so is the ballot a motor in government.   The
J  7 O
sceptre is no longer a magic wand; aud the one-man power in a crown
is falling into disuse after the one-horse power on the treadmill; for
this is a practical age, and a wooden figure-head is an abomination in
X ©7 O
the sight of thinking man, who associates the idea with a vessel in
© ©
water, where a figure-head does not interfere with the bowsprit nor
7 O X
impair the discipline of the crew on board.
Institutions influence the minds of men as climate affects crops in
the ground.   There must be an even start or there can be no fair race.
©
To be born free and equal in the law is a stimulus to effort, and hence
in a republic the honest, earnest man moves on even in the front, incurring risks and enioying rewards.
o «/     «/ <ZJ
The productions of an arable belt of land outstretching north and
south across twenty degrees of latitude, say from Galveston in Texas
to Pembina in Minnesota, are of very many more varieties than the
productions of a belt due east and west across twenty-five degrees of
longitude, say from Winnipeg to the Pacific waters, in the Dominion
of Canada.
The better side of Manitoba is its south side, open to the sun and
zephyr, which thaw its surface to its isothermal limit, and give it a
season for agriculture. Manitoba will be forced by necessity to cultivate a trade southward, because the staples of which it may produce
a surplus, over home consumption, will be.very few; whereas the
States south of Manitoba grow oats, grasses, rye, barley, potatoes
and wheat; and also corn, flax, hemp, tobacco, rice, sugar cane and
cotton; vegetables and fruits, too, are in boundless profusion. 69
In verity the capacity of the Mississippi basin for production is
beyond estimate by ordinary calculation ; for, though the earth is
peopled over its circumference, one-third part of its inhabitants dwell
in China proper, within an area but little larger than the Mississippi
basin, and not so large as the joint area of the Mississippi basin and
the thirteen original States ; in other words, one-third of the whole
human family dwell in less space than that portion of the Union which
is east of the Rocky Mountains !
In 1871, England, within its area of 50,922 square miles (Minnesota  is  larger  than   England   and   Scotland  together),   contained
O © © //
21,495,131 of population. And Great Britain and Ireland, comprising England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Isle of Man and Channel
Islands, altogether 122,518 square miles (the area of Minnesota and
Iowa, jointly, is 138,576 miles), in 1871 contained a population of
31,857,338. These sizes are suggestive, because in 1770, one hundred and one years prior to the census of 1871, England and Wales con-
V I 7 O
tained a joint population of only 7,428,000. In the beginning of the
present century (1801), the population of "London and suburbs"
was 864,845 ; in 1870 the population of New York city was 942,292,
and, including its suburbs, about 1,750,000; so the United States, in
1870, contained a larger city than Europe contained in 1801, notwithstanding the antiquity of its capital cities and trade centres.
Philadelphia, too, is destined, from natural causes, to be a city of
very large population; it is on a deep and broad tidal river, and is
encircled by garden country of unequalled fertility; is in close proximity to mineral regions that supply cheap fuel and command the seaboard market; is a focus of communications to the sea, the lakes, the
cotton States, the Mississippi basin, and the Pacific coast; finally,
Philadelphia is a city of cheap homes and teeming markets, and its
working population, skilled in an infinity of arts, prosecuted in establishments of all sizes, from ground plans that cover acres to an attic
floor a few feet square, have opportunities for country recreation in
its parks; for the education of children in its schools; and for the
instruction and entertainment of everybody in its churches, libraries
and public places.
Philadelphia contains but a comparatively small percentage of
foreign-born, is intensely American in its political sentiments, and if
less metropolitan in appearance and fashion than its neighbor, is more
American in its proclivities and more multifarious in its manufactures. And fortunate is it for the whole country that the cities of
New York and Philadelphia, and the States of New York and Pennsylvania, so near together in geography, are so different in character-
ft/ © © © I «/   7
istics and employments; for as "familiarity breeds contempt," so r0
similarity breeds indifference, because " variety is the spice of life;"
and so when New York and Philadelphia are considered together, their
differences are bases for intercourse and intertrade, as the differences
between two nations furnish groundwork for commercial treaties;
since two nations that grow the same staples, manufacture the same
things and deal in the same merchandise, have nothing to interchange,
© © ©      7
no ground for compromise, no plea for reciprocation. A nation that
buys outside of its borders must sell outside of its borders, else trea-
sure instead of flowing inward will be drained outward; but as no
nation can supply all its own wants, every nation must buy in foreign
markets; and these necessities are the true bases of international
intertrade. Thus the United States is a buyer of coffee, tea and
sugar, and a seller of cotton, breadstuff's, oil, and provisions; true,
there are scores of other articles besides these in the catalogue of the
foreign trade of the United States, but the articles named constitute
©
the principal items in the import and export lists. Of the manufactures of iron, cotton and wool the United States import less and less
from year to year; and herein is where the shoe pinches Great Bri-
%7 v X
tain, which covets the American market, and so preaches free trade
to dissuade America from following in British footsteps through a
period of protection, till its manufactures were established and its
labor trained.
The native American and the foreign-born citizen both know and
appreciate the condition of the subject in Europe too well to permit
, the lawyer-politician, or any one else in Congress, to vote away protection to American labor, not so much for the benefit of the British
laborer as the British aristocrat, whose established caste, made up of
dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts, barons, own the land and enjoy
the luxuries of life.
The manufacturing plant now in operation in the United States is
of so large capacity that the competition is sufficiently active between
the home manipulators of our own staples; so free trade means oppression to the American laborer and loss of American capital invested
in machinery, because in Great Britain labor is impotent for its own
protection against the aristocracy which is above it, as a weather-vane
XT CJ •/ 7
on a church steeple is above its foundation-stone.
The Northern Pacific Railroad Company, in its general account,
which has a total of $147,251,212 on $20,545,883 charged to construction and equipment, twice the money-cost of road built and
equipped, has this item :
"Assets acquired under decree of court, $44,966,583."
These assets doubtless consist mainly of the par of shares or bonds 71
mostly bonus, and not convertible into money at any price worthy of
consideration.    Yet the item has "millions in it "—in the books !
Great Britain undoubtedly is possessed of prodigious wealth, particularly if its investments at home and abroad be counted at par;
but Great Britain is a small country, whilst its investments are in all
parts of the earth, from which the principal of money loaned can
never be recalled, for certificates of loan are cut out and off by foro>
closure, sale and reorganization, and bankruptcy is a sponge that
obliterates book accounts.
Great Britain, too, has a foreign trade which diminishes in profit;
and so from its foreign investments and its foreign trade British in-
© O
come is reduced. Thus Great Britain is menaced with loss in its
capital and in its trade.
The exceptionally favorable condition of the foreign trade of the
United States in recent years will appear in the following exhibit of
the imports and exports for the last four official years, compiled
from reports of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics:
Domestic Exports—Merchandise
reduced to gold values,  .    .    .
1875.
$499,284,100
83,857,129
1876.
$525,582,247
50,038,691
1877.
$589,670,224
43,134,738
1878.
$680,683,798
27,054,985
Total Domestic Exports,    .    .    .
$583,141,229
$575,620,938
$632,804,962
$707,738,783
Foreign Exports—Merchandise,.
"         "         Specie,   .    .    .
$14,158,611
8,275,013
$14,802,424
.6,467,611
$12,804,996
13,027,499
$14,200,402
6,678,240
Total Foreign Exports, ....
22,433,624
21,270,035
25,832,495
20,878,642
$605,574,853
$596,890,973
$658,637,457
$728,617,425
Imports—Merchandise,....
Imports—Specie,	
533,005,436
20,900,717
460,741,190
15,936,681
451,315,992
40,774,414
437,097,237
29,821,313
Summary.
Exports from the United States,
Imports into the United States, .
$553,906,153
1875.
$605,574,853
553,906,153
$476,677,871
1876.
$596,890,973
476,677,871
$492,090,406
1877.
$658,637,457
492,090,406
$466,918,550
1878.
$728,617,425
466,918,550
Excess of Exports over Imports,
$51,668,700
$120,213,102
$166,547,051
$261,698,875
Here, in verity, is a progress to be proud of, for no other nation
can approximate these relative proportions in export and import trade.
The summarized result given demonstrates conclusively that the
American Republic exports largely more than it imports; that the
Americans sell to foreigners much more than they buy from foreigners ; and that the Americans are a creditor people in account eurrent
with the intertrading nations of the earth. This, truly, is the acme
of commercial superiority and independence.
< 72
The American Union is the largest producer of the precious metals,
wherefore gold and silver must be added to its breadstuff's, cotton, oil,
tobacco, provisions and manufactured articles, the miscellany being
distinguished as well for its variety as for its value.
Since the rebellion against the Union, which was suppressed in
1865, after four years of civil war, the nation of the United States has
more than doubled its exports of domestic merchandise to foreign
countries; and since 1873, when inflation collapsed after six years of
rampant speculation caused not by the war whereby the rebellion was
suppressed, as erroneously alleged by quack political economists and
artfully charged by charter-clad banditti, but by the Union Pacific
Railroad Company's Credit Mobilier contract of 1867; Northern
Pacific and Texas Pacific, and scores of other railway swindles on
investors of small savings; the incorporation of roving contract and
improvement companies by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, particularly in 1869—70-71; and kindred false pretences contrived to cheat
the people with counterfeit tokens in the similitude of negotiable
bonds.    Never was history more cunningly perverted than when it is
•7 O   v      X
made to charge to the war of 1861—65 the lottery-policy railway
bond and bonus railway share speculations of 1867—73.    And high-
%f x O
waymen and brigands, who incur personal hazard in their out-door
depredations, are heroic thieves contrasted with an equal number of
official sneaks clad in charters granted for public objects, but perverted in practice to promote private ends in dishonest ways.
The government of the United States had resources in custom
duties, taxes, etc.. to pay interest on its indebtedness; but corporations,
firms, and individuals as debtors had to pay interest out of principal
borrowed, where the profits earned were insufficient, or fail. And as
money borrowed was soon expended or divided, and the profits were
less than the interest payable, disaster was the inevitable conclusion
under the circumstances.
The outlays charged to construction and collateral purposes by
corporations of all kinds, managed by bonus financiers and by sanguine men, and by firms and individuals for new establishments
devoted to the industries and manufactures, and for alterations and
additions made to enlarge capacity and facilitate production, during
the six consecutive years from 1867 to 1873, amounted to a
prodigious aggregate of liabilities, bearing interest at a rate extraordinary in some cases and high on the average; whereas those who
•/ © ©        7
bought United States bonds during the war invested their own money,
and consequently did not incur debt in the transaction. The war
absorbed capital in United States bonds for investment, and to its
creditors the government has been faithful in the payment of interest
^2 X       %f
1 73
accrued; but in the six years of speculation (commencing two years
after the war had ended, and after the government had not only
ceased to borrow but had decreased the national debt and the annual
interest payable by the United States), many more millions of indebtedness was rashly and recklessly incurred than the total interest-
bearing debt of the United States, which, at its maximum, August
31, 1865, amounted to $2,381,530,294.
This is a large sum, it is true, charged against the United States ;
© © ©
nevertheless it is not near so large as the charged increase in the
liabilities of the railroad companies in the United States, from the
end of 1867 to the end of 1873, as witness:
1873. 1867. Increase.
Miles of Railroad
reported on, 66,237 30,000 36,237
Capital Stock,      $1,947,638,584      $756,223,000    $1,191,415,584
Funded Debt, 1,836,904,450 416,658,000      1,420,246,450
Total liabilities,    $3,784,543,034    $1,172,881,000    $2,611,662,034
If the entire railroad mileage in the United States had been reported
on, and all the floating indebtedness included, the increase in the
liabilities of the railroad companies for 1873 over 1867 would be
about $3,000,000,000 !
At the end of 1873 there were in operation in the United States,
of railroad, 70,857 miles. Railroad constructed in six years ending
December 31, 1873, in the United States, 31,508 miles, exceeding
the total railroad mileage in the United States at the outbreak of the
rebellion in 1861. Thus there were more miles of railroad built in
the United States in the six years subsequent to 1867 than in the
thirty-five years prior to 1862 !
France prospered after the disastrous war of 1870—71, otherwise it
could not have so promptly paid its enormous indemnity to Germany.
Great Britain has had no costly war for a long time, but Great
Britain is depressed to extremity in its trade and industries, notwithstanding it has enjoyed a long peace.
Eight years elapsed between the end of civil war in the United
States and the financial crisis in 1873. In a diagnosis of the United
States the war which ended in the spring of 1865 is not the cause of
the depression since the summer of 1873; on the contrary, the collapse of credit in 1873 was caused by speculation and expansion
commenced in the summer of 1867, prior to wljich date Tweed's
Tammany Ring, the Union Pacific Railroad Company's Credit Mobi-
Her contract which surpassed Aladdin's magic lamp, the Southern
Railway Security rover, the Northern Pacific Railroad bond bubble,
y 14
the California and Texas Construction Company's Texas and Pacific
Railway juggle, and kindred inventions of bonus financiers, were not
in existence.
The capital of a nation is its principal in excess of its debts, and a
nation is rich when its income from investments and its profits from
its trade jointly exceed its interest payments and all outgoes chargeable to expenses. Where there is a balance to the credit of a year,
the surplus of income over outgo is capital accumulated. But where
a nation expends more than its receipts, it diminishes its capital or
incurs debt. And as Great Britain in recent years has imported
many millions more in money value than it has exported, and has
collected a diminished sum from its foreign investments, the conclu-
sion is that in recent years Great Britain «has been living in part on
its principal accumulated in prior years; for as a creditor Great
Britain has incurred immense losses in foreign countries and corporations.
CHAPTER  VIII.
In the spread of commerce nations achieved greatness and cities
amassed wealth, which, however, neither could hold, and consequently,
the commercial centre of the world, moved from place to place around
the Mediterranean shore, and thence to the Netherlands, at last was
shifted to the Thames, and London was developed into a vast city. But
London cannot go on growing forever, and as its income, commissions
and profits are now greatly reduced, compared with years gone by,
London may at any time suffer from panic and from shrinkage in value
of real estate. And as the exodus of skilled workmen from Great
Britain is certain to continue, London will ere long feel and show the
7 ©
effect of decadence in principal invested and income collectable. The
volume of business may be large, the measure of profit may be small;
machinery superseded, property depreciated, markets divided, competition aggressive; these are the tendencies of the times in Great
Britain, and these are the considerations that determine intelligent
Britons to seek the United States, where, if the shops are full at
present, there are cheap lands open to settlement. Interesting,
instructive and consolatory is the migration to the agricultural lands
west of the Mississippi River, already penetrated with railways and
provided with transportation.
The Eastern States are all importers of agricultural products from
the West; and, meanwhile, as the East grows in population, consumption will increase; and so the West, itself a large consumer of its own 75
products, has a customer in the East, and beyond the Eastern States
is Europe. For surplus populations accumulated in particular branches
of industry, as labor is divided at present time, there is no such corrector and regulator as agriculture.    In a short time, therefore, with
o ©
proper duties on the products of foreign labor at starvation prices,
the internal affairs of the United States will adjust themselves to a
new distribution of domestic employment, and " all things will work
together for the common good," like trains on a railroad, to a new
time-table.
Chicago, a marvel of rapid growth, will continue to develop and increase in population, in manufactures and in trade; St. Louis likewise
is sure of long continued commercial expansion and industrial accumulation ; New Orleans will be the entrepot of prodigious totals of cosmopolitan commerce ; and St. Paul will be conspicuous and important.
Like the Yang-tse-kiang, in China, the Mississippi River will have
on its banks great centres of interior trade; and the Mississippi States,
which are like unto nations in size and resources, will add millions on
millions to prosperous population, where no foreign enemy can invade,
where no domestic traitor can distract, and where political union is
political life everlasting. There will be more millions of inhabitants
in the Mississippi basin than any nation of the earth now contains,
not between the Indus River and the Yellow Sea.
Among genuine political economists, the housewife, who, with a
few dollars a week, received out of her husband's earnings, keeps her
household together, everything neat and \idj in appearance, and sends
her children to school week-day and Sunday, is supreme over speculators in theories, inflationists who collapse credit, and jugglers who
abuse charters.
If Stephen Girard and the founder of the Astors could take a
"bird's-eye" view of New York and Philadelphia, what estimate
would they put on the bonus element in railway finance ?
The oak develops from an acorn through a^centuty of time, whereas,
after a shower, a mushroom matures in a night; the charter-clad juggler can chloroform his conscience and magnetize his finger nerves;
b.ut, though guano will quicken the ground, it will not serve for sunshine to ripen grain fit for harvest; and however fiction may entertain
Jr © f. *7
its readers, it is base and dishonest to substitute it for truth in book
accounts, official reports, or anywhere else.
A province in America is not a political body in embryo, with a
head crowned in prospective. The royal toy brought disaster to its
two temporary wearers south of Texas; and in the history which
repeated itself in Mexico is a lesson not to be left out of the calculations of any royal sprig or sprout ambitious to wear a crown and
• 1
76
found a dynasty in North America; for the new world is insulated
•from the old by three thousand miles of Atlantic Ocean, which is a
ferry for immigration and intertrade, and likewise a barrier to mar-
•7 ©
plots with political plans and enemies with deadly weapons. The
immigrant and tourist are welcomed over its waves, and for the premeditated destroyer of libertv there are greedy monsters in its depths.
•/ *- © ■/ x
As the branches of a tree converge in its trunks so the branches of
the Caucasian race, from the continent and islands of Europe, come
together in wedlock in the American Union, where those who followed
since Columbus discovered have peopled a new country and established a new power between two seas, with a dozen doors open to
Europe for immigration and exportation, and a " golden gate" open
to Asia for intertrade in commodities of commerce. And if Great
Britain, as a nation in Europe, would be entente cordiale with the
United States, it only need first and primarily to leave the Dominion
of Canada to the option of its indwellers, each province to determine
its own future transition to a State of the Union.
Whilst Great Britain is on this side of the Atlantic, in provinces
across the American main and islands on its coasts, the United States
must construe its asseverations of distinguished consideration, and all
that, with a mental reservation, and not cease to remember that the
English dictionary is prolific of words which supply diplomacy with a
vocabulary, and which, in the statutes, are made to mean what the
judge on the bench says they express, in his opinion.
Towards the United States, Russia, on the other hand, has never
shown equivocal friendship, nor been guilty of collusion with an enemy
in time of war, civil or foreign.    And, as a logical sequence, behold
O © 1
with what reciprocity and cordiality the United States and Russia
clasp and shake hands across Behring Strait, from the shores of
Kamtschatka and Alaska!
In the suppression of the mutiny and attempted revolution in India
in 1857, a movement inspired by love of country, Great Britain
transported the King of Delhi to where he soon died, and killed his
son and grandson, and so extinguished the royal line of legitimate
successors of the great Moguls; for the King of Delhi was the head
of the Mogul empire and a potentate of ancient lineage and illustrious
rank among Hindoos and Mussulmans. But in British eyes it was a
crime ter be a native legitimist in Hindostan ; and because the King
of Delhi was the descendant of the Mogul emperors who had ruled
over a vast empire before India was distracted into petty sovereignties,
therefore the King of Delhi was considered dangerous to British
supremacy in India, and so the King of Delhi was doomed to transportation and inevitable death, and his son and grandson were deprived 77
of life in opposition to a divine commandment -and in mockery of
manhood justice; and this satanic cruelty was practiced so that there
should be no legal representative alive in Hindostan to reign over the .
© x ©
Mogul empire revived, in case the natives of India should unite in
an effort to expel their foreign oppressors and reestablish home rule.
In other words, the royal line of Delhi was exterminated to prevent
the restoration of a time-honored Mogul regime in India, adverse to
© ©
British rule. And Rajahs, Khans, and other native dignitaries were
hanged in 1857, for political reasons, by the British in India, where
the " king of beasts " is considerate and merciful to other animals of
©
inferior capabilities for defence, contrasted with the satraps of the
'nation that carries the lion on its coat of arms, and makes " British
interests " a justification of conquest for trade and a plea for acquisition of territory for colonial empire around the globe; especially in
places where subjugation is practicable through diplomacy and subsidy,
where spoliation is profitable, and uncivilized population is defenceless
against treaty translations and modern guns.
In antiquity of civilization Hindostan long antedates Great Britain ;
and the old plea of the Christianity of Great Britain is no longer
available, since its intrigue against the San Stefano treaty to prolong
© © */ Jr ©
the stay of the Turk in Europe, and its acceptance of Cyprus Island
as subsidy for a defensive alliance with the Mahometan power that
centuries ago crossed over from Asia to Europe and waged war against
© to©
the Christian nations to exterminate the Christian religion. Except
for the interference of Great Britain, the Turk would have been
scourged out of Europe, for Austria, without British cooperation,
was impotent to act against Russia. And so Austria and Great
Britain, both jealous of Russia, and both greedy for spoils, conspired
against the Christians in European Turkey, for their own mutual
aggrandizement.    And now, with the San Stefano treaty between
DO «/
Russia and Turkey, the Berlin Congress of the seven powers, and the
defensive alliance between Great Britain and Turkey, known to mankind of all religions, the hypocrisy and selfishness of Great Britain
are of record in evidence that will endure in history to confront professions contrary to acts. Review Lord Beaconsfield, the British
hero in these diplomatic exploits, and wherein is there proof of
sincerity, truthfulness, or statesmanship, that will stand the test of
honest criticism, in his sharp practice, which must not be confounded
with policy farsighted?
Considered as a finality for Europe, in the interests of peace, the
Berlin Congress was a failure, because it settled only a few of the
minor and adjourned most of the main issues of the questions it was
called together to discuss, arbitrate and solve, for a time to be measured
' 78
not by days but by years.    But  before the ambassadors had been
a/ a/ */      »/
absent a month from Berlin, behold Austria meeting with resistance,
and made to pay with the blood of its soldiery for its trespass in
Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Berlin Congress partitioned two provinces of Turkey to Austria,
anon-combatant in the war between Russia and Turkey; but when
Austria marched into the territory allotted to it as its prize for cooperation with Great Britain, first against Russia in the Bulgaria of
the San Stefano treaty, and last against Turkey in Bosnia and Her-
J 7 o J
zegovina, then the people portioned off made defensive war against
invasion, and Austrian prestige lost the shine put on it at Berlin
with a British brush. Austria can only rule where she can conquer.
For preserving it from dismemberment in 1849, Austria in 1878
repaid Russia with ingratitude. But Servia is an independent nation,
and Hungary may yet regain its independence of Austria.    There
O       •/ */      *- o xr
remains much for diplomacy and the sword to do in the basin of the
Danube River and south of the Balkan Mountains.
Since Russia obtained a frontier on the Black Sea at the Knieper
in 1774, that power, previously bounded by the Caspian and the
Baltic, has made one acquisition after another along the Black Sea
shores in Europe and Asia, till now its entire northern and eastern
coasts and parts of its western and southern coasts belong to Russia,
which has regained Bessarabia and added Batoum to its harbors and
Kars to its strongholds. Nor can nor will Russia cease to acquire territory or influence on the Black Sea, till it shall have acquired ground
+7 * X O
essential for the protection of its commerce in the free navigation of
the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles to the iEgean Sea via Constantinople, as the United States enjoy between the Mississippi River
system and the Gulf of Mexico via New Orleans. True, wars have
procrastinated Russia's progress, but meanwhile Russia has expanded
and developed into a colossal power that will not be content nor satisfied until the straits between Europe and Asia, which the Turks have
too long straddled, are open to its ships, and it can protect its commerce to the Mediterranean Sea.
It would not be tolerated in Denmark to blockade or embargo the
sound or belt to the Baltic; nor in Great Britain to blockade or embargo the Strait of Gibraltar nor the English Channel. And a
frontage on the straits between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean
is as essential to Russia as Florida to the United States, Dover to
England, Calais to France.
England covets Egypt and the Euphrates valley, because they
contain routes to India from the Mediterranean, and acquired Cyprus
Island because of its strategic significance as a naval station, with 79
reference to the Suez Canal and Euphrates railway routes to India;
and at the same time and with the same breath cants about Russian
aggression, and strives to keep that power out of Constantinople.
The words "British interests" would serve the devil for a short
motto in pandemonium, as it does for politicians in London, who barter
away the Christian Church in Turkey to save the British dollar in
India and elsewhere.    Great is the dollar in Britain.
For whatever the United States may deem necessary of enactment
and execution to prevent the establishment of dynastic government in
Canada, it has the supreme and all-sufficient law of self-preservation,
additional to  precedents in the practice of Great Britain where it
considered its interests prospectively involved.    And if British fleets
in past times had terrors to nations with small navies and imperfect
defences, in present time the British iron-clad is impotent to bulldoze
the torpedo, which is as destructive to an iron-clad ship of war as to
a wooden • target.    In the account between the Russian torpedo and
the Turkish iron-clad the credit balance is largely in favor of the torpedo.    The role of the iron-clad is rather to menace with demonstrations than attack with projectiles; for the torpedo charged to explode
is more to be dreaded than a floating battery in an iron-clad ship,
which is vulnerable in the same proportion that it was claimed to be
invulnerable.    A weather vane is put up to point to the wind and
turn when the wind ehanges ; and public opinion weighs with weights
in a true balance and turns on a pivot in gravity's centre.    Hence,
on examination it is easy to ascertain which way the wind blows, and
in what direction public opinion tends.    Concealment of the truth is
impossible where discussion winnows assertions from facts.    That the
iron-clad has disappointed expectation in Europe is a truth patent to
everybody and a special grief to Englishmen, because there can be no
naval supremacy whilst the torpedo, if-not paramount in the waters, is
a terror to iron-clads.    And to show how the British navy chicaned
at Copenhagen in 1801, at Algiers in 1816, and at Acre in 1840, the
following extract is copied from page 271 of Col. J. P. Chesney's
" Russo-Turkish campaigns of 1828 and 1829," published in 1854,
in the beginning of the war against Russia by France, Great Britain,
and Sardinia, as allies of Turkey, four powers against one; a war in
which the British, after more than one trial, did not take the Redan,
though the French did take the Malakhoff; whereupon the Russians
retired to the north forts of Sebas'topol and were not driven thence
by the besieging allies.
Col. Chesney, R. A., D. C. L., F. R. S., says:
"It is true that three remarkable instances have occurred in modern
times, which may seem to favor the superiority of ships over stone 80
walls. These are Copenhagen, Algiers and Acre. In the first case,
it is understood that Nelson was only relieved from a critical situation
by sending a letter on shore, which caused the batteries of Copenhagen
%7 © x O
to cease firing against the fleet.
" In the second instance, the attack on Algiers was" made during
a state of peace. We know that after our fleet had entered the harbor, not in line of battle, but almost ship by ship, and, consequently,
greatly exposed to the garrison, the Queen Charlotte, by the advice
of an engineer officer, Sir William Ried, K. C. B., now the distin-
guished Governor of Malta, was placed with her broadside on the
flank of the grand or mole battery. The rest of the fleet had also
taken up advantageous positions without a shot being fired by the
garrison, until Lord Exmouth waved his hat as the. signal for the
fleet to open its fire simultaneously.
" In the third case, that of Acre, the fleet was also allowed to take
up positions which had been previously arranged, without any opposition. Buoys had even been placed beforehand, and what had been
a state of peace up to that moment was only broken by the opening
of a terrific fire of shells and shot, when everything was ready;—at
least on our side."
British duplicity, however, practiced in its naval tactics at Copenhagen, Algiers and Acre, us described by a competent British military
authority, a colonel in the Royal Artillery, did not avail at Sebas-
a/ j a/ »/
topol, the siege of which was commenced by a joint attack of the
allied fleets and forces. October 17, 1854, which was unsuccessful;
nor was the Malakhoff taken by the French till September 8, 1855,
when the allies entered that portion of Sebastopol left in ruins by
the retiring Russians.    Neither did the Baltic fleet, under Sir C.
©
Napier, venture to attack Cronstadt, which defends St. Petersburg,
in the Russo-Turkish-French-British-Sardinian war of 1853-1856,
a war which was waged to wrest from Russia the Crimea and other
©
ground, but which ended leaving Russia intact, save that its Bessara-
bian corner was cut off, till it was retroceded by the San Stefano
treaty, a retrocession which the Congress of Berlin confirmed. The
Crimean war added no prestige to Russia's allied enemies. To Great
Britain it was a loss of prestige. The war of 1877—1878, ended by
the treaty of San Stefano, between Russia and Turkey, conferred a
lustre on Russia's arms which the Congress of Berlin did not dim nor
©
eclipse with its own performances. 81
CHAPTER  IX.
On the 29th July, 1878, it was officially announced, in London,
that the Marquis of Lome, son-in-law of Queen Victoria, had been
appointed Governor-General of the Dominion of Canada, successor to
Lord Dufferin. The Marquis of Lome, husband of the Princess Louise,
is the eldest son of the Duke of Argyll.   He was born August 6,1845,
©t/ ©
and was married March 21, 1871. The Princess Louise, the sixth of
the nine children of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, was born
March 18, 1848. The Marquis of Lome, whose mission it is to vivisect the Dominion of Canada with royal blood, and attempt the task
of founding a dynasty in the shadow of the tree of liberty, in soil
near its roots, which are sound like its branches, is a member of Parliament from the county of Argyll, Scotland. The county of Argyll
is positively liberal in its politics, and the Marquis of Lome, who
comes to America probably to propagate royalty in disguise, perchance
in expectation of a propitious season to declare a kingdom, professed
liberal sentiments when he was elected to Parliament; but after his
marriage to a daughter of the Queen, whereby the subject was flattered
with a condescension singular in the sovereign, he acted with the
Tories as unconditionally as if he had never given a pledge to his
Liberal constituency in Argyll. The Marquis, therefore, is a British
diplomatist, who, when he says one thing, perhaps means another.
But, in America, the art of government is open to universal study;
and the intelligent elector who knows how to wield the ballot and to
©
strike with it, contemplates a royalist with as little awe as a learned
physician looks on the medicine man of an Indian tribe.. In republican eyes king-craft is a transparent sham, and a royal court is but
a \heatre with a stage and a stock company. For star actors in political parts do we not search among distinguished ministers who served
crowned heads ? Is not Shakspeare immortal in the realm of mind
beyond the royal characters depicted in his plays ? Does not revolution uproot a dynasty as a tornado uproots a tree ? And where the
tree stood before the storm destroyed it, does not the ploughman make
a furrow and plant seed to utilize the ground, and so turn a visitation
in wind to advantage in agriculture ? Is not a fire in a city a blessing in flame when a site is  cleared for needed improvements not
© x
otherwise attainable, because of opposition against tearing down old
structures, superseded and depreciated ? Forces in nature are no
diminished because now and then a storm- makes a commotion in the
air, and there is destruction on land and sea. After a thunder-storm
the atmosphere is more exhilarating; and after a plot against nation-
6
i> 82
ality and free government is exploded, the political sky of a progressive people resumes its normal azure hue. The sky of Mexico was
twice overcast with cloud, but it is a third time cerulean, if not serene.
The Republic in France was twice supplanted, but now France is a
Republic for the third time, watchful and determined not to be again
betrayed in the interest of legitimacy, dynasty or empire, three forms
of personal government antagonistic to republicanism, because birthright succession to a sceptre is contrary to the right of the governed
to choose the chief of the government.
The masses, in America, understand their interests, political, educational, religious and pecuniary, too well, and comprehend the situation
and its surroundings too clearly, to tolerate a kingdom or an empire
in North America, or permit a plotting power in Europe to intrigue
against the annexation of free States to the American Union; a century plant, which, on its hundredth anniversary, in 1876, blossomed in
Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, with thirty-eight States, and bore eleven
territorial buds on its branches. Royalty is a vine which exhales a
poison, deadly where it causes sleep, shelters parasites where it creeps
and covers, and kills the tree it girdles and overgrows, as the stumps
of punk fungus, only fit for tinder, in the genealogical park testify.
In truth, it was an error to import the English sparrow into the
United States, where it is out of place among singing birds, that
make the country and the town vocal with native songs. The British
tramp, with wings, has a voracity in disproportion to its size. And
among more musical American birds in prettier plumage, the sparrow
is the equivalent of the communist in the French republic, and is an
importation to the United States "not fit to be made."
American citizens who study the political weather and consult probabilities in British politics, will not fraternize with title bearers imported into Canada to act automatic parts in a game of dynastic chess
played in London against free institutions in America. Let exhibitions of loyalty to royalty come from the St. George societies, whose
members are imbued with British ideas in fast colors, visible through
7 ©
the ink of a naturalization certificate!
The worthy Princess Louise, now the Marchioness of Lome, is not
more worthy than Nellie Grant, now Mrs. Sartoris. And did not
Harriet Lane, now Mrs. Johnson, do the honors of the White House,
in Washington, with as much grace and dignity as any princess in her
appropriate part in Windsor Castle? The law of quality which pervades American oysters and eggs, and causes their classification into
"good" and "bad," also pervades the titled and untitled ranks in
Europe, where those who pass for "commons" show as large a percentage of "good" as the so-called nobility.
o O ft/ 83
Is a princess lovelier than another lady in a bathing-suit, in the
*■ %f © 7
breakers at Cape May and Rockaway ? And as from the time of
Eve's first pregnancy nature has used but one common mould for the
reproduction of the human species, it follows that the process of maternity is the same everywhere, and that the assumptions of superiority
in birth—and a birth is the delivery of a life to the world by a
matrix of single standard established by nature in universal law—
are unfounded in physiology and false in everything; also, that distinctions and discriminations made to the advantage of titled and the
©
disadvantage of untitled persons are abuses in human government
which will not be permitted in North America, where there is no road
open for royalty to travel in safety to a throne; and where, moreover,
two royal roads commenced in Mexico both led to places of execution.
"The Bourbons learn nothing and forget nothing." Are all
dynastic families like the Bourbons ? And is not a minister of state
who cannot discern that dynastic government is destined to perish
like other impostures of the past based on superstition, which is
everywhere disappearing from political horizons, unfit for office in
these latter advanced days ?    Animal nature, nowhere perfect, may be
1/ ' X 7 ft/
found as near perfection where all are citizens as where titles and
honors are hereditary and succession is independent of merit. No,
no; human nature is not compounded like bronze preparatory to
casting a statue in a mould, nor like metal in a bell, impregnated
with silver to soften its sound. Greater monsters or worse men
never lived on the earth than some of the occupants of the throne of
England. And criminal calendars show that a prince can be as
wicked as a peasant. Away then with the arrogance that hereditary
office exalts human nature, which, where it attains to highest exaltation in public and private life, is always founded on manhood and
womanhood, worth and virtue. The citizen reserves his veneration
and his adoration for the one universal God, and makes allotment of
his respect and admiration according to his understanding, experience
and observation, with mental impartiality and without preference,
prejudice, or bias.
The British political system, which perpetuates power in a privileged class, and tolerates the laws of primogeniture and entail, positive drawbacks to reform, has made London a mammoth and mastodon city, has made the dozen millionaires and the million companions
of poverty "acquainted with grief."
The spectacle of honor in plumes and ribbons and decorations on
breasts and* shoulders ennobled by partial law, not by impartial justice and honest effort, does not fill the requirements of manhood nor
satisfy the educated mind, quick to discern and able to weigh, measure and appreciate.    The smell of food flavored for the palace does
I
1 84
not appease the hunger of the multitude in hovels, for the stomach is
sensitive and the body must have nourishment. To provide things
to eat and to wear is a common duty, for food and clothing are common necessaries; and hence opportunities for sustentation and betterment ought to be open to everybody.
Wide, indeed, is the difference between a citizen and a subject, a
republic in the hands of republican citizens and a monarchy administered by a dynasty, with an army to enforce its decrees; particularly to the masses who work with brain and muscle, operate with
mind on matter, and among whom are a considerable proportion who
have ideas to embody in practical use and aspirations to realize, through
rewards in sight of manly ambition and within reach of honest effort.
The annual grants received by the Queeji of Great Britain and
Ireland and the members of her family amount to a very large sum,
about three million dollars, for the royal household of Great Britain
is a numerous family, which derives its main consideration not from
services rendered to the kingdom since the House of Hanover ob-
©
tained the succession through George I., but from the circumstance
that it supplies the sovereign on the throne and reigns by authority
of law, without contest—a great matter—and with the sanction of
Parliament, the Lords and Commons.
The House of Hanover began its reign with George I., 1714, when
© © © ' '
the American colonies were in the infancy of development; but neither
of the four Georges, who reigned jointly one hundred and six years,
nor William IV., who died June 20,1837, was more than an ordinary
mortal, considered apart from the crown, which invests its wearer
with official patronage and royal prerogatives and rights.
Queen Victoria, distinguished for her domestic virtues and motherly
merits, and for the higher standard established in her court, and who
personally commands the respect and the affectionate good-will of the
people of the United States, was crowned at Westminster June 28,
1838.    Queen Victoria, only  daughter  of the Duke  of Kent, was
** /ft/ O
born May 24, 1819; was married to her cousin, Prince Albert of
Saxe-Coburg, February 10, 1840; Prince Albert died December 14,
1861, lamented and mourned. As the issue of woman born into the
world with life is nowhere exempted from death, the common penalty
imposed by nature, there is a democratic condition in the child born
naked into the world, in helplessness and dependence, and a democratic condition in the hereditary potentate when death levels him
down on his back to die like his subject, and mingle his dust with
universal humanity in common mother earth. All men, therefore,
are bora democrats and die democrats, wherefore democracy, primitive
and pure in nature, where party name cannot corrupt, is the normal
condition of the beginning and ending of man's soiourn in the society
© © O %) ft/ 85
to which he owes service, in the years of his responsibility between
youth and age, when the vigor of manhood, which includes all of life
«/ ©    / © *
but its ends, fits him for duty. The superiority claimed for royalty is
a mockery of spirituality with materialism. Did not the Son of God
say, " My kingdom is not of this world" ? It was the mission of Jesus
Christ to redeem the world from the penalty of its sin and assure to
mankind a possible higher life in a spiritual sphere, where material
matters cannot be perverted to confound the masses by arch diplomatists, lawyers, and mercenaries ; such as abound in the old world
at this present juncture of abrasion among the branches of the race
founded by Adam, saved from drowning by Noah, and made progressive by the inspired words of the Saviour, who was crucified because
he preached against temporal kingdom. Love of splendor was the
ruin of the Jews, who loved glitter better than God. And wherein is
London better than Jerusalem, for does not London covet empire and
lust for conquest ?
In proportion as intelligence is spread among the people, crowns
will be shorn of their prerogatives, which in most cases are usurpations, and written constitutions will restrict incumbents of office within
limits. Contrast the caskets which contain the dust of departed kings
who reigned by dynastic birthright, with the slab that covers the grave
© J        %j ©        / ©
of a patriot, author, discoverer, or inventor, conspicuous in human annals.
Go into Westminster Abbey, and observe how visitors search in the
Poet's Corner for names perennial in the reader's mind and immortal
in the world of letters. Is not England more indebted to ministers
of state than to its kings and queens ? Is it not notorious that her
Majesty's ministers managed'the Crown, manipulated the Porte, and
ignored the Houses of Parliament (albeit the Commons ought and
might exercise a controlling influence in the realm), in the negotiation
© © '/ ©
and ratification of the Treaty of Defensive Alliance with Turkey,
signed June 4,1878, and amended July 1, twenty-six days thereafter ?
Why, then, as the Crown of England is cast in a subordinate part in
the practice of England, where the ministry usurps the functions of
government in making treaties with foreign powers, wherein prospective
war is made probable, are the princes and princesses of the House of
Hanover, a German graft, exalted in official and social honors over
the sons and daughters of Englishmen, distinguished for service to
© © ' O
their country ?
«/
Contemplate the Commonwealth under Cromwell, as a power among
nations, with the monarchy under Charles II. and his successors !
Princes and princesses are men and women born in lawful wedlock,
like citizens and subjects, nothing more. Nor does their so-called
royal birth entitle them to consideration, social or political, over the
sons and daughters of the President or Presidentess in Washington.
o ©
i
1 86
In the United States the President relapses into the citizen, and his
children blend in the society of the common country, as raindrops
disappear in a river. And so with prince and princess, husband and
wife, who come over from Europe to .hold office in Canada. The
Governor-General and his wife are official characters, entitled to the
consideration awarded to unexceptionable persons in distinguishing
office. And if the Duke of Argyll so administers his office as to win
admiration of his modesty and respect for his talents, he will earn a
name that will emit a lustre which cannot be borrowed from a title.
The American Union has developed very many distinguished men,
who exalted the official rank in which they served frheir country, and
whose names fill the offices they held with honorable associations.
But because an American citizen is made a president, a general,
senator, or ambassador, to perform a duty for a compensation, with
opportunity to stimulate the official to win fame and deserve gratitude,
success under such circumstances is not a reason for a grant or inheritance to his children; for the citizen is under obligation to discharge
7 O ©
his duty, and for simply doing his duty no one is entitled to extra
«/ / 1    •/ O *»
praise; although for service measured by merit, the American people are
prone and prompt to award praise, in ways more substantial than words.
The moon has no atmosphere, and consequently shines without aN
mist. The American citizen has no title, and is judged on his character and record. A title is a veil and so is a cloud; but a veil like a
cloud is only a temporary obscuration, for a cloud will pass away on
the wind and a veil is a penetrable disguise to penetrating eyes. Hence
the title-wearer, like the weather overhead, must withstand observation and criticism. Like the stars in space, officials in titles must
undergo scrutiny through the telescope, for the constituent is an
astronomer given to exact calculation.
An envelope is not a letter. In a republic a title is no more than
a counterfeit bank note. And if Great Britain would capitalize its
aristocracy at the par of its self-estimated value and then appraise it
at what it is worth to the realm, in the opinion of experts appointed
to detect and expose fraud, it would be shown that the Turkish loan
is not the largest nominal asset of Great Britain.
The Marquis of Lome, the husband of the Princess Louise and
son-in-law of the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland, and Empress
of India, as supplemented by Lord Beaconsfield, is Governor-General
of the Dominion of Canada, in the service of a foreign country with
which the nation of the United States has great and grave reasons
for dissatisfaction and displeasure; nor will these reasons cease to
acquire force from current facts, till the British government discontinues its plots in America, where its designs are as intelligible as if
printed in its London programme. INDEX.
Acre, British Fleet at.
Alaska,        .....
Algiers, British Fleet at,
America, no Dynasty in,
Amnion, R. A., Brakeman at Pittsburgh-,
Area of the American Union,
Austria, ....
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
Berlin, Congress of,
Black Sea once a Turkish Lake,
Boundary Line,      ....
British Columbia,
British Navy at Copenhagen, Algiers and Ac
Buffalo, City of,
Canada, Dominion of,
Canada, Governor-General of,
Canada Grand Trunk Railway,
Canada Pacific Railway,
Cartier, Jacques,    .
Chicago,
Citizens and Subjects,
Delhi Dynasty exterminated,
Divine Right of Kings, Fiction of,
Dynasty, not in North America,
England,     ....
English Tactics in America,   .
Erie Canal, ...
Fiction of Divine Right of-Kings,
Florida, •
Foreign Trade of the United States,
Fort Bourbon, afterwards York Fort,
France,
Germany,    ....
Grant, General U. S., .
Great Britain,
Gulf of Mexico,
Halifax Fishery Award,
House of Hanover,
Hudson Bay,
Hudson Bay Company,
Indelible Names,    .
India, Suppression of Mutiny in,
Ireland, population of,
Italy,     ....
P
\GfO
80
30,
33,
39,
62,
76
80
•
•
21,
64,
75
52
20
9, 11, 44, 46, 51, 67, 77
6
• 9j
40,
47,
50,
11,
10,
67, 77
46, 78
33, 37
.
5,
14,
21, 27
.
.     79
•
•
12, 23
3,6,
13,
23-,
27,
33, 66
81
.
.
.      38
.
5>
24,
27, 37
•
•
24,
5
38, 75
7, 15,
28,
62,
66,
70, 82
•
\?J<
76
.      62
7,21,25,
28,
46,
63,
66, 75
•
48,
67,
69, 78
60
•
•
16, 23
62
*
•
•
•
.     33
71, 72
6
8, 12, 32,
37,
42
46
50, 53
;, '-•'':
11,
51,
63, 65
•
.
39, 52
16,
35,
39,
41,
48, 58
£.»*i»:
ill
43
'&■
.     40
.
.
.
84
•
.
5,
12,
35, 39
12, 37
•
•
•
•
53, 67
41, 76
.     58
•
.
11
, 44, 50
i 88
Lake Erie, .....
Lake Superior,       ....
Lake Traverse, .....
Lake Winnipeg,      ....
London, .....
Louisiana, ....
Maine,   ......
Malakhoff and Redan at Sebastopol,
Manitoba, .....
Mexico,        .....
Middle Sea,       .....
Minnesota, ....
Minnesota River Yalley,
Mississippi, Basin of the,
Mutiny in India, ....
Nelson River, ....
New Boundary between Manitoba and Ontario,
New Brunswick and Maine,
New York City, ....
Nova Scotia and Massachusetts,
Ontario, Province of,  .
Original Thirteen States, .
Pennsylvania Railroad,
Philadelphia, ....
Philadelphia Soldiers at Pittsburgh, .
Pittsburgh, ....
Population,       .....
Population, Nativities of, .
Public Opinion the paramount power,
Railroad Distances,
Railway Expansion in six years,
Red River of the North,
Republic of France,     ....
Revulsion of 1873, some of the Causes of,
Riot not Insurrection, ....
Russia,        .....
Saint Paul,       .....
San Juan Island Arbitration,
Serlick Settlement,      .
Shoes not flanged in America,
Spain,   ......
St. Lawrence River,
St. Louis, .....
Texas, .....
Thirteen Original States,
Trade of the United States,
Transvaal Republic,    ....
Traverse Lake Summit,
Turkey, .....
United States,        ....
Vienna, Congress of,    .
Washington Territory,      ....
Washington Treaty of 1871,   .
West, the, bound by Hudson Bay and Gulf of Mexico,
Western States, when admitted into the Union,
Western Territories, when organized,
Page
16, 22
6,
23, 34
4,
1*1
22
32, 39
13,
59, 74
11,
26,
32, 62
15
,
.  80
6,
26,
33, 68
4,
21,
64, 75
27,
36, 39
6,
20, 22
17, 22
19, 69
•
76
.  26
•
33
.  15
•
59, 69
.  15
•
33
36, 62
•
6
.  69
•
55
55
6,
58, 64
.  65
•
25
.  24
m
73
17,
23, 39
8,
1 o
45,
53, 63
.  72
56
9,
42,
47,
50, 78
.      18,
5,
•     44,
14, 24,
•
20,
.      36,
71,
9, 45, 50, 67,
10, 13, 19, 39, 51, 65,
.     10,
5,
.     39,
18,
23
40
37
7
51
43
44
31
62
72
62
17
78
86
40
21
59
35
19
20  

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