UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Indian education in British Columbia. Peterson, Lester Ray 1959

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1959_A8 P35 I6.pdf [ 12.81MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0106039.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0106039-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0106039-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0106039-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0106039-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0106039-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0106039-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0106039-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0106039.ris

Full Text

INDIAN EDUCATION I N B R I T I S H  COLUMBIA  by LESTER RAY PETERSON B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1951 B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1953  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER in  the Department of Education  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard  THE  OF ARTS  as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA October,  1959  THESIS ABSTRACT Most a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s a g r e e ica  came t©  this  between f i f t e e n  continent and  today that  hy way  of the  e i g h t thousand years  Indians  Bering ago.  Sea  o c c u p a n c y o f the  t©  i t s economy. T h e y p e r f e c t e d n e i t h e r w r i t i n g n o r  and  asserted  traditions  adapted  formal  transmitted  years  edu-  their  legends  orally. of a westward r o u t e  the A m e r i c a n n o r t h w e s t  They i n t r o d u c e d artifacts,  their  developed a c u l t u r e  t h e i r h e r a l d r y and  Europeans, i n search reached  o f Amer-  somewhere  During  ©f  c a t i o n , but  northwest, they  the  but  i n t o the  late  i n the  n a t i v e way  d e s t r u c t i o n ©f  the  orient,  eighteenth  of l i f e  a l s o , p a r t i c u l a r l y along  t o the  century.  a modicum o f E u r o p e a n  the  c o a s t , began  a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e through disease,  the  liquor, /-  and  c r e a t i o n ©f u n n a t u r a l Protestant  and  t o w a r d the m i d d l e counteract at way  the  of the  nineteenth  i n f l u e n c e o f the  century.  They w o r k e d  f u r - t r a d e r s but,  arrive t©  in their  efforts  the  native  life.  founded m i s s i o n s , throughout  the  contributions  and  later  province. from the  and  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h e s s c h o o l s , among I n d i a n  S p o n s o r e d e n t i r e l y by  Indians  Church funds  began t o r e c e i v e F e d e r a l government g r a n t s  I87I.  federation  in  schooling,  c o n s i s t i n g of small  as  i t was  (ill)  these reserves  Columbia's e n t r y  i n t o Con-  schools  p r a c t i c a b l e to place  and  as  Each Church e s t a b l i s h e d a d u a l day  gradually  groups  themselves at f i r s t ,  became e s t a b l i s h e d f o l l o w i n g B r i t i s h  serves  posts.  t o p r e c i p i t a t e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ©f  A n g l i c a n , Methodist  schools  about t r a d i n g  Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s began t o  evangelism, helped ©f  villages  system  l o c a t e d on  them, and  larger  of  such r e -  \~  residential and  schools,  strategically  l o c a t e d , at which  c h i l d r e n from o u t l y i n g r e s e r v e s  ceiving  their  Little education  a  direct  until  joint  could remain while  government  i n t e r e s t was  a f t e r W o r l d War  fact  that  the  Parliamentary  shown i n  ©f  Indians  were n o t  a dying r a c e .  the D e p a r t m e n t o f C i t i z e n s h i p and the  entire  s c h o o l s , has tors  local  I m m i g r a t i o n has  s c h o o l s , and  students  g r e a t l y Increased  Indian and  at  private The  the  i a n s ' economic  gration  residential  appointed  inspec-  superintendents  for Federal-provincial  the number o f I n d i a n  1958*  out  students  of a t o t a l  of  78  were e n r o l l e d I n a s y s t e m o f  remaining  of I n d i a n  standards  2335  education  o f the  culturally,  are  were a t t e n d i n g  provincial  is rising  but,  in relation  into  the  C a n a d i a n way  or e c o n o m i c a l l y , being  i s . I t cannot proceed been a c h i e v e d .  Ind-  declining.  Indian  i n t e g r a t i o n i s not  p a r i t y has  assumed  average n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n element, the  Integration ethnically,  the  Branch  schools.  standard  t o t h a t ©f  Ethnic  s c h o o l , 61+11  schools,,and  which  B.C.  attending r e g u l a r public schools. In  87I+6  and  agency  i n the r e v i s e d I n d i a n A c t  has  day  has  system. Eighteen  school boards In  Provision cooperation  the  195l»  of  Indian A f f a i r s  of o p e r a t i n g both  e r e c t e d day  to s u p e r v i s e  a c t as  costs  In  c o m m i t t e e made r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  s i n c e r e c e i v e d f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n . The  almost  their  I I , when c e n s u s f i g u r e s b e g a n  w h i c h became embodied i n the r e v i s e d I n d i a n A c t has  re-  education.  t o r e v e a l the 19U8  orphans  really  until  Indians (iv)  i s not  of  taking  place.  sought; c u l t u r a l  some d e g r e e  of  life;  Inte-  economic  today cannot a f f o r d  the  impedimenta  o f White  Indian,  educated  remote  localities  life  rather  than  culture;  t o date  or n o t , i s the r e s e r v a t i o n Indians  s h o u l d he t r a i n e d  ours, u n t i l  Wherever p o s s i b l e ,  the a d u l t  civilization Indian  ment a n d a f a i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n cational  the d e s t i n a t i o n  whence he came. I n f o r t h e i r way o f  advances  must be g r a n t e d  t o meet them. fair  employ-  i n a u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l edu-  s y s t e m . O n l y t h e n c a n h i s c h i l d r e n become  (v)  o f the  acculturated.  In presenting the  this  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  thesis in partial  advanced degree at the  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that it  freely  agree t h a t for  the  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and permission for extensive  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  be  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s  gain  s h a l l not  Department of  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date  October.  1959  Library  s h a l l make  study.  I. f u r t h e r  g r a n t e d by  that  Columbia,  of  University  copying of t h i s  his representatives.  be  fulfilment  the  Head o f  thesis my  I t i s understood  thesis  for  written  financial  permission.  CONTENTS THESIS ABSTRACT CHAPTER I .  THE ABORIGINAL B R I T I S H  COLUMBIAN  Where T h e y Came From - The Land T h e y . F o u n d C u l t u r a l Groups T h e y Formed - T h e i r B e l i e f s and Myths - T h e i r S o c i a l a n d E c o n o m i c L i f e Their A r t - Their Education CHAPTER  II.  THE EUROPEAN  APPEARS  Explorers - Fur-Traders - Spain, B r i t a i n , and R u s s i a - The Hudson's Bay a n d N o r t h w e s t Companies - A l c o h o l i s m a n d D i s e a s e Inter-marriage CHAPTER I I I .  THE MISSIONARIES ARRIVE  M i s s i o n a r y v s . T r a d e r - M i s s i o n a r y v s . ShamanR e l i g i o u s Sects - Missions - Schools CHAPTER  IV.  THE IN-BETWEEN  YEARS  The G o l d Rush - R e s e r v a t i o n s - F e d e r a l d i c t i o n - I n d i a n A c t s - A D y i n g Race CHAPTER V .  .  Juris-  THE SOCIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF INDIAN  LIFE  I n t e g r a t i o n - The F r a n c h i s e - L i q u o r Economy - L a n d - R e l i g i o n - E d u c a t i o n  CHAPTER V I .  INDIAN EDUCATION TO-DAY  Enrolment - Indian Schools i n C o l u m b i a - The R e v i s e d I n d i a n Indian Education Philosophies t o W h i c h I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n Has  British Act - Extent Succeeded  CHAPTER V I I .  CONCLUSIONS  - RECOMMENDATIONS  APPENDIX "A"  EXCERPTS, INDIAN ACT OF  APPENDIX "B"  EXCERPTS, INDIAN DAY SCHOOL REGULATIONS  BIBLIOGRAPHY (vi)  1951  TABLES Number 1.  Page  S y n o p s i s from Department  of Indian  Affairs  R e p o r t , 1880 2.  61+  P o p u l a t i o n o f Indians by Groups, and 1935  3.  Indian P o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h  1+.  Enrolment, R e s i d e n t i a l  Pre-European  7i+  Columbia, T o t a l s  and I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l s ,  1907 a n d I927  79  5.  S c h o o l s by Denomination,  6.  Enrolment by Grades,  7.  Indian S c h o o l Expenses,  8.  Language D i s t r i b u t i o n ,  9.  Enrolment  I907  1907,  79  1927,  1917 1913  191+7  80  a n d I9I+7  80  a n d 1917  of Indian Students i n B r i t i s h  1957 10.  75  8l Columbia,  107  Indian Schools i n B r i t i s h  (vii)  Columbia  108  ILLUSTRATIONS The Plate  Lord's  Prayer  i n Chinook  Frontispiece  Number  Following  II.  Culture D i s t r i b u t i o n  Map:  Language B o u n d a r i e s  III.  The  IV.  Trading  V.  Indian Agencies  VI.  Indian  VII.  B u r i a l Grounds of S a l i s h I n d i a n s  Portage Posts  Schools  Page 25 3k  i n Northwest America - Population, In B r i t i s h  (viii)  1958  C o l u m b i a , 1958  1+1 -06 123 136  Ok  LORD'S  PRAYER  CHMOK  IN  Nesika papa klaksfa mitUte kopa SBohalle., Out- father who s t a y e t h m ike a & o v e , Kloshe kopa -nesika tumtum mika nennj  in  Good  HIoshe wika Good  tyae  hearts ihe'} thy -name',  kopa konaway  i h o u chfef a^ox\q  kloshe Good As Pot/a^ch Give Spose If  our  mika  t ky  tumtutn will  aM  kopa upon  tiiiicuw;  people;  ijlahie, ear-th,  above, k o n a w a y s u n n e s i k a muckawuck. every day outfood. nesiisa m a m o o k Kttasahck/'e, in  w_  rhe  do  _vtl,  LbeJ  Wake m i k a k y a s s o i l d k s , p e s p o * * Mot th o u ve»*N anqr-y, andt 'if K f a k s t a m a s a h c h i e kopa n e s i k a , Anyone towards us, Wake  fVot y  vie* t fa Sol|«ks hopa  angry  .Scnotaway f a r f t-ovn u.s  /  klasKa  tdv/ar-d^  thaw  all  evil.  ^  CHAPTER I THE  ABORIGINAL B R I T I S H  COLUMBIAN  What, i n o u r human w o r l d , i s t h i s power t o l i v e ? I t i s the a n c i e n t , l o s t r e v e r e n c e and p a s s i o n f o r human p e r s o n a l i t y , j o i n e d w i t h t h e a n c i e n t , l o s t r e v e r e n c e a n d p a s s i o n f o r t h e e a r t h and i t s web o f l i f e . 1 No e v i d e n c e o f human l i f e North America  prior  on t h e l a n d mass o f what i s now  t o the l a s t  glacial  called  p e r i o d has as y e t been  p found.  Oldest remains  found t o date a r e from the v i c i n i t y of  Polsom,  A r i z o n a , and i n t h e S a n d i a Caves  t e s t s made on a n i m a l r e m a i n s spear-heads,  indicate  lying  of C a l i f o r n i a . 3  i n t h e same s t r a t a  as stone  t h e p r e s e n c e o f human b e i n g s i n t h e f o r m e r  9000 B.C., a n d i n t h e l a t t e r  l o c a l i t y about  Carbon  site  approximately  13,000 B.C. F u t u r e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e x c a v a t i o n s may o f c o u r s e unearth finds  o f much g r e a t e r a g e , b u t f o r t h e p r e s e n t we c a n  w i t h any degree this  of c e r t a i n t y state  c o n t i n e n t has endured  o n l y t h a t man's t e n a n c y o f  through about  Many t h e o r i e s have b e e n a d v a n c e d American  prototype. Until  the t u r n  o f human l i f e  in  h i s Oceanic  of  British  Origin  Columbia.^  1 John  Collier,  19Ltf, p . 7.  thousand y e a r s .  as to the o r i g i n  ©f t h e  o f the c e n t u r y a b e l i e f  p o p u l a r p a r t i c u l a r l y a l o n g the A t l a n t i c origin  fifteen  on N o r t h A m e r i c a  seaboard a s s e r t e d an  itself.  o f the Kwakiutl-Nootka  Charles H i l l - T o u t , and S a l l s h  s o u g h t words and customs o f S o u t h I n d i a n s o f t h e A m e r i c a s . New Y o r k ,  Stocks Pacific Mentor,  2 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s , I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s . V i c t o r i a , P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s , 1951, p . 9 . 3 W.W. E l m a n d o r f , L e c t u r e s , A n t h r o p o l o g y 301, Summer S e s s i o n , 1958, U.B.C. I4 Ottawa, J . Hope a n d S o n s ,  1898.  2 d e r i v a t i o n among I n d i a n proof  of t h e i r A s i a t i c  these  peoples  the says  not  groups i n B r i t i s h  o r i g i n . Most s c h o l a r s now  d i d indeed  Bering S t r a i t , of t h e i r  cultural  come f r o m A s i a , b u t  the  Pacific  Columbia  agree  that  that they  Ocean, t o r e a c h  as  crossed  here.  Collier  origin:^  T h e y came f r o m A s i a by way o f the B e r i n g S t r a i t a t a d a t e so f a r b a c k t h a t t h e l o n g e x t i n c t h o r s e a n d c a mel, the g i a n t beaver and g i a n t b e a r , the f o u r - h o r n e d a n t e l o p e and the d i r e w o l f and mammoth were t h e i r f o e s and t h e i r p r e y . . . . The y e a r 13,000, or p e r h a p s 18,000 B.C. saw t h e s e m i g r a n t h u n t e r s m o v i n g a c r o s s the g r e a t c e n t r a l p l a i n of A l a s k a . Date  of r e c e s s i o n of the  traditionally fection  migration way  that  Pacific  continent  and  M o u n t a i n s , and  ago.  ago,  the  since  c o r r e c t , m i g r a n t s must have made t h o u s a n d s ©f y e a r s  Laurentide  before  i c e - s h e e t s may  have e x i s t e d i m m e d i a t e l y  also that a  strip  snow w h i c h i n p l a c e s r e a c h e d M i g r a t i o n d i d not  has,  ages,  occur,  c o n t i n u o u s l y , but  o f the  the  ice-sheet's  believe  not east  a depth of three apparently,  that  have met, of the  c o a s t l i n e along cake o f  their  the  compressed  thousand  feet.^  either a l l at  rather i n a series  of  one  infiltrations  Some o f the  " p i o n e e r s " m i g h t , t h e n , have d r i f t e d  Collier,  6 British  op.  cit.,  Columbia  7 Loc. c i t .  p.  ©f y e a r s  apart.7  perhaps even thousands,  5  17.  Heritage  S e r i e s , op.  but  Rocky  s p a c e d h u n d r e d s , and earliest  per-  I f p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  Ocean l i k e l y r e m a i n e d f r e e o f t h e  time n o r  four g l a c i a l  c o m p l e t e . However, g e o l o g i s t s now  a c o r r i d o r may  Arctic  the  t e s t , b e e n a d v a n c e d t o a much  o f some 6000 y e a r s  time  r e c e s s i o n was the  carbon r a d i a t i o n  t h e o r i e s are  to this  of  p l a c e d a t a b o u t 25,000 y e a r s  of the  more r e c e n t  last  c i t . . p.  12.  south  3 t o the  ice-sheet's southern  m o u n t a i n s and  the  of  o f the  almost  inter-montane  c o a s t became a v a i l a b l e ,  their  way  thence,  excavated  located near  t u r n e d west a c r o s s  p l a t e a u s . As  interior  ice barrier  routes  t h e m s e l v e s u l t i m a t e l y as  to  lowest  strata  of  hunters  of tools  and  kitchen-middens' to  indicate a 8 c u l t u r e t o a c o a s t a l one, and c o a s t a l  o f t h e Nass have r e t a i n e d a s t o r y o f how  s h o t u n d e r an  river  s p l i n t e r g r o u p s a p p a r e n t l y made  land, c r e a t u r e s . Examination from the  the  arrivals  southward a l o n g  the mouth o f the F r a s e r R i v e r t e n d  movement f r o m an Indians  directly  interior  to e s t a b l i s h  sea, r a t h e r than  utensils  then  followed i t s r e c e s s i o n northward. L a t e r  c o u l d have made t h e i r way valleys  limits,  that blocked  their  ancestors  t h e i r m i g r a t i o n by  canoe  9 down t h e How  river. long, then,  inhabited? Hill-Tout, ations  o f the  has  what we  now  call  British  Columbia  e s t i m a t i n g the  time  element  from  g r e a t M a r p o l e M i d d e n , p r o d u c e d an answer  been  examinto  this  q u e s t i o n d u r i n g the f i r s t decade o f t h i s century:: H i s t o r y o f t h e i r own, i n t h e s t r i c t s e n s e o f t h e word, t h e n a t i v e r a c e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and a d j o i n i n g t e r r i t o r i e s have n o n e . L i k e o t h e r p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s t h e y have o r a l t r a d i t i o n s o f the f a m i l y and t r i b e , and r e c o r d s o f d e s c e n t , more o r l e s s r e l i a b l e , w h i c h go b a c k f o r f i v e o r s i x o r e v e n , i n some i n s t a n c e s , f o r t e n g e n e r a t i o n s . Beyond t h e s e t h e y c a n s u p p l y us w i t h no i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e i r past;: s u c h knowledge as we w o u l d g a t h e r o f t h a t we must g l e a n f o r o u r s e l v e s from, t h e i r o l d camp s i t e s and f r o m a n c i e n t b u r i a l g r o u n d s . From t h e s e two s o u r c e s we l e a r n t h a t the c o u n t r y has b e e n o c c u p i e d b y r a c e s l i v i n g i n a s t a t e of p r i m i t i v e c u l t u r e s i m i l a r to t h a t o f t h e t r i b e s now o c c u p y i n g t h e l a n d f o r two o r p e r h a p s t h r e e t h o u s a n d y e a r s . Beyond t h i s p e r i o d we 8 Diamond J e n n e s s , I n d i a n s o f C a n a d a . B u l l e t i n 65, i o n a l Museum o f Canada, O t t a w a , 1 9 3 2 . , p . 228. 9 G.T. Emmons, The T a h l t a n I n d i a n s , U n i v e r s i t y o f s y l v a n i a , Museum A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s , p . 15.  Nat-  Penn1911,  have no e v i d e n c e o f man's p r e s e n c e o f t h e w o r l d . 10 Professor  i n this  Charles Borden of the U n i v e r s i t y  umbia, d i g g i n g i n t h e same s i t e  nearly  firmed  on t h e b a s i s  from  this  period  of occupancy  fifty  l o d g e p o s t - h o l e s dug i n t o b a r r e n g l a c i a l It  i s believed  part  of B r i t i s h  years l a t e r , of carbon  Colcon-  remains  till.  t h a t m i g r a t i o n b y way o f t h e B e r i n g  Strait  12 ceased between e i g h t  and s i x t h o u s a n d  thousand  the l a s t  years a f t e r  the v a s t r e a c h e s  is  now B r i t i s h  migrants  o f the A m e r i c a s ,  ants had s e a r c h e d  years ago.  then,  About  five  h a d made t h e i r way some o f t h e i r  out most o f the i n h a b i t a b l e  into  descend-  c o r n e r s o f what  Columbia.  What o f t h i s  l a n d w h i c h was t o be t h e new home o f t h e s e  immigrants? A c c o r d i n g to H i l l - T o u t , The h a b i t a t and n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s o f a p e o p l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h a t p e o p l e be i n t h e e a r l i e r , r u d e r s t a g e s o f l i f e , have s u c h a n i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g upon t h e i r c h a r a c t e r and c u l t u r a l development t h a t any a t t e m p t "to t r e a t o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l o r t r i b a l l i f e must ... g i v e some a c c o u n t o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n . 13 The  c h i e f g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s o f the area under study here  a coast-line  i n d e n t e d by l o n g , narrow i n l e t s ,  f r o m t h e open o c e a n b y one l a r g e half  o f the e n t i r e  island  that  c o a s t , p l u s innumerable  were  and p r o t e c t e d covered  almost  smaller islands;; a  10 The N a t i v e R a c e s o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e t B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a : The F a r W e s t . The Home o f t h e S a l i s h a n d Dene. London, A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e & Co. L t d . , I9O7, p . l k . 11  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d d u r i n g a n i n t e r v i e w on l a s t e x c a v a t i n g , A u g u s t , 1955•  12 B r i t i s h  Columbia  13 H i l l - T o u t ,  ibid.,  Heritage Series, p.  1.  op. c i t . .  day o f  p . li}..  5 c o a s t a l mountain range, h i g h , rocky close  and  steep, which  t o the w a t e r ' s edge, l e a v i n g l i t t l e  plain;  inland, a  ranges running  series  or no  of a l t e r n a t e p l a t e a u s  i n a general north-to-south  intervening  and  mountain  direction,  d r a i n e d by waterways w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y wound t h r o u g h itate,  glaciated  valleys  Climatically, winters  and  tively arid gradually forest south  mild  the  to t i d e w a t e r  crowded  a t the  and  precip-  inlets'  heads.  c o a s t underwent a c y c l e of c o o l , r a i n y  summers, w h i l e  throughout  the  year  the to  interior the  remained  south,  compara-  precipitation  i n c r e a s i n g t o w a r d the n o r t h . A d e n s e c o n i f e r o u s  covered  the  coastline  to n o r t h , through  throughout  rain-  i t s length ranged,  sagebrush to b o r e a l f o r e s t  to  from  near-  tundra . C o a s t a l w a t e r s abounded w i t h f i s h species  and  varieties,  and  and  beaches, p a r t i c u l a r l y  b a y s where f r e s h and  s a l t waters mingled,  mussels,  other  c o c k l e s and  plentiful  o f t h e many k i n d s  in  of s u i t a b l e  search  eye, the  reaching  of b e r r i e s  coast  and  land has  S a l m o n , by ascended  s p a w n i n g g r o u n d s , one  very heart  c a r i b o u alone  remaining  o f the almost  the e n t i r e  in river  c o u l d be  the  found  m i g r a t i o n s , and almost  of p l e n t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y come down, "When the  tide  up  the  i s out,  of the  sock-  or another  and  moose,  interior, Varying the  geese f r e q u e n t e d  entire  inlets kind  i n general  c o a s t , where, so a the  rivers  the S k e e n a  a r e a , and  e v e r y w h e r e . I t was along  the  t o the n o r t h .  one  most  s t r e a m s and  summer s e a s o n a l o n g  v a l l e y s . Ducks and  clams,  f a r the  variety,  interior  exclusively  grew d u r i n g  lakes during t h e i r  grouse  of f i s h ,  in sheltered  were r i c h w i t h  c a r i b o u wandered about c e r t a i n a r e a s  kinds  and  sea-foods.  F r a s e r . Deer f r e q u e n t e d  e l k , and the  the  sea-mammals o f many  t a b l e Is s e t " .  of a saying  John W e s l e y ysis in  P o w e l l i n l891 ^' made t h e f i r s t  anal-  o f A m e r i c a n I n d i a n l a n g u a g e s , o f w h i c h he f o u n d o v e r  fifty  N o r t h A m e r i c a . Edward S a p i r ^ r e d u c e d t h e number o f c u l t 1  ural  language  groups t o seven, t h r e e  sented  i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S a p i r  Haidas  together into  and  o f w h i c h he f o u n d  N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada i n 1932 (see P l a t e  less  uages  United States.  delineated  60th P a r a l l e l s  about  The  nine l i n g u i s t i c  1725,  littoral  A.D.  a r e a s o f o c c u p a n c y as s o d e l i n e a t e d have r e m a i n e d more s t a t i c during  the e n s u i n g two h u n d r e d  y e a r s . The  lang-  s p o k e n by a l l o f t h e s e g r o u p s d i f f e r so much f r o m a n y  present-day A s i a t i c trace  the Tsimsh-  I I ) as t h e y o c c u p i e d t h e P a c i f i c  between t h e [4.9th and The  and  the Na-Dene g r o u p ; t h e S a l i s h , K o o t e n a y s ,  K w a k i u t l s w i t h the M o s a n - A l g o n k i n , and p l a c e d  families  repre-  grouped the Athapascas  i a n s w i t h the P e n u t i a n s t o c k o f t h e W e s t e r n  or  major  1  their  tongue  that  i t i s v i r t u a l l y impossible  o r i g i n on l i n g u i s t i c g r o u n d s . S i n c e  marked d i f f e r e n c e s  i n intra-group dialects,  there are  those of  to quite  Squamish,  S e c h e l t , and Nanaimo v i l l a g e s b e i n g m u t u a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e , a l though the g r e a t e s t m i l e s , would  s e p a r a t i o n between v i l l a g e s  tend to i n d i c a t e  that  i s only  sixty  s e t t l e m e n t s as d i s c o v e r e d  e a r l y E u r o p e a n a r r i v a l s have r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d many  over  centuries. I f we  upied  by  sites  can r e a s o n from midden remains i n B r i t i s h Columbia  t h a t I n d i a n s have  f o r at least  two  thousand years  ill Indian L i n g u i s t i c F a m i l i e s , Seventh Annual Report, B u r e a u of A m e r i c a n E t h n o l o g y , W a s h i n g t o n , I 8 9 I . 15  " C e n t r a l and N o r t h A m e r i c a n Languages', B r i t a n n i c a , llj,th e d i t i o n , v o l . $.  16  Map  27OA, A b o r i g i n e s  of  Canada.  occ  Encyclopaedia  7  and  deduce f r o m  any  given linguistic  tained  their  language  d i f f e r e n c e s which e x i s t  boundary that  l e s s e r boundaries  dialect  conjecture that  white  observed  to arrive  over e q u a l l y  the c u l t u r e s which the f i r s t  to exist  a g a i n many l o c a l  a r e a c o u l d be d i v i d e d  the Northwest  have m a i n -  among them hatfe e v o l v e d  lengthy periods of time.  Although here tire  groups  within  t h r o u g h many h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s ,  t h e n we can f u r t h e r men  even  into  variations  endured,  the en-  three general c u l t u r a l regions;  Coast, the P l a t e a u , and the Mackenzie,  or Atha-  bascan. 17 Distinctive  f e a t u r e s o f the Coast r e g i o n were:  ' depend-  ence on s e a f o o d s , u s e o f wood, and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s o c ial  class  repelled tively  system.  Precipitous  the land h u n t e r , w h i l e  e a s i l y procured  tomarily,  t e r r a i n and dense sheltered  sea-game a t t r a c t e d  t h e a b l e - b o d i e d men f i s h e d ,  waters  undergrowth a n d compara-  t h e f i s h e r m a n . Cus-  o l d e r men t e n d e d  seal-  n e t s a t t h e s h o r e , a n d women and c h i l d r e n  g a t h e r e d b e r r i e s and  c l a m s . A l t h o u g h f i s h was  the s o f t  this  the s t a p l e  c r e a t u r e soon decomposed, w h i l e  m a i n e d . The word "midden" on t h i s  diet,  t h e clam's  location  almost  hard  shell r e -  c o a s t h a s t h u s become a l m o s t  synonymous w i t h " c l a m - h e a p " . S i n c e f i s h c o u l d be c a u g h t  skeleton of  o f one t y p e  or another  anywhere, t h e d e t e r m i n i n g f a c t o r  o f a permanent v i l l a g e  s i t e was  the p r e s e n c e  f o r the  of a  clam-  bed. Wood, p a r t i c u l a r l y provided  c e d a r , found  almost u n i v e r s a l u s e .  p o s t s , beams a n d p l a n k s f o r l o d g e s s o l a r g e ,  It  some o f  17 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s , Haida, Nootka, B e l l a Coola. Tslmshian. K w a k i u t l . Coast S a l l s h , V i c t o r i a . P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . 1952.  8  them h u n d r e d s  of f e e t  l o n g and f i f t y i  ants comprised boxes, bowls,  an e n t i r e  ians the  i t s fleet  perfected  this vessel  e n t i r e l y by water,  because  of private because  during of  village  and Nootka  t o t h e p o i n t where i t c o u l d N o o t k a men e m p l o y e d t h e i r  of the comparative  lages, peoples of t h i s maritime  doubt  canoes. Haida  every  Ind-  take t o  high-prowed  i n whale-hunting.  Perhaps  ness  c o u l d be u s e d f o r c l o t h i n g ,  f o r baskets.  o f dug-out  open s e a . S p e c i a l i z e d  canoes  I t supplied material f o r  and canoes. I t s b a r k  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n was a l m o s t maintaining  their ten-  fi  village.  ropes and mats, and i t s r o o t s  f e e t wide, t h a t  the summer  existence  of their  vil-  developed a conscious-  p r o p e r t y o w n e r s h i p . A l s o , p a r t l y a t l e a s t no  o f the f a c t  comparative  culture  permanence  to last  leisure  that  enough f o o d c o u l d be g a t h e r e d  through the w i n t e r , l e a v i n g a p e r i o d  time, a s e r i e s  t o h e l p w h i l e away t h i s  of f e s t i v i t i e s  otherwise dreary  S o c i a l r a n k , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e N o o t k a ,  came  into  season.  Kwakiutl,  H a i d a , a n d T s i m s h i a n , t h u s came t o be d e t e r m i n e d  by a combin-  ation of property possession, rights  to certain food-gathering  a r e a s , and p r i v i l e g e s  i n certain  formances.  Village  j u s t mentioned,  to participate  s o c i e t y , a g a i n p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e g r o u p  was g e n e r a l l y made up o f t h r e e c l a s s e s ;  commoners, a n d s l a v e s . L e a d e r s rather  than v i l l a g e  ians. Positions  or t r i b a l  tended  nobles,  t o be l o d g e major-domos  c h i e f s , a s f o u n d among p l a i n s  Ind-  o f a u t h o r i t y went a l o n g w i t h s o c i a l r a n k , and  d i s c u s s i o n s which would a f f e c t 18  ceremonial per-  the e n t i r e  village  l a y i n the  John Rodgers J e w i t t , A J o u r n a l Kept a t Nootka D u r i n g the Y e a r s 1803 - 1805. B o s t o n , C E . G-oodapeed, l f e l "  9 hands  o f an u p p e r - c l a s s o l i g a r c h y , a g r o u p w h i c h r e m a i n e d  atively  static,  vertical  but  t o w h i c h commoners had  p r o p e r t y and  had  or marriage  been d e v e l o p e d ,  credits  denotes  of g i f t s  i t meant much more t h a n  at a f e s t i v a l ,  p o t l a t c h was  a time  family heraldic  and  of i t s success  degree o f the  the t e r m  i t as a c e r e m o n i a l  f o r g r a n t i n g names, l a y i n g  tage, r e c i t i n g  legends, largely  and  tio t h e  distribution  just  that.  claims to  displaying  determined  a  the  The  heri-  wealth,  social  f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r I t . Commoners s e l d o m  had  p r o p e r t y o f c l a i m s t o h o l d p o t l a t c h e s ; s l a v e s were  simply p i e c e s of p r o p e r t y , a c q u i r e d by Initially  birth  w i t h i n the f a m i l y h o l d i n g i t , became known a s  C h i n o o k " p a t s h a t l " , and  sufficient  customary  made, g e n e r a l l y u p o n the  p o t l a t c h . Although Webster's D i c t i o n a r y  position  claims to  p r i v i l e g e s were made o r a l l y . The  o c c a s i o n f o r s u c h c l a i m s t o be  the  through  mobility.  S i n c e no w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e titles,  some a c c e s s  rel-  the  c l a s s e s above  t h r o u g h wars o r r a i d s , w h i c h c o u l d be  them,  disposed of  on  potlatch occasions. Tsimshian Tsimshian  into  b o t h g r o u p s was N o o t k a , and  and  Haida  f o u r c l a n s , and  Salish villages  Throughout  the  maintained  and  the Haida  Interior  had  the  no  last  l e n g t h o f the alliances  generally within their The  were d i v i d e d into  into two.  exogamous,and d e s c e n t m a t r i l i n e a l .  followed a b i l i n e a l ,  a t e d and  villages  own  clans;  c o a s t , noble  through  linguistic  S a l i s h and  the  Marriage  in  Kwakiutl,  the f i r s t  a patrilineal  clans,  two  groups  descent. families  inter-village  cre-  marriages,  boundaries. ^ 1  Kootenay groups hunted  game  animals  19 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s , Haida. K w a k i u t l . Nootka. Coast S a l i s h . T s i m s h i a n .  10 as w e l l as f i s h e d  f o r f o o d , and d e v e l o p e d a l e s s  elaborate  20 social  structure  than d i d t h e i r maritime n e i g h b o r s .  seems t o have b e e n other  positions  little any  class  structure, chieftainship  and  of importance b e i n g gained by m e r i t . There  affiliation  larger t r i b a l  Horse-back  little  There  among v i l l a g e s , o r band  riding,  and  the v i l l a g e ,  grouping, remained  and t h e u s e  of leather  a d o r n m e n t s seem t o have b e e n b o r r o w e d , Kootenays, from n e i g h b o r i n g p l a i n s  rather  the c u l t u r a l  c l o t h i n g and  p a r t i c u l a r l y by  groups, but b a s i c  than unit.  feather the  social  customs  i n g e n e r a l seem t o have r e m a i n e d  version  o f t h o s e o f the C o a s t a l S a l i s h p e o p l e s , w i t h whom t h e  westernmost  o f the P l a t e a u groups  The Dene o f the n o r t h g e a r e d  a rather  was  came i n t o their  ments o f t h e r o v i n g h e r d s o f c a r i b o u ,  simplified  contact.  economic  on w h i c h  life  they  t o movedepended  21 for  f o o d and  families  clothing.  These  o f r e l a t e d m a l e s , who  nomadic g r o u p s were made up cooperated i n t h e i r  search for  game on known h u n t i n g g r o u n d s . A g a i n , a l t h o u g h t h e i r way  of l i f e  was  they adopted  their  them. T h r o u g h o u t held  to that  social  a r t of p l a n t  peoples of Mexico  w h i c h by  1500  A.D.  interior,  than p r i v a t e ,  property  tended  of  t o be  ownership. been  acquired  C e n t r a l A m e r i c a a b o u t 3000 B.C.,  or so had  east,  f r o m p e o p l e s t o the west  d o m e s t i c a t i o n , w h i c h had and  economic  o f t h e i r n e i g h b o r s t o the  customs  the e n t i r e  i n communal, r a t h e r The  the  similar  of  s p r e a d t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e  by  and western  49th  N o r t h A m e r i c a n d e s e r t , d i d n o t r e a c h the P a r a l l e l , and a l l 20 T e i t , James A., The S a l l s h a n T r i b e s o f t h e W e s t e r n P l a t eaus , W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. P r i n t i n g B u r e a u , 1930. 2.1  British Dene.  Columbia  Heritage Series;  Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s ,  11 peoples  n o r t h of  t h a t remained  food-gathers  r a t h e r than  food-  growers. That  they d i d so u n d o u b t e d l y h i n d e r e d  p r o g r e s s , but n o t  necessarily their  their technological  cultural  growth i n  other  r e s p e c t s . I n t h e words o f C o l l i e r : , T e c h n o l o g i c a l l y , a n c i e n t man a d v a n c e d s l o w l y . I n the c o n t r o l and b e n e f l c i e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f human n a t u r e t h r o u g h i n s t i t u t i o n s he a d v a n c e d f a s t a n d f a r . 22 A primitive highly  people,  l i v i n g i n an  c i v i l i z e d n a t i o n can  liefs  as  with,  the n a t u r a l f o r c e s and  Although groups  explanations  variations  o f the  comprehend, d e v e l o p e d  f o r , and  attempts  to l i v e  phenomena o f t h e i r  in detail  a r e a , the  intimacy with nature  developed  their  to  be-  i n harmony environment.  among the  fundamental bases o f t h e i r  cultural beliefs  re-  v e a l e d r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s . P h i l i p D r u c k e r » s summing up these  fundamental bases  British  c a n be  a p p l i e d t o a l l o f the  peoples  of of  Columbia: T h e s e f u n d a m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t combined to g i v e N o r t h w e s t C o a s t r e l i g i o n i t s d i s t i n c t i v e c a s t were:: l a c k o f s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n o f b e l i e f s on c r e a t i o n , c o s m o l o g y and d e i t i e s ; a r a t h e r vague n o t i o n o f a r e mote, d i s i n t e r e s t e d Supreme B e i n g o r B e i n g s ; a s e t o f b e l i e f s , r e v o l v i n g a b o u t the i m m o r t a l i t y o f c e r t a i n e c o n o m i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t s p e c i e s o f a n i m a l s , comb i n e d w i t h a s e r i e s of r i t u a l p r a c t i c e s to ensure t h e r e t u r n o f t h e s e c r e a t u r e s ; a n d , f i n a l l y , the c o n c e p t o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f l i f e l o n g a s s i s t a n c e by a p e r s o n a l g u a r d i a n s p i r i t . 23  W i t h the was  exception  o f t h e Dene, b e l i e f  common among I n d i a n g r o u p s  of the  i n a Supreme  area. Typically,  '22  J o h n C o l l i e r , op.  23  P h i l i p D r u c k e r , I n d i a n s Of the N o r t h w e s t C o a s t . s o n i a n I n s t i t u t i o n , 1955, p. 13b.  c i t . , p.  Being  although  23. Smith-  12 he  may  may,  have t a k e n an a c t i v e  and  i n world events  i n the p a s t ;  i n f a c t , have b e e n the C r e a t o r , a t p r e s e n t he  mote f r o m as  part  the a f f a i r s  o f men.  The  Haidas  "Power-of-the-Shining-Heavens", t h e N o o t k a s as  C o o l a s , and  four  "Great  K o o t e n a y s saw  the  referred  sun as  their  re-  to this  the Tsimshians  C h i e f s " . The  lived  as  Being  "Laxha",  Kwakiutls,  Bella  C r e a t o r , and  the  S a l i s h , a l t h o u g h t h e y r e c o g n i z e d a Supreme B e i n g , gave h i m  no  2k particular  name. " H  These Beings little  part  o f t h e h e a v e n s seem, e n d e e d , t o have p l a y e d  i n the n a t i v e s '  ©f myth r a t h e r  the b a s i s  and  e v e r y r o a d o f man,  and  Drucker  that  Indians  a n i m i s m . "The  the b e l i e f  a far-away  themselves  l a n d , and  as  o f man  was  ing  that animals  peoples  i n a world  controlled  found  2  once b e l i e v e d The  coming p e r i o d i c a l l y  and  of s p i r i t u a l  like  finally  the  that  found  f o r c e s , which caused  P h i l i p Drucker,  25  John  26  P h i l i p JDrucker, op. c i t . ,  Collier,  op. c i t . .  op. c i t . .  27 Diamond J e n n e s s ,  p.  op. c i t . ,  p.  lkO.  22. p. l l | 0 . p.  67.  t©  offer  the Sekani  had  once b e e n  alike.  themselves  liv-  e v e r y t h i n g and  the m a t e r i a l w o r l d . A n i m i s m e n t e r e d e v e n i n t o  2h  on  themselves  u s , i n a n i m a t e w o r l d , e n d o w i n g the e l e m e n t s , u t e n s i l s , ~~  life  salmon,  i n disguise  human b e i n g s had  o f the northwest  code o f  s a c r e d " P h i l i p  originated with  f o o d . Diamond J e n n e s s ?  envisaged  gods w a l k e d  whom the I n d i a n r e g a r d e d as d w e l l i n g a s p e o p l e in  realm  have.  the c o r e o f t h e i r  every road  In a  of worship. M o n o t h e i s t i c  d i d not  a t h o r o u g h and a l l - i n c l u s i v e  ° suggests  t© have d w e l t  e v e r - p r e s e n t as p l a i n s  o f the n o r t h w e s t  What d i d f o r m was  but  than a t a f o c a l p o i n t  g o d s , a l l - p o w e r f u l and them, p e o p l e s  lives,  the, to  tools  and  13> weapons w i t h p e r s o n a l s p i r i t s . S p i r i t s w h e r e , and t h e i r  power d e t e r m i n e d  were  literally  every-  man's v e r y d e s t i n y .  T h e s e f o r c e s , however, were n o t b e y o n d a p p e a l . The a n i m i s tic  and m a g i c a l world-view  tion  o f t h e I n d i a n l e d h i m t o a n assump-  that i n t e n s i t y of consciousness - concentrated, sust a i n e d l o n g i n g a n d t h e f e e l i n g o f power, j o y , h a p p i n e s s , beauty, and o f union w i t h the s o u r c e s of b e i n g - was e f f e c t u a l i n t h e m a g i c a l c o n t r o l o f n a t u r e t h r o u g h c o - p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h t h e g o d s . 28 The  of t h i s ual.  attainment assumption,  through group  ceremony a n d i n d i v i d u a l  One o f t h e most r i g i d l y a d h e r e d - t o  among a l l groups for  o f c o - p a r t n e r s h i p c o u l d be won, on the b a s i s  ceremonies,  w h i c h depended on c y c l i c  n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y among t h e T s i m s h i a n , h a s l e f t o f the treatment  some o f t h e s e be  carried  account,  accorded  of the  a detailed  eulochan  c a t c h by  p e o p l e a t t h e Nass R i v e r . " A l l o f t h e s e p l a n s must  out w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n  "otherwise  come a g a i n " . ^ 9 ceremonies,  the f i r s t  of fish  ceremony. W i l -  l i a m D u n c a n , m i s s i o n a r y d u r i n g much o f t h e l a s t h a l f  record  particularly  spawning runs  t h e i r m a i n f o o d s u p p l y , was t h e " f i r s t - f i s h "  rit-  o r c h a n g e , " he c o n c l u d e s h i s  t h e f i s h w i l l be ashamed, a n d p e r h a p s  These  same p e o p l e  l i k e w i s e , over  and o t h e r s c a r r i e d  the f i r s t  never  out s p e c i a l  salmon c a t c h o f t h e s e a s o n , on  t o h o n o r and welcome t h e f i r s t The extended  Kootenays, petitions  28 John  possibly  of the species.  through  Plains  J  i n f l u e n c e , each day  t o t h e Dawn and t o t h e S u n , and t h e i r  Collier,  op. c i t . ,  p . 21.  29 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , T s i m s h i a n , p . 36. 30 P h i l i p D r u c k e r ,  daily  op. c i t . ,  p . II4.O.  Our N a t i v e  Peoples,  Ill  round  was  filled  favor  from  the  w i t h many s m a l l c e r e m o n i e s  spirit  d a n c e s and w i n t e r into  the  world.  Similarly,  J  ceremonials  sea of g i f t s  t o the  o f the killer  aimed a t s e c u r i n g  the  secret  society  K w a k i u t l s , the whale by  tossing  the H a i d a s ,  W o l f Dance o f t h e N o o t k a s , the C a n n i b a l Dance o f the C o o l a , and  the h a r v e s t songs o f t h a n k s  the  Bella  of the I n t e r i o r  Salish  were a l l a i m e d , i n p a r t a t l e a s t , a t g a i n i n g r a p p o r t w i t h  which-  32 ever  spirits Entire  but  each  villages  participated  masks, t h e  members o f the i o n s , dances, spirits  tribe and  being appealed  to s o l i c i t . ^ o f the  t o , g e n e r a l l y wolves,  The  m a g i c , as  incantatpropitiate  o f the c r e a t u r e s whales,  and  ceremonies  the p e r f o r m e r s  acted  legendary h e r i t a g e of  their  K w a k i u t l s were s o i n f l u e n c e d b y  t o w i n t e r as  "sacred" season. During instead  chosen  masked a c t o r s  bears, k i l l e r  they r e f e r r e d  time, v i l l a g e s ,  The  spirits  o f ceremony t h a t the  by  t h u n d e r b i r d s . Thus the  kind of sympathetic  group.  certain  the m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e i r masks t o  the embodiment  spirits,  known as a shaman. W e a r i n g  s i m i l a r l y a c c o u t r e d , sought  p o r t i o n s o f the m y t h o l o g i c a l and  audience  to these  shaman, a c c o m p a n i e d by  l e g e n d a r y c a n n i b a l s and  represented a  i n appeals  of p r i e s t  whose a i d t h e y w i s h e d  were, i n e f f e c t ,  out  f e l t appropriate.  t h e y were l e d b y a t y p e  costumes and  the  people  t o summer as  o f b e i n g grouped  the  the  this  type  "profane" ,  latter  1  and  p e r i o d of  i n c l a n s , waived  this  31  B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , K o o t e n a y , p . 28.  32  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s , K w a k i u t l , p . 50; H a i d a , p . 2l+; N o o t k a , p . 1+0; B e l l a C o o l a , p . 60; I n t e r i o r S a l l s h . p . 1+0.  333 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , N a t i v e P e o p l e s , p . 28.  Our  Native  Peoples,  Introduction to  Our  15 f o r m o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the  paramount The  individual,  No  l e s s he  i n a d d i t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n group  a d u l t , i t was had  creature  obtained  or o b j e c t  childhood,  boys  of h i s natural presented  ritualistic  during h i s youth  to h i s perception  first,  where f o r s e v e r a l d a y s and  and  the  spirit  force  that his  i n an u n u s u a l way.  nights  h i s f a m i l y a t home e n j o i n e d  success.  L a t e r , he  was  willing  he  r e t u r n home, a i d e d  by  a  which  Some t i m e  would pursue  from h i s  his guardian.  village  or  one,  #ilch  object  Some t i m e a f t e r  shaman a t a s p e c i a l ceremony,  a b o u t w h i c h he vhad t o l d no  facil-  a l l of  beast,  at  his  i n ceremonies t o  chosen b i r d ,  t o be  features  to a customary s i t e  would d i s a p p e a r  s o u g h t r e v e l a t i o n by h i s  its spirit  spirit,  o f some  t o l o o k among t h e  w o u l d wander o u t ,  un-  s p i r i t . From e a r l y  r e m a i n a b s e n t f o r weeks, o r e v e n months, d u r i n g  t i m e he  daily  s u r r o u n d i n g s f o r some p a r t i c u l a r e l e m e n t  e a r l y p u b e r t y he  his  in his  cere-  function effectively  as h i s p r i v a t e g u a r d i a n  during  itate  behavior  believed, could  i n p a r t i c u l a r learned  itself  quest, while  i n a s e c r e t s o c i e t y became  grouping.  monies, observed p e r s o n a l life.  membership  the  would a s s e r t i t s e l f  in  3k song t h r o u g h h i s This ess him,  g u a r d i a n - s p i r i t d i d not but  aided  woodworking, and soul; if  lips.  illness  him  other  pursuit  activities.  or d e a t h c o u l d  some e x t r a n e o u s e v i l  tain  i n the  enter  result  The  the  i n d i v i d u a l to  of h i s h u n t i n g , i n d i v i d u a l had  i f this  poss-  fishing, his  s o u l were l o s t  own or  i n f l u e n c e were t o i n t r u d e h i s b o d y . C e r -  shamans made a p r a c t i c e o f c a l l i n g upon t h e i r  spirit  helpers  3l+ W.W. E l m a n d o r f , A n t h r o p o l o g y 301, Summer S e s s i o n , U.B.C. 1958> and Mrs E l l e n P a u l l , S e c h e l t , s e r i e s o f i n t e r v i e w s  1958-59.  16 t o seek the l o s t the  s o u l , w h i c h m i g h t have s t r a y e d  d e a d , and o f r e m o v i n g i n t r u d i n g a r t i c l e s  t o the land of  and c o n t a m i n a t -  35 ions. The  s o u l was o f g r e a t e s t  times of b i r t h  and d e a t h . I t was b e l i e v e d  new-born c h i l d was h e l d slightest the  false  the  only  might cause  g h o s t . Wakes, a t w h i c h f a m i l y encourage  if  i t remained  the soul  of a  i tto return to  whence i t came. When a member o f a f a m i l y  h i s k i n were t o r n between g r i e f  to  that  during  p r e c a r i o u s l y i n t h e body; t h a t t h e  a c t on t h e i r p a r t  dead a n c e s t o r  died  concern to the f a m i l y  the s o u l  t o journey  i n the v i l l a g e  a t the l o s s and f e a r o f  dirges  were s u n g , were  t o the land  i t might  steal  held  o f the dead, f o r souls  f r o m the l i v -  ing. T h e r e was no h e a v e n - h e l l belief. land  a n t i t h e s i s i n northwest  The K o o t e n a y s a n d I n t e r i o r S a l l s h b e l i e v e d  o f t h e dead was c h a r a c t e r i z e d  most o t h e r  peoples envisaged  Indian  that the  b y a n abundance o f f o o d ;  i t m e r e l y a s a vague  shadow-land  37 in  one d i r e c t i o n o r a n o t h e r f r o m Mythology played  a significant  northwest peoples. G e n e r a l l y egories:  those  world; those those  "35 3:6  part  o f abode.  i n the l i v e s  of a l l  s p e a k i n g , myths were o f t h r e e  involving family heraldry times, o f t e n based  however, myths h e l d  explanations  place  i n v o l v i n g c r e a t i o n , or a " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n "  o f more r e c e n t  Usually,  their  o f why t h i n g s  from ancient  cat-  of the  times, and  on some s l i g h t  incident.  t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f b e i n g  a r e as they a r e a t the p r e s e n t  time.  P h i l i p D r u c k e r , o p . c i t . . p . 114+. I b i d . , p . 159.  3>7 B r i t i s h  Columbia H e r i t a g e  Series;  Our N a t i v e  Peoples.  17 Indian mythology s t r e s s e d into  the p a s t , animals  that  o f the human b e i n g , and  language.  I n d i a n p e o p l e s why  animals  the w o r l d  part  animals  stemming f r o m a t r i b a l their  could alternate  Since peoples  the human b e i n g , t h i s  the f a c t  that  from t h e i r  a n d man  o v e r have a t t r i b u t e d  soul  of t h e i r mythology e x p l a i n e d to also  had  remembrance  souls,  or s p i r i t s .  being  into  epoch,  p r e y e d upon them, and  i t s present form  i s t e n c e . S i m i l a r i t y between that  a type  before  the  time  t h e s e and  termed  of c e r t a i n  myths, and brought  the w o r l d  state  of  of  have e n d u r e d  from  o f s u c h l e g e n d s . The that  the  the  assertion,  o r o t h e r a p p r o p r i a t e ceremony,  l i n e a g e s t o use  even m a i n t a i n e d  a bear, a toad,  p o l e , w h i c h was Bella  their  the  physical  Coola b e l i e v e d  f a m i l y names had  an  their  been  down f r o m above by remote a n c e s t o r s . ^ ® Most l e g e n d s  more r e c e n t o r i g i n were i n t e n d e d l a r g e l y f o r amusement, b u t these u s u a l l y explanations  ex-  suggest  generally pertained to  or o t h e r c r e a t u r e on a t o t e m  representation  dwelt  "Raven",  myths f r o m A s i a  emblems, and were  w h i c h c o u l d be made a t a p o t l a t c h  eagle,  by  e v e n m o d i f i e d t h e human  l e g e n d s may  ancient origin  of f a m i l y h e r a l d i c  o f the r i g h t s  the  of t h e i r m i g r a t i o n .  Myths o f l e s s derivation  to  Possibly  o f myth  f r o m a more r u d i m e n t a r y  some o f t h e I n d i a n h i s t o r i c  to  of creatures encountered  i n ages gone by a i d e d the p e o p l e b y r i d d i n g had  guise same  a n c e s t o r s d u r i n g the g l a c i a l  m o n s t e r s who  own  far  spoke t h e  upon the deeds o f a " t r a n s f o r m e r " , g e n e r a l l y who  a t some age  of even  c o n t a i n e d , e v e n i f as a n o n - e s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t , for certain  phenomena.  38 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s ; B e l l a C o o l a . p . 28.  Our  Native  Peoples,  18 Indian  a r t grew d i r e c t l y  out  of r e l i g i o n  and  mythology.  The whole a r t .... was a i m e d a t the d e p i c t i o n o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g s , i n a n i m a l , m o n s t e r , o r human f o r m , who a c c o r d i n g t o l i n e a g e o r c l a n t r a d i t i o n s had a p p e a r e d t o some a n c e s t o r . . . . The d e s c e n d a n t s o f t h a t a n c e s t o r , i n the p r o p e r l i n e , i n h e r i t e d the r i g h t t o d i s p l a y symbols of the s u p e r n a t u r a l being to represent t h e i r noble descent .... Thus t h e a r t s t y l e i t s e l f , t h r o u g h the o b j e c t s made a c c o r d i n g t o i t s d i c t a t e s , was i n t i m a t e l y l i n k e d w i t h the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , r a n k , and s t a t u s , as w e l l as the c e r e m o n i a l p a t t e r n s , o f the N o r t h e r n g r o u p s . 39 Art, suit  i n fact,  in itself  o r u t e n s i l was decorative. and  c o u l d not  be  s a i d t o have e x i s t e d as a  among t h e s e p e o p l e s .  No  carved  fine  The  or  artist  colored  as  on b u i l d i n g ,  a r t , merely  to  a p p l i e d h i s a r t to u t i l i t a r i a n  post,  be  materials  ceremonial c l o t h i n g . Men  worked t h e i r  wood, b o n e , and masks, and  conventionalized  stone  individual  c a n o e s . Women worked t h e i r  s t y l e s d e v e l o p e d , and  another, since  he w o u l d n o t  crests. Art reflected of a v i l l a g e ; pole,  the  As stable  as  much as  m i g h t be village  the  39  social  did  the  and  to which objects  more  1958.  right  as w e l l  t o use  as  the  the  were c a r v e d c i t . . p.  the  status  interior.  from  life  a  of the  totem  lineage  on i t . enjoying  time, developed  and  also  other's  o f work s u c h as  social  leisure  and  religious  maritime peoples,  those of  P h i l i p D r u c k e r , op.  li.0 W'.W.  in  into  could borrow  crests represented  e x p e c t e d , the  life,  art  designs  mats. V i l l a g e  artist  the  i n d i c a t e d the  a r t form than d i d  extent  and  no  have  geometric  magnitude of a p i e c e  for instance,  depicted  representative  - totem p o l e s , boxes, c l u b s , t o o l s , spoons,  t h e i r weaving - c l o t h i n g , baskets,  rate  space  pur-  a more  a more  In g e n e r a l ,  elabo-  the  colored diminished  from  166.  E l m a n d o r f , A n t h r o p o l o g y 301,  TJ.B.C. Summer  Session,  19  north to south along Interior mer  S a l l s h and  group decorated  their  ucts  leather  the c o a s t , and  Dene d i d v i r t u a l l y no their  basketry,  t r a d i n g was  differed.  Interior  a n t l e r s , h i d e s , and  carried  Indians  the  p l a i n s made t h e i r way  t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a . The R i v e r where, s o  as  products  p e o p l e s , and  f a r west a s  one  b u f f a l o robes  legends  t h a t , even b e f o r e their  language throughout Education, the r e l i g i o u s ,  the  w h i t e man  come t o be  Pacific  s o c i a l , and  economic  nor-  Columbia stone  to such  an  intensified  the a c c e p t e d  barter  was  concerned  s t r u c t u r e complex  p l a c e e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the  territory,  to  littoral.  as a r t , stemmed f r o m , and  s o c i e t y . Taking  extent  tongue had  o f the  trade  f a m i l y and  with,  of  the  within  i t e x i s t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f l i f e  t h a t nowhere o b t a i n s  the  to  an  i n our modern t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y .  As  w i t h a r t , i t d i d not  a t any  in  itself,  the warp w h i c h s u s t a i n e d  b u t a c t e d as  the  north-  g o e s , a huge n a t u r a l  extent  arrival  caribou  from  from A l a s k a  once e x i s t e d , became engaged i n t h i s  prod-  o i l and  Spences B r i d g e . A  C h i n o o k b a n d , l o c a t e d on t h e  of t h e i r  and  f o r oolachan  bridge  village  for-  ornamented  exchanged deer  t r a d e r o u t e a l s o e x i s t e d a l l the way  the p r o c e s s ,  latter  the  on between g r o u p s whose  thus  other animal  salmon f r o m m a r i t i m e  south  and  c a r v i n g , hut  The  clothing.  Extensive  cured  from coast t o p l a t e a u .  time,  in fact,  exist  as  an  the weave  entity and  the p a t t e r n o f s o c i e t y i n i t s e n t i r e t y . John C o l l i e r , f r o m 1933 of  the  t o 19kS,  U n i t e d S t a t e s Commissioner says  of this education  of Indian  i n h i s book,  Affairs Indians  Americas; Hence was b u i l t and elements o f t h i s l i f e  s u s t a i n e d the l i f e a r t . The a r t were l a n g u a g e , s o n g , d a n c e ,  20 ceremonial, craftsmanship, ascetic d i s c i p l i n e , f i g h t i n g , and the c h a s e . A l l o f t h e s e , I n c l u d i n g l a n g u a g e , were s u s t a i n e d b y u n w r i t t e n t r a d i t i o n , and t h e t r a d i t i o n was communicated t h r o u g h t h e generations by systematized e d u c a t i o n . U s u a l l y the e d u c a t i o n was a i m e d t o w a r d , a n d was c a r r i e d out f r o m , t h e c r i s i s o f a d o l e s c e n c e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e e r i s e s o f s a c r e d ceremony I n t h e g r o u p . L|.l The  u l t i m a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f the p r i m i t i v e  education,  and t h e u l t i m a t e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n was  upon t h e c r i s i s the  and  o f adolescence,  i n d i v i d u a l which determined  succeed  g r o u p was u p o n  the b r i e f  period i n the l i f e  whether o r n o t t h e c h i l d  i n growing up. E v e r y t h i n g  t h a t was done w i t h  the c h i l d was a i m e d a t t h i s most  important  of  would  t h e baby  bridge  in his  life. At  birth  t h e b a b y was g i v e n a name. T h i s name was n o t a  mere a p p e l a t i o n , b u t a n i n t i m a t e p a r t o f t h e b e i n g The to  name i t s e l f  carried  c o n t r o l i t s possessor  heritage  name, a v a i l a b l e  turn obtained initial  i t i n like  c o n s i d e r a b l e power, a n d c o u l d be u s e d t o some e x t e n t . G e n e r a l l y , i t was a from a deceased  f o r e b e a r , who h a d i n  manner. The b e a r e r  name d u r i n g h i s l i f e ,  so, each o f these  concerned.  as he e a r n e d  a d d i t i o n a l names b e i n g  c o u l d add t o t h i s the p r i v i l e g e  t o do  likewise family  prop-  erty. Some t i m e family,  during very early  childhood, an e l d e r o f the  g e n e r a l l y a g r a n d m o t h e r , sang a song a p p r o p r i a t e  endowed name. T h i s song was r e p e a t e d 142 by  at intervals  t o the  and m e m o r i z e d  the c h i l d .  Ill p . 2 1 . 1+2 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m t a l k w i t h S h i r l e y S e c h e l t , J u l y , 1958.  Julian,  _a A characteristic  o f Indian psychology  was a b s e n c e  o r a l p u n i s h m e n t . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t h a r s h  correction  o f corpled to  l a c k o f s e l f - c o n t r o l . The young c h i l d was t h e r e f o r e r e a r e d permissive This  situation  permissive  i n f a n c y and apparent  among most t r i b e s tended  i n w h i c h he w o u l d l e a r n  d u r i n g the f i r s t  t o make t e a c h i n g e a s i e r  tribe,  correct the  telling,  over  t h r e e o r f o u r y e a r s was i n -  l a t e r on.  legends,  i n particular,  s l i g h t l y from  laid  and o v e r a g a i n , c e r t a i n  tribe  great stress  o f body, h o n e s t y ,  Kootenay t a u g h t  the young c h i l d  on  s t o r i e s , a n c e s t o r ad-  and f a m i l y h i s t o r i e s . The I n t e r i o r  phasized hardihood The  training  b u t i n t h e main i t i n v o l v e d l e a r n i n g myths, c r a f t s a n d  behavior. Haidas,  venture  self-discipline.  lack o f formal  F o r m a l t r a i n i n g , when i t b e g a n , v a r i e d to  ina  and moral  Salish  em-  scrupulousness.  t o do f a m i l y c h o r e s .  Coast  1+3 Salish inculcated Emphasis  e t i q u e t t e and t a b o o s .  on b o y s ' e d u c a t i o n o f c o u r s e  I n t h a t the f o r m e r and  using of hunting  while use  received training  the l a t t e r  and f i s h i n g  were i n s t r u c t e d  o f m e d i c i n a l p l a n t s b y female  differed  i n woodcraft  e q u i p m e n t b y male  from  girls'  and t h e m a k i n g relatives,  I n c o o k i n g , weaving, and the members o f the l i n e a g e o r fam-  ily. B o y s , i n a d d i t i o n , were t r a i n e d was i n f l i c t e d stages  t o endure  by o l d e r members o f t h e t r i b e  suffering.  a t appropriate  o f t h e t r a i n i n g , n o t as p u n i s h m e n t , b u t as t e s t s  novices* positive,  s t o i c i s m . The c o n c e p t  o f p a i n was t h u s  n o t a n e g a t i v e , way b y t h e s e  Pain  employed  o f the ina  peoples.  1+3 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H e r i t a g e S e r i e s , Our N a t i v e P e o p l e s , H a i d a , p . 3 8 , I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . p . 38, K o o t e n a y . p . 3 8 , C o a s t S a l i s h , p . h7.  22  B o t h boys a n d g i r l s together with conduct gible  the r i g h t s  were t a u g h t  by g i v i n g  taught,  were t a u g h t  accepted  and d u t i e s o f t h e i r  codes o f b e h a v i o r , c l a s s . Rules of  i n a p r a c t i c a l manner. T a b o o s were made  them c o r r e l a t i v e s . T h u s , t h e c h i l d  " i t i s bad t o s t e a l because people  will  t h e i r h o u s e " , o r " i t i s b a d t o be c o w a r d l y ,  m i g h t be  n o t have y o u i n  because people  l a u g h a t y o u a n d impose upon y o u , and t h e women w i l l s h o u l d wear a Since had as  s a y , *He  skirt".^  t h e r e was no w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e ,  details  of learning  i n o u r s o c i e t y , b u t b y a l l a g e s , s i n c e no p r i n t e d  thus  t h a t c o u l d be t u r n e d  taught  told,  a n d p u r p o s e f u l l y made  watching told",  carefully.  to s i t s t i l l  t o emphasize  easily",  s t o r i e s were  t o the p o i n t of be-  " I f y o u go t o s l e e p w h i l e  says  Mrs. E l l e n  being  t h e need f o r l i s t e n i n g and  so one p r e c e p t r a n , "you w i l l  learned  reference  t o i f memory l a p s e d . C h i l d r e n were  t o pay c l o s e a t t e n t i o n w h i l e  coming u n c o m f o r t a b l e  stories  are being  grow up h u n c h b a c k e d " . ^ "'I  Paull  of SEchelt, eighty  a g e , who c a n n e i t h e r r e a d n o r w r i t e , b u t who c a n s i n g  hymns a n d s p e a k f l u e n t l y Ability longed vigor  In S a l l s h ,  t o endure i n t e n s i t y  p e r i o d o f time  without  puberty,  final  anied,  I4I4.  o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n over  b o y s ' and g i r l s '  i n some n o r t h e r n m a r i t i m e  training  a pro-  groups,  Anthropology  process.  f o r adulthood  spirit  B r i t i s h Columbia H e r i t a g e S e r i e s ; I n t e r i o r S a l l s h . p. 39. Elmandorf,  Latin  l e s s e n i n g of mental or p h y s i c a l  s t a g e s . The b o y ' s g u a r d i a n  1+5 W'.W.  years  Chinook, and E n g l i s h .  seemed t o be t h e a i m o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n At  its  will  t o be memorized and r e t a i n e d , n o t o n l y b y t h e v e r y y o u n g ,  existed  of  tan-  entered  ceremony, accomp-  by I n i t i a t i o n Our N a t i v e  301, Summer  into a  Peoples,  U.B.C., 1958..  2:3 secret  society,  marked h i s  t r a i n i n g at  this  the  t a b o o s as w e l l  form of  avoid  certain  her  hair with  her  fingers  said  Mrs.  a year d u c t was  only a  busy.  aimed a t  structor linked  ately  i n s t r u c t i o n . She  with only  admonitions  must a t  my  recently  comb  a l l times  hands b a c k t o  in  must  c e r t a i n u t e n s i l s , and  comb. She  developing,  family  keep  life,"  resumed b a s k e t - m a k i n g  a t an  age  when s u c h an of  the  to  c o u l d be  maintained  after con-  aware-  significance  through  damaged t h r o u g h p o o r t r a i n i n g .  therefore a  often  positive  have d e v e l o p e d n a t u r a l l y ,  the  do  many n o b l e  e c t e d was  negative  motherhood.  of  alike  girl's  involved  want t o b r i n g  the  i n s t r u c t i o n , and  p r e s s u r e was  i n t o manhood. The  i n a c t i v i t y i n h o s p i t a l ) . A l l s u c h mode o f  not  o f womanhood and  as  special  ("I  enforced  Prestige  life  P a u l l , who  ness might w e l l  ful  of  foods, eat  Ellen  of  time  entry  p o w e r f u l goafc, d r i v i n g  t h e i r best. Since  families  and  the  Social  pupil  and  in-  i n t e r - v i l l a g e marriages  t o g e t h e r , the  very large,  success-  size  of  the  s o c i a l pressure  group  aff-  proportion-  great. B e h a v i o r b e f i t t i n g s o c i a l p o s i t i o n was  y o u n g s t e r s from the plied  dignity;  one  e a r l i e s t possible must n o t ,  behave i n an  undignified  moner f a m i l y  t o be  might  his  say  to  lax  u n d e r any  way.  age.  instilled  High s o c i a l rank  circumstances  " I t i s a l l very well  i n t h e i r behavior," a noble  c h a r g e s , "but  you  Into  whatever,  for  the  tended conduct  to  to ascend insist  on  the  must m a i n t a i n a r i g i d  a  there existed  s o c i a l ladder, they  strict  moral code. For  always the  slave  too,  com-  grandparent  o f b e h a v i o r a t a l l t i m e s . " S i n c e many commoner f a m i l i e s struggling  im-  code were  however,  examples  of  slack  c l a s s , whose members  2k c o u l d not  g a i n p r e s t i g e t h r o u g h m o r a l r e c t i t u d e , and  seems t o have b e e n c r e a t e d havior  contrast rather  Education out  i n the  childhood,  of h i g h e s t  was  confines  every  process  the  In a world observer.  child  i n which every a c t was  met  of and  the  passed, but, o f how  c l e a r and  a  of f o o d ,  was  been aimed,  i+7 I C o r i n t h i a n s  phase,  place. of on  p a r t i c i p a n t as w e l l  as  act could  every  nuance  of  take be-  not  towards w h i c h a l l  involved t e s t s which  once p a s s e d , t h e  transformation  a n a d u l t the  a d u l t he  d e c i s i v e ; the  op.  religious  c a n o e s , a l l went  child  was.  The  d i d not  y e t h i s , and  new  the  c i t . . p.  13::11.  21.  had was  graduate  line  of  lay claim adult did  child.  John C o l l i e r ,  vis-  the m a k i n g  When I was a c h i l d , I spoke as a c h i l d , I u n d e r s t o o d as a c h i l d , I t h o u g h t as a c h i l d , b u t when I became a man, I p u t away c h i l d i s h t h i n g s . J4.7 I4.6  group.  every  endeavor take  into adulthood,  meritorious  a d u l t w o r l d , w h i c h was  behave as  social  group  in i t s ramifications.  w o u l d become l a y y e t a h e a d , b u t  the  on w i t h i n the  perceive  e y e s o f o t h e r s , and  t r a i n i n g had  complete. Proofs  c a t i o n was  and  individual  through-  containing within  could  gathering  break from childhood  years  carried  o f s i g n i f i c a n c e - no  involved a l l others  The  s o c i e t y was,  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s and  place unseen by havior  the  be-  force.  primary, face-to-face  c o m p l e x . The  Every  example o f  i n g r e d i e n t of a h i g h l y developed  death, warfare,  clothing,  t o be  labor  s p e c i a l t y , o f human b e h a v i o r  Birth,  the  a  cosmos u n t o i t s e l f ,  every  socio-economic  ever-present  pre-European Indian  continuous  a  an  t h a n as  p o t e n c y , the  Each v i l l a g e ible  a  as  which  demarto not  25 I t was  a w o r l d f o u n d e d on a g r o u p e t h o s w h i c h p e r c e i v e d  whole o f e x i s t e n c e  a s one magic  psyche w h i c h l i v e d  according  play.  circle,  t o the p a r t  a n d on a n  individual  i n i t that  I t must  the  Plate  CULTURE-  DISTRIBUTION  MAP'.  II  LANGUAGE  0OOtf  J?0/?/5  s  CHAPTER THE  II  EUROPEAN APPEARS  T h e r e was an I n d i a n , who had known no c h a n g e , Who s t r a y e d c o n t e n t a l o n g a s u n l i t b e a c h G a t h e r i n g s h e l l s . He h e a r d a s t r a n g e Commingled n o i s e ; l o o k e d up; and g a s p e d f o r s p e e c h , F o r i n the b a y , where n o t h i n g was b e f o r e , Moved on t h e s e a , b y m a g i c , huge c a n o e s , W i t h b e l l y i n g c l o t h s on p o l e s , and n o t one o a r , And f l u t t e r i n g c o l o u r e d s i g n s and c l a m b e r i n g c r e w s . , And h e , i n f e a r , t h i s n a k e d man alone, H i s f a l l e n hands f o r g e t t i n g a l l t h e i r s h e l l s , H i s l i p s gone p a l e , k n e l t low b e h i n d a s t o n e , And s t a r e d , and saw, and d i d n o t understand, Columbus's doom-burdened c a r a v e l s S l a n t t o the s h o r e , and a l l t h e i r seamen l a n d . Sir The  first  corner and  e x p l o r e r s and  of North  throughout  f u r - t r a d e r s to v i s i t  America encountered  I s l a n d s , they  Subsequent pologists  called  have d e t e r m i n e d  misnomer t h r o u g h o u t  concerned  no  definition  regarding ative  the  original  were n o t legal  them as  study  observed,  along  original  i t s coast  successive generations  i s l a n d s almost  of  certainly  so t h a t a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f l a n d mass a t  the  of t h e i r  origin  least  d i d not  of these  i d e n t i t i e s , but  e t h n i c sub-groups  o f the  the  an Car-'  i n h a b i t a n t s '"Indians". anthroof  this  possess  some  the  original  inordinately  e r r o r . E a r l y European observers,  with  "North American Any  north-west  t h a t a l l o f the n a t i v e p e o p l e s  i t s adjacent  common a n c e s t r a l o r i g i n ,  compound t h e  the  C h r i s t o p h e r Columbus on  these  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by  c o n t i n e n t and  and  Squire  i t s i n t e r i o r , bands o f a b o r i g i n e s . C o n t i n u i n g  e r r o r made c e n t u r i e s e a r l i e r by lbbean  John C o l l i n s  peoples.  however,  They  sought  were s a t i s f i e d  of the a l l - i n c l u s i v e  with  appel-  Indian". " d i s c o v e r y " of t h i s  a r e a must be  made  with  27 the  realization  able it  i n m i n d t h a t a t no  thousands o f years  must be  g o a l , but  has  f u r t h e r admitted, o n l y as  hindrance,  on  thought  t o the  search  a north-east,  for first passage  s u c c e s s i v e waves o f  When i t was  an  o r i e n t , succeeding  lay  only a short distance  that  westward Pacific to  still  Anian"  the 1+8 arm  area. not  this  i t was  belief persisted that,  from  i n search  the of  fabulous  this  goal  for a  as  the  J u a n de  extending  East."'" I n t h e  Pacific  d i s c o v e r e d , s© he  maps o f H a k l u y t ,  late of  coast.  interviewed  i n search  l a t i t u d e s o f I4.7 maintained, a  c o n t i n e n t a l mass.  D e l i d e , and  the  others.  an 1592,  s u p p o s e d l y , In  of North America, again  i n t o the  bother-  exploration of  had  o f A n i a n . Between the had  the  names S i r F r a n c i s  first  F u c a , who  the  somewhere  so-called "Straits  V o y a g e s , p r i n t e d i n 15^7,  d e g r e e s N o r t h he  1 See  their  voyage, which crossed  a v e r y n a r r o w body o f w a t e r s e p a r a t e d  elusive Straits  sea  reached  globe  the w e s t c o a s t  o f the  indeed  a search  Purchas, i n h i s P l l g r i m e s , r e l a t e s having  up  has  the  e l d e r l y m a r i n e r , one sailed  North  i n 1J?22 s u c c e e d e d i n c i r c u m n a v i g a t i n g  D r a k e ' s e x p e d i t i o n , i n 1580, coast.  and,  o f Mag-  t h a t c a r a v e l s came f r o m E u r o p e t o t h e  Hakluyt's  of  cent-  one  some mass o f N o r t h A m e r i c a l^OO's, t h e n ,  sixteenth  b e l i e v e d that  proving  a  time-consuming  s e r i e s of resources i n t o the  as  fruitless,  the E q u a t o r , the  the n o r t h ,  a  vast bulk  to the west. While  from S p a i n . Even a f t e r near  the  Columbus had  explorers  Europeans,  l o c a l i t y , not  l a n d , and  t h r o u g h the  p a s s a g e t h r o u g h the A m e r i c a s was ships  i t became h a b i t -  e l u s i v e north-west,  seekers  discovered  the  ellan's  of t h i s  o r i e n t . Since  America began, a c o n s t a n t l y changing brought  since  i t been u n i n h a b i t e d ,  a s p a n o f w a t e r and  the way  u r y , when t h i s later,  ago  time  of and  broad  28 First America  a u t h e n t i c a t e d voyage t o the N o r t h  seems t o be  made a l a n d f a l l sailed and  in Tlingit  Captain  called  Cook l a t e r  g a v e , among o t h e r came out  Hernandez, a S p a n i a r d ,  "San  Lorenzo",  t r a d e g o o d s , two  e x p l o r a t i o n o f any  o u t by  L a t i t u d e 65,  Captain  and  to explore  first  d i d not  a  t o what  land,  but  spoons t o I n d i a n s  along  who  the  north  o f the  to f i n d  arrived  latter  the  to  para-  hoped-for  d r i v e n out  to made  a t N o o t k a S o u n d . ^ C a p t a i n Cook's j o u r n a l s ,  the n e x t  l o c k , Hanna, D i x o n ,  that  de F u c a ' s s t r a i t , and  i n I78I+, c o n t a i n e d r e f e r e n c e s t o the  During  c o a s t was  c o a s t f r o m L a t i t u d e 1+5  the  a l l inlets  winds, f a i l e d  landfall  along  named Cape F l a t t e r y b u t ,  coast along which few and  2 P h i l i p Drucker, 3  silver  detail  o f w h i c h h i s crew members had the  n e a r the e n t r a n c e  t o p o i n t t o w a r d Hudson's Bay,  P a s s a g e . He  adverse  published  of  ship  hove t o a t  James Cook o f the R o y a l Navy, who  to s a i l  which appeared  North-East  his  t o t h r e a t e n the  named N o o t k a S o u n d . He  with orders  s e a by  to r e t u r n ,  to h i s s h i p i n canoes.^  First  llel  failed  2  s p o t w h i c h he  1778  sent ashore  c a n o e s came o u t  I n 177U» J u a n P e r e z  in  of  i n 171+1. The^, e x p e d i t i o n  territory  crew o f a b o a t  when a number o f war  carried  coast  t h a t o f the v e s s e l s o f V i t u s B e r i n g , w h i c h  away when the  itself.  Pacific  s e e n a t N o o t k a , and  t h e y m i g h t be years others op.  sea-otter, pelts  found.  s h i p s commanded b y took  c i t . , p.  c h a r t s o f much  cargoes  Captains  of p e l t s  to  Port-  China.  19.  Loc. c i t .  1+ J . A u s t e n B a n c r o f t , op.  c i t . , p.  6.  5 M a r g a r e t A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : a H i s t o r y , Vanc o u v e r , E v e r g r e e n P r e s s , 195b, p . 10.  29 In  I787 C a p t a i n J o h n Meares s a i l e d i n t o t h e S t r a i t o f J u a n de  Puca and took p o s s e s s i o n the  King  of England.  Captain ensure  George V a n c o u v e r , s e n t  c e i v e d no s p e c i f i c  with  charts  i n t h e name o f  out from B r i t a i n  i n 179  to  2  o f terms o f t h e N o o t k a C o n v e n t i o n , r e -  orders  as t o t e r r i t o r i a l  i n his explorations with  h i m work t h e y  lands  0  implementation  operating  o f the surrounding  Galiano  s t a t u s , b u t , by c o and V a l d e z ,  had a l r e a d y done, p r o v i d e d  o f the e n t i r e coast  who  remarkable  o f what was t o become B r i t i s h  shared  accurate Col-  umbia. The  R u s s i a n s made no f u r t h e r r e a l a t t e m p t s  s e c t i o n o f c o a s t l i n e . When, i n 1795 > B r i t a i n an  informal  sharing  o f the t e r r i t o r y  been the c e n t r e , b o t h n a t i o n s B r i t a i n would r e - e n t e r the  element d u r i n g Pur-traders,  while  convulsion had  present,  duped  The t r a d e r s , i t i s t r u e ,  into accepting  some a w a r e n e s s o f t h e v a l u e  o f f e r , and learned booters, take  to bargain  trifles  f o rfurs  Indians  o f the products  eventually  they  " 6 Bancroft,  this  type  op. c i t .  t  had t o  f o r b e t t e r r e t u r n s . Some f r e e -  s u c h a s Hanna, t o o k f u r s b y f o r c e . ? The n a t i v e s  action against  7  maritime,  o f European c u l t u r e , working  w h i c h c o u l d be r e - s o l d a t a tremendous p r o f i t . gained  t h e dom-  t r a n s i e n t v e s s e l s , c r e a t e d n o deep  i n t h e n a t i v e way o f l i f e . aborigines  Meanwhile,  years.  who up t o 1800 r e m a i n e d e n t i r e l y  the n a i v e  agreed t o  participation.  a n d he w o u l d r e m a i n  the f o l l o w i n g s i x t y  d i d , from t h e i r  this  o f w h i c h N o o t k a Sound h a d  withdrew d i r e c t  p r o v i d i n g the b a s i s f o r impact  o n l y , as t h e y  and S p a i n  h i s t o r y t h e r e ; S p a i n would n o t .  f u r - t r a d e r was s t i l l  inant  to exploit  d i d not  o f E u r o p e a n e t h i c s , b u t where,  p . 6.  Ormsby, o p . c i t . , p . 13.  p a r t i c u l a r l y , an o f f e n s e occasionally retaliated  against  personal  d i g n i t y was  by m a s s a c r i n g e n t i r e crews.  involved, An  epi-  demic, undoubtedly brought by a t r a d i n g v e s s e l , a p p a r e n t l y as  f a r e a s t as t h e R o c k i e s a b o u t 178£, d e c i m a t i n g  which had never Diseases  and a r t i f a c t s  of early v i s i t s  Metal  u t e n s i l s and c o t t e n  r e m a i n e d as the most p r o m i n e n t r e -  by Europeans t o the n o r t h  implements and b a r k garments. D i s a s t r o u s  the n a t i v e  culture. Disputes,  l e n c e , were s e t t l e d  p r i v a t e l y . Since  populations,  coast.  armed f o r c e s was n e g l i g i b l e ,  they  t h e t r a d e r s were  d i d not  unorgan-  i n t e r v e n t i o n by n a t i o n a l  the I n d i a n s  c r i s e s . The a t t a c k  as d i s -  even those i n v o l v i n g v i o -  i z e d and g r e a t l y outnumbered, a n d s i n c e  own i n t h e s e  Pacific  c l o t h i n g tended g e n e r a l l y merely t o  e a s e s m i g h t have b e e n t o some v i l l a g e alter  tribes  seen Europeans.9  sults  augment s t o n e  even  spread  tended  on I n d i a n  to hold  their  c i v i l i z a t i o n w o u l d be  made b y l a n d , n o t b y s e a . While west c o a s t  sea-otter  o f America by s e a , a continuous  was r e a c h i n g kenzie,  t r a d e r s were s c o u r i n g  the P a c i f i c search  north-  f o r beavers  f o r t h e same g o a l b y l a n d . I n 1793 A l e x a n d e r Mac-  seeking  of the R o c k i e s ,  a.practical river reached  route  the P a c i f i c  across  near B e l l a  t h e t e r r a i n west Coola.  The N o r t h -  w e s t Company, i n w h i c h he was a p a r t n e r , h a d b e e n o r g a n i z e d i n I787  i n M o n t r e a l t o combat t h e o l d e r company's m o n o p o l y i n t h e  Hudson's B a y T e r r i t o r y .  Organized by S c o t t i s h entrepeneurs,  and  e m p l o y i n g F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n t r a p p e r s , i t was d e s t i n e d , d u r i n g t h e next t h i r t y y e a r s ,  to explore  the f a r c o r n e r s  o f the land be-  yond the R o c k i e s . 8 See John J e w i t t , p p . c i t . 9 W. E l m a n d o r f , A n t h r o p o l o g y 301, U.B.C. Summer S e s s l o r i ,  1958.  31 During  the e a r l y y e a r s  Fraser  and  points  throughout  that  David  o f the  the  r i v e r which David and  the  year  next  interior  from the  Thompson l a t e r  i n 1812  David  and  expansion  that r i v e r ,  race  two  companies  the  f o r new  re-named  vast North  sources  i n 1821,  i t Fort  to the  Musqueam  Columbia.  Late  Astoria,  established at  George.^  added t o c o m p e t i t i v e  over-  American h i n t e r l a n d i n a c o n t i n -  of f u r s ,  and  vantage  t o the  Fort  Company had  of l 8 l 6 ,  River conflict  across  ual  him  the N o r t h - W e s t Company p u r c h a s e d  the mouth o f  at  Fraser followed  named a f t e r  Fur  Simon  of the Sekani  Thompson d e s c e n d e d t h e  Pacific  Red  country  (see P l a t e I I ) . I n 1808  w h i c h John J a c o b A s t o r ' s  The  century,  Thompson e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i n g p o s t s  Kootenay  village,  of the n i n e t e e n t h  resulted  I n a merger o f  the  the N o r t h - W e s t name d i s a p p e a r e d  from  use. I n 1821; of  the  George Simpson, Governor of the  coalition  ent.''"'" He 1  lishing  Company, made h i s f i r s t  immediately  trading posts  w o u l d a l s o a c t as of  the  territory  I n 1825, quarters he  sent  Fort  i n v e s t i g a t e d the on  t o a new  on  a critical  John M c L a u g h l i n , site  James M c M i l l a n  Langley  the  on  the  Kilmaurs,  Hope, C h i l c o t i n ,  c r o s s i n g of the c o n t i n -  p o s s i b i l i t i e s of  Pacific  c o a s t . These  bank. D u r i n g  Y a l e , Nanaimo, and  Margaret  11  I b i d . , p . 52-60  Ormsby, op.  sovereignty  C h i e f F a c t o r , moved h i s h e a d -  where he  the next  the  Company b u i l t  Victoria  c i t . . p.  38.  1827  erected  twenty  Simpson, Connoly, Dease, M c L a u g h l i n ,  10  posts  stage.  t o the F r a s e r r i v e r ,  south  estab-  Columbia, F o r t Vancouver. In  p u r s u i n g G o v e r n o r Simpson's p o l i c y , vile,  Department  a r g u i n g p o i n t s when t h e q u e s t i o n o f reached  Dr.  or n e a r t h e  Columbia  years, forts  Col-  Nisqually,  (see P l a t e I I ) .  32 A l t h o u g h N o r t h - W e s t Company e x p l o r e r s were f i r s t overland  f r o m Canada t o  the P a c i f i c , a t  the  Bella  to  cross  Coola,  the  P r a s e r , and  the  Columbia, t r a d e r s  for that  company n e v e r  reached  the  s e a l g r o u n d s . I n 1792,  Captain  V a n c o u v e r had  listed  Pacific  eleven  B r i t i s h ships  and  s i x American i n the  1802  t r a d e . By  the  12 f i f t e e n A m e r i c a n s h i p s had tween t h a t d a t e and These sult  the  I82I4. t h e y  industry to themselves. had  s h i p s were i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  In I7I+8, the  Hudson's Bay  L a n d , where i t o p e r a t e d  removed,  for this  drink.^  i  p r i c e of brandy over  Company's s t a n d a r d  n  1835,  behalf along builders  the  coast, but  The  his competition  o f shore p o s t s , and  only  a l s o stood acted  as  combined  the A m e r i c a n s t o r e t i r e ,  full  by  o f the  coastal  f u r trade  i n the  Pacific  1  ships  f o r them once  of f o r t s  n o r t h - w e s t was on  now  the  M a r i a Lawson, H i s t o r y o f Canada. T o r o n t o , W.J. Co. L i m i t e d , 190b, p. 231.  C o l u m b i a . T o r o n t o , The  c i t . . p. 83.  Company  70.  on  coast. A l l  13  c i t . . p.  ships  carried  P. W. Howay, B r i t i s h P r e s s , 1928, p . 07.  Howay, op.  and  Hudson's Bay  12  15  own  trade.^  t h r o u g h a n e t w o r k o f p o s t s , b o t h i n l a n d and  Ormsby, op.  as  p r o t e c t i o n of  ships  pressure  Pacific  on t h e i r  f o r the  supply  gal-  beaver. ^"  with  traded  l e a v i n g the  possession  ill Margaret  years.  i n Rupert's  the  of b r a n d y f o r one  These v e s s e l s n o t  t h e y were i n o p e r a t i o n . The forced  each real-  the  trade  A m e r i c a n t r a d e r s on  were e x c h a n g i n g s i x g a l l o n s  w e l l as w i t h f o r t s .  of  re-  by m o n o p o l y , a s k e d f o u r b e a v e r s per  G o v e r n o r Simpson a t t a c k e d  in  was  the  competed a g a i n s t a l l o t h e r s . What h a p p e n e d c a n be  i z e d f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e  coast  competition.  e n t e r p r i s e s , with  t h a t when a l l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o m p e t i t i o n  trader  lon  v i r t u a l l y no  Be-  Ryerson Gage  &  33 through of  the n o r t h e r n  t r a n s p o r t kept  interior, particularly,  import  o f e v e r y t h i n g b u t t r a d e goods t o a m i n -  imum, p o s t f a c t o r s h a d t o depend ing  country  own c a t t l e  f o r foods  on what t h e s u r r o u n d -  c o u l d p r o v i d e . E a c h f o r t h a d i t s own g a r d e n , a n d i t s and s w i n e . Wheat was grown a s f a r n o r t h a s A l e x a n d r i a .  Horses f o r the f u r brigade bia,  where d i f f i c u l t i e s  which terminated  a n d l a t e r a t F o r t Hope, were k e p t  ley within i t s f i r s t  year  first  a t t h e Colum-  a t Kamloops.  of o p e r a t i o n harvested  Fort  over  Lang-  two t h o u -  17 sand b u s h e l s  of potatoes.  t r a p p e r s , and other Indians  The m a i n d i e t ,  however, o f t r a d e r s ,  occupants o f the f o r t s , as w e l l as of the  a r o u n d them, c o n s i s t e d o f f i s h . A s many a s t w e n t y - f i v e  t h o u s a n d s a l m o n were n e e d e d  f o r the annual  sustenance  Inland, e s p e c i a l l y ,  i f the salmon r u n f a i l e d , a p o s t  a very  shortage,  serious food  donia." "^ T r a n s p o r t 1  as game was s c a r c e  o f a post." " 1  could  i n New  face  Cale-  o f s u p p l i e s t o c o a s t a l p o r t s was o f c o u r s e  somewhat e a s i e r . Although  almost  a l l t r a d e r s and f a c t o r s were o f S c o t t i s h  e x t r a c t i o n , n o t many o t h e r Alexander  Mackenzie  i n 1793  o c c u p a n t s o f a p o s t were w  a  British.  s accompanied by Alexander  McKay,  20 s i x v o y a g e u r s , and two I n d i a n s . Simon F r a s e r i n 1807 h a d a p a r t y made up o f John S t u a r t , J u l e s M a u r i c e Q u e s n e l , s e v e n v o y — ageurs,  a n d two I n d i a n s .  16 F.W.  21  David  Howay, o p . c l t .  t  Thompson c o m p l e t e d h i s j o u r n e y  p . 101.  17 Denys N e l s o n , F o r t L a n g l e y : 1827-1927, V a n c o u v e r , A r t s H i s t o r i c a l and S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927, p . 7, 8 . 18 M a r g a r e t  Ormsby, o p . c i t . , p . lj.6.  19 W a l t e r S a g e , S i r James D o u g l a s and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1930, p . LL. 20  Ormsby, o p . c i t . , p . 3 1 .  21 I b i d . ,  p. 35.  31+ down the  Columbia w i t h  McMillan, along  on h i s  twenty-four  s e v e n v o y a g e u r s and  journey men:  two  to e s t a b l i s h P o r t  Donald  Indians.  Manson, G e o r g e B a r n s t o n , James B a k e r , L o u i s  iver  Como  Bouchard, P i e r r e C h a r l e s ,  Cornoyer,  Jean B t e . E t t i e r s ,  dit  Simon Pomondeau, L o u i s  Faniant,  e n t Sauve d i t L a p l a n t e , Vincent.  full  always  scarce  pelts,  cut timber  and  Jacques  Pierrault  carried  employment  (Sandwich I s l a n d Francois  Piette  d i t Rabaska,  Tarihonya,  i n New  throughout  Caledonia.  Indians,  f©reconstruction and  goods a n d ,  and  the  became s k i l l e d Hudson's Bay population,  Company, were to act not  trade  Laur-  Abraham  year,  as  f u e l , helped  was  trapping for with  build-  to milk  cows  Kamloops d i s t r i c t ,  they  North-West  learned  Company, and,  interested i n maintaining  o n l y as  labor  trappers  and  later, an  the  Indian  employees, but  also  goods.  There are out  h o r s e m e n . The  the  as w e l l as  at F o r t Langley, 2  arising  Satakarata  Francois Xavier  to p l o u g h w i t h b u l l o c k s . ^ - In  t o use  (2),  Faron,  2 3  T h e r e was  ing,  Boisvert, Ol-  (Sandwich I s l a n d e r ) , J o s e p h  J o h n Kennedy, Anawiskum d i t M a c d o n a l d , P e o p e o h Pierrault,  took  Francois  Jean B t e . D u b o i s , Dominique  e r ) , Antoine  James  i n I827,  Langley  N o e l A n n a n c e , Amable A r q u o i t h ,  22  signs here  o f the  of a p o p u l a t i o n  pendent, w i t h  those  the m i n o r i t y , and  ly  o f f the  l a n d on w h i c h t h e y  h e l p make f o r a m i c a b l e  22  Margaret  23  Denys N e l s o n ,  2k  I b i d . , p.  20.  to l i v e  interde-  technology  to a great  extent  much direct-  lived.  To  op.  mutually  the most a d v a n c e d  a l l having  Ormsby, op.  of a unique c u l t u r e ,  o f mixed p e o p l e s ,  possessing  in  g r o w i n g up  relations with  c i t . , p.  c i t . , p.  9.  1+0.  the groups  with  Plate  THE  III  PoKT/\C>e  35 whom i t was t r a d i n g , to  t h e Company e n c o u r a g e d  James D o u g l a s , i n 1828,  take Indian w i v e s . ^ 2  Lake, m a r r i e d A m e l i a  i t s n o n - I n d i a n males while a t Stuart  C o n n o l l y , whose f a t h e r was c h i e f  t h e r e , a n d whose mother was C h i p p e w y a n , " a f t e r c o u n t r y " . ^ Men l i k e 2  J o h n Work, s a y s M a r g a r e t  factor  the custom  o f the  Ormsby, ^ 2  were k i n d t o t h e s e women, o r d e r i n g t r i n k e t s f o r t h e i r a d o r n m e n t , s c h o o l i n g them, a n d p r o v i d i n g what c o m f o r t s t h e y c o u l d . No m a t t e r how much t h e t r a d e r s m i g h t l o n g to l e a v e the s e r v i c e and r e t u r n t o c i v i l i z a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n and g r a t i t u d e h e l p e d t o keep them i n I n d i a n country. "Why s h o u l d n ' t I speak E n g l i s h w e l l ? "  s a i d Mrs. E l l e n  c e n t l y . "My daddy was an E n g l i s h m a n . "  John B a l l , who t a u g h t a t  a school that  started  i n 1832  by D r . M c L o u g h l i n a t P o r t  "all  t h e boys were h a l f  w h i t e woman i n Oregon"'.  Douglas*  E n g l a n d , and a l l o f h i s f o u r  Vancouver,  Paull re-  recalled  b r e e d s , a s t h e r e was n o t a  s o n , James, was e d u c a t e d i n  d a u g h t e r s m a r r i e d w e l l a n d were  PQ made welcome The  involved  b l o o d , Kanakas f r o m  Canadian  I n d i a n s , as w e l l  i n the l i f e  made e f f o r t s  of E u r o p e a n  p.  338.  p.  K5.  p. p.  20.  I4.I4.  were  factor  culture  i m p o r t e d were  t h e dominant  Denys N e l s o n , o p . c i t . ,  28 Sage, o p . c i t . ,  o f European  them-  I s l a n d s , and  as N o r t h e r n E u r o p e a n s ,  accoutrements  manufacture,  Ibid.,  and P a c i f i c  many o f whom were  the Sandwich  t o m a i n t a i n a semblance  26 W a l t e r Sage, o p . c i t . , 27 Op. c i t . . p . 52. 29  7  o f a t r a d i n g p o s t . Since each  i n h i s p o s t , and s i n c e  "25  society.  Indian s o c i e t i e s . Voyageurs,  o f mixed  eastern  t h e most i m p e c c a b l e  m e e t i n g was n o t s i m p l y one o f E u r o p e a n  north-west selves  into  with-  generally  i n t e r c h a n g e tended  t o be  36 between E u r o p e a n and I n d i a n  c u l t u r e c o m p l e x e s . However, i n c r e a s e  in  dependence  use o f C h i n o o k ^  0  reduced  language, and the presence their patois alive  during  on E n g l i s h a s a b a r t e r  of a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f voyageurs and b e y o n d  the d u r a t i o n o f t h e i r  kept resi-  d e n c e . The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f I n d i a n women, t h e n , h a d l i t t l e d i rect  c o n t a c t w i t h E u r o p e a n s , and I n d i a n m a l e s h a d no o p p o r t u n i t y  w h a t e v e r t o be i n f l u e n c e d b y E u r o p e a n women. A l t h o u g h Indians  traded  a t Nanaimo f r o m t h e time  Sechelt  a p o s t was e s t a b l i s h e d  in  1852, a g e n e r a t i o n  later  to  a c t as i n t e r p r e t e r  f o r the remainder o f the v i l l a g e  a girl  whose f a t h e r was E n g l i s h h a d populat-  31 ion.  I t c a n h a r d l y be s a i d  i g i n e was E u r o p e a n i z e d Interior ent  t h a t the P a c i f i c  and coast  I n d i a n c u l t u r e s were a f f e c t e d  d e g r e e s b y t h e f u r - t r a d e e r a . The e a r l y m a r i t i m e  enriched  raction  o f the c o a s t " . ^  i nworldly possessions  them a s t h e y p l e a s e d , to forts  on t h e i r  and f r e e  Indian  a nomadic p e o p l e .  t o o much, s i n c e s o c i a l  moral pressure New C a l e d o n i a  30  life  that Daniel Williams  was " e m b a r r a s s e d  life,  Att-  t o o much,  but congretheir  significant  a r a r e commodity i n  Harmon, f a c t o r  when I n d i a n s  were  The I n t e r i o r  c a s t e was n o t a  among them. L i q u o r was s u c h  observed  among t h e C a r -  debauches o f  C h a r l e s H i l l - T o u t , Oceanic O r i g i n o f the K w a k i u t l Nootka and S a l i s h S t o c k s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p . 201.  31 M r s . E l l e n 32  sites.  o f s e v e r a l groups a t a p o s t a g a i n d i d n o t a f f e c t  of life  riers,  t r a d e was  The I n d i a n s  2  traditional village  S a l i s h a n d K o o t e n a y had an e s t a b l i s h e d v i l l a g e  way  to d i f f e r -  t o make s u c h u s e o f  d i d not disrupt northern  t h e Dene were t r a d i t i o n a l l y  gation  abor-  by t h e f u r - t r a d e r .  "'essentially a hurried looting  as  north-west  P a u l l , nee E l l e n  F.W. Howay, o p . c i t . .  p . 90.  Jeffrey.  37  voyageurs"  during  1  a New  Year's  c h i e f s were a l l o w e d t o d r i n k Effects  of European  d r a s t i c . There, free sea o t t e r , f u r s . The traffic  I832  on  among t h e i r  Governor which  Company, when t h e y e n t e r e d the  to s e l l  guns and  Simpson d i d n o t d i s c o n t i n u e  liquor this  eliminated  competition that  the  and  per-  inter-  t o the I n d i a n s . ^ 3  policy until  181+1,  by  Company b y w h i c h h i s Com-  Panhandle. ^ 3  I n l8li.6, S i r John pany, w r o t e  c a p t a i n , and  in  competition there through  a n agreement w i t h t h e R u s s i a n - A m e r i c a n trap  maritime  d r i v e n a l l c o m p e t i t o r s f r o m t h e c o a s t as f a r  n o r t h as A l a s k a , a n d had  pany would  o f the  o t h e r t r a d e goods, f o r  i n c o n t r a v e n t i o n o f the Company's r u l e s  time he had  much more  from the d i s c o v e r y  1821+, went so f a r t o meet t h i s  n a t i o n a l agreement,  visiting  c o a s t a l I n d i a n s was  D r . M c L o u g h l i n engaged a f o r m e r A m e r i c a n  m i t t e d him,  only  3 3  t r a d e r s had,  peddled l i q u o r ,  after  wine.  impact  lance  Hudson's Bay  c e l e b r a t i o n , and  Pelly,  t o Lord Grey,  Governor  secretary  o f t h e Hudson's Bay  of state  f o r the  Com-  colonies: ^ 3  ... I s h a l l , a t p r e s e n t , m e r e l y s u b m i t t o E a r l G r e y ' s c o n s i d e r a t i o n whether t h a t o b j e c t ( c o l o n i z a t i o n o f Vanc o u v e r I s l a n d ) e m b r a c i n g as I t r u s t i t w i l l , the c o n v e r s i o n t o C h r i s t i a n i t y and c i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n m i g h t n o t be most r e a d i l y and e f f e c t u a l l y a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h the i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y o f the Hudson's Bay Company... On pany. 7 3  J a n u a r y 13, i n 1850,  l81+9> V a n c o u v e r  proof that  coal  a s e d f r o m an o l d I n d i a n o f t h a t 33 M a r g a r e t 3l+ I b i d . , 35 F.W.  p.  I s l a n d was  existed vicinity  Ormsby, op. c i t . ,  p . 1+5•  69.  Howay, op. c i t . ,  36 W a l t e r Sage, op.  cit.,  37  p.  Howay, op. c i t . .  p. p.  10i+.  85. ll+l.  ceded  t o t h e Com-  a t Nanaimo was by  purch-  J o s e p h McKay a t  38 Victoria  for a bottle  o f rum.^ " 0  Worse i n i t s e f f e c t s intoxicating  liquors  which brought  on  Coast  t o them f r o m  forts  trading the  of  vessels, construction  a l o n g t h e c o a s t . These e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,  l o c a t e d a t s i t e s most s u i t a b l e  Indians  itinerant  t h e i r wares t o t h e v i l l a g e s , was  o f permanent, f i x e d  essarily  I n d i a n s than the s e l l i n g  t o the f u r - t r a d e r ,  and n o t  nec-  a t t h e h e a v i e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ©f p o p u l a t i o n , a t t r a c t e d f r o m many m i l e s away, and  f r o m many v i l l a g e s ,  t h e w h i t e man's p l a c e o f b u s i n e s s . D r . R.G.  L a r g e , who  y e a r s d u r i n g h i s y o u t h a t P o r t Simpson, t e l l s  ion i n 1831:  t© move spent  t© ten  of I t s c o n s t r u c t -  3 9  T h e r e were no I n d i a n s encamped i n M c L e u g h l l n Bay, l a r g e s e t t l e m e n t s were l o c a t e d f i v e m i l e s s o u t h a t a c r e e k c a l l e d L a h o u , and a g a i n t w e n t y m i l e s f u r t h e r s o u t h i n what was l a t e r t o become t h e h a r b o r o f P r i n c e R u p e r t . W i t h t h e b u i l d i n g o f the P o r t , t h e n a t i v e s r a p i d l y congregated i n i t s v i c i n i t y , e r e c t i n g t h e i r l a r g e community h o u s e s a l o n g t h e b e a c h o n e i t h e r s i d e u n t i l o v e r two t h o u s a n d were p e r m a n e n t l y l i v i n g there. Port McLoughlin,  located  Kwakiutl t e r r i t o r y ,  also  in Bella lured  C o o l a , and P o r t R u p e r t ,  Indians from  In  several villages  t©  their proximity* Emphasizing, village, derived bereft  as t h e y d i d , s o c i a l  and b a s i n g t h e i r whole m o r a l from  status  of t h e i r  code on  very s o c i a l basis. Village  u n c e r t a i n of t h e i r  ranks  groups,  vied  of p r e s t i g e  for positions  ner, through a s e r i e s  of p o t l a t c h e s . At  Sage, op.  cit..  p.  pressures  found  chiefs  own  and  themselves noblemen  i n these e n l a r g e d , m u l t i - t r i b a l in their the  o f t h e v a l u e o f t r a d e goods b r o u g h t  38 W a l t e r  social  c o n s c i o u s n e s s , these people  groups,  iation  status within t h e i r  customary  same t i m e ,  man-  deprec-  increased wealth,  1J2.  39 R.G. L a r g e , The S k e e n a , R i v e r o f D e s t i n y , M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1957, p. l b .  Vancouver,  so  3>9 that  potlatch rivalries  p r o p o r t i o n s , and aldry, in  and  the  became d i s t o r t e d  out  of a l l t r a d i t i o n a l  o l d s y s t e m whereby p r i v i l e g e s ,  names were wont t o be  i t s o u t w a r d d i s p l a y s , was  titles,  asserted, although  falling  into  ruin  as  her-  Intensified  a  cultural  base. V o y a g e u r s , whose numbers were  i n the m a j o r i t y i n t h e  i n 1827,  struction  of Port  Vancouver  to V i c t o r i a  for  k i n d o f work i n t h e m a r i t i m e  their  ation  o f the  withdrew  fluence  and  on  the  which began to  remained On  area  of those on  the  s o l i d l y rooted  throughout  called  f o r the  jects,  C h i e f F a c t o r D o u g l a s was  moving  o b j e c t i o n s to such  Songhees and lands  Company t o s e l l  overcame  exception before  of v i l l a g e  government  came i n t o  this  effect,  p e r m i t t e d new  Walter  t o have group  area.  term o f the  faced with  by  New  elements  l a r g e body o f t h i s  Royal  the  problem  Grant  for a l i t t l e  sub-  of r e -  occupants,  purchasing, more t h a n  from  the  &150,  a l l  "with  the  sites  Thus,  even  and  than  enclosed  fields".  that enacted  native peoples  by  the  S a g e , op.  c i t . . p.  4 1  Company  began to f i n d  1+0 Dean WoodJ, E l . 519, H i s t o r y of E d u c a t i o n U.B.C. Summer S e s s i o n 1957, notes. 1+1  from  l a n d to immigrant B r i t i s h  difficulty  them  miles u p - i s l a n d from V i c t o r i a  other the  of  of French-Canadian i n -  s a l e s from i t s o r i g i n a l  Clallum tribes,  f o r some f o r t y  a  the  V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , s i n c e one  I n d i a n s . He  i n 181+8, most  c u l t u r e s c o a l e s c i n g there  t h e y w o u l d h a v e had  place  trade. After discontinu-  end  a r e a s , and  Port  no  Their emigration  C o l u m b i a meant the  impinge  than  go n o r t h f r o m  w i t h D o u g l a s i n 181+3. T h e r e was  St. Boniface  Indians  more e f f e c t  d i d not  cross-continent f u r brigade  t o the  Caledonia  Langley  con-  l6l.  the  itself  themselves  i n Canada,  restricted  to small plots  o f ground, which soon took  t h e name  "reservation". To  sum u p , t h e n ,  the impact  i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a west (1) I n New  period the  o f the R o c k i e s :  Caledonia,  women o r p r i e s t s of at least  the complete absence l e d a mixture  t h i r t y years,  customs o f t h e a b o r i g i n a l  (2)  c h i l d r e n as b e s t  of e i t h e r  of non-Indian  t o mate w i t h  males, f o r a  Indian females  stock instructed  their  they c o u l d I n t h e language  o f t h e i r homeland. A f t e r  white  In  peoples:  Company e m p l o y e e s o f B r i t i s h and  ners  o f t h e f u r - t r a d i n g e r a on B r i t -  wives  and man-  t h e c o m i n g o f the Hudson's Bay  Company, a few c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n ; most d i d n o t . All  children  l e a r n e d an I n d i a n d i a l e c t  the m a j o r i t y , i f they ers,  gained  a second language  l e a r n e d n o t E n g l i s h b u t some o t h e r  (3) E x t e n s i o n use  throughout  most  o f most e t h n i c g r o u p s  with  one  coast  the r e s u l t  c o u l d c a r r y on a b a s i c  into  t h a t mem-  conversation  of l i q u o r ,  to destroy  (5) B e f o r e  and A m e r i c a n f r e e b o o t e r s  competed f o r t r a d e , b u t c o m b i n e d  they produced, through  and s a l e  t h e I n d i a n s * way o f l i f e .  t h e end o f t h e e r a , a r r i v a l  t o mark t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f E u r o p e a n women and  of reservation r e s t r i c t i o n s ,  the North-Westers'  o n l y way f o r a n i n d i v i d u a l o f m i x e d b l o o d  arrival.  to avoid  s t a t u s was t o c r o s s t h e c o l o r  do s o ; most c o u l d n o t .  com-  o f the end o f t h e u n i q u e c u l t u r e  h a d begun t o s p r i n g u p a f t e r  i o n a n d low s o c i a l  along  i n the e f f e c t s  a t t r a c t i o n away f r o m home s i t e s  m i s s i o n a r i e s , and s t a r t  could  fath-  another.  the  that  their  tongue.  of the a r e a , w i t h  Hudson's B a y Company f o r t s  bined  from  o f the f u r - t r a d e b r o u g h t the Chinook j a r g o n  bers  The  from t h e i r mothers, and  restrict-  l i n e . A few  hi (6) The  term " I n d i a n "  came o f t e n t o be  a p p l i e d to a person  whose v e i n s r a n as much E u r o p e a n as a b o r i g i n a l b l o o d , who  knew l i t t l e The  not  or n o t h i n g  of the  a n unwanted y i e l d  and  sowed some seeds w h i c h d i d  others which would continue  t o the p r e s e n t  but  ways o f h i s f a t h e r .  fur-trade era, i n general,  grow t o f r u i t i o n ,  in  day.^  to  bear  2  The f u r t r a d e n o t o n l y opened up t h e D o m i n i o n o f Canada and d e t e r m i n e d i t s b o u n d a r i e s , b u t i t a l s o i n t e n s i f i e d t h a t d i s a s t r o u s c o n t a c t b e t w e e n two civili z a t i o n s , the E u r o p e a n and the N o r t h A m e r i c a n . . . The s t r u g g l e i n c u l t u r e between t h e I n d i v i d u a l i s m , the p r o g r e s s i v e n e s s , and the C h r i s t i a n i t y o f the w h i t e s , and the s o c i a l i s m , the c o n s e r v a t i s m , the p a g a n i s m , and the t a b o o s o f the I n d i a n s , was t o f o l l o w t h e f u r t r a d e a c r o s s Canada's b r o a d e x p a n s e . Before into  the  Indians' rising self  the  north-west  of g o l d brought to p r e c i p i t a t e  a b o r i g i n a l way  there, another  felt.  T h i s was  added a n o t h e r 1+2  lure  of  life  i t s thousands o f  the  and  the  seekers  d i s r u p t i o n of both new  culture that  the was  f a c e t o f E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n made i t -  the  strand to  H.A. I n n e s , The P r e s s , 1930, p.  advent of C h r i s t i a n m i s s i o n a r i e s , the  t a p e s t r y of l i f e  Fur Trade 392.  i n the new  who  colony.  i n Canada, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y  Plate IV —7  7°°  j  T  —r  r  I  >zcf  V Mo<Vh-Weit C o m p a n y  Forts  L i t h o ' d by BEST Mimeograph Co. L t d . , Vancouver, B.C.  CHAPTER I I I THE "... H.J.  a f e e b l e and q u i t e i n d e f i n i t e  Vallery,  versity,  MISSIONARY ARRIVES  i n h i s Master  says  of Arts  thesis  polytheism". f o r Queen's  1  Uni-  o f t h e w o r k done b y m i s s i o n a r i e s i n n o r t h e r n  North  2 America: Since t h e i r f i r s t c o n t a c t s w i t h the Indian t r i b e s i n C a n a d a , t h e E u r o p e a n s , b o t h F r e n c h and E n g l i s h , have h a d as t h e i r i d e a l t h e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f t h i s a b o r i g i n a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e y have s t r i v e n by f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l methods o f e d u c a t i o n t o p r o t e c t t h e I n d i a n f r o m v i c e s w h i c h were n o t h i s own, a n d t o i n s t r u c t them i n p e a c e f u l o c c u p a t i o n s , foreign to their n a t u r a l bent. First  recorded  came i n l 6 l 0  called  converts  intention 1650,  i n Canada was J e s s e F l e c h e , who  t o A c a d i a , where he c o n v e r t e d  Indians. In l 6 l l Fathers  five  B i a r d a n d Masse f o u n d  h a d n o knowledge  of discarding their  and b a p t i z e d  twenty-  that the so-  o f C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e a n d no  pagan c u s t o m s .  3  Between l 6 l 5 and  t w e n t y - n i n e m i s s i o n a r i e s l a b o r e d among t h e H u r o n s . S e v e n  suffered the  missionary  violent  children By  lished  deaths.  I n 1639 U r s u l i n e nuns a r r i v e d  to teach  o f the " s a v a g e s " . ^  i t s c h a r t e r o f I67O,  t h e Hudson's B a y Company was  i n part for"Christianizing  estab-  the I n d i a n " . ^  1 R e v . Thomas C r o s b y , Up and Down t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t By Canoe a n d M i s s i o n S h i p , F r e d e r i c k C l a r k e S t e p h e n s o n . 191k'. P. 9 9 . 2 A History of Indian Education 3  i n Canada. 19I4.2, P r e f a c e .  C h a r l e s E.. P h i l l i p s , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a d a , T o r o n t o , W.J. Gage, 1957, p . 2 9 .  1+ I b i d . ,  pp.  I n Can-  .  5 A l e x a n d e r Begg, H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h W i l l i a m B r i g g s , ltf9k, p . 111.  Columbia,  Toronto,  1+3 The  first  m i s s i o n a r i e s to v i s i t  a p p a r e n t l y , were F a t h e r s C r e s p i and i n 1771+, s i g h t e d  Perez  and  Christobal,  Jose  the presence  Governor,  o f the  the  at  Nootka Sound, the day a f t e r  of  Governor  1795» a t w h i c h t i m e  their  t o r e a c h the P a c i f i c  ageurs  f r o m Red  s i o n a r i e s had  established R i v e r , and  the  terms of  until the  Roman C a t h o l i c  fur-traders  to instruct  C a l e d o n i a , however, where f r o m North-Westerners  of Indians  Church  north-west.  that maritime  b u s i n e s s endeavors  Don  H i g h Mass i n  a group  t h e y were f o r c e d t o l e a v e by  i s hardly likely  by  on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d  7  from  the  t h e i r a r r i v a l a t the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  S p a n i s h - B r i t i s h a g r e e m e n t made then.'' The  It  chanted  s o l d i e r s , and  M a r t i n e z . P r i e s t s remained  first  Juan  higblest  L o p e z d l Nava, a s s i s t e d  four F r a n c i s c a n f r i a r s ,  thus  the  with  t h e y c e l e b r a t e d Mass o f f s h o r e ,  J o s e M a r i a D i a z and  was  sailing  f r o m l a n d i n g by a v i o l e n t g a l e . ^  I789, F a t h e r Don  In  north-west,  I s l a n d s . Returning south along  c o a s t o f Vancouver I s l a n d ,  being prevented  Pena who,  named San  p e a k on t h e Queen C h a r l o t t e western  the P a c i f i c  time  took  time  Christianity.  In  of t h e i r a r r i v a l  permanent f o r t s ,  New  the  t r a d e r s , metis  voy-  E a s t e r n Canada I n d i a n s among whom m i s -  worked, s p r e a d  some i d e a  of C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f  among  the n a t i v e p e o p l e s w i t h whom t h e y came i n t o p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . Simon F r a s e r was McLoughlin  ©f F o r t  James. These men Faith  to t h e i r  halfbreed  o f the Roman C a t h o l i c V a n c o u v e r and  and  their  children  l o n g f©r  the  So,  t o o , were  C h i e f F a c t o r Ogden o f F o r t  f©Hewers  I n d i a n wives'and  faith.  "taught  women, and coming ©f  the rudiments  made them and the C a t h o l i c  Dr. Saint o f the'  their  priests".^  0" Rev. G e o r g e F o r b e s . O.M.I., The O r i g i n s ©f the A r c h d i o c e s e o f V a n c o u v e r , U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , 1958* 7  Ibid.  8  Ibid.  The  S e k a n i , who h a d n o t p r e v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  any  particular monotheistic  the  first  missionary  d e i t y , b y t h e time  o f the a r r i v a l o f  spoke o f God a s " H a t a " , a term w h i c h h a d  f o r m e r l y been a p p l i e d t o any o u t s t a n d i n g medicine to  have r e c e i v e d h i s power f r o m Missionary e f f o r t ,  efforts  on the w h o l e , was c l o s e l y  among t h e p e o p l e s  share  trading  from  o f time  i n the wilderness  the f u r brigade  p o s t was t h e l o g i c a l  only because ians  interwoven  t h e y hoped t o c o n v e r t , t h e most  mode o f t r a n s p o r t was w i t h  with  many  alone  practicable  o r supply s h i p , and  p o i n t f r o m w h i c h t o work, n o t  i t a f f o r d e d s h e l t e r b u t a l s o because almost  of the surrounding  claimed  the t h u n d e r b i r d . 9  o f e x p l o r a t i o n and w i t h the f u r t r a d e . A l t h o u g h  churchmen p u t i n t h e i r  the  man who  area appeared  there  a l l Ind-  periodically.  E v e n s o , no m i s s i o n a r y , a f t e r w i t h d r a w a l  of the Spaniards  N o o t k a , made h i s way i n t o  until  that year couver  the Reverend Herbert  as c h a p l a i n .  attributed  1 1  B e a v e r was p o s t e d  His departure  i n p a r t t o the f a c t  b r i n g himself t o cooperate made t h e c h i e f  the north-west  factor's  of c o n f l i c t  couver.  w i t h i n a year  In Van-  c a n o f c o u r s e be could hardly  f u l l y w i t h a n A n g l i c a n who n o t o n l y  post h i s headquarters,  b u t who was i t s  however, t o r e a d  i n t o Reverend Beaver's  stint  another  at Port  Van-  The Hudson's Bay Company, i n b r i n g i n g t h e c h a p l a i n t o  minister course  to Port  that D r . McLoughlin  chaplain. I t i s not too d i f f i c u l t , source  I836.  t o t h e s p i r i t u a l needs o f t h e p o s t I n d i a n s , was o f  fulfilling  i t s obligation  to bring Christianity  to i t s  9 Diamond J e n n e s s , The S e k a n i I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 61+, 1937, p . b k . 10 D.C. S c o t t , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . I n s t u t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1931, p . 1.  Canada  11 R e v . P.A. P e a k e , H e r o e s o f t h e C h u r c h i n B r i t i s h Columb i a , D i o c e s e o f B o a r d o r Keiigious j&aueation (Ang.) p . 13.  1+5 t e r r i t o r i e s . The selling  intoxicating  minister fore  officially  find  cause  of  himself this  f r o m the trade  same company, h o w e v e r , was l i q u o r s to the s p o n s o r e d by i n an  and  such a  c o r p o r a t i o n would  i n t o l e r a b l e p o s i t i o n . I t was  north-west u n t i l  a f t e r e x p i r a t i o n of  Demers, and  offered  marriages  first  o f the  t i m e on  s e t out  with  dria  and  the  Father  Victoria,  and  12  built  Baldruc,  the who  o f f e r e d the  p r e a c h e d , on a ees  Langley,  special  m a i n l a n d . In where he  baptized  first had  first  of  post.  t o Hudson's Bay and  op. c i t .  the  baptized  one  In  James,  Later  he  AlexanLake,  at  mainland.  James D o u g l a s new  and  Okanogan, F o r t  the way.  c h u r c h e s on  Mass i n the  the  Indians.  C a r r i e r s of F o r t  accompanied  occasion,  George F o r b e s ,  two  Col-  18)4.1 t h i s  for Fort St.  F o r t George on the  route,  seven hundred  to hundreds  out  Van-  blessed  Chinook Creek, near W i l l i a m s  twelve hundred I n d i a n s ,  Rev.  for Fort  set  B i g Bend o f t h e  annual fur brigade  and  Slanchet  Nobili,  baptizing children at Fort  Shuswaps o f he  absent  to l a b o r under  Smet and  northern  s e v e r a l months e v a n g e l i z i n g  which p l a c e s 18I|3  the  preached  Kamloops, F o r t A l e x a n d r i a , spent  be-  Company's  R e v e r e n d Demers, e n  of h i s f a i t h ,  the  a d u l t s and  de  Mass a t the  to F o r t  c h i l d r e n , and  have  from S t . Boniface  l l ; of that year  o f employees  instructing  perhaps  secular p r i e s t s , Fathers  fur brigade  made a v i s i t  fifty-eight  two  J e s u i t s , Fathers  Holy S a c r i f i c e  missionary  he  two  October  umbia, f o r the  181+2  In I 8 3 8 ,  overland  c o u v e r . On  the  there-  1858.  monopoly i n  the  Any  dichotomy that A n g l i c a n m i n i s t e r s remained  difficulty.  with  in  p o t e n t i a l converts.  Roman C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s d i d n o t this  a l s o engaged  He  to  In  Fort  also  Company  employ-  h u n d r e d and  two  he children.  About  1 3  Fathers N o b i l i  181+5,  s t a t i o n a t the h e a d  o f Okanagan L a k e , n e a r  Vernon, Father  Nobili  next  among the  two  Order  years  was  t r a v e l l e d n o r t h from Carriers  withdrawn from  California,  and  and  the  and  on  1851, of  o f what i s now  s i o n a r i e s , and Finally, his  the  Oblates  w i t h Rev.  R i c h a r d and  Brother  Okanagan t o f o u n d  undertook to e s t a b l i s h  Father  In  i 8 6 0  D'Herbomez v i s i t e d  Father  suggest  r e p o r t e d b a c k on 13  took  the  and  possession had  no  the  through  M i s s i o n of the  Father  Fouquet  Superior,  In 1 8 5 9  at Esquimalt.  Fathers Hope  Westminster, and  a t Hope and  G r a n d i d i e r and  asked  France  a year  a c e n t r e f o r t h a t p a r t o f the o f the p r e s e n t  Yale,  to v i s i t country.  location  later  Fraser  same y e a r  him  and  Immaculate  came f r o m  communities. That  suitability  mis-  came t o  S t . Mary's M i s s i o n i n t h e l o w e r  Grandidier serving both  C a r i b o o and  i n Oregon,  o f Mary Immaculate  c h a p e l s were a l s o b u i l t  l 8 6 l  of  closed.  consecrated  S u r e l journeyed  t o open S t . C h a r l e s ' M i s s i o n a t New  Valley.  the m i s s i o n s  L . J . D'Herbomez as F a t h e r  P a n d o s y and  Kelowna. In  Jesuit  c o u l d o b t a i n none.  temporary headquarters  he  to s t a f f  the b e a c h , he  established  Kamloops t o Lake  the  I n 181+7 t h e  1  in 1 8 5 7 ,  spent  of  1  f o r s e v e r a l years  near  t h e r e and  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . ^ However, he  a s s i s t a n c e and,  Conception  city  present  mission  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and A l a s k a . ^ " I n  k n e e l i n g on a t r e e t r u n k on  the b i s h o p r i c  the  Lake Okanagan was  I n 181+7 F a t h e r Modeste Demers was became B i s h o p  a  Babines.  the n o r t h - w e s t  station  Gaetz b u i l t  of  with Father the He St.  Rev. A.G. M o r i c e , OMI, H i s t o r y o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h i n W e s t e r n Canada (I695 - 1 0 9 5 )> T o r o n t o , The Musson Book Co. L t d . , 1 9 1 0 , p. 2 9 2 .  ll+ Rev.  George F o r b e s  15  Rev.  A.G.  16  Rev.  George F o r b e s ,  Morice,  OMI, op.  op. c i t .  cit.,  p.  op. c i t .  296.  47 Joseph's M i s s i o n near W i l l i a m s lished  there i n I867.  Rupert,  1 7  L a k e , and a m i s s i o n was  I n I863 a m i s s i o n was  but d e s p i t e the e f f o r t s  opened a t F o r t  of three d i f f e r e n t m i s s i o n a r i e s ,  F a t h e r F o u q u e t , F a t h e r D u r i e u and F a t h e r in  187)+.  of  the K o o t e n a y s a t C r a n b r o o k . F a t h e r  time  estab-  LeJacq,  i t was  abandoned  I n t h a t same y e a r , F a t h e r F o u q u e t f o u n d e d t h e M i s s i o n  b u i l t a church near  Blanchet  a t about  t h e same  F o r t S t . James, a n d a m i s s i o n u n d e r t h e 18  charge  of Father  Chirouse  I863 t h e H o l y  In  opened i n Kamloops i n I878.  See d i v i d e d t h e n o r t h e r n d i o c e s e , a n d made  F a t h e r D'Herbomez V i c a r A p o s t o l i c o f t h e M a i n l a n d . F a t h e r D'Herbomez d i e d , he h a d b u i l t mainland  of B r i t i s h  Columbia.  M e a n w h i l e , on V a n c o u v e r direction  of Bishop  B a r c l a y Sound, i n  0  seventy  on t h e  I s l a n d m i s s i o n s were f o u n d e d u n d e r  and a t A h o u s a t  Monseigneur D u r i e u ,  churches  1 9  i n 1875,  Demers a t C l a y o q u o t  1877,  By I89O, when  In  OMI, s u c c e e d e d  l88l.  Bishop  A p o s t o l a t e , a n d i n I89O he became B i s h o p Forbes says o f the "Durieu System":  a t Namukamus, 2 0  D'Herbomez as  o f New W e s t m i n s t e r . R e v .  I t was b a s e d on l o v e f o r t h e B l e s s e d S a c r e m e n t a n d a i m e d at making the I n d i a n s ' e v e r y a c t a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r or a n a c t o f T h a n k s g i v i n g a f t e r H o l y Communion... The E u c h a r i s t i c C h i e f and h i s Watchmen sought t o p r e v e n t c r i m e s a n d misdemeanours a n d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i m m e m o r i a l c u s t o m , t r i e d and p u n i s h e d t h o s e who h a d g i v e n s c a n d a l . To p r o t e c t t h e I n d i a n s f r o m e v i l i n f l u e n c e , fche B i s h o p b u i l t model v i l l a g e s a t S e c h e l t and North Vancouver t o which o n l y t h o s e l i v i n g c o m p l e t e l y e x e m p l a r y l i v e s were a d m i t t e d and f r o m w h i c h t h o s e who s e t b a d examples were 17  H i s t o r i c Y a l e , B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver S e c t i o n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1951+, p . 3 2 .  18 Rev. A.G. M o r i c e , 19  Rev. George F o r b e s  20  Morice,  op. c i t . , pp.  3U3—3^7•  OMI, o p . c i t .  op. c i t . , pp.  355-370.  1*8 e x p e l l e d . E v e n a f t e r he became b i s h o p , he s p e n t months a t a time a t the N o r t h V a n c o u v e r I n d i a n V i l l a g e . 21 The 1859,  A n g l i c a n Diocese  and  bishop.  of Vancouver  V e r y R e v e r e n d George H i l l s  The  first  erend  Richard  year.  Unable  missionary  Dowson, who to f i n d  I s l a n d was  became f i r s t  t o the new  arrived  formed  diocese  in Victoria  Anglican  was  the  during  accommodation w i t h i n the  In  Rev-  the  suddenly  same  expanded 22  city,  he  settled  some f o u r m i l e s  i860 the R e v e r e n d A l e x a n d e r among the bor  from  two the  Unlike  thousand port.  the  work among t h e divided and  Indians  who  had  In  colony,  gathered  across  t o work the  har-  2 3  Indians  i t s energies  of B r i t i s h  between the  with  the  from s e v e r a l hundred  restrict  G a r r e t t came t o t h e  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , w h i c h d i d most  s e t t l e r s , who  bers  away, a t C r a i g f l o w e r .  Columbia, Indians  gold rush  the A n g l i c a n  and  the w h i t e  increased  t o w o r k done among the  o f the  first  tour  o f the  Indian  Church  miners  suddenly  to s e v e r a l thousand. This  itself  of i t s  i n num-  study  peoples  will  of  the  province. One extensive  t a s k s u n d e r t a k e n by southern  Crown C o l o n y o f B r i t i s h Dundas and n o r t h as along  Reverend  Lillooet,  the  Bishop  m a i n l a n d o f the  Hills  newly  was  created  Columbia. Accompanied by Reverend  John S h e e p s h a n k s , he made h i s way speaking  with  an  I n d i a n g r o u p s a t many  as  R.J. far  stops  way. ^  21 Rev.  2  George F o r b e s ,  op. c i t .  22 Rev. F r a n k A. P e a k e , The A n g l i c a n umbia, V a n c o u v e r , M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 23  I b i d . , p.  *k  Ibid.,  pp.  60 30-3£.  Church i n B r i t i s h 1959, P« 22.  Col-  1+9 I n 1861 island for  Reverend  from V i c t o r i a  John Good and h i s w i f e made t h e i r way t o Nanaimo, where t h e y e s t a b l i s h e d  t h e I n d i a n s . I n l86£ R e v e r e n d  t o L y t t o n , where he worked teen  up-  a church  Good moved t o Y a l e , and  among t h e Thompson I n d i a n s f o r  thence fif-  years. ^ 2  I n 1866  R e v e r e n d W.S.  became r e s i d e n t  Reece,  assisted  by W.  m i s s i o n a r y among t w e l v e h u n d r e d  Henry  Lomas,  Indians at  Cow-  ichan. R e v e r e n d R.R.A. D o o l a n i n 1861+ t r a v e l l e d katla  t o the Nass  e r e n d P.B.  R i v e r . H i s p l a c e was i n 1865,  Gibbell  t a k e n , b r i e f l y , by  and h i s i n t u r n b y R e v e r e n d  Rev-  Robert  1867.  Tomlinson i n  W i l l i a m Henry assist  n o r t h from M e t l a -  C o l l i s o n was  W i l l i a m D u n c a n . I n 1876  sent he  i n I873; t o  to Metlakatla  left  the c o l o n y  to  a m i s s i o n a t M a s s e t t , among t h e H a i d a s o f t h e Queen The R e v e r e n d A . J . H a l l a t a b o u t  establish Charlottes.  the same time went s o u t h t o work 27  with  the Kwawkewlth I n d i a n s a t A l e r t  to K i t k a t l a , Reverend  on P i t t  John F i e l d  Island,  don  created  ' R e v e r e n d R.W.  Gurd  o c c u p i e d by K w a k i u t l p e o p l e s , and  to H a z e l t o n , i n T s i m s h i a n c o u n t r y . In  R i g h t R e v e r e n d R i d l e y , who the n e w l y  Bay,  diocese  in  I879 h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d b i s h o p o f  of Caledonia,  s e n t R e v e r e n d A.H.  t o P o r t E s s i n g t o n , a t the s o u t h e n t r a n c e t o t h e Skeena  also Tsimshian t e r r i t o r y . established  In  I88I4,  I889 R e v e r e n d A l f r e d E d w i n  a m i s s i o n a t Kitwanga,  on  the S k e e n a ,  and  ShelRiver,  Price  Reverend  2^ Rev. F r a n k A. P e a k e , H e r o e s o f t h e C h u r c h i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia , D i o c e s e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , B o a r d o f R e l i g i o u s E d u c a t i o n ( A n g l i c a n ) , pp;. 18-20. 26  Peake, The A n g l i c a n  27  Ibid.,  p p . 17,  18.  Church i n B r i t i s h  Columbia, p.  63.  50 James M c C u l l a g h  a t A i y a n s h , on t h e N a s s . I n 1897  P a l g r a v e t r a v e l l e d a s f a r n o r t h as  Reverend  the bend o f the  F.  Stiklne,  2'fl where he worked among the T a h l t a n s . Non-conformist  m i s s i o n a r y work b e g a n i n the n o r t h - w e s t  I83I4., when t h e R e v e r e n d  Jason Lee, a Methodist m i n i s t e r  United States, t r a v e l l e d  to F o r t Vancouver,  and  a b l i s h e d m i s s i o n s i n the W i l l a m e t t e V a l l e y and among the C h i n o o k s . after  a t Lapwai,  l8i;0 M e t h o d i s t m i s s i o n s were b u i l t a t C l a t s o p , on t h e  i n t h e Nez  at Nisqually,  In  t o Nanaimo i n 1859 I872, R e v e r e n d  over the  Dalles,  Country.  In  Puget  2  A r t h u r B r o w n i n g , made h i s  t o work among the  Thomas C r o s b y  t h e Nanaimo m i s s i o n , and  on  soon  Columbia. 9  A M e t h o d i s t m i n i s t e r , Reverend way  Perce  the  est-  P r e s b y t e r i a n m i s s i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d  a t W a l l a W a l l a and  Sound, and  from  from t h e r e a t The  in  left  two  Cowichan S a l l s h t h e r e .  t h e Songees R e s e r v e  y e a r s l a t e r he  to  travelled  c o a s t t o P o r t S i m p s o n , f r o m where W i l l i a m D u n c a n had  take up  left  to  f o r m h i s M e t l a k a t l a c o l o n y t e n y e a r s b e f o r e . C h i e f Scow-Gate offered building  the use  o f h i s house f o r a c h u r c h u n t i l  c o u l d be  r a i s e d , and  a  the I n d i a n s gave a  w o r t h o f goods t o w a r d s i t s c o n s t r u c t i o n . A b o u t  separate thousand  the r e s u l t s  dollars ob-  t a i n e d among t h e s e p e o p l e D r . C r o s b y w r o t e : ^ We had a t S i m p s o n , a b o u t t h i s t i m e , n i n e c l a s s e s o r g a n i z e d . I t was a b l e s s e d s i g h t t o see f i f t y o r s i x t y a d u l t s coming f o r w a r d t o be b a p t i z e d , a f t e r weeks a n d , i n some c a s e s , months o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n s p e c i a l classes. A further i n t e r e s t i n g experience was t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f a n t s f o r b a p t i s m , the y o u n g p a r e n t s d e c e n t l y d r e s s e d and t h e c h i l d r e n b e a u t i f u l l y arranged, i n i m i t a t i o n of white babies whom t h e y had s e e n . 3<  28 P e a k e , The  A n g l i c a n Church  29  11.  Ibid.,  30 Rev.  p.  Thomas C r o s b y ,  In B r i t i s h  op. c i t . ,  p.  6l.  Columbia,  p.  92.  51 As ially  a b o u t one  thousand  created v i l l a g e ,  some k i n d o f law was  t o be a n  against  people  had  the m i s s i o n a r y  gathered felt  a t the  that there should  o r r u l e . A M u n i c i p a l C o u n c i l was  entirely  gambling,  Christian village.  The  first  law  t h e n a g a i n s t c o n j u r i n g . T h e r e was  Watchmen were a p p o i n t e d , and  any  Justice  law  was  erning no  o f the  sent  themselves  under  the  the  t o be  direction  these  site Bay  McLoughlin,  Company, and  there founded  complete w i t h h o s p i t a l , w h a r f , and In  I877 C h a r l i e Amos, a  In  I883 Mr.  went t o t h e i r Methodist  these  the  govand  m i s s i o n house,  the  Hudson's  of B e l l a  secret s o c i e t y dancer  had  l e a r n e d how  village  to h e l p  spent  George E d g a r , a  in his village  George R o b i n s o n ,  churches  and  in Victoria,  then with  to e s t a b l i s h a m i s s i o n  S k i d e g a t e , who  Hyhise,  the n a t i v e v i l l a g e  to C h r i s t i a n i t y  Simpson s c h o o l , and  returned  were  P o r t Simpson t o  b e e n abandoned by  council hall,  the  Bella,  sawmill,  store.  maat, c o n v e r t e d Port  which had  people  of  f ound"  I876 the R e v e r e n d C M . T a t e went f r o m  of F o r t  before  of t h e i r m i s s i o n a r y ,  more p e a c e f u l or q u i e t community c o u l d be In  no  or heathen  " F o r many y e a r s  country,  It  was  Peace, I n d i a n Agent or other o f f i c e r  to t h a t p a r t of  be  suggested.  dog-eating, whisky-drinking, q u a r r e l i n g , f i g h t i n g , marriages.  artific-  them. T h e r e were by  31  Rev.  Thomas C r o s b y ,  32  I b i d . , p.  56.  op.  cit.,  p.  the  Tsimshian,  were this  Haidas doing, date  after  six n a t i v e s . 66.  at  Kit-la-tamux,  Wee-ke-no. T h r e e m i s s i o n a r i e s l o o k e d by  time  of the  w e l l the T s i m s h i a n s  scattered settlements, assisted  Kita-  i n I878.  a t the r e q u e s t  a l s o a t K i t - w a n - s i l k , Nass,  from  a l l of 3 2  of  52 I n 188k built  a seventy-one f o o t v e s s e l ,  at V i c t o r i a  helped  coast.  "Glad  Tidings",  b y W i l l i a m O l i v e r . W i t h C r o s b y as  O l i v e r e n g i n e e r , and years  the  a n a t i v e deck-hand, t h i s  to b u i l d  and  service thirty  was  captain,  s h i p f o r twenty  churches  along  the  3 3  In the Nootka t e r r i t o r y Methodist  m i s s i o n was  church b u i l t  of Vancouver  I s l a n d ' s west c o a s t , a  e s t a b l i s h e d a t U c l u e l e t i n 1892 i n 1893.  a t Clo'ose  1896  In  the  and, a  P r e s b y t e r i a n Church  e s t a b l i s h e d a m i s s i o n a r y a t Ahousat. ^" 3  The i n no  s t o r y of missionary  w i s e be  complete w i t h o u t  of W i l l i a m Duncan. A l t h o u g h S o c i e t y , he  e n d e a v o r i n the  was  of h i s r e f u s a l and  n e v e r o r d a i n e d by  before h i s journey At Esquimalt,  could accomplish  informed  n o t h i n g by  f o r him  he  t o work, c o u l d n o t  I n 1862,  a f t e r he  W i l l i a m Duncan was "33  Rev.  had  ready  Missionary  had  church,  regardless  by A n g l i c a n  made i t s e l f  would  ritual  evident  to e s t a b l i s h a m i s s i o n  i n 1857 the  on  Captain  Hudson's Bay  the f o r t ,  and •it  the  even  there.  Prevost's Company t h a t  g o i n g n o r t l h , s i n c e i t w o u l d be  hazardous  wished  to leave  by  Church  of t h i s  he a b i d e d  t o P o r t Simpson  was  the  t h e A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . He  stubbornness  upon h i s a r r i v a l  " S a t e l l i t e " , he  by  support  of o r d i n a t i o n , had  d o c t r i n e . Duncan's  would  r e f e r e n c e b e i n g made t o t h e w o r k  sponsored  u n d o u b t e d l y have r e t a i n e d the  north-west  he  too  I n d i a n s , among whom  enter i t .  been at  P o r t Simpson f o r f o u r  t o make h i s move t o h i s - new  Thomas C r o s b y , op.  cit.,  p.  years,  colony.  On  318.  3I4.  C a p t a i n R o b e r t C. S c o t t , My C a p t a i n O l i v e r : A S t o r y o f Two M i s s i o n a r i e s on the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t , T o r o n t o , I947, PP. 162-165.  35  Rev. F.A. P e a k e , The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h i n B r i t i s h umbia , V a n c o u v e r , M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1959, p. 13.  Col-  53 May  27  their  of that year,  F a t h e r Duncan t o the  w h i c h n a t i v e s had at  fifty  gathered  men,  women and  site  of t h e i r  around  t h e Hudson's Bay  weeks. T h e r e he  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a water-driven  England  directed  and  joined  the  h i s people  a s c h o o l . By  t o s t u d y v a r i o u s t r a d e s , he was  first i n the could  returning to  a b l e t o t e a c h the  b l a c k s m i t h i n g , b r i c k making, soap m a n u f a c t u r i n g ,  weaving,  o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s . The  trading  and  e v e n a salmon In  this  allowed  n a t i v e s operated  city built  u n d e r h i s own  no h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f , b u t was b y him  p l i n e . The  r e s i d e n t s were o f c o u r s e  w i s h e d . On  the  ony  time  thousand.  Duncan p l a n n e d village,  guided  (1)  (2) (3)  by  and post  d i r e c t i o n W i l l i a m Duncan h i m s e l f supreme  helped maintain free  c o n t r a r y , however, they  the p o p u l a t i o n o f the  grew t o a  own  Indians  cannery.  Twelve c o n s t a b l e s a p p o i n t e d  in  their  from  Company p o s t  sawmill, w i t h which they  lumber f o r h o u s e s , a c h u r c h ,  with  ancestral village,  P o r t S i m p s o n . T h r e e h u n d r e d more p e r s o n s  g r o u p w i t h i n a few  cut  c h i l d r e n moved  to leave  continued  strict i f they  disciso  to a r r i v e ,  economically s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t  until col-  3 0  t o make h i s M e t l a k a t l a c o l o n y a the  ruler.  Christian  f o l l o w i n g objects: "^ 3  To p l a c e a l l C h r i s t i a n s , when t h e y became w i s h f u l t o be t a u g h t C h r i s t i a n i t y , out o f t h e miasma o f h e a t h e n l i f e , and away f r o m the d e a d e n i n g and e n t h r a l l i n g i n f l u e n c e of heathen customs. To e s t a b l i s h t h e M i s s i o n where we c o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y s h u t out i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s , and keep l i q u o r s a t bay. To e n a b l e u s t o r a i s e a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t t h e I n d i a n s v i s i t i n g V i c t o r i a , e x c e p t on l a w f u l b u s i n e s s .  36 R.G.  Large,  37  Peake, The  F.A.  p p . 15-16.  op.  cit..  20-21.  A n g l i c a n Church In B r i t i s h  Columbia,  5k (1+)  T h a t we m i g h t be a b l e t o a s s i s t t h e p e o p l e t h u s g a t h e r e d o u t t o d e v e l o p i n t o a model community, and r a i s e a C h r i s t i a n v i l l a g e , f r o m w h i c h n a t i v e E v a n g l i s t s m i g h t go f o r t h , and C h r i s t i a n t r u t h r a d i a t e to every t r i b e around. (5>) T h a t we m i g h t g a t h e r a community r o u n d u s , whose m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s t r a i n i n g and b e n t o f l i f e m i g h t r e n d e r i t s a f e and p r o p e r t o i m p a r t s e c u lar instruction. (6) T h a t we m i g h t be a b l e t o b r e a k up a l l t r i b a l d i s t i n c t i o n s and a n i m o s i t i e s , and cement a l l who came t o u s , f r o m w h a t e v e r t r i b e , i n t o one common brotherhood. (7) T h a t we m i g h t a l s o p l a c e o u r s e l v e s i n a p o s i t i o n t o s e t up and e s t a b l i s h t h e supremacy o f l a w , t e a c h l o y a l t y t o t h e Queen, c o n s e r v e t h e peace o f t h e c o u n t r y a r o u n d , and u l t i m a t e l y d e v e l o p o u r settlement into a municipality with i t s Native Corporation.  Duncan's c l a s h w i t h t h e C h u r c h i n t e n s i f i e d w i t h t h e at  t h e c o l o n y o f B i s h o p R i d l e y i n 1879 • The  seemed t o c e n t r e D u n c a n was crated in  around r i t u a l ,  apparently  cause  particularly  elements because  he b e l i e v e d  3  land  o f the "Man-Eater"  as a r e a l  and  outcome o f t h e c o n t r o v e r s y was  hundred  and f i f t y  that  Port  still-present  of h i s followers  removed t o a p l o t  and of  on A n n e t t e T s l a n d , i n t h e A l a s k a A r c h i p e l a g o , g r a n t e d b y  to B r i t i s h The  p u t e d by The  at  can-  i n I887 Duncan  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Government, a n d h i s c o l o n y was lost  find  8  The eight  speaks  conse-  o f the pagan  s o c i e t i e s . D r . Thomas C r o s b y , t w e n t y y e a r s l a t e r  Simpson, evil.  of the  service.  that h i s people would  i t too c l o s e an a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the r i t e s  nibal  for dissention  communion  l o a t h to teach partaking  arrival  Columbia.  m i s s i o n a r y to north-west America two  thenceforth  adversaries;  indiscriminate  selling  the l i q u o r  p e d d l e r , and  of a l c o h o l i c  38 Op. c i t . . p p . 319-32i+.  found h i s passage the  dis-  shaman.  d r i n k t o the I n d i a n s  was  55 carried  on f r o m t h e  the m i s s i o n a r y fifty  the  the  second No  great  e l a p s e d , he liquor  time.  Indians'  I n 1856, missionary fluence while  traffic  Of  course,  until  happening  to  been w r e a k i n g  i t s havoc  into  The  distress  area rendered  first  ignorance  what went on  there.  3 9  of B r i t i s h  hardly  wandered  there.  made b e c a u s e o f  for a  the e v i l i n -  James D o u g l a s , Columbia,  laws t o the f u l l  of  the g o l d r u s h ,  and  degredation  d e e p e r by  often underprivileged  traffic  limit  appointed Inflexibly  of h i s  m i n i s t e r Reverend Ebenezer Robson, a t  year  a l l the  other Europeans  Peace a t M e t l a k a t l a , and  of l i q u o r  Methodist  the  few  observed  o f the  against this  James P r e v o s t ' s r e q u e s t  Crown C o l o n y  offenders  Hope d u r i n g t h e  observed  o f the  "with  Indians  sudden c o n t a c t w i t h w h i t e  adventurers".^  R e v e r e n d Thomas C r o s b y ^ a  peoples  t r a d e r s themselves could  c o a s t was  t r a d e r s he  W i l l i a m Duncan J u s t i c e  and  t r a d e r s . Since  see what was  domain t o o b s e r v e  f o r the n o r t h  prosecuted  the  t o p r o t e s t , and  G o v e r n o r o f the  0  had  however, C a p t a i n  of white  powers.^  d i d not  c r y seems t o have b e e n r a i s e d  have b e e n e x p e c t e d the  maritime  generation.  during t h i s  into  o f the f i r s t  d i d n o t b e g i n work among t h e s e  y e a r s had  them b e f o r e  time  in and  Passing  Race: An I n d i a n ' s l o v e o f s t r o n g d r i n k i s so k e e n t h a t he w i l l s e l l h i s w i f e o r h i s c h i l d r e n i n t o worse t h a n s l a v e r y t o o b t a i n money to buy i t . No s a c r i f i c e i s t o o g r e a t , no p r i c e t o o h i g h t o g r a t i f y h i s a p p e t i t e 39 Rev. F.A. umbia , p . J+0 R.G. i | l G. P.  Peake, The 13.  Large,  D o r e y , No 1+7.  1+2 Rev.  op.  A n g l i c a n Church In B r i t i s h  cit..  pp.  Vanishing  Thomas C r o s b y , o p .  20,  Col-  21.  Race, T o r o n t o , cit..  the  1  q u o t e s f r o m H i g g i n s ' The  2  grief  p.  l6.  Ryerson,  1955,  of  56 f o r t h e i n e b r i a t i n g b o w l . . . The g u i l t y p a r t i e s a r e immune f r o m t h e v i s i t s o f c o n s t a b l e s , a n d J u s t i c e was n o t o n l y b l i n d , she was a l s o s® d e a f t h a t she c o u l d n o t hear the p l a i n t i v e c r i e s of the wretched v i c t i m s o f man's g r e e d and r a p a c i t y a s t h e y r e n t t h e n i g h t a i r a n d seemed t o c a l l down Heaven's v e n geance u p o n t h e i r p o i s o n e r s . E . Odium, i n a l e t t e r gether  t o D r . Crosby r e m i n i s c i n g  i n m i s s i o n work d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r  their  days t o -  y e a r s o f the n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y :^"  3  The most d e b a s e d h e a t h e n l i f e I have w i t n e s s e d h a s b e e n t h e d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e w h i t e man's w h i s k y . . . Under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e w h i t e men, a p a r t f r o m the m i s s i o n a r y , t h e I n d i a n s were r a p i d l y s i n k i n g i n t o debasement and d y i n g o u t . Dr. Crosby h i m s e l f ^ traders,  plus  estimated that  i n t e r - t r i b a l wars r e s u l t i n g  l i q u o r , had by h i s day r e d u c e d tenth of t h e i r There  traffic  former  social  and wished  Reverend  that  Indians t o a  the I n d i a n l e a d e r s ,  consciousness perceived  the ravages  the e v i l s  speak  of this one g r o u p  o f o t h e r w h i t e men. I n 1866 t h e i n answer t o a r e q u e s t made  of a telegram i n Chinook:^  "Lytton  turn turn m i k a c l o o s h h y a e k c h a c o . T i k k e wawwa mika" Indians  t h o s e who,  asked h e l p from t h i s  John Good went t o L y t t o n  to him i n the form  f r o m t h e use o f t h i s  the A l a s k a n c o a s t  t o combat i t ,  o f w h i t e men a g a i n s t  o b t a i n e d from f u r -  numbers.  c a n be n o d o u b t  through t h e i r  liquor  :  siwashes  (the L y t t o n  t h i n k y o u h a d b e t t e r make h a s t e a n d come. T h e y w i s h t o  to you). The  labors  o f t h e s e men i n t h i s  b e e n i n v a i n . The R e v e r e n d  respect  A.G. M o r i c e , O M I , ^ c i t e s  1|3 R e v . Thomas C r o s b y , o p . c i t . ,  p . 396.  kk I b i d . . p . 115. I4.5 R e v . PvA. P e a k e , o p . c i t . ,  J+6 Op. c i t . . p . 327.  seem n o t t o have  p . 66.  an e a r l y  57 example  of the  missionaries  success  gained  by  a f t e r only three  one  years  of the  great  Roman C a t h o l i c  effort:  I n May, 1861+, G o v e r n o r S i r James D o u g l a s r e s o l v e d t o have a g r e a t c e l e b r a t i o n t o commemorate t h e Queen's B i r t h d a y . W i s h i n g t o r e a c h t h e r e f o r e as l a r g e a c o n c o u r s e o f I n d i a n s as p o s s i b l e , he a p p l i e d to t h e i r r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r , t h e d e s p i s e d F r e n c h m i s s i o n a r y . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , F a t h e r F o u q u e t went down f r o m S t . Mary's M i s s i o n t o New W e s t m i n s t e r w i t h a f l o t i l l a o f s i x o r s e v e n h u n d r e d c a n o e s , c a r r y i n g some 3,500 n a t i v e s , w i t h s i x t y temperance f l a g s - a r e d c r o s s on a w h i t e f i e l d b o r d e r e d i n r e d , and the words " R e l i g i o n , T e m p e r a n c e , C i v i l i z a t i o n " i n large golden l e t t e r s . Photographs taken years f r o m as at  f a r away as  Sechelt,  t a k e n the The  as  sionary  the  saw  o p p o n e n t t©  shaman. He  saw  missionary i n the  i n him  exerted  i n t u r n the  apart  by  ities  o f the  the  held within  the  ingress  struggle  a specific  to g a i n  The  latter  in  shaman d i d n o t  early missionaries  fluence  the  o f the  o f g o o d and  had  local  the  a usurper of  evil,  and  the  the  shaman was  uprooted,  disease  nor  the  He  and  other  lost.  In  felt  the a  torn  activonce addition,  a l c o h o l which s o c i e t y . The  the  village  n e e d e d f r o m h i s shaman, and  missionary,  mis-  generally at  transplanted  g r o u p was  his  e l i m i n a t i o n of  p o s i t i o n w h i c h a shaman had  help  tribal  symbol o f h e a t h e n b e l i e f .  into his disrupted  the  t o c a l l upon t h e the  missionary  face-to-face  introducing  c h i e f , unable  all  the  control neither  side with  and  they  effort within  o f f u r - t r a d i n g , m i n i n g , and  w h i t e man,  E u r o p e a n was  pelled  show t h a t  a l l o f h i s power t o w a r d t h e  disadvantage. With his v i l l a g e  could  show g r o u p s , some  pledge.  "medicine-man". I n  he  f l a g s to  a c o n t r o l l e r of s p i r i t s  therefore  time  L a k e , g a t h e r e d a t S t . Mary's  c a r r y i n g these  obvious  g r o u p was place  and  Stuart  after this  im-  generally obligated  to  disputes. capitulate easily found  that  shaman b e f o r e  t h e y had they  or s u d d e n l y . A l m o s t t o overcome the  c o u l d make p r o g r e s s  inwith  58 their  e f f o r t s . As  attempting as D r .  the  the in  then  missionary  their  Indians' skills  to h i m ,  "assumed the  Methodist  own  to win  a  Church  "conjurer",  role  o f the m i l i t a n t  preacher",  down. ' H  grounds,  lodges, those  the h e a l i n g o f t h e  then  who  h i m s e l f o b l i g a t e d t o meet  i n mission  sick.  solariums,  needed m e d i c a l  First they  aid to their  M e d i c a l m i s s i o n a r i e s t h u s made t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e . I n 1888 Arthur  Pease was  C h u r c h . I n 1893 L y t t o n . ^ The 4  appointed he  opened  Methodist  i n I892, and  at Rivers shifted  Inlet  with  branch  Christian medical p i t a l under Dr.  the  He  the  on  Large  " C o l u m b i a " , was  the R e v e r e n d  the was  built  put  into  1+8 Rev.  F.A.  Peake, o p . cit.. cit..  Medical  at Port  he was  at Bella Bella  Simp-  9  I n 190!+  pp. p.  Bay  cit..  cit..  p.  297-299. 71.  population the  a  the  In  Columbia  pp. 71.  1909.^°  251+  -255.  only  hosand  hospital  s e r v i c e under d i r e c t i o n of  and  i n 1898,  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the b u i l d i n g  Thomas C r o s b y , op.  P e a k e , op.  Bolton  o f Nanaimo. A  Wrinch i n 1900.^  1+7 Rev.  50  Anglican  Indian  some y e a r s  coast north  George's A n g l i c a n H o s p i t a l a t A l e r t  1+9 C r o s b y , op.  A.E.  r o t a t e d as  John A n t l e , S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  M i s s i o n . T h i s M i s s i o n was  "  Dr.  established a hospital  occupation. For  a t Haze I t on u n d e r D r . H.C. ship,  the  Dr.  S t . Bartholomew I n d i a n H o s p i t a l a t  t o w h i c h he  doctor  R.W.  by  pitted  care.  h o s p i t a l s a t P o r t E s s i n g t o n i n 1895  i n 1897,  seasonal  Missionary Doctor  Church appointed  M i s s i o n a r y a l s o i n 1888. son  was  o f f e r e d p h y s i c a l r e s i s t a n c e . The  sometimes f o u n d  shaman on h i s own the  when the  to e s t a b l i s h a m i s s i o n a t Kitamaat,  shaman b a c k e d  The  1878,  as  Crosby r e f e r r e d  missionary and  Late  of  Coast of  St.  59 The  Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h d i d n o t a p p o i n t  as m i s s i o n a r i e s , b u t s i s t e r s in  the p r o v i n c e  o f the t e a c h i n g  during missionary  olic  the Cariboo  and W i l l i a m s  h o s p i t a l s have o f c o u r s e Missionaries,  their  listeners,  stand. Since  i n order  Lake d i s t r i c t s . A l l C a t h t o the I n d i a n s . to  could under-  v a r i e d g r e a t l y f r o m g r o u p t o g r o u p , many o f from group t o group, l e a r n e d  Chin-  t h e " l i n g u a f r a n c a " west o f t h e R o c k y M o u n t a i n s . T h e y , a s  of this  throughout and  i n mission  i n 1958 a t Anaham s e r v e d  a language which they  w e l l a s t h e f u r - t r a d e r s , were t h u s use  arrived  t o make t h e m s e l v e s u n d e r s t o o d  the e v a n g e l i s t s , who t r a v e l l e d ook,  o r d e r s who  been a v a i l a b l e  had t o l e a r n  dialect  doctors  d a y s a c t e d as n u r s e s  s o l a r i u m s , and the h o s p i t a l w h i c h burned f o r many y e a r s  medical  instrumental i n promulgating  d i a l e c t . Hymns a n d p r a y e r s the province,  (see F r o n t i s p i e c e ) w e r e ,  learned i n the l o c a l  tongue,  Chinook,  either E n g l i s h or L a t i n . - ^ The  missionary u s u a l l y could not learn  uage o f t h e g r o u p w i t h whom he was g o i n g outside then,  o f t h a t group c o u l d t e a c h  arrive  at a village  unable  i n advance  the lang-  t o work, s i n c e no one  i t . He w o u l d q u i t e t o speak t h e d i a l e c t  likely, of i t s occ-  upants . E a r l y mission barrier involved as  t e a c h i n g thus  i n v o l v e d a t t a c k s on t h e l a n g u a g e  r a t h e r than  formal education  o f course  not only c h i l d r e n ,  a s we now t h i n k o f i t . I t but the e n t i r e  s t u d e n t s , f o r n e i t h e r young n o r o l d knew e i t h e r  uage n o r t h e new r e l i g i o n . when i t i s s a i d  t h e new  I n the e a r l y m i s s i o n a r y days,  lang-  then,  t h a t a s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d what was f r e q u -  e n t l y meant was t h a t a g r o u p o f I n d i a n s 51  population,  Some S e c h e l t I n d i a n s know L a t i n , S a l i s h , and E n g l i s h .  o f a l l ages h a d b e e n  Chinook,  Chataleech  6o a s s e m b l e d f o r the It  i s therefore  c a t i o n and  p u r p o s e s o f l a n g u a g e and  impossible  mission  d e p e n d e n t , and  as  Christian bridging  their  terminology,  church.  instruction some f o r m o f  lain t©  know  E m p h a s i s was  a result,  i n catechism,  and,  c h i l d r e n of  entirely  upon  of  Beaver, during h i s short the  s t a y as  task of providing  Indian  chap-  instruction  t r i b e s b e c a u s e he  did  not  2  Demers, one  Indians  Ladders";  of  of the  first Spanish  wood w i t h passage  explained  the  Chinook j a r g o n . ^  ade  i n I8I4.2, F a t h e r  the  languages o f the  m i s s i o n a r i e s t o the  3  these While  time and  devices  Indians  principal  a l l the  w i t h whom he  time he came i n  F.A.  P e a k e , op.  c i t . , p.  events  since  the  fur  in brig-  could learning contact.^  Chinook to  teach  3.  53  Wayne S u t t l e s , "The P l a t e a u P r o p h e t Dance Among t h e Coast S a l i s h " , Southwestern J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y o f New M e x i c o , W i n t e r , 1957, p. 357.  51+  Rev.  George F o r b e s ,  op. c i t .  them  symbols  to h i s "congregation"  t r a v e l l i n g north with  Demers s p e n t  1839  d i s t r i b u t e d among  g r o u p s o f n o t c h e s and  of  north-  N o o t k a p o s t , when i n  Reverend Alexander G a r r e t t l e a r n e d  5>2 Rev.  of  ceremony  surrounding  to represent  The  the  s t o r y , s o n g , m u s i c and  twenty-two p e o p l e s ,  C r e a t i o n . He  some s e c t  of  upon  he  carved  synonymous.  bridged,  of the  "Catholic  inter-  once i t was  west a f t e r abandonment with  edu-  Christianity.  Chinook.^  met  often  therefore placed  c o m m u n i c a t i o n gap,  Reverend Herbert  Father  years,  i t s v e r y name, i m p l i e s t e a c h i n g  o f F o r t V a n c o u v e r , gave up  the  as  a preparation for confirmation into  the  The  i n those  instruction.  work, s i n c e t h e y were o f a n e c e s s i t y  M i s s i o n a r y work, b y Gospel  to d i s s o c i a t e ,  religious  61 fifty-four  c h i l d r e n who  spoke  five  languages  at V i c t o r i a i n  1860.^ The asked  Reverend  J . Wlllem, i n h i s school a t A l b e r n i  s t u d e n t s who knew C h i n o o k  or E n g l i s h  i n 1868,  t o h e l p him w i t h  o t h e r s .-^ Dr. Crosby l e a r n e d 1870,  and w h i l e a t P o r t Simpson h a d h i s I n d i a n c o n g r e g a t i o n mem-  orize Bible In  texts  the l a t e  a translation and  C h i n o o k w h i l e a t t h e Songees r e s e r v e i n  i n b o t h T s i m s h i a n and E n g l i s h . - ^ l880's  the Reverend  o f the A n g l i c a n  the Reverend  John Henry  a grammar o f H a i d a  C h a r l e s H a r r i s o n w o r k e d on  P r a y e r Book i n t o  Keen u n d e r t o o k  the Haida  dialect,  the t a s k o f c o m p i l i n g  language.-^  F a t h e r M o r i c e , d u r i n g t h e same y e a r s , d e v i s e d f o r t h e b e n e fit  o f h i s charges a t S t u a r t  He c a s t  t y p e and p r i n t e d  of Chinook,  a system o f s y l l a b i c  a p r i m e r , p r a y e r book, a n d a  p e r i o d i c a l . F a t h e r LeJeune transcription  Lake  printing. monthly  adapted a k i n d of stenography and f o r y e a r s p u b l i s h e d  t o the  the well-known  Kamloops "Wawa".^9 In  1882 R e v e r e n d  Crosby brought  "Simpson H e r a l d " , t h e f i r s t f o l l o w e d by t h e S i t k a and  t h e Nass R i v e r  compiled the f i r s t  out a paper  newspaper on t h e u p p e r  "North S t a r " ,  dictionary  the Reverend  of northern coast  55 R e v . F.A. Peake, o p . c i t . ,  p. 60.  56 I b i d . . p . 70. 57 R e v . Thomas C r o s b y , o p . c i t . ,  60 C r o s b y , op. c i t . .  p . J4.7.  p . 92.  59 R e v . A.G. M o r i c e , o p . c i t . , p . 76.  coast.  the Wrangel " N o r t h e r n  "Ahah". A t K i t a m a a t  58 P e a k e , o p . c i t . ,  c a l l e d the  p . 377.  I t was Light"',  George  dialects.^°  Raley  62 W i l l i a m H e n r y Lomas, commenting i n the o f 1867  Report  on h i s work among t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l a n g u a g e and  Columbia  Mission  Cowichans, r e v e a l e d  evangelism:  the  0 1  Of c o u r s e the i n s t r u c t i o n was o f a v e r y e l e m e n t a r y n a t u r e , and I f e a r we c a n have b u t l i t t l e hope o f i m p a r t i n g much r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n u n t i l t h e l a n g uage has b e e n a c q u i r e d . A t a v e r y e a r l y d a t e , however, what c o u l d be b e g a n t o make t h e i r Before boys  from  62 River,  any  The of  m i s s i o n a r y came west o f t h e R o c k i e s , Company p o s t s were b e i n g  where t h e y were a p p a rei r e n t l y taught and  Methodist  with Cornelius Bryant  I n d i a n s a t Hope l e d him  reading,  and  i n 1859  Reverend Alexander  as  came a s a i l  on a d u g - o u t c a n o e , he  appealed  be bes  used  a thousand  who  by  dollars  shape o f an  ~6l Rev.  octagon  "so  the  P e a k e , op.  62  I b i d . , p.  63  Charles E.  Phillips,  61+  P e a k e , op.  c i t . , p.  65  G. D o r e y , op.  66  Peake, o p .  to f r i e n d s ,  the  children  the there.°^  cit.,  p.  op.  61+.  c i t . , p.  63.  c i t . , p. 62.  1+7.  division  o f the  15I4.  be-  and  building  was  might  several  p l a c e d i n the  63.  c i t . , p.  Rev-  tent suddenly  t h a t one  l o v e e a c h o t h e r m i g h t be  F.A.  Indians  c o n d i t i o n of  f o r a wooden s c h o o l . The  the m i s s i o n a r y , w h i l e  d i d not  religious  G a r r e t t i n i860 opened a s c h o o l i n later,  i n the  Red  t o open a s c h o o l f o r them  V i c t o r i a , When, a y e a r  out  at  t e a c h e r T h e  distress at  a t e n t near  laid  taught  C h u r c h e s t a b l i s h e d a s c h o o l among the  e r e n d E b e n e z e r Robson's g r i e f  raised  some I n d i a n  a g r i c u l t u r e .63  Nanaimo i n 18£7,  The  schools  appearance.  Hudson's Bay  instruction,  called  tri-  others".  0 0  63 W i l l i a m Duncan, a l t h o u g h some c h i e f s learning log  and  m e d i c i n e men,  the T s i m s h i a n  b u i l d i n g the  1880,  year  i n c e , and  Schools  1),  was  by  f a r the  1877. The  in a  Indian  school In  By 160  enrolment of the  provFather  Industrial  industrial  f o r b o y s and  order  girls.^9  industrial  school _  i n I863,  1875J t h e  n  school at  opened a day  J o h n Good i n I867 opened a n  Lytton. A flag t o go  r u n up  to  at  ten o'clock  s c h o o l . A b e l l was  twelve.  t h r e e p.m.,  school  Williams i n Nanaimo  Indian boys'  showed s t u d e n t s  rung f o r prayers,  industrial arts t i l l  c l a s s e s . I n the  followed  same y e a r ,  finding  that  funds f o r a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g at Y a l e , David  classes  i n the p a r s o n a g e t h e r e . S t . G e o r g e ' s I n d u s t r i a l with  the Reverend  Large,  op.  68 Dean Wood. E d . 69 Rev.  A.G.  70  I b i d . , pp.  71  Rev.  F.A.  c i t . , p. $19,  Morice,  cit..  19.  p.  317.  352-255. Peake, op.  c i t . . pp.  67-70.  School  George D i t c h a m  Summer S e s s i o n U.B.C., op.  there  Holmes h e l d  principal  R.G.  continued  four. Occasionally  were no  opened i n L y t t o n i n 1901*  school  that i t  A f t e r a n o o n r e c e s s , a c a d e m i c work  then  t h e r e were e v e n i n g  67  small  7 0  b y work t i l l  was  winter  P o r t Simpson.^?  pattern f o r Indian  e s t a b l i s h e d an  same t e a c h i n g  Reverend  time  a  to t h a t a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d by  establishments  the  spending  from  Canada.^  o f S t . Ann  L a k e , and  till  largest  Mary's M i s s i o n e s t a b l i s h e d an  separate  Sisters  was  able, after  a f t e r h i 3 a r r i v a l at  h i s system, added  across  St.  at  was  l a n g u a g e , t o open a c l a s s r o o m  Lacombe i n A l b e r t a , s e t t h e  in  encountered o p p o s i t i o n  Duncan's s c h o o l a t M e t l a k a t l a , w i t h an  (see T a b l e  with  he  1957.  Simpson  •ri O ft -P CS O P  p  Mass4t-t  ^ E CM £ r-i  . Victoria  £  Arithmetic  O EH  Writing  Reading & Spelling  Enrolled. Boys  How Raised  a  69  160  120  19  51+  1+6  51+  1+2  26  39  21+  13 26  13 25  6)i  58  122  ho  10Q  81+  _72  3  75  75  75  12  28  22  50  20  50  50  50  23  21  1+1+  12  39  19  71  Contrilsutions  Port  M1fln1nn •P  Indiari Funds  _ S t . Mary's  © o ft o c  r-i  180  u  River  - 1880  73  87  Metlakatla .Nass  Report  Enrolled. Girls  of Indian A f f a i r s  Salarv  Department  1.  Average Attendance  Table  133  11  J3  1  p ct! w o  &  92 7  10 25 V  6 25 1  6 ' 16 '- 3  s  • \  65 The Indian at  R e v e r e n d Thomas C r o s b y ' s f i r s t  l a n g u a g e , w i t h w h i c h he  words i n the  addressed  Cowichan  his prospective pupils  Nanaimo, were " M u e k - s t o w - a y - w i l t h m a y - t l a t a s c h o o l " ( a l l  children  come t o s c h o o l ) . A p p a r e n t l y  they  d i d not  a l w a y s come  to  72 s c h o o l , b u t f r e q u e n t l y went swimming i n s t e a d . Dr.  C r o s b y was  a b l e by  hundred a r t i c l e s  1875  to stage  a Fair,  were e x h i b i t e d , i n c l u d i n g samples  also displayed their  multiplication  table.  at  posted  Kincolith,  and  of needlework,  o t h e r woodwork.  proficiency in spelling  sent  from E n g l a n d by  M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y , founded a s c h o o l a t Massett was  Simpson  and  In  The the  7 3  W i l l i a m Henry C o l l i s o n ,  t h e r e he  Port  a t which n e a r l y a  k n i t t i n g , beadwork, p a t c h w o r k , c a r v i n g s , and students  At  t o the  S k e e n a , where he  where, i n 1878,  he  was  the  Church  187!+. From  in  established a  ordained  by  school  Bishop  Bom-  b u s . 71+ The  Methodist  Skeena d u r i n g  Church sent  these  same y e a r s , where he  school at Hazelton. for  a time a t  later  The  the  said  t u r n of  the  schools  less  a t China  72  L e t t e r from Mrs.  73  Rev.  7I4. Rev.  75  the  t o become the  ended, t h i s  Hat, H.L.  Peake, op.  C r o s b y , op.  the  first  day  C h u r c h was  Hill,  c i t . , p.  8I4.-89.  90*  7ij..  Mrs.  Tate own  Institute.  p e r i o d might also  7  21,  be  operating  Kitlope. ^  Nanaimo, A p r i l  c i t . , p.  c i t . , pp.  and  schools  in their  Coqualeetza  H a r t l e y Bay,  Thomas C r o s b y , op. F.A.  to  a t K i s p i o x . R e v e r e n d and  c e n t u r y , when the m i s s i o n a r y  t o have more or  Indian  built  Tate  s o u t h , where t h e y b e g a n , a t f i r s t  home, a t S a r d i s , what was By  CM.  Skeena a l s o r e c e i v e d M e t h o d i s t  H a g w i l g e t and  returned  the R e v e r e n d  1958.  66 188k  In  Slater  Mary P e l i c i a n ,  of the S i s t e r s  Jesus,  from Lepuy, Prance,  Paul's  Indian School, e s t a b l i s h e d that year  the N o r t h built  by  came t o t e a c h t w e l v e  V a n c o u v e r M i s s i o n . Land was the  Indians  1893  a t Kamloops, i n 1900  ieth  c e n t u r y , a t S e c h e l t and All  Hallows School  Windeyer S i l l i t o e , sent  out a c a l l  native of  of this  a t Cranbrook, i n  early  i n the  s c h o o l moved i n t o  o f New  b o t h W h i t e and  Acton  Westminster,  came f r o m A l l H a l l o w s  Onderdonk h o u s e . The was  the  community three  I n 1885  as a s c h o o l f o r I n d i a n g i r l s .  Indian g i r l s ,  who  parsonage a d j o i n i n g S t .  the a b a n d o n e d C.P.R. h o s p i t a l ,  i n t o a wing of the  twent-  f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n h i s work w i t h  order used a vacant  John's C h u r c h a t Y a l e  with  school  o f an a p p e a l b y B i s h o p  response  St,  7 7  Anglican bishop  to England  the  H i g h A n g l i c a n nuns i n D i t c h i n g h a m , N o r f o l k . I n 1881+  teachers  and  1888  in  school, attended  w e l l known t h r o u g h o u t  the  by  the  West  i t s c l o s u r e i n 1916.78  until  The  S a l v a t i o n Army b e g a n m i s s i o n a r y w o r k i n the  towards the  o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I n 1898  end  sation established a Vowell,  an  Nass  s c h o o l a t the n e w l y - c r e a t e d  offshoot of K i s p i o x , ^  established and  grew o u t  first  p o p u l a t i o n . The  Lejac.  at  Catholic residential  a t Kakawis, and, at  students  c l e a r e d and  themselvesRoman  Child  i n connection  f o r I n d i a n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1890  schools  of  7  s e v e r a l other  Elinor  77  Christie  School  7  Historic  Y a l e , pp.  79  a  during  this  R.G.  Glenn,  Large,  The  village  op.  Jubilee, 22-25.  c i t . , p.  A u g u s t 27,  1900-1950.  20.  of  century  i n small v i l l a g e s  V a n c o u v e r Sun.  area  that organi-  on  the  rivers.  76  8  schools  a n  Skeena  I9I4.9.  (Unpaged).  Glen  has Skeena  67 To to one  sum up t h i s  e r a : The m i s s i o n a r y  came t o the n o r t h w e s t  w o r k among t h e I n d i a n s , who d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d e d h e l p , when no e l s e w o u l d come. They came, a t f i r s t ,  es t e n c e  no government e x c e p t  when t h e r e was i n e x -  t h a t o f a f u r - t r a d i n g company. The  g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h was l a t e r e s t a b l i s h e d was d i s i n t e r e s t e d welfare  o f the Indians  and o f t h e m .  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , i n the m a i n , their  lives with  sources. of  little  Knowing t h a t  place  sought t o e s t a b l i s h  t h i s b a s i s of  c o n d i t i o n s , which cost  o f n o t a f e w . What l i t t l e  r e c e i v e d from t h i s world  throughout  o n l y where a s e n s e  i n s t r u c t i o n . They l a b o r e d ,  i n c r e d i b l y h a r s h and t r y i n g  official  income e v e n f r o m p r i v a t e  t e a c h i n g can take  Christian  many, and t h e l i f e  a n d many l a b o r e d  o r no p e r s o n a l  worth i s i n v o l v e d , they  worth i n t h e i r  T h e y r e c e i v e d no  8 0  i n the  o f t e n , among the h e a l t h of  thanks t h e y  have  t h e y have b e e n a w a r d e d , most o f them,  p o s t h u m o u s l y ; few were t h e p r a i s e s sung them d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s . Some o f them a t t a i n e d r e s u l t s  t h a t were t r u l y  own remark-  able . Yet  they  came t o o l a t e  who f o r anywhere f r o m f i f t y  and t h e y  gave t o o l i t t l e .  t o a hundred years  p h y s i c a l and m o r a l d e g r e d a t i o n  breeding,  w h i c h was i n i t s f i n a l  a n a l y s i s almost  they brought a kind entirely  people  had s u f f e r e d a  f r o m t h e w h i t e man's  ease, and i l l e g i t i m a t e  To a  liquor,  dis-  of solace  spiritual.  80 D r . I.W. P o w e l l , I n d i a n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , i n 1880 w r o t e i n the D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s R e p o r t , page 1 2 1 : "The m i s s i o n s as a r u l e a r e u n a b l e t o e r e c t p r o p e r s c h o o l h o u s e s , most o f them b e i n g c o m f o r t l e s s a n d u n a t t r a c t i v e , a n d on a c c o u n t o f t h e v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s b e i n g u n r e s e r v e d , no g r a n t s f r o m t h e Government have b e e n made t o a i d i n t h e e r e c t i o n o f e f f i c i e n t b u i l d i n g s " . 81  I n 1 8 8 0 , o n l y s i x s c h o o l s ; V i c t o r i a , P o r t S i m p s o n , Metl a k a t l a , K i n c o l l t h . Nass R i v e r , a n d Mas s e t t , r e c e i v e d g r a n t s . F o r some J4.65 s t u d e n t s , t h e s e t o t a l l e d o n l y $ 1 7 7 7 . (Department o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s R e p o r t , page 1 2 1 ) .  68 Intent for  on e v a n g e l i z i n g ,  s o u l s , a n d brought  ance m e r e l y  they f i s h e d  the heathen  n o t s o much f o r men a s  g i v e n them f o r t h e i r  t o where "Knowing God, t h e y g l o r i f i e d  inherit  Him n o t a s  God" . Persistent way  of life,  and  substituted  i n their  they broke  constant b a t t l e t h e whole  to break  the heathen  o f t h e I n d i a n s ' way o f l i f e ,  a realm f o r the s p i r i t ,  b u t n o t f o r t h e body, 1  Op  its  p l a c e . Thomas C r o s b y  writes:  The M i s s i o n a r y f i n d s among a p e o p l e t h a t a r e s o c o n s t a n t l y m o v i n g a b o u t t h a t i f he i s t o e x p e c t r e a l , good work i t must be done b y g a t h e r i n g a number o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o g e t h e r i n a Home o r B o a r d i n g S c h o o l o r I n d u s t r i a l I n s t i t u t i o n , where t h e y c a n be k e p t c o n s t a n t l y a n d r e g u l a r l y a t S c h o o l a n d away f r o m t h e e v i l i n f l u e n c e s o f the heathen life. One was  o f t h e few who s o u g h t  t o n u r t u r e more t h a n t h e s p i r i t  W i l l i a m D u n c a n , o f whom D r . R.G. L a r g e  says:. * 0  3  I t w o u l d seem, however, t h a t he e a r l y g r a s p e d t h e n e c e s s i t y of f e e d i n g the body as w e l l as t h e s o u l . . . . B y making t h e I n d i a n e c o n o m i c a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t , he g a v e h i m a chance t o d e v e l o p s p i r i t u a l l y a n d culturally. T h i s man was f o r c e d e v e n t u a l l y t o b r e a k w i t h h i s C h u r c h ,  and ha  n e v e r b e e n c o m p l e t e l y f o r g i v e n h i s t r e s p a s s e s , ^ one o f w h i c h was  a failure  t o conduct  a sufficient  number o f B i b l e  classes  connection with h i s s c h o o l . ^ F i r e d w i t h the energy antly,  t h e y sometimes p e r m i t t e d a m i s d i r e c t i o n  to  the undoing  of  their "82 83  o f t h e work o f o t h e r s r a t h e r  own. The r e s u l t s  Pacific  F.A. P e a k e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 . p. 91.  of their  drive  than a t the doing  C o a s t b y Canoe a n d M i s -  The S k e e n a , R i v e r o f D e s t i n y , p . 2 2 .  Ibid.,  them c o n s t -  o f such r i v a l r y o v e r - e v a n g e l i z e d  Up a n d Down t h e N o r t h s i o n S h i p , p . tik.  81; Rev. 85  o f a z e a l which drove  1  69 some I n d i a n g r o u p s , a n d Failing  other groups almost  t o comprehend t h e  they attempted icant  left  nature  t o make a h o l y vow  institution  i n the  life  a s p i r i t u a l f o r c e . While attempting life  i n w h i c h he  to h e l p the  polytheism, one  not  signif-  bound  Indian  p e r s u a d e d by  Indian wife  a f t e r he h a d level  by  engendered a sense  Indian marriage  married  of acceptance  continued  by  depression  o f I n d i a n and  the r u m - p e d d l e r , t h e y artificial  villages,  to  seeds  the  culture  patterns  today  i s almost  completely  sincerity  remake the n a t i v e I n d i a n  ture,  s e p t was  i t s own  distaste  "closer  f o r almost  t o the  the whole  86" See  M.  Ibid.,  Ormsby, op. p.  9i;.  some  c i t . , p.  l68.  sixty  village  resources. individual being,  and  eagerness  to  h e a r t ' s d e s i r e " , and of h i s a b o r i g i n a l  t h e y b u i l t a w a l l between themselves and good  grounds,  economic  brought  i n t h e i r work, i n t h e i r  w h i c h must f r e q u e n t l y have t h w a r t e d  87  s o c i a l and  t h e i r u n d o u b t e d l o v e f o r the  unquestioned  from t h e i r  without  the  c r e a t i o n of  o f S e c h e l t i n I 8 8 9 . The  village  dual  destructive influence of  f o r a break-down o f t h e I n d i a n . One  years  to  o f t e n f a r from immemorial h u n t i n g  t o the a r t i f i c i a l  their  nine  part-Indian status.  t h e m s e l v e s d i d much, t h r o u g h  o f the  ex-  Beaver to r e m a r r y  added i t s weight  t o overcome t h e  miles  Despite  rite  one  This c r e a t i o n of a  8 7  of  custom, which  r i t e s i n 1837,  Indian custom.  of marriage  While attempting  sow  the Reverend Herbert  Church of England  by  lead a  s l o w l y i n many g r o u p s . James D o u g l a s , t o name b u t  ample, was his  the  w h i c h was  could f i n d r e s p e c t , they  shame i n the h i t h e r t o a c c e p t e d died  o f the n a t i v e  of marriage,  Indians'  86  untouched.  their  teaching.  pupils  cul-  CHAPTER I V THE  There  The  him  t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , h a d met t h e t r a d e r , who  on h i m f o r f u r s , a n d t h e m i s s i o n a r y , who came t o h e l p  a g a i n s t the f i r s t  Just a f t e r of  i s b u t one n a t i v e r a c e i n C a n a d a , now r a p i d l y p a s s i n g away. 1  Indian, during  depended  IN-BETWEEN YEARS  the middle  European, the gold The  comer and t o c o n v e r t h i m t o C h r i s t i a n i t y . o f t h e c e n t u r y he e n c o u n t e r e d  a third  type  miner.  Hudson's B a y Company h a d b e e n r e c e i v i n g  some g o l d a t  2 Kamloops f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s  before  the major d i s c o v e r y ,  m a i n f i n d was made on t h e s a n d - b a r s o f t h e l o w e r in  1858. W i t h i n months, t h o u s a n d s  the  fields,  some o v e r l a n d , b u t m o s t l y  t o r i a . By i 8 6 0 , Cariboo  the source  country;  Skeena, S t i k i n e , gold  f i n d brought  another,  of gold-seekers  until  of this  through  but the  Fraser  Canyon  had entered  the post  of V i c -  g o l d had been t r a c e d t o the  b y 1861+ t o t h e K o o t e n a y s , a n d b y 1869 t o t h e and o t h e r r i v e r s i t s thousands  almost  of the f a r n o r t h .  of prospectors  3  E a c h new  t o one a r e a  t h e whole o f t h e p r o v i n c e h a d f e l t  after  their  presence. But brought, his  whereas t h e f u r - t r a d e r s , e v e n w i t h  n e e d e d t h e I n d i a n , and t h e r e f o r e e n c r o a c h e d  property,  time,  the miner f e l t  no s u c h  t r a d i t i o n a l hunting  The m i n e r s  l i t t l e on  along  ignored  the r i v e r the Ind-  a n d t r a p p i n g g r o u n d s , a n d i n many  1 R e v . Thomas C r o s b y , o p . c i t . , 2  M. Ormsby, o p . c i t . ,  3 F . Howay, o p . c i t . .  p. v i i .  p. I38. p.  they  dependence. F o r the f i r s t  t o o , n o n - I n d i a n s b e g a n t o outnumber I n d i a n s  v a l l e y s where g o l d was t o be f o u n d . ians'  the t r o u b l e s  I7I-I72.  71 localities t h e y had  either  obtained  Admixture  killed their  no  contact with  whelmed b y I 8 7 O and  the  1900,  at Telegraph purity, itance  but  as  non-Indian  i n which these  f a r n o r t h as  the w h i t e r a c e , flood  o f f the  t h a t now  m i n e r s and Creek they  also their  animals  from which  livelihood.  o f I n d i a n and  a t e d d u r i n g the y e a r s country. Natives  or drove  bloods  unattached  greatly accelermen  t h e S t i k i n e , who suddenly  found  Invaded t h e i r  lost  not  o l d ways o f l i f e ,  of White c u l t u r e A  had  had  territory. the  over-  Between  Indians  only t h e i r  and  the almost  themselves  traders interbred with  completely  roamed  until  racial  a c q u i r e d an  Many o t h e r v i l l a g e s u n d e r w e n t  inhersimilar  experiences. H a w t h o r n , B e l s h a w , and W h i t e on  J a m i e s o n comment on  this  impact  of  I n d i a n c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h i s period:;-'  D e s p i t e the l o n g h i s t o r y o f c o n t a c t s , the I n d i a n s of t h e P r o v i n c e have b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o I n t e n s i v e a c c u l t u r a t i o n o n l y i n r e c e n t times - d a t i n g from the middle o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o r some, a n d f r o m t h e l a t e nineteenth century for others. The t o the  phenomenon w h i c h f i r s t  n o r t h w e s t was  other resources  the  except  d i s c o v e r y o f g o l d . The  b r o u g h t more W h i t e s  p r o p o r t i o n o f White over For  s i x t y years  the  of the  discovery  of  the y e a r s , s o t h a t  killers  I n 1828  James D o u g l a s ,  a n I n d i a n , who o f two  had  the  to increase.  Indians o f t h e n o r t h w e s t knew no  t h a t o f the f u r - t r a d e r .  b e e n one  over  i n l a r g e numbers  Indian population continued  s t a t i o n e d a t S t u a r t Lake, had before  brought Whites  law  while  s e v e r a l years  Hudson's Bay  Company  " I4, I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d 1958 f r o m F r e d Brown, p r i n c i p a l T e l e g r a p h Creek Elementary-High School.  men,  of  5 H.B. H a w t h o r n , C.S. B e l s h a w , S.M. J a m i e s o n , The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1950, P. 19.  72 clubbed the  t o death w i t h garden  implements  and  thrown  t o t h e dogs  of  fort I n I8I4.2, a H a g w i l g e t  at Port  I n d i a n , who  K i l m a u r s i n what he b e l i e v e d  had  killed  the  t o be r e v e n g e  Postmaster  f o r the  death  7 o f a r e l a t i v e , was  s h o t b y a p a r t y o f Hudson's Bay  E v e n when R i c h a r d B l a n s h a r d i n 18^0 an a t t e m p t  t o apprehend  d e s e r t e r s , he was  n a t i v e s who  t o l d by  the c o l o n i a l  future not undertake  to "protect  committed  s u b j e c t s who  on B r i t i s h  had  travelled murdered  office  or attempt  Company  men.'  to Newitti i n  three  t h a t he  should i n  to punish  v o l u n t a r i l y placed  sailor  injuries themselves  o  at a distance legal  from the s e t t l e m e n t s " .  i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h the I n d i a n s ' r i g h t s Three  years l a t e r ,  however, Governor  rehend an a l l e g e d murderer a group  of Indians that  the B r i t i s h  Crown.  In l 8 6 l , o f Lands marking ony".  T h e r e was  He  little  tenancy.  James D o u g l a s  While  the whole c o u n t r y was  d i d app-  t h e r e , he  informed  a possession of  9  Douglas  officially  directed  the C h i e f  Commissioner  a n d Works t o " t a k e m e a s u r e s as s o o n as p r a c t i c a b l e out d i s t i n c t l y added  d e f i n e d " was natives  a t Cowichan.  of  as y e t  that  t o be  the I n d i a n Reserves  t h r o u g h o u t the  " t h e e x t e n t o f the I n d i a n R e s e r v e s "as  t h e y may  t h e m s e l v e s " . The  s e v e r a l l y be  d i r e c t i v e was  pointed  for  Col-  t o be  out by  n o t , however, p u t  the  into  effect. By S e c t i o n 91,  s u b - s e c t i o n 2 I 4 , o f the B r i t i s h N o r t h  6 W a l t e r S a g e , op. 7 R.G.  cit.,  L a r g e , op. c i t . ,  p . I4.6. p.  8 F.W. Howay, op. c i t . , p . 9 S a g e , op. c i t . , p . 179*  13. 106.  America  73 A c t , t h e D o m i n i o n Government was t o l e g i s l a t e lands  f o r " I n d i a n s , and  f o r Indians". By  terms o f t h e A c t o f U n i o n o f I 8 7 I , b y w h i c h B r i t i s h  umbia e n t e r e d  the Dominion, c o n t a i n e d  Col-  the f o l l o w i n g phrases i n  13:  Clause  ... t h e c h a r g e o f t h e I n d i a n s and t r u s t e e s h i p and management o f t h e l a n d r e s e r v e d f o r t h e i r u s e a n d b e n e f i t s s h a l l be assumed b y t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n ment, a n d a p o l i c y a s l i b e r a l a s h i t h e r t o p u r s u e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government, a f t e r U n i o n . To c a r r y o u t s u c h a p o l i c y t r a c t s o f l a n d o f s u c h e x t e n t s as has h i t h e r t o been the p r a c t i c e o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Government t o a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h a t p u r p o s e s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o time be c o n v e y e d b y t h e L o c a l Government t o t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t . The ians the  British  C o l u m b i a P r e - e m p t i o n A c t o f I87O e x c l u d e d  f r o m c l a i m i n g Crown l a n d s . C l a u s e  intended  to protect  I n d i a n a g a i n s t the onrush of White p o p u l a t i o n , d i d n o t f o r  some y e a r s sites  do s o , w i t h  either  t h a t many o r i g i n a l  a l t o g e t h e r o r were hemmed  commissioners, Alexander  P r o v i n c i a l Government, and G i l b e r t  completed  totalling One  lation  obvious  Sproat,  joint  i n that year,  acres. factor  of B r i t i s h  I876.  member, were problem."'  b y I89O, and v i r t u a l l y 1628  -0  a l l de-  r e s e r v e s were  listed,  1 1  important  t o the s t u d y  i s t h e number o f p e r s o n s  10 R e p o r t ,  11  b y 1916,  821,Ij.lO  o f a people  extremely  to r e p r e s e n t  t o i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on t h e r e s e r v e s  M a i n r e s e r v e s were s u r v e y e d tails  into  Anderson, t o r e p r e -  t h e D o m i n i o n Government; A r c h i b a l d M c K i n l e y ,  appointed  village  of ground.  I n I876 t h r e e sent  the r e s u l t  disappeared  small corners  the  13,  Ind-  Columbia  over  i n v o l v e d . The I n d i a n  the y e a r s has been  Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - G e n e r a l  Canada Y e a r Book, p .  o f the e d u c a t i o n  172.  popu-  estimated  of Indian  Affairs,  many t i m e s , w i t h g r e a t v a r i a t i o n  i n the e s t i m a t e s . Diamond  12 Jenness  has  made what i s p r o b a b l y  European a n a l y s i s , for  giving  f o u r t e e n groups  t h e most d e t a i l e d  estimates  (see T a b l e  from  5850* 8]+00 6000 2500 7200 6000 15000 15500  Tlingit Haida Tsimshian B e l l a Coola Kwakiutl Nootka Coast S a l i s h Interior Salish Kootenay Chilootin Carrier Tsetsaut Tahltan Sekani  One in  1853,  mons i n 1857 The  1 3  put  the  the R e p o r t  1935 1+L26 650 3^8 300 2000 1500 kOOO 6000 500 kSO 2000  2500 8500 500 1000 1000 75950&k  Smallpox i n t r o d u c e d by Plus Kootenays  estimate but  Groups  Pre-European  Group  3 288 160 257Z5 1775  Spaniards  Indian population at t h i r t y  of the  Hudson's Bay  p l a c e d the f i g u r e  thousand  in 1853^  I858,  thousand  persons  "12 13  The M.  14 A. 15  Indians  B e g g , op.  Ormsby, op.  16 P.  t h r e e months o f  c i t . , p. c i t . , p.  33I-382.  127.  c i t . , p.  c i t . , p. I l 6 .  Howay, op.  approximately  one  nearly fifteen  a t V i c t o r i a a l o n e . ° A l t o g e t h e r , some  o f Canada, p p .  Ormsby, op.  Com-  at s e v e n t y - f i v e thousand. was  arrived  thousand  Company t o the  W h i t e p o p u l a t i o n o f the n o r t h w e s t During  sources  2).  Table 2 P o p u l a t i o n o f I n d i a n s by  k &&  a number o f  pre-  127. 119.  75 twenty-five River.  thousand  miners  h a d made t h e i r  way t o t h e F r a s e r  1 7  Hill-Tout, culated  from examinations  he made o f v i l l a g e  that the a b o r i g i n a l S a l i s h  sites,  cal-  p o p u l a t i o n alone h a d been "I fi  sixty  thousand  a t the time  o f Simon F r a s e r .  Of c o u r s e , no o f f i c i a l made b y e a r l i e s t  count  o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n was  E u r o p e a n s . Soon a f t e r  b e g a n t o be e s t a b l i s h e d  t h e time  among them, h o w e v e r , c e n s u s  (see T a b l e 3 ) . E d u c a t i o n o f B r i t i s h  begun ulation  thousand  1871  -  1891  -  -  28,91+9  1911 1921 1931 19U1 191+9 1951+  -  20,131+ 22,377 2l+,599 2l+,875 27,936 31,086  1901  Schools, while reached The  -  o f be-  1 1  Q 7  23,000  25,661 3U,202  scattered  o f Superintendent  figures,  Columbia- "  throughout  much o f t h e p r o v i n c e ,  b y no means a l l o f t h e n a t i v e p e o p l e s  Report  were  persons.  Table 3 Indian Population of B r i t i s h  1881  tallies  C o l u m b i a ' s I n d i a n pop-  i n v o l v e d a t o t a l , as r e v e a l e d by these  tween t w e n t y a n d t h i r t y  that schools  J.W. P o w e l l  a t any e a r l y  f o r 1887 showed  five  h u n d r e d I n d i a n s whose r e l i g i o n  that  time, and seventeen  for,  a n d c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be assumed t o be p a g a n . S i n e e  thousand  date.  twenty-  was known t o be p a g a n a t  whose r e l i g i o n  was  unaccounted education  g e n e r a l l y began w i t h c o n v e r s i o n , o r p u r p o r t e d c o n v e r s i o n , t o "17 M. Ormsby, o p . c i t . . p . ll+O 18 The F a r West. The Home o f t h e S a l i s h 19 From I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Reports.  a n d Dene, p . ll+.  76 Christianity,  i t i s likely  n a t i v e s had h a d Education  little  up  that  these n e a r l y  to this  o f I n d i a n s was  twenty  thousand  time.  p l a c e d under  the n e w l y c r e a t e d  office  o f the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e i n 1868.  I n I873 i t was  ferred  t o the D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e  t o the Department  Indian A f f a i r s and  Resources  1880  from  from then  Interior,  t o 1936,  191+9•  to  and  t o the D e p a r t m e n t  Since that  date  transof  o f Mines  i t has  come  20 under  jurisdiction S e c t i o n 93  "Nothing  i n any  o f C i t i z e n s h i p and  °f  the B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a  law  shall  have b y  of B r i t i s h  law  states  any  i n the p r o v i n c e a t t h e u n i o n " . The  Columbia  was  i n any  case not p r e p a r e d the e f f e c t  that  right  s c h o o l s w h i c h any  t a s k o f I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n i n I 8 7 I , and has  Act  prejudicially affect  ilege with respect to denominational persons  Immigration.  of the C h r i s t i a n  cation  o f the  With mission school  no  church denominations  statute  founded and  of  government  to undertake of t h i s  which s t a r t e d  the  clause the  con-  edu-  natives. to enforce attendance,  schools f l u c t u a t e d  as h a r e s  priv-  class  b e e n t o l e a v e t h e management o f I n d i a n s c h o o l s u n d e r  trol  or  by  g r e a t l y . The  enrolment  twenty  i n these  students a t  F a t h e r Lacombe a t Edmonton i n l 8 6 l were  a t the s o u n d  autumn, t h e y f l e w l i k e  o f the v o y a g e u r s  arrows  from  1  the "wild  songs o r c h e e r s i n  t h e i r bows t o the b a n k t o  o -1 welcome the b r i g a d e home". W i l l i a m H e n r y Lomas, w r i t i n g ichans it  i n 1867,  o f h i s s c h o o l among t h e  commented on t h e a t t e n d a n c e  there: 20 C. P h i l l i p s , 2 2  21  Ibid.,  22 Rev.  p.  F.A.  op.  cit..  p.  337.  156. P e a k e , op.  cit..  p.  61+.  situation  as he  Cowsaw  77 The s c h o o l was open f o r a f o r t n i g h t , w i t h an a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e o f 12, b u t a t the end o f t h a t t i m e a l l t h e boys l e f t the v i l l a g e t o go w i t h t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o d i f f e r e n t s t a t i o n s on the c o a s t t o f i s h f o r c l a m s , and g a t h e r r o o t s t h a t grow on the h i l l s i d e s , w h i c h t h e y d r y f o r w i n t e r u s e . T h i s w i l l , f o r some t i m e , be one drawback o f the work o f t e a c h i n g the y o u n g as a t i n t e r v a l s , t h r o u g h o u t the s e a s o n , t h e y a l l go away t o f i s h , e t c . I875,  After be  entitled  B.C.  to g r a n t s .  received grants  grants  1880  schools 2 3  l o c a t e d on g a z e t t e d  However, o n l y a h a l f - d o z e n  during  the  next  several years,  amounted t o o n l y a b o u t f o u r d o l l a r s  Attendance  seems n o t  Report Dr.  Powell  reserves  were  to  schools and  a p u p i l per  in  these year. ^" 2  t o have i m p r o v e d , however, f o r i n h i s  wrote:  J u d g i n g f r o m tone r e p o r t s f o r w a r d e d t o t h i s o f f i c e , a v e r y e x t e n s i v e r o l l or l i s t of p u p i l s i s n e c e s s a r y t o show a l i m i t e d a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e d u r i n g the q u a r t e r . Many o f t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r , i n t h i s way, to have v i s i t e d the s c h o o l two o r t h r e e t i m e s i n the q u a r t e r , and can t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e l i t t l e b e n e f i t , o r i n d e e d p r o d u c e any e f f e c t , e x c e p t t h a t o f h e l p i n g out a d e f e c t i v e and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a v e r a g e a t the end o f the r e q u i r e d p e r i o d . 1888  In  W.H.  Lomas, b y  i c h a n Agency, repeated twenty y e a r s was  "very  earlier  slight  R.H.  this  i n h i s Report  as a  teacher  benefit derived  Pidcock,  time Superintendent  Superintendent  of  the  the  complaints  he  there,  concluding  that  from these  day  had  Cowmade  there  schools". -'  f o r the P o r t R u p e r t  2  Agency,  of. reported  i n the  same y e a r  that  The s c h o o l , I am s o r r y t o s a y , i s n o t so w e l l a t t e n d e d as c o u l d be d e s i r e d , t h e c h i l d r e n a r e n o t a v e r s e t o l e a r n i n g , b u t t h e i r p a r e n t s see i n e d u c a t i o n the d o w n f a l l o f a l l o f t h e i r most c h e r i s h e d customs * "23  " R e p o r t o f D r . I.W. Powell, Indian B.C., I87U" S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s . 1873.  2l+ P.  121.  25 P.  102.  26 P. IOI4..  Superintendent for V o l 6, No. 23, p .  7.  78 Dr. for  1880 R e p o r t  Powell's  had suggested  a p o s s i b l e remedy  27 problem:;  t h i s attendance  1  The q u e s t i o n o f i m p a r t i n g common s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n t o I n d i a n s i s one n o t u n a t t e n d e d w i t h d i f f i - c u l t i e s , and t h e v a r i o u s s y s t e m s a d o p t e d o f t e n a p p e a r t o e n d i n f a i l u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o my own e x p e r i e n c e , I am o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t no I n d i a n s c h o o l c a n be s u c c e s s f u l w h i c h I s n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h some i n d u s t r i a l s y s t e m , and more o r l e s s i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e d i r e c t l y o p p o s i n g t e n d e n c i e s o f camp l i f e . Although  they had t h e i r  disagreements  I n d i a n Agents and m i s s i o n a r i e s found answers t o the a t t e n d a n c e the  first  important  attendance seven  a t s c h o o l o f a l l I n d i a n c h i l d r e n between t h e ages o f  liable  authorized  to establish industrial  o r o t h e r s who p r e v e n t e d  and b o a r d i n g  s c h o o l s , and t o  s c h o o l t o be s u c h a n I n s t i t u t i o n .  1907, e i g h t r e s i d e n t i a l  and n i n e  industrial  b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e v a r i o u s C h u r c h e s . D u r i n g twenty years  s c h o o l s had  the f o l l o w i n g  3ome s c h o o l s d r o p p e d o u t o f e x i s t e n c e , a n d o t h e r s  came i n t o b e i n g  ( s e e T a b l e !+)• A l t h o u g h  numbers o f s t u d e n t s f o r  w h i c h g r a n t s were p a i d d i d n o t i n a l l s c h o o l s c o r r e s p o n d  for  their  t o p e n a l t i e s . The G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c i l was  any e x i s t i n g  enrolment  s e t up  code f o r I n d i a n e d u c a t i o n . I t r e q u i r e d t h e  attendance  By  common g r o u n d i n t h e i r  p r o b l e m . I n 1894, l e g i s l a t i o n  a n d s i x t e e n a n d made p a r e n t s  declare  i n other r e s p e c t s ,  figures, residential  to exact  s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d $60 p e r c a p i t a  d e s i g n a t e d number o f p u p i l s ,  and i n d u s t r i a l  s c h o o l s $130 p e r  20 capita.  7  A total  ation at this  of thirty-six  time  d a y s c h o o l s were a l s o  (see T a b l e 5 ) .  27 P. 121. 28  C E . Phillips,  29 D e p a r t m e n t  op. c i t . .  p . 338.  of Indian A f f a i r s  Report.  i n oper-  79 T a b l e 1+ 30 Enrolment, R e s i d e n t i a l and I n d u s t r i a l Schools Name o f S c h o o l Ahousat Alberni A l e r t Bay Cariboo Christie Coqualeetza Kltimat Kootenay Kuper I s l a n d Lejac P o r t Simpson S t . George's S t . Mary'sSechelt Squamish Kamloops A l l Hallows P o r t Simpson Clayoquot S t . Eugene Metlakatla W i l l i a m s Lake  Location  Denomination  Ahousat Alberni A l e r t Bay 150 M i l e House Kakawis Sardis Kitimat Mission Cranbrook Kuper I s l a n d Lejac P o r t Simpson Lytton Mission Sechelt North Vancouver Kamloops Yale P o r t Simpson C l a y o q u o t Sound Kootenay Metlakatla W i l l i a m s Lake A  Enrolment  1907  United (Pres.) United (Pres.) Church of Eng. Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c United (Meth.) United (Meth.) Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c United (Meth.) Church of E n g . Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c Church o f Eng. Methodist Roman C a t h o l i c Roman C a t h o l i c Church o f Eng. Roman C a t h o l i c  1927  !+ 1*8 2  3 OA  95*  1*1*  102  (Girls)  k  3>3>  67*  79 ^ 3  63A36  53 102 159 (Girls) 19 109 122 83 lk8 (Girls) (Boys)  58A 51A  5 PA  899  I n d u s t r i a l Schools Table 5 S c h o o l s b y D e n o m i n a t i o n - 1907  36 8 9 53 0 16 15 17 1* 1 191*9  Day Boarding Industrial T o t a l Number o f S c h o o l s Undenominational Roman C a t h o l i c Church of E n g l a n d Methodist Presbyterian S a l v a t i o n a l Army T o t a l Enrolment  All could  boys i n i n d u s t r i a l  also  learn carpentry,  schools  were  taught farming.  shoemaking, t a i l o r i n g ,  30 D e p a r t m e n t  of Indian A f f a i r s  R e p o r t s . 1907,  31 D e p a r t m e n t  of Indian  R e p o r t , 1907.  Affairs  They  blacksmithing, 1927.  80 baking, harnessmaking, p r i n t i n g , p a i n t i n g , girls  were t a u g h t  w o r k e d i n the classes  and  tinsmithing.  c o o k i n g , homemaking, s e w i n g ,  shops or f i e l d s  for half  Table 6 i n d i c a t e s  enrolment  s c h o o l s a t i n t e r v a l s of twenty  by  k n i t t i n g . Boys  o f e a c h day,  f o r the r e m a i n i n g h a l f . H a l f o f each  spent a t non-academic a c t i v i t i e s  and  the  by grade  and  day was  girls.  The  attended  similarly  3 2  f o r d a y and r e s i d e n t i a l  year3.  Table 6 ^ E n r o l m e n t b y Grades-*-* Day  Schools  Residential  Grade  4  1907 1 2 3  671 231 107  k  1+1+  5 / 7  1927  l6l 1+6  11+  7 8  9 Total  165 157 260  15k 88 1+3  107 58  535 289 286  ll+2  1278  7 shows t o t a l  889A  expenses i n c u r r e d  y e a r s , s e p a r a t e d by a time  by  1573  2109  Day  Residential Industrial  Department  2k5 188 111 73  Combined. Indian education  i n t e r v a l of t h i r t y  7 Expenses  1917  32  2 64+  118 118  I n d u s t r i a l Schools  Table Indian School  523 3kk 331  22  2010 and  191+7  227  2  1060  Table two  931 33l+ 243  1927  1+1  ft R e s i d e n t i a l  for  1907  174  Ilk  6  Year  191+7  735 208  /  Schools  $38,867.91  kl,6l8.30 83,897.66  191+7  $ 95,1+25.95  390,936.18  of I n d i a n A f f a i r s Report,  33 D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Reports.  3l+ D e p a r t m e n t o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Reports.  1907  years  81 if In  1907,  A.W.  Vowell,  Columbia, r e p o r t e d schools public  students schools  that i n areas  were a l l o w e d  "where, by  c l e a n l i n e s s and  Indian Superintendent  intendent  continued,  for he  the  Vowell  s a i d , were s p e a k i n g  Indian provincial  neat  s t u d i e s , they  appearance,  give  surprise"J Native  were t e a c h i n g  general  boys,  Super-  i n their villages,  s a t i s f a c t i o n . The  rising  and  generation,  English. ^ 3  number o f I n d i a n s who  shown i n T a b l e  the r e g u l a r  good b e h a v i o r ,  little  most p a r t g i v i n g ^ o o d  The  to attend  a t t e n t i o n to their cause no  British  where t h e r e were no  their  s a t i s f a c t i o n and  for  8 f o r the  i s quoted. I t i s obvious  a c t u a l l y d i d speak E n g l i s h i s  only I n t e r v a l i n which t h i s f r o m the  phenomenon  f i g u r e s t h a t , i f the  rising  Table 8 , Language D i s t r i b u t i o n ^  0  No.  Who Speak English  1913 1917  No.  8272 8955  lation  g l i s h , and about the out  o n l y one  o n l y one  33 123  generations  Indian  In three  day  6,  same p r o p o r t i o n o f I n d i a n s  did a better  s c h o o l s . The  after  Who Write French  3 3 o f the  total  popu-  s c h o o l s were  being  could apparently  In seven c o u l d w r i t e  o f s i x o f the  No.  1  it.(By  as W h i t e s ,  19U7,  speak  approximately school,!  be a s c e r t a i n e d f r o m a s t u d y  job of combatting p u p i l drop-out than  p r o b l e m o f b r i n g i n g the  35  Department of  36  Canada Y e a r Book. 1913.  p u p i l along  I n d i a n A f f a i r s R e p o r t , p. p.  En-  however,  t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n , were a t t e n d i n g  Residential schools, i t w i l l Table  Who Speak French  E n g l i s h , two-thirds  s t i l l were n o t . Two  established,  No.  2899 2898  g e n e r a t i o n were s p e a k i n g  one  Who W r i t e English  605-606.  259.  t o the  of  did end  of  elementary  tion  s c h o o l i n g was c o n t e m p l a t e d a t t h e t i m e  of the m i s s i o n  s c h o o l b y Roman C a t h o l i c t e a c h e r s  m i n i s t r a t o r s . The t h e o r y b y w h i c h of  the f i r s t  be  taken  IV,  generation  of  and so on, u n t i l  i n any p a r t i c u l a r  finally  a generation  s c h o o l . The f i r s t  school  generation  they would d e s p i s e  against  their  parents,  w o u l d be r e a d y  generation, having  tution  o n l y two g r a d e s  generation,  low-status  having  parents  i t was b e l i e v e d , w o u l d d r i v e t h e y o u t h ,  there b y the Whites,  and other  t o go  them a n d t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n . A t u r n i n g  l e a v i n g s c h o o l , t o the c i t i e s  accepted  should  t o Grade  s c h o o l i n g , would n o t f e e l so f a r s u p e r i o r t o t h e i r  that  on  taught  and a d -  t h e y worked was t h a t p u p i l s  o n l y a s f a r a s Grade I I , t h e n e x t  through high  of incep-  where, s i n c e t h e y  w o u l d n o t be  t h e y w o u l d be d r i v e n t o p r o s t i -  employments. L i k e w i s e ,  the second  a t t a i n e d o n l y two g r a d e s above t h e i r  parents,  w o u l d n o t f e e l s u p e r i o r t o them a n d t o t h e i r home l i f e . ever,  the p o l i c y  academic  of g i v i n g students  s t u d i e s i n these  osophy, and p r o b a b l y that  to  i n three reached  of their  power much weaker t h a n  the  years  reaching  this  grade  there  room, a n d no m a t e r i a l f o r Grade  phil-  Grade V I i n 191+7 • students  a holding  schools,  were f o r t y - f i v e VI.  fewer  s i x on a n a v e r a g e i n  o f s u c h a s c h o o l s t a t e s t h a t he  I n Grade V b e c a u s e  How-  i n p a r t f o r the f a c t  t h a t o f the r e s i d e n t i a l  19lr7. One f o r m e r s t u d e n t three  against  d a y i n m a n u a l work, e x e r t e d  one i n t e n s t u d e n t s  7  o f each day i n  s c h o o l s , however, w h i c h d i d n o t r e q u i r e t h e i r  spend h a l f  than  schools m i l i t a t e d  accounted a t l e a s t  o n l y one s t u d e n t Day  but half  3  spent  students i n  3 8  37  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m R e v . George F o r b e s , O M I , S t . P e t e r ' s R e c t o r y , May 3 0 , 19$8.  38  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d from Gordon Robinson, S e p t . 19, 1958.  Kitimat,  83 The ating  fact  on a g r o s s  provincial ally  t h a t as l a t e budget  of f o r t y - f i v e  s c h o o l s were e x p e n d i n g  on i t s s t u d e n t s  shortage  a s 191+7 I n d i a n d a y s c h o o l s were dollars  per p u p i l  some two h u n d r e d d o l l a r s  explains a t least  the obvious  residential  clothing  Interviews  f o r the students.  school students  with  former  except  no n e w s p a p e r s ; a l m o s t no c o n t a c t the student  environments of M s  residential  with  h e r home e x c e p t  during  student  was on h e r own r e s e r -  s c h o o l system c r e d i t  were p r e v a l e n t  out o f contact with  These  schools  a l s o acted  c h i l d r e n from o u t l y i n g v i l l a g e s  39  i t was f e l t  i t with con-  children  that  they  diseases  t h e r e , and a l s o away f r o m u n d e s i r a b l e  reservation l i f e . for  reservation l i f e ,  time be k e p t  students  t u b e r c u l o s i s , which  t i n u a l l y r a v a g e d t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . - ^ By k e e p i n g  w o u l d a t t h e same  h o w e v e r , go  could r e t u r n to t h e i r s .  t o combat d i s e a s e , p a r t i c u l a r l y  of contact with  world  stated  t h e same h o l i d a y s d u r i n g w h i c h  Proponents of the r e s i d e n t i a l  out  ofr e -  the outside  One f o r m e r  s c h o o l she a t t e n d e d  who h a d come f r o m d i s t a n t r e s e r v e s  helping  surr-  i n a d v a n c e w i t h what s o c i e t y b e y o n d t h e  s c h o o l was l i k e .  the r e s i d e n t i a l  on t h e t o p i c  v a t i o n , w i t h i n s i g h t o f h e r own home. She c o u l d n o t , to  food and  have r e v e a l e d a p i c t u r e o f r a t h e r b l e a k  - v i r t u a l l y no l i t e r a t u r e  acquaint  that  f o r the  s c h o o l s r e c e i v e d a much l a r g e r p e r income was n e e d e d t o p r o v i d e  to  annu-  reason  c a p i t a g r a n t , much o f t h i s  ligion;  while  of s u p p l i e s .  Although  oundings  oper-  that  elements o f  a s homes, n o t o n l y  where no s c h o o l s e x i s t e d ,  I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m R e v e r e n d George F o r b e s . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t the care r e c e i v e d by students o f S t . Eugene f r o m F a t h e r J o h n P a t t e r s o n , a f o r m e r chemdist, who went t h e r e i n 1928, d i d much t o save t h e K o o t e n a y s from e x t i n c t i o n .  81+ but  a l s o f o r c h i l d r e n f r o m b r o k e n homes, who  a t t e n d r e g u l a r day that u n t i l c o u l d do except fined  the  advent  from d i s e a s e  and  t o keep up  have t h e i r  was  those  the  reasoning  Indian c u l t u r e .  e s t a b l i s h day  essity  Governor-in-Council  s c h o o l s . Such s c h o o l s  year  s c h o o l . These  o f r e m o v i n g the  affairs  i t protected  some  and  the  same  being  child  was  could  that  act  they  de-  did  given a u t h o r i t y to  served  by  any  on  res-  denom-  d i d much t o overcome t h e  nec-  f r o m h i s home f o r t e n months o f  h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . As  r e c e n t l y as  attendance  province  the  not  become so  were g r a d u a l l y b u i l t  adequately  schools  time  social  yet  had  of l i q u o r  d u r i n g h i s e l e m e n t a r y y e a r s . Day  throughout  con-  them.  t h r o u g h the u s e  e r v a t i o n s w h i c h were n o t inational  r u l e which  r e t a i n e d the  standards  t h a t these  not  the  they  p a s s e d a b o l i s h i n g p o t l a t c h e s . The  excessive  I n 1920  admit  little  c o n d i t i o n s , at  children with  b a u c h e d and reflect  living  not  contracted tuberculosis  f a m i l i e s who  acceptable  a n a c t was  b a s e d on  already  unwholesome s o c i a l on  t h e r e was  s c h o o l , however, w h i l e  school-age  1912  had  thus  sisters  i n s c h o o l s o l a r i u m s . The  t o the  worked a h a r d s h i p  In  o f modern d r u g s  them r e s t  students  pride  s c h o o l s . However, t e a c h i n g  f o r c h i l d r e n who  give  could  s c h o o l s have n o t  provided  191+6-117 a v e r a g e day  was  still  the  school  only s i x t y - f i v e  per  cent The  official  policy  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n has the  aim  1  stated  o f the D e p a r t m e n t  1+0 D e p a r t m e n t  1+1 R-S.,  the  c.  C a n a d i a n government toward  v a r i e d over  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t ^ The  of  the  I873, an  that of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  of Indian A f f a i r s  81.  years. In  Report.  is  the  act  of  85 t h e advancement o f t h e I n d i a n i i l i z a t i o n , and a g e n t s have b e e n courage the Indians under t h e i r on t h e r e s e r v e s a n d t o engage i suits . Several  i n f e r e n c e s c a n be r e a d  have b e e n some s l i g h t resist  into  trepidation,  t h e move t o s e t t l e  n the a r t s of c i v appointed t o encharge t o s e t t l e n i n d u s t r i a l pur-  this  p o l i c y . There  first,  seems t o  that the Indians  them on r e s t r i c t e d  might  r e s e r v a t i o n s . Re-  s e r v e s , t h e a c t i n f e r s , were t o be a permanent a r r a n g e m e n t . I t was hoped t h a t t h e I n d i a n s w o u l d t a k e these with  sites,  and t h e r e  the non-Indian I n 1911,  of Indian Education  life  i n their  own e n v i r o n m e n t " . ^  I n 1913,  throughout  Y e a r Book f o r 1922-23  was d e s i g n e d provide until into  advancing  a  seems  system, and i n  r a t e , 1+0 p e r 1 0 0 0 T h e  Can-  s t a t e d t h a t the system o f r e s e r v e s f r o m e n c r o a c h m e n t , and t o  o f s a n c t u a r y where t h e y civilization  could develop  had made p o s s i b l e t h e i r  t h e g e n e r a l b o d y o f t h e c i t i z e n s " . The a t t i t u d e  c h a n g e d . The I n d i a n the  still  group.  " t o protect the Indians  a sort  There  Canada, t h e a v e r a g e b i r t h r a t e among  I n d i a n s was 36 p e r 1000; t h e d e a t h ada  -2  the p o l -  of the I n d i a n s f o r  i n the r e s e r v e  Indians' e x i s t e n c e as a r a c i a l  appointed  i n 1909, e n u n c i a t e d  as "the f i t t i n g  b e an i n f e r e n c e o f permanence  the  t h a t t h e y w o u l d merge  population.  of the e d u c a t i o n branch  civilized to  i s no s u g g e s t i o n  Duncan C a m p b e l l S c o t t , who h a d b e e n  Superintendent icy  t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on  unmolested, absorption here has  i s n o t d e s t i n e d t o remain i n d e f i n i t e l y  on  r e s e r v a t i o n , n o r i s he d e s t i n e d t o r e m a i n i n d e f i n i t e l y a s .  race. 1+2 S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s .  1911,  V o l . 19,  1+3 Canada Y e a r Book, p . 60£.  P a p e r 27, p . 271.  86 To  sum up t h e s e  of the n i n e t e e n t h  "in-between y e a r s "  century  and t h e f i r s t  - the l a s t forty  forty  years  years  o f the  twentieth: (1) The p e r i o d began w i t h example seeker.  the I n d i a n s '  o f White c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  These men d i s r e g a r d e d  d u r i n g the e a r l y years made l i t t l e  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a new  the g o l d miner and the l a n d  the n a t i v e s ' r i g h t s .  Government,  o f the Crown c o l o n i e s and t h e p r o v i n c e ,  o r no a t t e m p t  to administer  f o r them.  (2) Government a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , when i t d i d come i n t o ence, attempted  t o contain the natives behind  p a l e s , where i t was presumed t h e y w o u l d d e v e l o p civilization,  safe from the onslaught  exist-  a s e t of  a quasi-White  o f a c t u a l White  civili-  zation. (3) A c t s  concerning  t o the Indians to r e f l e c t  e d u c a t i o n , when a t l e n g t h t h e y of B r i t i s h  Columbia, tended  the r e s e r v a t i o n p o l i c y  however, m e n t i o n e d what a p p e a r e d  d i d apply  f o r many  o f c o n t a i n m e n t . Some  years  agents,  t o be s u c c e s s f u l t r i a l s a t  school i n t e g r a t i o n . (1+)  During  the second decade o f the p r e s e n t  mental p o l i c y began openly  to voice  century,  the b e l i e f  t h a t the  I n d i a n was a v a n i s h i n g r a c e w h i c h w o u l d , t h r o u g h h i g h and  absorption  (5>)  into  The d e n o m i n a t i o n a l e r a l based  tunities him  the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , i n t i m e residential  on t h e p h i l o s o p h y  l a y i n being  left  school  depart-  death r a t e  disappear.  s y s t e m was i n gen-  that the Indian's  best  oppor-  t o h i m s e l f , and a i m e d a t p r e p a r i n g  f o r making h i s own way on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n .  (6) The d a y s c h o o l s y s t e m , i n t r o d u c e d from a departmental t u a l merging o f the I n d i a n  philosophy into  late  i n this  era,  arose  w h i c h p r e d i c a t e d the e v e n -  the White p o p u l a t i o n .  Indian  87 population did, i n general, (7)  d e c l i n e throughout  Almost a l l f o r c e s throughout or u n w i t t i n g l y , to wipe  t u r e . I n most a r e a s u n d e r , and (8)  The  He  Indian  popular  The  was  sum  up  Indians'  of l i f e  as  only a  into high  i t was  o f the  a l l other  felt  by  c o u l d be  was  wittingly  pre-European  completely  cul-  ploughed  lost. - openly  a philosophy limited  by  expressed others  educational  by  - was  that  programme.  school.  a t t i t u d e t o assume t o w a r d t h e  a c h i l d , who  as a ward  accepted  progress  welfare, He  the  b e l i e f h e l d by Whites  could accomplish  could not (9)  o l d way  period.  the p e r i o d c o m b i n e d ,  i n some e v e n memory o f i t was  some; t a c i t l y the  the  out  this  Indian best  t h e W h i t e s , was best  legislated  s t a t e . This b e l i e f  one  of  f o r by  s u i t e d to h i s paternalism. treating  c o u l d , i n a s e n s e , be  him  said  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i e s , w h i c h stemmed  to  from  CHAPTER "V • THE  SOCIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF  INDIAN  LIFE  Our r e s e a r c h work t a k e s as a x i o m a t i c t h a t t h e a c c u l t u r a t i v e change o f t h e I n d i a n i s i r r e v e r s i b l e and i s g o i n g t o c o n t i n u e , no m a t t e r what i s done or d e s i r e d by a n y o n e . 1 But  the  I n d i a n d i d not  of B r i t i s h crease  C o l u m b i a had  of over  I n 1959,  die  the  three  195U,  o u t . By  to 31,086  risen  thousand from  p o p u l a t i o n has  the  the  Indian  population 3),  (see T a b l e  an i n -  count f o u r years  been e s t i m a t e d  a t between  before.  thirty-  2 five  can,  and  thirty-six  Nor  i s he  disappearing  t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n . No  t h r o u g h n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e , grow i n numbers by  eight  per  bers.  I n any  cent  i n ten years  c a s e , were  t a k i n g p l a c e , by Indians  arises  very  would decrease  One  says  thousand.  of the  from  an  Professors  be  process  definition  difficulties  o f i n t e g r a t i o n be  o f the  from y e a r  to  t e r m the  Indian  who  pursuant  or i s e n t i t l e d  Hawthown, B e l s h a w and  net  said  to  number  be  of  year.  with working with  means a p e r s o n  some t w e n t y -  l o s i n g v e r y many o f i t s mem-  these  the m e a n i n g o f the word " I n d i a n " . The  "'Indian*  t e r e d as  the  can  group which  figures  Indian  to t h i s Act  Act  is regis-  r e g i s t e r e d a 3 an  t o be  Jamieson say  of  this  3  Indian".  termin-  ology:^T h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s adequate f o r the g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f the p e o p l e we have s t u d i e d , y e t i t has no f i x e d c u l t u r a l o r b i o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g , an I n d i a n d e f i n e d by t h e A c t p o s s i b l y h a v i n g f e w e r I n d i a n f o r b e a r s t h a n a n o t h e r p e r s o n n o t so c a l l e d . 1  H.B.  2  J o i n t Committee o f t h e S e n a t e and the House o f Commons I n d i a n A f f a i r s , 1959, M i n u t e s . No. 3 . p . l i j . 8 .  3 R.S.  Hawthorn, C.S.  1952,  B e l s h a w , S.M.  C h a p t e r li+9,  I4, H a w t h o r n , e t a l , op.  2(g).  cit..  p.  16.  J a m i e s o n , op.  c i t . , p. on  89 The  fact  Columbia  woman may become a n I n d i a n p u r s u a n t  a man e n t i t l e d  may become n o n - I n d i a n  chisement.'  through  marriage  7  The t e r m  who come u n d e r  jurisdiction  a n I n d i a n woman  to a non-Indian.^  Either  t o be so c l a s s e d t h r o u g h  "Indian" w i l l ,  c h a p t e r s , be u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e  enfran-  i n t h i s and the subsequent  those  persons  in British  Columbia  of the " I n d i a n A c t " .  A c t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p a n d  Immigration,  who i s a l s o s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  The  of B r i t i s h  cies  in British  t o t h i s A c t by  t o be so c l a s s e d by i t ; ^  male o r f e m a l e I n d i a n may c e a s e  The  of an Indian  i s a l e g a l d e f i n i t i o n , n o t an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l one. A  non-Indian marrying  i s t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n  Province  general of Indian  Columbia I s d i v i d e d i n t o e i g h t e e n  (see P l a t e V ) , e a c h w i t h a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  Affairs. agen-  r e s p o n s i b l e t o the  Q  Indian the  Commissioner  for British  Indian A c t the G o v e r n o r - i n - C o u n c l l  a band c o u n c i l  By S e c t i o n 73  Columbia.  (1) o f  may d e c l a r e b y o r d e r  s h a l l be e l e c t e d b y t h e p r o c e d u r e  laid  that  down i n  the A c t . The gard  c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s which g i v e r i s e  t o the I n d i a n a r e , i n g e n e r a l , those  rights  which p e r t a i n t o l e g a l  (other than r e s e r v a t i o n s ) , the r e s e r v a t i o n system,  and  economic  conditions, religion,  AH  o f these  factors  related. In this  chapter  5 R.S. 1952.  integration,  an attempt w i l l in relation  Chapter  6 Ibid.. Section  12.  7 Ibid.,  109.  Section  degree,  inter-  be made t o d e l i n e a t e  t o the f i r s t  lk9, Section  social  and e d u c a t i o n .  a r e , to a greater or l e s s e r  p r o b l e m s t h a t have a r i s e n ~~  t o problems w i t h r e -  five  categor-  11.  8 I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m A.V. P a r m i n t e r , spector of Schools f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  Regional In-  90 ies,  k e e p i n g e a c h c a t e g o r y as d i s t i n c t i v e  sake  of c l a r i t y . E d u c a t i o n w i l l  as p o s s i b l e  f o r m t h e body o f t h e  f o r the following  chapter. The ized on  Indians of B r i t i s h  i n t o movements t o a i r t h e i r  have o v e r the y e a r s  g r i e v a n c e s . Out  t h e C o a s t , the N a t i v e B r o t h e r h o o d  oped. In  C h i e f Andy P a u l l  I9I4JL4.  number o f C o a s t and North American bia  Columbia  Interior  I n 19U5, British  under  These  of which  Basil  Confederacy  groups, native  o f the Senate  and  cuss I n d i a n problems. 19i+8 were l a r g e l y  1 0  to increase  191+9, and  i n 1950  1959*  existence.  9  non-Indian teachers,  that  the a  I n d i a n was  Special  Recommendations made b y  An  I n 1955  amendment  this  not  Joint to  a  Commdis-  Commission i n  law.  permitted Indians to  i n b e e r p a r l o r s where p e r m i s s i o n was I n 1956,  S e c t i o n 69 o f t h e A c t  so  was  l o a n f u n d t o one m i l l i o n  doll-  I n d i a n s were g i v e n t h e p r o v i n c i a l v o t e i n  an I n d i a n , F r a n k  of A t l i n  10 D o m i n i o n B u r e a u  C a l d e r , r e p r e s e n t e d the  i n the l e g i s l a t i v e  9 Hawthorn e t a l , op. c i t . ,  290.  Colum-  F a l a r d e a u o f Kamloops, the  one. I n I9I+6  the r e v o l v i n g  Columbia  toral district  British  t h e House o f Commons c o n v e n e d  beverages  g r a n t e d by p r o v i n c i a l  ars. British  the  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n f o r m u l a t i o n of the R e v i s e d  Indian Act of 1 9 5 1 .  revised  a  and members o f P a r l i a m e n t , g r a d u a l l y made the  v a n i s h i n g r a c e , but a growing  drink alcoholic  devel-  influenced  he was  came i n t o  l e a d e r s , and  F e d e r a l government aware o f t h e f a c t  ission  Columbia  I n d i a n s to form a c h a p t e r of  o f Mr.  Interior  church o f f i c i a l s  groups,  the time o f h i s d e a t h i n J u l y o f  leadership  Columbia  of these  of N o r t h Vancouver  Indian Brotherhood,  representative u n t i l  of B r i t i s h  organ-  assembly.  In  elec-  1951  p p . I47I1-I4.75.  of S t a t i s t i c s  Reference  Papers K  1952,  p.  91 the  Indians  alcoholic  of B r i t i s h  beverages  C o l u m b i a were g i v e n  i n beer  the r i g h t  to d r i n k  parlors.  P r o f e s s o r s Hawthorn, B e l s h a w a n d J a m i e s o n comment on  t h e new a t t i t u d e  activity:  toward the I n d i a n r e f l e c t e d  by such  thus legal  1 1  Now t h e I n d i a n i s n o t v a n i s h i n g a t a l l . He i s a p e r s o n w i t h a n i n c r e a s i n g s a y i n h i s own f u t u r e , who h a s o u t g r o w n some f o r m s o f g u a r d i a n s h i p b y government a n d c h u r c h e s . Headed f o r a s s i m i l a t i o n , he i s a n e c o n o m i c f a c t o r and a n e i g h b o r whose d e s i r a b i l i t y i s a m a t t e r of v a r i e d o p i n i o n . S u c h a c t s a n d amendments have n o t o f c o u r s e the  I n d i a n s ' p r o b l e m s . ""• j o i n t  ently again that  Brotherhood  Peter K e l l y ,  the B r o t h e r h o o d . eral  vote  Committee i s c u r r -  i n s e d s i o n . One b r i e f a l r e a d y s u b m i t t e d  of the Native  Reverend  Parliamentary  of B r i t i s h  Chairman o f the L e g i s l a t i v e  The main r e q u e s t  i n this brief  f o r I n d i a n s . I t a l s o asks  the removal o f J u s t i c e  to i t i s  Columbia, presented  by  Committee o f  i s f o r the Fed-  f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f the  power o f v e t o b y t h e m i n i s t e r and I n d i a n A f f a i r s and  solved a l l of  Branch  o f the Peace a u t h o r i t y from  officials, department  12 officials.  In asking  to f i v e m i l l i o n said:  t h a t the r e v o l v i n g l o a n f u n d  d o l l a r s , Reverend K e l l y , a Haida  be i n c r e a s e d  Indian by b i r t h ,  1 3  I f t h e I n d i a n i s t o be i n t e g r a t e d e c o n o m i c a l l y he n e e d s t o be e n c o u r a g e d i n f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and i n t e g r i t y . . . I t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n c a n no l o n g e r l i v e h i s t r a d i t i o n a l way o f l i f e on t h e r e s e r v e . C o n t r a r y t o t h e o r d i n a r y publ i c c o n c e p t o f h i s p o s i t i o n a s a "ward o f t h e g o v ernment" t h e I n d i a n i s f a c e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f 11  The I n d i a n s  12 M i n u t e s , 13  of B r i t i s h  p . 138.  Ibid., p. lip..  Columbia, p. 59.  92 m a k i n g a l i v i n g l i k e a n y o t h e r c i t i z e n , and i s doing so i n the f a c e of u n e q u a l c o m p e t i t i o n i n t h e C a n a d i a n economy. The ian, the  brief  further claims  income t a x e x e m p t i o n  f o r the Ind-  and makes t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t " t h e a b o r i g i n a l land of B r i t i s h The  reserve  titles to  C o l u m b i a have n e v e r b e e n e x t i n g u i s h e d "  system has i n f l u e n c e d I n d i a n  t h i n k i n g from i t s  i n c e p t i o n . N e v e r t o o l a r g e , r e s e r v e s have b e e n e n c r o a c h e d  on b y  White c i v i l i z a t i o n , and where t h e y a b u t  by a  city  they  come i n f o r p e r i o d i c  b a n d , removed f r o m near E s q u i m a l t ,  the V i c t o r i a  p u b l i c s c r u t i n y . The S o n g h e e s harbor  i n 1912  to a  location  have r e c e i v e d o v e r t u r e s f o r s a l e o f t h e i r  s i t e . - ' The Cowichans were I n d u c e d 1  their  or are surrounded  i n 1957  to s e l l  present  a p o r t i o n of  r e s e r v a t i o n , o n l y t o d i s c o v e r t h a t t h e l a n d was  subdivided  16  and  re-sold  at a greatly increased prine.  has  b e e n p u t on a p o r t i o n o f t h e N o r t h  The p r e s s u r e  Vancouver r e s e r v e  that i s com-  mon kn ow l e d ge . Some r e s e r v e s small plots last  l i e completely  o f ground, the S e c h e l t t r i b e  o f the others having  bring  tenanted  - out of occupies  t o the v i l l a g e  twenty-eight only  b e e n abandoned o n l y t h i s  Chek-Welp r e s e r v e , a d j a c e n t pletely  vacant  one, t h e  y e a r . The  of Gibsons,  i s com-  by W h i t e s . Such r e s e r v e s as the l a t t e r  a c e r t a i n amount o f r e v e n u e  to  them, w h i c h f a c t  to  part with  accounts  t o w h a t e v e r bands h o l d  i n part f o r the Indians'  them. U n d e r s t a n d a b l y ,  o f course  r e s e r v a t i o n Indians  rights  reluctance feel  that  ll+ M i n u t e s , p . 11+3 • 15 I n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d f r o m i n t e r v i e w w i t h Songhees, A p r i l , 1958. 16  Information  1958.  r e c e i v e d f r o m R. E l l i o t t ,  Chief Percy  Ross,  Cowichan. A p r i l .  93 these p l o t s o f land, domain, a n d t h a t bits  of unity  abolished. Dr.  them w o u l d  their  o n l y be g i v i n g away t h e l a s t  isolated;  also  that  the r e s e r v a t i o n  i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o White  stands  i n the  c u l t u r e . Others  t o m a i n t a i n the Indians'  feel  solidarity, ''' a 1  n o t r e t a i n were t h e r e s e r v a t i o n  t o be  1 8  Stuart  small  feel  they could  Jamieson b e l i e v e s  that  needed, so t h a t  for  leasers  i t must be h e l d  sense  the  abolishing  o f the Indians'  that  too  a s t h e y may b e , a r e a t l e a s t  o f a l a n d w h i c h was once a l l t h e i r s . Some I n d i a n  way  small  larger reserves,  the I n d i a n  reservation.  - residents instance,  that reserves  1 9  may g a i n  with better a sense  f a c i l i t i e s , are  of identity  Some I n d i a n s a p p a r e n t l y  f r o m t h e "backwoods" r e s e r v e  identify  are too small,  feel  beyond  this  of V i l l a g e  need  Island,  themselves w i t h the l a r g e r c e n t r e of  20 Alert the  Bay.  first  A teacher  school  convinced that liquor Indian  peddlers  who was i n s t r u m e n t a l  f o r the C a r r i e r I n d i a n s  a reservation  i n the opening o f  o f P e n d l e t o n Bay i s  I s n e e d e d on B a b i n e  Lake s o t h a t  could  be p r o s e c u t e d u n d e r S e c t i o n 21 Act f o r trespassing.  S o c i a l and economic general,  conditions  p o o r . The r e s e r v e  itself  17 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d A u g u s t , 1958.  30 o f t h e  on t h e s e r e s e r v e s  are, i n  i s u s u a l l y u n p r o d u c t i v e and  from Chief  Reg P a u l l ,  Sechelt,  18 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m Joe M i c h e l l e , t e a c h e r , Kamloops R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l , A u g u s t , 1958. 19 CBU R o u n d t a b l e , November 8, 1958. 20  Information obtained from Clarence s e c r e t a r y , A u g u s t , 1959*  2:1 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m M r s . Bay, B a b i n e L a k e , J u l y , 1958.  Joe, Sechelt  Jay Kullander,  Band  Pendleton  9k s m a l l . The I n d i a n h a s a c q u i r e d enough o f t h e W h i t e man's c u l t u r e to e a t foods taken  he d i d n o t have i n h i s own c u l t u r e , b u t he h a s n o t  to r a i s i n g  h i s own f r u i t s  and v e g e t a b l e s . He r e m a i n s a  food g a t h e r e r , but the n a t u r a l foods  he once g a t h e r e d  i n abund-  ance a r e n o t so p l e n t i f u l now. He h a s l o n g s i n c e c e a s e d his  t o make  own c l o t h i n g . He h a s l e a r n e d t o p u r c h a s e h i s n e c e s s i t i e s ,  22 but  h i s purchasing  power i s o n l y a t h i r d  or l e s s . T h e r e f o r e and  r e s e r v a t i o n houses tend  lacking In f a c i l i t i e s  b a s i c . The s u r v e y  o f t h e W h i t e man's, t o be s m a l l ,  w h i c h t h e W h i t e man has come t o c o n s i d e r  conducted  i n 195>1+ f o r P r o f e s s o r s Hawthorn, B e l -  shaw a n d J a m i e s o n r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y e l e v e n p e r c e n t sampled  throughout  unpainted,  the province  had f l u s h  toilets,  o f houses  baths,  or r e -  frigerators S i n c e money i s a c o m p a r a t i v e l y and  new f e a t u r e i n h i s economy,  s i n c e t r a d i t i o n a l l y he d i d n o t have t o p u r c h a s e f o o d ,  l o n g a f t e r he b e g a n t r a d i n g w i t h  even  t h e White man, t h e I n d i a n  does n o t a l w a y s b u d g e t o r b u y on a b a s i s o f t h r i f t when he does have money. S i n c e adic  seasonal  t h e money he e a r n s  jobs, there are long periods during  out  income. During  ing  times  these  of comparatively  full  f r o m band f u n d s w h e n  are  these  Branch administers  f o r c e d t o expend  their  employment i n W h i t e forrelief.  funds  relief, funds  of B r i t i s h  21; S e c t i o n 66 ( 2 ) .  with-  even  dur-  communities  Such r e l i e f  i s drawn  a r e d e p l e t e d , the I n d i a n g e n e r a l l y s c r i p t . Most bands  on r e l i e f ,  a n d t o save  22 Hawthorn e t a l , o p . c i t . , p . 220. 23 The I n d i a n s  spor-  the year  p e r i o d s many I n d i a n f a m i l i e s ,  nearby, a r e f o r c e d t o r e g i s t e r  Affairs  comes, u s u a l l y , f r o m  C o l u m b i a , p . 2i+5.  during  95 times  o f comparative  p l e n t y f o r such  purposes.  Provisionf o r  f e n c e s , s a n i t a r y c o n d i t i o n s , and a d e q u a t e d w e l l i n g s , w h i c h must a l s o be p a i d f o r o u t o f band f u n d s , Howard, MP f o r S k e e n a , f o u n d an  I n d i a n f a m i l y on r e l i e f  s u f f e r as a r e s u l t .  upon p r i c i n g  that t h e i r  each per month. ^ Even a t t h i s 2  t h e goods r e c e i v e d b y  c a s h e q u i v a l e n t was $10.i|.7  s m a l l r a t e , one r e s e r v a t i o n w i t h  a p o p u l a t i o n o f o n l y t h r e e h u n d r e d r e q u i r e d some f i f t e e n dollars  in relief  Trapping,  Frank  d u r i n g the p a s t  thousand  winter.  f i s h i n g and wood-working, t r a d i t i o n a l I n d i a n  ustries, are offering  l e s s a n d l e s s employment  f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the Indian, r e l a t i v e l y  ind-  t o them, and "un-  few o f h i s s p e c i a l i z e d  pQ skills  had any s i g n i f i c a n t  pressed;  fish  transfer value".  c a n n e r i e s , once s c a t t e r e d a l o n g  almost  a l l concentrated  Indian  labor p o o l s . F i s h i n g boats  all  t h e c o a s t , a r e now  n e a r c i t i e s , where t h e r e a r e l a r g e n o n are deteriorating  up a n d down t h e c o a s t b e c a u s e I n d i a n s , h a v i n g  cannot  obtain loans  fund  i s u s e d up e a c h y e a r w i t h o u t  last  hired  no  collateral, when  l o a n s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e . The r e v o l v i n g l o a n  a seasonal  b e n e f i t t i n g many needy b a n d s .  Industry at best, Indians  and t h e f i r s t  25 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d A u g u s t , 1958. 26  on b e a c h e s  them a f t e r a p o o r s e a s o n ,  l a c k funds.  In lumbering,  NHA  to maintain  they  the  F u r p r i c e s a r e de-  s a y "We a r e  t o be l e t g o " . f r o m C h i e f Reg P a u l l ,  Sechelt,  S e c t i o n 66.  27 V a n c o u v e r Sun, A u g u s t 29, 1958. 28 Diamond J e n n e s s , "Canada's I n d i a n P r o b l e m " , A n n u a l Reo r t o f the Boards o f Regents o f the Smithsonian I n s t t u t l o n , 19k2, p . 373.  f  29  Information obtained A u g u s t , 1959.  f r o m C h i e f Reg P a u l l ,  Sechelt,  2 9  I n an attempt p r o v i s i o n has lishment  million Yet  division  o f the  of which w i l l  opment o f the  depressed  b e e n made i n t h i s y e a r ' s  o f a new  sponsibility  te a l l e v i a t e  I n d i a n . The  dollars  be  economic c o n d i t i o n s ,  estimates  f o r the  estab-  Indian A f f a i r s  Branch,  the r e -  to look a f t e r  the economic  B r a n c h w e l f a r e b u d g e t , w h i c h was  i n I9I4.8-I4.9, i s n i n e m i l l i o n  e c o n o m i c and  social  for 1958-59.  c o n d i t i o n s , measured  c o m m u n i t i e s , c a n be  interpreted  these  t e r p r e t e d b y and  affect  t h o r n , B e l s h a w and clusion  t h a t no  light the  o f how  Indians  customary a c t i o n s , elements  a t the  of b e l i e f  knowledge o r t e c h n i q u e s , have b e e n t r a n s m i t t e d f r o m erations  t o the p r e s e n t w i t h o u t  " ( y e t ) i t must be ians  today  principal the  3 3  remembered  are not  ones  s i x hundred  same as want  those  by  communities".  school at Telegraph  'people',  incentive,  o f the r e s t  jobs, a l i v e l i h o o d .  their  with  They know n o t h i n g  The  with  to be.  o f t h e o l d way  the They of  life" .  30 M i n u t e s ,  p.  31  The  32  I b i d . , p.  33  Information  Indians  13. of B r i t i s h  Columbia, p.  39.  1+1. obtained  f r o m an  Ind-  of  o b j e c t i v e s are  o f our p o p u l a t i o n tends  3 2  Creek says  the a s p i r a t i o n s  aims and  gen-  add  i n h a b i t a n t s t h e r e : "They a r e n o t I n d i a n ,  I n d i a n a s p i r a t i o n s , but 'people'. Given  attitude,  earlier  major a l t e r a t i o n s " , but  s h a r e d by most W h i t e  con-  or  t h a t some o f t h e n e e d s f e l t  o f the p r o v i n c i a l  fully  P r o f e s s o r s Haw-  have a r r i v e d  3  3 0  c o n d i t i o n s are i n -  concerned.  J a m i e s o n say -*- "we  two  intrinsically  o r compared w i t h c o n d i t i o n s i n W h i t e o n l y i n the  devel-  interview, July,  1958.  of  Among s t i l l  other groups v e s t i g i n a l  aboriginal beliefs  are  Tsimshian  continue  villages  quietly. Carriers onset  still  still  of m e n s t r u a t i o n .  initiation  rites  observed.  i n a special hall.  Many g r o u p s g i v e  along  the  once i m p o r t a n t ,  keep t r a c k o f i n h e r i t e d  village  said  "First  a  g e n e r a l , I t can  c h a o t i c , s h a k e n one.  umbia H e r i t a g e  be  said  A.F.  Indian  t h e y gave us  Of  the  former,  a drinking chief  remain. ^" 3  t h a t the I n d i a n s ' s o c i a l  Flucke, writing  S e r i e s , ' ' comments on 3  was  social position. Elected  t h e n a s l e e p i n g c h i e f " . Some s u p e r s t i t i o n s In  the  society  c o a s t where c a s t e  d i s t i n g u i s h e d from h e r e d i t a r y c h i e f s .  members o f one  and  and  school during  Cowichans o p e n l y h o l d s e c r e t  a t b i r t h and,  are  Some r e m o t e K w a k i u t l  home f r o m  names t o b a b i e s  chiefs  on  t o h o l d p o t l a t c h e s , i n camera  keep g i r l s The  ceremonies based  this  life  i n the B r i t i s h  is  Col-  disruption:  The w h i t e man's c i v i l i z a t i o n p r e s s e s f o r w a r d as an o v e r w h e l m i n g f l o o d , b l o t t i n g o u t the c u l t u r e s o f l e s s e r p e o p l e s i n a l l p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . The life of t h e B e l l a C o o l a s has b e e n d e s t r o y e d , and wonderi n g l y , h a l f - p r o u d l y , h a l f - p l a i n t i v e l y , the s u r v i v o r s watch the d o w n f a l l o f a l l t h a t t h e i r anc e s t o r s c h e r i s h e d . Too o f t e n t h e w h i t e man fails t o u n d e r s t a n d t h i s ; t o o o f t e n he f a i l s t o r e a l i z e t h a t p r o g r e s s , as he s e e s i t , i s w i p i n g o u t v a l u a b l e e l e m e n t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n h i s own, i n s t e a d o f s e e k i n g t h e g o o d i n them and p r e s e r v i n g i t f o r the b e n e f i t o f h i m s e l f and the n a t i v e a l i k e . ... I t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the o l d r i t e s and o l d a m b i t i o n s s h o u l d p a s s , b u t the p r o h i b i t i o n o f t h e s e b e f o r e new o n e s had t a k e n t h e i r p l a c e has b e e n d i s astrous . S u c h a breakdown i n c u l t u r e has sonal problems. A be ing  d u r a b l e , and  survey  resistant  3 0  of course  resulted  shows t h a t I n d i a n m a r r i a g e s to such  i n pertend  f a c t o r s as p o v e r t y , p o o r  c o n d i t i o n s , and  s e a s o n a l employment, f a c t o r s w h i c h t e n d  "3l+  obtained  Information  I n d i a n s , t e a c h e r s and  35  Bella  36  Hawthorn, B e l s h a w , Jamie s o n ,  C o o l a , pp.  69,  from 70.  op.  cit.,  p. 281;.  to livto  others.  98 b r e a k up the  W h i t e m a r r i a g e s . But  toils  five  per  of  to a c o n t i n u a l l y  increasing  cent of  the  women i n m a t e s a t  Oakalla  mainly f o r alcoholism can  be  altered  this s i z e . Social conditions  or e a s i l y . B o t h o f  these a t t r i b u t e s  bearing  factor,  on  The  another  and  c u l t u r a l and  or m i g h t n o t  inevitable or  the  two  ethnic  in  Forty-  Farm  are  prostitution. rapidly for  culture  the  distinct  ethnic  e x i s t between the  does n o t  and  c a n n o t be  two  r e l a t i o n s h i p . Grouping peoples  schooling  degree.  Prison  fairly  of  themselves  changed  a  so  quickly  have a s i g n i f i c a n t  integration.  t e r m " i n t e g r a t i o n " has  i n both  might  finding  law  Economic c o n d i t i o n s  used  are  the  Indian, incarcerated  group of  natives  necessarily  i n t e g r a t i o n does n o t  lead  to  implications.  sense. A kinds,  together  necessarily  Is  relationship  but  ethnic  It  there  is  no  f o r work  integration,  lead  to c u l t u r a l i n -  tegration. Culturally, portray the  a  true  same j o b  statistics  p i c t u r e . The  does n o t  are  of  little  f a c t that  mean t h a t  two  value racial  they perceive  N e g r o e s i n Canada work as  porters  could  argue  they are  from t h i s f a c t  t u r a l l y with engineers, industry.  on  sense  of  cul-  t r a i n s , but  integrated  one  cul-  f i r e m e n and  conductors i n the  railroading  I n d i a n s , a t what n o r t h e r n  canneries remain,  fish  non-Indians, but  they e x i s t  the  i s , then, w i t h i n  o t h e r . There  subdivision From the  that  to  g r o u p s work a t  any  tural unity. hardly  i n attempts  i n t o economic  days o f  economic, but races.  True  ceived  by  the  very  i n s o c i a l enclaves, d i s t i n c t  fur-trader,  little  one  cultural integration a  i n t e g r a t i o n and British  active  from  social integration. C o l u m b i a has  social integration  p a r t i c i p a n t s , not  do  further  of  s e e n much  I n d i a n and  s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n must, i n o r d e r t o e x i s t , be  the  as  m e r e l y by  an  White per-  observer.  99 Apparent social  i n t e g r a t i o n i s not  i n t e g r a t i o n can be  cerned,  t o be  g r a t i o n has To  the  not  date,  necessarily real  truthfully  r u l e r a t h e r than  i t i s the  exception  "friendliness"  m a r k e t - p l a c e means n o t h i n g .  The  a neighborhood  be  extent  homes o f t h e  a limited  can  probably  opposite  taken  place  unless  the  represents not  one  British  o f the  chat  coninte-  f r o m an  Columbia  takes  In  villages place,  to  localities, a White  place.  be  said  t o have  Indian with a non-Indian.  dominant r a c i a l m a j o r i t y f u l l y  the  indication  s u r r o u n d e d by  may  in  visit  I t does t a k e  visiting  British  integration in  i n A l b e r n i . I n most  purely social  accepts  the  Yet  mate  who  dominated r a c i a l m i n o r i t y , merely b i o l o g i c a l , occurred. the  o r manage t o c r o s s the  C o l u m b i a as  the  occurred  O f f s p r i n g from such a  and union  dominated m i n o r i t y group of  o t h e r . There  color-line i s no  into  mid-point  i n Manitoba w i t h  the on  the  the  dominant the  scale  appearance  Metis.  A questionnaire, mailed dents,  and  on the  i n t e g r a t i o n element  responded  This questionnaire and  in  non-Indian f a m i l i e s  and  i n the m a t i n g o f an  m a j o r i t y g r o u p &f in  discovered  r e s e r v a t i o n i s completely  become i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  parent,  cultural  the r u l e  social  i n t e g r a t i o n of a p r i v a t e nature  the  persons  criterion. A  degree of best  Bay  e t h n i c , i n t e g r a t i o n has  either  i s no  g r o u p . I n most B r i t i s h  in Alert  community, a l m o s t no Ethnic  exception,  i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent.  extent,  e v e n where t h e  the  those  r a t h e r than  t o w h i c h I n d i a n and  such v i s i t i n g  s a i d , by  occurred.  Columbia. General  of the  integration. Until  t o by  t o the  thirteen i n Indian  follows, with  comments where a p p r o p r i a t e :  eighteen  agency  superinten-  o f them, e l i c i t e d life  in British  a summary o f r e p l i e s  information Columbia. received,  100  1.  What i s t h e t o t a l  I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n o f your  P l a t e V shows t h e s e 2.  f o r a l l a g e n c i e s , f o r 195U»  figures  Do y o u know how many o f t h e s e Most r e p l i e s  s p e a k no E n g l i s h ?  o f b e t w e e n 2£ a n d £0 p e r s o n s ,  gave f i g u r e s  w i t h t h e comment t h a t t h e s e were e l d e r l y p e r s o n s . t i m a t e d $% o f t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n c a n n o t 3. Do t h e young s t i l l Only of  their  tell  element  them c o n v e r s e  estimated  do s p e a k t h e i r  me on one i n s t a n c e t h a t t h e y d e p l o r e  have h e a r d  the language  own  that  language.  t o d i s c o v e r . I have h a d I n d i a n  none o f t h e young c a n s p e a k t h e i r time  learn  superintendents  7%% o f I n d i a n c h i l d r e n  today.  tongue?  one r e p l y s t a t e d t h a t no c h i l d r e n  Language i s a d i f f i c u l t  In a l l , an es-  speak E n g l i s h  their native  a n c e s t o r s . On a n a v e r a g e ,  approximately  parents  learn  agency?  the f a c t  that  n a t i v e tongue, and a t another  with their  children  i n their  own  language. i+. How many y o u n g , i f a n y , l e a r n no E n g l i s h a t home? Superintendents out  t h a t an average  of  t h e p r o v i n c e , l e a r n no E n g l i s h a t home. A g a i n ,  icult from  indicated  t o make a n a c c u r a t e  estimate  t h e a r e a between t h e l o w e r  t h a t most o r a l l o f t h e i r g l i s h . This o f course  on l a n g u a g e .  students  begin  i s no c e r t a i n  i ti s diff-  Many  Skeena and B a b i n e  teachers  Lake  t o such an e x t e n t  state  s c h o o l s p e a k i n g no E n -  indication  t h a t fchey  c o u l d n o t do s o - p e r h a p s t h e I n d i a n tongue d o m i n a t e s localities  through-  t h a t the c h i l d  appears  i n some  t o know no  English. 5. A b o u t how many o f t h e I n d i a n s mixed? b e l i e v e d t h a t 60$  are pure-blood; o f the Indians  how may  One  superintendent  of h i s agency  are  o f p u r e b l o o d . A n o t h e r e s t i m a t e d $0%; most e s t i m a t e s  varied  101 f r o m 3>0% down t o 10$. I t w o u l d seem, f r o m e s t i m a t e s made, 2$% o f t h e I n d i a n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e a r e f u l l - b l o o d .  about racial to  admixture  t h e degree  by W h i t e s  does n o t seem t o v a r y d i r e c t l y  o f White c o n t a c t . Some I n t e r i o r  f o r over a hundred  of  The  i n proportion  areas, overrun  y e a r s , show g r e a t e r r a c i a l  t h a n do some c o a s t a l l o c a l i t i e s t o w h i c h W h i t e s and  purity  came much  i n much s m a l l e r numbers. Y e t , e c o n o m i c a l l y a t l e a s t , the former groups have 6.  Almost  integrated better  About how many a r e I n d i a n l e g a l l y , blood? a l lreplies  to this  that  later Indians  t h a n have t h e l a t t e r . but not o f Indian  q u e s t i o n gave a n e s t i m a t e o f a b o u t  A s u r v e y made b y P r o f e s s o r s Hawthorn, B e l s h a w a n d J a m i e s o n that  i n 1954,  i n 27 m a r r i a g e s  e n t e r e d an I n d i a n b a n d .  3 7  out o f a t o t a l  Unless t h i s  a t i o n non-Indian  through marriage  b a n d , b u t d r i f t s b a c k I n t o White 7.  of about  Indian status  does n o t r e m a i n  parti n the  society.  the f i g u r e s  to a non-Indian  t h e same a v e r a g e ,  I n d i a n women who became n o n - I n d i a n  through marriage, approximates f o r B r i t i s h Columbia  i n accordance  130, t h e t o t a l  f o r 1958.  3 8  Branch Report,  t h e number  w i t h the A c t ,  enfranchisement  Thus i t w o u l d seem t h a t  "37 The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 38 I n d i a n A f f a i r s  each y e a r . I f i t  f o r the a g e n c i e s n o t r e c o r d e d i n  q u e s t i o n n a i r e w o u l d show a b o u t  figure  Indian popul-  7 p e r s o n s p e r b a n d , a l l women, g a i n e d n o n -  through marriage  c a n be assumed t h a t  of  there  Can y o u e s t i m a t e a b o u t how many men and women become non-Indian, a c c o r d i n g t o the A c t , each y e a r ?  An a v e r a g e  this  defined  by b i r t h . What happens i s t h a t t h e W h i t e  n e r who e n t e r s t h e b a n d  shows  o f 21+8, a W h i t e w i f e  y e a r was a b n o r m a l ,  s h o u l d be f a r more t h a n 1% o f t h e l e g a l l y  1%,  p . 62.  1958, p . 65..  102  a l m o s t no I n d i a n m a l e s g a i n e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t . I n t h a t  c a s e , how-  e v e r , t h e r e s h o u l d be a c o n s i d e r a b l e m a j o r i t y o f a d u l t m a l e s on e a c h r e s e r v e . Pew I n d i a n m a l e s , What o c c u r s h e r e separated  i s that  h o w e v e r , tend, t o r e m a i n  single.  t h e woman, d e s e r t e d b y o r o t h e r w i s e  f r o m , h e r W h i t e h u s b a n d , e v e n t u a l l y makes h e r way b a c k  t o t h e r e s e r v a t i o n , where she mates w i t h a n I n d i a n m a l e .  This  phenomenon h a s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n  of this  writing case,  t h e p a s t week o f t h e t i m e  on a r e s e r v e w i t h w h i c h  I am a c q u a i n t e d . As i s o f t e n t h e  t h i s woman h a s a c h i l d , w h i c h h a s b e e n c l a s s e d a s n o n -  I n d i a n w h i l e she h a s b e e n o f f t h e r e s e r v a t i o n . W i t h h e r r e t u r n , she r e g a i n s h e r I n d i a n s t a t u s , a n d t h e c h i l d  becomes I n d i a n .  3 9  Undoubtedly  another reason f o r the presence  White b i r t h  on r e s e r v e s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e number o f I n d i a n -  non-Indian marriages r e g i s t e r e d these marriages ethnically return  i n a c t u a l i t y many o f  t a k e p l a c e between two p e r s o n s b o t h o f whom a r e  I n d i a n . The p r e s e n c e  t o h e r own p e o p l e  t i o n e d above  i s that  o f so few women o f  easier  o f t h e r e s e r v a t i o n makes t h e f o r a woman s u c h a s t h e one men-  t h a n w o u l d be t h e ease were i t n o t i n e x i s t e n c e .  8. A b o u t how many m i x e d m a r r i a g e s Answers h e r e ranged  from  are there i n a year?  1 t o 12, w i t h an average  tween 1+ a n d 5» S i n c e a v e r y few m a l e s  (estimated a t fewer  o fbethan  one  p e r r e s e r v e p e r y e a r ) do s e e k e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , a n d s i n c e a  few  I n d i a n m a l e s do m a r r y n o n - I n d i a n women a n d r e t a i n  ian  s t a t u s , t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e number o f m i x e d  their  Ind-  m a r r i a g e s a n d t h e number o f f e m a l e s who g a i n e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t , a s estimated  i n Q u e s t i o n 7» Much o f t h i s  made up b y t h e m a r r i a g e s  referred  difference  i s undoubtedly  t o i n t h e comments on Q u e s t i o n  39 C h a p t e r 1+0, S e c t i o n 13 o f I n d i a n A c t a s Amended 1 9 5 6 .  7;  marriages  Indian  i n v o l v i n g a p a r t n e r who i s n o n - I n d i a n  l e g a l l y but  racially.  9.  Of t h e s e , c o u l d y o u e s t i m a t e how many o r what f r a c t i o n take p l a c e between p u r e - b l o o d I n d i a n s and n o n - I n d i a n s , how many between I n d i a n s o f m i x e d a n c e s t r y a n d n o n - I n d i a n s ?  and  Some s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s t i o n . Among t h o s e to  t h a t they  quesseemed  d i f f e r e n c e , b u t most i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e  o f mixed m a r r i a g e s i n v o l v e an I n d i a n p a r t n e r  ancestry. This  should  of course  the Indian p o p u l a t i o n  o f mixed  be t r u e , s i n c e a n a v e r a g e  o f 75$  i s o f m i x e d b l o o d , b u t one s u p e r i n t e n -  d e n t commented t h a t t h e p u r e - b l o o d s their  c o u l d n o t answer t h i s  who d i d a n s w e r , a few s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e  be no a p p r e c i a b l e  majority  of  felt  seem t o p r e f e r t o r e m a i n i n  own g r o u p . 10.  Most spokesmen a r e o f p a r t l y White a n c e s t r y . Do y o u b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e spokesmen t r u l y r e p r e s e n t t h e f e e l i n g s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f the p u r e - b l o o d ? Almost a l l answers a g r e e d White b e c a u s e  this  t h a t spokesmen, who t e n d  make a d i s t i n c t i o n  that  stated that  between p u r e - b l o o d  do w i t h r e f e r e n c e  a partly-White  t h a t he was  and a s p i r a t i o n s o f the I n d i a n s  t o them, a n d a n o t h e r  commented  t o h i s group  Indian.  Kitamaat and along  many y e a r s  the Skeena, i n M i s t  among t h e T s i m s h i a n s , a t on t h e R l v e r ^  i n t e g r a t i o n p r o b l e m as e n c o u n t e r e d and responded  brother  do n o t  a n d p a r t - b l o o d I n t h e same  spokesman w o u l d want t o p r o v e  H u b e r t E v a n s , who s p e n t  the  the f e e l i n g s  g r o u p . One s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  way a s W h i t e s  partly  p o r t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a s t h e b e t t e r com-  mand o f E n g l i s h , do r e p r e s e n t their  t o be  and s i s t e r  from a s m a l l Skeena v i l l a g e .  portrays t o by a  In this  story,  the  g i r l a t l e n g t h succumbs t o t h e a t t r a c t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e  she  experiences  to  i n a c a n n e r y town, w h i l e  r e t u r n t o take  h i s h e r e d i t a r y place  I4.O Copp C l a r k ,  195k.  t h e boy f e e l s  i n h i snative  impelled  village.  All  British  Columbia I n d i a n s  are nominally  seventeen of the t h i r t y - o n e thousand p o p u l a t i o n Indian A f f a i r s slightly  over  Branch census are l i s t e d  from  t h e whole  interior  the Kootenays t o the C a r r i e r s ,  is Anglican, represented  o f t h e 195U  except  and U n i t e d  f o r Lytton, which  The Queen C h a r l o t t e s and t h e c o a s t a s f a r s o u t h  Bella  southern  mainland  are mainly coast  United. Alert  B a y i s A n g l i c a n . The  f r o m C h u r c h House t o N o r t h V a n c o u v e r i s  Roman C a t h o l i c . Nanaimo a n d A l b e r n i a r e U n i t e d ; Island i s mainly  from there  o f Roman C a t h o l i c a n d U n i -  t e d d e n o m i n a t i o n s . The l o w e r F r a s e r V a l l e y c o n t a i n s Roman C a t h o l i c , A n g l i c a n a n d U n i t e d  ation  degree  to which Indians  v a r i e s from place o f White  says  adherents t o  Churches.  have b e e n c o n v e r t e d  t o p l a c e , depending p a r t l y  c o n t a c t , and p a r t l y  b e l i e f s . A.F. Flucke  south  Roman C a t h o l i c . The west c o a s t o f  Vancouver I s l a n d Is comprised m a i n l y  ianity  t o be  by a l l s e c t s , I n c l u d i n g s e v e r a l hundred S a l v a t i o n  as B e l l a  The  Church  o f the province,  i s Roman C a t h o l i c . The Skeena c o n t i n u e s  Army a d h e r e n t s .  Vancouver  Over  as Roman C a t h o l i c , w i t h  s i x thousand each of A n g l i c a n  denominations. V i r t u a l l y  Christian.  to Christon t h e d u r -  on t h e t e n a c i t y o f a b o r i g i n a l  of the B e l l a  Cooal's:^  1  The o l d b e l i e f s s u r v i v e e v e n among members o f t h e community who a r e n o m i n a l C h r i s t i a n s , a n d t h o s e who h o l d t o t h e i r a n c i e n t r e l i g i o n l i v e i n a n atmosphere o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l . F o r most, however, Mr. F l u c k e  continues,  1+2 Hand i n hand w i t h t h e e x t e n s i o n o f w h i t e man's knowledge h a s gone d i s b e l i e f i n t h e i r own a n c i e n t l o r e . The w h i t e man d e n i e s m y t h o l o g y and l a u g h s a t d r a m a t i c p e r f o r m a n c e s , w h i c h have p e r i s h e d s i n c e t h e y can s u r v i v e o n l y i n an a t t i t u d e o f profound b e l i e f . lj.1 B r i t i s h  1+2  Columbia H e r i t a g e  Loc. c i t .  Series, Bella  Coola,  p . 23.  105 An  elderly  ection the  Indian  lady, i n recounting her grandfather's  of a soul recovery  ceremony, went  shaman's h a n d s , b u t t h e e v e n t  legend  through  recoll-  the motions o f  t o h e r h a d become o n l y  another  f r o m the p a s t .  P r o f e s s o r Wayne S u t t l e s e n v i s a g e s religion  as r e p r e s e n t i n g " t h e r e s u l t  contemporary Coast  Salish  o f n o t one b u t a s e r i e s o f  compromises a n d r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s " E v e n some who a c k n o w l e d g e ity  have a f e e l i n g  band c h i e f  complete  of ambivalence  conversion  toward  t h e i r new r e l i g i o n .  stated r e c e n t l y that h i s people,  their belief,  feel held  i n an i r o n  fist.  although  Indians'  life  i n realms beyond r e l i g i o u s  l o o k upon e d u c a t i o n  as one f i e l d  e r e d by the C h r i s t i a n The  carries  into  unduly  fett-  Church.  Shaker Church, founded i n Washington S t a t e  i c h a n s and I n t h e l o w e r  i n 1882 b y  some f o l l o w e r s among t h e Cow-  Fraser V a l l e y . I t purports  t o be a C h r i s -  Church, but i s i n a c t u a l i t y a s y n c r e t i s m o f a b o r i g i n a l be-  liefs  and C h r i s t i a n i t y .  sition the  devout i n  r e g u l a t i o n . They  i n which they f e e l  John S l o c u m , h a s a p p a r e n t l y g a i n e d  tian  One  He b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e  C h u r c h h a s t o o much a u t h o r i t y ; t h a t i t s d i s c i p l i n e the  to Christian-  I t s main ceremony seems t o be t h e a c q u i -  o f a song a t t h e time  avoidance  nominally  o f c o n v e r s i o n , a n d i t s main  of s i n . Although  no B r i t i s h  Columbia  tenet  Indians are  S h a k e r , t h e movement h a s a p p e a r e d a s an a d d e d b e l i e f i n  some c o m m u n i t i e s , where i t i s l o o k e d u p o n a s a s t r i c t l y  Indian  religion.^  I4.3 "The P l a t e a u P r o p h e t  353.  kk  W.W.  1958.  Dance Among  Elmandorf, Anthropology  the Coast  Salish",  301, U.B.C. Summer  p.  Session,  io6 This Reifel, and  chapter  c a n be  summed up  i n t h e words o f D r .  Area D i r e c t o r , Aberdeen Area,  a Sioux mother. A l t h o u g h  of  the l + 9 t h P a r a l l e l ,  to  t h o s e who  live  born  o f a German  the r e m a r k s r e f e r  Ben father  to I n d i a n s  south  t h e y seem e q u a l l y p e r t i n e n t w i t h r e g a r d  n o r t h of  itj^>  The s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n o f the I n d i a n A m e r i c a n s h a s l i t t l e i f a n y t h i n g i n common w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r r a c i a l o r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s from the s t a n d p o i n t of s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s . . . . The I n d i a n s had no n e e d t o be a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t the f u t u r e , f r o m a m a t e r i a l s t a n d p o i n t . The I n d i a n , i n h i s s o c i e t i e s o v e r a l l t h o s e t h o u s a n d s o f y e a r s when he was f a s h i o n i n g h i s way o f l i f e , f o u n d he c o u l d have a l l t h a t he r e q u i r e d i n t h e way o f f o o d , c l o t h i n g , and s h e l t e r b y l i v i n g i n h a r mony w i t h n a t u r e . T h i s means t h a t t h e e s s e n c e o f l i f e was f o u n d i n b e i n g and n o t I n b e c o m i n g s o m e t h i n g we a r e n o t t o d a y . . . . To the I n d i a n s t h e r e was no r e a s o n t o be c o n s t a n t l y t h i n k i n g o f t h e f u t u r e . To them t h e n e c e s s i t i e s f o r l i v i n g were n e a r l y as f r e e as t h e a i r we b r e a t h e . A i r i s n e c e s s a r y f o r l i f e b u t we s e l d o m t h i n k o f s a v i n g i t up f o r f u t u r e u s e . . . . The wonder o f our t i m e i s n o t t h a t s o c i a l a d j u s t ment o f I n d i a n A m e r i c a n s has b e e n slow b u t t h a t s o many have f o u n d i t p o s s i b l e t o f i t i n t o t h e A m e r i c a n s o c i a l s y s t e m i n so s h o r t a t i m e . I t h i n k we m i g h t have s p e e d e d up the a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s . . . had i t b e e n r e a l i z e d t h a t a l a r g e p a r t o f the adjustment p r o c e s s h i n g e d on the d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , work, and s a v i n g b y the I n d i a n p e o p l e s t h e m s e l v e s . T h e s e e l e ments a r e n o t by t h e i r n a t u r e l i k e l y t o c r e a t e any g r e a t amount o f e m o t i o n a l r e s i s t a n c e i f p r e s e n t e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . To have them i n t r o d u c e d i n the c u l t u r e n e e d n o t have changed t h e i r manner o f d r e s s , t h e s y s tem o f w o r s h i p , t h e ways o f r e c r e a t i o n , o r t h e i r l a n g uage . But what was d o n e ? I n d i a n p e o p l e were a s k e d t o g i v e up t h e i r l a n g u a g e , t h e i r c e r e m o n i a l s , t h e i r way o f d r e s s i n g , and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e i r way o f l i f e t h a t had no s e n s i b l e b e a r i n g on s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t . Had t h e y been h e l p e d t o u n d e r s t a n d the importance f o r the s u r v i v a l o f t h e i r c h e r i s h e d way o f l i f e b y t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , s a v i n g and work i n t o t h e I n d i a n s y s t e m t h e y m i g h t have s a v e d much t h a t i s l o s t t o a l l o f us t o d a y .  T+5  Indian Education. A p r i l  15,  1957.  Plate V  V  iMJDlflrJ  AGENCIES  -  POPULATION  \9S8  CHAPTER V I INDIAN EDUCATION TODAY One o f t h e e a s i e s t m i s t a k e s a t e a c h e r can make i s t h a t o f I d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e whom he i s t e a c h i n g w i t h h i m s e l f o r w i t h t h e t h i n g he a s p i r e s t o , n o t r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t h i s p u p i l s may n o t be i n h i s s t a t e of development. 1 T h e r e a r e 66 d a y , 3 h o s p i t a l , and 11 r e s i d e n t i a l in B r i t i s h vincial  Columbia  (see P l a t e V I ) . I n d i a n s  and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s  throughout  down o f e n r o l m e n t b y g r a d e a t t h e s e Table 9 of Indian Students  Enrolment Grade  Day a t Residential Residential  Kindergarten 1 2  ,  1+59 410 307  I  k 27  7  8  113  %  9 56 2 10 11 2 12 13 University 1 -University 2 Teacher T r . Nursing Burses Aide Commercial Trades Other 2560 Total  the p r o v i n c e . A b r e a k i s given  in British  720  3U0  ?  pro-  below.  C o l u m b i a , 1957'  Provincial H o s p i t a l and P r i v a t e  108  7  U  schools  also attended  schools  Day  Indian  9 13  U96 U50 1+50 340 321 162 118  1+1+  285  16 12  215 165 170 182 230 160 156 99  30 20 18  2  21U  62  P r 2 1 3  I  13 28 17 286-  3065  170  2081  1 L.G.P. W a l l e r , I n s p e c t o r o f I n d i a n S c h o o l s , A l b e r t a , "Workshop on I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n " , L e c t u r e 3, V i c t o r i a , 1952 2 Indian A f f a i r s  Branch Report.  1957.  108 T o t a l enrolment of day, r e s i d e n t i a l , for  1958  2335.  61+11, a n d  was  f o r p r o v i n c i a l and  British Plate  10  shows names and  locations  Babine  schools i n  C o l u m b i a b y a g e n c y . Numbers c o r r e s p o n d t o Legend f o r  VI.  Post  School  < Columbia  Office  4  Address  Agency H a z e I t o n , B.C. H a z e I t o n , B.C. S k e e n a C r o s s i n g , B.C K i t w a n g a , B.C. New H a z e l t o n , B.C. M o r i c e t o w n , B.C. K i t w a n g a , B.C.  1. 2.  Glen Vowell Kispiox Kitsegukla Kitwanga 5. Rocher Deboule 6. M o r i c e t o w n 7. K i t w a n c o o l Coola  Agency  8. B e l l a B e l l a 9. K i t i m a t 10. K l e m t u Cowichan  C a m p b e l l I s l a n d P.O., B.C. K i t i m a t I n d i a n V i l l a g e , B.C, K l e m t u , B.C.  Agency  Westholme Chemainus S h e l l Beach S t . Catherine's Nanaimo Tsartlip Songhees Kuper I s l a n d Nanaimo H o s p i t a l  Kootenay 20.  schools,  of Indian  T a b l e 10 Indian Schools i n B r i t i s h  11. 12. 13. llj.. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.  private  schools  3  Table  Bella  and h o s p i t a l  Westholme, B.C. L a d y s m i t h , B.C. L a d y s m l t h , B.C. D u n c a n , B.C. Nanaimo, B.C. B r e n t w o o d Bay, B.C. C r a i g f l o w e r P.O., V i c t o r i a , B.C, P.O. Box 510, Chemainus, B.C. Nanaimo, B.C.  Agency  Kootenay  Residential  3 Indian A f f a i r s  Cranbrook,  Branch Report,  B.C  1958.  1+ I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y Mr. A.V. Inspector of Schools f o r B r i t i s h  Parminter, Regional Columbia.  109 Table  Kamloops  Agency  21. N e s k a i n l i t h 22. Deadman's C r e e k 2 3 . Adams Lake 2l+. Kamloops R e s i d e n t i a l Kwawkewlth  Gilford Island T u r n our I s l a n d Cape Mudge Kingcome I n l e t Mamalillikulla Smith's I n l e t Quatsino  32.  A l e r t Bay R e s i d e n t i a l  Simoon Sound, B.C. M i n s t r e l I s l a n d P.O., B.C. Q u a t h i a s k i Cove, B.C. Kingcome I n l e t , B.C. M i n s t r e l I s l a n d , B.C. B o s w e l l Camp, S m i t h I n l e t , B.C. Q u a t s i n o , B.C. A l e r t Bay, B.C.  Agency S h a l a l t h , B.C. L i l l o o e t , B.C. L y t t o n , B.C.  33. S e t o n Lake 34. Fountain 35'  Shuswap, B.C. S a v o n a , B.C. Chase, B.C. Kamloops, B.C.  Agency  25. 2o. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.  Lytton  10 ( c o n t ' d . )  S t . George's  Residential  New W e s t m i n s t e r A g e n c y 36. D o u g l a s 37. C h e h a l i s 38. S e a b i r d Island 9« C o q u a l e e t z a H o s p i t a l 0 . S t . Mary's R e s i d e n t i a l N i c o l a Agency  Port Douglas v i a H a r r i s o n H a r r i s o n M i l l s , B.C. A g a s s i z , B.C. S a r d i s , B.C. M i s s i o n C i t y , B.C.  1+1. S h u l u s 1+2. U p p e r N i c o l a  M e r r i t , B.C. D o u g l a s L a k e , B.C.  Okanagan  Agency  1+3. I r i s h C r e e k 1+1+. Okanagan 1+5 • P e n t i c t i o n Queen C h a r l o t t e  V e r n o n , B.C. V e r n o n , B.C. P e n t i c t o n , B.C. Agency  1+6. Mas s e t 1+7. S k i d e g a t e Stuart  Lake  M a s s e t , B.C. Skidegate Mission,  B.C.  Agency  1+8. S t o n y C r e e k 1+9* F o r t S t . James 50. L e j a c R e s i d e n t i a l  V a n d e r h o o f , B.C. F t . S t . James, B.C. L e j a c , B.C.  110 Table  Skeena R i v e r 51. 52. 53. 5%. 55. 56. 57 • 58. 59'  10  (cont'd.)  AgencyP r i n c e R u p e r t , B.C. A i y a n s h P.O. v i a M i l l Bay, B.C. Canyon C i t y v i a M i l l Bay, B.C. H a r t l e y Bay, B.C. K i n c o l i t h , B.C. K i t k a t l a , B.C. G r e e n v i l l e , M i l l Bay P.O., B.C. Metlakatla, B.C. P o r t S i m p s o n , B.C.  M i l l e r Bay H o s p i t a l Gitlakdamix Canyon C i t y H a r t l e y Bay Kincolith Kitkatla Lakalsap Metlakatla P o r t Simpson  Vancouver Agency 6 0 . Sliammon 61. Mount C u r r i e 62. S e c h e l t R e s i d e n t i a l 63. Squamish R e s i d e n t i a l West C o a s t  P o w e l l R i v e r , B.C. Mount C u r r i e , B.C. S e c h e l t , B.C. 51+1 K e i t h Rd., N o r t h V a n . ,  Agency  6i|. Kyuquot 65. U c l u e l e t 66. A h o u s a t 67. A l b e r n i R e s i d e n t i a l 68. C h r i s t i e R e s i d e n t i a l 69. N o o t k a 70. Opitaht Williams  Lake  K y u q u o t , B.C. U c l u e l e t , B.C. M a t i l d a C r e e k , V . I . , B.C. A l b e r n i , B.C.. Kakawia P.O., v i a T o f i n o , Nootka, v i a Port A l b e r n i , v i a T o f i n o , B.C.  77.  Lake  78. 79•  Anaham L a k e , B.C. H a n c e v i l l e , B.C. W i l l i a m s L a k e , B.C. Nazko v i a Q u e s n e l , B.C. W i l l i a m s L a k e , B.C. Canim L a k e , B.C.  Agency  F t . Babine  Vancouver  F t . B a b i n e , B.C. one room)  (Reduced t o  Agency  S e c h e l t Day S c h o o l C h u r c h House  S e c h e l t , B.C. (New C h u r c h House, B.C.  The e i g h t e e n a g e n c y s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s , r e s p o n s i b l e Indian  B.C. B.C.  Agency  71. U p p e r Dean R i v e r 72. Anaham 73. C a r i b o o R e s i d e n t i a l 7I4.. Nazko 75. S u g a r Cane 76. Canim Lake Stuart  B.C.  Commissioner of B r i t i s h  d u t i e s , p e r f o r m most  Columbia, i n a d d i t i o n  o f the f u n c t i o n s  v i s i n g maintenance, f u e l  and s c h o o l  school) (New s c h o o l ) to the to other  of a School Board, super-  supplies,  and a t t e n d a n c e i n  Ill Indian  schools  Inspector  of Schools  was g r a n t e d All follow  i n their  a r e a s . Mr. A.V. P a r m i n t e r  forBritish  types  inspector.  of s c h o o l ; day, r e s i d e n t i a l ,  the p r o v i n c i a l  Pupils enrolled  i n these  living  schools  l a y teachers, with  training  accommodation f o r t e a c h e r s .  live  a t home. T e a c h e r s  certification  from r e g u l a r  a r e gen-  teacher  institutions.  Principals authorities three  prescribed f o r pro-  schools.  Most d a y s c h o o l s p r o v i d e  erally  and h o s p i t a l ,  c u r r i c u l u m as o u t l i n e d by the Department  o f E d u c a t i o n . Most t e x t books u s e d a r e t h o s e vincial  i n 1 9 5 8 , he  Columbia. Beginning  t h e h e l p o f one a s s i s t a n t  three  i s Regional  of residential  and a p p o i n t e d  schools  are nominated by Church  by the Department. Teachers  i n a l l but  o f these  schools are a l s o appointed  by t h e D e p a r t m e n t a n d  paid according  th t h e D e p a r t m e n t ' s s a l a r y  schedule  staff. A H  schools  i n this  category  b a s i s . R e s i d e n t i a l schools staffed Child  by four teaching  Jesus,  Protestant  Sisters  orders; Sisters  schools  Hospitals are operated the Department staffs  a r e f i n a n c e d on a p e r c a p i t a  o f Roman C a t h o l i c d e n o m i n a t i o n a r e  of Providence,  residential  by the Northern  During ian schools vision.^ 5  through  1957, a t o t a l in British  Information  t h a t no c h i l d  Branch of  i s unduly  hospitalization.-^  Columbia  held p o s i t i o n s i n Ind-  subject to departmental  p a r o c h i a l schools, attended  s u p p l i e d b y Mr. A.V.  6 Indian A f f a i r s  Affairs  They i n c l u d e on t h e i r  o f 181 t e a c h e r s  i n addition, joint  Sisters.  are s t a f f e d by l a y t e a c h e r s .  o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e .  academically  o f S t . Ann, S i s t e r s o f  and the B e n e d i c t i n e  t e a c h e r s who e n d e a v o r t o e n s u r e  retarded  f o r teaching  Branch Report,  Parminter.  1957.  superby both  112 I n d i a n and non-Indian diction,  operate  students  and n o t under d e p a r t m e n t a l  a t Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, S m i t h e r s ,  James a n d , commencing i n t h e f a l l  Port S t .  o f 1959, a t H a z e l t o n . '  E m p h a s i s on e d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s the S p e c i a l J o i n t  juris-  originated  directly  from  C o m m i s s i o n o f t h e S e n a t e a n d t h e House o f Com-  mons w h i c h began t o meet i n 191+6. On June 2 2 , 191+8, t h e Committee recommended tain  o f those  sections of the A c t which  t o education, i n order to prepare  their ian  "the r e v i s i o n  Indian children  ren".  s h o u l d be e d u c a t e d  i n a s s o c i a t i o n with other  I n d i a n A c t o f 1951, and a f t e r  its first  s e l e c t e d I n d i a n d e l e g a t e s were i n v i t e d  t h e i r views officials, proposed  i n a clause-by-clause the f i r s t  legislation  time  native Indians  relating  to their  authorize  i t and present  w i t h Department  h a d been c o n s u l t e d on  own g o v e r n m e n t .  9  Chapter  t h e Govern©r-in-Council t o  t h e M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n  operate  nine-  t o Ottawa b y t h e  t o study  conference  S e c t i o n 113 o f t h i s A c t e n t i t l e s  lish,  child-  incorporated into the  r e a d i n g as a B i l l ,  M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration  29,  Ind-  8  Recommendations o f t h e Committee were  teen  t o take  p l a c e as c i t i z e n s . . . . Whenever and w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e ,  children  per-  to estab-  and m a i n t a i n s c h o o l s f O r I n d i a n c h i l d r e n , a n d t o  e n t e r i n t o a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f a p r o v i n c e , a public  or separate  school board,  ganization f o r their By  or a r e l i g i o u s  or c h a r i t a b l e o r -  education.  1952, t h e P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee  7 Information  on I n d i a n  Affairs,  s u p p l i e d b y Mr. A.V. P a r m i n t e r .  8 Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s p . 290.  Reference  9 P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1953« P» 6 .  on I n d i a n A f f a i r s  Papers,  1952, Fourth  113 i n 1950 u n d e r t h e I n d i a n  organized twelve  hundred I n d i a n  in B r i t i s h  Columbia.  Inquiry Act,  c h i l d r e n were a t t e n d i n g  capital  with  o f one h u n d r e d  were e x p a n d e d t o a d m i t tracts  forjoint  schools  j  Governments s h a r e d i n  Indian  Bay H i g h  School,  I n d i a n and e i g h t y W h i t e  1956, p u b l i c s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s  By  Provincial  c o s t s of c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the A l e r t  an enrolment  that  1 0  I n 1955 t h e F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l the  reported  pupils.  a t Queen C h a r l o t t e  c h i l d r e n , and f o u r t e e n  Federal-Provincial sharing  of school  1 1  City  other  con-  construet-  12 i o n c o s t s were i n f o r c e . 1957,  In  Advisory Act, ector.  the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly assented o f which Miss  pupils  boarding  their  education  Catholic  i n near-by p u b l i c h i g h  schools  A Tuition  that during  at Protestant r e s i d e n t i a l  c r e a s i n g number o f I n d i a n  serve  Joanna R. W r i g h t was a p p o i n t e d  The Committee r e p o r t e d  1 3  s c h o o l s were r e c e i v i n g  s c h o o l s , and t h a t an I n -  '  1  f e e f o r each c h i l d  of Indian  to Indian  students  status l i v i n g  or p u b l i c school  i s paid  on Ret o the  Branch. F i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ,  t e x t book e x p e n s e s and e v e n c o s t  available  a l l senior  o f f the r e s e r v e s . ^ "  Board b y Indian A f f a i r s  cluding  1957-58*  Dir-  c h i l d r e n were a l s o a t t e n d i n g Roman  l a n d and a t t e n d i n g a j o i n t  School  t o the I n d i a n  in-  o f room a n d b o a r d , i s  who show a p t i t u d e  for specialized  training "10 P r o v i n c i a l A d v i s o r y Committee A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1952, p . 1+.  on I n d i a n A f f a i r s ,  Third  11 S i x t h A n n u a l R e p o r t . 1955. p . 8 . 12 S e v e n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t ,  1956. p . 9.  13 E i g h t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1957. Ik  p. 5 .  N i n t h A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1958, p . 8 .  15 A.V. P a r m i n t e r , " E d u c a t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " , The B.C. S c h o o l T r u s t e e , S e p t . , 1955, p . 20  Ilk Since cational  1950 a common v o i c e h a s b e e n r a i s e d  i n t e g r a t i o n . D r . Peter  Kelly,  speaking  i n favor  o f edu-  before  the Joint  Committee o f t h e S e n a t e a n d t h e House o f Commons on I n d i a n on June 17,  airs  1959, s a i d  Aff-  " I n t e g r a t i o n i s a must t o w h i c h  if) there  i s no a l t e r n a t i v e " .  OMI, i s q u o t e d as h a v i n g to conform t o white  0-'Grady,  The Most R e v e r e n d F e r g u s stated  1 7  "You c a n n o t e x p e c t  the Indian  s o c i e t y , customs a n d manners i f he i s n o t  educated alongside white  c h i l d r e n f r o m k i n d e r g a r t e n u p . The most  p r e s s i n g need o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  cation  i n joint white-Indian  While sult,  these  two p o i n t s o f v i e w c o i n c i d e i n t h e i r e n d r e -  which advocates education  i n the p r o v i n c i a l  policy  the v i e w p o i n t  s e c t , then, schools calities  schools.  liv-  Bishop  o f t h e Roman C a t h o l i c C h u r c h , t h e  where bands a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  c h i l d r e n are In general  on i s o l a t e d  or r e s i d e n t i a l joint  of a Protestant  attending  I n d i a n A f f a i r s day  r e s e r v e s , and r e g u l a r p u b l i c s c h o o l s  where s u c h s c h o o l s  represented,  are within  i nlo-  reach.  i s Roman C a t h o l i c a t t e n d d a y  s c h o o l s . In areas  parochial schools  where o t h e r  faiths are  are being b u i l t  t o educate  I n d i a n and n o n - I n d i a n Roman C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n .  ~~l6  where  s c h o o l system, the students  C h i l d r e n o f bands whose f a i t h  both  the P r o t e s -  o f which i s t o educate i n p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l s .  In areas  schools  d i f f e r In  of Indians,  e i t h e r a t home o r i n r e s i d e n t i a l b o a r d i n g  O'Grady p r e s e n t s  edu-  schools".  i s t o be a t t a i n e d . D r . K e l l y p r e s e n t s  viewpoint,  practicable, ing  today i s higher  the p h i l o s o p h i e s which the speakers r e p r e s e n t  how t h e r e s u l t tant  Indians  M i n u t e s , p . II4.3 .  17 V a n c o u v e r D a i l y P r o v i n c e , A u g u s t , 1958*  H5 P r o p o n e n t s o f b o t h s y s t e m s have a r g u m e n t s t o o f f e r of  their  choice.  I n Nanaimo, soon a f t e r i n 1950,  schools the  in favor  local  press:  news i t e m s  Indian s u c h as  students the  began t o a t t e n d  f o l l o w i n g appeared  city in  1 fi  I n d i a n c h i l d r e n a t t e n d i n g Nanaimo s c h o o l s a r e f i t t i n g i n t o the s c h o o l s y s t e m v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . T h i s s t a t e m e n t by S c h o o l I n s p e c t o r D r . Wm. Plend e r l e i t h , the p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s of t h e s c h o o l was g i v e n S c h o o l B o a r d Wednesday and h e a r d w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e p l e a s u r e by the t r u s t e e s . . . . I t i s g r a t i f y i n g t o n o t e t h a t s i n c e the I n d i a n c h i l d r e n have b e e n a t t e n d i n g p u b l i c s c h o o l , t h e i r p a r e n t s have b e e n t a k i n g an i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the school a c t i v i t i e s . Reverend C o l i n Dickson, ents  on  the  residential  o f the  Shulus  Indian  Mission,  comm-  school:^9  I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t an i n s t i t u t i o n i s the p r o p e r p l a c e t o r a i s e c h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m t h e age o f s i x or s e v e n t o e l e v e n or t w e l v e . . . . By p l a c i n g c h i l d r e n i n r e s i d e n t i a l schools parents are denied the p r i v i l e g e o f r a i s i n g t h e i r own f a m i l y , and i n v a r i a b l e l o s e some p a r t o f t h e i r own f a m i l y - r a i s i n g experience. One  Superintendent  idential osite  school  effect  contends  the  i s o f t e n o v e r p o w e r i n g and  t o t h a t assumed by  R e v e r e n d G.P. d e n t i a l School,  that  K e l l y , OMI,  defines  the  discipline  sometimes has  the w e l l - m e a n i n g principal  functions  o f the the  resopp-  principal.  of Lejac  Indian  o f the r e s i d e n t i a l  Resischool  on system:  v  I n the r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l the p u p i l s a r e I n two c a t e g o r i e s . Those who come f r o m remote a r e a s s t a r t t o s c h o o l l a t e , and have v e r y l i t t l e knowledge o f the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e on e n t r a n c e t o t h e s c h o o l . The o t h e r s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , p r o d u c t s o f b r o k e n 18  Correspondence from Mrs.  21,  1958.  Adelaide  Hill,  19  C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d F e b r u a r y 25,  20  C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d M a r c h 6,  1958.  Nanaimo,  1958.  April  116 homes and a r e a s s i g n e d h e r e f o r c a r e . Most o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n h a v e h a d a n i n f e r i o r u p b r i n g i n g , some have a t t e n d e d d a y s c h o o l i n t e r m i t t e n t l y f o r a few y e a r s , and some have b e e n d e l a y e d i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n b y a l o n g o r s h o r t b o u t w i t h T.B. Fourteen Prince in  Indian  students,  e n r o l l e d i n grades nine  George p a r o c h i a l s c h o o l , were b o a r d i n g  1957,  Reverend K e l l y  and t e n a t the  w i t h White  families  s t a t e s , and about  t h i r t y were  expected  R e v e r e n d G.D. D u n l o p , OMI, p r i n c i p a l  of Kootenay  Indian  t o do so i n 1958.  School,  compares r e s i d e n t i a l  and p r o v i n c i a l h i g h  school  results  from h i s e x p e r i e n c e : I n 19l+9> a r r a n g e m e n t s were made f o r t h e c h i l d r e n above t h e g r a d e e i g h t l e v e l t o a t t e n d t h e P u b l i c High School I n the C i t y o f Cranbrook. T h i s p o l i c y i s s t i l l f o l l o w e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t has proved a f a i l u r e . D u r i n g t h e p a s t e i g h t y e a r s we have h a d as many a s f i f t e e n p u p i l s a t t e n d i n g H i g h S c h o o l , t h i r t y - f i v e c h i l d r e n i n a l l , a n d a s y e t we have n o t h a d one s u c c e s s f u l g r a d u a t e . . . . I n Kamloops and M i s s i o n C i t y , where we have I n d i a n H i g h S c h o o l s , t h e r e have b e e n many g r a d u a t e s . A ending the  c o m p a r i s o n between t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f I n d i a n schools  provincial  of this  they  att-  v a r i e d s y s t e m and n o n - I n d i a n s t u d e n t s i n  system to t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n s  i n g . The I n d i a n s  students  of B r i t i s h  is slightly  mislead-  C o l u m b i a , i n c r e a s i n g i n numbers a s  now a r e , a r e p r e p o n d e r a n t l y  ( I n 1957, t h e  a young p o p u l a t i o n  22 1575  Indian  p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n grade  tieth  of t h e i r  grade  i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s  o n l y about There ian  one  comprised  p o p u l a t i o n , a t a time when e n r o l m e n t  one f o r t i e t h  system o f the p r o v i n c e  of B r i t i s h  c a n be no d o u b t , t h e n ,  Columbia's from these  c h i l d r e n do go t o s c h o o l . The n e x t  22 I n d i a n A f f a i r s 23 B r i t i s h  Branch Report,  Columbia P u b l i c Schools  i n t h e same accounted f o r  population). figures,  p o i n t t o be  21 C o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e c e i v e d December 15,  one twen-  that  Ind-  considered  1957*  1957. Report,  2 3  1957-58.  117 is,  t o what e x t e n t  cated  i n one At  the  i s the  or a n o t h e r  Indian  of the  grade e i g h t l e v e l ,  and  non-Indian c h i l d r e n ,  are  a t s c h o o l . Prom t h a t g r a d e  students  diminishes  considerable advantage 1949,  a n <  ^  during  o f the the  mented b y  9)»  30  Indian  rolled,  same number o f  on,  Six  Provincial  day  few  years,  of academic  after  as  It ures  o f 1951  those  students  i n that year,  affect  the  had in  imple-  groups  who  e n r o l l e d i n grade and  twelve  p r i v a t e schools  75$  (see  graduated  o f the number who  15  from the  were  in  had  en30  Indian  Nanaimo F e d e r a l -  2  90-03$ i n day  i n 1957  schools  was  throughout  Columbia. ^ 2  appears, from trends  m i g h t w e l l be  with  students  fallacious.  twelve schools  2I4. B r i t i s h 25  program  T r a i n i n g School. ^" Average attendance schools;  have  f o r n o n - I n d i a n t r a i n e e s . Of  I n d i a n boys graduated  rise  years.  in provincial  same p e r c e n t a g e as  number o f I n d i a n  dential  who  Vancouver V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e  f r o m a d e c a d e ago  i n grade  Indian  schooling inaugurated  Indian education  Indian Act  s c h o o l s ; 57  94.74$ i n r e s i d e n t i a l British  populations,  the p r o p o r t i o n o f  P r a c t i c a l Nurse T r a i n i n g D i v i s i o n "graduates, girls.  total  Indian  students  full  students  the  the  the n e x t  t h e r e were 24  The  systems?  proportion could  b e g a n s c h o o l d u r i n g and  Table  about  edu-  r a p i d l y . However, t h i s  the R e v i s e d  residential  school  Columbia b e i n g  i n proportion to t h e i r  g r e a t l y expanded  I n 1957  of B r i t i s h  f o r 1958 and  was  i n d i c a t e d by a c o m p a r i s o n those  do The  Yet  the  same as  o f the  Columbia I n d i a n A d v i s o r y  Indian A f f a i r s  even such a  number o f I n d i a n  only half  fig-  o f t o d a y , t h a t an i n c r e a s i n g  graduate.  remained  of  1957  students f o r 1957 figure  deduction enrolled in  for private  Committee R e p o r t ,  B r a n c h R e p o r t . 1957.  Table  7.  resi-  1957.  118 and  provincial  s c h o o l s . There a r e i n d i c a t i o n s  ians are a s p i r i n g As  education.  t h e e x c e r p t f r o m R e v e r e n d G.F. K e l l y ' s  page 115,  indicates,  taking readily "It  to higher  will  Indians  yet before  come t o u n d e r s t a n d  c a t i o n " . Teachers  from  first  arrival  the Skeena, Babine,  from  fluctuated  of the Northern  and C h i l c o t i n  from  the S k e e n a s t a t e d t h a t h i s  t o the North.  16  ( o r l l i , o r 18) d a y s a t  f o r o o l i c h a n o i l and g r e a s e "  comment on a s c h o o l e n r o l m e n t  appears  that varies  I n d i a n , c o n d i t i o n s c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d  participants, student ? 2  "26 27  the Indians  reserve  o n l y one s t u d e n t h a s p r o g -  With e d u c a t i o n , as w i t h the g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l the  N o t one  graduated  o f a d a y s c h o o l l o c a t e d on a s m a l l i s l a n d  r e s s e d beyond grade e i g h t . "Absent  unvaried  school  s i n c e 1952.  show t h a t d u r i n g t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s  Inlet  areas  o l d . T h r o u g h o u t much o f  s t u d e n t a t Nanaimo, i n t e g r a t e d s i n c e 1 9 5 1 , h a s  Registers  concludes:  f r o m 33 t o 8 .  the s c h o o l system there  Knight  letter  f r e q u e n t l y do n o t b e g i n  Lack o f a s p i r a t i o n i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d Indian  on  i n p a r t i c u l a r , many do n o t s p e a k E n g l i s h on  a t s c h o o l . One t e a c h e r  attendance  Kelly's  the Indians  t h e y a r e t e n o r more y e a r s  two a r e a s  cited  t h e b e n e f i t s o f W h i t e Man's e d u -  c o n s i s t e n t l y admit t h a t c h i l d r e n there u n t i l  letter,  o f the F r a s e r Lake a r e a a r e n o t  t o s c h o o l i n g . Reverend  t a k e many y e a r s  Regions w i l l  the  t h a t not a l l Ind-  themselves.  as t h e t e a c h e r ' s from  7$% t o  s i t u a t i o n of  o n l y as they a f f e c t the  A School  of S o c i a l  Work  i n 1951 w r o t e :  Information r e c e i v e d from Mrs. A d e l a i d e  Hill,  Nanaimo.  F.W. Thompson, The Employment P r o b l e m s a n d E c o n o m i c S t a t u s of the B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s , Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 5 1 .  119 One c a n n o t s p e a k o f e d u c a t i o n amongst I n d i a n s without ranging i n t o other f i e l d s , without d i g g i n g a t the r o o t o f the I n d i a n p r o b l e m , w i t h o u t i n q u i r i n g i n t o h i s t r u e p o s i t i o n and the e f f e c t of h i s p o s i t i o n i n e v e r y - d a y life. Regional in  Inspector  Indian Education  L.G.P. W a l l e r ,  at Victoria  speaking  i n 1952,  a t a Workshop  said:  Many I n d i a n s f i n d our way o f l i f e p o i n t l e s s and w i t h o u t p u r p o s e i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e . . . . The I n d i a n w a n t s , as t h e White man d o e s , t o know t h a t what he i s d o i n g i s o f some u s e . . . D r a s t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f e n v i r o n m e n t may f o r c e s e r i o u s changes w i t h i n a b r i e f p e r i o d . E d u c a t i o n , h o w e v e r , p r o c e e d s more s l o w l y a n d t o be most e f f e c t i v e works i t s change w i t h t h e c o n s e n t and c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s a f f e c t e d . I n a p a n e l d i s c u s s i o n of t h e B r i t i s h o r y Committee Columbia  i n 1957  the v i e w p o i n t  I n d i a n s want a chance  was  j '  Columbia I n d i a n  s t a t e d t h a t the  "to express  their  own  Advis-  British  opinions  28 on how  they  Looking  s h o u l d be back over  educated". the  c e n t u r i e s of European occupation  in  Canada, H.J. V a l l e r y i n 19I4.2 w r o t e : ? T h i s c o n f l i c t (between t h e W h i t e man's a t t e m p t s t o e d u c a t e and t h e I n d i a n s ' r e s i s t a n c e ) has b e e n w a g i n g f r o m t h e time C h a m p l a i n f o u n d e d h i s f i r s t c o l o n y i n A c a d i a t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . The I n d i a n has b e e n a n u n w i l l i n g p u p i l o f W h i t e a t t e m p t s t o p u r p o s e f u l l y educate him. 2<  A band s e c r e t a r y r e c e n t l y s t a t e d t h e p r o b l e m a  succinct question: "After That  light  i s the  does the  Indian's  own  Indian envisage  the W h i t e man's c u l t u r e has He in  The  summing up  of  the  of  p r o b l e m . I n what  the e d u c a t i o n a l melange  into  which  t h r u s t him?  C o l u m b i a community where two V a n c o u v e r Sun,  form  what?"  p e r c e i v e s , a l l t o o o f t e n , t h a t "We  a British '28  education,  i n the  November 8,  29 A H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n  still schools  have a stand  1957. i n Canada, p .  1I4.  situation side  by  120 side he  - one f o r I n d i a n s ,  school  that  age t o a r e s i d e n t i a l  a p r o v i n c i a l school by  f o rWhites".  one. c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s ,  lives  of h i g h  the other  3 0  he must  He knows, i f send h i s  or p a r o c h i a l , rather  t o be t o one n e w l y a p p r i s e d  cannot a f f o r d t o c l o t h e Finally,  he s e e s  attain,  there  than to  o r he a n d h i s f a m i l y w i l l ,be e x c o m m u n i c a t e d  h i s Church. Such a r e g u l a t i o n i s n o t the t h r e a t  appear  children  these  of i t , f o rquite  children f o r high  t h a t , whatever degree  i s b u t one r o a d  i t might l i k e l y he  school  o f education  anyway.  his children  open t o them - t h e r o a d  that  leads  back to the r e s e r v a t i o n . Indian  girls  from Sechelt,  g r a d u a t e s w i t h commerce  f r o m S t . Mary's R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l , failure in  i n their  the adjacent  its  business  refused into  attempts  to find  White v i l l a g e , w h i c h d e r i v e s  from the r e s e r v a t i o n . Stores,  t h e community h a d b e e n c a n c e l l e d  single  exception  during  h e r t e r m o f employment;  An  account  among t h e s t a f f  Miss  In a restaurant,  she h a s s i n c e  i n the Vanderhoof o f the Lejac  "The  Louie,  Necoslie  Office; a l l  have  but even  that  o f f the reserve  returned  toi t .  l o c a l newspaper i n 1 ° 5 7  listed  R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l "Mr. Zaa L o u i e Miss Seraphine  Peter,  Joseph,  a s s i s t a n t cooks, and  typist". Reserve", so a l e t t e r  s t a t e s , "boasts  graduate nurse, another n u r s e - i n - t r a i n i n g , a graduate 30 D r . D a v i d C o r b e t t , i o n a l Human R i g h t s  1959.  share of  aimed a t i n t e g r a t i o n  ended r e c e n t l y . The woman l i v e d  J o s e p h and Miss E u p h r a s i e  Miss Leonie  a large  vocation  o u t . One, who c o u l d  Johnny J o s e p h , a s s i s t a n t s u p e r v i s o r s ; Clara  i n their  bank, Post  t o e m p l o y . Twelve y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g  f o r W h i t e , f o u n d employment  and  h a v e met w i t h u n q u a l i f i e d  employment  passed  majors  of a  practical  s p e a k i n g t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a RegC o n f e r e n c e , U.B.C. F a c u l t y C l u b ,  121 nurse,  and  two  b o y s who  schools. Several g i r l s turned  have c o m p l e t e d completed  t o t h e R e s e r v e and  I n 1958,  training  grade  twelve,  W i n n i f r e d McKinnon, I n d i a n g i r l  a $500 D e p a r t m e n t  excellence  i n j u n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n . She  nurse .  b a c k t o work among h e r  Telegraph  out  o f one  children,  village  h u n d r e d and  and  on  t h a t has  passed  people  as  employment  policies  situation  fact  them by,  i n grade e i g h t .  by  pay  on  the  Stikine  that i t e x i s t s .  their color  staffs  persons  who  possess  predominantly  The  in fact  July,  obtained  who rather  emphasize  features  White  o f a W h i t e f a t h e r and  become a s u c c e s s f u l d e n t i s t  Information  1958.  stud-  toleration  integration  c o n s i d e r a b l e p r i d e , i n an  V a n c o u v e r Sun;  to  to promote  are  t h a t h i s son had  two  their  Indian g i r l s  who  a W h i t e woman, s a i d w i t h  changing  l i n e . Such p r a c t i c e ,  I t does n o t h i n g  leader, born  The  3 2  hinders  Indian  a  beyond i t . Only  I n d i a n , and  One  by  stud-  have n e v e r b e e n b e y o n d  which are d e f i n i t e l y a p p e a r W h i t e and  four  i n 1958*  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , o n l y tends  the g e n e r a l p u b l i c o f t h o s e  32  release  l i p s e r v i c e to n o n - d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  hiring  c o u l d pass  than m i t i g a t i n g r a c i a l  31  the money t o  a public health  t w e n t y were I n d i a n  o f the w o r l d  Some F e d e r a l o f f i c e s  by  apply  wants, so the p r e s s  the b a n k s o f t h e  know n o t h i n g  e n t s were e n r o l l e d  the  will  St.  scholarship for  Creek, a p r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l , a l l but  stranded  technology  i n any  re-  3 1  At ents  later  from Port  of Indian A f f a i r s  t r a i n i n g a t S t . P a u l ' s . She  s a y s , t o go  and  married".  James, won  nurses*  i n vocational  of  those  racially.  married  to  interview,  i n a large  British  1959.  f r o m F r e d Brown, p r i n c i p a l ,  July,  122  Columbia ing  C i t y . To t h e f a t h e r , a n I n d i a n had s u c c e e d e d  economic and s o c i a l  i n gain-  i n t e g r a t i o n . To t h e s o n ' s c l i e n t s a n d  f r i e n d s he i s u n d o u b t e d l y W h i t e . Joe  a t t h e s c h o o l he f o r m e r l y a t t e n d e d .  philosophically ing  f r o m Kamloops R e s i d e n t i a l  i n 1 9 5 0 , f r o m V a n c o u v e r N o r m a l i n 1 9 5 2 , a n d i s now  School ing  M i c h e l l e , o f Chase, graduated  lost  h i s own p e o p l e ,  arity.  He s a y s  t h a t he  i n W h i t e c u l t u r e . He i s p l e a s e d among whom he r e t a i n s  a feeling  teach-  felt  t o be  teach-  of solid-  3 3  Right Reverend h o r s e , has f e l t the g u i d a n c e  J . L . Coudert,  himself  OMI, V i c a r A p o s t o l i c o f W h i t e -  impelled to w r i t e  of h i s m i s s i o n a r i e s :  on t h i s  problem f o r  3 4  Now, i n r e g a r d t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g o f young I n d i a n s , i t was t h o u g h t f o r some time t h a t a minimum o f e d u c a t i o n w o u l d s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e i r i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o o u r C a n a d i a n way o f l i f e ; b u t , a s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , i t a p p e a r s now b e y o n d a doubt, t h a t such a l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n has o n l y s e r v e d , i n most c a s e s , t o f a c i l i t a t e more f r e q u e n t and d a n g e r o u s r e l a t i o n s o f o u r y o u n g e r I n d i a n s w i t h t h e v e r y t y p e o f w h i t e s a g a i n s t whose b a d i n f l u e n c e s u c h a n e d u c a t i o n was i n t e n d e d t o p r o t e c t them. To  sum up t h i s  c h a p t e r : The I n d i a n s  b y no means a l l c o n v i n c e d T h e y have v e r y l i t t l e  of B r i t i s h  t h a t White e d u c a t i o n  Columbia are  i s beneficial.  say i n the kind of s c h o o l t h e i r  children  a t t e n d , a n d no v o i c e w h a t e v e r i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o l l o w e d b y i t . Some f a m i l i e s that  a r e c u r r e n t l y a c q u i e s c i n g i n the i m p l i c a t i o n  s c h o o l i n g c a n l e a d t o e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l  Indian student education 33  who p e r s i s t s  opens no g o l d e n  Information  i n t e g r a t i o n . The  i n h i s s t u d i e s f i n d s , however, t h a t  doors.  obtained  from an I n t e r v i e w ,  3i+ C i r c u l a r No. U8 b i s . September 1 5 ,  1957.  July,  1958*  123 All ians,  signs  seem t o p o i n t  such as W i n n i f r e d  is  the o n l y  a "Brave  like  that  from A r i z o n a  he a t t e m p t s  others  a r e f o r c e d back. I t I s the only  c u l t u r e , i n which  New W o r l d " ,  to enter  Ind-  M c K i n n o n and Joe M i c h e l l e , a r e a t t r a c t e d  hack t o t h e r e s e r v a t i o n ; society,  i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n . Some  i n which  t h e y a r e a t home. B e y o n d i t  the n a t i v e  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  i n the Huxley a l l e g o r y , i s destroyed i f  and r e m a i n i n i t .  Plate  VI  CHAPTER  VII  CONCLUSIONS L o , the p o o r I n d i a n I whose u n t u t o r ' d m i n d Sees God i n c l o u d s , o r h e a r s him i n t h e w i n d ; His s o u l , proud Science never taught to s t r a y P a r as t h e s o l a r w a l k , o r m i l k y way; Y e t s i m p l e N a t u r e t o h i s hope has g i v ' n B e h i n d the c l o u d - t o p t h i l l , an h u m b l e r h e a v ' n . A l e x a n d e r ^ Pope  The  major p r o p o s i t i o n of t h i s  British  thesis  Columbia are n o t becoming  population,  economically, taken  future proceed  at a slower,  derivative  place  corollaries  deductions  or e t h n i c a l l y ;  i n the p a s t w i l l not  a faster  of t h i s  a r e made up  i n the  educational:  1.  e c o n o m i c , and  inte-  forseeable  be  elements;  eth-  Conclusions  I n d i a n males are ever  such  o f a complex w h i c h c a n  nic,  Ethnic  general  p r i m e p r o p o s i t i o n . These  interrelated  I.  of  pace. A l l succeeding  b r o k e n down i n t o f o u r s u b o r d i n a t e , socio-cultural,  Indians  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the  culturally,  g r a t i o n as has  conclusions are  i s t h a t the  still  from non-Indian  a g e n c y , on y e a r , and  the  r e c e i v i n g almost  females.  average,  even of t h i s  Only  i s seeking  one  no  i n f l u e n c e what-  male I n d i a n  per  enfranchisement  number a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e  each are  un-  married. 2.  Potential for ethnic integration varies throughout ees, and on  the p r o v i n c e . At  Tsartlip,  potential  small islands,  ideally  r e s e r v a t i o n s as  Nanaimo, A l b e r n i , N o r t h  o t h e r s , the  Nass, S t i k i n e  such  and  situated  tremendously  i s extremely  Vancouver, S e c h e l t , high. With  a t the heads of i n l e t s , Skeena r i v e r s  Song-  i t i s low.  and  reserves  along  Even i n  f o r e t h n i c i n t e g r a t i o n , however,  the areas  such  12$ integration 3.  The I n d i a n  i s not taking  h a s i n many p a r t s  t a c t w i t h Whites The  place. of B r i t i s h  t h a n he h a d f i f t y  W h i t e man's dependence  s t e a d i l y . Most W h i t e in a comparatively  population  little i|.  there  place  once p e n e t r a t e d  has i n c r e a s e d ,  by  there i s  vis-a-vis relationship.  so because  children's the  has t a k e n  has a c t u a l l y b e e n a  from remote areas  I n d i v i d u a l I n d i a n s who do  con-  has d e c l i n e d  increase  them. E v e n where W h i t e p o p u l a t i o n  less  or a hundred y e a r s ago.  on t h e I n d i a n  few c e n t r e s ;  withdrawal of Whites  Columbia  color  speak i n f a v o r  t h e y have hope t h a t  of ethnic  their  integration  c h i l d r e n , or t h e i r  c h i l d r e n , may have a chance some d a y t o c r o s s line  perceptible  and emerge a s W h i t e s . Those w i t h no s u c h  hope do n o t s p e a k o f I n t e g r a t i o n . Many do n o t  want i t . $. I n t e g r a t i o n  i s n o t , as i s assumed b y many, a p r o c e s s  moves g r a d u a l l y not  cross  under  f r o m one e x t r e m e t o a n o t h e r . A f a m i l y  the c o l o r l i n e  f r o m one g e n e r a t i o n  the s c r u t i n y o f i t s n e i g h b o r s . There  c e s s no w a y - s t a t i o n , no p o i n t an  Indian  is partially  only  i s i n the pro-  a t w h i c h s o c i e t y says  crosses  as h i s I n d i a n  that  occurs  the c o l o r l i n e  s o c i e t y ' s a w a r e n e s s t h a t he h a s done s o . He so l o n g  does  to another  integrated. Integration  when a n i n d i v i d u a l c o m p l e t e l y out  that  only with-  succeeds  b a c k g r o u n d r e m a i n s unknown, o r  vague a n d d i s t a n t i n b o t h s p a c e and t i m e ^ 6. O f f s p r i n g r e s u l t i n g f r o m m i x e d m a r r i a g e s , w h e t h e r male o r female  Indian  t a k e s a W h i t e mate, a r e a l m o s t  b r o u g h t up on t h e r e s e r v a t i o n add  t o the Indian,  o f the I n d i a n  n o t the White  population.  Invariably p a r e n t . They  126 7.  I n f u s i o n o f W h i t e b l o o d has disease,  so t h a t t h e r e has  survival  of those  vived  person.  an  The  1  in i t s early  s u r v i v o r s have  sur-  pure-  a b e t t e r chance,  h e a l t h checks,  stages  of  t h a n has  of d e t e c t i o n  the average  White  2  Department  of I n d i a n A f f a i r s  that B r i t i s h Indians  Columbia  officials  is really  trying  state  t h a t they  doubt  to i n t e g r a t e i t s  ethnically.  S c a t t e r e d through  Indian country  t o come I n d i a n s who  to get  I n d i a n has  compulsory p e r i o d i c  of disease  years  been a g r e a t e r percentage  of mixed b l o o d .  t o s u r v i v e , and  through  9.  up more r e s i s t a n c e t o  as I n d i a n s . Today, modern d r u g s a r e h e l p i n g  bloods  8.  built  on  there w i l l  have a d a p t e d  successfully with  their  h a b i t s enough  t h e i r White n e i g h b o r s , but  have a s t r o n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n n o t identity,  remain f o r  to s a c r i f i c e  their  who  racial  3  I I . S o c i o - C u l t u r a l Conclusions 1.  Indians  inferior  t h e y have b e e n c o n d i t i o n e d t o f e e l  is  p o i n t i n our r e g a r d i n g t h e m ^ u r  no  themselves  our  to Whites  t h a t way.  equals u n t i l  is  no  passport  that t h e i r  i n t o White  In g e n e r a l , Indians  feel  certificate  2  obtained  Correspondence  1958.  they  can  old reser-  enfranchisement  from  means  giving  integration questionnaire.  from  3 L.G.P. W a l l e r , Workshop on  15,  of  that enfranchisement  o b t a i n e d by  K  There  culture.  1 Information Information  be-  equals.^"  Even e n f r a n c h i s e d Indians are r e t u r n i n g to t h e i r v a t i o n s . They f i n d  3.  socially  cause  consider 2.  c o n s i d e r themselves  H e a l t h and  Welfare  Indian Education,  P r a n k Howard, MP  Skeena,  nurse. 1952. Sept.  127 up  o l d r i g h t s , n o t g a i n i n g new o n e s /  applied  f o r enfranchisement  s i n c e bands o b t a i n e d l e g a l en-  t o do so i n 1951,  and t h i s band d i d n o t p r o c e e d  titlemsnt with  Only M e t l a k a t l a has  i t s application. I n t h e human b a c k g r o u n d , t h e p r i m a r y s o c i a l g r o u p looms enormous i n terms o f t h e human n a t u r e w h i c h i t made p o s s i b l e through a hundred thousand y e a r s or l o n g e r . The p r i m i t i v e p r i m a r y s o c i a l g r o u p a s a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c e d b y any g i v e n one o f i t s members o f t e n was more m a s s i v e and more complex and v e r s a t i l e t h a n a whole g e n e r a t i o n o f t o d a y a s e x p e r i e n c e d by a n y g i v e n one o f i t s members. 7  Some a w a r e n e s s o f t h i s of  experiences s t i l l  p r i m a r y s o c i a l g r o u p a n d i t s complex  persists.  " I want I n d i a n s t o remember  8 t h e i r h e r i t a g e and take p r i d e Indians adapted  themselves  numbers o f W h i t e s , British their  Columbia  i n i t " , s a i d Andy  t o t h e i r environment.  isolated  i n similar  The  Small  localities  on t h e  c o a s t , removed f r o m t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f  c u l t u r e , would  be f o r c e d t o a d a p t  i n much t h e same  way t o d a y as d i d t h e s e o t h e r p e o p l e s d u r i n g sands  Paull.  the p a s t  thou-  of y e a r s .  White  ellerating  man's w o r l d I s p a s s i n g t h e I n d i a n ' s a t a n a c c r a t e . The f i r s t E u r o p e a n  particularly  to v i s i t  t h e man b e f o r e t h e m a s t , f o u n d  ence  between t h e l o d g e o f t h e n a t i v e  left  (See L o r d M a c a u l a y ' s  320,  f o r conditions  R.L.  Stevenson's  History  little  differ-  a n d t h e home he h a d  o f E n g l a n d , V o l . I , page  o f London s t r e e t s  Kidnapped  the northwest,  during  l 6 8 0 ' s , and  f o r c o n d i t i o n s o f S c o t t i s h homes  ______  s  5 Gloria b  Cranmer, CBU R o u n d t a b l e , Nov. 8,  I n d i a n A c t , 1951,  7 John C o l l i e r ,  Section  op. c i t . ,  8 Obituary A r t i c l e ,  1958.  111.  p . 21.  Vancouver  Sun, J u l y 30, 1959.  128  in  1750.  J o h n J e w i t t ' s o n l y comment  on t h e l o d g e  of Chief  M a q u i n n a was a n e x p r e s s i o n o f amazement as t o i t s s i z e ) . Most r u r a l  families  l i v e d without automobile umbia  m  o  s  all.three signs  ownership.  t  Columbia  Almost  no W h i t e  i n such a combination  no I n d i a n c h i l d  Is r a i s e d  of s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g  that  child  in British  i n a combination  t h i r t y years  worlds  The  or so, through - amenities  a f f e c t e d by - has  furnishings,  a n d symptoms o f c o n s p i c u o u s  o f the W h i t e  of  outward  t h a t makes a f e t i s h  saving devices, appliances, aesthetic t a t i o n , deodorants,  these  television  w h i c h a g a i n t h e I n d i a n has been l i t t l e into a world  Col-  of circumstances t o -  conditions d i f f e r .  t h e media o f p r e s s , r a d i o , a n d now  been propagandized  y e a r s ago  o r the l u x u r y of  c o n d i t i o n s . But i t I s n o t i n j u s t  W h i t e f a m i l y , d u r i n g the p a s t  The  thirty  running water, e l e c t r i c i t y ,  i s raised  day. A i  of B r i t i s h  of l a b o r sani-  consumption.  and t h e I n d i a n a r e s e p a r a t i n g , n o t  converging. 7.  I n d i a n s do n o t s p e a k w i t h one v o i c e i n t h e i r answer t h e i r  problems.  answers, because culture  a r e p u z z l e d by  to s p l i t  lines, until  their  cleave  and the I n t e r i o r  t h e two g e o g r a p h i c  8. C h r i s t i a n i t y ,  their  philosophies, particularly  t h e y have come  to d i f f e r i n  ways i n w h i c h t h e y w o u l d n o t o r d i n a r i l y d i f f e r . Brotherhood  to  t h e y a r e c o n f u s e d a s t o what t o s a y . W h i t e  has h e l p e d  along r e l i g i o u s  Questioners  attempts  Confederacy,  areas  of  the o l d way o f l i f e  to  fill  the v o i d .  i t helped  f o r instance,  along r e l i g i o u s  a l l t h a t has been o f f e r e d  The N a t i v e  lines.  the I n d i a n i n p l a c e  t o d e s t r o y , i s n o t enough  129 III. 1.  Economic  Conclusions  The W h i t e man, d u r i n g the f i r s t Indian,  i n exchange  it.  an exchange 2.  i n t r a d e , goods  o n l y i n t h e n a t i v e way o f l i f e .  t h a t way o f l i f e ,  He h a s n e v e r  o f c o n t a c t , gave t h e  f o r what he h a d t o o f f e r  w h i c h were o f v a l u e broke  years  and I t s s y s t e m o f v a l u e s a l o n g  g i v e n t h e I n d i a n , f o r h i s time  that i s of e q u i t a b l e value  self-sufficiency  plots  they  band f u n d s  t o develop  possess(The right  small  them. They c a n n o t  even s u c h r e s o u r c e s as t h e i r  invest reserves  Mohawks o f O n t a r i o i n 1959 e a r n e d t h e  Quinte  t o spend  culture.  the degree  c o u l d a t t a i n e v e n on s u c h  o f g r o u n d a s have b e e n l e f t  with  and e f f o r t ,  i n the White  I n d i a n s a r e n o t b e i n g g i v e n a chance t o a t t a i n of  T h e n he  their  own r e v e n u e , t h e o n l y b a n d t o d a t e i n  Canada a b l e t o make u s e o f S e c t i o n 68 o f t h e 1951  Indian  Act).  permission  to  S e c h e l t I n d i a n s have b e e n u n a b l e  9  erect their  that  own s a w - m i l l w i t h band f u n d s . The r e s u l t i s  a White-owned m i l l now o p e r a t e s  3. R e s e r v a t i o n s pair",  1 0  are "islands without  where I n d i a n s  r e f u g e e s . The answers only through  live  to their  answers t o t h e i r  i n t o White  confidence  culture  i n themselves  self-sufficiency,  on t h e r e s e r v e .  hope.... p o c k e t s  o t h e r p r o b l e m s c a n come economic p r o b l e m s . Economic cultural  or e t h n i c  can p r o g r e s s . U n t i l through  they w i l l  they  reserve-prone".  integracan g a i n  some measure o f e c o n o m i c  remain " s t a r t l e d ,  f r i g h t e n e d , a t the mention o f e n f r a n c h i s e m e n t -  o f d e s - t/  as e t h n i c , c u l t u r a l a n d e c o n o m i c  p a r i t y must be a t t a i n e d b e f o r e tion  t o secure  bewildered, or i n t e g r a t i o n  1 1  9 I n d i a n News, Ottawa, J u l y ,  1959.  10 D o r o t h y H o w a r t h , V a n c o u v e r S u n . A u g u s t 22,  11 L o c . c i t .  1959.  130 IV. E d u c a t i o n a l 1.  Indians for  Conclusions  need e d u c a t i o n ,  but education  i s n o t the panacea  t h e i r p r o b l e m s i t i s c l a i m e d b y some t o b e . M r s . E l l e n  P a i r c l o u g h , M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration,  is  reported^  parents  2  t o have s a i d ,  to get c h i l d r e n instead  into  " I f we c a n p e r s u a d e I n d i a n  schools a t f i v e  o f n i n e , t e n , or eleven,  ever  o f age,  t h e p r o b l e m w o u l d be s o l v e d  i n a g e n e r a t i o n " . Many f a m i l i e s have s c h o o l a t the l e g a l  or s i x years  sent t h e i r  s t a r t i n g age, and t h e i r  children to  " p r o b l e m " , how-  l o o s e l y t h a t word m i g h t be d e f i n e d , h a s n o t b e e n  solved. 2. F a i l u r e all  of education  t o solve the I n d i a n s  1  problem i s not  due t o t h e i r r e t i c e n c e t o p i n t h e i r hopes on i t .  ference  o f Roman C a t h o l i c t e a c h e r s  i n 1957  A  con-  decided:  l Due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l b a c k g r o u n d a n d i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f n o n - I n d i a n s a r e n o t e d u c a t e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e I n d i a n s , no s c h o o l c a n p r e p a r e I n d i a n s f o r t h e same k i n d o f l i f e e x p e r i e n c e a n d v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s as i f t h e y were n o n - I n d i a n . 13; 3« E d u c a t i o n tegration  i s today that  only advancing  is illusory.  educational ladder, unless current graduates  the Indian  toward an i n -  L a r g e r g r o u p s c o m i n g up t h e they f i n d  economic  are not f i n d i n g , w i l l  opportunitiesj  o n l y add t o group  frustration. I}..  Indian education  in British  C o l u m b i a has f r o m i t s b e g i n n i n g s  been the r e s u l t , n o t o f any c a r e f u l l y program, b u t o f an h i s t o r i c bursts  conceived  over-all  a c c i d e n t which brought  o f i n t e r e s t by v a r i o u s denominational  12 V a n c o u v e r S u n . A u g u s t 22,  sporadic  sects i n the  1959.  13 I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d f r o m F a t h e r B e r b a d o , OMI S e c h e l t R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , J u l y , 1958.  131 Indians' the  s p i r i t u a l . w e l f a r e . Denominational  beginning  the p r e s e n t life.  The  persons  5.  o f what m i g h t be  day,  have b e e n h o s t i l e  I n d i a n has  inimical  W i t h the  I n d i a n , as w i t h  a t i o n began as an Only  during  other  the  6.  t o the  their  race, i t i s e n t i r e l y  Diana  " l e s s e r breeds",  Such r e v i s i o n s ,  ineluctably f a i l .  fully  e n t day  discriminform  If British as  revisions  economic  Columbia  denied  p o s s i b l e that they w i l l  the A p a r t h e i d  develop  then  l e g i s l a t i o n m i g h t once more become on  Indians,  t h e y a r e , awake more  t h a t economic e q u a l i t y i s b e i n g  Maddox, commenting  been  however,  of o v e r t n a t i o n a l i s m . I f t h a t o c c u r s ,  benign  student  e t h n i c d i s c r i m i n a t i o n through  fact  by  p a s t d e c a d e o r so have a t t e m p t s  gaining gradually i n education  feeling  then,  Indian  they are w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l , r a t h e r than  weapons, w i l l  a  taught,  of  culture.  discriminatory legislation.  armed as  to  I n d i a n s ' way  e t h n i c phenomenon; assumed l e g a l  made t o a m e l i o r a t e of  t o the  to whatever v e s t i g e the  o f h i s own  from  Indian education  been t r a d i t i o n a l l y  retained  later.  called  teachers,  pres-^  oppressive.  system of  South  A f r i c a , a f f i r m e d " t h a t " N e i t h e r by s u b t e l t y , s a i n t h o o d , nor 3  genius  c a n he  Although not  the  (the n e g r o ) be position  identical,  7. E v e n i f the place  4  day  anything  of the  It i s nearly  Columbia  form d i f f e r e n t  f r o m t h a t w h i c h i t has  August 22,  is  c a n assume i t s p r o p e r  of I n d i a n I n t e g r a t i o n , whether  e t h n i c or c u l t u r a l ,  11+ CBU,  man".  so.  i n t e g r a t i o n be  "  a black  Indian i n B r i t i s h  comes when e d u c a t i o n  i n the p r o c e s s  but  1959.  i t will  such  have t o t a k e  assumed  t o the  a  present  132  day.  P r o f e s s o r s Hawthorn, B e l s h a w , and  g e n e r a l terms t h e  form  i t must  Jamiesen s t a t e i n  take: -* 1  The immature p e r s o n i s i n t h e l e a s t e f f e c t i v e p o s i t i o n t o i n i t i a t e s o c i a l r e f o r m , and s h o u l d the t e a c h e r s f e e l c a l l e d upon t o u n d e r t a k e a p r o g r a m o f r e f o r m , t h e y w i l l f i n d more e f f e c t i v e ways o f f u r t h e r i n g i t than by t r y i n g t o b r i n g i t about t h r o u g h the c h i l d r e n . Regional the  Inspector  course  L.G-.P. W a l l e r  that Indian education  s t a t e s more i n the  specifically  f u t u r e must  take: ^ 1  I t i s n o t t h e young p e o p l e t o whom we must a p p e a l . They may be the ones who must u l t i m a t e l y b a s e t h e i r s u c c e s s upon a change i n t r i b a l a t t i t u d e s , b u t t h e change must b e g i n i n t h e t h i n k i n g o f t h e i r e l d e r s . C h i l d r e n have n e v e r as e d u c a t o r s  b a s i c a l l y a l t e r e d any  know, c a n n o t  with impunity  v e r y f a r b e y o n d the c o n c e p t s a part. Education z a t i o n . Rather,  does n o t  Indians  culture u n t i l  and  advances  civili-  o n l y as  the  of B r i t i s h  Columbia t o do  cannot  entire  adopt our  so. U n t i l  a t a s t e f o r them i s b o o t l e s s . When, and  e d u c a t i o n be  helped  o f any  o f e d u c a t i o n must t h e n cannot  to solve this  avail  they can  The  16  Workshop oh  Indians  t o w a r d i n t e g r a t i o n . The o n l y the  Columbia, p.  children, but  3O3.  Indian Education, V i c t o r i a ,  3  can  province  can.  of B r i t i s h  buy  o n l y when, t h e  e f f e c t i v e l y a c t upon i t s d e s i r a b l e m o t i v e s ,  15  White  toward  economic problem,  i n c l u d e , not  the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , who  cultural  advances.  t h e y can a f f o r d  c a n be  front  of t h e , c u l t u r e of which i t i s  the p h y s i c a l components o f W h i t e c u l t u r e , e d u c a t i o n  Indians  school,  on any  i n g e n e r a l advance a  c u l t u r a l base i t s e l f The  advance  i t forms b u t a p o r t i o n o f the b r o a d  base of i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n , broad  culture. A  v  1952.  who also  v  133 RECOMMENDATIONS Canada and i t s p r o v i n c e s a r e f a c e d w i t h m a k i n g one o f f o u r basic  choices  i n taking a c t i o n to reduce  its historic  Indian  p r o b l e m . They c a n : (a) l e t them s t a r v e , (b) g i v e  them d o l e ,  ( c ) employ them, o r (d) work o u t some means b y w h i c h t h e y White  technology, The  first  second course  choice  i s o f course  ethically  pursued  t h a t i t c a n be a l m o s t  The  i n d e f e n s i b l e . The  on some r e s e r v a t i o n s t o  d e s c r i b e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g  d a y p o l i c y . As a permanent c o u r s e  istically  in  own way o f l i f e .  of a c t i o n i s being  such an e x t e n t present  lead their  c a n , w i t h a minimum o f  o f a c t i o n i t i s moral-  untenable. third  localities  adjacent.  course  o f a c t i o n c o u l d be f o l l o w e d f a i r l y q u i c k l y  where I n d i a n a n d W h i t e p o p u l a t i o n s  I t would  there  which i s a l r e a d y being  are reasonably  s i m p l y mean an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e p o l i c y  f o l l o w e d In theory by the Indian  Affairs  B r a n c h , o t h e r F e d e r a l d e p a r t m e n t s , a n d some b u s i n e s s e s ;  namely,  that  o f employing, i n o f f i c e s ,  dustries  and m a n u f a c t u r i n g  I n many towns a n d v i l l a g e s present for  places  of business, s e r v i c e i n -  plants a proportion of Indian  i t w o u l d s i m p l y mean a r e l a x a t i o n o f  discriminatory practice,  f o r many I n d i a n s  employment w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g  racial  help.  denied  are q u a l i f i e d  them on p u r e l y  grounds.  Further employment  economic  o f Indians  self-suffieiency t o do j o b s  c o u l d be g a i n e d  they a r e capable  w h i c h a r e now b e i n g done b y n o n - I n d i a n s , Freedom t o u s e band f u n d s  on t h e i r  through  o f doing, but own r e s e r v e s .  f o r e n t e r p r i s e investment  might  result  13k in  some b u s i n e s s  reach  one-half,  In American  f a i l u r e s , but i t would be  even i f the  no  higher  Skeena MLA,  is reported  the F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o f n e g l e c t a f f a i r s , and  w o u l d be  t o have  over  Provincial  c o o p e r a t i o n beyond  helpful. A  o f 1958  Indians no  suggested  Royal  r e c e i v e no  the  other than  hire  the  access  allowance  Indians  Provincial  one  w o u l d n o t go would, by  tax  b r i n g i n g the  step, c u l t u r a l In  Indians other  localities  Certainly  reserve  by,  on  and  their  roads.  basis  officer  at in  there  Provincial  Provincial  Public  crews b e c a u s e t h e y  hidden,  are  Federal-  almost Impassable.  Indians  and  govern-  S h e l l Beach r e s e r v e  do,  to a n amount  is  road  Works do  not  into  greater  employment  economic p l i g h t ,  province, a s s i s t  The  however, pay a l l  exempt. S u c h  I n d i a n more c l o s e l y  the  but i t  overall  i n promotion of  the  integration. remote  from centres  c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e a l l be  17  V a n c o u v e r Sun,  18  No.  on  o f W h i t e p o p u l a t i o n , where  r e a d i l y employed  manners, t h e y must be  f o r seIf-employment. Bishop  his missionaries, writes ~~  t o the  the g e n e r a l  o f the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d  tunities  Indian  educational  r o a d was  from w h i c h they  economic s t r u c t u r e o f the next  present  land taxes.  f a r to h e l p  of  accused  f o r r o a d maintenance, and  P r o v i n c i a l taxes, direct the  t o have  C a n a d i a n Mounted P o l i c e  m a c h i n e r y p a s s e s the r e s e r v e s  direct  failure  t h a t the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  F e d e r a l equipment t o m a i n t a i n  pay  r a t e of  i n i t s handling  against a v i s i t  because  f o r e m e n do n o t  1 7  a l l c o n t r o l of Indian a f f a i r s .  Ladysmith advised April  than the  to  society.  Hugh S h i r r e f f ,  ment t a k e  p r o p o r t i o n were  this  February  1+8 b i s . September 15,  given  or  1959. 1957.  the  oppor-  Coudert, i n a c i r c u l a r  topic: 10,  i n one  1 8  to  135 We have come t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t most o f t h e u n e d u c a t e d and p r i m i t i v e n a t i v e s , who a r e u n a b l e t o make a d e c e n t l i v i n g i n the w h i t e s e t t l e m e n t s , s h o u l d be f o r some t i m e , a t l e a s t , s e n t b a c k t o t h e i r h u n t i n g grounds, and s u b s i d i z e d t o t r y and l i v e t h e i r n o r m a l I n d i a n l i f e ; money t h u s s p e n t w o u l d keep them w o r k i n g a n d h e a l t h y and away f r o m the p h y s i c a l and m o r a l d e g r e d a t i o n t o w h i c h t h e y a r e u n a v o i d a b l y e x p o s e d i n town. S u c h a p o l i c y w o u l d , I am s u r e , mean a s a v i n g f o r t h e I n d i a n B r a n c h , t h e Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , a n d t h e Department of Justice. Bishop pened His  in British  suggestion  full to  Coudert  s e e s h a p p e n i n g a t W h i t e h o r s e now what h a p -  Columbia as f a r back as a hundred y e a r s a g o .  i s designed  to prevent  the trend from  c y c l e , a s i t h a s done i n many l o c a l i t i e s  the c e n t r e s  here.  running Attraction  of p o p u l a t i o n has n o t l e d t o I n t e g r a t i o n , b u t  o n l y t o the worst  k i n d of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . Bishop  Coudert's r e c -  c o m e n d a t i o n w o u l d n e c e s s i t a t e e n l a r g i n g most p r e s e n t serves and  t o a p o i n t where t h e y w o u l d e n c l o s e  timber  to provide  ^Whether the to  country  Indians  economic find  remote r e -  sufficient  game,  furs  sufficiency.  employment i n the g e n e r a l  culture of  o r on t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s , t h e y must be p e r m i t t e d  r e t a i n whatever elements o f t h e i r h e r i t a g e they r e q u i r e t o  sustain  them u n t i l  such  time  a s t h e y m i g h t no l o n g e r n e e d i t .  No c u l t u r e :can grow e x c e p t  b y s t r e n g t h d e r i v e d f r o m I t s own  p a s t . T h i s s t r e n g t h cannot  come f r o m a n y h e r i t a g e b u t i t s owny  To  the present  real  d a y , much o f t h e I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n h a s h a d no  opportunity  t o merge i n t o W h i t e  s o , i t must be p e r m i t t e d  to identify  We must a d m i t , f o r t h e time of  British  Columbia  i s an e n c l a v e  l a t i o n . We e r r i n b e l i e v i n g element sincere;  at least,  culture. Until  i t s e l f w i t h i t s own pa:st. t h a t the I n d i a n  population  o f c u l t u r e i n the whole  i t t o be a c o u n t e r p a r t  o f t h e p r o v i n c e . We must show t h e I n d i a n s t h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h  i t c a n do  them w i t h  popu-  of the White t h a t we a r e  i n t e g r i t y . We c a n  136 g a i n , suggests  P r a n k Howard, MP  f o r Skeena, by r e c i p r o c a t i n g  w i t h a t l e a s t an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f turn  for h i s adopting Indian education  do  a hundred years  ance o f our yet  cated also  In  our  s u c h a way  i n s u c h a way  culture in re-  1  still  ago;  has  before  i t the  job i t s e t out  th3t_..of„.convincing t h e ^ n a t i v e beneficial  t o him.  s o c i e t y . C h i l d r e n of these t h a t our  own  can be  as  guided  others  Many b a n d s  cannot edubut  n a t i v e way  of l i f e  i s n o t made  cannot continue  f o r the  time  t h e i r s . Where g r o u p s a r e  c u l t u r e , and  accept-  bands must be  i t . I t i s p o i n t l e s s to educate a generation  c a n n o t be  that  to  c u l t u r e ^ i s _ n o t f o r e i g n toJbhem,  that t h e i r  so f o r e i g n t o them t h a t t h e y in  Indian's  ours. ^  c u l t u r e w o u l d be  merge i n t o  the  for a life  i n close contact with  being that White  i n s u c c e s s i o n come i n t o s u c h c o n t a c t ,  t o w a r d a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The  a g e - g r o u p t h a t musjt  Indians,  taxes  given a.direct voice, via  the goods t h e y buy,  must be  school d i s t r i c t  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , i n an  must become one  w i t h i n the  as we  envisage  begin  to take  19  i t i n the place  Only then  p u b l i c schools  f o r the  Correspondence  province.  educational  of B r i t i s h  Indian.  o f September 1$,  can  19$b\  pay  be  approached is_ the .adult g r o u p . A d u l t on  who  they  provincial  system true  that education,  Columbia,  137 APPENDIX "A" EXCERPTS PROM THE INDIAN ACT, l ° 5 l  Chapter  lli9»  Schools  113.  The G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l may a u t h o r i z e t h e M i n i s t e r , i n accordance with t h i s A c t , (a) t o e s t a b l i s h , o p e r a t e a n d m a i n t a i n s c h o o l s f o r I n d i a n children, (b) t o e n t e r i n t o a g r e e m e n t s on b e h a l f o f Her M a j e s t y f o r t h e education i n accordance w i t h t h i s A c t of Indian c h i l d r e n , with (1) t h e government o f a p r o v i n c e , ( i i ) a p u b l i c o r s e p a r a t e s c h o o l b o a r d , and ( i l l ) a r e l i g i o u s or c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n .  I I L L . The M i n i s t e r may (a) p r o v i d e f o r a n d make r e g u l a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t a n d a r d s f o r b u i l d i n g s , equipment, t e a c h i n g , e d u c a t i o n , i n s p e c t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s c h o o l s , (b) p r o v i d e f o r t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n t o a n d f r o m school, (c) e n t e r i n t o agreements w i t h r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r the s u p p o r t a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f c h i l d r e n who a r e b e i n g e d u c a t e d i n s c h o o l s o p e r a t e d by those o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and (d) a p p l y t h e whole o r a n y p a r t o f moneys t h a t w o u l d o t h e r w i s e be p a y a b l e t o o r on b e h a l f o f a c h i l d who i s a t t e n d i n g a r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l t o the maintenance o f that c h i l d a t t h a t school. 115. (1) S u b j e c t t o s e c t i o n 116, e v e r y I n d i a n c h i l d who h a s a t t a i n e d t h e age o f s e v e n y e a r s s h a l l a t t e n d s c h o o l . (2) The M i n i s t e r may (a) p e r m i t an I n d i a n who h a s a t t a i n e d t h e age o f s i x y e a r s t@ attend school, •(b) r e q u i r e a n I n d i a n who becomes s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age d u r i n g the s c h o o l t e r m t o c o n t i n u e t o a t t e n d s c h o o l u n t i l t h e e n d o f t h a t t e r m , and ( c ) r e q u i r e a n I n d i a n who becomes s i x t e e n y e a r s o f age t o a t t e n d s c h o o l . f o r such f u r t h e r p e r i o d as the M i n i s t e r cons i d e r s a d v i s a b l e , b u t no I n d i a n s h a l l be r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l a f t e r he becomes e i g h t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . 117. E v e r y I n d i a n c h i l d who i s r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l s h a l l a t t e n d s u c h s c h o o l a s t h e M i n i s t e r may d e s i g n a t e , b u t no c h i l d whose p a r e n t i s a P r o t e s t a n t s h a l l be a s s i g n e d t o a s c h o o l c o n d u c t e d u n d e r Roman C a t h o l i c a u s p i c e s a n d no c h i l d whose p a r e n t i s a Roman C a t h o l i c s h a l l be a s s i g n e d t o a s c h o o l c o n ducted under P r o t e s t a n t a u s p i c e s , except by w r i t t e n d i r e c t i o n of the parent.  138 119* A n I n d i a n c h i l d w h © (a) i s e x p e l l e d o r s u s p e n d e d f r o m s c h o o l , o r (b) r e f u s e s o r f a i l s t o a t t e n d s c h o o l r e g u l a r l y , s h a l l be deemed t o be a j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t w i t h i n t h e m e a n i n g of the J u v e n i l e Delinquent A c t . 120. (1) Where t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e members o f a band b e l o n g s t o one r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n t h e s c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e r e s e r v e t h a t has b e e n s e t a p a r t f o r the u s e and b e n e f i t o f t h a t band s h a l l be t a u g h t b y a t e a c h e r o f t h a t d e n o m i n a t i o n . (2) Where t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e members o f a b a n d a r e n o t members o f t h e same r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n a n d t h e band b y a m a j o r i t y v o t e o f t h o s e e l e c t o r s o f t h e band who were p r e s e n t a t a m e e t i n g c a l l e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e r e q u e s t s t h a t d a y s c h o o l s on t h e r e s e r v e s h o u l d be t a u g h t b y a t e a c h e r b e l o n g i n g t o a p a r t i c u l a r r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n , t h e s c h o o l on t h a t r e s e r v e s h a l l be t a u g h t b y a teacher of that denomination. 121. A . P r o t e s t a n t o r Roman C a t h o l i c m i n o r i t y o f any b a n d may, w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f a n d u n d e r r e g u l a t i o n s t o be made b y t h e M i n i s t e r , have a s e p a r a t e d a y s c h o o l o r d a y s c h o o l c l a s s r o o m e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e r e s e r v e u n l e s s , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e G o v e r n o r i n C o u n c i l , t h e number o f c h i l d r e n o f s c h o o l age does n o t so w a r r a n t .  139 APPENDIX EXCERPTS  PROM INDIAN DAY  "B" SCHOOL REGULATIONS  1+. The s c h o o l c a l e n d a r o f t h e p r o v i n c e , t e r r i t o r y o r m u n i c i p a l i t y w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s ©f w h i c h t h e s c h o o l i s s i t u a t e d s h a l l be t h e c a l e n d a r o f s u c h s c h o o l , e x c e p t t h a t s c h c o l s c o n d u c t e d u n d e r Roman C a t h o l i c a u s p i c e s s h a l l n o t be i n s e s s i o n on The E p i p h a n y , The A s c e n s i o n , a n d A H Saints and C o n c e p t i o n D a y s . 5>.  (1)  The l e n g t h o f t h e s c h o o l d a y s h a l l be f i v e a n d oneh a l f hours i n c l u s i v e o f time f o r r e c e s s , opening e x e r c i s e s and a s s e m b l i e s , a n d s h a l l e x t e n d f r o m 9 a.m. t o t w e l v e noon a n d f r o m 1:30 p.m. t o I4. p.m. (2) The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t may, where n e c e s s a r y o r d e s i r a b l e , a u t h o r i z e changes i n t h e h o u r s p r e s c r i b e d i n ( 1 ) . 6 . The s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e p r o v i n c e o r t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f w h i c h t h e s c h o o l i s s i t u a t e d s h a l l , s u b j e c t t o a n y changes a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , be t h e c u r r i c u l u m f o r such s c h o o l . 7.  The t e x t b o o k s s h a l l , s u b j e c t t o any c h a n g e s a u t h o r i z e d b y the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , be t h o s e p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e p r o v i n c e or t e r r i t o r y i n which the s c h o o l I s s i t u a t e d . 8.  (1)  A p e r i o d o f n o t more t h a n o n e - h a l f h o u r a day t o be d e v o t e d t o r e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n may be i n c l u d e d i n the t i m e - t a b l e f o r c l a s s r o o m instruction. (2) R e l i g i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n may be g i v e n b y a n y p e r s o n . a s s i g n e d f o r s u c h purpose by the r e l i g i o u s denomina t i o n i n t h e f a i t h o f w h i c h p u p i l s a r e t o be i n s t r u c t e d . (3) A p u p i l s h a l l n o t be r e q u i r e d t o r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n i n the f a i t h o f any r e l i g i o u s d e n o m i n a t i o n c o n t r a r y t o the d e s i r e o f s u c h p u p i l ' s p a r e n t a s e x p r e s s e d t o t h e p r i n c i p a l o r t e a c h e r i n c h a r g e o f t h e s c h o o l and r e c o r d e d i n t h e school r e g i s t e r . 13.  A p r i n c i p a l or teacher i n charge of a s c h o o l s h a l l ( f ) e x c l u d e f r o m t h e s c h o o l a n y p e r s o n whom t h e S u p e r i n tendent, I n d i a n Agency, d e s i g n a t e s .  14.  The S u p e r i n t e n d e n t , school property.  Indian Agency, s h a l l r e g u l a r l y i n s p e c t  When, p u r s u a n t t o p a r a g r a p h ( c ) o r (d) o f S e c t i o n l l 6 o f the I n d i a n A c t a c h i l d i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d s c h o o l , the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t s h a l l i s s u e t o the p r i n c i p a l o r t e a c h e r concerned a c e r t i f i c a t e t o that e f f e c t . l^.  16.  (1)  T e a c h e r s s h a l l be s e l e c t e d by t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t a n d recommended b y h i m f o r a p p o i n t m e n t , a n d t h e S u p e r i n tendent s h a l l n o t i f y teachers of t h e i r appointment s t a t i n g the school to which they are assigned.  BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.  Adams, E v e l y n C. A m e r i c a n I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n . K i n g s Crown P r e s s , 191+6.  New Y o r k ,  2 . B a n c r o f t , J . A u s t e n . G e o l o g y o f t h e C o a s t and I s l a n d s Between t h e S t r a i t o f G e o r g i a a n d Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound. B.C. G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y , Memoir 2 3 , 1913. 3.  B a r n e t t , Homer G. The C o a s t a l S a l l s h o f B r i t i s h u m b i a . U n i v e r s i t y o f Oregon, 1955•  !+. Begg, A l e x a n d e r . H i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h W i l l i a m B r i g g s , IO9I4..  Columbia.  ColToronto,  5.  B r i t i s h Columbia A d v i s o r y Queen's P r i n t e r .  6.  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n A r t s a n d W e l f a r e S o c i e t y . Rep o r t o f C o n f e r e n c e on N a t i v e I n d i a n A f f a i r s a t A c a d i a Camp. U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 191+8.  Committee. R e p o r t s .  7. Brown, R e v . R.C. L i n d e n . M i s s i o n a r y Columbia. London, I 8 7 3 .  Life  Victoria,  i n British  8.  Canada, B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s . The Canada Y e a r Book. ( S e l e c t e d Y e a r s ) . Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r .  9.  C o l l i e r , J o h n . I n d i a n s o f the. A m e r i c a s . New Y o r k , M e n t o r P r e s s , 191+7.  10.  C r o s b y , R e v . Thomas. Up a n d Down t h e N o r t h P a c i f i c C o a s t b y Canoe a n d M i s s i o n S h i p . F r e d e r i c k C l a r k e S t e p h e n s o n , 19H+•  11.  D o r e y , G. No V a n i s h i n g Race - The C a n a d i a n T o d a y . T o r o n t o . R y e r s o n . 1955. ' .  12. D r u c k e r , P h i l i p . I n d i a n s o f t h e N o r t h w e s t S m i t h s o n i a n I n s t i t u t e , 1955*  Indian :  Coast.  13. Emmons, G.T. The T a h l t a n I n d i a n s . U n i v e r s i t y o f Penns y l v a n l a , Museum A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l P u b l i c a t i o n s ,  1911.  ll+. E v a n s , H u b e r t . M i s t C l a r k , 195li 15.  on t h e R i v e r . T o r o n t o ,  Copp  Golden J u b i l e e o f C h r i s t i e Indian R e s i d e n t i a l S c h o o l . V i c t o r i a , Acme P r e s s , 1950.  16. H a l l i d a y , W i l l i a m May. P o t l a t c h a n d Totem.  1935.  Toronto,  17.  Hawthorn, H.B., B e l s h a w , C.S., J a m i e s o n , S.M. The I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto Press, 1958.  18.  H i l l - T o u t , C h a r l e s . Oceanic O r i g i n of the K w a k l u t l N o o t k a and S a l l s h S t o c k s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Ottawa, J . Hope and S o n s , 1898•  19.  The N a t i v e Races o f the B r i t i s h E m p i r e - B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a : The F a r W e 3 t , The Home o f t h e S a l i s h and D e n e . London, A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e and Co. L t d . , 1907.  20.  Howay, F.W.  21.  J e n n e s s , Diamond. The I n d i a n s o f C a n a d a . B u l l e t i n N a t i o n a l Museum o f Canada, Ottawa, 1932.  22.  — — T h e S e k a n i I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Canada D e p a r t m e n t o f M i n e s and R e s o u r c e s , B u l l e t i n 81+,  British  C o l u m b i a . The R y e r s o n P r e s s ,  1928. 65,  1937. 23»  J e w i t t , J o h n R o d g e r s . A J o u r n a l Kept a t N o o t k a D u r i n g the Y e a r s 1802-1805. B o s t o n , C.E. Goodspeed, 1931.  2l+.  L a r g e , R.G. The S k e e n a , R i v e r M i t c h e l l Press, 1957.  25.  M o r i c e , Rev. A.G. H i s t o r y o f the C a t h o l i c C h u r c h I n W e s t e r n Canada (1659-1895)• T o r o n t o , The Musson Book Co. L t d . , 1910.  26.  M e l l w r a i t h , T . F . "The I n d i a n s o f Canada". The A n n a l s o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , September, 19U-7*  of Destiny.  Vancouver,  2 7 . M a c L a u r i n . D.L. The H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n the Crown C o l o n i e s o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d I n the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . - U n i v e r s i t y of Washington, Unpublished d o c t o r a l t h e s i s , 193b. 28.  N e l s o n , D e n y s . F o r t L a n g l e y I827-I927. V a n c o u v e r A r t , H i s t o r i c a l §nd S c i e n t i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927.  29.  Ormsby, M a r g a r e t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y . c o u v e r , E v e r g r e e n P r e s s , 1958•  30.  P e a k e , Rev. F r a n k A . The A n g l i c a n C h u r c h In. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r , M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1959•  31.  P h i l l i p s , C h a r l e s E . The D e v e l o p m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n i n Canada. T o r o n t o , W.J. Gage, 1957.  32.  P i e r c e , Rev. W i l l i a m H e n r y . From P o t l a t c h t o V a n c o u v e r B i n d e r y , 1933*  Van-  Pulpit  ll+2 33* R a v e n h i l l , A l i c e . The N a t i v e  Tribes of B r i t i s h  1938. 3lj..  Columbia.  :  R e p o r t s o f the Department of I n d i a n A f f a i r s and o f the I n d i a n A f f a i r s B r a n c h , Ottawa, Queen's p r i n t e r .  35» R e p o r t o f the. R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on I n d i a n A f f a i r s f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Acme P r e s s , 1916» 36. S a g e , W a l t e r . S i r James D o u g l a s a n d B r i t i s h The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Pres3, 1930. 37.  Columbia.  S c o t t , D.C. The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f I n d i a n A f f a i r s . Canada I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , 1931.  38. S c o t t , C a p t a i n R o b e r t C. My C a p t a i n O l i v e r ; A S t o r y o f Two M i s s i o n a r i e s on t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o a s t . T o r o n t o , 191+7. 39* S u t t l e s , Wayne. "The P l a t e a u P r o p h e t Dance Among t h e Coast S a l i s h " . Southwestern J o u r n a l o f A n t h r o p o l o g y . U n i v e r s i t y o f New M e x i c o , W i n t e r , 1957. 1+0. T e i t , James. The S a l i s h a n T r i b e s o f t h e W e s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , U.S. P r i n t i n g B u r e a u , 1930. 1+1.  Plateau.  Thompson, P.W. The Employment P r o b l e m s a n d E c o n o m i c Status of the B r i t i s h Columbia I n d i a n s . Master of S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  1951.  1+2. V a l l e r y , H . J . A H i s t o r y o f I n d i a n E d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . K i n g s t o n , Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , M a s t e r ©f A r t s T h e s i s ,  191+2.  1+3. W e l l c o m e , H e n r y S. The S t o r y o f M e t l a k a h t l a , 1+1+. W e l l s ,  H.G. The O u t l i n e o f H i s t o r y ,  1887.  1920.  1+5. W o l f e n d e n , R. Commission on C o n d i t i o n s t h e N o r t h - W e s t C o a s t . ItitJb. '  of Indians o f  '  ~"  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0106039/manifest

Comment

Related Items