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The anatomy of some important Taiwan woods Hwang, Shao-Kang 1962

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THE ANATOMY OF SOME IMPORTANT TAIWAN WOODS By Shao-kang Hwang B.S.F. Taiwan Prov. C o l l . of Agr., 1950  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF FORESTRY  i n the Department of Forestry  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1962  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y British  C o l u m b i a , I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  available  f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y .  I  of freely  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  representatives.  i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s  for  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada.  ii Abstract A study was made of single wood samples from 35 species (27 genera and 16 families) of important Taiwan timbers.  Results have  been compared with information published by Kanehira i n 1921  (30)  and others (31, 44). The anatomy of these woods i s described i n d e t a i l . on microscopic features i s included for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  A key based Descriptions  follow standard terms of the International Association of Wood Anatomists . Two  of the coniferous species, Pinus armandi Franch. and Cham-  aecyparis formosensis Matsum., and nine hardwood species Carpinus kawakamii Hay.,  Quercus g i l v a B l . , Quercus longinux Hay.,  camphora Nees., Cinnamomum randaiensis Hay.,  Lagerstroemia  Cinnamomum subcostata  Koehne., Gordonia a x i l l a r i s (Don.) Szysz., Trochodendron aralioides S. et Z., and Trema o r i e n t a l i s B l . had features similar to those reported (30, 31, 44). Seven hardwood species,Alnus formosana ( B u r k i l l . ) Makino., Quercus stenophylloides Hay., erythrophloia Hay., Hay.,  Engelhardtia formosana Hay.,  Cinnamomum micranthum Hay.,  Beilschmiedia  Zelkova formosana  and Tectona grandis Linn, f . showed d i f f e r e n t anatomical features  from those recorded by Kanehira (30) and Kribs (31). No previous description of wood anatomy has been found for seventeen species including Tsuga chinensis (French.) P r i t z . , ninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay.,  Libocedrus formosana Hay.,  Cun-  Chamaecyparis  taiwanensis Masam. et Suzuk., Scheffera octophylla (Lour.) Harms., Castanopsis longicaudata Hay., amygdalifolia Hay., Hay.,  Castanopsis s t i p i t a t a Hay.,  Actinodaphne nantoensis Hay.,  Machilus pseudolongifolia Hay.,  siamia Lam.,  M i c h e l i a formosana Mas.,  Lithocarpus  Machilus arisanensis  Machilus zuihoensis Hay.,  Cassia  l l l i c i u m leucanthum Hay.,  Schima  superba Gard. et Champ, and Ternstroemia gymnanthera Spr.  A l l species  treated i n this study are described i n more d e t a i l than occurs i n past records.  iii Mass grouping of longitudinal parenchyma appears as a normal feature of Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay.  This type of parenchyma  d i s t r i b u t i o n could be a taxonomic feature of Cunninghamia not previously described i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  iv Table of Contents Acknowledgement  1  Introduction  2  Review of L i t e r a t u r e . . . . .  3  Methods  6  1.  Source of Materials  6  2.  S l i d e Preparation  6  3.  Measurement of Anatomical Features on Sections  7  4.  Photomicrography  7  5.  Maceration and Fiber Measurements  8  6.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Measurements  9  Species Descriptions Finaceae  12  Pinus armandi Franch  12  Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) P r i t z  14  Taxodiaceae Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay Cupressaceae  15 15 .17  Libocedrus f ormosana Hay  17  Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum  19  Chamaecypar i s taiwanensis Masam. et Suzuk  20  Araliaceae Scheffera octophylla (Lour.) Harms Betulaceae  21 21 23  Alnus formosana ( B u r k i l l . ) Makino  23  Carpinus kawakamii Hay  25  Fagaceae  27  Castanopsis longlcaudata Hay  27  Castanopsis s t i p i t a t a Hay  29  Lithocarpus amygdalifolia Hay  31  Quercus g i l v a B l  33  Quercus longinux Hay  34  Quercus stenophylloides Hay  35  Juglandaceae Engelhardtia formosana Hay  36 36  V Lauraceae  38  Actinodaptme nantoensls Hay  39  Beilschmiedia erythrophloia Hay  41  Clnnamomum camphora Nees  42  Cinriamomum micranthum Hay  44  Cinnamomum randaiensis Hay  45  Machilus arisanensis Hay  46  Machllus pseudolongifolia Hay  .  Machilus zuihoensis Hay Leguminosae  47 48 49  Cassia siamia Lam Ly thraceae  49 51  Lagerstroemia subcostata Koehne Magnoliaceae  51 53  Michelia formosana Mas Schisandraceae  53 55  I l l i c i u m leucanthum Hay Theaceae  55 57  Gordonia a x i l l a r i s (Don.) Szysz  57  Schima superba Gard. et Champ  59  Terns troemia gymnanthera Spr  60  Trochodendraceae Trochodendron  61 aralioides S. et Z  Ulmaceae  61 62  Trema o r i e n t a l i s B l  62  Ze Ikova formosana Hay  64  Verbenaceae Tectona grandis Linn. f  65 65  Key for I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Based on Microscopic Features..  67  References  72  Glossary  76  vi Figures  Facing Page  1*  Pinus armandi Franch  13  2.  Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) P r i t z  14  3.  Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay  16  4.  Libocedrus formosana Hay  18  5.  Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum  19  6.  Chamaecypar i s taiwanensis Masam. et Suzuk  20  7.  Scheffera octophylla (Lour.) Harms  22  8.  Alnus formosana ( B u r k i l l . ) Makino  23  9.  Carpinus kawakamii Hay  25  10.  Castanopsis longicaudata Hay  11.  Castanopsis s t i p i t a t a Hay  29  12.  Lithocarpus amygdalifolia Hay  31  13.  Quercus g i l v a B l  14.  Quercus longinux Hay  34  15.  Quercus stenophylloides Hay.........  35  16.  Engelhardtia formosana Hay  37  17.  Actinodaphne nantoensis Hay  39  18.  Beilschmiedia ervthrophloia Hay  41  19.  Cinnamomum camphora Nees  20.  Cinnamomum micranthum Hay  44  21.  Cinnamomum randaiensis Hay  45  22.  Machilus arisanensis Hay  46  23.  Machilus pseudolongifolia Hay  47  24.  Machilus zuihoensis Hay  48  25.  Cassia siamia Lam  50  26.  Lagerstroemia subcostata Koehne  51  27.  Michelia formosana Mas  54  28.  I l l i c i u m leucanthum Hay  55  29.  Gordonia a x i l l a r i s (Don.) Szysz  58  30.  Schima superb a Gard. et Champ  59  31.  Ternstroemia gymnanthera Spr  60  32.  Trochodendron  61  33.  Trema o r i e n t a l i s B l  63  34.  Zelkova formosana Hay  64  Tectona grandis Linn, f  65  -«  35  aralioides S. et Z  ..28  ....33  ..42  1 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation to the Faculty of Forestry of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and to Dr. J . W. Wilson for h i s supervision and guidance and under whose d i r e c t i o n t h i s thesis was carried outj to Dr. R. W. Wellwood for his valuable suggestions; to Dr. R. W. Kennedy for h i s assistance i n i n i t i a l stages; and to Dr. J . H. G. Smith for his suggestions on sampling methods. The author also wishes to acknowledge Mr. Shan Kou-chin, a graduate student i n the Department of Zoology, who assisted with the photomicrography accompanying t h i s t h e s i s .  2 The Anatomy of Some Important Taiwan Woods  Introduction  Taiwan i s an island o f f the southeastern coast of the Chinese mainland, separated from the mainland China province of Fukien by the Taiwan S t r a i t s .  Its exact location i s 2 1 ° 4 5 2 5 ,  North Latitude and 119°18'13  ,r  ir  to 2 5 ° 2 7 2 3 " l  to 122°6' .2" East Longitude. The f  Tropic of Cancer crosses southern Taiwan. Taiwan has an area of 13,808 square miles excluding 77 smaller outlying islands.  According to a p r o v i n c i a l a e r i a l survey 55.1% of  the land area of Taiwan i s forested.  Conifers comprise 18.9% of the  forested land, mixed stands 2.8%, hardwoods 72.5%, while the remaining 5.87. i s covered with bamboo. Important coniferous tree species of Taiwan are Chinese hemlock, Taiwan cypresses, Chinese pine, Taiwan spruce and Taiwan f i r ; among hardwoods, camphor, oak, teak, Zelkova spp. and Michelia spp. are of great economic value, p a r t i c u l a r l y the camphor y i e l d i n g trees. The so-called true camphor, Cinnanmomum camphora Nees., known as "king of the forest", i s one of the major species used for producing camphor and camphor o i l .  The most extensive camphor tree forests  i n the world are i n Taiwan (34) which supplies 707o of the world's yearly requirement of natural camphor products. There are about 105 tree species providing useful woods i n Taiwan.  These were screened by the author while working at the  National Taiwan University. 27 genera and 16 f a m i l i e s .  This thesis describes 35 species among The author believes that the work has  value, since there has been no serious anatomical study of Taiwan woods since that of Kanehira i n 1921 (30).  3 Review of Literature Woods of both Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae have been detailed by Peirce (36, 37), while many species and genera of Pinaceae have been described by Brown and Panshin (2) and Kanehira (30). Metcalfe and Chalk (35) have reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on microscopic features of world hardwoods.  They have collected a l l tax-  onomic features and made their own system depending on morphology of trees and anatomical features of woods. i s followed i n this study. about Taiwan hardwoods.  Their taxonomic system  Kanehira (30) gave much information  Lauraceae has been completely examined by  Stern (44) while Record (38) and Record and Hess (40) described American woods i n the families Theaceae and Lauraceae with general notes on genera. (39).  Many families were described by Record and Dadswell  Some species included i n this study were examined by Kribs (31).  Information from these sources i s given under Families.  A general  summary follows on anatomical features of porous wood taxonomic groups included i n this study. According to pore arrangement, woods of Araliaceae, Betulaceae and Lauraceae are exclusively diffuse-porous and those of Verbenaceae are exclusively ring-porous.  Juglandaceae and Lythraceae always  include both types of woods, ring-and diffuse-porous. Some species of Leguminosae are ring-porous while others are semi-ring-porous. Some species of Theaceae and Ulmaceae are semi-ring-porous, while others i n these families are either ring-or diffuse-porous. As regards perforation plates, woods with exclusively scalariform plates occur i n Betulaceae, Magnoliaceae, Schisandraceae  (Illicium  only) and Theaceae while those of Juglandaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Ulmaceae and Verbenaceae are exclusively simple.  However, woods  of Araliaceae and Fagaceae include both types of plates, simple and scalariform. Vestured intervessel p i t t i n g of vessels characterizes some woods of Leguminosae.  Scalariform p i t t i n g , however, i s a t y p i c a l feature of  4 Araliaceae.  The vessels of Lauraceae always have coarse p i t s a l t -  ernately arranged, while those of Leguminosae have small p i t s a l t ernately arranged. Vasicentric tracheids with scalariform p i t t i n g seem' to be the s p e c i a l characteristic;  of Trochodendron.  Fibres of Araliaceae,  Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Verbenaceae a,re always septate. Most woods of Juglandaceae, Magnoliaceae, Schisandraceae  (Illicium  only) and Theaceae contain f i b r e s with bordered p i t s while those of Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Ulmaceae and Verbenaceae have fibres with simple p i t s .  Fagaceae, however, contains fibres with both simple  and bordered p i t s . Longitudinal parenchyma i n wood i s more complex i n arrangement than other features. Woods possessing only one parenchyma arrangement are those of Araliaceae, Leguminosae and Schisandraceae with paratracheal, Juglandaceae with apotracheal, Magnoliaceae with terminal and Trochodendraceae with metatracheal-diffuse.  Betulaceae has two types  of parenchyma arrangement, d i f f u s e and terminal, while Fagaceae has both d i f f u s e and apotracheal. Woods with even more complicated types of parenchyma are those of Lauraceae, Lythraceae and Ulmaceae. Rays are another taxonomic feature i n wood.  Araliaceae has  exclusively multiseriate rays while Lythraceae has simple rays only. Woods of Fagaceae, Juglandaceae, Trochodendraceae  and Ulmaceae always  possess two types of rays, simple and m u l t i s e r i a t e .  Only Betulaceae  has three types of rays, simple, multiseriate and aggregate. Botanists have always considered wood to be a refractory material to section usually requiring time-consuming schedules for preliminary softening.  Usual p a r a f f i n embedding methods have seldom been found  useful with normal woods.  Some hardwoods cause d i f f i c u l t y i n microtome  sectioning due to high mineral content (19, 29, 41), p a r t i c u l a r l y various s i l i c a t e s (7, 35). Crystals of calcium oxalate and e l l a f i c acid were also found i n some woods by Chattaway (7, 8). There are  5 about 1,000 genera among 160 families containing d i f f e r e n t kinds of crystals (8). These are useful i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , but cause d i f f i c u l t y i n preparing materials.  Hence, many chemicals have been used  to soften r e f r a c t o r y woods p r i o r to sectioning (17, 20). Most operate through removal of mineral and c r y s t a l l i n e matter. Penetration  of water into wood blocks  factor a f f e c t i n g microtome sectioning (46).  i s another important Numerous methods have  been described to accomplish t h i s (16, 17, 20, 41). Among these, the most e f f e c t i v e method has been to r e f l u x wood blocks  i n solvents  that remove extractives peculiar to the species being treated. Common solvents include water, alcohols, benzene and ether.  Foll-  owing these pretreatments the time required f o r complete saturation of wood blocks  i s much shortened (46).  Techniques f o r sectioning, staining and mounting, as well as photomicrography methods are detailed i n several texts and publ i c a t i o n s (1, 10, 14, 18, 19, 29, 41, 42). Methods for f i b r e maceration with mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and a c e t i c acid are available i n the l i t e r a t u r e (15, 48). Film stop bath and wash water test solutions are p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable photomicrographic techniques which have been discussed by Shillaber (42). C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of various anatomical features for describing dicotyledonous woods were made by many authors (5, 6, 11, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 43) and were followed i n this study.  Terminology  of wood anatomy and wood properties have been described by the International Association of Wood Anatomists, as well as wood technologists and botanists (2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 28, 31).  6 Methods 1.  Source of materials A l l wood samples were selected from authenticated mature,  old growth tree stems grown i n d i f f e r e n t parts i n Taiwan.  Part  of these were c o l l e c t e d by the author, the remainder was obtained from the Taiwan Forest Administration.  One wood sample (%" x 3"  x 4") was examined for each species included. 2.  S l i d e Preparation Two to three small blocks were chosen for each surface of  each species. desired.  A l l the blocks were cut to size f o r the three sections  Blocks f o r tangential and r a d i a l sections were prepared  with a cutting surface of 0.5 x 1.0 cm., while blocks f o r crosssection had a 2.0 x 2.0 cm. face.  The blocks were then sanded to  improve d i r e c t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and l i m i t microtome trimming. Wood softening treatments followed two schedules.  Coniferous  woods were soaked i n cold water u n t i l they sank (18, 19, 39). Deciduous woods were refluxed i n water 10 to 30 minutes depending on s p e c i f i c gravity; boiled with alcohol-benzene f o r 15 minutes, then ethyl ether f o r 30 minutes; refluxed again i n water 10 minutes with repeated  t r i a l microtome sectioning.  Test-sections were examined  microscopically following phloroglucin s t a i n i n g . ^  The solvent  extractive treatments were e s p e c i a l l y useful with Cinnamomum spp. which are high i n o i l content and thereby r e s i s t water penetration. A "Reichert" s l i d i n g microtome was used for preparation of sections at 15 and 20 microns.  Green soap was applied as a lubricant.  Curling, when i t occurred, was controlled by the paper adhesion technique.  Sections were stored i n 30% ethyl alcohol following  several washings i n the watch glass.  1.  Solution: phloroglucin 1 gm., HCl 25 ml. and H^O 25 ml. applied f o r 5 minutes.  7 The  staining schedule included Haidenhain s mordanted hema1  t o x y l i n followed by Safranin 0 (10, 14, 19, 29, 4 1 ) . . Repeated 2  washings were done at appropriate  stages.  the ethyl alcohol series (50, 70, 85, 95%)  Dehydration was and followed by  n-butyl alcohol with a maximum 10 minutes i n each stage. was 19). 3.  done through 100% Xylene  used as clearing agent followed by "Depex" mounting medium (16, Slides were clipped and dried at 50° C. for one week. Measurements of Anatomical Features on Sections  (3,5,6,11,22,  23,24,25,26,43) In t h i s work, vessel density means the number of vessels occurring per square millimeter.  Ten random measurements were made  from a cross-section projected onto a target (9).  Tangential vessel  diameters were measured under a microscope using an eyepiece micrometer with 20 random measurements taken on a cross-section.  The  ten measurements occurring most frequently were selected and averaged to describe vessel diameter.  Number of bars, bar thickness  of  scalariform plates and size of intervessel p i t s were measured on 3 to 5 vessels on both pulp s l i d e s and tangential sections; ten observations  were obtained.  Ray width and height were determined  on the widest and highest simple ray occurring on a tangential section. 4.  Photomicrography (1, 18, 29, 41,  42)  A " L e i t z Wetzlar" microscope (10 x 10 magnification)  and  light source were used without f i l t e r s i n combination with a Leica (Wetzlar 1 G) 35 mm.  camera.  Exposure time was  varied from  5-10  seconds through readings made on a "Wetzlar Microsix" photometer.  2. Mordant s o l u t i o n : iron alum 2 gnu, g l a c i a l acetic acid 1 ml., cone. E S0^ 1 drop, H^O 100 ml.; f i l t e r e d immediately before use and applied for 30 minutes. Hematoxylin s o l u t i o n : Hematoxylin 1 gm., thymol several grains, H£0 100 ml., ripened, f i l t e r e d and applied as 5% s o l u t i o n for 15 minutes u n t i l the proper color i n t e n s i t y was obtained; washed and treated with d i l u t e NH^OH. Safranin solut ion: Safranin 0 10 gm., a n i l i n e o i l 20 ml., 95% ethyl alcohol 180 ml., f i l t e r e d and applied as a 5% solution overnight followed by 30% ethyl alcohol leaching overnight. 2  8 Kodak plus-X panchxomatric f i l m was used.  Exposed films were treated  with Kodak D - l l developer for 5 minutes, washed b r i e f l y , drained, stopped 2 minutes,3, fixed 10 minutes i n "Kodak Fixer"^ washed for 15 minutes-* and a i r dried.  Enlargements (3%" x 4%") were made at  a t o t a l lOOx magnification with a "Durst 606" enlarger.  Kodak F2-4  glossy, single weight enlargement papers were used with usual exposure time at 5-20 seconds.  Exposed paper was treated with freshly prepared  "Kodak Dektol Developer" for 2 minutes, stopped 2  minutesy* , 3  fixed 15  minutes i n "Kodak Fixer", washed 60 minutes-*, soaked i n g l y c e r o l water, drained, r o l l e d on a chrome plate and dried 8 minutes i n an "Arkay" dryer. 5.  Maceration and Fibre Measurements (15, 45, 47, 48) • Match-stick sized pieces of wood were cooked i n an active  oxygen solution^ for up to one hour depending on species.  The  macerated materials were washed, shaken to defibrate and stained i n Bismark brown Y overnight.**. A f i b r e suspension was made, aliquots were mounted with water soluble "Aquamount". F i f t y i n d i v i d u a l fibres were measured for length and diameter (center of f i b r e ) from projections and using a systematic sampling method (9). The 25 fibres with most common length and diameter were used to describe f i b r e s i z e .  The average was the mean of the  25 numbers. C e l l wall thickness (center of fibre) was measured by micrometer under a microscope at 40 x 10 magnification.  Twenty wall thickness  readings were obtained on i n d i v i d u a l f i b r e s .  The ten most frequent  readings from among these twenty numbers were averaged and used to  3. Film stop bath: chrome alum 14 gm., g l a c i a l acetic acid 8 ml., H 0 1,000 ml. 4. Fixer tested with "Edual Hypo-check" and discarded when two drops formed a white p r e c i p i t a t e . 5. Wash water test solution: KMnO^ 0.3 gm., NaOH 0.6 gm., H 0 2,500 ml., with 1 ml. of stock solution diluted to 250 ml. with H2O; i f a few drops of wash water discolored the d i l u t e solution orange the washing was continued. 6. Paper stop bath: g l a c i a l acetic acid 24 ml., water 500 ml. 7. Maceration solution: equal part of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. 8. Staining s o l u t i o n : Bismark brown Y 2 gm. i n 100 ml. of 957. ethyl alcohol. 2  2  9 express wall thickness.  The mean thickness of the f i b r e wall, however,  was expressed i n terms of the r a t i o of the mean f i b r e lumen width to the mean double f i b r e wall thickness  (5). The mean f i b r e lumen  width was obtained from the difference between the mean f i b r e diameter and the mean double f i b r e wall thickness. 6.  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Measurements (1).  Size of pores (27) Subclass  Class  Small  Tangential diameter in microns  Extremely small  up to 25  Very small  25-50  Moderately small  50-100  Medium-sized Large  (2).  100-200 Moderately large  200-300  Very large  300-400  Extremely large  over 400  Density of pores (3) Class  Number per sq. mm.  Very few  up to 2  Few  2-5  Moderately few  5-10  Moderately numerous  10-20  Numerous  20-40  Very numerous  over 40  10 Diameter of intervessel p i t s (43) Class Small  Subclass Extremely small  less than 3  Very small  3-5  Moderately small  6-8 9-14  Medium-sized Large  Diameter i n microns  Moderately large  15-17  Very large  18-20  Extremely large  over 20  Diameter of fibres (43) Class Fine  Subclass Extremely fine  less than 8  Very fine  9-11  Moderately fine  12-15 16-21  Medium-sized Coarse  Diameter in microns  Moderately coarse  22-25  Very coarse  26-29  Extremely coarse  over 29  Length of fibres (27) Class Short  Subclass Extremely short  less than 0.5  Very short  0.5-0.7  Moderately short  0.7-0.9  Medium-sized Long  Length in mm.  0.9-1.6 Moderately long  1.6-2.2  Very long  2.2-3.0  Extremely long  over 3.0  11 Thickness of f i b r e walls (5) Class  Ratio of lumen to double wall thickness  Very t h i n  over 6  Thin  6-4  Thick  4-2  Very thick  less than 2  Width of rays (43) Class Fine  Subclass Extremely fine  up to 15  Very fine  15-25  Moderately fine  25-50  Medium-sized Broad  50-100 Moderately broad  100-200  Very broad  200-400  Extremely broad  over 400  Height of rays (3, 43) Class  Width i n Microns  Height i n mm.  Extremely low  up to 0.5  Very low  0.5-1.0  Low  1.0-2.0  Rather low  2.0-5.0  Moderately high  5.0-10.0  High  10.0-20.0  Very high  20.0-50.0  Extremely high  over 50  12 PINACEAE The family comprises 9 genera and approximately  210 species,  widely d i s t r i b u t e d through the Northern Hemisphere (21). 6 genera and 9 species of trees i n Taiwan (32).  There are  The woods of two  timber species are described. Anatomical Featurest  Longitudinal tracheid diameter 25-50 microns;  p i t t i n g one row or occasionally two rows; sometimes s p i r a l thickening present; p i t s at ray crossing, small to wide window-like, 1-several per crossing.  Both longitudinal and transverse r e s i n canals present  i n Pinus, Picea, Pseudotsuga and Larix, only longitudinal r e s i n canals present i n Keteleeria., Traumatic a l l y found i n other genera. genera.  longitudinal canals occasion-  Longitudinal parenchyma absent i n some  Rays fusiform i n those genera containing ray canals; uniseriate  to b i s e r i a t e , r a r e l y t r i s e r i a t e , height variable, up to 20 plus c e l l s high.  Ray tracheids present (2, 30).  Anatomical Features of Pinus and Tsuga; Longitudinal tracheids as the family d e s c r i p t i o n ; s p i r a l thickening absent; p i t s at ray crossing, medium to wide window-like, 1-several per crossing. Longitudinal parenchyma absent and terminal i n some species of Tsuga. Both longitudinal and ray r e s i n canals present i n Pinus. seriate and fusiform i n Pinus, 1-12  Rays uni-  c e l l s high (2, 30).  Pinus armandi Franch. Commercial Name; Other Names: Tree;  Chinese pine, Haw-san-soun  (mandarin).  Hon-saon-ba.  A large tree, ranging from 7,500 to 11,500 feet elevation  from central to northern Taiwan; associated with Tsuga chinensis, Chamaecyparis formosensis,  Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, Picea morr-  i s o n i c o l a and Trochodendron a r a l i o i d e s .  F i g . 1. Pinus armandi  Franch.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at lOOx  13 General Propertiest  Wood pink with medium l u s t r e ; grain s t r a i g h t ;  texture coarse; moderately l i g h t , s p e c i f i c gravity 0.43 (27 pounds per cubic foot); with pine odor and a b i t t e r taste.  Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings d i s t i n c t and uniform with reg-  ular contour, delineated by narrow and conspicuous bands of dark summerwood, springwood to summerwood t r a n s i t i o n abrupt.  Longitudinal  and transverse r e s i n canals present, sparse i n a l l growth rings, but large and v i s i b l e to the naked eye, mostly confined to the summerwood, arranged s i n g l y . Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 1)  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  45-50 (average 48) microns i n diameter, 5.0-5.5 (average 5.3) m i l l imeters i n length; crassulae present; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as one row or occasionally two rows; bordered p i t t i n g present on tangential walls last-formed  summerwood;  p i t s at ray crossings large, round, window-like, 1-2 (mostly 2) per crossing; s p i r a l thickening absent. absent.  Longitudinal parenchyma  Longitudinal r e s i n canals mostly 114-120 (up to 130) microns  i n tangential diameter; 1-2 per square millimeter; epithelium t h i n walled; tylosoids present.  Rays of two types:  uniseriate, numerous  ( t ) , 1-9 plus c e l l s i n height (less than 30 microns high); fusiform scattered, with one transverse r e s i n canal, two s e r i a t e at c e n t r a l portion tapering to uniseriate margins, up to 9 c e l l s i n height, epithelium thin-walled; ray tracheids present  i n both types of rays,  marginal and interspersed, walls smooth; ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces. Uses:  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture, clothes cabinets,  aquaducts and as match-stick  blocks.  Small wood i s suitable for  chemical pulp manufacture. Remarks: Franch.  Kanehira (30) has recorded  s i m i l a r features for P. armandi  F i g . 2.  Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) P r i t z . (x-sec, t-sec. and r-sec.) at lQOx  14 Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) P r i t z . Commercial Names t Other Names: Tree:  Chinese hemlock, Ti-san (mandarin).  U-saun.  A large tree, up to 150 feet t a l l , and 3-5 feet i n diameter;  ranging from 6,500 to 9,800 feet elevation about the whole island; associated with Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Pinus spp., Taxus chinens i s , and Trochodendron a r a l i o i d e s . General Properties: Wood yellow with medium lustre; grain straight; texture medium; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.49 (30.5 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t with regular contour due to  narrow darker summerwood zones, springwood to summerwood t r a n s i t i o n gradual to abrupt.  Normal longitudinal r e s i n canals absent.  Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 2)  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  45-50 (average 46) microns i n diameter, 4.5-5.0 (average 4.5) m i l l imeters i n length; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as one row or sometimes 2 and 3 rows, bordered p i t t i n g present on tangential walls last-formed summerwood; p i t s at ray crossings medium, round, with border, 2-3 (mostly 2) per crossing; s p i r a l thickening absent. c e l l s sparse.  Longitudinal parenchyma terminal, single  Rays uniseriate, numerous ( t ) , 1-14 plus c e l l s i n  height (less than 35 microns high); ray tracheids present, marginal, walls smooth; ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces. Uses:  The wood i s used for s t r u c t u r a l timbers, veneer and plywood  for tea cases, r a i l ties after preservative treatment and for chemical pulp manufacture. Remarks:  Kanehira (30) reports similar features for wood of T.  formosana Hay.  15 TAXODIACEAE The family contains about 8 genera, 4 of which are monotypic and  14 species d i s t r i b u t e d i n eastern and southern Asia and western  North America (21, 36). There are 3 genera and 4 species i n Taiwan (32).  The wood of one species i s described.  Anatomical Features:  Longitudinal tracheid diameters 30-60 microns;  p i t t i n g b i s e r i a t e to multiseriate i n early wood, r a r e l y uniseriate; s p i r a l secondary thickenings abundant.  absentj crassulae present, usually  Longitudinal parenchyma abundant scattered or occasionally  somewhat banded tangentially; i n t e r c e l l u l a r canals absent.  Rays  uniseriate, occasionally p a r t l y b i s e r i a t e (36). Anatomical Features of Cunninghamiat  Longitudinal tracheid diameters  30-60 microns, p i t t i n g uniseriate to multiseriate; p i t s at ray crossing often simple, e l l i p t i c and diagonal, per crossing; crassulae d i s t i n c t . and scattered.  occasionally c i r c u l a r , 2-4  Longitudinal parenchyma abundant  Rays uniseriate, occasionally b i s e r i a t e , 1-24 occ-  a s i o n a l l y 30 c e l l s high; c e l l s r a r e l y resinous; normal ray tracheids absent (36). Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay. Commercial Namet Other Names;  Han-san (mandarin).  Woo-san.  Tree: A large tree; ranging from 4,300 to 5,900 feet elevation from central to northern Taiwan. General Properties:  Wood l i g h t pink with medium l u s t r e ; grain straight;  texture medium; moderately l i g h t , s p e c i f i c gravity 0.41 (25.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; with fragrant odor and b i t t e r taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t with regular contour  due to narrow darker summerwood zones, springwood to summerwood t r a n s i t i o n gradual.  Normal r e s i n canals absent.  Longitudinal  parenchyma i r r e g u l a r l y collected i n large patterns.  Fig* 3.  Cunninghamia konishii Hay. (x-sec, t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x and x-sect. at 60 x showing mass grouping of longitudinal parenchyma.  16 Microscopic Features;  (See Fig* 3)  30-55 (average 35) microns  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  i n diameter, 5.0-7.0 (average 5.5) m i l l -  imeters i n length; crassulae present; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as two rows with microscopic checking present along the inner apertures, bordered p i t t i n g present on tange n t i a l walls last-formed summerwood; p i t s at ray crossings medium, oval to l e n t i c u l a r , absent.  1-2 (mostly 2) per crossing; s p i r a l thickening  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal; c e l l s s o l i t a r y or as  tangential multiples of 2-cells with dark resinous contents, occasi o n a l l y grouped i n a large area.  Rays uniseriate, 1-31 plus c e l l s  in height (less than 740 microns high), not infrequently b i s e r i a t e , broadest rays 28.5 microns wide; ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces; ray tracheids absent. Uses;  The wood i s used f o r general construction, p e n c i l stock and  r a i l ties. Remarks:  Kanehira (30) reports C. k o n i s h i i Hay. as a l i g h t yellow-  brown wood with one-two rows of bordered p i t s on r a d i a l walls of springwood tracheids.  17 CUPRESSACEAE The  family comprises 15 genera, 6 of which are monotypic, and  about 130 species widely scattered throughout the world, most genera occur i n both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (21, 37). There are 2 genera and 3 species i n Taiwan (32).  The woods of a l l three  species are described. Anatomical Features;  Longitudinal  tracheid diameters 35 microns;  p i t t i n g uniseriate, occasionally b i s e r i a t e and r a r e l y multiseriate; p i t s at ray crossing e l l i p t i c to c i r c u l a r borders and s l i t - l i k e to narrow e l l i p t i c , v e r t i c a l to diagonal apertures, 2-4 per crossing. Normal r e s i n canals absent.  Rays uniseriate, occasionally p a r t l y  b i s e r i a t e and r a r e l y multiseriate, height variable, 10-40 c e l l s high, resinous deposits usually abundant i n heartwood; ray tracheids present, but none i n Actinostrobus and Libocedrus i n part (37). Anatomical Features of Libocedrus t  Longitudinal  tracheid p i t t i n g  sometimes b i s e r i a t e i n early wood, p i t s at ray crossing as i n family description, the p i t s small. distribution variable.  Longitudinal parenchyma abundant,  Rays uniseriate, occasionally b i s e r i a t e ,  22-27 microns or up to 24 c e l l s high  (37).  Anatomical Features of Chamaecyparisi  Longitudinal  tracheid p i t t i n g  uniseriate to b i s e r i a t e i n early wood, r a r e l y multiseriate; p i t s at ray crossing as family description.  Longitudinal parenchyma abundant,  often banded tangentially, occasionally scattered.  Rays uniseriate,  r a r e l y p a r t l y b i s e r i a t e , 15-19 microns or up to 24 c e l l s high; ray tracheids present, sometimes numerous (37). Libocedrus formosana Hay. Commercial Name; Other Name; Tree:  Shao-nan (mandarin).  Hwang-roa-soo.  A large tree, ranging from 1,000 to 6,200 feet elevation  from central to northern Taiwan associated with the hardwood forest.  F i g . 4.  Libocedrus formosana Hay. ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100  x  18 General Propertiest  Wood red-brown with, medium lustre; grain straight;  texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.59 (37 pounds per cubic foot); with fragrant odor, but no c h a r a c t e r i s t i c taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings not very d i s t i n c t , but with  regular contour due to narrow bands of darker summerwood, springwood to summerwood t r a n s i t i o n gradual. Microscopic Features;  Resin canals absent.  (See F i g . 4)  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  30-35 (average 32) microns i n diameter, 2.5-3.0 (average 2.8) m i l l imeters i n length; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as one row, bordered p i t t i n g absent on tangential walls last-formed  summerwood; p i t s at ray crossings medium, round to  l e n t i c u l a r , 1-2 (mostly 2) per crossing; s p i r a l thickening absent. Longitudinal parenchyma terminal and metatracheal.  Rays uniseriate  1-13 plus c e l l s i n height (less than 50 microns high); ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces; ray tracheids absent. Uses:  The wood i s mostly used f o r s t r u c t u r a l purposes, furniture,  carving and decoration. Remarks:  Kanehira (30) reports s i m i l a r features f o r L. macrolepis  Benth., except for tracheid length at 3.3-3.8 millimeters.  Fig. 5. Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum. (x-sec.j t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  19 Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum. Commercial Namet Other Names: Tree;  Red cypress, Hon-gha (mandarin).  Bao-pi (thin bark), Ben-ni-hi (Japanese).  The largest of a l l Taiwan conifers, up to 36 feet i n diameter  and 148 feet i n height; ranging from 3,400 to 6,600 feet elevation from central to northern Taiwan; associated with Chamaecyparis t a i wanensis, Tsuga chinens i s , Pinus armandi, Taxus chinens is and Taiwania cryptomerloides i n the forest, or associated with hardwoods such as Neolitsea acuminatissina, Machilus pseudolongifolia, Quercus morii, Trochodendron a r a l i o i d e s , Schefflera taiwaniana, Acer rubescens and Castanopsis spp. General Properties: Wood red to pink with medium lustre; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.45 (28 pounds per cubic foot); with pronounced  fragrant odor and spicy  a c r i d taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t with regular contour  due to s l i g h t darkening of terminal tissues, springwood  to summer-  wood t r a n s i t i o n gradual to abrupt.  Resin canals absent.  Microscopic Features: (See F i g . 5)  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  30-40 (average 34) microns i n diameter, 4.0-4.5 (average 4.1) m i l l imeters i n length; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as one row, bordered p i t t i n g present on tangential walls last-formed summerwood; p i t s at ray crossings medium, round, 1-2 per crossing; s p i r a l thickening absent.  lenticular,  Longitudinal parenchyma  terminal, metatracheal and metatracheal-diffuse or occasionally more or less tending toward zonation.  Rays uniseriate, 1-15 plus  c e l l s i n height (less than 24 microns high); marginal ray tracheids present; ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces. Uses:  The wood i s used for s t r u c t u r a l purposes, furniture  manufacture,  r a i l t i e s , boat building and plywood manufacture. Remarks:  Kanehira (30) has reported similar features f o r C. f o r -  mosensis Matsum.  F i g . 6.  Chamaecyparis taiwanensis  Masam. et Suzuk.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at ltO x  20 Chamaecypar i s taiwanensis Masam. et Suzuk. Commercial Namet Yellow cypress, Pin-ber Other Namest Tree:  (mandarin).  Hoo-pi (thick bark), Hi-nor-ki (Japanese).  A large tree, ranging from 4,300 to 9,200 feet elevation  from the central mountains to eastern Taiwan; associated with Cham** aecyparis formosensis, Tsuga chinens i s , Pinus armandi, Taxus chinensis and Taiwania cryptomerioides. General Properties; Wood yellow with red s t r i p s and low lustre; grain straight; texture medium; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.48  (30 pounds per cubic foot); with fragrant odor and acrid taste.  Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t with regular contour due to  s l i g h t darkening of terminal tissues, springwood to summerwood trans i t i o n gradual.  Resin canals absent.  Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 6)  30-35 (average 34) microns  Longitudinal tracheids mostly  i n diameter, 3.5-4.0 (average 3.7)  mill-  imeters i n length; bordered p i t t i n g on r a d i a l walls first-formed springwood as one row, bordered p i t t i n g present on tangential walls last-formed summerwood; p i t s at ray crossings small, orbicular to l e n t i c u l a r , 2-4  (mostly 2) per crossing; s p i r a l thickening absent.  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-diffuse.  Rays uniseriate,  1-11  plus c e l l s i n height (less than 20 microns high); marginal ray tracheids present and e n t i r e l y forming some low rays, walls dentate; ray parenchyma thin-walled on a l l faces. Uses:  The wood i s used for s t r u c t u r a l timbers, general construction,  furniture, wagons, a g r i c u l t u r a l implements, carving and plywood. addition, wood shavings are used for making hats. Remarks t  Kanehira (30) does not record C. taiwanensis Masum. et  Suzuk., but does report on C_. obtusa S. et Z. with light yellowbrown heartwood and s l i g h t l y finer texture i n comparison to C. formosensis Matsum.  In  21 ARALIACEAE The family comprises 56 genera and many species of trees and shrubs, mostly t r o p i c a l (35).  There are 11 genera'and 14 species  in Taiwan (30, 32). The wood of one timber species i s described. Taxonomic Notes;  The genera i n this family are not very c l e a r l y  defined (35). Anatomical Features;  Several genera are ring-porous, while  are diffuse-porous (39) .  others  Pore arrangements are s o l i t a r y , as short  r a d i a l multiples and as clusters.  Intervascular p i t t i n g i s coarse  with a tendency toward scalariform;  Perforation plates are simple  or scalariform. Medium length to moderately short fibres are commonly septate i n the simple p i t t i n g . and extremely sparse.  Longitudinal parenchyma i s paratracheal  Rays are heterogeneous, up to 4-6 c e l l s wide  (35). Anatomical Features of Scheffera: description.  A l l features are as the above  In addition, intervascular p i t t i n g i s alternate and  perforation plates are scalariform.  I n t e r c e l l u l a r canals are reported  in rays of some species (35). Scheffera octophylla (Lour.) Commercial Name: Other Names: Tree;  Harms.  Chian-moo (mandarin).  Ya-moo-pan.  A semi-deciduous tree, up to 65 feet i n height and 28 inches  i n diameter; occurring at sea l e v e l about the whole island. General Properties;  Heartwood yellowish-white with medium lustre;  grain wavy; texture fine; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.46 (29 pounds per cubic foot); without Macroscopic Features;  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste.  Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Vessels v i s i b l e at  10 x magnification; wood diffuse porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 4 and as cluster groupings up to 5.  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  F i g . 7.  Scheffera octophylla (Lour.)  Harms.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  22 Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 7)  Vessels numerous 20-35 per square  millimeter, the larger medium-sized, mostly 100-110 (up to 135) microns i n diameter; perforation plates scalariform with 3-13 bars 10 microns i n thickness; intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (4-5 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged i n transverse rows.  Fibres thick-walled; extremely coarse, mostly  30-35 (average 33) microns i n diameter; medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.4) millimeters; longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal diffuse with c e l l s widely spaced.  Rays of two types;  simple, very low 0.53  mm.  or up to 8 c e l l s high; multiseriate moderately broad 140 micron or up to 10 c e l l s wide; simple rays comprised e n t i r e l y of procumbent cells. Use;  The wood i s used for furniture, back boards, tea cases, wooden  slippers, match-stick blocks and mechanical pulp.  23 BETULACEAE The family includes 6 genera and about 100 species of deciduous trees and shrubs which are r e s t r i c t e d mostly to cooler regions of the Northern Hemisphere (21). (30,32).  There are 2 genera and 2 species i n Taiwan  The woods of both species are described.  Taxonomic Notes;  Alnus i s considered the most primitive, while  Carpinus i s the least primitive (35). Anatomical Features:  Diffuse-porous (39).  plates scalariform with many bars. erately long.  Vessels small; perforation  Fibres of medium length to mod-  Longitudinal parenchyma d i f f u s e and terminal.  Rays  of two types, homogeneous, 3-4 c e l l s wide or exclusively uniseriate; aggregate (35). Alnus formosana Commercial Name: Other Names;  ( B u r k i l l . ) Makino.  Formosan alder, Chi-yung (mandarin).  Sau-low-tsu.  Tree: A deciduous tree, up to 31 inches i n diameter; ranging from sea l e v e l to 8,200 feet elevation. General Properties:  Seasoned heartwood  l i g h t brown with high l u s t r e ;  grain straight; texture fine to medium; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.44  (27.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  odor or taste. Macroscopic Features; terminal f i b r e s .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to bands of darker  Vessels v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e  porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d .  Pore arrangement  s o l i t a r y and  i n r a d i a l chain multiples up to 4.  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  Microscopic Features; (See F i g . 8)  S o l i t a r y vessels e l l i p t i c a l or  oval, numerous 20-35 (mostly 20) per square millimeter, the larger mostly moderately small 85-95 (up to 115) microns i n diameter;  24 perforation plates scalariform with 10-25 bars 7 microns i n thickness; intervessel p i t s orbicular to oval, very small (4.5-5.5 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres septate, thin-walled; p i t s d i s t i n c t ;  extremely coarse mostly 30-35 (average 32) microns  i n diameter, medium  -length 1.5-2.0 (average 1.4) m i l l i m e t e r s . Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal diffuse, fusiform c e l l s absent.  Rays of two types:  simple uniseriate very low up to 0.54 millimeters or 19 plus c e l l s high; aggregate rays very broad 210 microns, containing units similar to simple rays, but with longitudinal fibers and vessels included; simple rays homogeneous, a l l c e l l s procumbent; c e l l s with contents. Uses;  The wood i s used for tea cases, mine props, charcoal prod-  uction and for making mechanical and chemical pulp. Remarks: Wood from this species was previously described by Kanehira (30) as semi-diffuse porous.  Other differences include his measure-  ments of 35-50 vessels per square millimeter, inter-vessel p i t s at 9 microns, and simple rays up to 30 c e l l s high.  Fig. 9. Carpinus kawakamii Hay. (x-sec, t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100  25 Carpinus kawakamii Hay. Conunercial Name: Other Names:  Shang-son-soo-li (mandarin).  Chi-go.  Tree: A medium-sized deciduous tree, up to 20 inches i n diameter; ranging from central to southern Taiwan. General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t gray with low lustre; grain  straight; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.68  (42.5 pounds  per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor and taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings undulating and d i s t i n c t to the  naked eye due to a l i n e of terminal parenchyma.  Vessels v i s i b l e at  10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 6 plus and i n cluster groupings of several. Microscopic Features: (See F i g . 9)  S o l i t a r y vessels  elliptical,  numerous 20-40 per square millimeter, the larger moderately small mostly 70-80 (up to 90) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple, occasionally scalariform with 1-2 bars 5 microns i n thickness; walls with s p i r a l thickenings; intervessel p i t s orbicular, medium-sized (10-13 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s linear, oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled;  p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately fine, mostly 15-18  (average 17) microns  i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.8 (average 1.1) millimeters.  Long-  i t u d i n a l parenchyma of two types; terminal 1 - c e l l wide; and metatracheal-zonate 1-2 c e l l s wide.  Rays simple 1-2 seriate and very  low 0.57 millimeters or up to 30 plus c e l l s high; r a r e l y 3 plus c e l l s wide; mostly homogeneous, occasionally heterogeneous; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses: The wood i s used as s t r u c t u r a l timbers (bridge work) and cons t r u c t i o n lumber, as w e l l as for manufacture ultural  of wagons and a g r i c -  implements.  Remarks: A l l features agree well with those reported by Kanehira (30): except that he records the wood as rosy-brown  i n color.  He also  examined a second species C. randa±ensis Hay. which appears to have  d i f f e r e n t sized elements.  27 FAGACEAE The family includes 6-9  genera (35, 37) and about 600 species  of trees and shrubs scattered throughout both hemispheres, but occurr mostly i n the northern temperate zone (21).  There are about 4 genera  and 13 species of trees i n Taiwan (32, 35).  The woods of s i x timber  species are described. Taxonomic Notest  The family seems to be more highly specialized  anatomically than Betulaceae Anatomical Features;  (35).  Pores s o l i t a r y , very small to very large;  perforation plates simple or scalariform i n the smallest vessels (39).  Fibre p i t s are simple to bordered.  Longitudinal parenchyma  i s apotracheal, d i f f u s e or i n fine l i n e s .  Rays are heterogeneous,  uniseriate or 20-60 c e l l s wide (35). Anatomical features of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus and Quercus; A l l features are as the above d e s c r i p t i o n s . Vessels are medium-sized to large among diffuse-porous species, while some temperate species are ring-porous; perforation plates are scalariform i n some of the evergreen species of Quercus, tyloses sometimes occur i n species of Quercus (39).  Rays are exclusively uniseriate i n Castanopsis  and  both uniseriate and multiseriate i n Lithocarpus and Quercus, and aggregate commonly i n a l l the genera.  V a s i c e n t r i c tracheids are  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l three genera (35). Castanopsis  longicaudata  Hay.  Commercial Name: Kow-tsu (mandarin). Other Names: Tree:  Va-yue-kaw.  A medium-sized deciduous tree, up to 16 inches i n diameter;  ranging from eastern to southern Taiwan. General Properties;  Heartwood medium brown i n color without  grain straight; texture coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.62  lustre; (38.5  pounds per cubic foot); with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor and acrid taste.  F i g . 10.  Castanopsis longicaudata  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100  x  28 Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to darker terminal  bands of fibrous t i s s u e . wood r i n g porous.  Largest vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye;  Summerwood pores arranged i n cluster groupings;  springwood pores with occasional tyloses evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and arranged s o l i t a r y or as r a d i a l chain multiples.  Aggregate rays  distinct. Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 10)  S o l i t a r y vessels rounded,  moderately few 5-15 per square millimeter, the larger medium-sized mostly 100-200 (up to 215) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple,  occasionally scalariform i n the smaller summerwood vessels  with 1-2 bars 2.5 microns i n thickness; summerwood i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s orbicular, very small (5--6 microns i n largest diameter),  widely spaced,  o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres  very thick-walled; round bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t ; medium diameter mostly 18-23 (average 20) microns, medium length 1.2-1.3 (average 1.2) millimeters.  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal d i f f u s e i n  fibrous tissues, sparse.  Rays of two types;  simple uniseriate  very low 0.54 millimeter, or up to 17 plus c e l l s high; aggregate moderately broad  132 microns or up to 7 seriate and including  longitudinal f i b r e s and small vessels; simple rays heterogeneous, upright c e l l s marginal. Uses;  The wood i s used f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l implements.  F i g . 11.  Castanopsis s t i p i t a t a  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  29 Castanopsis s t i p i t a t a Hay. Commercial Namer Other Names; Tree;  Dan-tau-shu-li (mandarin).  Kaw-tsu.  An evergreen tree, up to 39 inches i n diameter; ranging the  whole i s l a n d . General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t brown without lustre; grain  straight; texture coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.64 (40 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor and taste. Macroscopic Features: Growth rings dimpled and d i s t i n c t due to bands of thick-walled f i b r e s . wood r i n g porous.  Largest vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye;  Summerwood pores small, unevenly distributed and  occasionally containing tyloses. r a d i a l chain multiples up to 3. Microscopic Features:  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and i n Aggregate rays d i s t i n c t .  (See F i g . 11) Vessels moderately few 5-10  (mostly 10) per square millimeter, the larger moderately large 255285 (up to 290) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple i n both springwood and summerwood vessels; intervessel p i t s elongated, oval or orbicular, moderately small (6-7 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  V a s i c e n t r i c tracheids associated with springwood vessels with  rounded bordered p i t s .  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ;  medium diameter mostly 18-23 (average 19) microns, medium length 1.2-1.4 (average 1.3) millimeters. types:  Longitudinal parenchyma of several  terminal 1 - c e l l wide; metatracheal-diffuse; metatracheal-zonate  2-3 c e l l s wide; metatracheal-aggragates forming short tangential zones i n the summerwood; and paratracheal-confluent forming i r r e g u l a r tangential or diagonal bands.  Rays of two types;  simple uniseriate  extremely low 0.47 millimeters up to 18 c e l l s high; aggregate extremely broad 440 microns up to many-seriate and including longitudinal fibres and small vessels; simple rays heterogeneous with small marginal upright c e l l s ; procumbent c e l l s containing dark deposits.  1  30  Uses:  The wood i s used f o r construction of wagons and a g r i c u l t u r a l  implements. Remarks:  Kanehira (30) described the wood from Taiwan species of  Castanopsis including C. kawakamii Hay. C. taiwaniana Hay. formosana Hay. and JC. subaciminata.  C.  A l l show some differences from  C. longicaudata Hay. and C. s t i p i t a t a Hay. reported here, although common elemental features of the genus p e r s i s t .  F i g . 12.  Lithocarpus amygdalifolia  Hay.  (x-sec.j t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  31 Lithocarpus amygdalifolia Hay. Commercial Name; Other Names; Tree;  Gau-li (mandarin).  Shi-li.  A large evergreen tree, up t o 28 inches i n diameter; mostly  ranging from 4,900 to 6,600 feet elevation i n central Taiwan. General Properties; Heartwood l i g h t brown without l u s t r e ; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.70  (43.5 pounds  per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Largest vessels  v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores d i s t r i b u t e d , thick-walled and containing tyloses. solitary.  unevenly  Pore arrangement  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 12)  Vessels rounded, few 2-5 per  square millimeter, the larger moderately to 240) microns  large mostly 200-210 (up  i n diameter; perforation plates simple; i n t e r v e s s e l  p i t s orbicular, extremely small (2.4-3.6 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  V a s i c e n t r i c tracheids are present intermingled with parenchyma  as 1-2 plus c e l l s surrounding vessels and otherwise aggregated with longitudinal parenchyma; round bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t .  Fibres very  thin-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; extremely coarse mostly 43-47 (average 45) microns i n diameter, very long 2.2-3.7 (average 2.9) m i l l i m e t e r s . Longitudinal parenchyma of several types: metatracheal-diffuse; metatracheal short tangential zones and aggregated; metatrachealzonate usually 1 - c e l l wide always combined with paratracheal-vasicentric.  Rays of two types:  simple uniseriate, numerous and variable  i n height ( very low 0.55 millimeter or 2 plus c e l l s high); aggregate rays very broad 230 microns, composed of simple rays separated by strands of fibrous tissue; simple rays homogenous to  heterogenous,  when heterogenous upright c e l l s marginal; ray c e l l s containing dark deposits.  32 Uses:  The wood i s used for general construction, a g r i c u l t u r a l  implements and wooden s l i p p e r s . Remarks t  Kanehira (30) does not record any Lithocarpus. but does  report b r i e f l y on anatomy of Quercus amygdalifolia Skau. which c l o s e l y matches the description of L. amygdalifolia Hay. given here, except that h i s sample had smaller fibres (14-16 microns i n diameter and 0.8-1.5 millimeters i n length).  Fig.  13.  Quercus g i l v a B l . (x-sec., t-sec. and r-sec.) at 1©0 x  33 Quercus g l l v a B l . Commercial Name;  Si-choo  (mandarin).  Other Names; C h i - p i . Tree: A large evergreen tree, up to 10 feet i n diameter; ranging from sea l e v e l to 800 feet elevation i n northern Taiwan. General Properties; Heartwood l i g h t pink with medium to high l u s t r e ; grain straight; texture medium to coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.76 (47.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features; Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Largest vessels v i s i b l e  to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores unevenly and containing dark gum. occasional p a i r s .  distributed  Pore arrangement r a d i a l , s o l i t a r y or as  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  Microscopic Features; (See F i g . 13)  Vessels moderately  (mostly 5) per square millimeter, the larger moderately  few 5-8 large mostly  220-235 (up to 280) microns i n diameter; p e r f o r a t i o n plates simple; intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (4.8-6.1 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s round, a l t e r n a t e l y arranged s p i r a l l y , or small, widely spaced'pits oppositely arranged.  Vasicentric tracheids  present, with round, bordered p i t s ; medium-sized mostly 0.9-1.3 millimeters i n length.  Vascular tracheids present as imperforate  c e l l s resembling small vessels i n form. p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately  Fibres very thick-walled;  fine 15-20 (average 17) microns i n diameter,  medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.4) m i l l i m e t e r s . Longitudinal parenchyma of several types:  metatracheal-diffuse; metatracheal-zonate;  paratracheal-vasicentric 1-several c e l l s wide, intermingled with v a s i c e n t r i c and vascular tracheids and extending to paratrachealconfluent.  Rays of three types:  simple uniseriate, numerous and  varying i n height extremely low 0.45 millimeter or up to 25 c e l l s high; multiseriate very broad 340 microns or 18-25 c e l l s wide; aggregate rays composed of simple rays> and longitudinal f i b r e s ; simple rays homogeneous; c e l l s usually containing dark deposits.  >  Uses: The wood i s used for r a i l t i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l implements and musical  instruments.  Remarks: This description reconfirms that made by Kanehira (30) for wood from ( J . fcilva B l . , except f o r color which he records as dark red-brown.  34 Quercus longinux Hay. Commercial Name: Zou-go-li (mandarin). Other Names: Dau-tsu. Tree;  A medium-sized evergreen tree, up to 23 inches i n diameter;  ranging from 2,600 to 4,600 feet elevation about the whole i s l a n d . General Properties: Heartwood pinkish brown with medium lustre; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture coarse; very heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.82 (51 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features: Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Largest vessels  v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores d i s t r i b u t e d and usually containing tyloses. r a d i a l l y with e l l i p t i c a l , in size.  unevenly  S o l i t a r y pores arranged  oval or rounded shape and mostly uniform  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  Microscopic Features; <jSee F i g . 14) Vessels few 2-5 (mostly 4) per square millimeter, the larger medium-sized mostly 160-180 (up to 190) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple; intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (3.6-4.8 microns  i n largest diameter), widely  spaced, o r i f i c e s confluent, oppositely arranged as transverse rows. V a s i c e n t r i c tracheids are present with rounded bordered p i t s . Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; medium diameter mostly 16-18  (average 17) microns, medium length 1.1-1.6 (average 1.3)  millimeters.  Longitudinal parenchyma of several types;  metatracheal-  zonate up to 3-cells wide; paratracheal-vasicentric 1-several c e l l s wide intermingled with v a s i c e n t r i c tracheids and extending to paratracheal-aliform.  Rays of two types:  simple uniseriate, numerous  and variable i n height extremely low 0.35 millimeter or up to 25 c e l l s high; aggregate rays very broad 390 microns or 20-24 plus c e l l s wide through the central portion i n association with f i b r e s , vessels and tracheids; simple rays heterogeneous,  upright c e l l s  marginal. Uses:  The wood i s used for r a i l t i e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements.  Remarks t  This confirms and expands on the b r i e f anatomical account  given by Kanehira (30) for (£. longinux Hay.  F i g . 15.  Quercus stenophylloides  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  35 Quercus stenophylloides Hay. Commercial Name; A r i s a n - l i (mandarin). Other Names; Gau-san-li. Tree; A medium-sized evergreen tree, up to 16 inches i n diameter; occurring i n the Arisan mountains of central Taiwan. General Properties:  Heartwood medium brown i n color without l u s t r e ;  grain straight; texture coarse; very heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity  0.79  (49 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings barely d i s t i n c t , p a r t i a l l y d e l i n -  eated by dark bands of thick-walled f i b r e s .  Largest vessels v i s i b l e  to the naked eye; wood r i n g porous with summerwood pores unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d , thick-walled, round or oval.  S o l i t a r y pores arranged  r a d i a l l y with wide spacing and with very wide spacing between r a d i a l rows.  Broad rays conspicuous.  Microscopic Features: (See F i g . 15)  Vessels few 3-8 (mostly 4) per  square millimeter, the larger medium-sized mostly 180-210 (up to 230) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple i n both springwood  and  summerwood; intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (4.8-6:5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round, oppositely arranged as transverse rows. moderately f i n e mostly 13-17  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; (average 15) microns i n diameter,  medium length 1.2-1.5 (average 1.4) millimeters. parenchyma of several types:  Longitudinal  sparse, metatracheal-diffuse; numerous  and conspicuous metatracheal-zonate mostly 2-3 c e l l s wide; paratrachealv a s i c e n t r i c 2-several c e l l s wide.  Rays of two types:  simple very  numerous, uniseriate and variable i n height, very low 0.7 millimeter or up to 13 plus c e l l s high; multiseriate extremely broad 550 microns or up to 35 c e l l s wide; simple rays homogeneous; c e l l s without dark deposits .• Uses: The wood i s used f o r r a i l ' t i e s and a g r i c u l t u r a l  implements.  Remarks: Wood of p.. stenophylloides Hay. was b r i e f l y described by Kanehira (30), with features matching those given here i n more d e t a i l .  36 JUGLANDACEAE The family includes 6 genera and about 40 species of trees and large shrubs which are widely d i s t r i b u t e d through the northern temperate zone, and to a lesser extent i n t r o p i c a l regions of both the northern and southern hemispheres (21).  There are 4 genera and  4 tree species i n Taiwan (30, 32, 35). The wood of one timber species i s described. Taxonomic Notes;  The family i s commonly regarded as primitive due  to the occurrence of sieve tubes with l a t e r a l sieve areas (35). Anatomical Features;  Ring to diffuse-porous with pores widely variable  i n size, e s p e c i a l l y i n ring-porous types; perforation plates usually simple, only scalariform i n Alfaroa and Engelhardtia (43). p i t s are bordered.  Fibre  Longitudinal parenchyma i s apotracheal, and  intermediate between apotracheal and paratracheal. Rays are usually 1-7 c e l l s wide, homogeneous to hetergeneous (35, 43). Anatomical Features of Engelhardtia;  Pore multiples up to 4 and  loosely oblique i n arrangement among some species; perforation plates simple or both simple and scalariform with few bars; intervascular p i t t i n g i s alternate.  Fibre p i t s are t y p i c a l l y bordered.  Parenchyma  is t y p i c a l l y apotracheal or as terminal bands; crystals present. Rays up to 2-4 c e l l s wide (35). Engelhardtia formosana Hay. Commercial Name: Hwang-gii (mandarin). Other Names: Tree:  Lan-gii.  A semi-deciduous  tree, up to 31 inches i n diameter; ranging the  whole i s l a n d . General Properties: Heartwood gray with medium lustre;  grain straight;  texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.65 (40.5 pounds per cubic foot); with disagreeable odor and taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings barely d i s t i n c t , delineated i n part  by wide dark bands of fibrous t i s s u e .  Largest vessels v i s i b l e to  the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d .  Fig. 16.  Engelhardtia formosana Hay. ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  37 Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 4 and i n cluster groupings up to 4. Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 16) Vessels moderately few,  per square millimeter, the larger e l l i p t i c a l moderately 210-215 (up to 220) microns  5-12  large, mostly  i n diameter; perforation plates simple  with a long t a i l ; intervessel p i t s oval, very small (4.8-6.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ;  moderately fine, mostly 15-20  (average 18) microns  i n diameter,  medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.3) m i l l i m e t e r s . Longitudinal parenchyma of two types:  metatracheal-zonate  1-2 c e l l s wide; paratracheal-  v a s i c e n t r i c combining with metatracheal; paratracheal-vasicentric  1-3  c e l l s wide; c e l l s containing dark deposits and always with c r y s t a l s . Rays simple; uniseriate very low 0.7 millimeter or up to 20 plus c e l l s high, homogeneous; b i s e r i a t e and t r i s e r i a t e rays numerous, heterogeneous,  with upright c e l l s marginal; c e l l s containing dark  deposits. Uses t  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture, packing boxes,  general construction and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements. Remarks:  Wood from E_. formosana Hay. was described i n d e t a i l by  Kanehira (30).  Data given here mostly reconfirms and elaborates on the  o r i g i n a l description.  38 LAURACEAE The family comprises about 45 genera and 1,000  species of trees  and shrubs which are mostly evergreen (21, 30, 32, 35, 40, 44).  Many  of these are t r o p i c a l , although a few extend into the temperate zones. Many species are r i c h i n fragrant substances and are the commercial source of aromatic products  (33, 34, 39).  more than 60 tree species i n Taiwan.  There are 13 genera and  The genus, Cinnamomum includes  numerous species used i n Taiwan by the camphor industry.  Unfortunately,  many of these species are not morphologically distinguishable, but are c l a s s i f i e d by the quantity and constitution of camphor o i l and camphor produced.  The woods of eight timber species from this family are described.  Taxonomic Notest  The family is remarkably uniform i n wood anatomy.  The genera are by no means sharply defined (35). Anatomical Features:  Diffuse-porous, except Sassafras.  Vessels  are mostly medium-sized and s o l i t a r y , occasionally with some multiples of 4 or more; perforation plates exclusively simple or scalariform with few bars; p i t t i n g coarse and alternate. Medium length to moderately short fibres have simple p i t s and are commonly septate. Parenchyma i s paratracheal and t y p i c a l l y scanty to v a s i c e n t r i c , occasionally aliform, terminal bands present i n a few genera, often containing o i l c e l l s (35, 39, 40, 44).  Rays are weakly heterogeneous  to homogeneous, very fine, usually 2-3 c e l l s wide, but up to 8 c e l l s wide i n some species, usually accompanied by few uniseriate rays. O i l or mucilage c e l l s are a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the family, occurring i n the longitudinal parenchyma or rays or, less commonly, i n both, but seldom e n t i r e l y absent (35, 44). Anatomical features of Actinodaphne, BeiIschmiedia, Cinnamomum and Machilus t  Vessels 5 per sq. mm.  i n some species of Beilschmiedia and  Cinnamomum; perforations t y p i c a l l y simple (35, 40); intervascular p i t t i n g alternate and t y p i c a l l y large.  Fibre p i t s are t y p i c a l l y  simple, but with occasional small, rather i n d i s t i n c t borders i n some of the species lacking septate fibres of Actinodaphne and  39 Beilschmiedia; septate i n Cinnamomum and Machilus  (35).  parenchyma paratracheal as irregular and often incomplete  Longitudinal sheaths  around each vessel, sometimes tending to be a l i f o r m i n Beilschmiedia or as i r r e g u l a r l y spaced bands that appear terminal i n some species of the genus.  Rays t y p i c a l l y 2-3 c e l l s wide and up to 4-8 c e l l s  wide i n some species of Beilschmiedia and Cinnamomum, composed e n t i r e l y of upright c e l l s i n some species of Beilschmiedia.  O i l or mucilage  c e l l s are a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the woods of these genera (40), occurring usually i n either the wood parenchyma or ray parenchyma i n Cinnamomum. but not observed or very rare i n some species of Actinodaphne and Beilschmiedia (35, 40). Actinodaphne nantoensis Hay. Commercial Name; Other Names; Tree:  Hwang-loo-nan (mandarin).  None known.  A small tree, ranging to about 4,900 feet elevation.  General Properties:  Heartwood yellow-gray without  lustre; grain wavy;  texture medium to f i n e ; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.60 (37.5 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features: walled f i b r e s .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to bands of t h i c k -  Vessels v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e  porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d .  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as  r a d i a l chain multiples up to 5 and i n occasional cluster groupings up to 6. Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 17) Vessels moderately numerous 10-20  per square millimeter, the larger moderately small, mostly 90-100 (up to 120) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple; i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s orbicular, moderately small (7.5-9.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows. Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately fine, mostly 15-20 (average 19) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.1) millimeters. tissues.  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-diffuse i n fibrous  Rays simple 1-2-seriate r a r e l y t r i s e r i a t e , very low 0.55  millimeter or up to 9 plus c e l l s high; heterogeneous.  40 Uses;  The wood i s used for a g r i c u l t u r a l  Remarks:  implements and as f u e l .  Kanehira (30) has described the woods of A. c i t r a t a Hay.  and A. p e d i c e l l a t a Hay. which appear to d i f f e r i n minor ways from A. nantoensis Hay. as given here.  F i g . 18.  BeiIschmiedia  erythrophloia  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  41 Beilschmiedia erythrophloia Commercial Name; Other Names;  Hay.  Kgin-nan (mandarin).  Kue-gon-gu.  Tree; A large tree; ranging to about 7,200 feet elevation i n c e n t r a l Taiwan, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Arisan mountain. General Properties;  Heartwood l i g h t brown with red s t r i p s and without  lustre} grain s t r a i g h t ; texture coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity  0.65  (40.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to terminal parenchyma.  Vessels i n v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly distributed.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and i n r a d i a l chain multiples of  Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 18)  2-3.  Vessels very numerous 55-85 per  square millimeter, the larger very small 40-45 (up to 60) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple and scalariform with 10-14  bars 5  microns i n thickness; i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s orbicular, medium-sized (10-12 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round, oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres thick-walled; p i t s d i s t i n c t  and  bordered; moderately coarse mostly 25-30 (average 27) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.3) millimeters. of three types:  terminal 3-8  Longitudinal parenchyma  c e l l s wide; metatracheal-diffuse  tissues; paratracheal-vasicentric 1-5  i n fibrous  c e l l s wide, more or less confluent.  Rays simple uniseriate and occasional b i s e r i a t e very low 0.70  millimeter  or up to 30 c e l l s high; homogeneous, e n t i r e l y upright c e l l s ; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses; The wood i s used for general construction, furniture and a g r i c u l t u r a l implements. Remarks;  The wood of B.  erythrophloia Hay.  as detailed by Kanehira  (30)  varies from this description including color (yellow-gray), v e s s e l s i z e (60-160 microns i n diameter) and f i b r e diameter (16-25 microns).  F i g . 19.  Cinnamomum camphora  Nees.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  42 Cinnamomum camphora Nees. Commercial Namei Other Names: Tree:  Chaun-sue (mandarin).  None known.  A large tree; ranging from 3,900 to 5,900 feet elevation;  occurring mostly i n central Taiwan as pure forest stands or associated with Machilus  spp.  General Properties: Heartwood l i g h t pink with dark stripes and high l u s t r e ; grain straight; texture medium to f i n e ; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.64  (40 pounds per cubic foot); with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c camphor  odor and taste. Macroscopic Features; fibrous t i s s u e .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to dark bands of  Larger vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e  porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and usually containing tyloses. Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and i n r a d i a l chain multiples up to 3. Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 19)  Vessels moderately  few  7-15  per square millimeter, the larger e l l i p t i c a l or oval medium-sized mostly 130-165 (up to 220) microns  i n diameter; perforation plates simple;  intervessel p i t s orbicular, mostly medium-sized (9-13 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s linear, a l t e r n a t e l y arranged spirally.  Fibres thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; medium diameter  mostly 20-25 (average 22) microns, medium length 1.5-2.0 (average 1.8) m i l l i m e t e r s . Longitudinal parenchyma of several types;  metatracheal-  d i f f u s e ; paratracheal-vasicentric 1-4 c e l l s wide extending to paratracheal-aliform with short wings and paratracheal-confluent connecting 2-3 pores diagonally; large v e r t i c a l o i l c e l l s usually surrounding vessels measure up to 63 microns wide and 256 microns high i n tangential view.  Rays simple, few-uniseriate^2T3 c e l l s high; numerous b i s e r i a t e ex-  tremely low 0.45 millimeter, 8-12  c e l l s high; heterogeneous; containing  dark brown deposits; marginal o i l c e l l s interspersed with several upright c e l l s . Uses;  The wood i s mainly used for camphor and camphor o i l production.  Other uses include f u r n i t u r e , musical instruments, and small a r t i c l e s .  43 Remarks t  Wood from C. camphora Nees. et Ebe. as reported by Kanehira  (30) varies from this d e s c r i p t i o n by having more numerous pores i n springwood, angular i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s and septate f i b r e s . Stern (44) also reports more pores (17-35 per square millimeter), as w e l l as multiseriate rays.  Vessel diameters of 70-150 microns were recorded  by Kribs (31) who also reports f i b r e tracheids with small bordered p i t s and rays 2-3 c e l l s wide for this species.  F i g . 2®.  Cinnamonum micranthum  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  44 Cinnamomum micranthum Commercial Namet Other Names t Tree;  Hay.  Pan-chaun (mandarin).  New-chaun.  A medium-sized tree; occurring i n northern Taiwan.  General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t brown with red stripes and  high  lustre; grain straight to roey; texture coarse; moderately l i g h t , s p e c i f i c gravity 0.40  (25 pounds per cubic foot); with c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  camphor odor and taste. Macroscopic Features; fibrous tissue.  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to dark bands of  Larger vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e  porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and usually containing tyloses. Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 3 and i n occasional cluster groupings. Microscopic Features: 10-20  (See F i g . 20)  Vessels moderately numerous  per square millimeter, the larger round or oval medium-sized  mostly 150-180 (up to 250) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple or r a r e l y scalariform i n small vessels with 4-5  bars  2.5-  3.0 microns i n thickness; intervessel p i t s square, medium-sized 10.0  microns i n largest diameter),  arranged s p i r a l l y .  (8.5-  close, o r i f i c e s round, a l t e r n a t e l y  Fibres very thin-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; extremely  coarse mostly 30-35 (average 32) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.3) millimeters. types:  Longitudinal parenchyma of three  terminal as p a r t i a l lines 1-2  c e l l s wide;  metatracheal-diffuse  as s o l i t a r y c e l l s or i n r a d i a l multiples of several c e l l s along rays; paratracheal-aliform extending to paratracheal-confluent;  large  v e r t i c a l o i l c e l l s measure up to 68 microns wide and 220 microns high i n tangential view. extremely low 0.45  Rays simple mostly b i s e r i a t e , occasional t r i s e r i a t e and millimeter or up to 16 c e l l s high; heterogeneous;  marginal o i l c e l l s at i n t e r v a l s ; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses:  The wood i s used for camphor o i l production.  Remarks:  C. micranthum Hay.  as described by Kanehira (30) varies from  this description i n size of elements (vessel diameters 70-160 microns, fibres 15-32  microns i n diameter),  and by having inconspicuous  paratracheal parenchyma and sparse secretory c e l l s .  F i g . 21.  Cinnamomum randaiensis  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  45 Cinnamomum randaiensis Hay. Commercial Namet Other Names: Tree:  Shan-chaun (mandarin).  Lan-da-chaun.  A medium-sized evergreen tree, up to 20 inches i n diameter;  ranging to about 1,600 to 4,900 feet elevation. General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t pink with medium to high lustre;  grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.58 (36 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; lacking camphor odor or taste. Macroscopic Features; of f i b r e s .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to wide, dense bands  Vessels i n d i s t i n c t to the naked eye, but v i s i b l e at 10 x  magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing tyloses.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain  multiples up to 5 plus and i n occasional cluster groupings up to 5. Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 21) Vessels few 3-12 per square  millimeter, the larger medium-sized mostly 120-125 (up to 150) microns in diameter; perforation plates simple or occasionally scalariform in small vessels with 4-6 bars 5-10 microns i n thickness; i n t e r - v e s s e l p i t s orbicular or linear, very small (4.5-6.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s linear, a l t e r n a t e l y arranged spirally.  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately f i n e  mostly 15-20 (average 18) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.2-1.5 (average 1.2) millimeters. metatracheal-diffuse;  Longitudinal parenchyma of several types:  paratracheal-vasicentric several c e l l s wide extending  to paratracheal-aliform with short wings and paratracheal-confluent necting 2-3 pores diagonally; occasionally many parenchyma c e l l s  con-  fused  over a large area; v e r t i c a l o i l c e l l s sparse, small for the genus (60 microns wide, 120 microns high).  Rays simple uniseriate very low 0.70  millimeter or up to 8 plus c e l l s high, and often b i s e r i a t e or t r i s e r i a t e ; occasionally showing a uniseriate portion at one end; heterogeneous; no horizontal o i l c e l l s Uses:  present.  The wood i s used for producing v o l a t i l e o i l s .  Remarks:  Wood anatomy of C_. randaiensis Hay. was b r i e f l y recorded by  Kanehira (30); with a major difference i n frequency of pores (13-19 per square m i l l i m e t e r ) .  F i g . 22.  Machilus arisanensis  Hay.  (x-sec.j t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  46 Machilus arisanensis Hay. Commercial Name: Arisan-nan (mandarin). Other Names: Shao-yue-nan. Treet  A medium-sized tree; ranging from sea l e v e l to 6,600 feet  elevation, occurring p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Arisan mountain. General Properties:  Heartwood light red-brown without lustre} grain  straight; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.64 (40 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features: fibrous t i s s u e .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to dark bands of  Vessels i n d i s t i n c t to the naked eye, but v i s i b l e at  10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d . Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 4 and i n cluster groupings up to 7. Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 22) Vessels moderately numerous 15-25  per square millimeter, the larger e l l i p t i c a l and oval medium-sized mostly 140-145 (up to 150) microns i n diameter; perforation plates  simple;  intervessel p i t s orbicular to oval and p a r t l y grouped, moderately small (7.5-8.5 microns i n largest diameter), mostly a l t e r n a t e l y arranged s p i r a l l y .  close, o r i f i c e s round,  Fibres very thick-walled;  p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately coarse mostly 25-30 (average 28) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.1-1.5 (average 1.2) millimeters. i t u d i n a l parenchyma of several types:  Long-  paratracheal-vasicentric 1-2  c e l l s wide extending to paratracheal-aliform with short wings and paratracheal-confluent  connecting  up t o 3 pores diagonally.  Rays  simple very low 0.70 millimeter-, uniseriate 3-4 c e l l s high, numerous b i s e r i a t e and occasional t r i s e r i a t e ; heterogeneous with marginal upright c e l l s ; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses:  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture.  47 Machilus pseudolongifolia Hay. Commercial Name! Other Namest Tree;  Gau-yue-nan (mandarin).  None known.  A medium-sized tree; ranging the whole island.  General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t red-brown with medium lustre;  grain straight; texture medium to f i n e ; moderately heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.46 (28.5 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features: of fibrous t i s s u e .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to wide dense bands  Vessels i n d i s t i n c t at 10 x magnification.  Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 23) Wood d i f f u s e porous with pores  evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing dark deposits. solitary.  Pore arrangement  Vessels very numerous 80-170 per square millimeter, the  larger very small mostly 40-45 (up to 60) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple; i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s orbicular, very small (4.5-5.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round, oppositely arranged  as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled;  round bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t ; mostly medium diameter 17-26 (average 21) microns, medium length 1.4-1.9 (average 1.5) millimeters. Longitudinal parenchyma of two types: racheal-zonate  metatracheal-diffuse; metat-  1 - c e l l wide, 2-4 c e l l s long.  Rays simple uniseriate  very low 0.60 millimeter or up to 9 plus c e l l s high, b i s e r i a t e always showing a long uniseriate portion on one end; t r i s e r i a t e rays infrequent; heterogeneous; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses:  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture.  48 Machilus Commercial Name; Other Names: Tree:  zuihoensis  Hay.  Shan-nan (mandarin).  Raw-fan-nan.  A medium-sized tree; ranging the whole island at sea l e v e l .  General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t pink without  l u s t r e ; grain  straight; texture coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.54  (33.5 pounds  per cubic foot); with odor and a c r i d taste similar to camphor. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to narrow, dense  bands of fibrous t i s s u e .  Vessels i n d i s t i n c t to the naked eye, but  v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing t y l o s e s .  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as  r a d i a l chain multiples of 2-3 and i n tangential p a i r s . Microscopic Features: 10-25 115  (See F i g . 24)  Vessels moderately numerous  per square millimeter, the larger moderately small mostly 95(up to 200) microns i n diameter; p e r f o r a t i o n plates simple;  intervessel p i t s rectangular to orbicular, moderately small (7.58.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round^ oppositely arranged as transverse rows, fibres thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately coarse mostly 25-30 (average 26) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.4) millimeters.  Longit-  udinal parenchyma of two types; paratracheal scanty and occasional paratracheal-vasicentric 2-3 c e l l s wide.  Rays simple very low  0.85  millimeter u n i s e r i a t e up to 10 plus c e l l s high, b i s e r i a t e v a r i a b l e i n height, t r i s e r i a t e flanked with a u n i s e r i a t e portion up to 8 c e l l s high; heterogeneous with t a l l upright c e l l s ; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses:  The wood i s used for tea cases, boat building, furniture, and  general construction. Remarks: Machilus  Kanehira  (30) described the wood from 3 Taiwan species of  including M. kusanoi Hay.,  M. suffrutescens Hay.  M. longipaniculata Hay.  and  The major differences between these and  the  three species reported here appear to be i n frequency and size of vessels.  49 LEGUMINOSAE The family includes about 500 genera and over 15,000 species of trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs widely d i s t r i b u t e d over the world (21). 35).  There are 59 genera and 6 tree species native to Taiwan (32, The wood of one introduced species i s described.  Taxonomic Notes:  Leguminosae includes three sub-families, namely  Papilionaceae, Caesalpiniaceae specialization.  and Mimosaceae varying i n degree of  Cassia belongs to Caesalpiniaceae  on this basis  (35). Anatomical Features;  Ring-porous or semi-ring-porous i n a few species.  Vessels rather large to very small, t y p i c a l l y mostly s o l i t a r y , sometimes with a few small multiples and irregular c l u s t e r s ; perforation plates simple; p i t s small, alternate and vestured. simple,  fibres septate i n some genera.  Fibre p i t s small and  Longitudinal parenchyma  t y p i c a l l y paratracheal i n round or diamond-shaped sheaths and containing crystals.  Rays 1-9 (mostly 2-5) c e l l s wide or e x c l u s i v e l y uniseriate,  with some tendency to echelon or storied arrangement i n a l l species, but seldom d i s t i n c t (35, 39). Anatomical Features Fibres are septate.  of Cassia;  Vessels large i n some species-  Parenchyma usually moderately abundant and  predominantly a l i f o r m and mostly diamond shaped or intermediate between the above and paratracheal or i n more regular bands that are d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y .  Rays mostly 2-3 c e l l s wide, exclusively  uniseriate or with only a few b i s e r i a t e rays i n some species, often multiseriate accompanied by few uniseriate rays (31, 35). Cassia siamia Lam. Commercial Namet Other Names; Tree;  Bombay black wood, rosewood, Ti-dau-moo (mandarin).  None known.  A medium-sized tree, introduced from mainland China; ranging  from central to southern Taiwan. General Properties;  Heartwood dark gray without lustre; grain  interlocked; texture coarse; very heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.75 (47 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste.  F i g . 25.  Cassia siamia  Lam.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100  x  50. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Vessels v i s i b l e to the  naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing gum.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and i n r a d i a l chain multiples  of 2-3 (mostly 2). Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 25)  Vessels very few 1-8 (mostly 1)  per square millimeter, the larger oval moderately large mostly 240275  (up to 290) microns i n diameter; perforation plates  simple;  i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s round to oval, moderately small (6.5-7.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ;  moderately f i n e mostly 15-20 (average 18) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.3) millimeters; lumina frequently with c r y s t a l s . Longitudinal parenchyma of two types: terminal; paratracheal-confluent  forming concentric bands up t o 10 c e l l s wide.  Rays simple very low 0.55 millimeter few uniseriate up to 8 c e l l s high, numerous b i s e r i a t e variable i n height, and rare t r i s e r i a t e ; heterogeneous; c e l l contents lacking. Uses: The wood i s used for furniture and trim lumber.  Lagerstroemia subcostata  Koehne.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  51 LYTHRACEAE The family comprises about 20 genera and many species of trees, shrubs and herbs widely d i s t r i b u t e d i n the world (35). 3 genera and 7 tree species i n Taiwan (30, 32).  There are  The wood of one  timber species i s described. Taxonomic Notes I  The genera i n this family are  Anatomical Features; plates simple.  Ring-porous i n some species.  Fibres commonly septate.  defined (35).  Well  Vessel perforation  Longitudinal parenchyma  predominantly paratracheal, scanty or v a s i c e n t r i c to aliform and confluent, sometimes with c r y s t a l s .  Rays exclusively uniseriate or  up to 2-3 c e l l s wide (35). Anatomical Features of Lagerstroemiar sq.  mm.,  Vessels 5 per  sometimes with deposits of gum and with tyloses.  p i t s simple and fibres often septate. eal,  Ring-porous.  Fibre  Longitudinal parenchyma paratrach-  abundant and aliform to confluent with c r y s t a l s .  Rays exclusively  simple i n most species, homogeneous (35). Lagerstroemla subcostata Koehne. Commercial Name: Other Names; Tree;  Ku-gone (mandarin).  None known.  A large deciduous tree, up to 23 inches i n diameter; occurring i n  northern Taiwan. General Properties; Heartwood l i g h t brown without lustre; grain straight to wavy; texture coarse; very heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.85  (53 pounds per  cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features; walled f i b r e s .  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to narrow bands of thick-  Larger vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e  porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and occasionally containing tyloses. Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and i n r a d i a l chain multiples up to 6. Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 26)  Vessels moderately numerous  15-25  per square millimeter, the larger e l l i p t i c a l medium-sized mostly 125-140 (up to 175) microns  i n diameter; perforation plates simple; intervessel  p i t s s l i t - l i k e , very small (4.5-5.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s linear, oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  52 Vasicentric tracheids present, round bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t .  Fibres  very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; mostly moderately fine 15-20 (average 18) microns i n diameter; very short 0.5-1.0 (average 0.9) millimeters i n length.  Longitudinal parenchyma of several types:  terminal up to 2 c e l l s wide; metatracheal  zonate 3-12 c e l l s wide;  paratracheal-aliform and paratracheal-confluent intermingled with v a s i c e n t r i c tracheids.  Rays simple uniseriate, slender and low 1.3  millimeter or up to 65 plus c e l l s high, heterogeneous with upright c e l l s . i n c l u d e d and marginal; c e l l s rectangular i n tangential view; c e l l contents lacking. Uses:  The wood i s used for charcoal production.  Remarks:  Kanehira  (30) reported on wood of L. subcostata Koehne.  as yellow i n color, fine textured and having uni-and b i s e r i a t e rays up to 20 c e l l s high.  53 MAGNOLIACEAE The  family includes about 10 genera and 80 species of trees and  shrubs occurring i n the temperate and subtropical portions of America and eastern Asia (21).  There are 5 genera and 10 tree species i n  Taiwan (30, 32, 35). The woods of two species are described. Taxonomic Notes;  The family i s considered  primitive due to scalariform  perforation plates and scalariform intervascular p i t t i n g (35). Anatomical Features:  Vessels s o l i t a r y and i n small groups; perforation  plates t y p i c a l l y scalariform with few, widely spaced bars. p i t s are bordered.  Fibre  Longitudinal parenchyma i s only terminal.  Rays  usually up to 3 or 4 c e l l s wide with few uniseriate (35). Anatomical Features of Michelia;  Vessels usually medium-sized but  small i n some species; s p i r a l thickening present; perforation plates t y p i c a l l y scalariform iwth few widely spaced bars. small- to moderately large-bordered  Fibre p i t s are  and t y p i c a l l y very few.  Longitudinal  parenchyma occurring i n terminal bands; s i l i c a sometimes present. Rays usually 3-4 c e l l s wide, uniseriate rays very few (35). Michelia formosana Mas. Commercial Name: Woo-sin-shee (mandarin). Other Names; Tree;  None known.  A medium sized tree; ranging from 700 to 5,900 feet elevation  about the whole i s l a n d . General Properties;  Heartwood d u l l yellow with dark green stripes  and medium l u s t r e ; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.55 (34.5 pounds per cubic foot); with disagreeable  odor,  but lacking taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to concentric  of terminal parenchyma.  Vessels  lines  i n d i s t i n c t to the naked eye, but  v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wpod d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly distributed and occasionally containing tyloses.  Pore arrangement  mostly as r a d i a l chain multiples up to 8 plus and i n tangential clusters of 2-5, occasionally s o l i t a r y .  F i g . 27.  M i c h e l i a formosana  Mas.  (x-sec._, t-sec. and r-sec.) at  100  54 Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 27)  Vessels numerous 35-75 per square  millimeter, the larger moderately small mostly 75-85 (up to 95) microns i n diameter; perforation plates scalariform with 2-5 bars 4.5 microns i n thickness; s p i r a l thickening on vessel walls; intervessel p i t s scalariform, extremely large (55-60 microns i n largest diameter) and close.  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately fine  mostly 15-20  (average 18) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5  (average 1.4) millimeters.  Longitudinal parenchyma of several types:  terminal i n lines 2-5 (mostly 3) wide; metatracheal-diffuse; scanty paratracheal.  Rays simple very low 0.85 millimeters r a r e l y uniseriate  up to 9 c e l l s high, frequent b i s e r i a t e variable i n height; heterogeneous with one or more marginal rows of upright c e l l s . Uses;  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture, musical instruments  and as decoration. Remarks;  The wood of M. compressa Max.  as described by Kanehira (30)  c l o s e l y resembles M. formosana Mas. reported here, varying only i n having conspicuous metatracheal-zonate parenchyma and fewer bars (2-5) in scalariform perforation p l a t e s .  F i g . 28.  I l l i c i u m leucanthum  Hay.  (x-sec.j t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  55 SCHISANDRACEAE The family i s mostly represented by shrubs, some of which have a t r a i l i n g habit.  I t s members occur i n China, Malaya, A u s t r a l i a and  in southeastern United States of America (35). species occur i n Taiwan. Taxonomic Notes:  One genus and three  The wood of one timber species i s described.  The family i s separated into two parts due to  taxonomic differences.  The f i r s t group includes three genera,  Austrobaileya, Kadsura and Schisandra.  The second group consists of  I l l i c i u m (35). Anatomical Features of I l l i c i u m : plates scalariform.  Vessels solitary} perforation  Fibre p i t s are bordered.  Longitudinal paren-  chyma sparse, paratracheal and sometimes scattered along the r i n g boundary.  Rays up to 3 c e l l s wide, with numerous uniseriate rays  markedly heterogeneous (35). I l l i c i u m leucanthum Hay. Commercial Name:  Bar-ghau (mandarin).  Other Names: Hon-bar-ghao. Tree: A medium-sized tree, up to 16 inches i n diameter; ranging from 2,600 to 4,900 feet elevation from central to northern Taiwan. General Properties: Heartwood red to pink without l u s t r e ; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium to coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity  0.55  (34.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to narrow dark  bands of thick-walled f i b r e s .  Vessels not v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification.  Microscopic Features: (See F i g . 28) Wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly distributed.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y as r a d i a l pairs and i n  tangential groupings up to 4.  Vessels very numerous 115-180 mostly  per square millimeter, the larger very small mostly 45-50 (up to 60) microns i n diameter; perforation plates scalariform with 20 plus bars 1.5 microns i n thickness; intervessel p i t s round to e l l i p t i c a l , mostly moderately small (4.5-12.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r to linear, oppositely arranged i n v e r t i c a l rows.  Fibres very thick-walled; bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t ;  extremely  56 coarse mostly 29-34 (average 30) microns i n diameter, moderate length 1.5-2.0 (average 1.8) millimeters. metatracheal-diffuse  i n f i b r e areas.  Longitudinal parenchyma  Rays simple uniseriate low  1.1  millimeters or up to 17 plus c e l l s high, homogeneous comprised e n t i r e l y of upright c e l l s ; frequent  t r i s e r i a t e always flanked with portion as  uniseriate ray, heterogeneous. Uses I  The wood i s used for general construction and furniture manu-  facture. Remarks t  Kanehira (30) records features for I_. anisatum L. (Magnol-  iaceae) very s i m i l a r to this description for I_. leucanthum Hay.,  with  major difference i n i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s which are reported as scalariform.  57 THEACEAE The  family comprises about 23 genera and 350 species of trees  and shrubs with wide t r o p i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the Malayan Archipelago represented  and L a t i n America (32, 33). The family i s also  to a limited extent i n China, Japan and the United  States.  The best known member of the family i s the tea plant ( Camellia sinensis L. or Thea sinensis (L) 0. Ktze.) (38). and 26 tree species i n Taiwan (30). are  There are 12 genera  The woods of three timber species  described.  Taxonomic Notest  Ternstroemiaceae does not constitute a group and  hence Ternstroemia must belong to Theaceae (35, 38). Anatomical Features*  Semi-ring-porous i n some species.  Vessels  t y p i c a l l y small; perforation plates scalariform with 15-100 bars, simple only i n Archylaea and Bonnetia.  Fibre p i t s are bordered, fibres  are medium length to very long (35, 38). Anatomical Features of Schima, Gordonia and Ternstroemiat  Vessels  are t y p i c a l l y small i n some species of Schima and Ternstroemia, mostly 30-140 per square millimeter, but fewest i n some species of Gordonia; s p i r a l thickening i s absent except f o r some species of Gordonia (38); tyloses sometimes present; perforation plates scalariform. p i t s are bordered.  Fibre  Longitudinal parenchyma i s apotracheal and d i f f u s e .  Rays commonly 2-3 c e l l s wide, but 4-8 i n Ternstroemia and exclusively uniseriate i n Schima (35). Gordonia a x i l l a r i s (Don.) Commercial Name; Other Names: Tree;  Szysz.  Pa-tau-cha (mandarin).  None known.  A small tree; ranging the whole island at sea l e v e l .  General Properties:  Heartwood red-brown with medium l u s t r e ; grain  roey; texture medium, heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.51 (31.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings d i s t i n c t due to terminal bands  of thick-walled f i b r e s .  Vessels barely v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification;  wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing dark deposits.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y , as r a d i a l pairs and multiples  and as tangential p a i r s .  M u l t i s e r i a t e rays v i s i b l e .  F i g . 29.  Gordonia a x i l l a r i s (Don.)  Szysz.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100  58 Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 29)  Vessels very numerous 115-160  per square millimeter the larger very small mostly 45-50 (up to 75) microns i n diameter; perforation plates scalariform with 15 plus bars 3.5 microns i n thickness; i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s scalariform, large (18-20 microns i n largest diameter) widely spaced.  Fibres very thick-walled;  bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t ; mostly moderately coarse 25-30 (average 26) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.5-2.0 (average 1.6) millimeters. Longitudinal parenchyma of two types:  metatracheal-diffuse and d i f f u s e -  aggregated; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Rays of two types: simple uniseriate very low 0.65 millimeters high, mostly upright c e l l s , variable i n height frequent b i s e r i a t e and t r i s e r i a t e ; multiseriate extremely broad 500 microns or many c e l l s i n width; heterogeneous; c e l l s containing dark deposits. Uses:  The wood i s used f o r charcoal production.  Remarks:  Kanehira (30) reports similar wood anatomy for G. a x i l l a r i s  (Don.) Szysz., but noted a diminishing number of pores as seasonal growth progressed to latewood. the same species.  G. anomala Spreng. i s thought to be  F i g . 3©.  Schima superba Gard. et Champ. ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 10t x  59 Schima superba Gard. et Champ. Commercial Name;  Moo-ho (mandarin).  Other Names: None known. Tree: A medium-sized tree; occurring i n southern Taiwan. General Properties:  Heartwood yellow-gray with medium lustre;  grain straight; texture f i n e ; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.61 (38 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Vessels barely  v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly distributed.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and r a r e l y as r a d i a l p a i r s .  Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 30) Vessels very numerous 45-50  per square millimeter, the larger oval moderately small mostly 55-70 (up to 85) microns i n diameter; perforation plates scalariform with 6-14 bars 1.5 microns i n thickness; intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (5.0-6.0 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round, oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled;  simple, s l i t - l i k e p i t s d i s t i n c t ; extremely coarse mostly 30-35 (average 30)'microns i n diameter, moderately long 2.0-2.5 (average 2.2) m i l l i meters.  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-diffuse i n f i b r e areas.  Rays simple uniseriate low 1.2 millimeters or up to 20 plus c e l l s high, occasionally b i s e r i a t e i n part; heterogeneous;  c e l l s containing  dark deposits. Uses: The wood i s used for furniture manufacture. Remarks: Kanehira (30) recorded wood anatomy for  noronhae Reinw.,  which d i f f e r s from that of S. superba Gard. et Champ, reported here by having more vessels (50-90 per square millimeter) less evenly d i s t r i buted i n growth increments.  F i g . 31.  Ternstroemia gymnanthera  Spr.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  60 Ternstroemia  gymnanthera Spr.  Commercial Name: Hoo-pi-shan (mandarin). Other Names: None known. Tree:  A large tree; occurring i n central Taiwan.  General Properties:  Heartwood l i g h t orange with medium l u s t r e ;  grain straight to roey; texture medium, heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity (36 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without Macroscopic Features:  0.58  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste.  Growth rings i n d i s t i n c t .  Vessels barely  v i s i b l e at 10 x magnification; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly distributed.  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y or as r a d i a l p a i r s .  Multi-  seriate 'rays v i s i b l e . Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 31)  Vessels extremely numerous  90-120 per square millimeter, the larger very small mostly 50-60 (up to 70) microns i n diameter; p e r f o r a t i o n plates scalariform with 30 plus bars 2.5 microns i n thickness; i n t e r v e s s e l p i t s orbicular, very small (4.5-5.5 microns i n largest diameter), widely spaced, o r i f i c e s round, oppositely arranged  as v e r t i c a l rows.  Fibres very  thin-walled; bordered p i t s d i s t i n c t ; medium diameter mostly 20-30 (average 24) microns, moderately long 2.0-2.4 (average 2.2) meters.  milli-  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-diffuse i n f i b r e areas.  of two types;  simple rather low 2.5 millimeters high u n i s e r i a t e  homogeneous, e n t i r e l y upright c e l l s , up to 50 c e l l s high, r a r e l y b i s e r i a t e , m u l t i s e r i a t e medium-sized 69 microns or 4 c e l l s wide heterogeneous, always flanked with a uniseriate portion at one Uses:  end.  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture.  Remarks t  Kanehira  (30) reports on T_. japonica Thunb. which appears  very similar to T_. gymnanthera Spr. described here.  Rays  61 TROCHODENDRACEAE The family, i n i t s s t r i c t e s t sense, consists of one genus and species, a rather small tree of eastern Asia (39). Taxonomic Notes:  Trochodendron, formerly c l a s s i f i e d as a genus of  Magnoliaceae, i s not now considered part of this family due to d i s t i n c t taxonomic differences (35). Trochodendron a r a l i o i d e s S. et Z. Commercial Name; Other Names; Tree:  Vin-yue (mandarin).  Soo-kau-zue.  A large evergreen tree, up to 55 inches i n diameter; ranging  from central to northern Taiwan; associated with Chamaecyparis formosensis and _C.  taiwanensis.  General Properties;  Heartwood gray-brown with medium l u s t r e ; grain  straight; texture medium; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.62 (38.5 pounds per cubic foot); without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste; conspicuous rays give a figure to quarter-sawn material. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings conspicuous due to narrow bands  of thick-walled tracheids.  No vessels are present, v a s i c e n t r i c  tracheids being the p r i n c i p a l wood element and these i n d i s t i n c t at 10 x magnification.  Broad rays d i s t i n c t .  Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 32)  Vasicentric tracheids extremely  coarse mostly 30-35 (average 37) microns i n diameter, extremely long 4.04.5 (average 4.3) millimeters i n length; w a l l thickness varying  across  growth increment; p i t s between contiguous tracheal c e l l s scalariform, arranged i n v e r t i c a l rows, apertures  extended with occasional  microscopic  checking, semi-bordered p i t s at ray crossings small, rounded and up to 10 plus per crossing. Rays of two types:  Longitudinal parenchyma sparse  metatracheal-diffuse.  simple, uniseriate moderately long 2.0 millimeters  or 1-20 (mostly 3-10) c e l l s high; multiseriate moderately broad 140 millimeters or 4-9 (mostly 4-6) c e l l s wide and variable i n height (mostly 40-100 c e l l s or 1.0-2.5 millimeters high); simple rays homogeneous, e n t i r e l y comprised of upright Uses;  cells.  The wood i s used f o r chemical pulp.  Remarks:  Kanehira (30) reports similar anatomical c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r  T. a r a l i o i d e s S. et Z., as do Record and Dadswell (39).  62 ULMACEAE The family comprises about 15 genera and more than 150 species of trees, shrubs and herbs widely d i s t r i b u t e d over the temperate regions |of both hemispheres (21). regions. 35).  A few species occur i n t r o p i c a l  There are 4 genera and 5 tree species i n Taiwan (30, 32,  The woods of two timber species are described.  Taxonomic Notes;  There are r e l a t i v e l y more ring-porous species i n  Ulmaceae than i n Moraceae and consequently a greater number of species with advanced characters than are usually associated with the development of ring-porousness (35). Anatomical Features:  Semi-ring-porous  i n some species;vessels -  s o l i t a r y or as r a d i a l multiples; perforation plates simple. p i t s are simple.  Fibre  Longitudinal parenchyma paratracheal, scanty  v a s i c e n t r i c , confluent, or as broad bands, storied i n several genera. Rays up to 2-11 c e l l s wide, heterogeneous Anatomical Features of Trema and Zelkova:  to homogeneous (35). Semi-ring-porous  i n Zelkova.  Vessels v a r i a b l e i n arrangement, s o l i t a r y i n some species of Trema and i n wavy, uniform tangential bands i n Zelkova. small and bordered.  Fibre p i t s are  Longitudinal parenchyma i s paratracheal. Rays  usually up to 3 c e l l s wide, but 6-12 c e l l s wide i n Zelkova (35). Trema o r i e n t a l i s B l . Commercial Name! Other Namest Tree;  San-ma-hwang  (mandarin).  None known.  A large deciduous tree; ranging the whole island at sea l e v e l .  General Properties;  Heartwood red-brown with medium l u s t r e ; grain  straight; texture coarse; moderately l i g h t , s p e c i f i c gravity 0.38 (23.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings barely d i s t i n c t .  Large vessels  v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood d i f f u s e porous with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and occasionally continuing tyloses. s o l i t a r y with e l l i p t i c a l , multiples up to 5. i  Pore arrangement  oval or rounded shape and as r a d i a l chain  63 Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 33)  Vessels few 4-7  (mostly 5)  per square millimeter, the larger round, oval or e l l i p t i c a l large mostly 250-270 (up to 388) microns  moderately  i n diameter; perforation  plates simple; intervessel p i t s orbicular, medium-sized (9.5-10.5 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged s p i r a l l y .  Fibres very thin-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ;  coarse mostly 30-35 (average 33) microns  extremely  i n diameter, medium length  1.0-1.5 (average 1.4) millimeters. Longitudinal parenchyma of two types:  metatracheal-diffuse r a d i a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d along rays; par-  atracheal-vasicentric 1-2 c e l l s wide.  Rays simple very low  0.65  millimeters high few uniseriate 3-8 c e l l s high, homogeneous comprised e n t i r e l y of upright c e l l s , b i s e r i a t e , heterogeneous,  5-15  c e l l s high  always flanked by 1-5 marginal upright c e l l s . Uses:  The wood i s used for furniture manufacture, a g r i c u l t u r a l  implements, match s t i c k blocks and for pulp. Remarks; Kanehira (30) records similar features for T. o r i e n t a l i s B l . except for v e s s e l diameters of 80-180 microns.  F i g . 34.  Zelkova formosana  Hay.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  64 Zelkova formosana Hay. Commercial Name: Taiwan-zsu (mandarin). Other Names: Gi-u. Tree: A large deciduous tree, up to 59 inches i n diameter; ranging the whole island from sea l e v e l to 3,300 feet elevation; occurring as pure forests and i n association with other hardwoods. General Properties:  Heartwood pink with golden-yellow s t r i p e ; medium  l u s t r e ; grain s t r a i g h t ; texture medium; very heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 1  0.76 (47.5 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor or taste. Macroscopic Features;  Growth rings conspicuous due to wide darker  bands of fibrous t i s s u e .  Larger vessels v i s i b l e to the naked eye;  wood mostly r i n g porous, but occasionally semi-ring porous i n some rings with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d , containing dark deposits and occasional tyloses. cluster.groupings  Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y i n springwood and as  of 2-several i n the summerwood.  Microscopic Features;  (See F i g . 34)  Rays d i s t i n c t .  Vessels moderately numerous 10-40  per square millimeter, the larger round to oval moderately large mostly 240-260 (up to 270) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple;  s p i r a l thickening present  i n summerwood vessels; summerwood  intervessel p i t s orbicular, very small (4.5-5.5 microns i n largest diameter) close, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows.  Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; medium diameter mostly  20-25 (average 22) microns, medium length 1.5-2.0 (average 1.8) millimeters. Longitudinal parenchyma paratracheal-confluent areas.  extending to large  Rays multiseriate, moderately broad 110 microns or 5-8 c e l l s  wide and of uniform width i n main body of the ray; heterogeneous with upright c e l l s always containing c r y s t a l s . Uses;  The wood i s used for general construction, turnery and a g r i c -  u l t u r a l implements. Remarks:  Wood anatomy of Z. formosana Hay. as reported by Kanehira (30),  d i f f e r s from this description i n vessel diameters (50-100 microns), intervessel p i t size (10 microns) and the l a r g e l y homogeneous character of rays.  F i g . 35.  Tectona grandis  Linn, f.  ( x - s e c , t-sec. and r-sec.) at 100 x  65 VERBENACEAE The family comprises about 20 genera and many species widely d i s t r i b u t e d and of diverse form including large forest trees, shrubs, lianas and herbs (35).  There are 8 genera and 27 native species  of small trees i n Taiwan.  The one species described was introduced  to Taiwan i n 1901 and has value as a commercial wood. Anatomical Features: the family (35).  Wood structure i s f a i r l y uniform throughout  Ring-porous.  Vessels mostly medium-sized; per-  f o r a t i o n plates t y p i c a l l y simple.  Fibre p i t s are simple, fibres are  septate i n most genera (35). Anatomical Features of Tectona: Ring-porous or semi-ring-porous. Vessels medium-sized, 24-40 per square millimeter i n some species; tyloses abundant.  Fibres are septate.  broad bands associated with pore-zones.  Longitudinal parenchyma i n Rays 5 or more c e l l s wide (35).  Tectona grandis Linn, f . Commercial Name: Teak, genuine^ Iu-moo (mandarin). Other Names: M a - l i . Tree;  A large deciduous tree; ranging from sea l e v e l to 2,300 feet  elevation i n southern Taiwan. General Properties;  Heartwood medium brown without l u s t r e ; grain  straight; texture coarse; heavy, s p e c i f i c gravity 0.56 (35 pounds per cubic f o o t ) ; without c h a r a c t e r i s t i c odor but a c r i d taste. Macroscopic Features:  Growth rings I n d i s t i n c t .  Larger vessels  v i s i b l e to the naked eye; wood semi-ring porous or d i f f u s e porous i n some rings with pores evenly d i s t r i b u t e d and containing tyloses. Pore arrangement s o l i t a r y and as r a d i a l pairs i n summerwood.  Broad  rays d i s t i n c t . Microscopic Features:  (See F i g . 35)  Vessels moderately few 5-12  (mostly 7) per square millimeter, round to oval medium-sized mostly 160-210 (up to 325) microns i n diameter; perforation plates simple; intervessel p i t s oval, very small (4.5-5.0 microns i n largest diameter), close, o r i f i c e s l e n t i c u l a r , oppositely arranged as transverse rows. Fibres very thick-walled; p i t s i n d i s t i n c t ; moderately fine mostly 15-22 (average 20) microns i n diameter, medium length 1.0-1.5 (average 1.2) millimeters.  Longitudinal parenchyma of two types: terminal several  66 c e l l s wide; paratracheal-vasicentric 1-several c e l l s wide. two types:  Rays of  few simple extremely low 0.15 millimeters high variable  in width from 1-3 seriate; multiseriate extremely broad 900 microns or 4-6  (mostly 4) c e l l s wide; heterogeneous.  Uses: The wood i s used for furniture, decoration and ship decking. Remarks:  Wood of Tectona grandis Linn, f . was described by Kribs  (31) as ring-porous with pore diameter at 340-360 microns and containing yellowish gum and white deposits as w e l l as tyloses.  Other differences  include a l t e r n a t e l y arranged intervessel p i t s of 6 microns diameter, septate fibres with simple p i t s , and mostly homogeneous rays.  67 Key For Separation of T h i r t y - f i v e Taiwan Woods Based On Microscopic  Features  1.  Wood non-porous (without vessels)  2  1.  Wood porous (with vessels or other perforate  conducting  elements) 2.  7  Longitudinal and transverse r e s i n canals present £lnu& armajwU Franch. (p.. 12, F i g .  2.  1)  Normal l o n g i t u d i n a l and transverse r e s i n canals absent... 3  3.  Ray tracheids present  4  3.  Ray tracheids absent  6  4.  Longitudinal parenchyma terminal as single c e l l s ,  sparse  Tsuga chinensis (Franch.) P r i t z . (p. 14, F i g . 2 ) 4.  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal,  or i f terminal  other types present.. 5.  5  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-dif fuse Chamaecyparis taiwanensis Masam. et Suzuk. (p. 20, F i g . 6)  5.  Longitudinal parenchyma terminal, metatracheal and metatracheal-dif fuse Chamaecyparis formosensis Matsum. (p. 19, F i g . 5 ) 6.  Highest rays more than 20 c e l l s , frequently b i s e r i a t e ; longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal with c e l l s  occas-  i o n a l l y grouped as a large area Cunninghamia k o n i s h i i Hay, 6.  (p.' 15, F i g . 3)  Highest rays less than 20 c e l l s , b i s e r i a t e infrequent or lacking; longitudinal parenchyma terminal and metatracheal Libocedrus  7.  formosana Hay. (p. 17, F i g . 4  Vasicentric tracheids r a d i a l l y aligned as main elements Trochodendron a r a l i o i d e s S. et Z.  7.  )  (p. 61, F i g . 32 )  Wood with vessels, lacking good r a d i a l alignment  8  68 8.  Perforation plates exclusively simple  .......9  8.  Perforation plates scalariform or i n part scalariform... :  9.  Tyloses present  9.  Tyloses absent  11.  24 ....10 17  10.  Tyloses abundant  11  10.  Tyloses not abundant  13  Longitudinal and ray o i l c e l l s present Cinnamomum camphora Nees. (p. 42, F i g . 19 )  11.  Longitudinal and ray o i l c e l l s absent 12.  The  .12  larger vessels more than 200 (mostly 200-210)  microns in diameter Lithocarpus amygdalifolia Hay, 12.  (p. 31, Fig.12)  The larger vessels less than 200 (mostly 168-180) microns i n diameter Quercus longinux Hay.  13.  (p. 34, F i g . 14)  Springwood vessels the same size or only s l i g h t l y larger than those i n the summerwood (x) ; wood diffuse-porous  13.  14  Springwood vessels obviously larger ( e s p e c i a l l y at low magnification) than those In the summerwood (x); wood ring-porous 14.  The  .15  larger vessels more than 200  (mostly 250-270)  microns i n diameter Trema o r i e n t a l i s B l . (p. 62, F i g . 33) 14.  The  larger vessels less than 200  (mostly 125-140) microns  in diameter Lagerstroemia subcostata Koehne, (p. 51, F i g . 26) 15.  Pores s o l i t a r y or i n c l u s t e r s ; vessels containing dark depo s i t s ; longitudinal parenchyma confluent, c e l l s containing crystals f.Zelkova formosana Hay,  15.  (p. 64, F i g . 34)  Pores s o l i t a r y and as r a d i a l multiples; vessels lacking deposits; longitudinal parenchyma 2-several types, c e l l s lacking crystals  16  69 16.  Rays uniseriate and aggregate.... ....Castanopsis  16.  Rays simple  s t i p i t a t a Hay,  (p. 29, Fig.11)  1-3-seriate and multiseriate Tectona grandis Linn, f . (p. 65, F i g . 35)  17.  Rays e x c l u s i v e l y simple,  17.  Rays simple and other types 18.  The  1-3-seriate  18 ....23  larger vessels more than 200 microns i n diameter.. 19  18.  The  larger vessels less than 200 microns i n diameter.. 20  19.  Vessels containing dark deposits; longitudinal parenchyma terminal and paratracheal-confluent  forming concentric  bands, c e l l s lacking dark deposits Cassia siamia Lam. 19.  (p. 49, F i g . 25)  Vessels lacking dark deposits; longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal-zonate and paratracheal-vasicentric, c e l l s containing dark deposits and c r y s t a l s Engelhardtia formosana Hay. 20.  (p.  36,  Fig.  B i - or t r i - s e r i a t e rays showing a portion uniseriate at one end  20.  ..21  B i - or t r i - s e r i a t e rays not showing a portion uniseriate at one end  21.  .22  The larger vessels more than 50 (mostly 95-115) microns i n diameter  21.  16 )  The  Machilus zuihoensis Hay,  larger vessels less than 50 (mostly 40-45) microns i n  diameter...Machilus pseudolongifolia Hay, 22.  (p. 48, F i g . 24)  (p. 47, F i g . 23 )  Longitudinal parenchyma metatracheal d i f f u s e ; ray c e l l s large Machilus arisanensis Hay,  22.  (p. 46, F i g . 22)  Longitudinal parenchyma v a s i c e n t r i c , a l i f o r m and confluent; ray c e l l s small Actinodaphne nantoensis Hay.  23.  (p. 39, F i g . 17)  Vessels containing dark deposits; rays of three types, uniseriate, multiseriate and aggregate ..Quercus g i l v a B l . (p. 33, F i g . 13)  70 23.  Vessels  lacking dark deposits; rays of.two types, uniseriate  and mu It is er iat e  ;  Quercus stenophylloides  Hay,  (p. 35, F i g .  24.  Perforation plates exclusively scalariform  24.  Perforation plates scalariform and simple  15) ...25 32  25.  Pores as clusters and other types  26  25.  Pores not clustered, but as other types  28  26.  Tyloses present; intervessel p i t t i n g scalariform Michelia formosana Mas,  26. 27.  (p. 53, F i g .  27)  Tyloses absent; intervessel p i t t i n g opposite  Rays of two  27  types, simple and multiseriate, simple rays  less than 1 mm.  i n height  Scheffera octophylla (Lour.) Harms, (p. 21, F i g . 7) 27.  Rays exclusively simple, more than 1 mm. » 28.  in  I l l i c i u m leucanthum Hay,  height......... (p. 55, F i g .  Longitudinal parenchyma v a s i c e n t r i c , terminal metatracheal-diffuse;  28)  and  the larger vessels less than 50  (mostly 40-45) microns i n diameter ....BeiIschmiedia erythrophloia Hay, 28.  (p. 41, F i g .  18)  Longitudinal parenchyma not v a s i c e n t r i c , but other types; the larger vessels more than 50 microns i n dia.-.. meter  29.  29  The t a l l e r simple rays more than 1 mm.  i n height,  cells  lacking deposits 29.  The  20  t a l l e r simple rays less than 1 mm.  i n height,  cells  containing dark deposits 30.  31  Rays of two types, simple and multiseriate; s c a l a r i form perforation plates with 30 plus bars Ternstroemia gymnanthera Spr.  30.  (p. 60, F i g .  Rays simple; scalariform perforation plates with bars..Schima superba Gard. et Champ, (p. 59, F i g .  31.  31) 6-14 30)  Rays uniseriate and aggregate; scalariform perforation plates with 10-25  bars; fibres septate  Alnus formosana  ( B u r k i l l . ) Makino. (p. 23, Fig.8)  71 31.  Rays simple, 1-3-seriate, multiseriate many c e l l s wide; scalariform perforation plates with 15 plus bars; fibres not septate .Gor.donia a x i l l a r i s -(Don.) Szysz. (p. 57, F i g . 29)  33.  32.  O i l c e l l s present  33  32.  O i l c e l l s absent  34  Longitudinal and ray o i l c e l l s present; tyloses abundant... Cinnamomum micranthum Hay. (p. 44,  33.  F i g . 20)  Longitudinal o i l c e l l s present, ray o i l c e l l s and tyloses absent... 34.  Cinnamomum randaiensis Hay, (p. 45, F i g . 21)  Rays of two types, uniseriate and aggregate,  cells  lacking contents Castanopsis longicaudata Hay, (p. 27, F i g . 10) 34.  Rays simple 1-3-seriate, c e l l s containing dark deposits  Carpinus kawakamii Hay. (p. 25, Fig.9)  72 References 1.  Baker, J . R.  1958. P r i n c i p l e s of B i o l o g i c a l Microtechnique.  John Wiley & Sons Inc. N. Y. pp. 35-56. 2.  Brown, H. P. and A. J . Panshin. of the United States.  1940. Commercial  Timbers  McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. N. Y. pp.  523-534. 3.  Chalk, L.  1938. Standardization of Terms for Vessel Diameter  and Ray Width. 4.  .  1955. A Review of Changes i n the Terminology of  Wood Anatomy. 5.  Trop. Woods 55: 16-23.  Trop. Woods 162: 1-10.  Chattaway, M. M. 1932. Proposed Standards for Numerical Values Used i n Describing Woods. Trop. Woods 29: 20-27.  6.  . 1948. The Wood Anatomy of the Proteaceae. Australia.  The Council for S c i e n t i f i c and I n d u s t r i a l Research,  Div. of For. Prod. Rept. 7.  No. 108.  . 1953. The Occurrence of Heartwood Crystals in Certain Timbers.  A u s t r a l i a . The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind.  Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. 8.  Rept. No. 109.  . 1955. Crystals i n Woody Tissues.  Part I .  Trop. Woods 102: 55-74. 9.  Cochran, W. G. and G. M. Cox. 1960. Experimental Designs. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons Inc. London,  10.  Conn, H. J . 1953. B i o l o g i c a l Stains. l i c a t i o n s Geneva.  11.  pp. 95-106. 6th ed.  Biotech. Pub-  N. Y. pp. 12-200.  Dadswell H. E. and H. D. Ingle.  1954. The Wood Anatomy of  New Guinea Nothofagus B l . A u s t r a l i a . The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. Rept. No. 213. 12.  Desch, H. E.  1953. Timber, Its Structure and Properties.  3rd ed. Macmillan and Co. Ltd. 13.  Eames, A. J . and L. H. MacDaniels. Plant Anatomy.  14.  London,  Edward, G.  pp. 30-45.  1925. An Introduction to  McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. N. Y.  pp. 28-29.  1953. A P r a c t i c a l Manual of Medical and B i o l o g i c a l  Staining Techniques.  2nd ed.  Leonard H i l l Ltd.  London pp. 97-160.  73 15.  Franklin, G. L. 1937. Permanent Preparation of Macerated Wood Fibres.  Trop. Woods 49: 21-22.  16.  . 1945. Preparation of Thin Sections of Synthetic Resins and Wood-resin Composites and New Macerating Method for Wood.  Nature 55: 51-52.  17.  .  1946. A Rapid Method of Softening Wood for  Microtome Sectioning. 18.  N. Y.  Gray, P.  17th ed.  Comstock Pub. Co.  pp. 105-110.  1958. Handbook of Basic Microtechnique.  McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc. 20.  Woods 88: 35-56.  Gage, S. H. 1947. The Microscope. Inc.  19.  Trop.  Harlow, W. M.  N. Y.  2nd ed.  pp. 6-48.  1944. The Chemical Softening of Wood for Micro-  tome Sectioning.  N. Y.  State Col. of Forestry, Syracuse.  Tech. Publ. No. 63. pp. 2-4. 21.  and E. S. Harar. 4th ed.  22.  1937. Textbook of Dendrology.  McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.  Ingle, H. D. and H. E. Dadswell.  N. Y. 527 pp. 1948. The Anatomy of the  Timbers of the South-west P a c i f i c Area I . Australia.  Anacardiaceae.  The Council for S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of  For. Prod. Rept. No. 109. 23.  j  and  . 1953. The Anatomy of the  Timbers of the South-west P a c i f i c Area I I . Apocynaceae and Annonaceae. Div.  Australia.  The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org.,  of For. Prod. Rept. No. 182.  24.  and  .  1953. The Anatomy of the  Timbers of the South-west P a c i f i c Area I I I . Australia.  Myrthaceae.  The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of  For. Prod. Rept. No. 192. 25.  and  .  1956. The Anatomy of the Timbers  of the South-west P a c i f i c Area IV. and Eucryphiaceae.  Australia.  Cunoniaceae, Davidsoniaceae,  The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind.  Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. Rept. No. 279.  74 26.  Ingle, H. D. and C. E. James.  1956. The Anatomy of the Timbers  of the South-west P a c i f i c Area V.  Flacourtiaceae.  Australia.  The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. Rept. No. 297. 27.  International Association of Wood Anatomists.  1939. Standard  Terms of Size for Vessel Diameter and Ray Width. 59:  . Woods.  Johansen, D. A. 1940. Plant Microtechnique. McGraw-Hill Book N. Y. pp. 65-94.  Kanehira, R.  1921. Anatomical Characters and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of Formosan Woods. Gov't of Formosa. 31.  Kribs, D. A. Market.  32.  1957. Glossary of Terms Used i n Describing  Trop. Woods 55: 16-23.  Co. Inc. 30.  Taihoku, Bureau of Productive Industries, Taipei.  311 pp.  1950. Commercial Foreign Woods on the American  Edwards Brothers.  Lee, Shun-ching.  L i , Chiao-ping.  Inc. Ann Arbor, Michigan.  1935. Forest Botany of China.  Commercial Press. Ltd. 33.  Shanghai.  Mayo, P. De.  36.  Britain.  V o l . I and I I .  Peirce,  A. S.  37.  pp. 132-135. 1950. Anatomy of the Dico-  1,500 pp.  1936. Anatomical Interrelationships of the  1937. Systematic Anatomy of the Woods of the Trop. Woods 49t 5-20.  Record, S. J . 1942. American Woods of the Family Theaceae. Trop.  39.  pp. 148.  Trop. Woods 46: 1-13. .  Cupressaceae.  991 pp.  Oxford University Press, Amen House,  London.  Taxodiaceae.  38.  N. Y.  Metcalfe, C. R. and L. Chalk. tyledons.  China. The  1959. Mono- and Sesquiterpenoids. Interscience.  • Publishers Inc. 35.  157 pp.  1948. The Chemical Arts of Old China. J .  Chem. Ed. Easton, Pennsylvania, 34.  Woods  51-52.  28.  29.  Trop.  Woods 79: 23-32. and H. E. Dadswell.  Woods with Conspicuous Rays.  1936. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  Trop. Woods  48: 1-30.  75 40.  Record, S. J . and R. W. Hess. Family Lauraceae.  41.  Sass, J . E.  Trop.  Woods 69: 7-33.  1958. Botanical Microtechnique.  Iowa State College Press. 42.  S h i l l a b e r , C. P. Practice.  43.  1942. American Timber of the  Ames, Iowa.  Stark, E. W.  pp. 55-77.  1949. Photomicrography  John Wiley & Sons Inc.  N. Y.  i n Theory and pp. 83-364.  1953. Wood Anatomy of the Juglandaceae Indigenous  to the United States.  Purdue Univ. Agr. Expt. Station,  45.  Lafayette,  jj  Indiana, Station B u l l e t i n No. 595. 44.  3rd ed. The  Stern, W. L.  1954. Comparative Anatomy of Xylem and Phylogeny  of Laurceae.  Trop.  Woods  100: 1-72.  Stewart, C , Watson, A. J . and H. E. Dadswell.  1958. The  Process of Fibre Separation Part I . A u s t r a l i a .  The Common-  wealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. Rept. No. 326. 46.  Wardrop, A. B. and G. W. Davies.  1958. Some Anatomical Factors  Relating to the Penetration of Water into Xylem of Gymnosperms. Australia.  The Commonwealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of  For. Prod. Rept. No. 344. 47.  Watson, A. J., Dadswell, H. E. and C. M. Stewart.  1958. The  Process of Fibre Separation Part I I . A u s t r a l i a .  The Common-  wealth S c i . and Ind. Res. Org., Div. of For. Prod. Rept. No. 335. 48.  Wilson, J . W.  1954. Fibre Technology I .  Fibre Length Mensur-  ation, A Comprehensive History and New Method. Mag. Can. 55: 84-91.  Pulp & Paper  76 Glossary (2, 4, 7, 8, 12, 13, 28, 31) Bars;  remnants of the perforation plates forming scalariform perforation.  Crassulae:  thickened portions of the i n t e r c e l l u l a r layer and primary  c e l l w a l l between primary p i t f i e l d s . Cross-section:  section cut at r i g h t angle to the grain; same as  transverse section. Crystal:  inorganic mass of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c shape and color occurring  i n the c e l l lumen, frequently calcium oxalate, more frequently found i n heartwood than i n sapwood (7, 8). Diffuse-porous:  porous wood i n which the pores exhibit l i t t l e or no  v a r i a t i o n i n size indicative of seasonal growth. Epithelium:  layer of secretory parenchymatous c e l l s that surrounds  an i n t e r c e l l u l a r canal or cavity. Fibre:  general term of convenience i n wood anatomy for any long  narrow c e l l of wood other than vessels and parenchyma. I t includes the l i b r i f o r m f i b r e s , v a s i c e n t r i c tracheids and vascular tracheids of angiospermous woods. Fibre, septate: Grain:  f i b r e with t h i n transverse walls across the lumen.  arrangement and d i r e c t i o n of alignment of wood elements when  considered en masse. Growth r i n g :  increment of wood as i t appears on transverse surface  or transverse section; i f one growth r i n g forms each year, i t i s c a l l e d an annual r i n g . Gum duett  i n t e r c e l l u l a r canal containing gum.  Heartwood:  inner layer of wood which, i n the growing tree, has  ceased to contain l i v i n g c e l l s and i n which the reserve materials (e.g. starch) have been removed or converted substance.  i n t o heartwood  I t i s generally darker i n colour than sapwood, though  not always c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Lumen ( p i . Lustre:  lumina):  c e l l cavity.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of wood enabling i t to r e f l e c t  light.  77 Marginal c e l l :  c e l l on the upper or the lower margin of a wood  ray as viewed i n the tangential or r a d i a l section. Macroscopic feature:  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i s i b l e to the naked eye and with  hand lens (lOx). Microscopic  checking:  minute checks i n wood between f i b r i l s i n the  secondary walls that cannot be detected without a compound microscope. Microscopic  feature:  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c v i s i b l e only under a compound  microscope. Non-porous:  wood devoid of pores or vessels, c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  conifers. Oil c e l l :  specialized c e l l of the ray or a x i a l parenchyma containing  oil. Parenchyma:  tissue composed of c e l l s that are t y p i c a l l y brickshaped  or isodiametric and have simple p i t s ; formed i n wood from (a) fusiform cambial i n i t i a l s by later transverse d i v i s i o n s of the daughter c e l l s ( a x i a l parenchyma), or (b) ray i n i t i a l s  (ray or  r a d i a l parenchyma). Parenchyma, aliform:  paratracheal parenchyma with wing-like  lateral  extensions as seen i n cross-section. Parenchyma, confluent:  coalesced  aliform parenchyma, forming  irregular tangential or diagonal bands, as seen i n cross-section. Parenchyma, l o n g i t u d i n a l : parenchyma c e l l s derived from fusiform cambial i n i t i a l s and extending lengthwise i n the stem. Parenchyma, metatracheal:  longitudinal parenchyma not associated  with pores, often forming concentric lines or bands as seen i n cross-section i n coniferous wood and hardwood. Parenchyma, metatracheal-diffuse:  parenchyma, the c e l l s of which are  widely d i s t r i b u t e d between the tracheids i n coniferous wood and i n hardwood as seen i n cross-section. Parenchyma, metatracheal-zonate:  longitudinal parenchyma forming  concentric lines or bands as seen i n cross-section. Parenchyma, paratracheal:  longitudinal parenchyma i n association  with vessels or vascular tracheids.  I t includes v a s i c e n t r i c  parenchyma, aliform parenchyma and confluent parenchyma.  Parenchyma, ray:  parenchyma composing the rays wholly or i n part.  Parenchyma, terminal:  parenchyma forming a more or less continous  layer of variable width at close of the growth increment as seen i n cross-section i n both coniferous  and angiospermous  woods. Parenchyma, v a s i c e n t r i c :  paratracheal parenchyma forming a complete  sheath around a vessel, of variable width and c i r c u l a r or s l i g h t l y oval i n cross-section. Parenchyma, strand:  longitudinal series of two or more parenchyma  c e l l s derived from a single fusiform cambial Perforation, multiple: consisting of two Perforation, simple:  perforated  Initial.  end wall i n a vessel element  or more openings i n a perforation p l a t e . single and usually large and more or less  rounded opening i n a perforation p l a t e . Perforation:  opening from one vessel member to another.  Perforation p l a t e :  term of convenience for the area of the w a l l  ( o r i g i n a l l y imperforate) involved i n the endwise coalescence of two adjacent vessel segments. Perforation plate, scalariform: elongated and  plate with multiple  perforations  parallel.  Perforation plate, simple:  single rounded opening In simple  perforation. Pit:  recess i n the secondary w a l l of a c e l l , together with i t s external closing membrane; opening i n t e r n a l l y to the lumen. The  following terms are used i n describing p i t s :  Simple:  p i t i n which the cavity becomes wider, or remains of  constant width, or only gradually narrows during the growth i n thickness Window-like:  of the secondary c e l l w a l l .  p i t with a very wide p i t aperture  frequently  arching into the lumen of a longitudinal tracheid contacting a ray parenchyma c e l l ; i n certain Pinus Pit  aperture:  the opening or mouth of a p i t .  used to describe p i t apertures:  The  and spp.  following terms are  79 Extended:  inner aperture with outline, i n surface view, extending  beyoid the p i t border. Lenticular:  s l i t - l i k e aperture with the appearance i n surface  view of a double convex lens seen i n section. P i t border:  overarching  part of the secondary c e l l wall associated  with a p i t . Pitting:  c o l l e c t i v e term for p i t s or p i t - p a i r s .  P i t t i n g , alternate:  multiseriate intervessel p i t t i n g i n which the  p i t s are i n diagonal  rows, crowding may  cause outlines of the  borders to become hexagonal i n surface view. P i t t i n g , opposite:  multiseriate i n t e r v e s s e l p i t t i n g i n which the  p i t s are i n horizontal pairs or i n short horizontal rows, crowding may  cause outlines of the borders to become rectangular  i n surface view. P i t t i n g , scalariform:  p i t t i n g i n which elongated or linear p i t s  are arranged i n a ladder-like s e r i e s . Pore:  term of convenience for the cross-section of a vessel or of a vascular  Pore, s o l i t a r y : Pore chain:  tracheid. pore completely surrounded by other elements.  series or l i n e of adjacent pores.  Pore c l u s t e r : Pore multiple:  i r r e g u l a r grouping of pores. a group of two or more pores crowded together and  flattened along the lines of contact so as to appear as subd i v i s i o n s of a single pore.  The most common type i s a r a d i a l  pore multiple i n which the pores are i n r a d i a l f i l e s with flattened tangential walls between them. Radial section:  section cut along the grain p a r a l l e l to the wood  rays and usually at r i g h t angles to the growth r i n g s . Ray:  ribbon-like aggregate of c e l l s formed by the cambium and  ex-  tending r a d i a l l y i n the xylem, cambium and phloem. Ray,  aggregate:  a group of small, narrow xylary rays interspersed  with other tissues and appearing to the unaided eye or at magnification as a single large ray.  low  80 Ray,  biseriatet  Ray,  broad:  ray two  c e l l s wide as seen i n tangential section.  ray more than ten c e l l s wide as seen i n tangential  section. Ray,  fusiform: section.  l a t e r a l l y , a ray that i s spindle-shaped i n tangential Used e s p e c i a l l y for coniferous  rays that contain r e s i n  canals. Ray,  heterogeneous:  xylary ray composed of c e l l s of d i f f e r e n t  morphological types ( t y p i c a l l y , with the c e l l s of the m u l t i seriate part r a d i a l l y elongated and those of the uniseriate parts v e r t i c a l l y elongated or square). Ray,  homogeneous:  xylary ray composed e n t i r e l y of the same c e l l form,  either r a d i a l l y or l o n g i t u d i n a l l y elongated, but not both. Ray,  multiseriate:  ray over three c e l l s wide as seen i n tangential  section. Ray,  narrow:  ray one to three c e l l s wide as seen i n tangential  section, e s p e c i a l l y i n coniferous woods. Ray,  simple:  d i f f e r e n t rays including uniseriate, b i s e r i a t e or  t r i s e r i a t e ; i n contrast to fusiform rays of coniferous woods and multiseriate or aggregate rays of deciduous woods. Ray,  triseriate:  ray three c e l l s wide as seen i n tangential section.  Ray,  uniseriate:  ray one c e l l wide as seen i n tangential section.  Ray  c e l l , procumbent:  ray c e l l with i t s longest axis r a d i a l l y  aligned. Ray  c e l l , upright:  ray c e l l with i t s longest dimension a x i a l ,  such c e l l s compose certain uni- and b i s e r i a t e rays and the margins of some multiseriate Ray  crossing:  typically  rays.  term of convenience for the rectangle  formed by  the  walls of a ray c e l l and an a x i a l element as seen i n r a d i a l section. Ray  tracheid:  Used mainly with c o n i f e r s . prosenchymous element with bordered p i t s forming  part of a ray i n certain coniferous woods. Resin canal:  tubular,  i n t e r c e l l u l a r canal containing r e s i n and  sheathed by secreting c e l l s (epithelium) i n c e r t a i n woods.  coniferous  81 Ring, growth: Ring-porous:  growth layer i n wood as seen i n cross-section. porous wood i n which the pores formed at the beginning  of the growing season (springwood) are much larger than those formed later, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f the t r a n s i t i o n from one to the other type i s more or less abrupt. Sapwood:  portion of the wood that i n the l i v i n g tree contains  l i v i n g c e l l s and reserve materials. Semi-diffuse porous:  wood intermediate  between d i f f u s e - and r i n g -  porous . Semi-ring porous:  wood In which the springwood i s marked by a zone  of (a) occasional large vessels, or (b) numerous small v e s s e l s . S p e c i f i c gravity;  weight of a block of wood divided by the weight  of an equal volume of d i s t i l l e d water at i t s greatest density ( 4 C ) j s p e c i f i c gravity of wood i s taken under standard a  i t i o n s and i s expressed as a decimal.  cond-  Data i n this thesis are  based on oven dry weight and green volume. S p i r a l thickening:  h e l i c a l ridges on the inner face and part of  the secondary w a l l . Springwood:  that portion of an annual increment or annual r i n g  produced at the beginning of the growing season ( i n the spring); the inner portion of a growth r i n g . Summerwood:  that portion of an annual increment or annual r i n g  produced during the l a t t e r part of the growing season (during the summer); the outer portion of a growth r i n g . Tangential section:  section cut along the grain at r i g h t angles  to wood rays. Texture:  expression that refers to the size and the proportional  amounts of woody elements; i n coniferous woods, the average tangential diameter of the tracheids i s the best indicator of texture; i n hardwoods the tangential diameters and number of vessels and rays are used to describe this feature. Tracheid:  an imperforate wood c e l l of coniferous wood with bordered  p i t s leading to contiguous similar elements. Tracheid, vascular:  imperforate  c e l l occurring i n c e r t a i n hardwoods  resembling i n form and p o s i t i o n a small vessel member.  82 Tracheid, v a s i c e n t r i c t  a short, irregularly-formed tracheid i n the  immediate proximity of a vessel and not forming part of a d e f i n i t e a x i a l row. Transverse section:  section cut at r i g h t angles to the grain as  seen i n cross-section. T y l o s i s ( p i . t y l o s e s ) ; p r o l i f e r a t i o n from an adjacent ray or a x i a l parenchyma c e l l through a p i t cavity i n a vessel wall, p a r t i a l l y or completely blocking the vessel lumen.  They may  be few or many crowded together} t h i n - or thick-walled} p i t t e d or unpitted; with or without i n f i l t r a t i o n res ins and Tylosoid:  of starch, c r y s t a l s ,  gum.  p r o l i f e r a t i o n of a thin-walled e p i t h e l i a l c e l l into an  i n t e r c e l l u l a r canal. Vessel:  a x i a l series of c e l l s that have coalesced  to form an a r t -  iculated tube-like structure of indeterminate length} the p i t s to contiguous elements are bbrdered.  

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