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Motivation, field-dependence , and level of cognitive performance : an exploratory study with Chinese… Mao, Geraldine Eleanor 1967

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MOTIVATION, FIELD-DEPENDENCE, AND LEVEL OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY WITH CHINESE CHILDREN by GERALDINE ELEANOR MAO B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR: THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study, I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t he s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n pe rm i s s i on . Depa rtment The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i ABSTRACT The major purpose of t h i s study was to r e l a t e the performance o f Chinese 5s i n Hong Kong on P i a g e t i a n tasks to two f a c t o r s : f i r s t to a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e v a r i a b l e , and secondly, to achievement mo t i v a t i o n . It was hoped that the r e s u l t s from t h i s study would provide some new i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n to Goodnow's (1962) f i n d i n g s i n Hong Kong. This study a l s o provided an opportunity to determine i f Piaget's r e s u l t s concerning the order o f a c q u i s i t i o n of tasks as w e l l as l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n tasks can be r e p l i c a t e d with Ss from another c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , the performance of a comparable group o f white Canadian c h i l d r e n was compared to the Chinese Ss both i n terms of achievement on the tasks and r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t a s k s . It was hypothesized that performance on P i a g e t i a n tasks would c o r r e l a t e with scores on the CEFT and with scores on n Achievement. Furthermore, i t was b e l i e v e d that the p r e d i c -t i o n s made by Piaget regarding the order of achievement on the Conservation tasks as w e l l as the l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n the Water Level Test w i l l be r e p l i c a t e d with S_s from Hong Kong. F i n a l l y , i t was expected that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between white and Chinese 5s. T h i r t y - n i n e Ss from Hong Kong were i n d i v i d u a l l y t e s t e d on the f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : Conservation of Substance, Conser-vat i o n of Weight, the Water L e v e l Test and the CEFT. Group t e s t i n g was employed f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g the TAT. Scores i i from a group of p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d white 5s on Conservation of Substance, Conservation of Weight, the Water Level t e s t and the CEFT were used f o r comparison with the Chinese 5s. Results f o r both white and Chinese 5s showed that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between performance on the Conservation tasks and the CEFT. A s i g n i f i c a n t but low r e -l a t i o n s h i p was obtained between performance on the Water Level t e s t and the CEFT f o r both Chinese and white 5s. Thus, i n terms of r e l a t i o n s h i p between P i o g e t i a n tasks and the CEFT, the f i n d i n g s were s i m i l a r f o r white and Chinese 5s. There was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance be-tween Chinese and white 5s on Conservation of Weight, the Water Level Test, and the CEFT. However, the white Ss per-formed s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r than the Chinese Ss on Conserva-t i o n of Substance. The order of achievement on the Conserva-t i o n tasks p r e d i c t e d by Piaget was r e p l i c a t e d with the white 5s, but the order was not c l e a r f o r the Chinese sample. Developmental l e v e l s of d i f f i c u l t y w ithin the Water Level Test p r e d i c t e d by Piaget and Inhelder was supported by the f i n d i n g s f o r both white and Chinese Ss. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found f o r the Chinese Ss between performance on any of the P i a g e t i a n tasks and n Achievement. There was some i n d i c a t i o n of a low negative r e l a t i o n s h i p between Conservation of Weight and n Achieve-ment, but t h i s f a i l e d to reach s i g n i f i c a n c e at the .05 l e v e l . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L I S T OF TABLES iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER I I PROCEDURES 18 CHAPTER I I I RESULTS 33 CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION 43 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 60 BIBLIOGRAPHY . .. 64 APPENDIX 67 i v LIST OF TABLES D r a g e TABLE 1 . Age am.'. S-ex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S s . 1 9 TABLE 2 . Age and 5ex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss from S c h o o l 1 . 1 9 TABLE 3 . Age and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss from S c h o o l 2 . 2 1 TABLE 4 . Age and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S_s from S c h o o l 3 . 2 1 TABLE 5 . Types o f Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e I n v e r t e d v e r t i c a l P o s i t i o n 2 7 TABLE 6 . Typos o f Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e H o r i z o n t a l P o s i t i o n 2 7 TABLE 7 . Types of Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e T i l t e d P o s i t i o n 2 8 TABLE 8 . Age and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f W h i t e Ss . . . . . . . . . 31 TABLE 9 . K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CEFT and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, T o t a l Con-s e r v a t i o n and Water L e v e l T e s t 3 2 TABLE 1 0 . K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s Between CEFT and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, T o t a l Con-s e r v a t i o n and Water L e v e l Test, 3 3 TABLE 1 1 . K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s Between n Achievement and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, T o t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . 3 5 TABLE 1 2 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses of C h i n e s e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight 3 6 TABLE 1 3 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses of White 5s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and W e i g h t . 3 6 V L i s t o f T a b l e s ( c o n t ' d ) T A B L E 1 4 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Number o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s f o r t h e B o t t l e i n t h e V e r t i c a l , H o r i z o n t a l and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n s 37 T A B L E 1 5 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e Number o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s f o r t h e B o t t l e i n t h e V e r t i c a l , H o r i z o n t a l and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n s . 38 T A B L E 1 6 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s o f F . I , and F . D . C h i n e s e Ss by D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e V e r t i c a l P o s i t i o n . 39 T A B L E 1 7 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s o f F . I . •and F . D . C h i n e s e 5s by D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e H o r i z o n t a l P o s i t i o n . . . . . . . . 39 T A B L E 1 8 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s o f F . I . and F . D . C h i n e s e Ss by D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e T i l t e d P o s i t i o n 39 T A B L E 1 9 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s f o r C h i n e s e and W h i t e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . , 40 T A B L E 2 0 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s f o r C h i n e s e and W h i t e 5s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t 41 T A B L E 2 1 , Mean Number o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s f o r C h i n e s e and W h i t e Ss 42 T A B L E 2 2 . Mean Number o f C o r r e c t R e s p o n s e s f o r C h i n e s e Ss f r o m S c h o o l 1, 2 and 3 on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f W e i g h t , W a t e r L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT . 45 T A B L E 2 3 , D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e s on" C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e f o r F . I . and F . D . Ss f r o m S c h o o l 1 and 2 . * 51 T A B L E 2 4 , D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n s e on C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e f o r F . I . and F . D , Ss f r o m 5 c h o o l 3 . 51 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s ( c o n t ' d ) TABLE 25. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight f o r F . I . and F.D. 5_s from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 52 TABLE 26. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight f o r F . I , and F.D. Ss from S c h o o l 3 . . . 5 3 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o D r . T. S t o r m and D r . J u a n P a s c u a l - L e o n e f o r t h e i r h e l p and g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h a l l t h e s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y . My s i n c e r e t h a n k s t o M a r g a r e t Qbana and P a t W a l d r o n f o r t h e i r e x p e r t t y p i n g and s e c r e t a r i a l work. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The major purpose of t h i s study i s to r e l a t e the per-formance of Chinese Ss i n Hong Kong on P i a g e t i a n tasks to two f a c t o r s : f i r s t , to a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e v a r i a b l e , and second to achievement m o t i v a t i o n . It i s hoped that the f i n d i n g s from t h i s study w i l l help towards c l a r i f y i n g unexpected r e -l a t i o n s h i p s found between d i f f e r e n t types of P i a g e t i a n tasks, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , to o f f e r new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s to the r e -s u l t s obtained by Jacqueline Goodnow i n Hong Kong (1962). This study a l s o provides an opportunity to determine i f P i a g e t ' s r e s u l t s concerning the order of a c q u i s i t i o n of tasks, as w e l l as stages of responding w i t h i n tasks can be r e p l i c a t e d with Ss from another c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , i n order to f i n d out i f the performance of Chinese Ss d i f f e r s from whites and i f so, i n what ways, a comparable group of white Canadian c h i l d r e n w i l l be compared on the same t a s k s . T h e i r performance w i l l be compared to the Chinese 5s both i n terms of achievement on the tasks, and r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t a s k s . In order to provide some background i n f o r m a t i o n to the study, s e v e r a l areas of r e l a t e d research w i l l be reviewed. Jacqueline Goodnow's (1962) study i n Hong Kong w i l l be ex-amined, followed by a review of the work of Witkin and h i s a s s o c i a t e s on c o g n i t i v e s t y l e -- i n p a r t i c u l a r , on f i e l d -dependency and f i c l d - i n d e p e n d e n c y . Following t h i s , the work - 2 -o f P a s c u a l - L e o n e , who r e l a t e s f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y t o p e r f o r -mance o f P i a g e t i a n t a s k s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , r e -s e a r c h on t h e a r e a of a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n as i t r e l a t e s t o f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y w i l l be r e v i e w e d . Review o f L i t e r a t u r e R e s e a r c h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o f P i a g e t have been p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : r e p l i c a t i o n s t u d i e s t o s u b s t a n t i a t e P i a g e t ' s n o t i o n s o f t h e s t a g e s o f development and t h e o r d e r of a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t a s k s ( K o f s k y , 1966; L o v e l l and Q g i l v i e , 1 9 6 1 ; E l k i n d , 1961) s t u d i e s t o r e l a t e p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and o t h e r measures o f I.Q. (Foigenbaum, 1963; E l k i n d , 1961; D e u t s c h e , 1957) and f i n a l l y , a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t t a s k s t o m i l i e u d i f f e r e n c e s . In 1962, J a c q u e l i n e Goodnow c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y i n Hong Kong. Four samples o f boys, r a n g i n g from 10-13 y e a r s o f age, were compared. The f i r s t group i n c l u d e d 148 E u r o p e a n s . The s e c o n d group i n c l u d e d 151 C h i n e s e from A n g l o - C h i n e s e s c h o o l s , ( i . e . , s c h o o l s f o r C h i n e s e p r i m a r i l y , where t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n i s E n g l i s h ) . The t h i r d sample was made up o f C h i n e s e boys from low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a s who were r e c e i v i n g f u l l s c h o o l i n g . The f o u r t h sample i n c l u d e d 80 C h i n e s e boys who were a l s o from low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a r e a s but who were r e c e i v i n g s e m i - s c h o o l i n g o n l y . A s u p p l e m e n t a r y group o f boys from s c h o o l s w i t h no s c i e n c e c o u r s e was a l s o i n c l u d e d . F i v e t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each s u b j e c t i n d i v i d u a l l y : Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s and f o u r P i a g e t i a n t a s k s i n c l u d i n g judgment o f w e i g h t and volume, judgment o f s p a c e , and a c o m b i n a t o r i a l p r o b l e m . Goodnow f o u n d t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s , b o t h c o n s e r v a t i o n o f volume and s p a c e , t u r n e d o u t t o be more d i f f i c u l t t h a n e x -p e c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , she f o u n d an u n e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p among t h e t a s k s . She f o u n d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P r o -g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e s was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e c o m b i n a t o r i a l t a s k , and t h a t t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s u b j e c t s f r o m g r o u p s 2 and 3 was c l o s e s t t o t h a t o f t h e E u r o p e a n Ss on t h e s e t a s k s . However, p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s a p p e a r e d t o be u n a f f e c t e d by w i d e d i f f e r e n c e s i n M a t r i c e s s c a r e s . She f o u n d t h a t on t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s , t h e c h i l d r e n f r o m group 4 and t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y Ss were v e r y c l o s e t o t h e E u r o p e a n c h i l d r e n i n p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t c h i l d r e n f r o m g r o u p s 2 and 3 p e r f o r m e d c o n s i s t e n t l y more p o o r l y -t h o s e f r o m group 3 b e i n g t h e l o w e s t i n p e r f o r m a n c e . In g e n e r a l , t h e E u r o p e a n s showed t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l o f p e r f o r -mance a c r o s s a l l t a s k s . (The group d i f f e r e n c e s r e p r e s e n t e d t r e n d s o n l y , and were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) . Goodnow, on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s was s e n s i t i v e t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f age and some s o r t o f p e r s o n a l m a t u r i t y (Goodnow, 1962, p. 8 ) . She f u r t h e r added t h a t t h e c o n s e r v a -t i o n t a s k s seemed t o g i v e r e s u l t s l i k e t h o s e o f p e r c e p t u a l c o n s t a n c y t a s k s , w i t h a t i e t o c h r o n o l o g i c a l and n o t m e n t a l age. She r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f what t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n and c o m b i n a t o r i a l t a s k s i m p l i e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p among t a s k s , f o r t h e s e r e p r e s e n t two 4 main t h r e a d s i n P i a g e t ' s work, t h e f o r m e r b e i n g t h e c o r e o f ' c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s ' , and t h e l a t t e r b e i n g an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e development o f ' f o r m a l o p e r a t i o n s ' . S i n c e Goodnow d i d not d i r e c t l y t e s t whether i t was i n f a c t a com-b i n a t i o n o f age and some s o r t o f p e r s o n a l m a t u r i t y t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s b e i n g i n s e n s i t i v e t o wide d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e as measured by t h e M a t r i c e s c o r e , t h e q u e s t i o n i s as y e t u n r e s o l v e d . I t i s t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s p a p e r t o at t e m p t t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s m a t t e r f u r t h e r , b a s i n g t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n on t h e r a t i o n a l e and t h e a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e from o t h e r w o r k e r s i n t h i s g e n e r a l a r e a . W i t k i n et o l . (1954), wrote t h a t e a r l y i n t h e i r work, t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e a r e a o f p e r c e p t i o n which t h e y have i d e n t i f i e d , might have t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t i n i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . They s t a t e : I n t e l l e c t u a l p roblems t h a t c a l l f o r a h i g h d e g r e e o f c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y but do not i n v o l v e p e r c e p t i o n d i r e c t l y , o f t e n a l s o r e q u i r e t h a t ' p a r t be s e -p a r a t e d from t h e c o n t e x t i n which t h e y a r e embedded and b r o u g h t i n t o new r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (Wertheimer, 1 9 5 4 ) . I t i s l i k e l y , and t h i s i s o f c o u r s e s u b j e c t t o e x p e r i m e n t a l t e s t — t h a t i f a p e r s o n has t h i s b a s i c a b i l i t y t o break up a c o n f i g u r a t i o n i t w i l l be m a n i f e s t e d not o n l y i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p e r c e p t u a l s i t u a t i o n , but i n p r o b l e m -s o l v i n g s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l . ( W i t k i n s et a l . 1954, p. 4 7 7 ) . The a u t h o r s quote t h e f i n d i n g s o f Woerner and L e v i n e (1950) who a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s t o a group o f 12 y e a r o l d s , and fo u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between s c o r e s on a b a t t e r y o f p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s and s c o r e s on t h e W e c h s l e r 5 I n t e l l i g e n c e S c a l e f o r C h i l d r e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h c o r r e l a -t i o n s b e i n g f o u n d between t h e p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s and s c o r e s on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e s u b t e s t s . T h i s r a i s e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a s p e c t s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g which i n v o l v e an ' a n a l y t i c a l a b i l i t y ' , such as t h a t r e q u i r e d f o r good p e r f o r -mance on t h e p e r f o r m a n c e t e s t o f t h e WISC, may be c o n t r i b u -t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o t h e o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p f o u n d between i n t e l l i g e n c e and p e r c e p t i o n . A n a l y t i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g was d e f i n e d as; t h e a b i l i t y t o s e p a r a t e an i t e m from t h e f i e l d o r c o n t e x t of which i t i s a p a r t and which t h e r e f o r e e x e r t s a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e upon i t ; t o 'break up' a f i e l d or c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The p e r s o n w i t h a more f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t way o f p e r c e i v i n g t e n d s t o e x p e r i e n c e h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s a n a l y t i c a l l y w i t h o b j e c t s e x p e r i e n c e d as d i s c r e t e from t h e i r b a c k g r o u n d s . The p e r s o n w i t h a more f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t way o f p e r c e i v -i n g t e n d s t o e x p e r i e n c e h i s s u r r o u n d -i n g s i n a r e l a t i v e l y g l o b a l f a s h i o n , p a s s i v e l y c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e i n f l u -ence of t h e p r e v a i l i n g f i e l d or c o n -t e x t . ( W i t k i n et a l . , 1962, p. 3 5 ) . W i t k i n h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a b i l i t y t o s e p a r a t e an i t e m from i t s c o n t e x t i s e x p r e s s e d i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e l l e c -t u a l a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as i n h i s p e r c e p t i o n . To t e s t t h i s , he c o n d u c t e d an e x p e r i m e n t w i t h a group o f 10 y e a r o l d c h i l d r e n . W i t k i n f o u n d t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t e d between I.Q. s c o r e s as measured by t h e WISC, and t h e p e r c e p t u a l i n d e x , t h e l a t t e r b e i n g based on a b a t t e r y o f p e r c e p t u a l t e s t s o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y , i n c l u d i n g t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t ( C E F T ) . The r e s u l t s were s i g n i f i c a n t f o r bot h b o y s , ( '<' = .55, p <^  ..01) , and g i r l s , - 6 -(T= .76, p<^.01). F a c t o r a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s r e v e a l h i g h l o a d i n g s o f B l o c k D e s i g n , P i c t u r e C o m p l e t i o n , and O b j e c t Assembly, ( s u b - t e s t s on t h e WISC) on t h e same f a c t o r , namely, a n a l y t i c a l f i e l d a p p r o a c h . T h i s added f u r t h e r s u p p o r t t o th e n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a g e n e r a l c o g n i t i v e s t y l e t h a t r u n s t h r o u g h p e r c e p t u a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t i o n i n g . T h i s c o g n i t i v e s t y l e a l s o a p p e a r s t o u n d e r l i e t h e o b s e r v e d r e -l a t i o n between t h e f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y i n d e x and p e r f o r m a n c e on s t a n d a r d t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e . One can deduce from t h i s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on o t h e r t e s t s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , w h i c h , due t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , r e f l e c t , and a r e dependent on an a n a l y t i c a l mode of f u n c t i o n i n g f o r good p e r -formance w i l l a l s o show a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e f i e l d depen-dency i n d e x . T h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y f a l l i n t o t e s t s o f t h i s c a t e g o r y . The work o f P a s c u a l - L e o n e (1966) s u p p o r t s t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . P a s c u a l - L e o n e (1966) b e l i e v e s t h a t a d i s t i n c t i o n between d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l and p e r f o r m a n c e l e v e l s h o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d , and t h a t when a n a l y z i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n t a s k s , one s h o u l d t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e f a c t t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l a t t a i n e d , t h e r e a r e some ' c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ' v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e s u b j e c t s c h a n g i n g t h e i r l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n t u n e w i t h t h e k i n d of e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n s ( P a s c u a l - L e o n e , 1966, p. 2 ) . He a s s e r t s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n t a s k s i s dependent, i n f a c t , on two r e l a t e d but not i d e n t i c a l f a c t o r s , — b o t h t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y and t h e c o g n i t i v e - 7 -s t y l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . He goes on t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e c o g n i t i v e s t y l e i n q u e s t i o n i s t h e d i m e n s i o n o f f i e l d -d e p e n d e n c y and f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c y . P a s c u a l - L e o n e b e l i e v e s t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n , many P i a g e t i a n t a s k s p r e s e n t a s i t u a t i o n t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l w h e r e , The i n f e r e n t i a l o r l o g i c a l b e h a v i o r o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n must a s s e r t i t s e l f , i n a g r e a t many o f P i a g e t i a n s i t u a -t i o n s , a g a i n s t t h e m i s l e a d i n g a p p e a r -ance o f t h e i m m e d i a t e l y g i v e n f i e l d . ( P a s c u a l - L e o n e , 1966, p. 1 ) . T h u s , ' i n t e l l e c t u a l l y n o r m a l ' f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t s u b j e c t s , when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h a P i a g e t i a n s i t u a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s an a n a l y t i c a l f i e l d a p p r o a c h f o r good p e r f o r m a n c e , b u t w h i c h o t h e r w i s e t h e y s h o u l d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y h a n d l e , w i l l have a t e n d e n c y t o f a i l i n -d uced by t h e f i e l d d e p e n d e n t s t r u c -t u r e . ( P a s c u a l - L e o n e , 1966, p. 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , t o g e t a good s c o r e on a t e s t o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y , an i n d i v i d u a l must be a b l e t o i n h i b i t t h e m i s l e a d i n g r e -a c t i o n ( s c h e m a t a ) e l i c i t e d by t h e m i s l e a d i n g c u e s . . . a n d e x t r a c t t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n . ( P a s c u a l -L e o n e , 1966, p. 3 ) . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , he c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y w i t h two g r o u p s o f s u b j e c t s : Group 1 c o n s i s t e d o f 39 male u n d e r g r a d -u a t e s f r o m B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e and Group 2 c o n s i s t e d o f 41 boy s w i t h mean age o f 10 coming f r o m a l o w e r m i d d l e c l a s s p u b l i c s c h o o l i n New Y o r k . Each s u b j e c t was g i v e n a b a t t e r y o f t w e n t y t e s t s . These i n c l u d e d , among o t h e r s , two P i a g e t i a n t a s k s — t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n of Continuous Quantity Test. Four t e s t s of field-dependency, i n c l u d i n g Karp and Konsdadt's (1963) Chi l d r e n ' s Embedded Figure Test were a l s o administered. With the a d u l t group, he found that 11 5s who were below the median on the Rod and Frame Test, and thus c l a s s i f i e d as field-dependent, f a i l e d the Water Level Test, while no adults who were c l a s s i f i e d as f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t f a i l e d the t e s t . The r e -s u l t s of the c h i l d r e n showed high p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s be-tween the P i a g e t i a n tasks and the CEFT. These c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t and i n the expected d i r e c t i o n . (p< .005) (one t a i l t e s t ) . These r e s u l t s o f f e r support to the hypothesis that Some P i a g e t i a n s i t u a t i o n s are s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r to f i e l d dependence s i t u a t i o n s and consequently the subject's performance on these F i e l d Dependence P i a g e t i a n tasks c o r r e l a t e h i g h l y with Witkin's F i e l d Dependent s i t u a t i o n s . (Pascual-Leone, 1966, p. 11). In view of the r e s u l t s obtained by Pascual-Leone supporting h i s hypothesis that a ' c o g n i t i v e s t y l e ' v a r i a b l e such as field-dependency i s i n f a c t r e l a t e d to performance on c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n s i t u a t i o n s , one could t e n t a t i v e l y suggest that the unexpected f i n d i n g s on the conservation tasks i n Goodnow's study may have been due a l s o to t h i s same f a c t o r . Thus, subjects that were ' i n t e l l e c t u a l l y normal' as measured by the Matrices score but who performed poorly on the conservation tasks were perhaps a l s o those who f e l l i n t o the field-dependent end of the f i e l d depen-dent-independent continuum. In o r d e r t o p r o v i d e some e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , t h i s s t u d y r e p o r t s t h e r e s u l t s o f t e s t i n g Ss i n Hong Kong on a number o f P i a g e t i a n t a s k s which r e q u i r e t h e Ss t o o v e r -come p e r c e p t u a l c u e s . The Ss were a l s o g i v e n t h e CEFT from which an i n d e x o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y can be o b t a i n e d . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n w i l l e x i s t between s c o r e s on t h e CEFT and s c o r e s on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s : Ss who o b t a i n h i g h s c o r e s on t h e CEFT w i l l a l s o o b t a i n h i g h s c o r e s on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . A s e c o n d v a r i a b l e t h a t may be r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and which c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d towards Goodnow's f i n d i n g s i s t h a t of a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n . The work o f C r a n d a l l and S i n k e l d a m (1964) on c h i l d r e n ' s a c h i e v e -ment b e h a v i o r i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c e showed t h a t c h i l d r e n who were a c h i e v e m e n t -o r i e n t e d i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s d i s p l a y e d more p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n c e t h a n t h o s e c h i l d r e n who e x h i b i t e d l e s s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a c h i e v e m e n t . The measures employed f o r p e r c e p t u a l dependency were the 10 l e a s t d i f f i c u l t i t e m s o f t h e W i t k i n Embedded F i g u r e T e s t . Achievement was a s s e s s e d by t e s t s d e a l i n g w i t h m a s t e r y o f f i n e motor s k i l l , t a s k p e r s i s t a n c e , t i m e a l o n e on t a s k s , and i n d e p e n d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t e f f o r t s . The a u t h o r s e x p l a i n e d t h e i r f i n d i n g s on t h e s u g -g e s t i o n t h a t t h e Embedded F i g u r e T e s t s i t u a t i o n c o n t a i n e d many ac h i e v e m e n t r e l a t e d cues and was l i k e l y t o e l i c i t d i f f e r i n g a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e s u b j e c t s . Moreouer i t p r o v i d e d a t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n i n which a " s t a n d a r d o f e x c e l l e n c e i s a p p l i e d t o t h e competence o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s - 10 -performance," t h i s being a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of achievement s i t u a t i o n s " ( C r a n d a l l and Sinkeldam, 1964). To the extent that fantasy measures of achievement motiva-t i o n and a c t u a l measurements of achievement-oriented be-havior are p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d , one could i n f e r that there should a l s o e x i s t a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between fantasy measurements of achievement motivation, such as the TAT, and perceptual field-dependency. Furthermore, scores on these two v a r i a b l e s w i l l probably a l s o be r e l a t e d to scores on other t e s t s i n which both achievement motivation and f i e l d dependency play a r o l e . The work of Pascual-Leone (1966) has shown that p e r f o r -mance on c e r t a i n P i a g e t i a n tasks i s p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with performance on t e s t s of f i e l d dependency. However, there i s a l s o reason to suggest that these P i a g e t i a n tasks, j u s t as the Embedded Figure s i t u a t i o n , present a s i t u a t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l which may e l i c i t d i f f e r e n t m o t i v a t i o n a l responses from d i f f e r e n t Ss. For i n s t a n c e , t e s t s of con-s e r v a t i o n are e s s e n t i a l l y t e s t s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s required to reason out the f a c t of i n v a r i a n c e of mass, weight, volume and space i n the f a c t of c o n f l i c t i n g p erceptual data i n which one s a l i e n t p erceptual f e a t u r e changes: f o r example, the p l a s t i c i n e i s changed from a b a l l i n t o a sausage. Thus, i n order to overcome the immediate per c e p t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l has to make the e f f o r t to think out f o r him-s e l f that changes i n one dimension are compensated f o r and c a n c e l l e d out by changes i n another dimension. Therefore the more motivated i n d i v i d u a l , who i s more w i l l i n g to stop - 11 -and take the t r o u b l e to reason things out, i n s t e a d of p a s s i v e -l y responding to the immediately given p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d , w i l l be more l i k e l y to perform w e l l on t e s t s such as these. The same argument can be a p p l i e d to t e s t s such as the Water L e v e l Test i n which the i n d i v i d u a l a l s o has to overcome misleading p e r c e p t u a l cues, i . e . , the walls of the b o t t l e , before he can a r r i v e at the c o r r e c t response. Furthermore, Piaget has s a i d i n h i s work that achievement on conservation- and other conceptual tasks i s contingent upon the a c t i v e i n t e r a c t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the environment, where an a c t i v e searching out of the environment f a c i l i t a t e s the attainment of these concepts. It f o l l o w s t h e r e f o r e , that an i n d i v i d u a l who i s h i g h l y motivated to f i n d out about the world around him w i l l have more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to come i n t o contact and to manipulate objects around him and w i l l t h e r e f o r e a l s o have more o p p o r t u n i t i e s to l e a r n of conservation than one who i s not so motivated. The f i n d i n g s of Pascual-Leone (1966) has found that f i e l d - i n d e p e n d e n t 5_s perform b e t t e r than f i e l d dependent S_s on P i a g e t i a n tasks, and C r a n d a l l and Sinkeldam (1964) have found that c h i l d r e n showing high achievement-o r i e n t e d behavior are more f i e l d independent. On the b a s i s of these two findings-, one can t e n t a t i v e l y p r e d i c t that high achievers w i l l t h e r e f o r e probably perform b e t t e r on P i a g e t i a n tasks than those who show low achievement mo t i v a t i o n . The question a r i s e s as to how v a l i d i t i s to apply the TAT to a c u l t u r e that i s v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t from one f o r which i t was o r i g i n a l l y devised. However, an examination of Chinese c u l t u r e shows that i t i s a c u l t u r e that places a - 12 -v e r y s t r o n g emphasis on a c h i e v e m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y academic a c h i e v e m e n t , f o r t h i s has always been a t r a d i t i o n a l r o u t e o f s o c i a l m o b i l i t y . C h i n e s e h i s t o r y and f o l k - l o r e a r e f u l l o f s t o r i e s o f f a m i l i e s making s a c r i f i c e s j u s t so t h a t t h e i r sons c o u l d get a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n , o f fame and f o r t u n e b e i n g heaped upon t h o s e who s u c c e e d a c a d e m i c a l l y . Thus, i n i t s emphasis on a c h i e v e m e n t and postponement of immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n f o r l o n g r a n g e g o a l s , i t s v a l u e s a r e i n f a c t v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h o s e f o u n d i n N o r t h American c u l t u r e . A s e c o n d q u e s t i o n c o u l d a r i s e as t o whether the s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e TAT p i c t u r e s a r e m e a n i n g f u l t o C h i n e s e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . One c o u l d p o i n t out t h a t b e i n g a B r i t i s h Crown C o l o n y , and an i m p o r t a n t f r e e p o r t , Hong Kong i s ex-t r e m e l y c o s m o p o l i t a n , and Western i n f l u e n c e i s p e r v a s i v e . T h e r e i s t h e r e f o r e l i t t l e r e a s o n t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s c e n e s d e p i c t e d i n t h e TAT p i c t u r e s w i l l be u n f a m i l i a r t o t h e 5 s . However, t h e r e i s always t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e t e s t may not be v a l i d . One way o f f i n d i n g out i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f any m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t between a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s on t h e TAT and o t h e r t e s t s f o r t h e C h i n e s e sample. A f a i l u r e t o f i n d such r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however, may mean e i t h e r t h a t t h e r e a r e no r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a c h i e v e m e n t - m o t i v a t i o n and t h e t e s t s i n v o l v e d or t h a t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s a r e not v a l i d measures o f a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i n C h i n e s e c h i l d r e n . A s t u d y such as t h i s a l s o p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o see i f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by P i a g e t r e g a r d i n g t h e h i e r a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y between t a s k s (1962) as w e l l as t h e s t a g e s o f - 13 -d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n each t a s k (1956) can be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h S_s from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . To d e t e r m i n e t h i s , t h e p e r f o r -mance of 5s from Hong Kong on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s was a n a l y z e d b o t h i n terms o f t h e h i e r a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y be-tween each t a s k as w e l l as t h e s t a g e s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n each t a s k . T h i s w i l l a l l o w us t o e x p l a i n t e n t a t i v e l y whether d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r e w i l l have any e f f e c t s on e i t h e r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e d i f f e r e n t P i a g e t i a n t a s k or on t h e o r d e r and sequence o f d e v e l o p m e n t . F i n a l l y , i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e S_s d i f f e r s from w h i t e s , a group o f C a n a d i a n w h i t e c h i l d r e n was compared on e q u i v a l e n t t a s k s . The r e s u l t s from th e two groups were compared b o t h i n terms o f a c h i e v e m e n t w i t h i n t a s k s , and r e l a t i o n s h i p between t a s k s . T h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l e n a b l e us t o see i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o b t a i n e d b o t h by Goodnow and from t h i s s t u d y i s p e c u l i a r t o s u b j e c t s i n Hong Kong or whether t h e same r e l a t i o n s h i p s h o l d f o r w h i t e s a l s o . In t h e l i g h t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d and t h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y , P i a g e t i a n t a s k s were s e l e c t e d t o p e r m i t c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h Goodnow's f i n d i n g s and t o a l l o w an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r o l e o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y . T h i s r e q u i r e d t h a t t a s k s be s e l e c t e d t h a t d e r i v e some of t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e of m i s l e a d i n g c u e s . Other t e s t s were s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e measures of f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y and a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n t h a t c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . - 14 -The f o l l o w i n g t e s t s were c h o s e n f o r use i n t h i s s t u d y . The P i a g e t i a n t e s t s c hosen were: C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . These p a r -t i c u l a r t e s t s were s e l e c t e d b ecause good p e r f o r m a n c e on a l l t h r e e t a s k s r e q u i r e s t h e o v e r c o m i n g o f m i s l e a d i n g p e r -c e p t u a l c u e s . In C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , t h e S_ i s r e -q u i r e d t o deduce t h e i n v a r i a n c e o f s u b s t a n c e i n t h e f a c e o f changes i n t h e shape o f t h e p l a s t i c i n e from a b a l l t o a s a u s a g e . In C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, t h e 5_ must deduce t h e i n v a r i a n c e o f w e i g h t as t h e shape o f t h e p l a s t i c i n e i s b e i n g changed from a b a l l t o a pancake. F i n a l l y , i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , t h e S_ has t o overcome t h e m i s l e a d i n g cues o f t h e w a l l s and t h e bottom o f t h e b o t t l e b e f o r e he can a r r i v e at t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . P i a g e t has f o u n d t h a t c o n s e r v a t i o n o f s u b s t a n c e i s a c h i e v e d b e f o r e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f w e i g h t . Whether t h i s h i e r a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y between t h e s e t a s k s can be r e p l i c a -t e d w i t h Ss from a n o t h e r c u l t u r e , s p e c i f i c a l l y , 5_s from Hong Kong, r e m a i n s t o be d e t e r m i n e d . I t has a l s o been f o u n d t h a t i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , i t e m s v a r y i n d i f f i c u l t y de-p e n d i n g on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o t t l e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s ( P i a g e t , 1 9 56). Because d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i f f i c u l t y i n i t e m s i n t t h e Water L e v e l T e s t have been g i v e n d e v e l o p m e n t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , t h e i r r e p l i c a b i l i t y i n a n o t h e r c u l t u r e I s o f some i n t e r e s t ' ' " . ^"For a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , see A p p endix 1. - 15 -Karp and K o n s t a d t ' s (1963) C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t (CEFT) was chosen as a measure o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y . In t h i s t e s t , s i m p l e f i g u r e s a r e h i d d e n i n s i d e complex f i g u r e s , and t h e s u b j e c t s ' t a s k i s t o t r a c e t h e o u t l i n e and t o i d e n t i f y t h e s i m p l e f i g u r e w i t h i n each complex f i g u r e . The measure o f a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n s e l e c t e d was t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t ( T A T ) . T h r e e p i c t u r e s were chosen f o r use — 1, 13B, 8BM. The S i s asked a f t e r each p i c t u r e i s shown, t o c r e a t e i m a g i n a t i v e s t o r i e s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p i c t u r e . The c o n t e n t s o f t h e s t o r i e s a r e s c o r e d f o r need a c h i e v e m e n t (n A c h i e v e m e n t ) a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a o f M c C l e l l a n d , et a l . ( 1 9 5 8 ) . In terms o f t h e t e s t s d e s c r i b e d above, t h e h y p o t h e s e s f o r t h e s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. The p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e and w h i t e 5_s on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n of Weight and The Water L e v e l T e s t w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t . Those who o b t a i n h i g h s c o r e s on t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t ( i . e . t h e l e s s f i e l d - d e p e n d e n t ) w i l l show a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s than t h o s e who o b t a i n low s c o r e s . 2; The p e r f o r m a n c e of C h i n e s e Ss on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, and the Water L e v e l T e s t w i l l c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e on n A c h i e v e m e n t , as measured by t h e TAT. - 16 -Those who o b t a i n h i g h s c o r e s on n A c h i e v e m e n t w i l l show a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s t h a n t h o s e who o b t a i n l o w s c o r e s . A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n e s e and w h i t e 5s w i l l a c h i e v e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e t h a n C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t . F u r t h e r m o r e , no 5_ w i l l a c h i e v e C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f W e i g h t w i t h o u t a c h i e v i n g C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e as w e l l . C h i n e s e and w h i t e Ss w i l l show t h e same d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e o f r e s p o n s e f o r t h e Water L e v e l T e s t as s u g g e s t e d by P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r i n ' t h e C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f S p a c e ' . The 5s w i l l show t h e h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The n e x t h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e b o t t l e w i l l be a s s o c i a -t e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n ; and t h e l o w e s t p r o p o r t i o n o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e t i l t e d p o s i t i o n . F o r each p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o t t l e on t h e W a t e r L e v e l T e s t , C h i n e s e Ss who o b t a i n l o w s c o r e s on t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t w i l l show a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f more ' p r i m i t i v e ' r e s p o n s e s ; — t h a t i s , r e s p o n s e s c l a s s i f i e d as o c c u r i n g i n one o f t h e e a r l i e r d e v e l o p -m e n t a l s t a g e s , t h a n s u b j e c t s who o b t a i n h i g h s c o r e s . The p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e Ss f r o m Hong Kong on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f W e i g h t , and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t w i l l not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a - 17 -c o m p a r a b l e group o f w h i t e Ss on e q u i v a l e n t t a s k s . 7. The p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e 5s f r o m Hong Kong on t h e C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t w i l l n o t d i f f e r s i g -n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a c o m p a r a b l e g r o u p o f w h i t e Ss on t h e same t a s k . CHAPTER I I PROCEDURE Sub.j e c t s A t o t a l o f 39 C h i n e s e p r i m a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s were s e l e c t e d as Ss. 5_s were a l l C h i n e s e - s p e a k i n g . As f a r as £_ was aware, none o f t h e Ss had any t e s t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s p r i o r t o t h e s t u d y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e S_s on age and sex i s summarized i n T a b l e 1. S c h o o l 1 was a p r i v a t e c o - e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l w i t h a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1000 s t u d e n t s . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t s came from m i d d l e and upper m i d d l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s . Ss were s e l e c t e d from p r i m a r y 3 and 4 which c o r r e s p o n d s t o Grade 3 and 4 from a l i s t g i v e n t o E_ by t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l . Each s t u d e n t was g i v e n an academic r a t i n g o f e i t h e r low, m i d d l e or h i g h by t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l . S e l e c t i o n o f 5s was d e t e r m i n e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e need t o choose an e q u a l number of 5s f a l l i n g i n t o each academic c a t e g o r y . As f a r as p o s s i -b l e , an e q u a l number o f males and f e m a l e s were chosen as S_s. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 5_s on age and sex i s summarized i n T a b l e 2. S c h o o l 2 was a c h u r c h run s c h o o l s i t u a t e d i n a low income a r e a . The s c h o o l was p o o r l y e q u i p p e d and s t a f f e d , and was s i t u a t e d w i t h i n t h e c h u r c h i t s e l f . The s t u d e n t s came from low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d s . Many o f t h e s t u d e n t s were c h i l d r e n who c o u l d not pass t h e e n t r a n c e exams i n t o one o f t h e government run s c h o o l s , which were c o n s i d e r e d t o have h i g h e r academic s t a n d i n g . S e l e c t i o n o f Ss was based on t h e - 18 -19 -TABLE 1 Sex 8 Aqe 9 10 Male 9 9 0 Female 7 12 2 TABLE 2 Aqe and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss from S c h o o l 1 Sex Aqe 8 9 10 Male 6 3 0 Female 2 7 1 20 same c r i t e r i o n as i n School 1. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ss on age and sex i s summarized i n Table 3. School 3 was a p r i v a t e school which was s u b s i d i z e d by the government. The school was e f f i c i e n t l y run and w e l l equipped. The students i n t h i s school belonged to the middle, lower-middle, and lower socio-economic c l a s s e s . S e l e c t i o n of Ss was based on the same c r i t e r i o n as i n Schools 1 and 2. Due to i n s u f f i c i e n t time, only a small number of S_s were t e s t e d . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Ss on age and sex i s summarized i n Table 4. General S e t t i n g A l l t e s t i n g was conducted i n Chinese. E_ was Chinese and b i - l i n g u a l and t h e r e f o r e did not experience any d i f f i c u l t y E found l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a n s l a t i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s from E n g l i s h i n t o Chinese as the i n s t r u c t i o n s were r e l a t i v e l y simple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . Ss appeared to understand the i n s t r u c t i o n s w e l l . E. emphasized to each 5_s at the beginning of t e s t i n g to be sure to ask i f there was anything i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s that wasn't c l e a r . In general, most of the Ss were eager to cooperate because the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n was a novel one f o r them. School 1 gave jE the use of the school l i b r a r y f o r t e s t i n g . However, students were c o n s t a n t l y passing by during t e s t i n g which r e s u l t e d i n s e v e r a l i n t e r r u p t i o n s . School 2 provided a small room i n the a t t i c f o r t e s t i n g , while School 3 provided a room f o r t e s t i n g which was away i n communicating the i n s t r u c t i o n s to the 5_s. Furthermore, - 21 TABLE 3 Aqe and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f 5s from S c h o o l 2 Sex 8 9 10 Male 2 4 0 Female 5 3 1 TABLE 4 Aqe and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n of 5s from S c h o o l 3 Sex Aqe 8 9 10 Male Female 1 2 2 - 22 -from t h e c l a s s r o o m s and t e s t i n g was not i n t e r r u p t e d by n o i s e or o t h e r d i s t r a c t i o n s . Both group and i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g were us e d . 5_s were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y i n two s e s s i o n s on t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s i n o r d e r of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . D u r i n g S e s s i o n 1 C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, t h e c l a s s i n c l u s i o n 2 t e s t and A b e l s o n F i g u r e s were g i v e n . The C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t were g i v e n i n t h e se c o n d s e s s i o n . Each s e s s i o n l a s t e d about 20 m i n u t e s . Group t e s t i n g was used f o r t h e T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t w h i c h was g i v e n a f t e r i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g was c o m p l e t e d . T e s t I n s t r u c t i o n s and S c o r i n g P r o c e d u r e , i n s t r u c t i o n s and s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a f o r each t e s t w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n o r d e r o f t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . As each S_s came i n t o t h e room he was t o l d by E_ t o s i t down i n a c h a i r w i t h a desk i n f r o n t . E_ s a t on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e desk d i r e c t l y f a c i n g 5_. E_ i n f o r m e d 5_ t h a t E_ had some games f o r S_ and wanted S_ t o t r y them. E. a l s o t a l k e d t o each 5_ f o r a s h o r t w h i l e t o r e l a x him as E. was a t o t a l s t r a n g e r t o S_. E then i n t r o d u c e d t h e f i r s t i t e m by s a y i n g "Now, l e t ' s t r y t h e f i r s t game". C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . E took two b l o c k s o f p l a s t i c i n e and made them i n t o two b a l l s about t h e s i z e o f w a l n u t s and handed one b a l l t o S_ and s a i d : I n s t r u c t i o n s and r e s u l t s f o r t h e C l a s s I n c l u s i o n T e s t and A b e l s o n F i g u r e s a r e not r e p o r t e d as t h e s e t e s t s were not d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . - 23 -"See t h e s e two b a l l s , t h e y a r e made o f p l a s t i c i n e . Now I want you t o l o o k a t them c a r e f u l l y and t h e n t e l l me whe-t h e r you t h i n k one b a l l has more p l a s t i c i n e t h a n t h e o t h e r o r w h e t h e r you t h i n k t h e two b a l l s c o n t a i n t h e same amount o f p l a s t i c i n e . " I f 5 r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y c o n t a i n e d t h e same amount JE went on t o t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n . I f 5_ r e p l i e d t h a t e i t h e r b a l l had more p l a s t i c i n e t h a n t h e o t h e r , E_ s u b t r a c t e d o r added o n t o e i t h e r b a l l u n t i l 5_ was s a t i s f i e d t h a t t h e y c o n t a i n e d t h e same amount o f p l a s t i c i n e . F_ t o o k c a r e t o keep t h e shape o f t h e p l a s t i c i n e i n t h e shape o f a b a l l a t a l l t i m e s . E_ t h e n s a i d t o 5_, "Watch what I am g o i n g t o do t o my b a l l now". E_ t h e n s t r e t c h e d o u t t h e p l a s t i c i n e i n h e r hand i n t o t h e shape o f a s a u s a g e and s a i d : "Now, do you t h i n k t h a t you and I s t i l l have t h e same amount o f p l a s t i c i n e , o r do you t h i n k t h a t one o f us has more p l a s t i c i n e t h a n t h e o t h e r ? " I f 5_ r e p l i e d t h e same amount, E_ a s k e d why. I f S_ r e p l i e d t h a t e i t h e r p e r s o n had more p l a s t i c i n e , £ a l s o a s k e d f o r t h e r e a s o n . A l l t h e S s ' r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d . A f t e r some en c o u r a g e m e n t and p r a i s e , E_ went on t o t h e n e x t t e s t . The s c o r i n g c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s . The f i r s t p a r t was b a s e d on t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n s e w h i c h i n c l u d e d s u c h a n s w e r s as " t h e y a r e t h e same", " t h e y a r e more o r l e s s t h e same", " b o t h have t h e same amount", o r " t h e y b o t h have t h e same amount o f p l a s t i c i n e " . A c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e was g i v e n a s c o r e o f 1. The s e c o n d p a r t was b a s e d on t h e e x p l a -n a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h e answer i n r e s p o n s e t o E_'s i n q u i r y . A d e q u a t e e x p l a n a t i o n s were g i v e n a s c o r e o f 1 and i n c l u d e d 24 -such answers as "yau s t a r t e d o f f w i t h t h e same amount", " n o t h i n g has been t a k e n away or added", "you o n l y made one f l a t t e r " , "you have j u s t changed t h e shape". C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight. JE took two round b a l l s o f p l a s t i -c i n e about t h e s i z e o f a l a r g e w a l n u t , E. then s a i d : "I am g o i n g t o w e i g h t t h e s e f i r s t j u s t t o check t h a t t h e y a r e t h e same w e i g h t . You know t h a t when t h i s n e e d l e i s s t r a i g h t up or a l m o s t s t r a i g h t t h e two p i e c e s weigh t h e same." Wit h t h e two p i e c e s on each s i d e of t h e b a l a n c e , E_ then a s k e d : "Weigh t h e same?" I f 5_ showed much h e s i t a t i o n or s a i d "No", E added: "Are t h e y a l m o s t t h e same? A l i t t l e b i t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r t o t h i s game." When S_ a g r e e d t h a t t h e two p i e c e s were e q u a l i n w e i g h t , E. s a i d : "Now I t a k e one p i e c e and make i t l i k e t h i s ( p r e s s i n g one p i e c e f l a t i n t o t h e shape of a p a n c a k e ) . Now i f I put t h e two p i e c e s on t h e s c a l e a g a i n , would t h e y weigh t h e same, or would one be h e a v i e r t h a n t h e o t h e r ? " E_ t h e n asked ( i f a p p r o p r i a t e ) : "Which one would be h e a v i e r ? Can you t e l l me why?" I f 5 c o u l d not say why, JE took a s m a l l p i e c e away from t h e 3 f l a t shaped c l a y and asked a g a i n . The b a s i s f o r s c o r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t used i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . The f i r s t p a r t 3 I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e t e s t were based on t h o s e used by Goodnow ( 1 9 6 2 ) , t r a n s l a t e d i n t o C h i n e s e . - 25 -w a s based on t h e c o r r e c t n e s s o f t h e r e s p o n s e which i n c l u d e d such answers as " t h e y weigh t h e same", " t h e r e i s no d i f f e r -ence i n w e i g h t " , o r " t h e y w e ight j u s t about t h e same". A c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e was g i v e n a s c o r e o f 1. The s e c o n d p a r t was based on t h e e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n f o r t h e r e s p o n s e . Ade-quat e e x p l a n a t i o n s were g i v e n a s c o r e o f 1 and i n c l u d e d such answers as "you s t a r t e d o f f w i t h t h e same amount", " n o t h i n g has been t a k e n away or added", or "you have o n l y changed t h e s h ape". C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t . The s t i m u l i from Karp and K o n d s t a d t (1963) C h i l d r e n ' s Embedded F i g u r e T e s t (CEFT) were use d . These i n c l u d e d a number o f f i g u r e s which a r e used f o r t r a i n i n g p u r p o s e s as w e l l as t h e t e s t f i g u r e s p r o p e r . The p r o c e d u r e f o l l o w e d i n t h e t e s t was based on t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Karp and K o n d s t a d t ( 1 9 6 3 ) . The o n l y m o d i f i c a -t i o n t o t h e p r o c e d u r e c o n c e r n e d t h e s t o p r u l e s f o r t h e t e s t . When t h e c h i l d d i d not g i v e any answer he was e n c o u r a g e d t o g i v e one. _E w a i t e d f o r at l e a s t 60 s e c o n d s a f t e r p r e s e n t a -t i o n of t h e i t e m b e f o r e s t o p p i n g t e s t i n g o f t h e i t e m . JE IE n e v e r w a i t e d f o r more than 90 s e c o n d s . F i n a l l y , b e cause t h e CEFT was g i v e n b e f o r e t h e Water L e v e l T e s t i n t h e same s e s s i o n , i t was i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e 5_ d i d not l o s e a l l h i s m o t i v a t i o n due t o f r u s t r a t i o n . T e s t i n g w a s t h e r e f o r e - -s t o p p e d i f S_ f a i l e d f o u r c o n s e c u t i v e i t e m s on t h e HQU5E s e r i e s and a p p e a r e d t o E_ t o be uneasy or d i s c o u r a g e d be-c a u s e o f h i s f a i l u r e . The r e s p o n s e s were s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s - 2 6 -g i v e n by Karp and K o n d s t a d t ( 1 9 6 3 ) . The s c o r e s were made up o f two s e p a r a t e s e r i e s : t h e 'TENT' and t h e 'HOUSE'. The s c o r e s f o r t h e 1TE";T' s e r i e s r a n g e d from 0 - 11; and f o r t h e 'HOUSE' s e r i e s , t h e s c o r e s r a n g e d from 0 -14. The t o t a l s c o r e t h e r e f o r e r a n g e d from 0 - 2 5 . Water L e v e l T e s t E_ h e l d f l a t - b o t t o m e d f l a s k w i t h c o l o r e d l i q u i d i n hand and s a i d t o t h e 5_ watch t h i s f l a s k . I want you t o l o o k at t h e c o l o r e d water c a r e f u l l y . I am g o i n g t o t u r n t h e f l a s k s l o w l y , and I want you t o watch what happens t o t h e water c a r e f u l l y , as I t u r n t h e f l a s k . Are you r e a d y ? Now I w i l l b e g i n . E. t h e n began t o r o t a t e t h e f l a s k s l o w l y , s t a r t i n g from t h e v e r t i c a l u p r i g h t p o s i t i o n , t u r n i n g i t s l o w l y i n one d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h 360 d e g r e e s u n t i l t h e f l a s k had t u r n e d a f u l l c i r c l e and was r e t u r n e d t o i t s o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n . E_ made s u r e t h a t S_ c o u l d see t h e water l e v e l c l e a r l y as t h e f l a s k was b e i n g t u r n e d . E t h e n put t h e f l a s k down and p i c k e d up t h e b e a k e r s a y i n g , See t h i s b e a k e r ? T h e r e i s no water i n i t , and i t l o o k s l i k e t h e b e a k e r drawn i n y o u r b o o k l e t ( p o i n t i n g t o f i g u r e on f i r s t p a g e ) . Now, I want you t o p r e t e n d t h a t t h e r e i s some water i n t h e b e a k e r . Now, I want you t o draw a l i n e i n -s i d e t h i s b e a k e r on t h i s page t o show me where t h e water would be. I t d o e s n ' t m a t t e r how much water you want t o put i n s i d e t h e b e a k e r , so you can draw t h e l i n e anywhere i n s i d e t h e b e a k e r t h a t you want. When S_ had c o m p l e t e d t h i s , E_ c o n t i n u e d , Now, I would l i k e you t o put a c r o s s t o show me whether t h e water i s i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e b e a k e r ( p o i n t i n g t o below t h e water mark) or i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e b e a k e r ( p o i n t i n g t o above t h e water mark. - 27 -When t h i s was done, E_ s a i d , Now t u r n t h e page. Here's a n o t h e r b o t t l a ( p o i n t i n g t o b o t t . l e ) , I want you t o draw a l i n e t o show me where t h e water would be t h i s t i m e , and a f t e r you have done t h i s , I want you t o a g a i n put a c r o s s t o show me where t h e w a ter would be. A f t e r S_ had done t h i s , E_ c o n t i n u e d , I would l i k e you t o c o n t i n u e d o i n g t h i s f o r e v e r y b o t t l e i n t h e book u n t i l you come t o t h e l a s t page. I f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t h a t you do not u n d e r s t a n d , j u s t ask me. You can b e g i n r i g h t now. •Scoring f o r Water L e v e l T e s t A r e s p o n s e was s c o r e d as c o r r e c t and was g i v e n a s c o r e o f 1 i f t h e f o l l o w i n g two c r i t e r i a were s a t i s f i e d : a ) Degree of d e v i a t i o n from t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . A r e s p o n s e t h a t was + 0 - 6 ° from t h e h o r i z o n t a l was c o n s i d e r e d as c o r r e c t . b) L o c a t i o n o f w a t e r . A c r o s s t h a t was p l a c e d below t h e water l i n e t o i n d i c a t e t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e w ater was c o n -s i d e r e d as c o r r e c t . Each S_ was g i v e n a t o t a l s c o r e d e p e n d i n g on t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s o b t a i n e d . T h i s r a n g e d from 0 - 13. In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s between each s t a g e o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence s u g g e s t e d by P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r (1956), t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a i n terms o f d e g r e e s o f d e v i a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n o f d e v i a t i o n ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) from t h e h o r i z o n t a l , and t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e water were a p p l i e d . These c r i t e r i a g e n e r a t e a s e r i e s of " s t e p s " . These " s t e p s " can be d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y o r d e r e d , but do not c o n s t i t u t e by t h e m s e l v e s , " s t a g e s " i n t h e s e n s e g i v e n t o t h i s word by P i a g e t ( F l a v e l l , 1963, p. 1 9 ) . These f o r m a l c r i t e r i a o r s t e p s have been d e s c r i b e d f o r e v e r y c l a s s o f i t e m b e l o n g i n g t o t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and a r e summarized i n T a b l e s 5, 6 and 7. - 2 8 -TABLE 5 Types o f Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l ^ S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e I n v e r t e d V e r t i c a l P o s i t i o n S t e p 1 2 3 4 5 Degree o f d e v i a t i o n from t h e h o r i z o n t a l 0-6 0-6 71-90 6-70 0-6 L o c a t i o n o f water (above or below water l i n e ) above below above or below above or below below Ste p 1 r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e most ' p r i m i t i v e ' d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y . S t e p 5 r e s p o n s e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . TABLE 6 Types o f Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e H o r i z o n t a l P o s i t i o n S t e p 1 2 3 4 Degree o f d e v i a t i o n from t h e h o r i z o n t a l 71-90 0-70 7-70 0-6 L o c a t i o n o f water (above or below water l i n e ) e i t h e r s i d e o f t h e water l i n e above below below S t e p 1 r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e most ' p r i m i t i v e ' d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y . S t e p 4 r e s p o n s e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . 29 -TABLE 7 Types o f Responses C l a s s i f i e d i n t o D e v e l o p m e n t a l S t e p s w i t h t h e B o t t l e i n t h e T i l t e d P o s i t i o n S t e p s 1 2 3 4 5 6 a b Degree o f d e v i a t i o n :31-70 31-70 from t h e h o r i z o n t a l '. a b a b 31-70 31-70 31-70 31-70 71-90 7-30 0-6 S i g n o f d e v i a t i o n + (+ or -) + - + - ± + ± T i l t e d . ' D i r e c t i o n U p r i q h t l e f t 1 t i l t e d ; o f r i q h t I t i l t e d i j B o t t l e I n v e r t e d l e f t t i l t e d ' y r i q h t ' t *£_ L o c a t i o n o f water (above o r below water above above below below below below l i n e ) S t e p 1 r e s p o n s e s are t h e most ' p r i m i t i v e ' d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y . S t e p 6 r e s p o n s e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . - 30 E v e r y r e s p o n s e was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one o f t h e d e v e l o p -m e n t a l s t e p s r e l a t i v e t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o t t l e . In m e a s u r i n g b o t h t h e a n g l e and d i r e c t i o n (+ or -) o f the r e s p o n s e from t h e h o r i z o n t a l t h e measures were t a k e n always from t h e l e f t t o t h e r i g h t of t h e l i n e ^ . T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i o n T e s t . S c h o o l 1. Ss were b r o u g h t t o a l a r g e room i n which a p r o j e c t o r and s c r e e n was s e t up f o r group t e s t i n g . Ss were s e a t e d and were the n t o l d t h a t t h e y were t o be shown some s l i d e s on t h e s c r e e n . JE began by s a y i n g : T h i s i s a t e s t o f y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n . T h r e e p i c t u r e s w i l l be p r o j e c t e d on t h e s c r e e n . You w i l l have about 30 s e c o n d s t o l o o k at each p i c t u r e and t h e n about 5 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e a s t o r y about i t . When you w r i t e t h e s t o r y , I want you t o t r y t o answer f o u r q u e s t i o n s . I am g o i n g t o r e a d t h e q u e s t i o n s one by one s l o w l y , and I want you t o w r i t e them down on t h e f i r s t page o f y o u r b o o k l e t . Remember t o t r y and answer a l l t h e s e q u e s t i o n s when you w r i t e each s t o r y . These q u e s t i o n s need not be answered i n any p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r . The q u e s t i o n s a r e as f a l l o w s : What i s h a p p e n i n g i n t h e p i c t u r e ? What i s t h e boy t h i n k i n g ? What would t h e boy l i k e t o happen? What w i l l happen? T h e r e a r e no r i g h t or wrong answers so you can make up any s o r t o f s t o r y about t h e p i c -t u r e t h a t you want t o . The more v i v i d and d r a m a t i c , t h e b e t t e r . Remember t h i s i s a t e s t o f y o u r i m a g i n a t i o n . Do not m e r e l y d e s c r i b e t h e p i c t u r e , make up a s t o r y about i t , and make i t as i n t e r e s t i n g as p o s s i b l e - f e e l f r e e t o make up any k i n d o f s t o r y at a l l . You may s t a r t w r i t i n g as soon as you l i k e a f t e r t h e p i c t u r e i s p r o j e c t e d . The l i g h t w i l l be F o r a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s d e s c r i b e d by P i a g e t ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956) and t h e way i n which t h e y r e l a t e e m p i r i c a l l y t o t h e s e s e t s o f d i f f e r e n t s t e p s , see A p p e n d i x . See Appendix 1 a l s o f o r t h e method by which r e s p o n s e s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n t s t e p s . - 31 -t u r n e d on a f t e r 30 s e c o n d s . T r y t o s t a r t w r i t i n g at once, o t h e r w i s e you may not have enough time t o do a c o m p l e t e j o b . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? P l e a s e ask me now i f t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t h a t you a r e not c l e a r a b o u t . No q u e s t i o n s w i l l be answered a f t e r we s t a r t . A l s o p l e a s e do not say a n y t h i n g when t h e p i c t u r e s a r e shown. 5_s were g i v e n more t h a n 5 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e t h e s t o r i e s , as i t was f o u n d t h a t i n g e n e r a l , i t took l o n g e r t o w r i t e t h e C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s , and t h e S_s b e i n g i n grade 2 or 3, o f t e n had d i f f i c u l t y i n remembering how t o w r i t e out a c h a r a c t e r . T h i s slowed down t h e r a t e o f w r i t i n g . S c h o o l s 2 and 3 These s c h o o l s were u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e E_ w i t h a s i n g l e room l a r g e enough t o t e s t a l l t h e c h i l d r e n at once. As a r e s u l t , t e s t i n g was c o n d u c t e d i n groups o f t h r e e i n t h e s m a l l room i n which i n d i v i d u a l t e s t i n g was done. The p r o -c e d u r e employed was s i m i l a r t o t h a t used i n t e s t i n g S c h o o l 1, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n t h a t t h e E_ h e l d up each TAT c a r d i n f r o n t o f t h e t h r e e Ss and t h e n gave them a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 m i n u t e s t o w r i t e out each s t o r y . I n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n were t h e same as t h o s e f o r S c h o o l 1. R e l e v a n t changes were made o n l y r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o j e c t i o n o f t h e p i c t u r e s . 5s were t o l d i n s t e a d , t h a t t h e y were t o be shown t h r e e p i c t u r e s c o n s e -c u t i v e l y by t h e _E and t h a t t h e y c o u l d b e g i n w r i t i n g t h e i r s t o r i e s as soon as each p i c t u r e was shown. S c o r i n g . Each TAT s t o r y was s c o r e d f o r n Achievement a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s c o r i n g system d e v i s e d by M c C l e l l a n d , A t k i n s o n , C l a r k and L o w e l l ( A t k i n s o n , 1 9 5 8 ) . White S s . S c o r e s were a v a i l a b l e from a p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d 32 -sample o f w h i t e C a n a d i a n Ss from P r o v i n c i a l s c h o o l s i n V a n c o u v e r f o r some o f t h e t e s t s employed w i t h C h i n e s e Ss, The t e s t s which were common t o t h e two groups o f Ss were: C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, and t h e CEFT. S c o r e s o f t h e s e 5_s on t h e s e t e s t s were used i n c o m p a r i s o n t o s c o r e s o f t h e C h i n e s e S_s on t h e same t e s t s . The C a n a d i a n Ss were from p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e c l a s s homes. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss on age and sex i s summarized i n T a b l e B. T A B L E 8 Age and Sex D i s t r i b u t i o n o f White Ss Sex A g e 9 8 ID Male 8 8 4 Female 5 7 1 CHAPTER I I I  RESULTS The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e examined as t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s I ; R e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n  t a s k s and CEFT C h i n e s e ; T h e r e was a low c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e S_s s c o r e s on t h e CEFT and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e t a u = .16, p = . 0 8 ) . However, t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e .05 l e v e l . No c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d between t h e S_s' s c o r e s on t h e CEFT and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight ( t a u = .08, n . s . ) . A low c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d between t h e S _ s ' t o t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e s (sum o f s c o r e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e and Con-s e r v a t i o n o f Weight) and CEFT s c o r e s ( t a u =.166, o_ = . 0 8 ) . But a g a i n , t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e .05 l e v e l . A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ( t a u = .346, £.-><*'. .001). was f o u n d between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . The K e n d a l l Tau c o r r e l a t i o n s be-tween p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e -t i a n t a s k s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9. TABLE 9 K e n d a l l Tau ^ C o r r e l a t i o n s between CEFT and C o n s e r v a - t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, T o t a l ' C o n s e r v a t i o n and Water L e v e l T e s t C h i n e s e Sample  C o n s e r v a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n T o t a l Water of 5 u b s t a n c e o f Weight C o n s e r v a t i o n L e v e l T e s t  P = .08 n . s . p = ;08 P < .001 rPFT ——• • tau=+*l6 t a u = +.08 t a u ~ + . l 6 6 tau=+.<J46 - 3 3 -- 34 -W h i t e s : T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT and p e r f o r m a n c e on e i t h e r C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e ( t a u = .14) or Weight ( t a u = . 0 9 ) . A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d between s c o r e s on t h e CEFT and t o t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e ( t a u = .19, p_ = .054). A s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between p e r -formance on t h e CEFT and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t ( t a u = .25, p_ •<.. . 0 2 ) . The K e n d a l l Tau c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 10. TABLE 10 K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s between CEFT and C o n s e r v a t i o n  o f 5 u b s t a n c e . C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, T o t a l C o n s e r v a - t i o n , Water L e v e l T e s t White Sample C o n s e r v a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n T o t a l Water o f S u b s t a n c e o f Weight C o n s e r v a t i o n L e v e l T e s t CEFT n s . n.s. p = .054 p <. . 05 t a u = =.14 t a u = +.09 t a u =+.19 tau=+. 25 H y p o t h e s i s 2: R e l a t i o n s h i p between n Achievement and P i a g e t i a n  t a s k s C h i n e s e : T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between s c o r e s on n Achievement and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s of C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e ( t a u = -.04, n.s.) and Weight ( t a u = .18, p_ .= .07) anfll t h e Water L e v e l T e s t ( t a u = .09, n . s . ) . T h e r e was some i n d i c a t i o n o f a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight - 35 -and n A c h i e v e m e n t . However, t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l (c. = .07) . The K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s on n A chievement and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s a r e summarized i n T a b l e 11. TABLE 11 K e n d a l l Tau C o r r e l a t i o n s between n Achievement and  C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t ,  T o t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . C h i n e s e 5ample C o n s e r v a t i o n C o n s e r v a t i o n T o t a l Water of S u b s t a n c e o f Weight C o n s e r v a - L e v e l t i o n T e s t n.s. c_ = . 07 n.s. n.s. n . , , __ a c h i e v e m e n t t a u = -.045 t a u = -.184 tau=-.127 t a u = .091 The TAT was not g i v e n t o t h e White Ss, t h e r e f o r e i t was not p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f n Achievement t o P i a g e t i a n t a s k s f o r t h e White 5 s . h y p o t h e s i s 3 R e l a t i o n s h i p between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight C h i n e s e ; Twelve out o f t h i r t y - n i n e S_s gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and e l e v e n out o f t h i r t y - n i n e gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight,. F i v e _ s a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight w i t h o u t a c h i e v i n g C o n s e r v a -t i o n of S u b s t a n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Ss on b o t h t e s t s i s summarized i n T a b l e 12, - 36 -TABLE 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses o f C h i n e s e Ss C o n s e r v a - t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight ~ C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight + C o n s e r v a t i o n + 6 6 o f • — ~ S u b s t a n c e - 5 22 W h i t e : T w e n t y - f i v e out o f 32 S_s gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and f i f t e e n out o f t h i r t y - t w o gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t . Only one a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight w i t h o u t a c h i e v i n g C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on b o t h t e s t s i s summarized i n T a b l e 13, TABLE 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses of White Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n  o f 5 u b s t a n c e and Weight C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight + C o n s e r v a t i o n + 14 11 o f S u b s t a n c e — 1 6 H y p o t h e s i s 4: D e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f r e s p o n s e f o r t h e Water L e v e l T e s t  C h i n e s e : The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e number o f c o r r e c t r e s -ponses w i t h t h e b a t t l e i n t h e d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 14. - 37 -TABLE 14 D i s t r i b u t i o n of the number of c o r r e c t responses f o r the b o t t l e i n the v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s Chinese 5ample (IM = 39) P o s i t i o n of B o t t l e VERTICAL HORIZONTAL TILTED Item No. 9 13 12 2 4 11 10 6 7 8 3 5 No. of Correct Responses 31 30 28 22 22 11 11 10 6 5 6 4 Sign Tests were performed between each h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l item. More Ss were c o r r e c t on v e r t i c a l than on h o r i z o n t a l items. The comparisons between item 13 and 4; 13 and 2; 9 and 2; 9 and 4 were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . However, the comparisons between item 13 and 12; 9 and 12 were not s i g n i f i c a n t . 5ign t e s t s were a l s o per formed between each h o r i z o n t a l and each t i l t e d item. A l l of these comparisons were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y more Ss were c o r r e c t on h o r i z o n t a l than on t i l t e d items. White: The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the number of c o r r e c t responses with the b o t t l e i n the d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s i s summarized i n Table 15. - 38 -TABLE 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Number of Correct Responses f o r  the B o t t l e i n the V e r t i c a l . H o r i z o n t a l and T i l t e d P o s i t i o n White Sample (N = 32)  P o s i t i o n VERT-of B o t t l e ICAL HORIZONTAL TILTED  Item No. 20 8 2 8 6 17 16 9 7 8 19 5 11,141 4 10 3 13 16 No. of Correct 30 29 29 29 27 25 26 12 11 10 10 8 7 7 6 6 5 5 5 Responses T ™__™____ Sign Tests were performed between each v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l item. None of these comparisons were s i g n i f i -cant. Thus, though more Ss were c o r r e c t on v e r t i c a l than h o r i z o n t a l items, the d i f f e r e n c e i n performance was not s i g n i f i c a n t . Sign Tests were a l s o performed between each h o r i z o n t a l item and each t i l t e d item. Each of these com-parisons was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y more Ss were c o r r e c t on the h o r i z o n t a l than on the t i l t e d items. Hypothesis 5; Comparisons between F.I, and F.D. Ss on the  Water Level Test. Chinese Ss were again d i v i d e d i n t o high and l o w - f i e l d dependency, (median s p l i t ) and the performance of these two groups was compared i n terms of the t o t a l number of response i n each developmental step. In a l l cases, Step 1 represents the most p r i m i t i v e response developmentally and Steps 4, 5, and 6 represent the most advanced ( i n f a c t , the c o r r e c t r e -sponse) f o r the b o t t l e i n the v e r t i c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s -ponses i s given i n Tables 16, 17 and 18. - 39 -TABLE 16 D i s t r i b u t i o n of responses of F.I, and F.D. Chinese 5s by developmental steps with the b o t t l e i n v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n v r  Step Ldj. F.D. 1 2 4 2 0 0 3 0 1 4 1 2 5 35 25 TABLE 17 D i s t r i b u t i o n of responses of F.I, and F.D. Chinese Ss by developmental steps with the b o t t l e i n the  h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n Step F.I. F.D. 1 12 25 2 2 2 3 1 3 4 42 27 TABLE 18 D i s t r i b u t i o n of responses of F.I, and F.D. Chinese  5s by developmental steps with the b o t t l e i n the  t i l t e d p o s i t i o n Step F.I. F.D. 1 0 0 2 9 29 3 25 66 4 13 6 5 44 22 6 39 12 The r e s u l t s showed that f o r a l l three p o s i t i o n s of the _ 40 -b o t t l e , F.D. Ss o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r number o f r e s p o n s e s c l a s s i f i e d i n t o s t e p s 1, 2, and 3 ( i . e . r e s p o n s e s t h a t a r e more p r i m i t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y ) . F . I . Ss, on t h e o t h e r hand, o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s -s t e p s 5, 4, and 6 r e s p o n s e s ; w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e v e r t i -c a l , h o r i z o n t a l and t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . H y p o t h e s i s 6: Comparison between C h i n e s e and White Ss on C o n s e r - v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and t h e  Water L e v e l T e s t . T welve out o f t h i r t y - n i n e C h i n e s e Ss gave c o r r e c t r e -s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t . T w e n t y - f i v e out o f t h i r t y - t w o gave c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on t h e same t a s k . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n e s e and White S_s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e i s summarized i n T a b l e 19. TABLE 19 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s f o r C h i n e s e and White  Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e P r e s e n t Absent C h i n e s e 12 27 White 25 7 The d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between C h i n e s e and White S_s was fo u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t ( ft*" =13.3, j_ .001) . White 5_s o b t a i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y more c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . E l e v e n out o f t h i r t y - n i n e C h i n e s e Ss gave c o r r e c t - 41 -responses on t h i s task. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of Chinese and White Ss on Conservation of Weight i s summarized i n Table 20. TABLE 20 D i s t r i b u t i o n of responses f o r Chinese and White 5s Conservation of Weiqht Conservation of Weiqht Present Absent Chinese 11 28 White 15 17 The d i f f e r e n c e i n performance between Chinese and White Ss was found to be not s i g n i f i c a n t ( 7*' = .95, n.s.) Only those items which the Chinese and White Ss had i n common were used f o r the comparison of Water Level p e r f o r -mance i n the two groups. The mean f o r the Chinese sample was 1.26. The mean f o r the white sample was 1.31. The d i f f e r e n c e between these meana was not s i g n i f i c a n t . (t = .14, n.s.) Hypothesis 7 A Mann-Whitney LJ was computed to t e s t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e between the performance of White and Chinese Ss on the CEFT. The r e s u l t s showed there was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n performance. [<- = -1.230, n.s.) - 42 -The mean number of c o r r e c t responses f o r Chinese and White 5s on the P i a g e t i a n tasks and on CEFT i s summarized on Table 21. TABLE 21 Mean Number of Correct Responses fQJL_CJilne_se and White Ss. TEST Conserva- Conserve- T o t a l Water T o t a l t i o n of t i o n of Conser- Levnl CEFT 'Tent' 'House' 5core Range of Poss. Scores 0 - 2 0 - 2 0 - 4 0 - 5 0 - 2 5 0 - 1 1 0 - 1 4 White 1.63 .94 2.6 1.31 16.75 8.66 8.09 C h i -nese .79 .62 1.5 1.26 14.8 8.4 6.5 Only the scores f o r those f i v e t i l t e d b o t t l e s which were common to both the White and the Chinese 5_s were used f o r computing the mean. CHAPTER IV DISCUSSION T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between C h i n e s e and w h i t e S_s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , and t h e CEFT. However, t h e w h i t e 5s o b t a i n e d h i g h e r s c o r e s on a l l t h r e e t e s t s . A s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f w h i t e and C h i n e s e 5_s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . The w h i t e Ss p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t h an t h e C h i n e s e 5_s , The r e s u l t s showed a c l e a r sequence f o r t h e w h i t e _ s w i t h r e g a r d t o a c h i e v e m e n t on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and W e i g h t . T w e n t y - f i v e w h i t e 5_s a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e , 15 a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t . Of t h e 15 Ss who a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, o n l y one was w i t h o u t C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . F o r t h e C h i n e s e Ss, however, the sequence was not c l e a r . Twelve Ss a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and 11 a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W e i g h t . F i v e Ss a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight w i t h o u t C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . The sequence o f r e s p o n s e f o r t h e Water L e v e l T e s t was c l e a r f o r both w h i t e and C h i n e s e _Ss . Both groups gave t h e h i g h e s t number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n -ses w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n ; t h e next h i g h e s t number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n ; and t h e l o w e s t number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e t i l t e d p o s i -t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , F.D. C h i n e s e 5s o b t a i n e d a h i g h e r - 43 -- 44 -number o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l l y more p r i m i t i v e r e s p o n s e s t h a n F . I . C h i n e s e S s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n e d between P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and t h e CEFT were s i m i l a r f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . F o r b o t h g r o u p s , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between p e r f o r m a n c e on e i t h e r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e or Weight and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT. In b o t h c a s e s , t h e c o r r e l a -t i o n w i t h C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n w i t h C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight. Fo r b o t h C h i n e s e and w h i t e Ss a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was found between p e r -formance on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT. The c o r r e l a t i o n was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r w i t h t h e C h i n e s e group. The r e s u l t s w i t h n Achievement showed t h a t n A c h i e v e -ment s c o r e s were not c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e or t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . T h e r e was a low n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h C o n s e r v a t i o n of W e i g h t . However, t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e .05 l e v e l . On a l l t h e t e s t s i n which th e p e r f o r m a n c e o f w h i t e and C h i n e s e Ss were compared, the o n l y t e s t i n which t h e w h i t e Ss p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r t han t h e C h i n e s e Ss was C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e . On a l l t h e o t h e r t e s t s , t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r f o r m a n c e . What was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e between w h i t e and C h i n e s e Ss t'.n C . n s ^ r v n t i .m c f "Subst-.nc.j? Th~ p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e Chines.; Ss from t h e throe: .-.!if f o r e n t s c h o o l s "were oxorainod . s e p a r a t e l y . The ma n number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s f. r t h e C h i n e s e Ss from Sch .:1s 1,2 -n<i 3 nn C n s e r y p t i ;n - f jubatnnc,., C- n:: erv~.ti..n of Weight, Water L e v e l T e s t , and t h e CEFT i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 22. - 45 -TABLE 22 Mean Number of C o r r e c t Responses f o r C h i n e s e 5s  From 5 c h o o l s 1, 2, and 3 on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n of W e i g h t . Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT Task P o s s i b l e 5 c h o o l s S c h o o l S c h o o l S c h o o l Range 1, 2, 3 1 (N=19) (N 2 = 5) 3 (N= 15) C o n s e r v . o f 0--2 . 7 9 1. .2 1 0. 3 S u b s t a n c e C o n s e r v . o f 0--2 .82 .92 1 0. 33 Weight T o t a l Con- 0--4 1, .5 2. .2 2 0. 6 s e r v a t i o n Water L e v e l 7 4, .6 4 , .7 & .5 4. 5 T e s t * C ( T o t a l S c o r e 0--25 14, .8 16. ,6 13 .8 13 E > ( 1 TENT' 0--11 8, .4 9. .2 8 .6 7 . 4 F) T('HOUSE' 1 ) 0--14 6, .5 7. .4 5 .4 5. 6 * Only t h e t i l t e d b o t t l e s were used t o compute t h e mean number of c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s T a b l e 22 shows t h a t 5_s from S c h o o l 3 p e r f o r m e d u n e x p e c t e d l y p o o r e r on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s t h a n 5_s from S c h o o l s 1 and 2. But, on t h e o t h e r t a s k s , p e r f o r m a n c e o f 5_s from a l l t h r e e s c h o o l s r e m a i n e d c l o s e . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t was t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f 5s from S c h o o l 3 which r e s u l t e d i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between w h i t e and C h i n e s e 5_s on C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e . The p e r f o r m a n c e o f w h i t e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e was t h e r e f o r e compared t o t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of C h i n e s e Ss from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 o n l y on t h e same tas'k. No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between th e - 46 -p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e two g r o u p s . (X = 2.7, n . s . ) . On t h e whole, i t can be s a i d t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y were g e n e r a l l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r -mance between w h i t e and C h i n e s e S_s on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s or t h e CEFT. The r e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y a r e s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o b t a i n e d by Goodnow (1962) i n Hong Kong. Goodnow fo u n d more s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a n d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f w h i t e and C h i n e s e Ss on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Space,Weight and Volume. However, she a l s o f o u n d t h a t on e v e r y t a s k t h e l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e w h i t e S_s was h i g h e r t h a n t h e C h i n e s e S s . The gap i n p e r f o r m a n c e between Ss from S c h o o l s 1, 2 and Ss from S c h o o l 3 r e q u i r e d e x p l a n a t i o n . Ss from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 came from p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i d d l e and u p p e r -m i d d l e c l a s s e n v i r o n m e n t s , w h i l e Ss from S c h o o l 3 came from l o w e r c l a s s homes. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n e n v i r o n m e n t between c h i l d r e n from l o w e r c l a s s and m i d d l e c l a s s homes i n a p l a c e such as Hong Kong i s v a s t . T h e r e a r e many v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d which may a c c o u n t f o r t h e p o o r e r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e s e 5s on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k . V e r b a l a b i l i t y i s one such f a c t o r . The C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s r e q u i r e t h a t t h e c h i l d v e r b a l i z e h i s r e s p o n s e and j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t , w h i l e the Water L e v e l T e s t does n o t . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y or o t t i t u d i n a l t r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r c l a s s l i f e i n Hong Kong a c c o u n t f o r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f Ss i n S c h o o l 3. - 47 -C h i l d r e n from l o w e r c l a s s homes have t o f e n d f o r them-s e l v e s at a v e r y e a r l y age, and l e a r n t h e ' r e a l i t i e s o f l i f e ' much s o o n e r than m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d r e n . Because o f t h i s , t h e s e c h i l d r e n may have a. s t r o n g e r t e n d e n c y t o l o o k f o r ' t r a p s ' o r ' t r i c k s ' i n any s i t u a t i o n . On a t a s k such as C o n s e r v a t i o n t h e y may be more i n c l i n e d t o view i t as one t h a t c o n t a i n e d a ' t r a p ' t o c h a l l e n g e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t . S i n c e t h e two p i e c e s of p l a s t i c i n e a p p e a r e d t o be ' o b v i o u s l y ' e q u a l , t h e c h i l d may choose i n s t e a d t h e u n o b v i o u s r e s p o n s e — t h a t of i n e q u a l i t y . O b v i o u s l y no f i n a l e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between S_s from t h e s e s c h o o l s can be p r o v i d e d h e r e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t t o Goodnow's (1962) r e s u l t s . Goodnow fo u n d t h a t C h i n e s e 5s i n Hong Kong from low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c homes who were r e c e i v i n g f u l l s c h o o l i n g s c o r e d t h e l o w e s t on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s . The s e c o n d a r e a o f i n t e r e s t was i n t h e c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e p l i c a b i l i t y o f P i a g e t ' s r e s u l t s - b o t h i n terms o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c t a s k and t h e h i e a r c h y o f d i f f i c u l t y between t a s k s . T h e r e was good r e p l i c a b i l i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . Both groups o b t a i n e d t h e h i g h e s t number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n . The next h i g h e s t number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was o b t a i n e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n and t h e l o w e s t number o f c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e t i l t e d p o s i t i o n s . - 48 -According to Piaget and Inhelder (1956), task d i f f i -c u l t y i n the Water L e v e l Test i s a f u n c t i o n of the p o s i -t i o n of the b a t t l e i n r e l a t i o n to the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . Task d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a s e s from the b o t t l e being i n the v e r t i c a l to the h o r i z o n t a l to the t i l t e d p o s i t i o n . On the b a s i s of t h i s , one would expect the highest p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t responses to be a s s o c i a t e d with the b o t t l e i n the v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h i s being the e a s i e s t task. The lowest p r o p o r t i o n of c o r r e c t responses w i l l be a s s o c i a t e d with the most d i f f i c u l t task - that of the b o t t l e i n a t i l t e d p o s i t i o n . The f i n d i n g s from t h i s study give f u r t h e r e m p i r i c a l support from a d i f f e r e n t subject population to Piaget's and Inhelder's a n a l y s i s of the Water Level Test. The f i n d i n g s were also c o n s i s t e n t with the r e s u l t s ob-t a i n e d by Smedslund (1962). Within each s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n of the b o t t l e , F.D. Chinese Ss were found to produce a greater number of developmentally more p r i m i t i v e responses than F.I. 5_s. This f i n d i n g lends f u r t h e r support to the notion that a c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between performance on the CEFT and performance on the Water Level Test. C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of responses i n t o developmental steps represents a q u a n t i t a -t i v e mode of a n a l y s i s and allows f o r a f i n a r d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n of performance of the F.I. and F.D. Ss than by using the c r i t e r i a of c o r r e c t and i n c o r r e c t only. This a n a l y s i s showed that F.D. Ss not only had a higher number of i n c o r r e c t responses than F.I. Ss but that these Ss were a l s o f u r t h e r away developrnentnlly from the c o r r e c t r e -sponses than F.I. Ss. - 49 -The Sequence p r e d i c t e d by P i a g e t (1962) r e g a r d i n g C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight was r e p l i c a t e d w i t h t h e w h i t e sample. P i a g e t p r e d i c t e d t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight i m p l i e d a c h i e v e m e n t on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t o n l y one out o f f i f t e e n w h i t e Ss who a c h i e v e d C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight was w i t h o u t C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e . However t h e sequence f o r t h e C h i n e s e S_s was not as c l e a r . S i n c e t h e number o f 5_s t e s t e d was s m a l l , and s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y o f C h i n e s e Ss showed n e i t h e r C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e nor C o n s e r v a t i o n of Weight, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o t e s t t h e hypo-t h e s i s t h a t C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e p r e c e d e s C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight f o r t h i s g r o u p . F i v e out o f t h e 11 C h i n e s e Ss v>'..:i showed C o n s e r v a t i o n of Weight were w i t h o u t C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e . T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t e s t s as a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e C h i n e s e Ss as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s assumed by P i a g e t t o u n d e r l y C o n s e r v a t i o n , s i n c e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r i o r i t y o f C t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e t o C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight has been r e p e a t e d l y f o u n d ( e . g . S t a c e y , 1967, Smedslund, 1964) and i s one o f t h e more s t a b l e and d e p e n d a b l e P i a g e t i a n phenomena. In view o f t h i s f i n d -i n g , a l l t h e o t h e r r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d here which r e l a t e C o n s e r v a t i o n p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e Ss t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as e s p e c i a l l y t e n t a t i v e . The f i n d i n g s t h a t t h e r e were no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f C o n s e r v e -- 50 -t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight and s c o r e s on t h e CEFT f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e 5s was i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by P a s c u a l - L e o n e (1966) who p r e d i c t e d and f o u n d a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT and on b o t h C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h i s study.. We have s u g g e s t e d above t h a t t h e f a i l u r e o f d a t a from C h i n e s e S_s t o g i v e a c l e a r i m p l i c a t i o n r e l a t i o n s h i p between C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s as a d m i n i s t e r e d h e r e may not g i v e r e s u l t s c o m p a r a b l e t o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e s o u r c e o f e r r o r may have been t h e . f a c t t h a t o n l y one i t e m was g i v e n t o each C h i n e s e 5_ on b o t h C o n s e r v a t i o n o f 5 u b s t a n c e and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, p r o v i d i n g a l e s s r e l i a b l e measure. F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h t h e w h i t e Ss were g i v e n t h r e e i t e m s i n each C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k , o n l y t h e s c a r e s from t h e f i r s t i t e m were used f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e C h i n e s e S s . In P a s c u a l - L e o n e ' s (1966) s t u d y , t h r e e i t e m s were g i v e n i n each C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k . The f i n d i n g s from h i s s t u d y a r e p r o -b a b l y more r e l i a b l e t h an t h o s e from t h i s s t u d y . A n o t h e r p a s s i b l e f a c t o r which may have a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p was r e v e a l e d when t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f F . I . and F.D. C h i n e s e S_s from t h e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s were compared. Because o n l y f i v e S_s were from S c h o o l 2, t h e r e s u l t s from t h i s s c h o o l were grouped w i t h t h o s e o f S c h o o l 1. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e f o r F . I . and F.D. Ss. from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 23. - 51 -TABLE 23 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses on Conservation of  Substance f o r F.I, and F.D. 5s  from Schools 1 and 2 Conservation of Substance Present Absent F.I. 9 4 F.D. 3 7 Table 23 shows that nine out of t h i r t e e n F.I. Ss from Schools 1 and 2 gave c o r r e c t responses on Conservation of Substance; while three out of ten F.D. Ss gave c o r r e c t r e -sponses on t h i s same task. The d i f f e r e n c e i n performance was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t ( F i s h e r ' s Exact P r o b a b i l i t y , p .05). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses on Conservation of Sub-stance f o r F.I. and F.D. S_s from School 3 i s given i n Table 24. TABLE 24 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Responses on Conservation of  Substance f o r F.I, and F.D. Ss  from School 3 Conservation of Substance Present Absent F.I. 0 5 F.D. 1 8 Table 24 shows that none of c i ' X . F.I. Ss from School 3 gave a c o r r e c t response on Conservation of Substance, - 52 -w h i l e one out o f n i n e F.D. 5s gave a c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e on the same t a s k . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d be-tween t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f F ; I . and F.D, 5_s from S c h o o l 3 on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e ( F i s h e r ' s E x a c t P r o b a b i l i t y , p . 6 ) . The low l e v e l o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n S c h o o l 3, r e g a r d -l e s s o f f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e may have been p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l a c k o f s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r -mance on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and t h e CEFT. The p e r f o r m a n c e o f F . I . and F.D. Ss from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 and S c h o o l 3 on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight was a l s o s e p a r a t e l y compared. The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight f o r F . I . and F.D. Ss from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 25. TABLE 25 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weiqht f o r F. I. and F.D. Ss from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weiqht P r e s e n t Absent F . I . 6 7 F.D. 1 9 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between F . I . and F.D.. Ss from S c h o o l s I and. 2 was found ( F i s h e r ' s E x a c t P r o b a b i l i t y , p = .09). The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f W'ei.ght f o r F . I . and F.D. 5s from S c h o o l 3 i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 26. - 53 -TABLE 26 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Responses on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f  Weight f o r F . I , and F.D. 5s from S c h o o l 3 C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight P r e s e n t Absent F . I . 2 4 F.D. 1 8 No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between F . I . and F.D. Ss from S c h o o l 3 was f o u n d ( F i s h e r ' s E x a c t P r o b a b i l i t y , p = . 3 ) . T h e r e was some i n d i c a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between F . I . and F.D. S i s from S c h o o l s 1 and 2 on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, a l t h o u g h t h i s was not s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l . T h e r e i s some b a s i s t h e r e f o r e , f o r s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a g a i n , i t may have been t h e l a c k of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n p e r f o r m a n c e between F . I . and F.D. S_s from S c h o o l 3 on bo t h C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between C o n s e r v a t i o n of 5 u b s t a n c e and Weight and t h e CEFT f o r t h e C h i n e s e Ss. An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e o f w h i t e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight w i t h s c o r e s on t h e CEFT r e v e a l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g . A l -though t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r -formance on each o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s s e p a r a t e l y and s c o r e s on t h e CEFT, ( t a u = +.14, n.s.; t a u = -.09, n . s . ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was o b t a i n e d between t h e t o t a l C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e and t h c CEFT s c o r e s ( t a u = +.19, p . 0 5 ) . - 54 -One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s f i n d i n g may be t h a t b e c a u s e t h e p o s s i b l e range o f s c o r e s on bo t h C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight r a n g e d o n l y from 0 - 2 , t h i s r e -duced t h e e x t e n t t o which Ss c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on t h e s e t a s k s , which i n t u r n , r e s t r i c t e d b o t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y and t h e s i z e o f a c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e . How-e v e r , when s c o r e s on t h e s e two t a s k s were combined, t h e range was i n c r e a s e d t o 0 - 4, and t h i s a l l o w e d f o r g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t h e S_s on t h e s e t a s k s , r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h a n o t h e r v a r i a b l e . S i n c e o n l y t h e s c o r e s from t h e f i r s t o f t h e t h r e e t a s k s g i v e n i n each C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k wore used i n com-p u t i n g t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e s , and t h e CEFT f o r t h e w h i t e 5s, t h i s a g a i n r a i s e d t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e s . To c l a r i f y t h i s , each 5. was g i v e n a new C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight s c o r e , based on t h e J5' s p e r f o r m a n c e on a l l t h r e e i t e m s i n each t e s t . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and Weight based on t h e s e s c o r e s .nd p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT was i n v e s t i g a t e d . A low but s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between p e r -formance o f w h i t e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and t h e CEFT. ( t a u = +.20, p .05). A p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was fo u n d between p e r f o r m a n c e on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and t h e CEFT. However, t h i s j u s t f a i l e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l ( t a u = +.17, p = .085). The f i n d i n g s showed t h a t u s i n g t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n s c o r e s based on t h r e e i t e m s i n each t e s t i n c r e a s e d c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e CEFT f o r b o t h t e s t s . - 55 -Though t h e p r e d i c t e d s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were not o b t a i n e d w i t h b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e Ss, t h e r e were some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e e x p e c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s may have been o b t a i n e d i f more i t e m s had been g i v e n on t h e C o n s e r v a -t i o n t a s k s . T h i s would have i n c r e a s e d b o t h t h e r e l i a b i l i t y and t h e r a n g e o f t h e t e s t and t h e c h a n c e s o f f i n d i n g s i g -n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s would have been h i g h e r . T h i s p o s s i -b i l i t y was c o n f i r m e d w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e w h i t e S s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e S_s from 5 c h o o l 3 had not been so u n e x p e c t e d l y low, t h e r e s u l t s f o r t h e C h i n e s e S_s may have been i n l i n e w i t h t h e p r e d i c t i o n s a l s o . P a s c u a l - L e o n e (1966) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on c e r -t a i n P i a g e t i a n t a s k s which a r e w i t h i n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c a -p a c i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d i n p a r t by t h e v a r i a b l e o f f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c y . One would e x p e c t on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t e s t s which a r e more d i f f i c u l t , and which may be, i n f a c t , beyond th e i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e l l e c -t u a l c a p a c i t y , w i l l not be as s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s d i m e n s i o n . A h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l t h e r e f o r e be o b t a i n e d between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and t h e CEFT t h a n t h a t between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and t h e CEFT. The t r e n d s from'.both C h i n e s e and w h i t e samples were c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s p r e d i c t i o n . Both groups o b t a i n e d h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and t h e CEFT t h a n C o n s e r -v a t i o n o f Weight and t h e CEFT. R e s u l t s f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e Ss on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t - 56 -c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and s c o r e s on t h e CEFT. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were o b t a i n e d f o r b o t h t h e w h i t e and t h e C h i n e s e S s . How-e v e r , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n f o r both groups was low. The o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e f o r e , was c o n f i r m e d f o r t h e Water L e v e l T e s t but not f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s . T h i s may r e f l e c t o n l y t h e g r e a t e r r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e Water L e v e l s c o r e s , which a r e based on 12 i t e m s . I t may r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s and t h e c r i t e r i a r e q u i r e d t o be met f o r c o r r e c t p e r f o r m a n c e . In b o t h t h e CEFT and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , t h e S_ i s r e q u i r e d t o e x t r a c t t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m a number of m i s l e a d i n g cues - t h e c o l o r s and t h e l i n e s i n t h e com-p l e x f i g u r e i n t h e CEFT, t h e w a l l s and t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o t t l e i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t . However, t h e r e i s no one s p e c i f i c s t i m u l u s cue which i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y m i s l e a d i n g and which t h e i n d i v i d u a l has t o c o n t e n d w i t h b e f o r e he can a r r i v e at t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e m i s l e a d i n g cues i n b o t h t e s t s do not change d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of t h e e x p e r i m e n t . In t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k , on t h e o t h e r hand, one p e r c e p t u a l cue i s dominant, t h e shape o f t h e p l a s t i c i n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s p e r c e p t u a l cue i s changed d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t , and t h e 5_ i s r e q u i r e d t o r e a s o n out i n v a r i a n c e o f s u b s t a n c e and w e i g h t i n t h e f a c e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p e r -c e p t u a l change. Thus, t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s d i f f e r from b o t h t h e CEFT and t h e Water L e v e l T e s t w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e r c e p t u a l cues p r e s e n t i n t h c t e s t s i t u a t i o n . F u r t h e r -more, i n t h e CEFT and Water L e v e l T e s t t h e c h i l d i s not - 57 -r e q u i r e d t o v e r b a l i z e h i s r e s p o n s e s . In t h e CEFT, he has t o p o i n t out t h e s i m p l e f i g u r e and i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t he i s r e q u i r e d t o draw t h e water l i n e . However, i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s , t h e S_ not o n l y has t o r e a s o n out t h e f a c t o f i n v a r i a n c e , he i s f u r t h e r asked t o v e r b a l i z e t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i t . T h e r e f o r e , i n terms o f t h e c r i t e r i o n used f o r s c o r i n g , a r e s p o n s e as c o r r e c t , t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s a g a i n d i f f e r , from both t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT. Because o f t h e g r e a t e r s i m i l a r i t y between t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT i n t h e s e r e s p e c t s , t h i s s i m i l a r i t y may have r e s u l t e d i n a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT t h a n between t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k and t h e CEFT. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d between p e r f o r -mance on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and i n Achievement s c o r e s . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p may a g a i n s i m p l y be b e c a u s e some o f t h e t e s t s were beyond t h e i n t e l l e c -t u a l c a p a c i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e r e f o r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n would make no d i f f e r e n c e t o p e r f o r -mance on t h e s e t a s k s . T h i s would l e n d one a g a i n t o p r e d i c t t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e e a s i e r t a s k s would show a h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s , but t h a t t h e c o r r e l a -t i o n w i l l break down w i t h t h e more d i f f i c u l t t a s k s . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e and n Achievement s c o r e s wa* l o w e r ( t a u = -.045) th a n t h a t between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and n Achievement s c o r e s ( t a u = - . 1 8 4 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e a s o n i n g above. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e h o r i z o n t a l i t e m s i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t ( t h e e a s i e r - 58 -t a s k s ) and n a c h i e v e m e n t s c o r e s , and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e t i l t e d i t e m s ( t h e more d i f f i c u l t t a s k ) was examined. A h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e h o r i z o n t a l i t e m s and n Achievement ( t a u = .194) t h a n be-tween t i l t e d i t e m s and n a c h i e v e m e n t ( t a u = - . 0 2 2 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g l e n d s s u p p o r t t o t h e p r e d i c t i o n . The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e l a c k o f c o r r e l a t i o n between n Achievement and t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k t h e n , i s i n c o n s i s t e n t . I t may be t h a t t h e p r o c e d u r e and methods f o r e l i c i t i n g and t h e s c o r i n g f o r n Achievement a r e not a p p l i c a -b l e t o t h c C h i n e s e . T h i s would p r o v i d e a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e t o f i n d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between n Achievement and p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . However, H a y a s h i , Tamatsa and Havu (1962) have e s -t a b l i s h e d t h a t n Achievement as measured by t h e TAT s i g n i f i -c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f low and h i g h ego ' i n v o l v e m e n t ' s i t u a t i o n s w i t h J a p a n e s e S_s from Tokyo. T h e r e i s , t h e r e f o r e , some c r o s s - c u l t u r a l e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h c i n s t r u m e n t f o r m e a s u r i n g a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n i s an a p p r o p r i a t e one. On t h e o t h e r hand, a r e v i e w o f t h e r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e showed t h a t as y e t . No s t u d y w i t h w h i t e S_s has been c o n d u c t e d r e l a t i n g p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s ond n Achievement s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no d i r e c t e v i d e n c e t h a t s'uch a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s . Thus, t o l o o k f o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a c u l t u r e which i s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t f o r which both t e s t s were d e v i s e d , may have been p r e m a t u r e . F o r a l l t h u s e r e a s o n s , t h i s - 59 -f i n d i n g s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o b t a i n e d between P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and t h e CEFT o f f e r some s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s c o r e s on t h e CEFT, t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n e d were not s t r o n g . Even when a c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d i t was o n l y a low one, t h e r e s u l t s r e l a t i n g n Achievement s c o r e s and P i a g e t i a n t a s k s o f f e r e d no support' f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t p e r f o r -mance on n.Achievement c o r r e l a t e s w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s . In view o f t h e g e n e r a l r e s u l t s , t h e r e was l i t t l e b a s i s f o r o f f e r i n g t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s as a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o Goodnow's f i n d i n g (1962) i n Hong Kong. However, i f t h e u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e CEFT c o r r e l a t e d more w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Water L e v e l T e s t t h a n w i t h p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k i s t a k e n t o be r e l i a b l e , a n o t h e r p a s s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o Goodnow's f i n d i n g can be s u g g e s t e d . However, t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o o n l y p a r t s o f Goodnow's r e s u l t s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s t h a t Goodnow used was s i m i l a r t o t h a t between t h e P i a g e t i a n t a s k s used i n t h i s s t u d y . In b o t h C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and Volume, one s a l i e n t p e r c e p t u a l f e a t u r e was dominant and m i s l e a d i n g ; and i n C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Space, S u b s t a n c e and Weight, t h e S_ was r e q u i r e d t o r e a s o n out t h e f a c t o f i n v a r i a n c e and t o v e r b a l i z e t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e r e s p o n s e . However, i n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n a l t a s k , t h e S_ d i d not have t o overcome a s p e c i f i c m i s l e a d i n g p e r c e p t u a l c u e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e - 60 -was no change i n t h e p e r c e p t u a l s t i m u l i d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . F i n a l l y , t h e 5. was not r e q u i r e d t o v e r b a l i z e t h e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e r e s p o n s e . In t h e Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c i e s , t h e i n d i v i d u a l was r e q u i r e d t o c l a s s i f y and group o b j e c t s a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s . I n d i v i d u a l s were a l s o r e q u i r e d t o f i t o b j e c t s i n t o t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e s p a c e s on fur'' -boards. Thus, i n t h i s t e s t , t h e r e was no one p e r c e p t u a l cue which was dominant and m i s l e a d i n g ; t h e r e was no change i n s t i m u l i d u r i n g t h e ex-p e r i m e n t ; and no v e r b a l i z a t i o n was r e q u i r e d from t h e _5, Thus, t h e Raven's P r o g r e s s i v e M a t r i c e i s more s i m i l a r t o t h e C o m i n a t i o n a l t a s k s t h a n t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s , i n -terms of i t s s t i m u l u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e t e s t i n g s i t u a -t i o n , and t h e r e s p o n s e r e q u i r e d o f t h e _5. T h i s may have a c c o u n t e d i n p a r t f o r t h e c o m b i n a t i o n a l t a s k b e i n g s e n s i -t i v e t o M a t r i c e s s c o r e and not t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s . Whether t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s i n f a c t f e a s i b l e , and h o l d s t r u e f o r o t h e r groups as w e l l , r e m a i n s t o be d e t e r m i n e d em-p c r i c a l l y . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The major p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was to* r e l a t e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f C h i n e s e Ss i n Hong Kong on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s t o two f a c t o r s : f i r s t , t o a c o g n i t i v e s t y l e , v a r i a b l e , and s e c o n d l y t o a c h i e v e m e n t m o t i v a t i o n . I t was hoped t h a t t h e r e s u l t s from t h i s s t u d y would o f f e r some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o Goodnow's (1962) f i n d i n g s i n Hong Kong. T h i s s t u d y a l s o p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e t e r m i n e i f P i a g e t ' s r e s u l t s c o n c e r n i n g t h e o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n o f t a s k s , as w e l l as l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t a s k s can be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h Ss f r o m a a n o t h e r c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f a com-p a r a b l e group o f w h i t e C a n a d i a n c h i l d r e n was compared t o t h e C h i n e s e 5s both i n terms o f a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e t a s k s and r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t a s k s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e on P i a g e t i a n t a s k s would c o r r e l a t e w i t h s c o r e s on t h e CEFT and b o t h s c o r e s on n A c h i e v e m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e -s p o n s e s p r e d i c t e d by P i a g e t r e g a r d i n g t h e o r d e r o f a c h i e v e -ment on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s as w e l l as t h e l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t w i l l be r e p l i c a t e d w i t h Ss f r o m Hong Kong. F i n a l l y , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . T h i r t e e n Ss from t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s i n Hong Kong were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y on t h e f o l l o w i n g t e s t s : C o n s e r v a -t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , and t h e CEFT. Group t e s t i n g was used f o r n d m i n i s t e r -- 61 -- 62 -i n g t h e TAT» S c a r e s from a group o f p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d w h i t e Ss on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e , C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, t h e Water L e v e l T e s t and t h c CEFT were used f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e C h i n e s e S s . R e s u l t s f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S_s showed t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s and t h e CEFT. However, c o r r e l a -t i o n between C o n s e r v a t i o n of S u b s t a n c e and t h e CEFT was h i g h e r f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . A s i g n i f i c a n t but low c o r r e l a t i o n was o b t a i n e d between p e r f o r m a n c e on t h e Water L e v e l T o s t and t h c CEFT on b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . Thus, i n terms o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between P i a g e t i a n t a s k s and t h e CEFT, t h e f i n d i n g s were s i m i l a r f o r w h i t e and C h i n e s e S_s . Th e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n p e r f o r m a n c e between C h i n e s e and w h i t e 5_s on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight, the Water L e v e l T e s t and t h e CEFT, though t h e w h i t e Ss o b t a i n e d h i g h e r s c o r e s on n i l t h c t e s t s compared. The w h i t e Ss p e r f o r m e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y b e t t e r on C o n s e r v a t i o n o f S u b s t a n c e than t h e C h i n e s e 5s. The o r d e r o f a c h i e v e m e n t on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s p r e d i c t e d by P i a g e t was r e p l i c a t e d w i t h t h e w h i t e 5s, but t h a o r d e r was not c l e a r f o r t h e C h i n e s e sample. D e v e l o p m e n t a l l e v e l s o f d i f f i c u l t y w i t h i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t p r e d i c t e d by P i a g e t and I n h e l d c r were s u p p o r t e d by t h e f i n d i n g s f o r b o t h w h i t e and C h i n e s e S s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were found f o r t h e C h i n e s e Ss between p e r f o r m a n c e on any P i a g e t i a n t a s k a n d n - 63 -A c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r e was some i n d i c a t i o n o f a low n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight and n A c h i e v e -ment but t h i s f a i l e d t o r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e .05 l e v e l . Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y one i t e m was g i v e n i n each C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k , t h c s c o r e s from t h e s e t e s t s may not have been r e l i a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , any f i n d i n g r e l a t e d t o the. C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d as o n l y t e n t a t i v e . I f more i t e m s had been g i v e n on t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n t a s k s , t h e f i n d i n g s might have been i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h more c o n f i d e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , b e c a u s e t h e a s p e c t o f t h e s t u d y r e l a t i n g n Achievement t o P i a g e t i a n t a s k s was h i g h l y e x p l a n a t o r y i n n a t u r e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s u l t s were m a i n l y i n c o n c l u s i v e . . BIBLIOGRAPHY A t k i n s o n , John W. (ed.) M o t i v e s i n F a n t a s y , A c t i o n and S o c i e t y . D. Von N o s t r a n d Co. I n c . , 1958. B e i l i n , H. P e r c e p t u a l c o g n i t i v e c o n f l i c t i n t h e development o f an i n v a r i a n t a r e a c o n c e p t . J . exp. C h i l d P s y c h o l . , 1964, 1, No. 3. B e n d i g , A.W. P e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m a n c e on a c o g n i t i v e t a s k . J . gen. P s y c h o l . , 1959, 60, 205-268. B r u n e r , J . 5 . The c o u r s e of c o g n i t i v e growth. Amer. P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1964, 19, 1-15. C h i l d , J . L . , F r a n k , K i t t y F., and Storm, T, S e l f r a t i n g s and TAT: t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o each o t h e r and t o c h i l d h o o d b a c k g r o u n d s . J . P e r s . , 1956, 25, 96-114 . C r o n d a l l , V . J . and 5 i n k o l d a m . C h i l d r e n ' s dependent and a c h i e v e m e n t b e h a v i o r s i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and t h e i r p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d - d e p e n d e n c e . J . P e r s . , 1964, 32, 1-22. C r a n d a l l , V . J . A c h i o v o m e n t . C h i l d P s y c h o l . , 1963, E l k i n d , D. Q u a n t i t y c o n c e p t i o n i n j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s . C h i l d Develpm., 1961, 32, 551-560, F l a v e l l , J.H. The d e v e l o p m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y o f Jean P i a g e t D. Van N o s t r a n d Comp. I n c . , 1963. G l i d e w e l l , J.C. P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e s and C h i l d B e h a v i o r . C h a r l e s C. Thomas, P u b l i s h e r , 1961. Goodnow, J a c q u e l i n e A. A t e s t o f m i l i e u d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h some of P i a g e t ' s t a s k s . P s y c h o l . Monog., 1962, 76, 1-22. Goodnow, J a c q u e l i n e A., and Bethon, C. P i a g e t ' s t a s k s , t h c e f f e c t s of s c h o o l i n g and i n t e l l i g e n c e . C h i l d Develpm., 1 9 6 6 , 3 7 , 573-582. H a r r i s , D.B., C h i l d r e n ' s Drawings as Measures o f I n t e l l e c -t u a l M a t u r i t y , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and W o r l d , I n c . , 1963. Hunt, J.M. P i a g e t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s as a s o u r c e o f h y p o t h e -s i s c o n c e r n i n g m o t i v a t i o n . M _ e j r r i l l - P a l m e r  Q u a r t e r l y . 1963, 263-275. - 64 -- 65 -J a c k s o n , D.N., M o s s i c k , 5., Myers, C. E v a l u a t i o n o f group and i n d i v i d u a l forms o f embedded f i g u r e s as mea-s u r e s o f f i e l d i n d e p e n d e n c e , Educ. and P s y c h o l , Msrmt.. 1964, 24,177-191. Ke s s e n , W. and Kuhlman, C l e m e n t i n e (e d s . ) Thoughs i n t h e Young C h i l d , r e p o r t o f a c o n f e r e n c e an i n t e l l e c -t u a l development w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e work o f Jean P i a g e t . Monogram. S o c i e t y R e s e a r c h i n C h i l d Develpm.. 1962, 27, K o f s k y , E. A s c a l o g r n m s t u d y o f c l a s s i f y i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . C h i l d Develpm.. 1966, 37, 191-204. L o v e l l , K., M i t c h e l l , E. An e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y o f t h e growth of some l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . B r i t . J . P s y c h o l . , 1962, 53, 175-188. L o v e l l , K. and O g i l v i e , E. A s t u d y o f t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f s u b s t a n c e i n t h e j u n i o r s c h o o l c h i l d , B r i t . J . Educ. P s y c h o l . . 196'], 3H, 109-118. L o v e l l , K. and O g i l v i e , E. Growth o f c o n c e p t o f volume i n j u n i o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . J . C h i l d P s y c h o l . a n d P s v c h i a t . . 1961, 2, 118-126. L o v e l l , K. and O g i l v i e , E. A s t u d y o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i o n o f Weight i n t h e j u n i o r s c h o o l c h i l d . B r i t . J . Educ. P s y c h o l . . 1961,-31, 138-144. M c C l e l l a n d , D.C. S t u d i e s i n M o t i v a t i o n . A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -C r o f t s , I n c . , 1955. P a s c u a l - L e o n e , J . P i n g o t ' s p e r i o d o f c o n c r e t e o p e r a t i o n s and W i t k i n s f i e l d dependence. A s t u d y on c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s nnd c h i l d r e n . U n i v . o f B r i t . C o l u m b i a , 1966. P i a g e t , J . The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f Numbers. R o u t l e d g e nnd Kagan P a u l , 1952. P i a g e t , J . The o r i g i n o f I n t e l l i g e n c e i n t h e C h i l d . R o u t l e d g e and Kagan P a u l , 1953. P i a g e t , J . and I n h o l d e r , B. The C h i l d ' s C o n c e p t i o n o f Space. R o u t l e d g e and Kngan P a u l , 1956. Smedslund, J . The e f f e c t o f o b s e r v a t i o n on c h i l d r e n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e sp;v,. .1 o r i e n t a t i o n o f o water s u r f a c e . J . Genet. P s y c h o l . . 1962, 63, 101-102. - 66 -Smedslund, J . C o n c r e t e r e a s o n i n g . A s t u d y o f i n t e l l e c t u a l d e v e l o p m e n t . 5oc. Res, i n C h i l d Develpm. Monoq. 1964, 29, 1-39. Storm, J . C h r i s t i n e . A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o m p a r i s o n o f Weight and Number C o n s e r v a t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . t h e s i s U n i v . c f B r i t , C o l u m b i a , 1967. Tuddenham, R.D. Jean P i a g e t and t h e w o r l d o f t h e c h i l d . Amer. P s y c h o l . , 1966, 21, 207-217. W i t k i n , H.A. c_t _ 1 . P e r s o n a l i t y Through P e r c e p t i o n , H a r p e r and B r o s . , 1954. W i t k i n , H.A. et, a_l. P s y c h o l o g i c a l D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . John W i l e y and Sons I n c . , 1962. - 67 -APPENDIX 1 The Water L e v e l T e s t i s used by P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e development o f a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . T h i s development i s a n a l y z e d i n terms o f s t a g e s o f development of t h e r e s p o n s e . D u r i n g S t a g e 1, t h e c h i l d i s u n a b l e t o r e p l i c a t e t h e water as a p l a n e s u r f a c e . At S t a g e I I , s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d . "By t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d , r a t h e r t h a n by an e x t e r n a l s y s t e m o f r e f e r e n c e " ( P i a g e t and I n h e l d e r , 1956, p. 3 8 2 ) . Stage II i s f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o s u b - s t a g e s . At S t a g e 11A, t h e c h i l d draws t h e water l i n e w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o any e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m . H i s r e s p o n s e i s g u i d e d by t h e base o f t h e j a r and he draws t h e water l i n e as p a r a l l e l t o t h i s . At S t a g e I I B , t h e c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e water i s no l o n g e r n e c e s s a r i l y p a r a l l e l t o t h e base o f t h e j a r . However, he s t i l l c a n n o t c o o r d i n a t e h i s p r e d i c t i o n s w i t h any f i x e d e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e system ( i . e . t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e on which t h e j a r s t a n d s ) . T h e r e -f o r e , when t h e j a r i s i n a t i l t e d p o s i t i o n , he i s not a b l e t o draw t h e water l i n e as h o r i z o n t a l . The c h i l d t h e n r e a c h e s a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e between Stage IIB and 111A. Here t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o p r e d i c t t h e l e v e l of t h e l i q u i d when t h e j a r i s i n v e r t e d or l y i n g on i t s s i d e , but not when t h e j a r i s i n a t i l t e d p o s i t i o n . F i n a l l y , S t a g e I I I i s r e a c h e d . At t h i s s t a g e , t h e c h i l d i s a b l e t o r e l a t e h i s r e s p o n s e s t o an e x t e r n a l f i g u r e o f r e f e r e n c e , namely, t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e on which t h e j a r s t a n d s . He b e g i n s t o - 68 -A ppendix 1 ( c o n t ' d ) draw t h e w a t e r l i n e as p a r a l l e l t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e j a r . S t a g e I I I i s f u r t h e r de'.. i d e d i n t o f i v e s u b - s t a g e s . The f i r s t s t a g e l a s t s from 7-8-9, d u r i n g which the p r i n c i p l e o f a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s comes g r a d u a l l y t o be a p p l i e d t o s i t u a t i o n s . At about age 9, s u b -s t a g e 111B b e g i n s , b r i n g i n g w i t h i t , f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o t i o n o f t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s . I t f o l l o w s from P i a g e t and I n h c l d c r ' s (1956) a n a l y s i s t h a t w i t h i n t h e Water L e v e l T e s t , t h e e a s i e s t t a s k was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n t h e v e r t i c a l p o s i t i o n , t h e more d i f f i c u l t t a s k was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h th e b o t t l e i n t h e h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n and t h e most d i f f i c u l t t a s k b e i n g a s s o -c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o t t l e i n a t i l t e d p o s i t i o n . In o r d e r t o g i v e a. c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e v a l u e o f t h c r e s p o n s e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e , the r e s p o n s e s f o r each p o s i t i o n o f t h e b o t t l e were examined s e p a r a t e l y . D e v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s were d e r i v e d based on t h e work of P a s c u a l - L e o n e (1967), which were e m p i r i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o but were not i d e n t i c a l t o , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o f P i a g e t and I n h o l d e r . These d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t e p s p r o v i d e f o r a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . B o u n d a r i e s were e s -t a b l i s h e d i n terms o f d e g r e e and d i r e c t i o n o f d e v i a t i o n from t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s between each d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a r . The a n g l e o f d e v i a t i o n from t h e h o r i z o n t a l was measured from t h e l e f t t o t h c r i g h t of t h e water l i n e . A c r o s s was used t o d e note t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e w a t e r . - 69 -B o t t l e i n t h e V e r t i c a l P o s i t i o n D e v e l o p m e n t a l 5 t e p s P i a g e t 1 s S t a g e Age at which s t a g e f i r s t appears B o t t l e o f d e v i a - S i g n o~ P o s i - t i o n f r o m D e v i a -t i o n H o r i z o n t a l t i o n S tep 0. These r e s p o n s e s a r e t h e most p r i m i t i v e de-v e l o p m e n t a l l y . The c h i l d i s u n a b l e t o g r a s p t h e n o t i o n o f a water s u r f a c e . S t a g e 0 3-4 Step 1. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a water s u r f a c e . However, hfe does not know t h a t t h e water f a l l s t o t h e bottom o f t h e c o n t a i n e r . He b e l i e v e s t h e water l i n e t o be p a r a l l e l t o t h e base o f t h e c o n t a i n -e r S t a g e I 5-6 0-6 Step 2. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e water f a l l s t o t h e bottom o f t h e c o n t a i n e r . He b e l i e v e s t h e water l i n e t o S t a g e be p a r a l l e l t o t h e base o f II A t h e c o n t a i n e r . 7-8 0-6 Step '3. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e water l e v e l does not; have t o be p a r a l l e l t o t h e S t a g e bottom of t h e c o n t a i n e r II B 8-9 71-90 + S t e p 4. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s t h a t t h e water l e v e l does not have t o be p a r a l l e l t o t h e S t a g e bottom o f t h e c o n t a i n e r .11 B 1-9 7-70 Step 5. The c h i l d draws t h e w a t e r l i n e p a r a l l e l t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e , w i t h t h e water l o c a t e d at t h e S t a g e bottom o f t h e c o n t a i n e r . I l l T h i s i s t h e c o r r e c t r e s p o n s e . 9-10 1 0-6 - 70 -B o t t l e i n the H o r i z o n t a l P o s i t i o n Developmental Steps P i a g e t 1 s Stage Age at which stage f i r s t appears B o t t l e P o s i -t i o n of d e v i a -t i o n from H o r i z o n t a l Sign of Devia-t i o n Step 0. The c h i l d i s unable to grasp the Stage 0 3-4 J rQj; | notion of a water j ' j s u r f a c e . Step 1. The c h i l d draws the water l i n e p a r a l l e l to the base of the container ;tage I 5-6 71-90 Step 2. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s the water l i n e need not be p a r a l l e l to the bot-tom of the c o n t a i n e r . However, he does not r e a l i z e that the wa-t e r f a l l s to the bottom of the con-t a i n e r . Stage II 7 A 7-70 0-6 5tep 3. The c h i l d r e a l i z e s that the water f a l l s to the bottom of the con-t a i n e r . Stage A Stage B I I I I 7-70 Step 4. The c h i l d draws the water l i n e p a r a l l e l to the h o r i z o n t a l plane with the water l o -cated at the bottom of the cont ain er. This i s " t h e c o r r e c t response. Stage I I I 9-10 0-6 - 71 -B o t t l e i n the T i l t e d P o s i t i o n Developmental Stars P i a g e t 1 s Stage Age at which stage f i r s t appears B o t t l e of d e v i a - Sign of P o s i - t i o n from Devia-t i o n H o r i z o n t a l t i o n St-ep 0. The c h i l d i s unable to grasp the notion of a water surface Stage 0 3-4 Step 1. l i e v e s to be p bottom He does that th to the contain The c h i l d be-the water l i n e a r a l l e l to the of the b o t t l e . not r e a l i z e e water f a l l s bottom of the er. Stage I 5-6 31-70 31-70 31-70 7 ^ / r -7 31-70 Step 2, The c h i l d r e a l i z e s that the water need not be p a r a l l e l to the bot-tom of the container. He does not r e a l i z e however, that the water f a l l s to the bottom of the con-t a i n e r . Stage II A 31-70 %>: 31-70 31-70 31-70 Step 3L The c h i l d r e a l i z e s , t h a t the water f a l l s to the bottom of the con-t a i n e r . Stage II A Stage II B 8-9 31-70 31-70 • - - O t -r~K. y 31-70 4-1 - 72 -Developmental 5teps Piaget's Age at B o t t l e Devia- Sign Stage which P o s i - t i o n from Devia-stage t i o n H o r i z o n t a l t i o n f i r s t appears Step 4, These responses represent a r e s o l u t i o n of the tendency to draw p a r a l l e l to the v e r t i c a l or h o r i z o n t a l walls of the c o n t a i n e r Stage, II 8-9 B 7X7 7 4 71-90 71-90 71-90 71-90 Step 5. These responses a l s o represent a r e s o l u -t i o n of the tendency to draw p a r a l l e l to the v e r t i c a l or the h o r i z o n -t a l walls of the contain-er. But they are c l o s e r to the h o r i z o n t a l axis than step 4 responses. Stage II 8-9 B Stage 9-10 III 7-30 7-30 -7-30 + 2^ 7-30 Step 6. The c h i l d draws the water l i n e p a r a l l e l to the h o r i z o n t a l plane with the water l o c a t e d at the bottom of the c o n t a i n e r . This i s the c o r r e c t response Stage III 9-10 0-6 y. -\ 0-6 + \ — 0-6 + 1,1^ " 0-6 

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