UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Parfit's use of the Buddhist view on personal identity Samarasinghe, Aruni 1989

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PARFIT'S USE OF THE BUDDHIST VIEW ON PERSONAL IDENTITY By ARUNI SAMARASINGHE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f K e l a n i y a , 1985 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (D e p a r t m e n t o f P h i l o s o p h y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA JULY 1989 © A r u n i S a m a r a s i n g h e , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Philosophy The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 12th J u l y 1989 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT The f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n Derek P a r f i t ' s R e a s o n s  a n d P e r s o n s a r e 'what p e r s o n s a r e ? ' and 'how t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t ? ' . I n d i s c u s s i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f a p e r s o n , P a r f i t c o n s i d e r s t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s : (1) What i s t h e n a t u r e o f a p e r s o n ? (2) What makes a p e r s o n a t two d i f f e r e n t t i m e s one and t h e same p e r s o n ? and (3) What i s n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f e a c h p e r s o n o v e r t i m e ? P a r f i t t h e n d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s e two v i e w s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f a p e r s o n . * T h a t p e r s o n s a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s d i s t i n c t f r o m b r a i n s and b o d i e s and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . They c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t , a l t h o u g h we know o f t h e i r c o n t i n u i t y b e c a u s e o f t h o u g h t s , s e n s a t i o n s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t t h e y h a v e . * T h a t p e r s o n s a r e n o t s e p a r e t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , d i s t i n c t f r o m o u r b r a i n s a n d b o d i e s . T h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r s o n , d u r i n g any p e r i o d , j u s t c o n s i s t s i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f h i s b r a i n and body, and t h e t h i n k i n g o f h i s t h o u g h t s , a n d t h e d o i n g o f h i s d e e d s , and t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f i i J many o t h e r p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e v e n t s . P a r f i t h a s n o t gone i n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w . My c o n c e r n i s t h a t P a r f i t d r a w s o u t o f c o n t e x t f r o m B u d dhism and c l a i m s t h a t t h e a b o v e s e c o n d v i e w t o w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o h i m t h e Buddha w o u l d have a g r e e d i s t r u e . P a r f i t ' s b e l i e f i s t h a t t h i s i s t h e t r u t h a b o u t o u r s e l v e s . B u t , c o m i n g t o t h i s v i e w , B u d d h i s m h a s c o n s i d e r e d n o t j u s t t h e m i s s i n g p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y v i e w . B u d d h i s m t a l k s a b o u t t h e ' b e i n g ' . " A l l l i v i n g b e i n g s a r e m o r t a l a n d a l l f o r m s a r e t o d i s a p p e a r " . B u d d h i s m h a s a n o n t o l o g i c a l v i e w w h i c h g r a s p s n o t o n l y human b e i n g s b u t a l l o t h e r l i v i n g b e i n g s i n t e r m s o f impermanancy. I t i s t h e s e c o n d , R e d u c t i o n i s t v i e w , t h a t P a r f i t f i n d s l i b e r a t i n g a n d c o n s o l i n g w h i c h makes h i m l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s own f u t u r e , a nd h i s own d e a t h , and more c o n c e r n a b o u t o t h e r s . H e r e , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween t h e Buddha a n d P a r f i t i s i n what t h e y do w i t h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r o p o s i t i o n o n c e t h e y a r r i v e a t i t . F o r B u d d h a , r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h i s t r u e b e l i e f i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n p r a c t i s i n g t h e m o r a l d i s c i p l i n a r y p a t h t o a t t a i n t h e f i n a l g o a l o f N i r v a n a , t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g . My a i m h e r e w i l l be t o q u e s t i o n P a r f i t on h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f B u d d h i s m a n d how he h a s u s e d B u d d h i s t q u o t a t i o n s t o s u p p o r t h i s t h e o r y . My method w i l l be t o c o l l e c t c o n t e x t s i i i i n t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t t e x t s i n w h i c h t h e s e l f i s t a l k e d a b o u t , a n d t o c o n s i d e r t h e v a r i o u s t r a n s l a t i o n s a n d c o m m e n t a r i a l e x p l a n a t i o n s t o s e e what makes t h e b e s t s e n s e o f t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f t h a t P a r f i t t a l k s a b o u t i n t h o s e c o n t e x t s . i v T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S ABSTRACT i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i WHAT PARFIT SAYS OF THE BUDDHA' S VIEW 1 BUDDHA'S VIEW 16 I THE PRIMARY SOURCES 16 II INTERPRETING THE PRIMARY TEXTS 27 I I I THE ACCURACY OF PARFIT'S NOTION OF THE BUDDHIST VIEW 33 HOW PARFIT AND BUDDHA DIFFER ON PERSONAL IDENTITY . . . 40 HOW PARFIT AND BUDDHA DIFFER ON ETHICS 49 THE BUDDHIST ATTITUDE TOWARD PARFIT'S RELATION R . . . 64 CONCLUDING REMARKS 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY 74 v APPENDICES 78 A THE F I V E AGGREGATES 78 B PATICCA SAMUPPADA (CONDITIONED GENESIS) . . . . 84 C TRIPITAKA (THE THREE BASKETS) 87 v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k e v e r y o n e who has c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s t h e s i s . D r . Howard J a c k s o n , my s u p e r v i s o r , a s s i s t e d w i t h t h e i m p l i m e n t a t i o n o f my a c a d e m i c p r o j e c t s . He was a l w a y s a v a i l a b l e t o answer q u e s t i o n s and r e s o l v e m i s t a k e s . D r . Tom P a t t o n h a s s u p e r v i s e d my w o r k a t e a c h s t a g e . H i s s u g g e s t i o n s a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t w e r e i n d i s p e n s a b l e . D r . L e o n a r d A n g e l i s my m entor who has h e l p e d me t h r o u g h o u t my s t u d i e s a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i s a d v i c e h a s h e l p e d me t o c o m p l e t e my t h e s i s and w i l l a l s o h e l p me w i t h a n y f u t u r e e n d e a v o r s t h a t I p l a n t o p u r s u e . T h e C a n a d i a n C o m m o n w e a l t h S c h o l a r s h i p P l a n h a v e g i v e n me t h e f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t h a t e n a b l e d me t o a t t e n d t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . L a s t b u t n o t l e a s t , D a v i d S h a p i r o , my l o v i n g h u s b a n d , h a s b e e n h e r e f o r me i n b o t h good and bad t i m e s . He h a s e n r i c h e d my l i f e t o s u c h a n e x t e n t t h a t h i s c o m p a n i o n s h i p h a s made t h e s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f my t h e s i s a s h a r e d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . A g a i n , I t h a n k t h e s e p e o p l e w i t h whose h e l p I was a b l e t o f i n i s h t h i s t h e s i s . WHAT PARFIT SAYS OF THE BUDDHA'S VIEW D e r e k P a r f i t i n d i s c u s s i n g ' P e r s o n * and " P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y ' c l a i m s t h a t we c o u l d d e s c r i b e o u r l i v e s i n an ' i m p e r s o n a l * way. I n h i s v i e w what most o f us b e l i e v e a b o u t o u r s e l v e s , a n d a b o u t o u r a c t u a l l i v e s i s f a l s e . We a r e n o t a w a r e o f t h i s f a l s e v i e w and s o b e l i e v e t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y must a l w a y s be d e t e r m i n e d . He s a y s t h a t we b e l i e v e t h i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e v i e w t h a t we a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s ; t h a t a p e r s o n i s a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t y , d i s t i n c t f r o m h i s b r a i n and body, and h i s e x p e r i e n c e s . I n t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a C r i t e r i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , P a r f i t l o o k s f o r what t h i s i d e n t i t y n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s o r c o n s i s t s i n . T h e r e a r e t w o c r i t e r i a t h a t P a r f i t c o n s i d e r s . 1 One i s t h e P h y s i c a l C r i t e r i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a n d t h e o t h e r i s t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . What t h e i d e n t i t y n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s o r c o n s i s t s i n , i n t h e P h y s i c a l C r i t e r i o n , i s t h e s p a t i o -t e m p o r a l p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u i t y o f a n o b j e c t . T h a t i s , a n a p p a r e n t l y s t a t i c o b j e c t t h a t c o n t i n u e s t o e x i s t . I n t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n , P a r f i t d i s c u s s e s s e v e r a l v i e w s . A k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t h a t r e s e m b l e s p h y s i c a l 1 D e r e k P a r f i t , R e a s o n s a n d P e r s o n s , p . 2 0 2 - 2 0 9 . H e r e a f t e r , i n r e f e r e n c e s , I w i l l u s e t h e number i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y and t h e r e l e v a n t page number. 1 c o n t i n u i t y i n v o l v e s t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f a p u r e l y m e n t a l e n t i t y , o r a s o u l , o r a s p i r i t u a l s u b s t a n c e . The o t h e r k i n d o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t h a t P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s , and r e s o l v e s t o i m p r o v e , i n v o l v e s t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f memory. P a r f i t , r e v i s i n g J o h n L o c k e ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t e x p e r i e n c e -memory p r o v i d e s t h e c r i t e r i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , p u t f o r w a r d t h e v i e w o f what he c a l l s R e l a t i o n R. I n o r d e r t o do t h i s , P a r f i t , a p p e a l s t o a c o n c e p t o f a n o v e r l a p p i n g c h a i n o f e x p e r i e n c e - m e m o r i e s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 5 ) On L o c k e ' s v i e w , a c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t , what i s i n v o l v e d i n a p e r s o n s c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e a r e t h e d i r e c t memo r y  c o n n e c t i o n s . T h a t i s t o s a y , between X t o d a y a n d Y t w e n t y y e a r s a g o , t h e r e a r e d i r e c t memory c o n n e c t i o n s i f X c a n now remember h a v i n g some o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t Y had t w e n t y y e a r s a g o , i t m a k e s X a n d Y o n e a n d t h e same p e r s o n . ( [ 2 6 ] , P . 2 0 5 ) On P a r f i t ' s r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f L o c k e ' s V i e w , e v e n i f t h e r e a r e n_o s u c h d i r e c t m e m o r y c o n n e c t i o n s , t h e r e may b e c o n t i n u i t y o f memory between X now and Y t w e n t y y e a r s a g o . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t t h i s w o u l d be s o i f between X now a n d Y a t t h a t t i m e t h e r e h a s b e e n an o v e r l a p p i n g c h a i n o f d i r e c t m e m o r i e s . T h i s o v e r l a p p i n g c h a i n i s t h a t i n e a c h day w i t h i n t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s , t h e p e r s o n remembered some o f t h e i r 2 e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e p r e v i o u s d a y . On t h e r e v i s e d v e r s i o n , some p r e s e n t p e r s o n X i s t h e same a s some p a s t p e r s o n Y i f t h e r e i s t h i s c o n t i n u i t y o f memory between them. S i n c e t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o t h e r k i n d s o f d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s , P a r f i t a l s o r e v i s e s t h e v i e w s o t h a t i t a p p e a l s t o them t o o . One s u c h d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n i s t h a t w h i c h h o l d s between an i n t e n t i o n and t h e l a t e r a c t i n w h i c h t h i s i n t e n t i o n i s c a r r i e d o u t . O t h e r s u c h d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s a r e t h o s e w h i c h h o l d when a b e l i e f , o r a d e s i r e , o r any o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e , c o n t i n u e s t o be h a d . On t h e r e v i s e d L o c k e a n v i e w , i f t h e r e i s o n l y a s i n g l e d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s u c h a s t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f memory, X and Y w o u l d n o t be t h e same p e r s o n . A c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t f o r X a n d Y t o be t h e same p e r s o n t h e r e s h o u l d be e n o u g h d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n . When t h e r e a r e e n o u g h d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n s P a r f i t c a l l s i t s t r o n g c o n n e c t e d n e s s . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t e n o u g h i s a m a t t e r o f d e g r e e a n d t h a t we c a n n o t p l a u s i b l y d e f i n e what c o u n t s a s enough. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 6 ) B e c a u s e P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n , ( P a r f i t ' s e x a m p l e o f a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n : a r e l a t i o n F i s t r a n s i t i v e i f i t i s t r u e t h a t , i f X i s F - r e l a t e d t o Y, a n d Y i s F - r e l a t e d t o Z, X and Z must be F - r e l a t e d . ) t h e c r i t e r i o n o f i d e n t i t y m ust be a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n , s a y s P a r f i t . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 6 ) S i n c e s t r o n g c o n n e c t e d n e s s i s n o t a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n , P a r f i t a p p e a l s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y , w h i c h i s a t r a n s i t i v e r e l a t i o n . The two g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s : t h e h o l d i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y ; t h e h o l d i n g o f o v e r l a p p i n g c h a i n s o f s t r o n g c o n n e c t e d n e s s i s w h a t o u r i d e n t i t y o v e r t i m e i n v o l v e s . T h i s i s w h a t P a r f i t c a l l s t h e R e l a t i o n R. P a r f i t a dds a n o t h e r c l a i m t o t h i s . He s a y s t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y o v e r t i m e j u s t i n v o l v e s t h e h o l d i n g o f t h e R e l a t i o n R, w i t h t h e r i g h t k i n d o f c a u s e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 6 ) I n e x p l a i n i n g w h a t he means by t h e t e r m ' c a u s e ' , P a r f i t s a y s t h a t t h e n o r m a l c a u s e i s t h e r e when t h e w o rds a r e u s e d i n t h e i r o r d i n a r y s e n s e i n t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i a . T h a t i s , i n t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e , a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n o f my r e m e m b e r i n g h a v i n g a n e x p e r i e n c e h a s t h e n o r m a l c a u s e , o n l y i f (1) I seem t o remember h a v i n g an e x p e r i e n c e (2) I d i d have t h i s e x p e r i e n c e and (3) my a p p a r e n t memory i s c a u s a l l y d e p e n d e n t , i n t h e n o r m a l way, on t h i s p a s t e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a r e l i a b l e c a u s e , i f t h e a p p a r e n t memory i s n o t c a u s a l l y d e p e n d e n t i n t h e n o r m a l way on t h e p a s t e x p e r i e n c e b u t i s d e l i b e r a t e l y b r o u g h t a b o u t . F o r e x a m p l e , my h a v i n g 4 a n a p p a r e n t memory o f a c e r t a i n e x p e r i e n c e i s n o t a r e a l memory o f t h a t p a s t e x p e r i e n c e b u t I h a v e t h i s a p p a r e n t memory o n l y b e c a u s e someone who was w i t h me a t t h e t i m e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , l a t e r t o l d me. Any c a u s e i s s e e n i n P a r f i t ' s i m a g i n a r y s t o r y a b o u t t h e t e l e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a s e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 1 9 9 - 2 0 1 ) A S c a n n e r d e s t r o y s h i s b r a i n and body w h i l e r e c o r d i n g t h e e x a c t s t a t e s o f a l l h i s c e l l s . I t t h e n t r a n s m i t s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n b y r a d i o . T r a v e l l i n g a t t h e s p e e d o f l i g h t , t h e message w i l l t a k e t h r e e m i n u t e s t o r e a c h t h e R e p l i c a t o r on M a r s . T h i s R e p l i c a t o r w i l l t h e n c r e a t e o u t o f new m a t t e r a b r a i n a n d body e x a c t l y l i k e h i s . I t w i l l be i n t h i s body t h a t he w i l l w ake u p . P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t i n u i t y i n i t s w i d e s t s e n s e a l l o w s t h i s c o n t i n u i t y t o have any c a u s e . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t we n e e d n o t d e c i d e b e t w e e n t h e s e t h r e e v e r s i o n s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 8 ) P a r f i t a l s o c l a i m s t h a t t h e r i g h t k i n d o f c a u s e c o u l d be any c a u s e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 5 ) H a v i n g t h u s d e s c r i b e d h i s v e r s i o n o f a C r i t e r i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , P a r f i t a r g u e s f o r t h e c o n c l u s i o n (1) We a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , a p a r t f r o m o u r b r a i n s and b o d i e s , and v a r i o u s i n t e r r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e v e n t s . Our e x i s t e n c e j u s t i n v o l v e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o u r b r a i n s a n d b o d i e s , a n d t h e d o i n g o f o u r d e e d s , and t h e t h i n k i n g o f o u r t h o u g h t s , a n d 5 i t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c e r t a i n o t h e r p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l e v e n t s . Our i d e n t i t y o v e r t i m e j u s t i n v o l v e s ( a ) R e l a t i o n R - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y , e i t h e r w i t h t h e n o r m a l c a u s e o r w i t h a n y c a u s e , p r o v i d e d (b) t h a t t h e r e i s no d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n who i s R - r e l a t e d t o us a s we o n c e were. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 6 ) P a r f i t a l s o a r g u e s t h a t b e c a u s e t h i s (1) i s t r u e , s o a r e h i s f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s : (2) I t i s n o t t r u e t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y i s a l w a y s d e t e r m i n a t e . I c a n a l w a y s a s k , 'Am I a b o u t t o d i e ? 1 B u t i t i s n o t t r u e t h a t , i n e v e r y c a s e , t h i s q u e s t i o n must have an a n s w e r , w h i c h must be e i t h e r y e s o r no. I n some c a s e s t h i s w o u l d be a n empty q u e s t i o n . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 6 ) ( 3 ) T h e r e a r e t w o u n i t i e s t o b e e x p l a i n e d : t h e u n i t y o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a t any t i m e , and t h e u n i t y o f a w h o l e l i f e . T h e se two u n i t i e s c a n n o t be e x p l a i n e d by c l a i m i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s a r e ha d by t h e same p e r s o n . These u n i t i e s m u s t b e e x p l a i n e d b y d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e m a n y e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o t h i s p e r s o n ' s b r a i n . And we c a n r e f e r t o t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s , a n d f u l l y d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m , w i t h o u t c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s a r e had by a p e r s o n . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) ( 4 ) P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s n o t w h a t m a t t e r s . What f u n d a m e n t a l l y m a t t e r s i s R e a l t i o n R, w i t h a n y c a u s e . T h i s r e l a t i o n i s what m a t t e r s e v e n when, a s i n a c a s e where one p e r s o n i s R - r e l a t e d t o two o t h e r p e o p l e , R e l a t i o n R d o e s n o t p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . Two o t h e r r e l a t i o n s m a y h a v e s o m e s l i g h t 6 i m p o r t a n c e : p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u i t y , a n d p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y . ( I n t h e c a s e o f a f e w p e o p l e , who a r e v e r y b e a u t i f u l , p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y may h a v e g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) P a r f i t s a y s t h a t most o f us w o u l d a c c e p t some o f t h e c l a i m s t h a t he i s d e n y i n g and t h u s he a r g u e s t h a t most o f us h a v e a f a l s e v i e w and i f we came t o s e e t h a t t h i s v i e w i s f a l s e , i t m i g h t make a d i f f e r e n c e t o o u r l i v e s . P a r f i t c l a i m s t h a t when we a s k what p e r s o n s a r e , a n d how t h e y c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t , t h e f u n d a m e n t a l q u e s t i o n i s a c h o i c e b e t w e e n two v i e w s . On one v i e w , he s a y s , we a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , d i s t i n c t f r o m o u r b r a i n a n d b o d i e s a n d o u r e x p e r i e n c e s , and e n t i t i e s whose e x i s t e n c e must be a l l -o r - n o t h i n g . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 7 3 ) T h e o t h e r v i e w t h a t P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s i s what he c a l l s t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w . He s a y s t h a t t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t ' s m a i n c l a i m i s t h a t we s h o u l d r e j e c t t h e b e l i e f s t h a t i m p l y t h e e a r l i e r v i e w ( h e c a l l s t h e e a r l i e r v i e w a N o n - R e d u c t i o n i s t v i e w ) . P a r f i t a l s o c l a i m s t h a t , o f t h e s e , t h e s e c o n d v i e w i s t r u e . E ven t h o u g h P a r f i t w r i t e s s a y i n g t h a t "As a p p e n d i x J shows, Buddha w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d " ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 7 3 ) , f o r B u d d h a t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s n o t w h a t m a t t e r s ; i t r a t h e r a r i s e s f r o m e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i m p e r m a n a n c y o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s . T h e r e f o r e t h e B u d d h i s t a t t i t u d e i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f P a r f i t ' s . As I w i l l show i n d e t a i l , i n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , B u d d h i s m i s n o t c o n t e n t 7 w i t h a r r i v i n g a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s no s e l f . A B u d d h i s t a i m s a t a n e n t i r e l y new a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . A B u d d h i s t p r a c t i s e s t o l i v e a s i f t h e r e w e r e no s e l f . E x p e r i e n c i n g t h e i m p e r m a n a n c y o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i s what makes t h e B u d d h i s t a i m a t t h i s a t t i t u d e l i f e . When P a r f i t s a y s t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w i s n o t m e r e l y a p a r t o f one c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n b u t may be, a s he c l a i m s , t h e t r u e v i e w a b o u t a l l p e o p l e a t a l l t i m e s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 7 3 ) t h i s (comment) does n o t go a l o n g w e l l w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g i t a s t h e B u d d h i s t a t t i t u d e t o l i f e . The a p p e n d i x J 'Buddha's V i e w ' ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 5 0 2 - 3 ) c o n t a i n s t h e s e q u o t a t i o n s : A t t h e b e g i n i n g o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n t h e k i n g a s k s t h e monk h i s name, a n d r e c e i v e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p l y : ' S i r , I am known a s " N a g a s e n a " ; my f e l l o w s i n t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e a d d r e s s me a s "Nagasena". A l t h o u g h my p a r e n t s g a v e (me) t h e name "Nagasena"... i t i s j u s t an a p p e l l a t i o n , a f o r m o f s p e e c h , a d e s c r i p t i o n , a c o n v e n t i o n a l u s a g e . "Nagasena" i s o n l y a name, f o r no p e r s o n i s f o u n d h e r e ' . ( [ 5 ] , p . 1 8 2 ) A s e n t i e n t b e i n g does e x i s t , y ou t h i n k , O M a r a ? Y o u a r e m i s l e d b y a f a l s e c o n c e p t i o n . T h i s b u n d l e o f e l e m e n t s i s v o i d o f S e l f , i n i t h e r e i s no s e n t i e n t b e i n g , j u s t a s a s e t o f wooden p a r t s r e c e i v e s t h e name o f c a r r i a g e , s o do we g i v e t o e l e m e n t s , t h e name o f f a n c i e d b e i n g . ( [ 3 4 ] , p . 8 3 9 ) B u d d h a h a s s p o k e n t h u s : '0 B r e t h r e n , a c t i o n s d o e x i s t , a, n d a l s o t h e i r 8 consequences, but the person t h a t a c t s does not. There i s no one to cast away t h i s s e t of e l e m e n t s and no one t o assume a new set of them. There e x i s t s no I n d i v i d u a l , i t i s only a conv e n t i o n a l name g i v e n t o a s e t o f e l e m e n t s . ([34],p.845) Vasubandhu:...When Buddha s a y s , 'I m y s e l f was t h i s t e a c h e r S u n e t r a ' , he means t h a t h i s p a s t and h i s p r e s e n t belong t o one and the same l i n e a g e o f momentary experiences; he does not mean t h a t t h e f o r m e r e l e m e n t s d i d n o t d i s a p p e a r . J u s t as when we say ' t h i s f i r e which has been seen consuming that t h i n g has reached t h i s o b j e c t ' , the f i r e i s not the same, but o v e r l o o k i n g t h i s d i f f e r e n c e we i n d i r e c t l y c a l l f i r e the c o n t i n u i t y of i t s moments. ([34],p.851) V a t s i p u t r i y a . I f there i s no s o u l , who i s i t that remembers? Vasubandhu: What i s t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d ' t o remember'? V a t s i p u t r i y a . I t means to grasp an object by memory. Vasubandhu: Is t h i s 'grasping by memory1 something d i f f e r e n t from memory? V a t s i p u t r i y a : I t i s an agent who a c t s through memory. Vasubandhu: The agency by which memory i s produced we have j u s t explained. The cause producive of a r e c o l l e c t i o n i s a s u i t a b l e s t a t e of mind, n o t h i n g more. V a t s i p u t r i y a : But when we use t h e exp r e s s i o n ' C a i t r a remembers' what does i t mean? Vasubandhu: In the cur r e n t of phenomena which i s d e s i g n a t e d by the name C a i t r a , a r e c o l l e c t i o n a p p e a r s . ([34],p.853) The Buddhist term f o r an i n d i v i d u a l , a term which i s i n t e n d e d t o suggest the d i f f e r e n c e between the Buddhist view and o t h e r t h e o r i e s , i s s a n t a n a , i . e . a 'stream 1. ([5],p.247-261) V a t s i p u t r i y a . What i s an a c t u a l , and what a nominal existence? Vasubandhu. I f s o m e t h i n g e x i s t s by i t s e l f ( a s a 9 s e p a r a t e e l e m e n t ) i t h a s a n a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e . B u t i f s o m e t h i n g r e p r e s e n t s a c o m b i n a t i o n ( o f s u c h e l e m e n t s ) i t i s a n o m i n a l e x i s t e n c e . ( [ 3 5 ] , p . 2 6 ) The m e n t a l a n d t h e m a t e r i a l a r e r e a l l y h e r e , B u t t h e r e i s no human b e i n g t o be f o u n d , F o r i t i s v o i d a n d m e r e l y f a s h i o n e d l i k e a d o l l , J u s t s u f f e r i n g p i l e d u p l i k e g r a s s a n d s t i c k s . ( [ 5 ] , p . 1 3 3 ) P a r f i t r e m a r k s t h a t N a g e l o n c e c l a i m e d t h a t i t i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w . P a r f i t a l s o s a y s Buddha c l a i m e d t h a t , t h o u g h t h i s i s v e r y h a r d , i t i s p o s s i b l e , and t h a t he f i n d s Buddha's c l a i m t o be t r u e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 8 0 ) H a v i n g s t a t e d how B u d d h a w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d w i t h h i m on t h e n a t u r e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , P a r f i t a d v a n c e s v i e w s a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . Now, I s h a l l s t a t e P a r f i t ' s v i e w s r e g a r d i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . I n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s , I w i l l show how P a r f i t a n d Buddha d i f f e r on t h e s e v i e w s . I w i l l a l s o show how Buddha d o e s n o t h o l d t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w i n P a r f i t ' s s e n s e b u t h o l d s a more r a d i c a l v i e w a b o u t t h e c o n c e p t o f s e l f . P a r f i t c o n s i d e r s an o r d i n a r y c a s e w here, e v e n on any v e r s i o n o f t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , t h e r e a r e two p o s s i b l e o u t c o m e s . I n one o f t h e o u t c o m e s , I am a b o u t t o d i e . I n t h e o t h e r outcome I s h a l l l i v e f o r a n o t h e r f o r t y y e a r s . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t i f t h e s e f o r t y y e a r s w o u l d be w o r t h l i v i n g , t h e s e c o n d 10 o u t c o m e w o u l d be b e t t e r f o r me. He s a y s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e o u t c o m e s w o u l d be j u d g e d t o be i m p o r t a n t on most t h e o r i e s a b o u t r a t i o n a l i t y , a n d most m o r a l t h e o r i e s . He a l s o s a y s t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e r a t i o n a l a n d m o r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e w h e t h e r I am a b o u t t o d i e , o r s h a l l l i v e f o r a n o t h e r f o r t y y e a r s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 5 ) T h i s i s t h e n a t u r a l v i e w t h a t P a r f i t c a l l s t h e v i e w t h a t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s what m a t t e r s . T h a t i s , what i s a l w a y s j u d g e d t o be i m p o r t a n t i s w h e t h e r , d u r i n g t h e s e f o r t y y e a r s , t h e r e w i l l be someone l i v i n g who w i l l be me. The r i v a l v i e w t h a t P a r f i t b r i n g s o u t i s t h e v i e w t h a t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s n o t w h a t m a t t e r s . P a r f i t c l a i m s t h a t w h a t m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R: p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y w i t h a n y c a u s e . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t i t makes a g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e w h i c h o f t h e t w o v i e w s [ ( a ) P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s what m a t t e r s , (b) what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R] we b e l i e v e t o be what m a t t e r s . He s a y s i f we c e a s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y i s what m a t t e r s , t h i s may a f f e c t some o f o u r e m o t i o n s , s u c h a s o u r a t t i t u d e t o a g e i n g a n d d e a t h . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 5 ) On t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , p e r s o n s a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i r b r a i n s a n d b o d i e s , and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e i s no deep f u r t h e r f a c t t h a t u n i t e s t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r s o n . The u n i t y o f a 11 p e r s o n ' s l i f e c a n be e x p l a i n e d n o t by c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s l i f e a r e a l l had by t h i s p e r s o n b u t by d e s c r i b i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s t h a t h o l d b e t w e e n t h e s e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o a p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 4 4 5 ) P a r f i t s a y s t h a t E v e n R e d u c t i o n i s t s do n o t d e n y t h a t p e o p l e e x i s t . A n d, on o u r c o n c e p t o f a p e r s o n , p e o p l e a r e n o t t h o u g h t s a n d a c t s . They a r e t h i n k e r s and a g e n t s . I am n o t a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s , b u t t h e p e r s o n who h a s t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s . A R e d u c t i o n i s t c a n a d m i t t h a t , i n t h i s s e n s e , a p e r s o n i s what has e x p e r i e n c e s , o r t h e s u b j e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s i s t r u e b e c a u s e o f t h e way i n w h i c h we t a l k . What a R e d u c t i o n i s t d e n i e s i s t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e s i s a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t y , d i s t i n c t f r o m a b r a i n a n d body, and a s e r i e s o f p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e v e n t s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 2 3 ) By c o n s i d e r i n g an i m a g i n a r y c a s e P a r f i t p o i n t s o u t t h a t we c o u l d n o t t e l l f r o m o u r memory, f r o m o u r s t a t e s o f m i n d o r f r o m t h e c o n t e n t o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e , w h e t h e r we r e a l l y a r e a w a r e o f t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t when we h a v e h ad a s e r i e s o f t h o u g h t s , t h e most t h a t we a r e a w a r e o f i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y o f o u r s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t s e e m s t o me t h a t i t i s t h i s v i e w o f a s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 2 4 ) t h a t h e l p s P a r f i t t o b u i l d h i s t h e o r y t h a t what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R. 12 Our c h a n g e o f v i e w a b o u t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y may j u s t i f y a c h a n g e i n o u r m o r a l v i e w s . P a r f i t s a y s i f we c a n show t h a t most o f us have f a l s e b e l i e f s a b o u t o u r own n a t u r e , and t h e n a t u r e o f o u r c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o v e r t i m e , an a p p e a l t o t h e t r u t h may s u p p o r t c e r t a i n c l a i m s b o t h a b o u t r a t i o n a l i t y and a b o u t m o r a l i t y . He s a y s t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w s u p p o r t s v a r i o u s m o r a l c l a i m s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 4 4 9 ) P a r f i t t a l k s a b o u t what i s i m p o r t a n t i n R e l a t i o n R, b o t h i n t h e o r y a n d i n p r a c t i s e . He s a y s i t i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s . S i n c e c o n n e c t e d n e s s c a n h o l d t o a n y d e g r e e s a y s P a r f i t , t h a t we c a n s a y I am now s t r o n g l y c o n n e c t e d t o m y s e l f y e s t e r d a y , when I was s t r o n g l y c o n n e c t e d t o m y s e l f t h r e e d a y s a g o , a n d so o n . B u t he s a y s t h a t i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t I am now s t r o n g l y c o n n e c t e d t o m y s e l f t w e n t y y e a r s a g o . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 6 ) C o n s i d e r i n g d e s e r t and c o m m i t m e n t s , P a r f i t a r g u e s f o r a g e n e r a l c l a i m t h a t , i f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e weaker b e t w e e n a c r i m i n a l now and h i m s e l f a t t h e t i m e o f h i s c r i m e , he d e s e r v e s l e s s p u n i s h m e n t . he s a y s s i m i l a r c l a i m s a p p l i e s t o commitments. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t a d v a n c e s a n a r g u m e n t a g a i n s t t h e S e l f - i n t e r e s t T h e o r y . T h i s i s a t h e o r y a b o u t r a t i o n a l i t y w h i c h g i v e s t o e a c h p e r s o n t h i s a i m : t o be c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e o u t c o m e s t h a t w o u l d be b e s t f o r h i m s e l f , and t h a t w o u l d make h i s l i f e g o , f o r h i m , a s w e l l a s p o s s i b l e . P a r f i t ' s a r g u ment a p p e a l s 13 t o t h e f a c t t h a t p a r t o f what i s i m p o r t a n t i n P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s w h i c h h o l d s o v e r t i m e t o r e d u c e d d e g r e e s . He s a y s i f some i m p o r t a n t f a c t s h o l d t o a r e d u c e d d e g r e e , i t c a n n o t be i r r a t i o n a l t o b e l i e v e t h e s e f a c t s t o have l e s s i m p o r t a n c e . T h e r e f o r e P a r f i t s a y s t h a t i t c a n n o t be i r r a t i o n a l t o be l e s s c o n c e r n e d , now, a b o u t t h o s e p a r t s o f o u r f u t u r e t o w h i c h we a r e now l e s s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t f u r t h e r e x p l a i n s t h a t i t may n o t be i r r a t i o n a l t o do what one knows w i l l be w o r s e f o r o n e s e l f . G r e a t i m p r u d e n c e he s a y s may n o t be i r r a t i o n a l . He c l a i m s t h a t we s h o u l d r e g a r d t h o s e who a c t i m p r u d e n t l y a s m o r a l l y w r o n g . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t s a y s i f we become R e d u c t i o n i s t s , we c a n p l a u s i b l y c l a i m t h a t a f e r t i l i z e d ovum i s n o t a human b e i n g , and t h a t i t becomes a human b e i n g o n l y g r a d u a l l y d u r i n g p r e g n a n c y . He s a y s t h i s s u p p o r t s t h e c l a i m t h a t a b o r t i o n i s n o t m o r a l l y w r o n g i n t h e f i r s t t w o o r t h r e e m o n t h s , a n d t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y b e c o m e s s e r i o u s l y w r o n g , b e f o r e t h e e n d o f p r e g n a n c y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t t a l k s a b o u t p e o p l e who have made N o n - R e l i g i o u s E t h i c s t h e i r l i f e ' s w o r k , a b o u t A t h e i s t s who made E t h i c s t h e i r l i f e ' s w o r k . He s a y s Buddha may be among t h i s f e w , a s may be C o n f u c i u s , and a few A n c i e n t G r e e k s and Romans. He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t Hume was an A t h e i s t who made E t h i c s p a r t o f h i s l i f e ' s work. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 4 5 3 ) A c c e p t i n g t h e c h a n g e o f v i e w a n d d e n y i n g t h o s e who a c c e p t t h e E x t r e m e C l a i m ( t h e c l a i m t h a t , i f t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w i s t r u e , we have no r e a s o n t o be e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o u r own f u t u r e s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 0 7 ) ) , P a r f i t s a y s t h a t he f i n d s t h e t r u t h ( R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w ) l i b e r a t i n g , a n d c o n s o l i n g . He s a y s t h a t i t makes him l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s own f u t u r e , and h i s d e a t h , and more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t seems t o t h i n k t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y o f n o t - s e l f ( a n a t t a ) i s s i m i l a r t o h i s c l a i m t h a t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s n o t what m a t t e r s , what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R. P a r f i t a l s o seems t o t h i n k t h a t B u d d h i s t e t h i c s a r i s e f r o m t h e R e l a t i o n R. F o r P a r f i t , t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w t h a t w h a t m a t t e r s w h i c h i s t h e R e l a t i o n R i s w h a t l e a d s h i m t o be m o r e i m p e r s o n a l a n d more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r s . I t i s t h i s R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w w h i c h , a s i t seems t o me, t h a t P a r f i t r e g a r d s a s t h e t r u t h t h a t i s l i b e r a t i n g a n d c o n s o l i n g f o r h i m , w h i c h I m a i n t a i n i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e t h e o r y o f n o t -s e l f o f t h e Buddha. 15 BUDDHA'S VIEW I THE PRIMARY SOURCES I n a n y d i s c u s s i o n ( o r t r e a t m e n t ) o f B u d d h i s m , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o g i v e a c l e a r v i e w o f w h e r e o n e s t a n d s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g B u d d h a ' s p o s i t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m , e m i n e n t s c h o l a r s s u c h a s E . J . T h o m a s , T.W.Rhys D a v i d s , K . N . J a y a t i l l e k e , V e n e r a b l e W a l p o l a R a h u l a , V e n e r a b l e N y a n a t i l o k a , A r t h u r B e r r i e d a l e K e i t h , D . T . S u z u k i , T h . S t c h e r b a t s k y a n d many o t h e r s h a v e p u t f o r w a r d many v a l u a b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . B e h i n d t h e s e v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s and w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t t e x t s o n e i s a b l e t o d i s c e r n some p e r v a s i v e f e a t u r e s o f t h e o r i g i n a l d o c t r i n e . From t h e e a r l i e s t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t day t h e n o t i o n o f a p e r m a n e n t s u b s t a n c e h a s p e r s i s t e d i n c o m i n g i n t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f ' s e l f ' , ' s o u l ' o r 'Ego'. Some s a y t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f a b e i n g i s ' e s s e n c e ' o r ' s p i r i t 1 . O t h e r s s a y t h e e s s e n t i a l p a r t i s ' m a t t e r ' a s b o d i e s . I n t h e s e d i s c u s s i o n s we f i n d m a t e r i a l i s t s who d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m i n d s a n d i d e a l i s t s who d e n i e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m a t t e r , m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t a l l b o d i e s , i n c l u d i n g o ne's own, e x i s t o n l y a s i d e a s i n some m i n d . I n c h a p t e r t h r e e I w i l l show t h e many v i e w s t h a t b o t h B u d d h a a n d P a r f i t a r g u e s a g a i n s t . 16 H e r e , I w o u l d m e n t i o n some o f t h e v i e w s i n t h e w e s t e r n p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n a b o u t t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s e l f a n d t h e b o d y a s d i s c u s s e d b y R i c h a r d T a y l o r i n h i s w o r k ' M e t a p h y s i c s ' . T h o s e who a r e u n w i l l i n g t o d e n y t h e e x i s t e n c e e i t h e r o f minds o r o f b o d i e s , h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m i s t h a t o f c a u s e a n d e f f e c t , t h a t my b o d y a c t s upon my m i n d and my mind upon my body, and t h a t j u s t t h i s c a u s a l i t y i s w h a t c o n n e c t s a n d u n i t e s t h e two i n t o one p e r s o n . T h i s i s t h e t h e o r y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . O t h e r s , u n a b l e t o s e e how a m i n d , w h i c h i s n o t m a t e r i a l , c a n h a v e p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s , h ave m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e body a c t s u p o n t h e m i n d t o p r o d u c e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t h o u g h t , and f e e l i n g , b u t t h a t t h e m i n d i t s e l f h a s no p h y s i c a l e f f e c t s , w h i c h i s t h e t h e o r y o f e p i p h e n o m e n a l i sm. S t i l l o t h e r s , f i n d i n g t h e s a m e d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i d e a o f t h e b o d y ' s a c t i n g upon t h e mind a s i n t h e i d e a o f t h e m i n d ' s a c t i n g u p o n t h e b o d y , h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e i s r e a l l y o n l y one k i n d o f s u b s t a n c e , and t h a t what we c a l l "mind" and "body" a r e s i m p l y two a s p e c t s o f t h i s . T h i s i s c a l l e d t h e d o u b l e  a s p e c t t h e o r y . A g a i n , t o meet t h e same d i f f i c u l t y , i t h a s b e e n s u p p o s e d t h a t m i n d a n d b o d y , b e i n g d i f f e r e n t s u b s t a n c e s , n e v e r a c t u p o n e a c h o t h e r , b u t t h e h i s t o r i e s o f e a c h a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s s u c h t h a t t h e r e seems t o be s u c h a c a u s a l c o n n e c t i o n . T h i s i s t h e t h e o r y o f p a r a l l e l i s m . I t h a s e v e n b e e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s p a r a l l e l i s m i s w r o u g h t by God, who, i n 17 c r e a t i n g a p e r s o n , a r r a n g e s i n a d v a n c e t h a t h i s m e n t a l a nd p h y s i c a l h i s t o r i e s s h o u l d a l w a y s be i n c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h o u t i n t e r a c t i n g , i n t h e manner o f a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d harmony. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t h a s b e e n s e r i o u s l y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t a l l o f one's m e n t a l l i f e i s c a u s e d , f r o m moment t o momnet, by G o d , who s e e s t o i t t h a t t h i s m e n t a l l i f e i s i n c l o s e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h w h a t i s g o i n g on i n t h e b o d y . T h i s t h e o r y h a s come down t o us u n d e r t h e name o f o c c a s i o n a l i s m . ( [ 3 2 ] , p . 1 2 - 1 4 ) A c c o r d i n g t o Buddha a l l t h e above t h e o r i e s a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o r e p r e s e n t h i s v i e w a b o u t s e l f . The B u d d h i s t V i e w b e g i n s w i t h t h e p r e m i s e t h a t a l l t h i n g s l a c k p e r m a n e n c e ( s a b b a s a n k h a r a a n i c c a = a l l f o r m a t i o n s a r e i m p e r m a n e n t ) ( [ 1 2 ] , p . 4 0 0 ) . T h e r e i s no e x c e p t i o n t o t h e t h i n g c a l l e d s e l f , w h i c h w i t h a l l i t s f o r m a t i o n s i s c h a n g i n g a l l t h e t i m e and w h i c h h a s n o t h i n g i n i t w h i c h i s i t s e l f i m m o r t a l . When we l o o k a t t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s ( p a n c a k k h a n d h a ) 2 t h a t t h e s e l f i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f , i t i s s e e n t o be o n l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e v e r - c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f o r c e s o r e n e r g i e s a n d h a s n o t h i n g i m m o r t a l w h i c h t h e r e b y s e p a r a t e s t h e s e l f f r o m t h e c o u n t l e s s o t h e r f o r m s o f l i f e . The t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f e x i s t e n c e a r e e x p l a i n e d by t h e Buddha i n t h i s way: A l l f o r m a t i o n s a r e t r a n s i e n t ; a l l f o r m a t i o n s a r e s u b j e c t t o s u f f e r i n g ; a l l 2 s e e a p p e n d i x A w h i c h g i v e s a d e t a i l d e s c r p t i o n o f t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s . 18 phenomena a r e w i t h o u t an E g o - e n t i t y . 3 I n B u d d h i s m t h e r e i s no p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e t h a t i s i m m o r t a l i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e l f . I n Buddha's v i e w t h e e x p l i c i t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s c o n s t i t u t e t h e n a t u r e o f a p e r s o n , l e a v i n g no room f o r a p e r m a n e n t , u n c h a n g i n g m e n t a l o r p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e . T h e r e i s o n l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e v e r - c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f o r c e s t h a t a r e t r a n s i e n t , s u b j e c t t o s u f f e r i n g ( i n a b r o a d s e n s e - t o be e x p l a i n e d ) and w i t h o u t an E g o - e n t i t y . The l i f e i n t h i s t e m p o r a r y u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f t h e s e i m p e r s o n a l m e n t a l and m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s i s e x p l a i n e d a s b e i n g o f a d u r a t i o n o f a n i n f i n i t e s i m a l 'moment'. I n P a r f i t ' s c l a i m t h a t w h a t  m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R, m e n t a l s u b s t a n c e ( s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) i s t h e f o r m o f c o n n e c t i o n and c o n t i n u i t y . I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y t h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e B u d d h a ' s V i e w , a s I w i l l show i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . I n t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t t e x t s a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n i s g i v e n o f what Buddha h o l d s a s t o what we c a l l ' t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' . The ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e v e r - c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l a nd m e n t a l f o r c e s o r e n e r g i e s . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n t e r m s o f t h e f i v e g r o u p s o r a g g r e g a t e s ( p a n n a c a k k h a n d h a ) . T h e B u d d h i s t t h e o r y o f c a u s a l i t y ( p a t i c c a s a m u p p a d a = 3 [ 4 0 ] V o l . I l l p.134 c o n d i t i o n e d g e n e s i s ) 4 d e s c r i b e s t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n d i t i o n a n d r e s u l t i n t h e p r o c e s s we c a l l t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' . J u s t l i k e t h e a g g r e g a t e s , h e r e t o o , t h e v i e w i s p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f c a u s a l c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o u t g o i n g i n t o e x p l a n a t i o n s i n t e r m s o f a f i r s t c a u s e , a p h y s i c a l o r a m e t a p h y s i c a l s u b s t a n c e . The p r i n c i p l e o f t h e d o c t r i n e o f C o n d i t i o n e d G e n e s i s i s g i v e n i n a s h o r t f o r m u l a o f f o u r l i n e s . When t h i s i s , t h a t i s T h i s a r i s i n g , t h a t a r i s e s When t h i s i s n o t , t h a t i s n o t , T h i s c e a s i n g , t h a t c e a s e s . 5 The f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n d i t i o n t h e ' i n d i v i d u a l ' a r e s h o r t -l i v e d . T h e y a r e r i d d l e d w i t h a n x i e t y t h a t l e a d s t o s u f f e r i n g . The c r a v i n g i s t h e c a u s e o f s u f f e r i n g . T h i s i s an e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h . When one a c q u i r e s an e x p e r i e n c e o f s p i r i t u a l b l i s s , e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s t r u t h becomes more a n d more o b v i o u s . The c e s s a t i o n o f c r a v i n g i s t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g . The d o c t r i n e o f C o n d i t i o n e d G e n e s i s e n u m e r a t e s a s e t o f t w e l v e c o n d i t i o n s . They a r e compared t o a c i r c l e t h a t h a s no b e g i n i n g . A l t h o u g h some s c h o l a r s t e n d t o 4 s e e a p p e n d i x B 5Imasmim s a t i idam h o t i I m a s s u p p a d a idam u p p a j j a t i imasmim a s t i idam na h o t i I m a s s a n i r o d h a idam n i r u j j h a t i [ 1 2 ] , V o l . I l l p.63 a l s o [ 1 0 ] , V o l . 1 1 p.28-9 20 m i s i n t e r p r e t , B uddha u s e d t h e f a c t o r o f i g n o r a n c e i n t h i s c i r c l e o f t w e l v e f a c t o r s o n l y a s a c o n v e n i e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t . Due t o a c a u s e t h e r e i s an e f f e c t . A s s u c h t h e f o r m a t i o n s o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e i n an e v e r - c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s . P a r f i t ' s c l a i m t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y o v e r t i m e j u s t i n v o l v e s t h e R e l a t i o n R w i t h any c a u s e , i s i n agreement w i t h t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w . B u t when P a r f i t s a y s t h i s i s what m a t t e r s , B u d d h i s m i s i n d i s a g r e e m e n t a s w i l l be shown i n t h e l a s t s e c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . The d o c t r i n e o f r e b i r t h , t h e p e r m a n e n t s o u l o r atman t h a t p r e v a i l e d i n t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h B u d d h a l i v e d , was a s u b j e c t t h a t Buddha q u e s t i o n e d c r i t i c a l l y . Buddha d i d n o t a s s e r t t h e e x i s t e n c e o f an a n i m i s t i c s o u l w h i c h s u r v i v e d t h e d e a t h o f t h e body and t r a n s m i g r a t e d b u t he d i d a s s e r t t h e c o n t i n u i t y w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y d u e t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c a u s a l f a c t o r s . A l s o B u d d h i s m i s n o t a f o r m o f m a t e r i a l i s m w h i c h h o l d s t h e v i e w t h a t n o t h i n g s u r v i v e s t h e d e a t h o f t h e body and on t h a t b u i l d s an e t h i c a l t e a c h i n g . Some h o l d t h e v i e w t h a t B u d d h a h e l d t h e s t a t u s known a s A v y a k a t a ( w h i c h means no e x p l a n a t i o n g i v e n w i t h r e g a r d t o p r o b l e m s ) r e g a r d i n g s e l f , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t he d i d n o t g i v e a n y s p e c i f i c v i e w s a b o u t t h e q u e s t i o n s o f human s u r v i v a l , r e i n c a r n a t i o n , o r l i f e a f t e r d e a t h . B u t what t h e Buddha h e l d was t h e v i e w t h a t mere m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t p r i o r o r f u t u r e l i v e s w h i c h d i d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t s a b o u t them was u s e l e s s . T h i s a g a i n 21 was r e g a r d i n g t h e v a r i o u s v i e w s o f human s u r v i v a l t h a t were h e l d i n t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h Buddha l i v e d . F o r B u d d h a , g a i n i n g a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f e x i s t e n c e , s e r v e d t o show a way o u t o f t h e u n i v e r s a l f a c t o f s u f f e r i n g , i m p e r f e c t i o n , i m p e r m a n e n c y , e m p t i n e s s , i n s u b s t a n t i a l i t y . A l l t h e s e a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e P a l i w o r d d u k k h a . 6 R e a l i s i n g t h e i m p e r m a n e n c y o f t h e s e l f i s a s i m p o r t a n t a s r e a l i s i n g t h e impermanency o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i n t h e w o r l d . A f t e r t h i s r e a l i s a t i o n what i s more i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e Buddha i s t h e e t h i c a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f man by l e a d i n g h i m t h r o u g h p r a c t i c a l m o r a l d i s c i p l i n e t o t h e supreme g o a l o f N i r v a n a . H e r e a r e a few d e f i n i t i o n s and d e s c r i p t i o n s o f N i r v a n a ( t h e P a l i w ord i s N i b b a n a ) a s f o u n d i n t h e o r i g i n a l P a l i t e x t s : C a l m i n g o f a l l c o n d i t i o n a l t h i n g s , g i v i n g up o f a l l d e f i l e m e n t s , e x t i n c t i o n o f " t h i r s t " , d e t a c h m e n t , c e s s a t i o n , N i b b a n a . 7 0 B h i k k h u s , w h a t i s t h e A b s o l u t e ( A s a m k h a t a , U n c o n d i t o n e d ) ? I t i s O B h i k k h u s , t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f d e s i r e ( r a g a k k h a y o ) t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h e h a t r e d ( d o s a k k h a y o ) , t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f i l l u s i o n ( m o h a k k h a y o ) . T h i s , O B h i k k h u s , i s c a l l e d t h e A b s o l u t e . 8 6 T h e t e r m s u f f e r i n g u s e d t h r o u g h t o u t t h i s t e x t s h o u l d be t a k e n a s a t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e P a l i w ord d u k k h a . 7 [ 1 0 ] , V o l I p.136 8 [ 1 0 ] , V o l . I V p.359 22 O Bhikkhus, whatever there may be th i n g s c o n d i t i o n e d or unconditioned, among them detachment ( v i r a g a ) i s the h i g h e s t . That i s to say, freedom from c o n c e i t , d e s t r u c t i o n of t h i r s t , the uprooting of a t t a c h m e n t , t h e c u t t i n g o f f o f c o n t i n u i t y , t h e e x t i n c t i o n o f t h i r s t ( t a n h a ) detachment, c e s s a t i o n , Nibbana. 9 The abandoning the d e s t r u c t i o n of d e s i r e and c r a v i n g f o r these F i v e Aggregates of Attachement: t h a t i s the c e s s a t i o n of dukkha. ([12],p.191) The c e s s a t i o n of C o n t i n u i t y and becoming (bhavanirodha) i s Nibbana. 0 0 B h i k k h u s , t h e r e i s t h e u n b o r n , ungrown, and unconditioned. Were there n o t t h e u n b o r n , u n g r o w n , a n d unconditioned, there would be no escape f o r the born, grown, and c o n d i t i o n e d . Since there i s the unborn, ungrown, and u n c o n d i t i o n e d , so t h e r e i s escape f o r t h e b o r n , grown, and c o n d i t i o n e d . ([30],p.112) Here t h e f o u r e l e m e n t s of s o l i d i t y , f l u i d i t y , heat and motion have no p l a c e ; the n o t i o n s of l e n g t h and breadth, the s u b t l e and the g r o s s , good and e v i l , name and form are a l t o g e t h e r detroyed; n e i t h e r t h i s world nor the o t h e r , nor coming, going or standing, n e i t h e r death nor b i r t h , no s e n s e - o b j e c t s are to be found. ( [ 3 0 ] , p . I l l ) R e a l i s i n g Nibbana i s d e s c r i b e d i n the Dhatuvibhanga s u t t a (no.140) of the Majjhima Nikaya as f o l l o w s : [40],Vol.II p.34 °[10],Vol.II p. 11.7 23 A man i s composed of s i x e l e m e n t s : s o l i d i t y , f l u i d i t y , heat, motion, space and consciousness. He analyses them and f i n d s t h a t none of them i s 'mine' or 'me' or ' m y s e l f 1 . He understands how c o n s c i o u s n e s s appears and d i s a p p e a r s , how p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t and n e u t r a l s e n s a t i o n s a p p e a r and d i s a p p e a r . Through t h i s knowledge h i s mind becomes detached. Then he f i n d s w i t h i n him a pure equanimity (upekha), which he can d i r e c t towards the a t t a i n m e n t of any high s p r i t u a l s t a t e , and he knows that thus t h i s pure equanimity w i l l l a s t f o r a long p e r i o d . But then he t h i n k s ; I f I f o c u s t h i s p u r i f i e d and c l e a n s e d e q u a n i m i t y on the s p h e r e of I n f i n i t e Space and d e v e l o p a mind c o n f o r m i n g t h e r e t o , t h a t i s a m e n t a l c r e a t i o n (samkhantam). If I focus t h i s p u r i f i e d and cleansed equanimity on the Sphere of I n f i n i t e Consciousness... on the Sphere of N o t h i n g n e s s . . . or on the Sphere of N e i t h e r - p e r c e p t i o n nor N o n - p e r c e p t i o n and develop a mind conforming t h e r e t o , that i s a mental c r e a t i o n . Then he n e i t h e r m e n t a l l y c r e a t e s nor w i l l s c o n t i n u i t y and becoming (bhava) or a n n i h i l a t i o n ( v i b h a v a ) . As he does not c o n s t r u c t or does not w i l l c o n t i n u i t y and becoming or a n n i h i l a t i o n , he does not c l i n g to anything i n the world; as he does not c l i n g , he i s not anxious; as he i s not a n x i o u s , he i s c o m p l e t e l y calmed w i t h i n ( f u l l y blown out w i t h i n = paccattam yeva p a r i n i b b a y a t i ) . And he knows: " F i n i s h e d i s b i r t h , l i v e d i s pure l i f e , what s h o u l d be done i s done, nothing more i s l e f t to be done". Now, when he e x p e r i e n c e s a p l e a s a n t , u n p l e a s a n t or n e u t r a l s e n s a t i o n , he knows t h a t i t i s impermanent, that i t d o e s n o t b i n d him, t h a t i t i s n o t experienced with p a s s i o n . Whatever may be t h e s e n s a t i o n , he e x p e r i e n c e s i t without being bound to i t (visamyutto). He knows that a l l those sensations w i l l be p a c i f i e d with the d i s s o l u t i o n of the body, j u s t as the flame of a lamp goes out when o i l wick give out. T h e r e f o r e , 0 B h i k k h u , a p e r s o n so endowed i s endowed w i t h the a b s o l u t e w i s d o m , f o r t h e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e 24 e x t i n c t i o n o f a l l d u k k h a i s t h e a b s o l u t e n o b l e wisdom. T h i s i s t h e d e l i v e r a n c e , f o u n d e d o n T r u t h , i s u n s h a k a a b l e . O B h i k k h u , t h a t w h i c h i s u n r e a l i t y ( m o s a d h a m m a ) i s f a l s e ; t h a t w h i c h i s r e a l i t y ( a m o s a d h a m m a ) , N i b b a n a , i s T r u t h ( s a c c a ) . T h e r e f o r e , O B h i k k h u , a p e r s o n s o endowed i s endowed w i t h t h i s A b s o l u t e T r u t h f o r t h e A b s o l u t e T r u t h (paramam a r i y a s a c c a m ) i s N i b b a n a , w h i c h i s R e a l i t y . The f o u r N o b l e T r u t h s and t h e N o b l e E i g h t f o l d P a t h ( M i d d l e -P a t h ) d e s c r i b e s t h e B u d d h i s t c o n c e p t o f Dukkha, how c r a v i n g g i v e r i s e t o b i r t h , t h e s e n s u a l c r a v i n g , t h e c r a v i n g f o r I n d i v i d u a l E x i s t e n c e a n d D u k k h a . The c e s s a t i o n o f t h i s c r a v i n g , i s t h e c e s s a t i o n o f d u k k h a . T o a t t a i n t h e c e s s a t i o n o f d u k k h a , t h e M i d d l e - P a t h i s e x p l a i n e d a s t h e one t h a t l e a d s t o p e a c e , t o d i s c e r n m e n t , t o e n l i g h t e n m e n t and t o N i b b a n a . B u d d h a ' s e t h i c s i s s e e n i n t h e M i d d l e - P a t h . The r i g h t u n d e r s t a n d i n g , r i g h t m i n d e d n e s s , r i g h t s p e e c h , r i g h t a c t i o n , r i g h t l i v i n g , r i g h t e f f o r t , r i g h t a t t e n t i v e n e s s , a n d r i g h t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s t h e M i d d l e - P a t h t h a t a n s w e r s t h e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g human c o n d u c t . 1 1 B u d d h i s t e t h i c s h a s a g o a l i n f o l l o w i n g t h e m o r a l d i s c i p l i n a r y p a t h . T h a t i s t o a r r i v e a t N i b b a n a w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be ' t h e r e a l i t y ' ( s a c c a ) o r t h e ' t h e u l t i m a t e [ 2 8 ] V o l . 1 p.202 25 r e a l i t y ' (parama s a c c a ) i n B u d d h i s m . K . N . J a y a t i l l e k e e x p l a i n s t h i s as the summum bonum, which not o n l y human be ings but a l l beings i n the u n i v e r s e should seek to a t t a i n . For un le s s and u n t i l they a t t a i n i t , they are s u b j e c t to the u n s a t i s f a c t o r i n e s s and i n s e c u r i t y of c o n d i t i o n e d e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s i m p e r m a n e n t . The word N i b b a n a as J a y a t i l l e k e p o i n t s out means both ' e x t i n c t i o n ' as w e l l as ' the h i g h e s t p o s i t i v e exper ience of h a p p i n e s s ' . He says that both these c o n n o t a t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the term as i t i s employed i n the e a r l y Buddhis t t e x t s . ( [14] ,p .117-127) An i m p o r t a n t o b s e r v a t i o n that has been d i s r e g a r d e d by many o f t h e f o l l o w e r s o f B u d d h i s m a c c o r d i n g t o D a v i d J . K a l u p a h a n a , i s t h a t the e a r l y B u d d h i s t n o t i o n o f human e x i s t e n c e , and the n o t i o n of human s u f f e r i n g , i s dependent on the s o r t of knowledge i t r e c o g n i z e d . The most r e l i a b l e k n o w l e d g e a c c o r d i n g to e a r l y B u d d h i s m i s panna and i s i d e n t i f i e d wi th the 'knowledge of the c e s s a t i o n of i n f l u x e s " (asavakkhayanana) . Thus a l though t h i s h ighes t knowledge i s r e l a t e d to the c e s s a t i o n of one ' s own d e f i l e m e n t s , i t i s a l s o s a i d to r e v e a l , as a r e s u l t of such c e s s a t i o n , the t r u e nature of th ings i n the w o r l d , the t rue nature of t h i n g s i n t h e i r " c a u s a l dependence" ( p a t i c c a samuppada) and not the e x i s t e n c e o f a ' s e l f (atman) or a ' subs tance ' ( svabhava) . ( [15 ] ,p .423) 26 I I INTERPRETING THE PRIMARY TEXTS D i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and the v a s t amount of e v i d e n c e as s u p p o r t t o what the Buddha taught has been the reason f o r many B u d d h i s t s h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s about Buddhism. The d i s c o v e r y o f many o f the h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s , and t h e i r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r e x i s t i n g t e x t s adds t o t h e a v a i l a b l e f a c t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e and a c c u r a c y o f t h e knowledge th e a u t h o r s o f t h o s e e x i s t i n g t e x t s had. There a r e many m i s c o n c e p t i o n s and d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s . But, b a s i c a l l y a l l those who a r e engaged i n s c h o l a r l y work on Buddhism agree t h a t Buddha h e l d t h a t i n man t h e r e i s no permanent, e v e r l a s t i n g and a b s o l u t e e n t i t y c a l l e d s o u l , s e l f , ego or atman. Even w i t h t h i s much c l e a r , some s c h o l a r s tend t o m i s r e p r e s e n t t h i s view. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t the B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e i s not t h a t o f n o - s o u l or n o - s e l f but of no s e p a r a t e s o u l or s e l f . A l l t h i n g s , w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n w h a t s o e v e r , a r e w i t h o u t permanence, w i t h o u t ' r e a l i t y ' , and i n t h a t sense i l l u s i o n . I n t h i s sense a l o n e t h e r e i s no s e l f , and the b e l i e f i n a s e l f w h i c h has i t s r i g h t s and s e l f i s h i n t e r e s t s i s an i l l u s i o n based on Ignorance. To g i v e a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f B u d d h i s m , t h e e a r l y 27 B u d d h i s m w h i c h I w o u l d l i k e t o d i s c u s s i n r e l a t i o n t o what P a r f i t h o l d s a s t h e Buddha's v i e w r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n s , a nd o f why I i n s i s t on e a r l y B u d d h i s m t o d i s c u s s Buddha's v i e w , I w i l l b e g i n by g o i n g back t o t h e t i m e B u d d h i s m o r i g i n a t e d a n d s a y a l i t t l e a b o u t i t s h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . F r o m a n c i e n t t i m e s i n I n d i a , t h e r e l i g i o n s o f i t s p e o p l e came t o be b u i l t o n t h e b a s i s o f f a i t h i n t h e D i v i n e , a n d g r a d u a l l y d u r i n g t h e V e d i c , B r a h m a n i c , A r a n y a k a , a n d U p a n i s a d p e r i o d s a ssumed d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . By t h e t i m e o f t h e U p a n i s a d p e r i o d a l l t h e p r i m i t i v e i d e a s h a d s o e v o l v e d t h a t t h e ' k a r m a k h a n d h a ' ( r e l i g i o u s d e v o t i o n t h r o u g h w o r k s ) i n t h e V e d a s f o l l o w e d by V e d i c man was c o m p l e t e l y o v e r l o o k e d a n d h i s m i n d was d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s 'dhyanakhandha' ( m e d i t a t i o n ) . ( [ 3 ] ,p.l) G a u t a m a B u d d h a ' s a p p e a r a n c e a s a p r o m o t e r o f f r e e d o m o f t h o u g h t a n d i n t e l l e c t u a l r e v o l u t i o n w a s e s p e c i a l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o I n d i a n S o c i e t y . B u d d h i s m was a b l e t o t o be m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l a n d p o p u l a r a t t h e t i m e m a i n l y f o r two r e a s o n s ; b o r n t o a p o w e r f u l k i n g , G a u t a m a d e n o u n c e d h i s r i g h t s t o w e a l t h and power by d e n o u n c i n g t h e r i g i d s y s t e m o f c a s t e i s m , a n d a t t h e t i m e p e o p l e were r e a d y f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c o u r s e . Buddha had t o t e a c h h i s d o c t r i n e t o t h o s e who a l r e a d y h a d e x p o s u r e t o o t h e r r e l i g i o u s a n d p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . T h e r e w e r e many g r o u p s s u c h a s B r a h m i n s , C a r v a k a n s , a n d S a n k h a y a n s who o p p o s e d B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s . 28 We can see i n many of the sutta s i n Digha Nikaya how Buddha had to answer and c l a r i f y many of the views of h i s f o l l o w e r s that d i d not agree with h i s teachings. Buddha's te a c h i n g s a f t e r a r i s i n g from such a s o c i e t y went back i n t o i t a f t e r Buddha's p a s s i n g away to Nirvana. The Buddha was always eager to d i s p e l doubt. Even j u s t a few minutes b e f o r e h i s death, he requested h i s d i s c i p l e s three times to ask him i f they had any doubts about h i s te a c h i n g s , and not to f e e l s o r r y l a t e r that they could not c l e a r those doubts. It may be, Brethren, that there may be doubt or m i s g i v i n g i n the mind of some b r o t h e r a s t o t h e B u d h h a , o r t h e d o c t r i n e , or the pa t h , or the method. In q u i r e b r e t h r e n , f r e e l y . Do not have to reproach y o u r s e l v e s a f t e r w a r d s w i t h the t h o u g h t : Our t e a c h e r was f a c e t o f a c e w i t h us, and we c o u l d not b r i n g o u r s e l v e s to i n q u i r e of the Ex a l t e d One when we were face to face with him. His f i n a l attempt to c l e a r any doubts, can be seen i n h i s statement: I t may be, b r e t h r e n , t h a t you put no q u e s t i o n s o u t o f r e v e r e n c e f o r t h e teacher. Let one f r i e n d communicate to another. 1 2 When c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t over the c e n t u r i e s many d i v i s i o n s , methods of p r a c t i c e and emphases on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f 1 2Mahaprinibbana Sutta i n [28], Vol I p.172 t e a c h i n g a r o s e , d e v e l o p e d a n d f a d e d away a n d t h e n a r o s e a g a i n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t B u d h h a ' s e n d e a v o r t o a c c o m p l i s h a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e d o c t r i n e was n o t s u c c e s s f u l . A m a i n r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o u l d be t h e f a c t t h a t B u d d h i s m o r i g i n a t e d f r o m a s o c i e t y w h i c h h a d p o w e r f u l r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r s l i k e t h e B r a h m i n s , a n d a l s o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i s c o u r s e s a t t h e t i m e were much a l i k e . A s i t s e e m s e v e n i n t h e e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s i n h i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t s c r i p t u r e s , among t h e many c l e a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i a l o g u e s t h e r e r e m a i n a few c o n t r a d i c t o r y , o u t - o f - p l a c e s t a t e m e n t s . What t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t s c o n s i d e r t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e Buddha t o have been i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e P a l i t e x t s , t h e D i g h a a n d M a j j h i m a N i k a y a s . E v e n t h o u g h t h e s e s c r i p t u r e s c o n t a i n a l a r g e number o f r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l a n d r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n o f I n d i a a t t h e t i m e t h e y were p u t t o g e t h e r , t h e r e r e m a i n s an u n c e r t a i n i t y among s c h o l a r s a s t o what t h e e x a c t t i m e w a s . 1 3 The e t e r n a l s o u l c o n c e p t c a n be t r a c k e d b a c k t o t h e age o f B r a h m i n i s m . The v i e w t h e n was t h a t t h e e t e r n a l s o u l g o e s t h r o u g h many l i v e s u n t i l i t i s c o m p l e t e l y p u r i f i e d a n d f i n a l l y becomes u n i t e d w i t h God,or Brahman, U n i v e r s a l S o u l , o r Atman, f r o m w h i c h i t o r i g i n a l l y e manated. T h i s s o u l o r s e l f i n man i s t h e t h i n k e r o f t h o u g h t s , f e e l e r o f [ 2 8 ] , V o l I P r e f a c e 30 s e n s a t i o n s , and r e c e i v e r of rewards and punishments f o r a l l i t s a c t i o n s of good and bad. Such a conception i s c a l l e d the idea of s e l f . Buddha himself has been a great opponent of the concept of Atman or Soul. But the methods used i n p r e s e r v i n g what he has s a i d l e a v e a l o t of room f o r t h o s e who c o u l d not e n t i r e l y agree with him to add to i t t h e i r views. S c h o l a r s who work i n the areas of ancient s c r i p t u r e s tends to g i v e an unaccounted c r i t i c i s m of the l a t e r works such as M i l i n d a Panha and Katha Vatthu being 'impudent f o r g e r i e s ' that were concocted by s c h o l a s t i c a l l y d u l l , s e c t a r i a n l y narrow, l i t e r a r y i n c a p a c i o u s , and s e n i l e i m b e c i l e C e y l o n B u d d h i s t s . 1 4 However they themselves a r e f l a b b a r g a s t e d about the so c a l l e d Ceylon Buddhist's c a p a b i l i t y of f o r g i n g extensive documents so w e l l , with such h i s t o r i c a l accuracy, w i t h so d e l i c a t e a d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between i d e a s c u r r e n t among themselves and those h e l d c e n t u r i e s b e f o r e , with so grea t a l i t e r a r y s k i l l i n expressing the ancient views and accept that i t i s a unique, i n c r e d i b l e performance. 1 5 I would say that the Ceylon Buddhists at the time were not t r y i n g to w r i t e something anew but were w r i t i n g down what they thought was handed down to them by whoever brought i t [28] Vol.1 p . x v i i [28] Vol.1 Preface to C e y l o n . The t h i n l i n e of d i f f e r e n c e between the two d o c t r i n e s of Hinduism and Buddhism r e g a r d i n g t h e i r many i s s u e s must have been an added i n f l u e n c e f o r t h i s k i nd of w r i t i n g . The Buddha, l i k e other Indian teachers of h i s time, taught by c o n v e r s a t i o n . A h i g h l y educated man, (according to the ed u c a t i o n a l standards of the time) speaking c o n s t a n t l y with men who were exposed to s i m i l a r education, he followed the l i t e r a r y h a b i t of h i s time by embodying h i s d o c t r i n e i n s e t p h r a s e s , o r a l s u t t a s , on which he e n l a r g e d on d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Though w r i t i n g was w i d e l y known, the l a c k of w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s made any l e n g t h y w r i t t e n books i m p o s s i b l e . The e a r l i e s t r e c o r d s o f any extent were the Asoka E d i c t s and they had to be w r i t t e n on stone. In the absence of books, s u t t a s were the recognized form of p r e s e r v i n g and communicating o p i n i o n . The e a r l i e s t ones were not i n S a n s k r i t but i n the o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n a l idiom of the day, that i s , i n a s o r t of P a l i . When the Buddha passed away i n t o nirvana, these sayings were c o l l e c t e d t o g e t h e r by h i s d i s c i p l e s i n t o the Four G r e a t Nikayas. They cannot have reached t h e i r f i n a l form u n t i l about f i f t y y e a r s a f t e r w a r d s . Other s a y i n g s and v e r s e s , most o f them a s c r i b e d not t o t h e Buddha, but t o t h e d i s c i p l e s , were put i n t o a supplementary Nikaya. 32 F o r a g e n e r a t i o n o r two t h e N i k a y a s ( a t t h e t i m e o r a l b o o k s ) a s o r i g i n a l l y p u t t o g e t h e r w e r e h a n d e d down by memory. A b o u t h u n d r e d y e a r s a f t e r t h e B u d d h a ' s p a s s i n g away t h e r e was a s c h i s m i n t h e B u d d h i s t c o m m u n i t y . E a c h o f t h e t w o s c h o o l s k e p t an a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c a n o n . E a c h o f t h e s e two s c h o o l s b r o k e u p , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e s i n t o o t h e r s ; a n d s e v e r a l o f them had t h e i r d i f f e r e n t a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e c a n o n i c a l b o o k s , d i f f e r i n g a l s o no d o u b t i n m i n o r d e t a i l s . F o r a c o n s i s t e n t d o c t r i n e , w h a t i s i n t h e N i k a y a s i s s u f f i c i e n t . I n K a t h a V a t t h u i t i s m e n t i o n e d t h a t t h e w h o l e c a n o n was t h e w o r d o f t h e B u d d h a a n d t h a t i t h a s b e e n r e c i t e d , a t t h e c o u n c i l o f R a j a g a h a , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r h i s p a s s i n g a w a y . S e v e r a l o f t h e D i a l o g u e s i n t h e P i t a k a s p u r p o r t t o r e l a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h a t t o o k p l a c e b e t w e e n p e o p l e , c o n t e m p o r o r i e s o f t h e Buddha, b u t a f t e r t h e Buddha's p a s s i n g a w a y . T h e r e f o r e , we c a n n o t be c e r t a i n t h a t no i n t e r p o l a t i o n t o o k p l a c e . I l l THE ACCURACY OF PARFIT'S NOTION OF THE BUDDHIST VIEW I n s t e a d o f t a k i n g B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e f r o m t h e more r e c e n t b o o k s , t h a t a r e b a s e d on t h e w o r k s o f t h e c o m m e n t a t o r s l i k e B u d d h a g h o s a o r o f w o r k s l i k e M i l i n d a P a n h a , i t w o u l d h a v e b e t t e r s e r v e d t h e p u r p o s e o f s h o w i n g t h e f u t i l i t y o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , i f P a r f i t has looked i n t o the Nikayas. P a r f i t then would not have r e s o r t to the R e l a t i o n R as what matters i n a d i s c u s s i o n of Personal I d e n t i t y . P a r f i t would have seen the t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e x i s t e n c e i n the Buddhist View. Where a l l formations are impermanent, P a r f i t would not h o l d the view R e l a t i o n R i s what matters. Where a l l formations are subject to s u f f e r i n g , there would be no need f o r P a r f i t to look f o r an argument a g a i n s t the S e l f I n t e r e s t Theory or the Extreme Claim. I w i l l be d i s c u s s i n g i n the next s e c t i o n s , how P a r f i t and Buddha d i f f e r on these i s s u e s . The q u o t a t i o n s P a r f i t g i v e s when p u t t i n g f o r w a r d t h e "Buddha's View" are taken from recent works that are based on l a t e r works on Buddhism, but not f r o m t h e d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n s of the e a r l y documentary s c r i p t u r e s . Most of the quotes that P a r f i t r e f e r s to are quotes from the recent books which quotes work t h a t was composed l a t e r . F o r example, the whole of the P a l i P i t a k a s 1 6 were known, and were regarded as f i n a l a u t h o r i t y , at the time and p l a c e when M i l i n d a Panha was composed. 1 7 M i l i n d a Panha i s a l a t e r work on Buddhism. I t i s a work from which the w r i t e r s of the more recent works that P a r f i t r e f e r s to, quote. And i t i s from some of them t h a t P a r f i t q u o t e s . T h r o u g h o u t t h e see appendix C For more d e t a i l s see [29] Part I, i n t r o d u c t i o n 34 h i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s m , e v e n f r o m t h e t i m e when B u d d h a was a l i v e , t h e r e h a s b e e n t h e t e n d e n c y t o m i s r e p r e s e n t t h e Buddha's V i e w . And as s u c h what t h e l a t e r c o m m e n t a t o r s l i k e Dhammapala a n d B u d d h a g h o s a h a v e r e c o r d e d a r e n o t c o m p o s e d b e f o r e t h e t i m e o f t h e P i t a k a s a n d t h e r e f o r e c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d a s h a v i n g f u l l a u t h o r i t y on h o l d i n g t h e Buddha's V i e w . P a r f i t ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e M i l i n d a - N a g a s e n a c o n v e r s a t i o n ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 5 0 2 ) i s t o show t h a t t h e r e i s no p e r m a n e n t s e p a r a t e s o u l d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . T h i s r e f e r e n c e P a r f i t h a s d r a w n f r o m a n o t h e r s o u r c e i n w h i c h i t was q u o t e d . ( [ 5 ] , p . 1 8 2 - 3 ) Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l a u t h o r i t y o f t h e M i l i n d a P a n h a , T.W.Rhys D a v i d s s a y s 1 8 t h a t t h e b o o k s t a r t s w i t h a n e l a b o r a t e a n d v e r y s k i l f u l i n t r o d u c t i o n , g i v i n g f i r s t a n a c c o u n t o f t h e way i n w h i c h Nagasena and M i l i n d a h ad met i n a p r e v i o u s b i r t h , t h e n t h e l i f e - h i s t o r y , o f e a c h o f them i n t h i s b i r t h , t h e n t h e a c c o u n t o f how t h e y m e t . T h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t o r y o c c u p i e s i n R h y s D a v i d s ' t r a n s l a t i o n , t h i r t y - n i n e p a g e s a n d t h e two c h a p t e r s t h e r e a f t e r o c c u p y o n l y s i x t y p a g e s m o r e . T h r o u g h o u t t h e w h o l e s t o r y R h y s D a v i d s s a y s t h e a t t e n t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y d i r e c t e d t o t h e v e r y g r e a t a b i l i t y o f t h e two d i s p u t a n t s , and t o t h e f a c t t h a t [ 2 9 ] P a r t I I , i n t r o d u c t i o n 35 t h e y h a d b e e n s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d t h r o u g h t h e i r w h o l e e x i s t e n c e ( i n t h e many b i r t h s ) f o r t h i s g r e a t e n c o u n t e r . I n a s o u r c e l i k e t h i s , one c a n n o t l o o k f o r a n a c c u r a t e a c c o u n t o f t h e Buddha's t h e o r y o f n o n - i d e n t i t y i n t h e s e l f , s i n c e t h e s o u r c e g i v e p r o m i n e n c e t o t h e n o n - B u d d h i s t i d e a o f t w o p e o p l e g o i n g t h r o u g h many b i r t h s , j u s t t o meet i n a l a t e r b i r t h f o r a h i s t o r i c a l l y g r e a t d i s c u s s i o n on t h e s e l f . Q u e s t i o n i n g t h e d e g r e e a n d a c c u r a c y o f t h e a u t h o r ' s k n o w l e d g e R h y s D a v i d s shows t h a t t h e t h r e e P i t a k a s w e r e known t o t h e a u t h o r a t t h e t i m e o f h i s w r i t i n g . R h y s D a v i d s s a y s t h a t a l t h o u g h i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s i n h i s w o r k s on B u d d h i s m , h i s q u o t a t i o n s o r r e f e r e n c e s e n t i r e l y a g r e e w i t h t h e r e a d i n g s shown i n t h e e a r l y t e x t s b u t t h e r e a r e a few i m p o r t a n t e x c e p t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n t h e t h r e e P i t a k a s , t h e p r o m i n e n c e i s g i v e n t o t h e f a c t s o f i m p e r m a n e n c y , c o n t i n u i t y w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y a n d n o t - s e l f . I n h i s w o r k , t h o s e f a c t s a r e b a r e l y c o n t a i n e d i n t h e g r e a t c o n v e r s a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e K i n g a n d t h e Monk, a n d a r e i g n o r e d when t h e a u t h o r d e s c r i b e s t h e i r many b i r t h s ( i n w h i c h t h e y knew e a c h o t h e r and were p r e p a r i n g t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h i s g r e a t e n c o u n t e r t h a t was g o i n g t o t a k e p l a c e ) w h i c h g i v e s t h e r e a d e r t h e i d e a o f a c o n t i n u i t y w i t h a n i d e n t i t y , w h i c h i s n o n -B u d d h i s t . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e w e l l known B u d d h i s t t e x t s , R h y s D a v i d s r e m a r k s t h a t 36 W h i l e t h e D i g h a N i k a y a may be h e l d t o e x c e l i t i n s t a t e l y d i g n i t y , t h e V i s u d d h i m a g g a i n s u s t a i n e d p o w e r , a n d t h e G a t a k a b ook i n v a r i e d humour, t h e p a l m w i l l p r o b a b l y be e v e n t u a l l y g i v e n t o t h e ' Q u e s t i o n s o f K i n g M i l i n d a ' a s a work o f a r t . 1 9 I n S t e v e n C o l l i n s ' S e l f l e s s P e r s o n s a q u o t a t i o n f r o m V i s u d d h i m a g g a i s s t a t e d t h u s : j u s t a s a p u p p e t i s e m p t y , s o u l l e s s ( n i j j i v a m ) a n d w i t h o u t c u r i o s i t y , a n d w h i l e i t w a l k s and s t a n d s m e r e l y t h r o u g h t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f s t r i n g s and wood, y e t i t s e e m s a s i f i t h a d c u r i o s i t y a n d i n t e r e s t e d n e s s ; s o t o o t h i s [ h u m a n ] 'name-and-form' i s e m p t y , s o u l l e s s a n d w i t h o u t c u r i o s i t y , a n d w h i l e i t w a l k s a n d s t a n d s m e r e l y t h r o u g h t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e two t o g e t h e r , y e t i t s e e m s a s i f i t h a d c u r i o s i t y a n d i n t e r e s t e d n e s s . T h i s i s how i t s h o u l d be r e g a r d e d ; hence t h e A n c i e n t s s a i d : 'The m e n t a l and t h e m a t e r i a l a r e r e a l l y h e r e , B u t t h e r e i s no human b e i n g t o be f o u n d . F o r i t i s v o i d o f a n d m e r e l y f a s h i o n e d l i k e a d o l l , J u s t s u f f e r i n g p i l e d u p l i k e g r a s s a n d s t i c k s . ' ( [ 5 ] , p . 1 3 2 - 3 ) P a r f i t q u o t e s o n l y t h e l a s t f o u r v e r s e s . I n h i s N o t e s , C o l l i n s s a y s : 5 . V i s m . X V I I I . 3 2 ( N a n a m o l i ' s t r a n s l a t i o n , s l i g h t l y a d a p t e d ) . The v e r s e q u o t e d a s f r o m ' t h e A n c i e n t s ' i s n o t among t h o s e r e c o r d e d i n t h e c a n o n . ( [ 5 ] , p . 2 8 4 ) As I s t a t e d i n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n , e v e n d u r i n g t h e t i m e when B u d d h a was a l i v e t h e r e w e r e d o u b t s a b o u t h i s t e a c h i n g . C o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s , a n d b e c a u s e [29] P a r t I , i n t r o d u c t i o n 37 t h o s e who came t o B u d d h i s m a l r e a d y h a d o t h e r r e l i g i o u s b a c k g r o u n d s , were t h e m a i n r e a s o n s , i n my o p i n i o n , t h a t made t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e l a t e r w o r k s on B u d d h i s m g i v e p r i o r i t y a n d p r o m i n e n c e t o some B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g s and i g n o r e o r m e n t i o n c a s u a l l y t h e more i m p o r t a n t t e a c h i n g s . T h i s c a n be s e e n i n many o f t h e w o r k s on B u d d hism f r o m t h e a n c i e n t t i m e s t o t h e p r e s e n t d a y . A c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e e x i s t i n g d o c u m e n t s shows w h i c h o f t h e documented v i e w s we c o u l d a c c e p t a s b e i n g a c o h e r e n t and a c o n s i s t e n t d o c t r i n e . I t i s on t h i s v i e w , I a r g u e , t h a t P a r f i t u s e d B u d d h i s t q u o t a t i o n s f r o m w o r k s t h a t were b a s e d on i n a c c u r a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m . Not u s i n g p r i m a r y s o u r c e s has l e d P a r f i t i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e o f n o t - s e l f ( a n a t t a ) i s t h e v i e w t h a t he c l a i m s by d e n y i n g what m a t t e r s i s P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a nd c l a i m i n g t h a t w h a t m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R. I n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , I w i l l show how P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a nd how Buddha i n s i s t s t h a t t h e r e i s no P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i n h i s e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e A g g r e g a t e s . I t seems t o me t h a t t h e b a s i s f o r t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t c l a i m f o r P a r f i t r e s t s o n t h e a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y o f " o u r s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . ( [ 26 ],p. 224 ) P a r f i t ' s u s e o f t h e q u o t e The B u d d h i s t t e r m f o r an i n d i v i d u a l , a t e r m w h i c h i s i n t e n d e d t o s u g g e s t t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e B u d d h i s t v i e w and o t h e r t h e o r i e s , i s s a n t a n a , i . e . a ' s t r e a m 1 ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 5 0 3 ) 38 i s e x p l o i t e d , and m i s l e a d i n g i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e R e l a t i o n R. The c o n t i n u o u s f l u x o f e v e r - c h a n g i n g p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s i s t h e ' s t r e a m ' . I t i s a ' s t r e a m ' , s i n c e t h e i n d i v i d u a l b e i n g i s , s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a p p e n s , a p r o c e s s , a c o n t i n u i t y . E v e r y l i v i n g b e i n g , s i n c e i t i s a p r o c e s s , i s d e s c r i b e d a s a f l u x , a f l o w i n g , a s t r e t c h i n g f o r t h . The f i v e a g g r e g a t e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s o - c a l l e d ' i n d i v i d u a l ' i s t h e c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s o f a c t i o n . C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s o n l y a s i n g l e a g g r e g a t e w h i c h a r i s e a s a r e a c t i o n o r a r e s p o n s e t o a n o t h e r a g g r e g a t e , a n d t h e s i n g l e a g g r e g a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s n o t r e g a r d e d as a ' s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i n B u d d h i s m . The f o u n d a t i o n , R e l a t i o n R, w h i c h h e l p s P a r f i t t o b u i l d h i s c h a n g e o f m o r a l v i e w s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f t h e Buddha. I g n o r i n g t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , l e a v e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o p e n f o r P a r f i t t o u s e B u d d h a ' s A t h e i s t e t h i c s a s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t v i e w t h a t P a r f i t h o l d s . 39 HOW PARFIT AND BUDDHA DIFFER ON PERSONAL IDENTITY P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , a s s e r t i n g t h a t i t s e x i s t e n c e i n v o l v e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o u r b r a i n a n d b o d y . B u d d h a ' s a p p r o a c h t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f P a r f i t ' s . B u d d h a e x p l a i n s how t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e b r a i n a n d body i s w i t h o u t a P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i r a p p r o a c h t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , b o t h t h e Buddha a n d P a r f i t f a c e d many o f t h e e a r l i e r , w e l l known and e s t a b l i s h e d v i e w s . P a r f i t ' s v i e w o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y c a n be c o n s i d e r e d r a d i c a l c o m p a r i n g t o t h e o t h e r v i e w s t h a t he c o n s i d e r s b u t Buddha's e x p l a n a t i o n i s c e r t a i n l y more r a d i c a l t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r s i n c l u d i n g P a r f i t ' s . T h e r e i s a v a s t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r a d i c a l a p p r o a c h o f t h e Buddha a n d t h a t o f t h o s e who a r e r e d u c t i o n i s t s i n t h e m o d e r n , W e s t e r n s e n s e , a n d i t s h o u l d n o t be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d s o a s t o s e e Buddha a s P a r f i t ' s s o r t o f r e d u c t i o n i s t . The v i e w s P a r f i t a r g u e s a g a i n s t a r e t h e s e ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 9 - 2 1 0 ) : ( i ) T h e r e a r e no p u r e l y m e n t a l o b j e c t s , s t a t e s o r e v e n t s . ( i i ) e v e r y m e n t a l e v e n t i s j u s t a p h y s i c a l e v e n t i n some p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n and n e r v o u s s y s t e m ( i i i ) t h a t m e n t a l e v e n t s a r e n o t p h y s i c a l e v e n t s ( i v ) t h a t a l l s t a t e s a n d e v e n t s a r e , 40 when u n d e r s t o o d c o r r e c t l y , p u r e l y m e n t a l ( v ) t h a t we a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s ( v i ) a p e r s o n i s a p u r e l y m e n t a l e n t i t y ( v i i ) a p e r s o n i s a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l e n t i t y ( v i i i ) t h o u g h we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s a f u r t h e r f a c t , w h i c h d o e s n o t j u s t c o n s i s t i n p h y s i c a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y P a r f i t a r g u e s f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a i m s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 0 - 2 1 2 ) a n d s a y s t h a t t h e y a r e t r u e a n d t h e r e i s no i n c o n s i s t e n c y b e t w e e n them. Some o f t h e s e c l a i m s d e s c r i b e t h e same f a c t i n t w o w a y s : t h e way we s p e a k , a n d t h e r e a l i t y . ( T h i s a c c o u n t s f o r some a p p a r e n t i n c o n s i s t e n c y . ) He a l s o s t a t e s t h a t I f m uch o f t h i s summary s e e m s , o n a f i r s t r e a d i n g , e i t h e r o b s c u r e o r t r i v i a l , do n o t w o r r y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 9 ) (1) a p e r s o n ' s i d e n t i t y o v e r t i m e j u s t c o n s i s t s i n t h e h o l d i n g o f c e r t a i n more p a r t i c u l a r f a c t s , (2) t h e s e f a c t s c a n be d e s c r i b e d w i t h o u t e i t h e r p r e s u p p o s i n g t h e i d e n t i t y o f t h i s p e r s o n , o r e x p l i c i t l y c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s p e r s o n ' s l i f e a r e had by t h i s p e r s o n , o r e v e n e x p l i c i t l y c l a i m i n g t h a t t h i s p e r s o n e x i s t s . T h e s e f a c t s c a n be d e s c r i b e d i n an i m p e r s o n a l way. (3 ) a p e r s o n ' s e x i s t e n c e j u s t c o n s i s t s i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a b r a i n a n d b o d y , a n d t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l e v e n t s (4) a p e r s o n j u s t i s a p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n a n d b o d y , a n d a s s u c h a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d e v e n t s ( 5 ) a p e r s o n i s a n e n t i t y t h a t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m a b r a i n and body, and a s s u c h a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s 41 (6) a n a t i o n ' s e x i s t e n c e j u s t i n v o l v e s the e x i s t e n c e of i t s c i t i z e n s , l i v i n g t o g e t h e r i n c e r t a i n ways, on i t s t e r r i t o r y . (7) a nation j u s t i^s these c i t i z e n s and t h i s t e r r i t o r y (8) a n a t i o n i s an e n t i t y t h a t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m i t s c i t i z e n s and i t s t e r r i t o r y (9) though persons e x i s t , we could give a c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e a l i t y without c l a i m i n g that persons e x i s t (10) there e x i s t s a p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n and b o d y , and a p a r t i c u l a r s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l and mental events (11) a p a r t i c u l a r person e x i s t s The v a r i e t y of views that were predominant at the Buddha's time i s d i s c u s s e d i n the Brahmajala S u t t a o f the Digha Nikaya. This s u t t a c o n s i s t s of sixty-two d i v i s i o n s . Among them t h e r e a r e f o u r p o s s i b l e p o i n t s of view and t h e i r s e v e r a l v a r i a n t s recorded. These four types of t h e o r i e s ([14],p.129) are (1) that we s u r v i v e death i n the form of di s c a r n a t e s p i r i t s , i . e . a s i n g l e a f t e r -l i f e theory (2) that we are a n n i h i l a t e d with death, i . e . a m a t e r i a l i s t theory (3) t h a t we are unable to d i s c o v e r a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer to t h i s question or there i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y answer, i . e . a s c e p t i c a l or p o s i t i v i s t theory (4) t h a t we come back to su b s e q u e n t e a r t h - l i v e s or l i v e s on o t h e r s i m i l a r p l a n e t s , i . e . a r e b i r t h theory There are t h i r t y - t w o s i n g l e a f t e r - l i f e t h e o r i e s l i s t e d i n the Brahmajala S u t t a . There are s i x t e e n v a r i a n t s o f the t h e o r y that the s o u l a f t e r death i s c o n s c i o u s . They are 42 v a r i a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e m a t e r i a l f o r m o f t h e s o u l , t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e s o u l , t h e n a t u r e a n d e x t e n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d t h e h e d o n i c t o n e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e a r e e i g h t v a r i a n t s e a c h o f t h e t h e o r i e s t h a t t h e s o u l a f t e r d e a t h i s u n c o n s c i o u s and i s s u p e r c o n s c i o u s . S t a t i n g t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t a r e h e l d a b o u t B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s , K . N . J a y a t i l l e k e s a y s t h a t t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s c a n be c l e a r e d away o n l y b y m a k i n g a c a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e a u t h e n t i c t e x t s o f B u d d h i s m . ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 129 ) He t h e n s t a t e s what we f i n d when we do s o , t h a t Buddha d i d a s s e r t ( 1 ) t h e c o n t i n u i t y w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y due t o t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c a u s a l f a c t o r s (2) t h e d o c t r i n e o f a n a t t a , w h i c h d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l o r i n d e p e n d e n t e n t i t y w i t h i n o r r e l a t e d t o t h e p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l i t y (3) t h a t mere m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n a b o u t p r i o r o r f u t u r e l i v e s w h i c h d i d n o t r e s u l t i n t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t s a b o u t them was u s e l e s s . I n S a m y u t t a N i k a y a i t i s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y o f e x i s t e n c e o f what a p p e a r s t o t h e i g n o r a n t man a s h i s 'Ego' o r a s ' i n d i v i d u a l i t y * o r ' I ' i s i m p e r m a n e n t , and i s o n l y a c o m b i n a t i o n o f e v e r - c h a n g i n g p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l f o r c e s o r e n e r g i e s , w h i c h a r e o f t e n s t a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e f i v e g r o u p s o r a g g r e g a t e s ( p a n c a k k h a n d h a ) . 43 P a r f i t ' s q u o t a t i o n o f C i l a Mara s t a t e s t h a t " t h i s b u n d l e o f e l e m e n t s i s v o i d o f s e l f " . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 502 ) I n A n g u t t a r a N i k a y a 2 0 and i n S a m y u t t a N i k a y a t h e f i v e g r o u p s o f e l e m e n t s a r e t a l k e d a b o u t b u t nowhere i s i t s a i d t h a t t h e y h a v e an e x i s t e n c e a s o n e ' g r o u p ' o r ' b u n d l e ' o r a ' h e a p ' a s s o m e t i m e s m i s i n t e r p r e t e d by s c h o l a r s . I n d i v i d u a l e x i s t e n c e i s t h e i l l u s i o n o f t h e mere p r o c e s s o f t h e s e m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l p h e n o m e n a . T h e y n e v e r o c c u r i n a s i m u l t a n e o u s t o t a l i t y o f a l l t h e i r c o n s t i t u e n t s . A l s o t h e s i n g l e c o n s t i t u e n t s o f a g r o u p w h i c h a r e p r e s e n t i n any g i v e n b o d y -a n d - m i n d p r o c e s s , a r e o f an e v a n e s c e n t n a t u r e , and s o a l s o t h e i r v a r y i n g c o m b i n a t i o n s . S e n s a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s a n d m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s a r e o n l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s and f u n c t i o n s o f a s i n g l e u n i t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e y a r e t o c o n c s i o u s n e s s what r e d n e s s , s o f t n e s s , s w e e t n e s s , e t c . , a r e t o an a p p l e and have as l i t t l e s e p a r a t e e x i s t e n c e a s t h o s e q u a l i t i e s . I d e n t i t y f o r t h e Buddha i s t o be f o u n d i n t h i s c o n t i n u o u s f l u x o f p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f . T h i s p r o c e s s i s n o t a d i s c r e t e one o f p e r i s h i n g p a r t i c u l a r s . Buddha d i d n o t , ( i n t h e way P a r f i t p o s t u l a t e s R e l a t i o n R) b e l i e v e i n t h e r e d u c t i o n o f t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t i n t o t h e f i v e g r o u p s o r a g g r e g a t e s b u t i n s t e a d e x p l a i n e d t h e c o n t i n o u s f l o w o f p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s a s w h a t i s d e s i g n a t e d ' s e l f ' , [ 4 0 ] V o l . I V p.100 44 t h r o u g h a n i l l u s i o n . Where P a r f i t a r g u e s f o r t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i m p e r s o n a l i t y i s t h e t r u e v i e w , B u d d h a e x p o u n d s i m p e r s o n a l i t y a s t h e t r u e v i e w and goes on t o t a l k a b o u t t h e r e a l i t y we s h o u l d s t r i v e t o a t t a i n . The d o c t r i n e o f C o n d i t i o n e d G e n e s i s g o v e r n s t h e e v e r - c h a n g i n g p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s . I t i s e x p l a i n e d a s : i f t h i s i s , t h a t comes t o be; f r o m t h e a r i s i n g o f t h i s , t h a t a r i s e s . I f t h i s i s n o t , t h a t does n o t come t o be; f r o m t h e s t o p p i n g . o f t h i s , t h a t s t o p s . T h e c h a n g e o f v i e w t o b e c o m i n g a R e d u c t i o n i s t and t o h a v i n g an i m p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e i s a l i b e r a t i n g and c o n s o l i n g t r u t h f o r P a r f i t . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) B u d d h a s t a t e s i n d e t a i l t h a t a t t i t u d e , a n d r e s o l v e s t o f o l l o w t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l m i d d l e - p a t h t o p u t a n end t o c r a v i n g w h i c h l e a d s t o f r u s t r a t i o n , a n x i e t y and s u f f e r i n g . P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s n o t what m a t t e r s f o r P a r f i t , b u t r a t h e r t h e R e l a t i o n R: t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . The h o l d i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s o r t h e h o l d i n g o f o v e r l a p p i n g c h a i n s o f s t r o n g c o n n e c t e d n e s s i s n o t what w o u l d s u p p o r t a cha n g e i n o u r v i e w s and s u p p o r t o u r c l a i m s a b o u t r a t i o n a l i t y a n d m o r a l i t y i n Buddha's t e a c h i n g s . U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i s s u b j e c t t o a n e v e r -c h a n g i n g p r o c e s s i s w h a t w o u l d s u p p o r t a c h a n g e i n o u r v i e w s . 45 P a r f i t d e s c r i b i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two p o s s i b l e o u t c o m e s - I am a b o u t t o d i e , o r s h a l l l i v e f o r a n o t h e r f o r t y y e a r s - s a y s t h a t w h a t i s j u d g e d by m o s t p e o p l e t o be i m p o r t a n t h e r e i s w h e t h e r , d u r i n g t h e s e f o r t y y e a r s , t h e r e w i l l be someone l i v i n g who w i l l be me. On t h e v i e w t h a t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s what m a t t e r s , t h i s i s i m p o r t a n t . On t h e v i e w t h a t R e l a t i o n R i s w h a t m a t t e r s , t h i s i s n o t i m p o r t a n t . T h e r e a s o n P a r f i t g i v e s f o r t h i s b e i n g u n i m p o r t a n t i s , i f what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R, w i t h a n y c a u s e , we s h o u l d r e g a r d t h i s way o f d y i n g a s b e i n g a b o u t a s good a s o r d i n a r y s u r v i v a l . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 5 ) P a r f i t a l s o s a y s f o r X and Y t o be t h e same p e r s o n a s i n g l e d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n i s n o t enough, b u t t h e r e h a s t o be e n o u g h d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s . T h i s means f o r X a n d Y t o be t h e same p e r s o n , memory, i n t e n t i o n s , b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s and enough o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r y . H e r e , we s e e , i n P a r f i t ' s s e n s e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l e n t i t y i s d e n i e d b u t c o n t i n u i t y o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a t t a c h e d t o an i d e n t i t y i s a c c e p t e d . A p e r s o n i s a p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n a n d b o d y , a n d a s s u c h a s e r i e s o f i n t e r r e l a t e d e v e n t s , s a y s P a r f i t i n one o f h i s c l a i m s t h a t I s t a t e d i n t h e b e g i n i n g o f t h i s s e c t i o n . When we t a l k a b o u t a p e r s o n , we s a y i t i s an e n t i t y t h a t h a s a b r a i n a n d body, and has p a r t i c u l a r t h o u g h t s , d e s i r e s a n d s o o n . So f o r P a r f i t i t i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o c l a i m ( i n t h e o r d i n a r y way o f t a l k i n g ) t h a t a p e r s o n i s a n e n t i t y t h a t i s d i s t i n c t f r o m a b r a i n a n d b o d y , a n d a s s u c h a s e r i e s o f e v e n t s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 1 ) A s i m i l a r argument i s s e e n i n t h e two p o s s i b l e o u t c o m e s t h a t P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s . Under any n o r m a l c i r c u m s t a n c e , I am a b o u t t o d i e . B u t t h e r e i s t h i s way o f t r a n s m i t t i n g a l l my i n f o r m a t i o n t o a R e p l i c a t o r t h a t w i l l c r e a t e a b r a i n a n d a b o d y e x a c t l y l i k e m i n e . I t w i l l be r e g a r d e d a s me i n t h e t h e o r y o f R e l a t i o n R. P a r f i t e v e n s a y s t h a t p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u i t y a n d p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y may h a v e s l i g h t i m p o r t a n c e . I n t h e c a s e o f p e o p l e who a r e v e r y b e a u t i f u l , P a r f i t s a y s , p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y may have g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) S o , i n t h e o r d i n a r y s e n s e o f t h e w o r d , my R e p l i c a w o u l d n o t be me b u t s i n c e i t i s R e l a t i o n R t h a t m a t t e r s i t w i l l be me. And t h i s way o f d y i n g i s a s g o o d a s o r d i n a r y s u r v i v a l . The B u d d h i s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l c o n c e r n s c e r t a i n a g g r e g a t e s t h a t a r e i m p e r m a n e n t and c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . O n l y t h r o u g h t h e i l l u s i o n o f s e l f c a n e v e n m e m o r y , i n t e n t i o n s , b e l i e f s , d e s i r e s a n d a n y s u c h p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s , be s e e n a s " m i n e " . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h e B u d d h i s t s e n s e , n o t o n l y i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l o r a m e n t a l e n t i t y d e n i e d , b u t a l s o t h e c o n t i n u i t y o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e a t t a c h e d t o a n i d e n t i t y i s 47 d e n i e d . T h u s we s e e t h a t i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , P a r f i t and Buddha b o t h seem t o a g r e e o n l y on t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e r e i s no s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l o r a m e n t a l e n t i t y w h i c h i s t h e s e l f . P a r f i t ' s R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w e x p l a i n s t h e P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i n t e r m s o f R e l a t i o n R. B u t Buddha t a k i n g a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h , s t e a d i l y m a i n t a i n s t h e c l a i m t h a t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s an i l l u s i o n , a n d s o i s n ' t c a p a b l e o f b e i n g e x p l a i n e d , by R e l a t i o n R o r i n any o t h e r way. 48 HOW PARFIT AND BUDDHA DIFFER ON ETHICS Buddha a n d Hume among t h e few o t h e r s t h a t P a r f i t m e n t i o n s w e r e A t h e i s t s who made E t h i c s p a r t o f t h e i r l i f e ' s w o r k . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 4 5 3 ) P a r f i t seems t o t h i n k t h a t Hume's " b u n d l e " t h e o r y a n d B u d d h a ' s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e " b u n d l e o f e l e m e n t s " a r e t h e same. P a r f i t s a y s a s S i d g w i c k w r i t e s , Hume b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e Ego i s m e r e l y a s y s t e m o f c o h e r e n t phenomena... The permanent i d e n t i c a l " I " i s n o t a f a c t b u t a f i c t i o n ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 1 3 9 ) P u t t i n g f o r w a r d S i d g w i c k ' s s u g g e s t i o n s , P a r f i t s a y s t h a t Hume's v i e w i s i n a d e q u a t e a l t h o u g h h e w i l l d e f e n d a n i m p r o v e d v i e w t h a t , i n t h e r e l e v a n t r e s p e c t s , f o l l o w s Hume. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 1 3 9 ) D.C.Mathur d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s i t i o n s o f Buddha a n d Hume on t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s e l f s a y s The Buddha, a s w e l l a s Hume, d e n i e d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r m a n e n t l y a n d i d e n t i c a l l y e n d u r i n g s e l f i n t h e f l u x o f e x p e r i e n c e . B u t t h e r e i s a w o r l d o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n f o r d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e s e l f , i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r , i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a s s u m p t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f e x p e r i e n c e , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i n t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t . He f u r t h e r s a y s t h a t H u m e w a s l e d b y s h e e r l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y t o i n q u i r e w h e t h e r t h e r e was a n y " i m p r e s s i o n " c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e 49 c o m m o n s e n s e " i d e a " o f t h e s e l f a s a s e l f - i d e n t i c a l e n t i t y . He d i d n o t s h a r e Gotama's t a s k o f l i b e r a t i n g m a n k i n d f r o m a t t a c h m e n t t o a p e r m a n e n t s e l f , r e s u l t i n g i n a n x i e t y a n d s u f f e r i n g . ( [ 2 0 ] , p . 2 5 8 ) The m ore i m p e r s o n a l v i e w t h a t P a r f i t p r o m i s e s t o d e f e n d f o l l o w i n g Hume i s n o t t h e s o u r c e o f B u d d h i s t e t h i c s . A s P a r f i t s a y s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) t h e i m p e r s o n a l v i e w o f R e d u c t i o n i s m i s t h e t r u t h t h a t he f i n d s l i b e r a t i n g a n d c o n s o l i n g , a n d w h i c h makes h i m l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h i s own f u t u r e , a n d h i s d e a t h , a n d more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o t h e r s . We a l s o s e e how P a r f i t r u n s i n t o 'a more e x t r e m e a r g u m e n t " ( we h a v e no r e a s o n t o be s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o u r own f u t u r e s ) ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 0 7 - 3 1 2 ) w h i c h c l a i m s t h a t o n l y a deep f u r t h e r f a c t (= t h o u g h we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y i s a f u r t h e r f a c t , w h i c h does n o t j u s t c o n s i s t i n p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y ) j u s t i f i e s t h e s p e c i a l c o n c e r n a b o u t o u r own f u t u r e s . And s i n c e t h e r e i s no s u c h f a c t , we have no r e a s o n t o be e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t o u r own f u t u r e s . P a r f i t s a y s t h i s e x t r e m e c l a i m i s d e f e n s i b l e , b u t s o i s i t s d e n i a l . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 6 ) I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a b o v e v i e w o f P a r f i t ' s , t h e B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g b e g i n w i t h t h e m o r e i m p e r s o n a l v i e w o f s e l f i d e n t i t y a n d t h e e t h i c a l t a s k o f t h e M i d d l e P a t h t o a t t a i n t h e h i g h e s t k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t r u e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d . W h atever i s s u b j e c t t o o r i g i n a t i o n , a l l t h a t i s s u b j e c t t o c e s s a t i o n ( [ 1 2 ] I , p . 3 8 0 ) , ( [ 4 0 ] IV,p.186) 50 D e c a y i s i n h e r e n t i n a l l c o m p o n e n t t h i n g s , w o r k o u t y o u r s a l v a t i o n w i t h d i l i g e n c e . ( [ 2 8 ] I I , p . 1 7 3 ) The e m p h a s i s o n i m p e r m a n e n c y i s t h e o r i g i n a t i n g p o i n t i n d e v e l o p m e n t o f e t h i c s . F o r P a r f i t t h e i m p e r s o n a l v i e w i s t h e b a s i s f o r e t h i c s . U n l e s s p e r s o n s a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e i r b r a i n s and b o d i e s , and t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s , t h e i r i d e n t i t y i s n o t a l w a y s d e t e r m i n a t e . U n i t y o f a p e r s o n ' s l i f e c a n b e e x p l a i n e d o n l y b y d e s c r i b i n g t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s t h a t h o l d between t h e d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s h a d by a p e r s o n , a n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o a p a r t i c u l a r b r a i n . P e r s o n s a r e n o t f u n d a m e n t a l f o r P a r f i t , ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 4 4 5 ) a n d we saw t h i s i n h i s example o f t h e S c a n n e r and t h e R e p l i c a t o r . S i n c e i t i s n o t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s l i f e a r e a l l h a d by t h i s p e r s o n t h a t e x p l a i n s t h e u n i t y o f a p e r s o n ' s l i f e , i n P a r f i t ' s s e n s e P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i s i n d e t e r m i n a t e . T h i s v i e w i n t h i s s e n s e i s more i m p e r s o n a l . When we c e a s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t p e r s o n s a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , a n d come t o b e l i e v e t h e u n i t y o f l i f e i n v o l v e s o n l y t h e v a r i o u s r e l a t i o n s b e t ween t h e e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h i s l i f e , a c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t , we become more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s a nd l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y a r e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 6 ) A c c o r d i n g t o Buddha, d e c a y i s i n h e r e n t i n a l l c o m p o s i t e t h i n g s , a n d s i n c e N i b b a n a i s n o t c o m p o s i t e i t i s t h i s w h i c h we s h o u l d s t r i v e 51 t o a t t a i n . I t i s f o r t h i s s a l v a t i o n t h a t we s h o u l d f o l l o w a m o r a l p a t h a n d s h o u l d become m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s . The B u d d h i s t a t t i t u d e t o s u f f e r i n g ( d u k k h a ) a n d n o t - s e l f ( a n a t t a ) i s d e r i v e d f r o m t h e f a c t o f i m p e r m a n e n c y . The i m p e r s o n a l m e n t a l a n d m a t e r i a l e l e m e n t s a r e a r r a n g e d t o g e t h e r i n a t e m p o r a r y u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The l i f e o f a l l e x i s t e n t s i n t h i s t e m p o r a r y u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d a s t h e d u r a t i o n o f an i n f i n i t e s i m a l 'moment'. Not a s t h e w a y t h e h u m a n a n d o t h e r l i f e t i m e s a r e ' c o n v e n t i o n a l l y ' u n d e r s t o o d , o r u n d e r s t o o d by P a r f i t ( i n t h e way he u s e s f o r t h e h o l d i n g o f R e l a t i o n R ) . What u n i f i e s a n d p r o l o n g s t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d i n t h e C o n d i t i o n e d G e n e s i s ( p a t i c c a samuppada) as t h e i g n o r a n c e , c r a v i n g , d e s i r e . The c h a l l e n g e t h a t P a r f i t e n c o u n t e r s i n t h e E x t r e m e C l a i m d o e s n o t f a c e Buddha, s i n c e t h e impermanency o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s j u s t i f i e s o u r s p e c i a l c o n c e r n t o work f o r o u r s a l v a t i o n w i t h d i l i g e n c e , t o a r r i v e a t t h e c e s s a t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u i t y and b e c o m i n g . The c o n c e p t t h a t t h e r e i s s u c h a t h i n g a s ' o u r ' s a l v a t i o n c a n be s e e n a s p a r a d o x i c a l i n t h e B u d d h i s t c o n t e x t . B u d d h a w o u l d a r g u e i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n , t h a t , t h e p a r a d o x h a s t o be e x p e r i e n c e d b e f o r e e s c a p e f r o m i t i s p o s s i b l e , o r t h a t , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c r e a l i s a t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e t h e r a t i o n a l i n s i g h t i s 52 p o s s i b l e . I w i l l n o t go i n t o a n a r g u m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h i s i s s u e i n t h i s t h e s i s . The q u e s t i o n s t h a t P a r f i t r a i s e s , s u c h a s 'What makes me t h e same p e r s o n t h r o u g h o u t my l i f e , and a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n f r o m y o u ? ' a nd 'What i s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e u n i t y o f e a c h l i f e , a n d o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t l i v e s , a n d d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s ? ' ( [ 2 6 ] , i n t r o d u c t i o n ) a r e f o r Buddha mere m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s and s i n c e t h e y do n o t p r o v i d e f o r t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n o f f a c t s a b o u t t h e m , t h e y a r e u s e l e s s . What was i m p o r t a n t f o r Buddha was f i n d i n g t h e t r u e r e a l i t y o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s . F o r P a r f i t , c e r t a i n k e y e t h i c a l v i e w s a r i s e f r o m c h a n g i n g f r o m t h e v i e w t h a t 'what m a t t e r s i s P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y ' t o 'what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R'. Though P a r f i t seems t o t h i n k s o , B u d d h i s t e t h i c s d o e s n o t a r i s e i n any s u c h way f r o m t h e R e l a t i o n R. P a r f i t i s m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i s s u e s t h a t B u d d h a e x p l a i n s a s mere m e t a p h y s i c a l s p e c u l a t i o n s . T h u s , P a r f i t ' s e t h i c a l i s s u e s r e f l e c t what Buddha e x p l a i n s a s m i n o r d e t a i l s o f mere m o r a l i t y . B e f o r e I d i s c u s s some o f t h e s e v i e w s o f P a r f i t , I s h a l l s a y how m o s t o f t h e s e v i e w s d i f f e r f r o m B u d d h a ' s a p p r o a c h t o e t h i c s . I n B u d d h a ' s V i e w , a w i d e r n o t i o n o f e t h i c s i s v i s i b l e i n t h e M i d d l e P a t h . The M i d d l e P a t h a v o i d s two e x t r e m e s : one e x t r e m e b e i n g t h e s e a r c h f o r h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e p l e a s u r e s o f t h e s e n s e s , w h i c h i s ' l o w , common, u n p r o f i t a b l e and t h e way o f t h e o r d i n a r y p e o p l e ' ; t h e o t h e r b e i n g t h e s e a r c h f o r h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h s e l f - m o r t i f i c a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f a s c e t i c i s m , w h i c h i s ' p a i n f u l , u n w o r t h y a n d u n p r o f i t a b l e ' . H e r e I w o u l d l i k e t o add a w o r d a b o u t how t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s m ( T h e r a v a d a ) d i f f e r f r o m M a h a y a n a B u d d h i s m . T h e r a v a d a B u d d h i s m g i v e s m o r e a t t e n t i o n a n d p r i o r i t y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l e n l i g h t e n m e n t w h e r e a s M a h a y a n a B u d d h i s m g i v e s p r o m i n e n c y t o t h e s a l v a t i o n o f A l l . I t i s s a i d t h a t i n Mahayana B u d d h i s m a B o d h i s a t t v a , one who h a s enough m e r i t t o a t t a i n n i r v a n a , w o u l d s t a n d on t h e t h r e s h o l d w a i t i n g f o r t h e o t h e r s t o j o i n i n . One w o u l d s a y t h a t T h e r a v a d a a p p r o a c h i s s e l f i s h b u t r a t h e r i t i s an e n l i g h t e n e d s e l f i s h n e s s . D e v o t e y o u r s e l v e s t o y o u r own good. Be e a r n e s t , be z e a l o u s , be i n t e n t on y o u r own good ( [ 2 8 ] , p . l 5 4 ) i s t h e t e a c h i n g o f t h e Buddha. The e s s e n t i a l s o f d i s c i p l i n e i n t h e M i d d l e P a t h a i m a t p r o m o t i n g a n d p e r f e c t i n g e i g h t f a c t o r s o f e t h i c a l c o n d u c t ( s i l a ) , m e n t a l d i s c i p l i n e ( s a m a d h i ) , and wisdom ( p a n n a ) . ( [ 1 2 ] , p . 3 0 1 ) T h e s e f a c t o r s o f t h e P a t h a r e n o t f o l l o w e d and p r a c t i s e d one a f t e r t h e o t h e r b u t a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c a p a c i t y o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l . T h e s e e i g h t f a c t o r s i n t h e P a t h a r e a l l l i n k e d t o g e t h e r and e a c h h e l p s t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e o t h e r s . T h i s P a t h i s f o l l o w e d t o a t t a i n a s t a t e o f f r e e d o m , h a p p i n e s s , p e r f e c t i o n a n d k n o w l e d g e a s w e l l as f o r h a r m o n i o u s l i v i n g . C r i t i c i z i n g g r e a t i m p r u d e n c e P a r f i t s a y s R e c o n s i d e r a b o y who s t a r t s t o smoke, k n o w i n g and h a r d l y c a r i n g t h a t t h i s may c a u s e h i m t o s u f f e r g r e a t l y f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r . T h i s b o y d o e s n o t i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f w i t h h i s f u t u r e s e l f . H i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h i s f u t u r e s e l f i s i n some wa y s l i k e h i s a t t i t u d e t o o t h e r p e o p l e , s u c h a s t h e a ged p a r e n t s o f h i s f r i e n d s . T h i s a n a l o g y makes i t e a s i e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t h i s a c t i s m o r a l l y w r ong. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 1 9 ) P a r f i t a l s o s a y s ...we s h o u l d c l a i m t h a t g r e a t i m p r u d e n c e i s m o r a l l y wrong. We o u g h t n o t t o do t o o u r f u t u r e s e l v e s what i t w o u l d be wrong t o do t o o t h e r p e o p l e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 2 0 ) A c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t g r e a t i m p r u d e n c e may n o t be i r r a t i o n a l a n d t h e c h a r g e ' i m p r u d e n t ' w i l l become f o r many p e o p l e a mere d e s c r i p t i o n ( a s o p p o s e d t o h a v i n g a m o r a l m e a n i n g ) a n d t h i s i s why t h e o b j e c t i o n t o g r e a t i m p r u d e n c e s h o u l d come f r o m t h e d i r e c t i o n o f m o r a l i t y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 1 8 - 3 1 9 ) The c l a i m t h a t we o u g h t n o t t o do t o o u r f u t u r e s e l v e s what i t w o u l d be wrong t o do t o o t h e r p e o p l e , a s P a r f i t t h i n k s , makes i t e a s i e r t o t h i n k t h a t o n e ' s a c t o f t h i s k i n d i s m o r a l l y w r o n g . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 2 0 ) B u d d h a a p p r o a c h e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. The B u d d h i s t way o f l i f e i s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e M i d d l e P a t h . T h i s i s t h e way t o t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g ( d u k k h a ) . F o r one who f o l l o w s t h e M i d d l e P a t h t h e r e i s no room f o r i m p r u d e n c e , and t h u s f o r t h e B u d d h i s t i t w i l l be i r r a t i o n a l t o a c t i m p r u d e n t l y . The 55 c h a r g e " i m p r u d e n t " w i l l n o t become a mere d e s r i p t i o n b e c a u s e i m p r u d e n c e w i l l be a b a r r i e r f o r t h e B u d d h i s t way o f l i f e a n d t o t h e g o a l o f a t t a i n i n g t h e c e s s a t i o n o f s u f f e r i n g . The c l a i m a b o u t t h e a b o r t i o n i s s u e i s a n o t h e r e t h i c a l i s s u e o f P a r f i t ' s t h a t r e f l e c t s w hat B u d d h a e x p l a i n s a s m i n o r d e t a i l s o f mere m o r a l i t y . E t h i c a l c o n d u c t f o u n d i n t h e M i d d l e P a t h i s b u i l t on t h e v a s t c o n c e p t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l l o v e a n d c o m p a s s i o n f o r a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s . C o m p a s s i o n ( k a r u n a ) a n d wisdom ( p a n n a ) a r e t h e two q u a l i t i e s t h a t a B u d d h i s t s h o u l d d e v e l o p e q u a l l y . I n a c o n c e p t o f l o v e a n d c o m p a s s i o n f o r a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c l a i m o f P a r f i t ' s w i l l b e c o n s i d e r e d i n c o r r e c t . P a r f i t ' s R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w s u p p o r t s t h e c l a i m t h a t a b o r t i o n i s n o t m o r a l l y wrong i n t h e f i r s t two o r t h r e e m o n t h s , a nd t h a t i t g r a d u a l l y becomes s e r i o u s l y wrong b e f o r e t h e e n d o f t h e p r e g n a n c y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) B u d d h a i n t h e B r a h m a j a l a S u t t a s p e a k s a b o u t m i n o r d e t a i l s o f mere m o r a l i t y . I t i s s a i d i n t h i s s u t t a t h a t i t i s i n r e s p e c t o n l y o f t r i f l i n g t h i n g s , o f m a t t e r s o f l i t t l e v a l u e , o f mere m o r a l i t y , t h a t an u n c o n v e r t e d man, when p r a i s i n g t h e T a t h a g a t a , 2 1 w o u l d s p e a k . Among t h e many o f s u c h t r i f l i n g , m i n o r d e t a i l s o f mere m o r a l i t y s u c h a man w o u l d p r a i s e we f i n d Gotama t h e r e c l u s e h o l d s a l o o f f r o m s u c h 2 1 a n o t h e r t e r m f o r Buddha 56 a l o w a r t a s u s i n g c h a r m s t o p r o c u r e a b o r t i o n . ( [ 2 8 ] , I p.23) C o n s i d e r i n g n e x t t h e o t h e r e n d o f l i f e P a r f i t s a y s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 2 3 ) t h a t on t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , a p e r s o n c a n g r a d u a l l y c e a s e t o e x i s t some t i m e b e f o r e h i s h e a r t s t o p s b e a t i n g . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t t h i s w i l l b e s o i f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s o f a p e r s o n ' s m e n t a l l i f e g r a d u a l l y d i s a p p e a r . T h i s c l a i m , s a y s P a r f i t , d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e p e r s o n f r o m t h e human b e i n g , and i f t h e p e r s o n h a s c e a s e d t o e x i s t , t h e n we c a n p l a u s i b l y c l a i m t h a t we h a v e no m o r a l r e a s o n t o h e l p h i s h e a r t t o go on b e a t i n g , o r t o r e f r a i n f r o m p r e v e n t i n g t h i s . P a r f i t a l s o s a y s t h a t i f we know t h a t a human b e i n g i s i n a coma t h a t i s i n c u r a b l e - t h a t t h i s human b e i n g w i l l c e r t a i n l y n e v e r r e g a i n any c o n s c i o u s n e s s -we s h a l l b e l i e v e t h a t t h e p e r s o n has c e a s e d t o e x i s t . S i n c e t h e r e i s a l i v i n g human body, t h e human b e i n g s t i l l e x i s t s a n d P a r f i t s a y s we s h o u l d c l a i m t h a t o n l y t h e k i l l i n g o f p e r s o n s i s wrong. As I have shown t h e d i f f e r e n c e r e g a r d i n g P a r f i t ' s c l a i m on t h e a b o r t i o n i s s u e and Buddha's p o s i t i o n on an e t h i c a l c o n d u c t t h a t i s b u i l t on t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l l o v e and c o m p a s s i o n f o r a l l l i v i n g b e i n g s , a c l a i m s u c h a s ' o n l y t h e k i l l i n g o f p e r s o n s i s w r o n g 1 w i l l be c o n t r a d i c t o r y f o r Buddha. P a r f i t a l s o c o n s i d e r s w h a t , o n t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , we s h o u l d b e l i e v e a b o u t d e s e r t and commitments. A c c o r d i n g t o 57 h i m some w r i t e r s c l a i m t h a t o n l y t h e d e e p f u r t h e r f a c t s u p p o r t s t h e c o n c e p t o f d e s e r t , and t h a t , s i n c e t h e r e i s no s u c h f a c t , we c a n n o t d e s e r v e t o be p u n i s h e d f o r p a s t c r i m e s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t a r g u e s f o r t h e g e n e r a l c l a i m t h a t , i f t h e c o n n e c t i o n s a r e w e a k e r b e t w e e n a c r i m i n a l now a n d h i m s e l f a t t h e t i m e o f h i s c r i m e , h e d e s e r v e s l e s s p u n i s h m e n t . P a r f i t s a y s a s i m i l a r c l a i m a p p l i e s t o c o m m i t m e n t . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 347 ) P a r f i t ' s c r i t i c i s m o n g r e a t i m p r u d e n c e w i l l h a v e t o some e x t e n t an u n s t e a d y i m p a c t on t h i s c l a i m . I f c o n n e c t i o n s a r e weaker b e t w e e n t h e boy who s t a r t s t o smoke now and h i s f u t u r e s e l f f i f t y y e a r s l a t e r , ' i t c a n n o t be i r r a t i o n a l t o be l e s s c o n c e r n e d , now, a b o u t t h o s e p a r t s o f o u r f u t u r e t o w h i c h we a r e now l e s s c l o s e l y c o n n e c t e d ' ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 7 ) P a r f i t s h o u l d h a v e s a i d t h a t t h e b o y ' s a c t i s l e s s m o r a l l y wrong. T h i s i n a way w i l l make m o r a l i t y a m a t t e r o f d e g r e e . The U t i l i t a r i a n V i e w i s e x p l a i n e d by P a r f i t a s f o l l o w s : A l l t h a t m a t t e r s a r e t h e a m o u n t s o f h a p p i n e s s and s u f f e r i n g , o r b e n e f i t s a n d b u r d e n s . I t makes no m o r a l d i f f e r e n c e how t h e s e a m o u n t s a r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s between d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 3 0 ) On d i s c u s s i n g t h e D i s t r i b u t i v e J u s t i c e ( d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s and b u r d e n s b e tween d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e ) P a r f i t c l a i m s t h a t U t i l i t a r i a n a c t s on t h e f a c t o f s e p a r a t e n e s s o f p e r s o n s (we a r e d i f f e r e n t p e o p l e , e a c h w i t h h i s own l i f e t o l e a d ; we b e l i e v e t h a t o u r i d e n t i t y i s d e t e r m i n a t e ) . What P a r f i t 58 a r g u e s f o r i s t h e c l a i m - t h e i m p e r s o n a l i t y o f U t i l i t a r i a n i s m i s l e s s i m p l a u s i b l e t h a n most o f us b e l i e v e . P a r f i t ' s a rgument r e s t s on t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w . C e a s i n g t o b e l i e v e t h a t p e r s o n s a r e s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , a c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t , g i v e s u s m o r e r e a s o n t o be m o r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s a n d l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t whose e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y a r e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 4 6 ) I n t h i s way P a r f i t shows how a change o f v i e w a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y m i g h t a f f e c t o u r b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e P r i n c i p l e o f E q u a l i t y a n d o t h e r d i s t r i b u t i v e p r i n c i p l e s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 3 2 9 ) On t h i s c l a i m Buddha w o u l d a g r e e w i t h P a r f i t i n t h i s way. I n f o l l o w i n g an E t h i c a l C o n d u c t o f s t r i v i n g t o a t t a i n a n e x p e r i e n t i a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e , q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l be more o f c o n c e r n t h a n whose e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y a r e . F o r B u d d h a , m o r a l e f f o r t , e n e r g y o f w i l l a n d m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a r e o u r own i m m e d i a t e e x p e r i e n c e s o f i n i t i a t i v e a n d e f f o r t i n o v e r c o m i n g e v i l t e n d e n c i e s . I f t h e r e i s any e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h i n t h e s e l f - i d e a i t i s t h i s f a c t o f m o r a l e f f o r t , a w a r e n e s s , a n d m e n t a l a l e r t n e s s . ( [ 2 0 ] , p . 2 5 5 ) T h i s i m m e d i a t e s e n s e o f m o r a l i n i t i a t i v e i s what Buddha h o l d s a s t h e o n l y p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e a s p e c t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f t h e s e l f . ( [ 2 0 ] , p . 2 5 7 ) 59 T h e P a t i c c a S a m u p p a d a c o n t a i n s t w e l v e f a c t o r s , w h i c h e x p l a i n s how l i f e a r i s e s , e x i s t s a n d c o n t i n u e s . Many s c h o l a r s have f a i l e d t o s e e t h a t B u d d h i s m u p h e l d a t h e o r y o f n o n - d e t e r m i n i s t i c c a u s a l c o n d i t i o n i n g a l o n g w i t h t h e d o c t r i n e o f f r e e - w i l l . K . N . J a y a t i l l e k e q u o t e s f r o m t h e w r i t i n g o f two s c h o l a r s t h u s : T h i s m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , h o w e v e r , i s n o t l i m i t e d t o W e s t e r n s c h o l a r s . A S i n h a l a B u d d h i s t s c h o l a r , a l a y m a n , h a s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e B u d d h i s t t e a c h i n g o n t h i s m a t t e r a s f o l l o w s i n a p a p e r r e a d b e f o r e a P h i l s o p h e r s C o n f e r e n c e : "What d o e s B u d d h i s m h a v e t o s a y r e g a r d i n g f r e e - w i l l ? " The q u e s t i o n d o es n o t seem t o e v e r h a v e been a s k e d o f t h e B u ddha, b u t , i f he h a d b e e n a s k e d , he w o u l d p r o b a b l y have a n s w e r e d t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n d o e s n o t a r i s e o r t h a t i t i s i n a c c u r a t e l y p u t . T h e r e c a n be no s u c h t h i n g a s a f r e e w i l l o u t s i d e t h e c a u s a l s e q u e n c e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e w o r l d p r o c e s s " ( G . P . M a l a l a s e k e r a , T h e S t a t u s o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l , i n E a s t a n d W e s t , e d . C h a r l e s A.Moore, U n i v e r s i t y o f H a w a i i P r e s s , H o n o l u l u , 1966,p.73) A n o t h e r B u d d h i s t s c h o l a r , a monk, s a y s t h e f o l l o w i n g : "The q u e s t i o n o f F r e e W i l l has o c c u p i e d an i m p o r t a n t p l a c e i n W e s t e r n t h o u g h t a n d p h i l o s o p h y . B u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e C o n d i t i o n e d G e n e s i s , t h i s q u e s t i o n does n o t and c a n n o t a r i s e i n B u d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y . . . N o t o n l y i s t h e s o - c a l l e d f r e e w i l l n o t f r e e , b u t e v e n t h e v e r y i d e a o f F r e e W i l l i s n o t f r e e f r o m c o n d i t i o n s " ( W a l p o l a R a h u l a , What T h e B u d d h a T a u g h t , G o r d o n F r a s e r , B e d f o r d , 1 9 5 9 , p p . 5 4 - 5 ) . I a g r e e w i t h J a y a t i l l e k e i n s a y i n g t h a t Buddha d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e C a u s a l T h e o r y f r o m D e t e r m i n i s m , a n d a l s o f a c e d t h e 60 q u e s t i o n o f f r e e - w i l l a n d a s s e r t e d i t s r e a l i t y i n no u n c e r t a i n t e r m s . B u t I do n o t a g r e e w i t h J a y a t i l l e k e 1 s a r g u m ent ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 2 4 8 ) t h a t i n B u d d h i s t e t h i c s u p h o l d i n g t h e r e a l i t y o f s u r v i v a l a f t e r d e a t h , makes t h e i n d i v i d u a l m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m e a n i n g f u l . As J a y a t i l l e k e h i m s e l f p o i n t s o u t ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 1 2 9 ) B u d d h a a s s e r t e d t h e c o n t i n u i t y w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l i t y . On a d i s c u s s i o n o n ' R e i n c a r n a t i o n and Beyond' J a y a t i l l e k e ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 1 8 0 ) q u o t e s : s o m e t i m e s t h e s u b j e c t d u r i n g w h a t i s c a l l e d " w a k e f u l s t a t e " i s n o t a r e i n c a r n a t i o n i s t , o r e v e n h a s n e v e r h e a r d a b o u t s u c h a n i d e a , o r e l s e b e l o n g s t o a c r e e d t h a t d e n i e s i t e m p h a t i c a l l y . One i n t e l l i g e n t man, a P r o t e s t a n t , a s k e d t h e h y p n o t i s t i n a d e e p , b o o m i n g , s l o w v o i c e , "Why do you ask s u c h a q u e s t i o n ? " The q u e s t i o n was r e p e a t e d , "Were you o r were you n o t b o r n t h e f i r s t t i m e ? " He s t i l l h e s i t a t e d , a s i f t o c o n q u e r a s t r o n g i n n e r o p p o s i t i o n , and t h e n b egan t o d e s c r i b e h i s l i f e a c o u p l e o f c e n t u r i e s ago i n a m o n a s t e r y somewhere i n S p a i n . When he awoke, s l o w l y and by r e v e r s i n g t h e a g e - r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e s s , t h e t a p e was p l a y e d b a c k t o h i m . He was a m a z e d b e c a u s e h e d i d n o t k n o w a b o u t r e i n c a r n a t i o n a n d n e v e r t h o u g h i t p o s s i b l e . J a y a t i l l e k e s t a t e s t h a t i t i s a c u r i o u s f a c t , w h i c h c a l l s f o r a n e x p l a n a t i o n by i t s e l f , t h a t t h o s e who i n t h e i r n o r m a l c o n s c i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a r e m a t e r i a l i s t s o r a t h e i s t s , who do n o t b e l i e v e i n p r e - e x i s t e n c e o r r e b i r t h , g i v e a l l e g e d a c c o u n t s o f p r i o r l i v e s u n d e r deep h y p n o s i s . ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 1 8 0 ) I n 61 t h e B r a h m a j a l a S u t t a we s e e dream i n t e r p r e t e r s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e l o w a r t s , o f l i v i n g by wrong means o f l i v e l i h o o d . ( [ 2 8 ] I,p.17) A s M a t h u r p o i n t s o u t ( [ 2 0 ] , p . 2 5 7 ) B u d d h a h o l d s t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h i n m o r a l i n i t i a t i v e : N e v e r B r a h m i n , h a v e I s e e n o r h e a r d o f s u c h an a v o w a l , s u c h a v i e w . P r a y , how c a n one s t e p o n w a r d s , how c a n one s t e p b a c k , y e t s a y : t h e r e i s no s e l f a g e n c y ; t h e r e i s no o t h e r a g e n c y ? What t h i n k y o u B r a h m i n , i s t h e r e s u c h a t h i n g a s i n i t i a t i o n ? Y e s , S i r . . . . W e l l B r a h m i n , s i n c e t h e r e i s i n i t i a t i v e a n d men a r e known t o i n i t i a t e , t h i s i s among men t h e s e l f - a g e n c y , t h i s i s t h e o t h e r a g e n c y . ([ ],p.237-238) J a y a t i l l e k e a l s o s t a t e s ( [ 1 4 ] , p . 2 4 6 ) t h e same s t o r y how when a c e r t a i n B r a h m i n a p p r o a c h e d t h e Buddha and t o l d h i m t h a t he was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e was no f r e e w i l l on t h e p a r t o f h i m s e l f o r o t h e r s , Buddha a d m o n i s h e d h i m a n d a s k e d how he c o u l d s a y s u c h a t h i n g when he h i m s e l f o f h i s own a c c o r d c o u l d w a l k up t o t h e Buddha and w a l k away f r o m h i m . I t h i n k t h i s e l e m e n t o f i n i t i a t i v e s u p p o r t s a n d a l s o d o e s n o t c o n t r a d i c t t h e o t h e r t h e o r i e s o f t h e Buddha, and i s b e t t e r t h a n t o r e s o r t t o an e x p l a n a t i o n o f s u r v i v a l a f t e r d e a t h w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t s t h e v i e w o f c o n t i n u i t y w i t h o u t i d e n t i t y o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I f i t be a s k e d how does t h e Buddha j u s t i f y t h e e t h i c s o f t h e M i d d l e P a t h , t h e n , he w o u l d answer t h a t i t i s t h e c o n s t a n t 62 d e e p e n i n g o f o n e ' s r e a s o n i n g o f t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h o f n o t o n l y o f n o t - s e l f b u t o f t o t a l impermanency o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s . T h e n , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween Buddha's e t h i c s a n d P a r f i t ' s e t h i c s i s t h a t f o r P a r f i t , a n i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w e n a b l e s o n e t o make c h o i c e s w h i c h w i l l m a x i m i z e one's h a p p i n e s s , a nd t h e g e n e r a l m a x i m i z i n g o f h a p p i n e s s i s s e e n a s t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l . The a t t i t u d e o f P a r f i t and Hume t o w a r d s t h e S e l f a n d E t h i c s a s a r i s i n g f r o m an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n seems t o be s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e . 63 THE BUDDHIST ATTITUDE TOWARD PARFIT'S RELATION R P a r f i t ' s a r g u m e n t t h a t we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , a p a r t f r o m o u r b r a i n s a n d b o d i e s , a n d v a r i o u s i n t e r r e l a t e d p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l e v e n t s a n d t h a t o u r e x i s t e n c e j u s t i n v o l v e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o u r b r a i n s a n d b o d i e s , a n d t h e d o i n g o f o u r deeds and t h e t h i n k i n g o f o u r t h o u g h t s , a n d t h e o c c u r e n c e o f c e r t a i n o t h e r p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l e v e n t s , a t l e a s t c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e s t h e B u d d h i s t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d d o c t r i n e o f n o t - s e l f ( a n a t t a ) . T h i s B u d d h i s t V i e w i s e x p l a i n e d by t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s w h i c h a c c o r d i n g t o t h e B u d d h i s t V i e w c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s o - c a l l e d ' b e i n g ' . Though P a r f i t a c c e p t s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a p e r s o n , t h e B u d d h i s t e x p l a n a t i o n d o e s n o t e v e n l e a v e room f o r t h e n o t i o n o f p e r s o n i n P a r f i t ' s s e n s e . A c l o s e l o o k a t t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s , w h i c h c o m p r i s e m a t t e r , s e n s a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s , m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s , and c o n s c i o u s n e s s , makes one r e a l i s e t h a t t h e y a r e o f a n a t u r e o f c a u s e a n d e f f e c t . I t c a n be due t o any c a u s e t h a t any o f t h e s e a g g r e g a t e s f o r m . T h e f o r m a t i o n s o n c e f o r m e d do n o t l a s t . T h e i r e v e r -c h a n g i n g n a t u r e i s t h e r e a s o n t h a t we have s o many d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e r e i s no permanent e x p e r i e n c e r b e c a u s e t h e e x p e r i e n c e r e x i s t s a l s o due t o t h e f o r m a t i o n s . 64 D i s c u s s i n g D e s c a r t e s , P a r f i t s a y s ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 2 4 ) D e s c a r t e s s h o u l d n o t have c l a i m e d t h a t a t h i n k e r must be a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t y . D e s c a r t e s s h o u l d n o t h a v e c l a i m e d , ' I t h i n k , t h e r e f o r e I am' b u t i n s t e a d c o u l d have c l a i m e d , ' T h i s i s a t h o u g h t : t h i n k i n g i s g o i n g on' o r ' T h i s i s a t h o u g h t , t h e r e f o r e a t l e a s t one t h o u g h t i s b e i n g t h o u g h t ' . And t h e n P a r f i t d e c l a r e s t h a t B e c a u s e we a s c r i b e t h o u g h t s t o t h i n k e r s , we c a n t r u l y c l a i m t h a t t h i n k e r s e x i s t . B u t we c a n n o t d e d u c e , f r o m t h e c o n t e n t o f o u r e x p e r i e n c e s , t h a t a t h i n k e r i s a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 2 5 ) P a r f i t d i s c u s s e s a n a r g u m e n t f o r t h i s v i e w s u g g e s t e d b y L i c h t e n b e r g , B e c a u s e we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , we c o u l d f u l l y d e s c r i b e o u r t h o u g h t s w i t h o u t c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y h a v e t h i n k e r s . We c o u l d f u l l y d e s c r i b e o u r e x p e r i e n c e s , and t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n them, w i t h o u t c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y a r e had by a s u b j e c t o f e x p e r i e n c e s . We c o u l d g i v e w h a t I c a l l a n i m p e r s o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 2 5 ) P a r f i t ' s a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d i n t h i s d i s c u s s i o n on a r g u i n g f o r t h e p r e m i s e t h a t 'we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s ' . Buddha a l s o a r g u e s f o r t h e same p r e m i s e 'we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s ' . S i n c e t h e i r a p p r o a c h e s w e r e d i f f e r e n t ( a s I h a v e shown i n c h a p t e r t h r e e ) P a r f i t a r r i v e d a t t h i s p r e m i s e w i t h an i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n a n d Buddha r e a l i s e d t h i s p r e m i s e a s an e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h . A f t e r c o m i n g t o t h i s t h a t i n o u r i d e n t i t y i m p e r s o n a l d e s c r i p t i o n , P a r f i t c l a i m s o v e r t i m e what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R. 65 and t h i s i s what m a t t e r s . R e l a t i o n R i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y o f a p e r s o n . The more i m p o r t a n t i s t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t e d n e s s w h i c h i s t h e h o l d i n g o f p a r t i c u l a r d i r e c t p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 6 ) P a r f i t a l s o t a l k s a b o u t t h r e e v e r s i o n s o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n . ( I have s t a t e d them i n c h a p t e r one) T h e s e d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t , o v e r t h e q u e s t i o n o f what i s t h e r i g h t k i n d o f c a u s e . On t h e N a r r o w v e r s i o n o f t h i s P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n , t h e c a u s e must be a n o r m a l c a u s e . On t h e Wide v e r s i o n o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n , t h e c a u s e c o u l d be a n y r e l i a b l e c a u s e . On t h e W i d e s t v e r s i o n o f t h e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n , t h e c a u s e c o u l d be any c a u s e . An a n a l o g y t h a t P a r f i t e m p l o y e s t o a r g u e t h a t we n e e d n o t d e c i d e b e t w e e n t h e s e t h r e e v e r s i o n s i s a s t h i s : Some p e o p l e go b l i n d b e c a u s e o f damage t o t h e i r e y e s . S c i e n t i s t s a r e now d e v e l o p i n g a r t i f i c i a l e y e s . T h e s e i n v o l v e a g l a s s o r p l a s t i c l e n s , and a m i c r o - c o m p u t e r w h i c h s e n d s t h r o u g h t h e o p t i c n e r v e e l e c t r i c a l p a t t e r n s l i k e t h o s e t h a t a r e s e n t t h r o u g h t h i s n e r v e by a n a t u r a l e y e . When s u c h a r t i f i c i a l e y e s a r e more a d v a n c e d , t h e y m i g h t g i v e t o s o m e o n e who h a s g o n e b l i n d v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s j u s t l i k e t h o s e t h a t he u s e d t o h a v e . What he seems t o s e e w o u l d c o r r e s p o n d t o w h a t i s i n f a c t b e f o r e h i m . And v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s w o u l d be c a u s a l l y d e p e n d e n t , i n t h i s new b u t r e l i a b l e way, on t h e l i g h t waves c o m i n g f r o m t h e o b j e c t s t h a t a r e b e f o r e h i m . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 8 ) W o u l d t h i s p e r s o n b e s e e i n g t h e s e o b j e c t s ? I f we i n s i s t t h a t s e e i n g must 66 i n v o l v e t h e n o r m a l c a u s e , we w o u l d a n s w e r No. B u t e v e n i f t h i s p e r s o n c a n n o t s e e , what he has i s j u s t a s g ood  a s s e e i n g , b o t h a s a way o f k n o w i n g what i s w i t h i n s i g h t , a n d a s a s o u r c e o f v i s u a l p l e a s u r e . I f we a c c e p t t h e Wide P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i o n , we c o u l d make a s i m i l a r c l a i m . I f p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y d o e s n o t h a v e i t s n o r m a l c a u s e , i t may n o t p r o v i d e p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . We c a n c l a i m t h a t e v e n i f t h i s i s s o , what i t p r o v i d e s i s a s good  a s p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 9 ) I t seems t o me t h a t P a r f i t comes t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t R e l a t i o n R d o e s n o t p r o v i d e P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) when i t d o es n o t i n v o l v e t h e n o r m a l c a u s e , e v e n t h o u g h what i t p r o v i d e s i s e q u i v a l e n t t o P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y i n t h e B u d d h i s t s e n s e . And s i n c e i t i s b e i n g h e l d by P a r f i t t o be 'as g o o d a s ' P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , P a r f i t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e R e l a t i o n R may be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e same c r i t i c i s m by t h e B u d d h a t h a t he ( t h e Buddha) l e v e l s a g a i n s t t h e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y w i t h t h e n o r m a l c u a s e . What I w i l l do i s e x a m i n e P a r f i t ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e R e l a t i o n R t o s e e i f s u c h c r i t i c i s m s a r e j u s t i f i e d . I f t h e y a r e t h e n P a r f i t h a s n o t u n d e r g o n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e a t t i t u d i n a l c h a n g e s u p p o s e d l y a t t e n d i n g t o t h e B u d d h i s t r e a l i s a t i o n o f n o t -s e l f . I n t h e B u d d h i s t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e A g g r e g a t e o f S e n s a t i o n , i t i s s a i d t h a t t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t o f t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d w i t h t h e eye t h e s e n s a t i o n o f v i s i b l e f o r m s a r e e x p e r i e n c e d . The v i s u a l e x p e r i e n c e s c a n be c a u s a l l y d e p e n d e n t on t h e e y e o r a r i s e i n t h e new r e l i a b l e way t h a t P a r f i t s p e c i f i e s . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y h e r e t o m e n t i o n t h a t t h e Buddha's e x p l a n a t i o n d o e s n o t h a v e a l i m i t a t i o n o f a n o r m a l c a u s e . I n t h e A g g r e g a t e o f S e n s a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d a l l o u r s e n s a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t o f p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l o r g a n s ( i n B u d d h i s t t e x t s one comes a c r o s s t h e t e r m m e n t a l o r g a n ; t h e m i n d (manas) i s c o n s i d e r e d a f a c u l t y o r o r g a n ( i n d r i y a ) l i k e t h e eye o r t h e e a r and h e n c e a m e n t a l o r g a n ) w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . The a r t i f i c i a l e y e and t h e l i g h t -waves c o m i n g f r o m t h e o b j e c t s t h a t a r e b e f o r e h i m w i l l h e l p h i m t o s e e o n l y t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t i n g o f h i s p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l o r g a n s . A s i m i l a r argument c a n be s e e n i n P a r f i t ' s i m a g i n e d s t o r y , where h i s b r a i n and body a r e d e s t r o y e d and t h e S c a n n e r a nd t h e R e p l i c a t o r p r o d u c e a p e r s o n who has a new b u t e x a c t l y s i m i l a r b r a i n a n d b o d y , a n d who i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c o n t i n u o u s w i t h h i m a s when he p r e s s e d t h e g r e e n b u t t o n . I n t h e Buddha's V i e w , i t i s t h e p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s t h a t we h o l d a s t h e p e r s o n and t h e r e i s no " I " t o be f o u n d . So t h e p r o b l e m w h e t h e r i t i s t h e same o r a d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n , w o u l d n o t a r i s e . F o r P a r f i t , on t h e t w o W i d e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C r i t e r i a , he w o u l d be h i m . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 8 ) I n Buddha's V i e w , s i n c e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i s s u b j e c t t o i m p e r m a n e n c y , p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s , ( i . e . b e i n g b e a u t i f u l ) h a v e n o i m p o r t a n c e . B u t f o r P a r f i t , i n t h e c a s e o f a few p e o p l e who a r e v e r y b e a u t i f u l , p h y s i c a l s i m i l a r i t y may h a v e g r e a t 68 i m p o r t a n c e . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) A s e x p l a i n e d by B u d d h a i n t h e p a t i c c a samuppada, i t w i l l be s e e n as c r a v i n g , c l i n g i n g a nd d e s i r e t h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e f o r t h e i l l u s i o n o f s e l f . P a r f i t s a y s t h a t I f we a c c e p t t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , i t i s R and n o t t h e i d e n t i t y t h a t m a t t e r s . We may a c c e p t t h a t R e l a t i o n R h a s n e a r l y a l l t h e i m p o r t a n c e t h a t , o n t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w , p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y h a s . And we may a c c e p t t h a t , on t h i s v i e w , what f u n d a m e n t a l l y m a t t e r s i s n o t p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y b u t R. ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 7 2 ) P a r f i t a r g u e s a g a i n s t P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y b e i n g a p u r e l y m e n t a l e n t i t y , a s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l e n t i t y o r a f u r t h e r f a c t t h a t d o e s n o t c o n s i s t i n p h y s i c a l a n d / o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n t i n u i t y . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 0 9 - 2 1 0 ) B u t P a r f i t g i v e s g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e R e l a t i o n R. B uddha a g r e e s w i t h P a r f i t i n d e n y i n g P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a s b e i n g s u c h , b u t Buddha a l s o d e n i e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e R e l a t i o n R. The p s y c h o - p h y s i c a l p r o c e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a c c o r d i n g t o B u d d h a i s t h e f i v e a g g r e g a t e s w h i c h a r i s e , e x i s t a nd c o n t i n u e i n r e a c t i o n o r r e s p o n s e w i t h one a n o t h e r . B u t t h e y d o n o t e x i s t a s o n e w h o l e . T h e y a r e a l l i m p e r m a n e n t a n d c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . I f we a t t r i b u t e s o m e t h i n g l i k e R e l a t i o n R a s t h a t w h i c h c a n h o l d b e t w e e n ( i n P a r f i t ' s s e n s e - " s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ) what i s s u b j e c t t o c o n s t a n t c h a n g e , t h e n i n t h e B u d d h i s t s e n s e i t w i l l be l i k e a t t r i b u t i n g a r e l a t i o n t o a n i l l u s i o n ( s e l f ) . 69 T h e r e f o r e h o l d i n g R e l a t i o n R a s o f i m p o r t a n c e w o u l d be f o r Buddha a s same a s h o l d i n g t h e v i e w o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y a s i m p o r t a n t . As P a r f i t t h i n k s , c h a n g i n g t h e v i e w t o a R e d u c t i o n i s t one make a d i f f e r e n c e t o o u r l i v e s . ( [ 2 6 ] , p . 2 1 7 ) I n t h e B u d d h i s t s e n s e t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w t h a t what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R i s e q u i v a l e n t t o what P a r f i t c l a i m s he i s l i b e r a t e d f r o m . As Buddha t a u g h t , t h e r e a l i s a t i o n o f t h e p r e m i s e 'we a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s ' i s t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t t o f o l l o w t h e e t h i c a l p a t h f o r t h e l i b e r a t i o n f r o m s u f f e r i n g ( d u k k h a ) . F o r P a r f i t , t h i s change o f v i e w makes i t e a s i e r f o r h i m t o do more u t i l i t a r i a n and h e d o n i c e t h i c s , and t h a t i n t h e B u d d h i s t s e n s e i s t h e c l i n g i n g a n d c r a v i n g f o r t h e i l l u s i o n o f s e l f t h a t we s h o u l d s t r i v e t o c e a s e . F o r B u d d h a , t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t c o m e s f r o m t h e d e e p r e a l i s a t i o n a n d e x p e r i e n c i n g t h i s n o t - s e l f f o c u s e s o n t h e U l t i m a t e Good - t h e e t h i c a l i d e a l o f U l t i m a t e H a p p i n e s s , m o r a l P e r f e c t i o n , f i n a l R e a l i s a t i o n a n d p e r f e c t F r e e d o m , N i b b a n a . 70 CONCLUDING REMARKS I n t h e F i r s t C h a p t e r o f t h i s t h e s i s , I have p u t f o r w a r d what P a r f i t s a y s o f t h e B u d d h a ' s V i e w . T h e I m p e r s o n a l ( R e d u c t i o n i s t ) V i e w t h a t P a r f i t r e s o l v e s t o e s t a b l i s h i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i m p e r s o n a l v i e w t h a t B u d d h a h o l d s . P a r f i t ' s I m p e r s o n a l V i e w h o l d s t h e v i e w t h a t 'what m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R'. A c c o r d i n g t o P a r f i t i t i s t o t h i s R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w he c l a i m s t h a t Buddha w o u l d h a v e a g r e e d . I n t h e S e c o n d C h a p t e r , I p r e s e n t t h e B u d d h i s t V i e w and show how i t i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m P a r f i t ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e f u t i l i t y o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . F o r Buddha, a r r i v i n g a t t h i s c o n c l u s i o n o f n o t - s e l f came t h r o u g h e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e impermanency o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s , and t h e r e f o r e i t i s a n e x p e r i e n t i a l t r u t h . I p r e s e n t a c l e a r v i e w o f t h e B u d d h a ' s p o s i t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s c l a i m w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e a r l y B u d d h i s t t e x t s . I have a l s o shown t h e a c c u r a c y a n d v a l i d i t y o f t h e p r i m a r y t e x t s a n d a l s o t h e f a c t t h a t i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e p r i m a r y t e x t s h a s b e e n s u b j e c t e d t o c o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s i n l a t e r w o r k s on B u d d h i s m . S i n c e P a r f i t q u o t e s f r o m r e c e n t w o r k s t h a t a r e b a s e d on t h e s e l a t e r w o r k s and s i n c e t h e y g i v e p r o m i n e n c e t o some B u d d h i s t v i e w s a n d n o t o t h e r s , my a r g u m e n t i n t h e t h i r d s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r was t h a t P a r f i t u s e d B u d d h i s t q u o t a t i o n s f r o m 71 w o r k s t h a t w e r e b a s e d o n i n a c c u r a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o f B u d d h i s m . U s i n g t h e s e l a t e r w o r k s h a s l e d P a r f i t i n t o t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e B u d d h i s t d o c t r i n e o f n o t - s e l f i s t h e v i e w t h a t he c l a i m s as t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w . I n C h a p t e r T h r e e , I show how Buddha and P a r f i t b o t h a p p r o a c h f r o m two d i f f e r e n t s t a n d p o i n t s t o t h e p r o b l e m o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . W h i l e P a r f i t d e s c r i b e s t h e n a t u r e o f P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y , t h a t i t e x i s t s i n v o l v i n g t h e e x i s t e n c e o f o u r b r a i n a n d b o d y , Buddha e x p l a i n s how t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e b r a i n and body i s w i t h o u t a P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . I n C h a p t e r F o u r , I show how B u d d h a a n d P a r f i t d i f f e r o n e t h i c s . F o r P a r f i t , t h e I m p e r s o n a l V i e w o f h o l d i n g w h a t m a t t e r s i s R e l a t i o n R i s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f e t h i c s . F o r Buddha r e a l i s i n g t h e impermanency o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s , l e a d s t o f o l l o w i n g a n e t h i c a l p a t h t o a t t a i n t h a t w h i c h i s n o t s u b j e c t t o impermanency. I n t h e l a s t C h a p t e r , I d i s c u s s t h e B u d d h i s t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s P a r f i t ' s R e l a t i o n R. I show how P a r f i t ' s R e l a t i o n R w o u l d be s u b j e c t t o t h e same c r i t i c i s m t h a t B u d d h a g i v e s t o P e r s o n a l I d e n t i t y . P a r f i t a n d Buddha seems t o a g r e e o n l y on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t p e r s o n s a r e n o t s e p a r a t e l y e x i s t i n g e n t i t i e s , b u t , w h e r e a s P a r f i t g i v e s g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e R e l a t i o n R, i n Buddha's V i e w o f t h e n o t - s e l f t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no room f o r s u c h a c o n c e p t . P a r f i t ' s R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w g i v e s h i m more r e a s o n t o be more c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s and be l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s t h e y a r e . I n c o n t r a s t , B u d d h a ' s r e a s o n f o r b e i n g c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e q u a l i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e i s t o a t t a i n an e x p e r i e n t i a l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , Buddha w o u l d n o t have a g r e e d w i t h t h e R e d u c t i o n i s t V i e w t h a t P a r f i t c l a i m s Buddha w o u l d have a g r e e d w i t h . 73 BIBLIOGRAPHY [ 1 ] A l l e n , G . F . The Buddha's P h i l o s o p h y : S e l e c t i o n s f r o m t h e  P a l i c a n o n a n d a n I n t r o d u c t o r y E s s a y . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwin L t d , 1959 [2 ] E d w a r d s , P a u l . The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f P h i l o s o p h y Volume 7, New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n P u b l i s h i n g C o . , I n c . The F r e e P r e s s , L o n d o n : C o l l i e r M a c m i l l a n P u b l i c a t i o n s . [ 3 ] C h a n d a j o t i Maha T h e r o , Rekadahene. B u d d h i s m I t s H i s t o r y  a n d C i v i l i z a t i o n . Colombo: F e l i x P r e s s , 1975. [4 ] C h a t a l i a n , G e o r g e . J a y a t i l l e k e o n a C o n c e p t o f  M e a n i n g l e s s n e s s i n t h e P a l i N i k a y a s i n P h i l o s o h y E a s t & West Volume X V I I I . H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1968. [5] C o l l i n s , S t e v e n . S e l f l e s s P e r s o n s . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. [6 ] C o n z e , E d w a r d . B u d d h i s t S c r i p t u r e s . P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1960. [7 ] C o n z e , E d w a r d . B u d d h i s m i t s E s s e n c e a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . H a r p e r T o r c h b o o k s , 1975. [8] C o n z e , E d w a r d . B u d d h i s t T e x t s T h r o u g h t h e A g e s . T r a n s . f r o m o r i g i n a l P a l i , S a n s k r i t , C h i n e s e , T i b e t a n , J a p a n e s e and Apabhramsa. O x o f r d : B r u n o C a s s i r e r , 1 9 5 4 . [9] C r u i s e , H e n r y . E a r l y B u d d h i s m : S o m e R e c e n t  M i s c o n c e p t i o n s , i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t and West Volume 3 3 , H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1 9 8 3 . [10] F e e r , L e o n . S a m y u t t a N i k a y a . 4 V o l u m e s , t r a n s . f o r P a l i T e x t S o c i e t y , L o ndon: L u z a c and Co., 1884-1904. 74 [ 1 1 ] Herman, A.L. A S o l u t i o n t o t h e P a r a d o x o f D e s i r e i n  B u d d h i s m , i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & W e s t V o l u m e 2 9 , H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1979. [ 1 2 ] H o r n e r , I.B. M a j j h i m a N i k a y a I (The C o l l e c t i o n o f t h e M i d d l e L e n g t h S a y i n g s ) t r a n s , f r o m P a l i f o r P a l i T e x t S o c i e t y . L o ndon: L u z a c and Co., 1954. [ 1 3 ] H u m p h r e y s , C h r i s t m a s . The Wisdom o f B u d d h i s m . L o n d o n : R i d e r & Co., 1970. [ 1 4 ] J a y a t i l l e k e , K.N. T h e M e s s a g e o f t h e B u d d h a , a posthumous work e d i t e d by N i n i a n S m a r t . L o n d o n : G e o r g e A l l e n & Unwin L t d , 1975. [ 1 5 ] K a l u p a h a n a , D a v i d J . The N o t i o n o f S u f f e r i n g i n E a r l y  B u d d h i s m c o m p a r e d w i t h some R e f l e c t i o n s o f E a r l y  W i t t g e n s t e i n . i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & W e s t V o l u m e 27 H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1977. [ 1 6 ] K e i t h , A r t h u r B e r r i e d a l e . B u d d d h i s t P h i l o s o p h y i n I n d i a  and C e y l o n . O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1923. [ 1 7 ] K i n g , W.L. The E x i s t e n t i a l N a t u r e o f B u d d h i s t U l t i m a t e s i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & West V o l u m e 33 H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1983. [ 1 8 ] K o l m , S e r g e - C h r i s t o p h e . The B u d d h i s t T h e o r y o f 'no- s e l f ', i n t h e M U L T I P L E S E L F e d i t e d b y J o n E l s t e r , C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1987. [ 1 9 ] M a l a l a s e k e r a , G.P. The S t a t u s o f t h e I n d i v i d u a l i n  T h e r a v a d a B u d d h i s m , i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & West V o l u m e X I V H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1964. [ 2 0 ] M a t h u r , D.C. The H i s t o r i c a l Buddha ( G o t a m a ) , Hume an d  J a m e s o n t h e s e l f : C o m p a r i s o n s a n d e v a l u a t i o n s , i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & W e s t V o l u m e 28 H o n o l u l u : T h e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1978. [ 2 1 ] N a n a m o l i B h i k k h u . P i t a k a D i s c l o s u r e ( P e t a k o p a d e s a ) t r a n s , f r o m P a l i f o r P a l i T e x t S o c i e t y . L o n d o n : L u z a c and Co.,1964. 75 [ 2 2 ] N a n a m o l i B h i k k h u . V i s u d d h i m a g g a ( T h e P a t h o f  P u r i f i c a t i o n ) by B h a d a n t a c a r i y a Buddhaghosa t r a n s , f r o m P a l i 2nd E d i t . Colombo: A.Semage, 1964. [ 2 3 ] N a r a d a T h e r o . Dhammapada t r a n s , f r o m P a l i . 3 r d E d i t . C a l c u t t a : Mahabodhi S o c i e t y o f I n d i a , 1970. [ 2 4 ] N y a n a t i l o k a B h i k k h u . B u d d h i s t D i c t i o n a r y : M a n u a l o f  B u d d h i s t t e r m s a n d D o c t r i n e s . C o l o m b o : F r e w i n & C o . , L t d . 1972. [ 2 5 ] N y a n a t i l o k a B h i k k h u . The Word o f t h e Buddha: a n O u t l i n e  o f t h e e t h i c o - p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e Buddha i n t h e words o f t h e P a l i Canon. Colombo.1927. [ 2 6 ] P a r f i t , D e r e k . R e a s o n s and P e r s o n s . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1986. [ 2 7 ] R a h u l a , W a l p o l a . What t h e Buddha T a u g h t . 2nd E d i t . B e d f o r d : G o r d o n F r a s e r , 1967. [28] Rhys D a v i d s , T.W. D i a l o g u e s o f t h e Buddha: S a c r e d B o o k s  o f t h e B u d d h i s t s . 3 V o l u m e s L o n d o n : L u z a c a n d Co.,1899-1921. [ 2 9 ] Rhys D a v i d s , T.W. The Q u e s t i o n s o f K i n g M i l i n d a . P a r t I and I I . New Y o r k : Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1 8 9 4 - 1 9 6 3 . [ 3 0 ] S t r o n g , D.M. U d a n a ( T h e S o l e m n U t t e r a n c e s o f t h e  Buddha) t r a n s , f r o m P a l i L o n don: L u z a c a nd Co.,1902. [ 3 1 ] S w e a r e r , D.K. C o n t r o l a n d F r e e d o m : The S t r u c t u r e o f B u d d h i s t M e d i t a t i o n i n t h e P a l i S u t t a s i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & West V o l u m e X X I I I H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1973. [ 3 2 ] T a y l o r , R i c h a r d . M e t a p h y s i c s . F o u n d a t i o n o f P h i l o s o p h y S e r i e s . P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . 1963. [ 3 3 ] T h. S t c h e r b a t s k y . The C e n t r a l C o n c e p t i o n o f B u d d h i s m ;  a n d t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e word "Dharma". C a l c u t t a : S u s i l 76 G u p t a ( I n d i a ) L t d . 1956 [ 3 4 ] Th. S t c h e r b a t s k y . The S o u l T h e o r y o f t h e B u d d h i s t s i n B u l l e t i n de l ' A c a d e m i e des S c i e n c e s de R u s s i e , 1919. [ 3 5 ] T h . S t c h e r b a t s k y . C e n t r a l C o n c e p t i o n o f B u d d h i s m L o n d o n : R o y a l A s i a t i c S o c i e t y , 1 9 2 3 . [ 3 6 ] Thomas, E . J . H i s t o r y o f B u d d h i s t T h o u g h t 2nd E d i t . L o n d o n : R o u t l e d g e & K . P a u l , 1951. [ 3 7 ] Umehara, T a k e s h i . H e i d e g g a r and B u d d h i s m i n P h i l o s o p h y E a s t & West Volume XX H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1970. [ 3 8 ] V a r m a , V i s h v a n a t h P. E a r l y B u d d h i s m a n d I t s O r i g i n s . D e l h i : M a n o h a r l a l , 1 9 7 3 . [ 3 9 ] W a r r e n , H e n r y C l a r k e . B u d d h i s m i n T r a n s l a t i o n s :  P a s s a g e s S e l e c t e d f r o m t h e B u d d h i s t S a c r e d B o o k s . . . f r o m  t h e O r i g i n a l P a l i t r a n s . New Y o r k : Atheneum, 1976. [ 4 0 ] Woodward, F.L. A n g u t t a r a N i k a y a 4 V o l u m e s , t r a n s , f r o m P a l i f o r P a l i T e x t S o c i e t y . L o n d o n : L u z a c a n d C o . , 1952-55. 77 APPENDICES A THE F I V E AGGREGATES The f i v e a g g r e g a t e s w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e s o - c a l l e d b e i n g a r e : (1) a g g r e g a t e o f c o r p o r e a l i t y ( r u p a k k h a n d h a ) (2) a g g r e g a t e o f s e n s a t i o n s ( v e d a n a k k h a n d h a ) (3) a g g r e g a t e o f p e r c e p t i o n s ( s a n n a k k h a n d h a ) (4) a g g r e g a t e o f m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s ( s a m k h a r a k k h a n d h a ) (5) a g g r e g a t e o f c o n c s i o u s n e s s ( v i n n a n a k k h a n d h a ) AGGREGATE OF CORPOREALITY (MATTER) I n t h e f i r s t , t h e a g g r e g a t e o f m a t t e r , a r e i n c l u d e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l F o u r G r e a t E l e m e n t s ( c a t t a r i m a h a b u t a n i ) . They a r e s o l i d i t y , f l u i d i t y , h e a t and m o t i o n . T h e r e a r e t w e n t y -f o u r s e c o n d a r y phenomena c a l l e d d e r i v a t i v e s ( u p a d a y a r u p a ) . T h e s e d e r i v a t i v e s o f F o u r G r e a t E l e m e n t s a r e o u r f i v e P h y s i c a l S e n s e - O r g a n s ; e y e , e a r , n o s e , t o n g u e , b o d y a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g P h y s i c a l S e n s e - O b j e c t s ; f o r m , s o u n d , o d o u r , t a s t e , b o d i l y i m p a c t s , f e m i n i n i t y ( i t t h i n d r i y a ) , v i r i l i t y ( p u r i s i n d r i y a ) , p h y s i c a l b a s e o f m i n d ( h a d a y a -v a t t h u ) , b o d i l y e x p r e s s i o n ( k a y a - v i n n a t t i ) , v e r b a l T h i s s e c t i o n i s d o n e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o [ 2 4 ] a n d ( [ 2 7 ] , p . 2 0 - 8 ) 78 e x p r e s s i o n ( v a c i - v i n n a t t i ) , p h y s i c a l l i f e ( r u p a - j i v i t a ) , s p a c e e l e m e n t ( a k a s a - d h a t u ) , p h y s i c a l a g i l i t y ( r u p a s s a l a h u t a ) , p h y s i c a l e l a s t i c i t y ( r u p a s s a m u d u t a ) , p h y s i c a l a d a p t a b i l i t y ( r u p a s s a kammannata), P h y s i c a l g r o w t h ( r u p a s s a u p a c a y a ) , p h y s i c a l c o n t i n u i t y ( r u p a s s a s a n t a t i ) , d e c a y ( j a r a ) , impermanence ( a n i c c a ) , n u t r i m e n t ( a h a r a ) . The w h o l e r e a l m o f m a t t e r , b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e a g g r e a g a t e o f m a t t e r . AGGREGATE OF SENSATIONS I n t h e a g g r e g a t e o f s e n s a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d a l l o u r s e n s a t i o n s , p l e a s a n t , n e u t r a l , e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t o f p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l o r g a n s w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . They a r e o f s i x k i n d s : t h e s e n s a t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t o f t h e eye w i t h v i s i b l e f o r m s , e a r w i t h s o u n d s , n o s e w i t h o d o u r , t o n g u e w i t h t a s t e , b o d y w i t h t a n g i b l e o b j e c t s , a n d m i n d ( w h i c h i s t h e s i x t h s e n s a t i o n ) w i t h m i n d - o b j e c t s o r t h o u g h t s o r i d e a s . A l l o u r p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l s e n s a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p . A l l s e n s a t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r n a t u r e i s c l a s s i f i e d a s f i v e k i n d s : b o d i l y a g g r e a b l e f e e l i n g : s u k h a = k a y i k a s u k h a v e d a n a b o d i l y p a i n f u l f e e l i n g : d u k k h a = k a y i k a d u k k h a v e d a n a m e n t a l l y a g r e e a b l e f e e l i n g : s omanassa = c e t a s i k a s u k h a v e d a n a 79 m e n t a l l y p a i n f u l f e e l i n g : d o m a n a s s a = c e t a s i k a d u k k h a v e d a n a i n d i f f e r e n t f e e l i n g : u p e k k h a = a d u k k h a - m - a s u k h a v e d a n a The t e r m 'mind' (manas) i n B u d d h i s m i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d a s s p i r i t o p p o s e d t o m a t t e r . M i n d i s r e c o g n i z e d o n l y a s a f a c u l t y o r o r g a n l i k e t h e eye o r t h e e a r . Though i t d o e s n o t c o m e u n d e r t h e m a t e r i a l s e n s e - o r g a n s , i t c a n b e c o n t r o l l e d a n d d e v e l o p e d l i k e a n y o t h e r f a c u l t y , w h e r e B u d d h i s m l a y s an e m p h a s i s on t h e v a l u e o f c o n t r o l l i n g a n d d i s c i p l i n i n g t h e s e s i x ( m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l ) f a c u l t i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t ween t h e eye and t h e m i n d a s f a c u l t i e s i s t h a t t h e f o r m e r s e n s e s t h e w o r l d o f c o l o u r s a n d v i s i b l e f o r m s , w h i l e t h e l a t t e r s e n s e s t h e w o r l d o f i d e a s and t h o u g h t s a n d m e n t a l o b j e c t s . The w h o l e w o r l d i s n o t o n l y o f v i s i b l e f o r m , s o u n d , o d o u r , t a s t e a n d t a n g i b l e t h i n g s b u t a l s o i n c l u d e s i d e a s and t h o u g h t s . The m i n d i s t h e f a c u l t y t h a t t h e s e i d e a s a n d t h o u g h t s c a n be s e n s e d . T h e w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e d by t h i s s i x t h s e n s e f a c u l t y i s n o t i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e o t h e r f i v e p h y s i c a l s e n s e f a c u l t i e s . I t i s d e p e n d e n t o n , a n d a r e c o n d i t i o n e d b y , p h y s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , a p e r s o n b o r n d e a f c a n n o t h a v e i d e a s o f s o u n d , e x c e p t t h r o u g h t h e a n a l o g y o f movements e x p e r i e n c e d t h r o u g h h i s o t h e r f a c u l t i e s . AGGREGATE OF PERCEPTIONS 80 The a g g r e g a t e o f p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a l s o o f s i x k i n d s . I n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s i x i n t e r n a l f a c u l t i e s a n d t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i x e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s a r i s e p e r c e p t i o n s . L i k e t h e s e n s a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a l s o p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e c o n t a c t o f o u r s i x f a c u l t i e s w i t h t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . I t i s t h e p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h e o b j e c t s , w h e t h e r t h e y be p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l . AGGREGATE OF MENTAL FORMATIONS I n t h e a g g r e g a t e o f m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d a l l v o l i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s b o t h good and b a d . V o l i t i o n i s m e n t a l c o n s t r u c t i o n , m e n t a l a c t i v i t y . I t s f u n c t i o n i s t o d i r e c t t h e m i n d i n t h e s p h e r e o f g o o d , bad o r n e u t r a l a c t i v i t i e s . J u s t l i k e s e n s a t i o n s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s , v o l i t i o n i s o f s i x k i n d s , c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e s i x i n t e r n a l f a c u l t i e s a n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i x o b j e c t s ( b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l ) i n t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d . S e n s a t i o n s a n d p e r c e p t i o n s a r e n o t v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n s . They do n o t p r o d u c e k a r m i c e f f e c t s . I t i s o n l y v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n s t h a t c a n p r o d u c e k a r m i c e f f f e c t s . T h e r e a r e f i f t y s u c h a c t i v i t i e s a n d o f t h e s e e l e v e n a r e g e n e r a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s , t w e n t y - f i v e a r e l o f t y ( s o b h a n a ) q u a l i t i e s , and f o u r t e e n a r e k a r m i c a l l y unwholesome q u a l i t i e s . AGGREGATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS 81 A g g r e g a t e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s e x p l a i n s how c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r i s e a s a r e a c t i o n o r r e s p o n s e w h i c h has one o f t h e s i x f a c u l t i e s ( e y e , e a r , n o s e , t o n g u e , body, and mind) as i t s b a s i s , a n d o n e o f t h e s i x c o r r e s p o n d i n g e x t e r n a l phenomena ( v i s i b l e f o r m , s o u n d , o d o u r , t a s t e , t a n g i b l e t h i n g s a n d i d e a o r t h o u g h t ) a s i t s o b j e c t s . F o r i n s t a n c e , v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( c a k k h a - v i n n a n a ) has t h e eye a s i t s b a s i s and a v i s i b l e f o r m as i t s o b j e c t . M e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( m a n o - v i n n a n a ) h a s t h e m i n d (manas) a s i t s b a s i s and a m e n t a l - o b j e c t , an i d e a o r t h o u g h t (dhamma) a s i t s o b j e c t . So c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h o t h e r f a c u l t i e s . T h u s , l i k e s e n s a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n and v o l i t i o n , c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l s o i s o f s i x k i n d s , i n r e l a t i o n t o s i x i n t e r n a l f a c u l t i e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g s i x e x t e r n a l o b j e c t s . I s s h o u l d be c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e an o b j e c t . I t i s o n l y a s o r t o f a n a w a r e n e s s -a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f an o b j e c t . When t h e eye comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h a c o l o u r , f o r i n s t a n c e b l u e , v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r i s e s w h i c h s i m p l y i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e p r e s e n c e o f a c o l o u r ; b u t i t d o e s n o t r e c o g n i z e t h a t i t i s b l u e . T h e r e i s no r e c o g n i t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e . I t i s p e r c e p t i o n ( t h e t h i r d a g g r e g a t e d i s c u s s e d a b o v e ) t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h a t i t i s b l u e . The t e r m ' v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' i s a p h i l o s o p h i c a l e x p r e s s i o n d e n o t i n g t h e same i d e a a s i s c o n v e y e d by t h e o r d i n a r y w o r d ' s e e i n g ' . S e e i n g d o e s n o t 82 m e a n r e c o g n i z i n g . N e i t h e r d o t h e o t h e r f o r m s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . One o f t h e Buddha's own d i s c i p l e s , S a t i by name, h e l d t h a t t h e M a s t e r t a u g h t : i t i s t h e s a m e c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t t r a n s m i g r a t e s and wanders a b o u t The Buddha a s k e d h i m what he meant by ' c o n s c i o u s n e s s ' . S a t i ' s r e p l y was i t i s t h a t w h i c h e x p e r i e n c e s t h e r e s u l t s o f good and bad d e eds h e r e and t h e r e Buddha r e s p o n d e d To w homever, y o u s t u p i d o n e , h a v e y o u h e a r d me e x p o n d i n g t h e d o c t r i n e i n t h i s m a n n e r ? H a v e n ' t I i n m a n y w a y s e x p l a i n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a r i s i n g o u t o f c o n d i t i o n s : t h a t t h e r e i s no a r i s i n g o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s w i t h o u t c o n d i t i o n s Then t h e Buddha went t o e x p l a i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n d e t a i l : C o n s c i o u s n e s s i s named a c c o r d i n g t o w h a t e v e r c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h i t a r i s e s : o n a c c o u n t o f t h e e y e a n d v i s i b l e f o r m s a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d i t i s c a l l e d v i s u a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; on a c c o u n t o f t h e e a r and s o u n d a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i t i s c a l l e d a u d i t o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; on a c c o u n t o f t h e n o s e a n d o d o u r s a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i t i s c a l l e d o l f a c t o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; on a c c o u n t o f t o n g u e a n d t a s t e s a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d i t i s c a l l e d g u s t a t o r y c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; on a c c o u n t o f t h e b o d y a n d t a n g i b l e o b j e c t s a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i t i s c a l l e d t a c t i l e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; on a c c o u n t o f t h e m i n d a n d m i n d - o b j e c t s ( i d e a s a n d t h o u g h t s ) a r i s e s a c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and i t i s c a l l e d m e n t a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( [ 2 7 ] , p . 2 7 ) 83 T h e n t h e B u d d h a e x p l a i n e d t h i s m a n n e r o f n a m i n g by a n i l l u s t r a t i o n : A f i r e i s named a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a t e r i a l on a c c o u n t o f w h i c h i t b u r n s . A f i r e may b u r n on a c c o u n t o f wood and i t i s c a l l e d w o o d - f i r e . I t may b u r n on a c c o u n t o f s t r a w , and t h e n i t i s c a l l e d s t r a w - f i r e . So c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s named a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n d i t i o n t h r o u g h w h i c h i t a r i s e s . ( [ 1 2 ] V o l I p.256) The Buddha d e c l a r e d i n u n e q u i v o c a l t e r m s t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s d e p e n d s o n m a t t e r , s e n s a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , a n d m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s , and t h a t i t c a n n o t e x i s t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f them. C o n s c i o u s n e s s may e x i s t h a v i n g m a t t e r a s i t s means ( r u p a p a y a m ) , m a t t e r a s i t s o b j e c t ( r u p a r a m m a n a m ) , m a t t e r a s i t s s u p p o r t ( r u p a p a t i t t h a m ) , a n d s e e k i n g d e l i g h t i t may g r o w , i n c r e a s e a n d d e v e l o p ; o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s many e x i s t h a v i n g s e n s a t i o n s a s i t s means, m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s a s i t s o b j e c t , m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s a s i t s s u p p o r t , a n d s e e k i n g d e l i g h t i t may g r o w , i n c r e a s e a n d d e v e l o p . Were a man t o s a y : I s h a l l show t h e c o m i n g , t h e g o i n g , t h e p a s s i n g a w a y , t h e a r i s i n g , t h e g r o w t h , t h e i n c r e a s e o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a p a r t f r o m m a t t e r , s e n s a t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n a n d m e n t a l f o r m a t i o n s , he w o u l d be s p e a k i n g o f s o m e t h i n g t h a t d o e s n o t e x i s t . ( [ 1 0 ] V o l . I l l p.58) 84 B PATICCA SAMUPPADA (CONDITIONED GENESIS) The t w e l v e f a c t o r s o f t h e p a t i c c a samuppada: T h r o u g h i g n o r a n c e a r e c o n d i t i o n e d v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n s o r k a r m a - f o r m a t i o n s ( a v i j j a p a c c a y a s amkhara) T h r o u g h v o l i t i o n a l a c t i o n s i s c o n d i t i o n e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( s a m k h a r a p a c c a y a vinnanam) T h r o u g h c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s c o n d i t i o n e d m e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l phenomena ( v i n n a n a p a c c a y a namarupa) T h r o u g h m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l phenomena a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t h e s i x f a c u l t i e s ( i . e . f i v e s e n s e - o r g a n s a n d m i n d ) ( n a m a r u p a p a c c a y a s a l a y a t a n a m ) T h r o u g h t h e s i x f a c u l t i e s i s c o n d i t i o n e d ( s e n s o r i a l a n d m e n t a l ) c o n t a c t ( s a l a y a t a n a p a c c a y a p h a s s o ) T h r o u g h ( s e n s o r i a l a n d m e n t a l ) c o n t a c t i s c o n d i t i o n e d s e n s a t i o n ( p h a s s a p a c c a y a vedana) T h r o u g h s e n s a t i o n i s c o n d i t i o n e d d e s i r e , c r a v i n g ( v e d a n a p a c c a y a t a n h a ) T h r o u g h d e s i r e i s c o n d i t i o n e d c l i n g i n g ( t a n h a p a c c a y a upadanam) T h r o u g h c l i n g i n g i s c o n d i t i o n e d t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g ( u p a d a n a p a c c a y a bhavo) T h r o u g h t h e p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g i s c o n d i t i o n e d b i r t h ( b h a v a p a c c a y a j a t i ) T h r o u g h b i r t h i s c o n d i t i o n e d d e c a y , d e a t h , l a m e n t a t i o n , 85 pain ( j a t i p a c c a y a jaramaranam...) We can come to the c e s s a t i o n of the process i n i t s reverse o r d e r . (Through the c e s s a t i o n of i g n o r a n c e , v o l i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s or karma-formations cease,...) A l l t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e r e l a t i v e , i n t e r d e p e n d e n t and i n t e r c o n n e c t e d , and t h e r e f o r e no f i r s t c a u s e . The C o n d i t i o n e d Genesis should be c o n s i d e r e d as a c i r c l e or a s e r i e s of i n t e r - c o n n e c t e d phenomena. By a c q u i r i n g f u l l knowledge and r e a l i s a t i o n we can put an end to our ignorance and thereby put an end to the process. 86 C TRIPITAKA (THE THREE BASKETS) The d o c t r i n a l w o r k s o f t h e T h e r a v a d a s c h o o l c o n s t i t u t e s what i s c a l l e d t h e t h r e e b a s k e t s , namely S u t t a P i t a k a , t h e b a s k e t o f d i s c o u r s e s , V i n a y a P i t a k a , t h e b a s k e t o f d i s c i p l i n a r y r u l e s , and t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a , t h e b a s k e t o f p h i l o s o p h y . E a c h o f t h e s e P i t a k a s o r b a s k e t s c o n s i s t s o f many b o o k s w h i c h have t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r g e n e r i c names. T h o s e w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e s t h e S u t t a P i t a k a a r e c a l l e d N i k a y a , w h i l e t h e V i n a y a P i t a k a c o n s i s t s o f P a l i and t h e Abhidhamma P i t a k a o f P a k a r a n a . The S u t t a P i t a k a c o n t a i n s t h e sermons and d i s c o u r s e s o f t h e Buddha and c o n s i s t s o f f i v e N i k a y a s . The f i r s t two o f w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s t h e e a r l i e s t d o c u m e n t a t i o n on B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s . D i g h a N i k a y a M a j j h i m a N i k a y a A n g u t t a r a N i k a y a S a m y u t t a N i k a y a Khuddhaka N i k a y a The V i n a y a P i t a k a , c o n s i s t i n g o f V i n a y a r u l e s , was c o m p l i e d t o e n f o r c e d i s c i p l i n e among B h i k k h u s (monks) and B h i k k h u n i s ( n u n s ) o f t h e O r d e r . I t has f i v e P a l i . P a r a j i k a p a l i 87 P a c i t t i y a p a l i M a h a v a g g a p a l i C h u l l a v a g g a p a l i P a r i v a r a p a l i T h e A b h i d h a m m a P i t a k a c o n t a i n s a l l B u d d h a ' s t e a c h i n g s r e g a r d i n g c i t t a ( m i n d a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) a n d c e t a s i k a ( m e n t a l f a c t o r s ) . I t c o n s i s t s o f s e v e n P a k a r a n a . Dhamma s a n g a n i p a k a r a n a V i b h a n g a p a k a r a n a P u g g a l a p p a n n a t t i p a k a r a n a D h a t u k a t h a p a k a r a n a Yamakapakarana P a t t h a n a p a k a r a n a K a t h a v a t t h u p a k a r a n a 88 

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