UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Geography, crime and social control Lowman, John 1983

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GEOGRAPHY, CRIME AND SOCIAL CONTROL by JOHN LOWMAN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN THE REQUIREMENTS DOCTOR OF PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF FOR THE DEGREE OF PHILOSOPHY THE FACULTY OF (Depar tment i n GRADUATE STUDIES of Geography) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia J u l y 1983 John Lowman 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 E-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to d e s c r i b e and cha l l e n g e some of the b a s i c premises, i m p l i c i t o n t o l o g i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s and, by ext e n s i o n , the p o l i t i c a l values which form the core of the geography of crime. While the d i s c u s s i o n concentrates on p u b l i s h e d research undertaken by geographers, i t a l s o introduces r e l e v a n t research conducted i n kindred d i s c i p l i n e s u t i l i z i n g a s p a t i a l or environmental p e r s p e c t i v e (urban s o c i o l o g y and environmental c r i m i n o l o g y ) . As a c r i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l e xegesis, the p r i n c i p a l focus of the c r i t i q u e i s the a n a l y t i c s e p a r a t i o n of crime from the c o n t r o l of crime, which c h a r a c t e r i s e s much of the geographer's r e s e a r c h m a n i f e s t o . Geographers have tended to study e i t h e r crime or (much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ) the j u d i c i a l system without any systematic c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the impact of the c o n t r o l system on crime p a t t e r n s . In e x p l a i n i n g crime patterns geographers have focused t h e i r analyses on the c r i m i n a l actor or, more commonly, the c r i m i n a l event. In advocating the advantages of a l t e r n a t i v e s to the i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t or p o s i t i v i s t philosophy g u i d i n g the geography of crime, the d i s c u s s i o n of i n t e r a c t i o n i s t and c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i s designed to show how they f a c i l i t a t e an understanding of the way that c o n t r o l processes e x e r c i s e d by p o l i c e , the c o u r t s , and by e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s are v i t a l to the e x p l a n a t i o n of crime p a t t e r n s . The i n t r o d u c t i o n of these a l t e r n a t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s a l s o serves to r a i s e questions about the c o r r e c t i o n a l i s t impulse of much of the geography of i i . crime, and i t s t e c h n o c r a t i c purpose. The d i s c u s s i o n of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l , t h e o r e t i c a l and p o l i t i c a l consequences of research s t r a t e g i e s which t r e a t crime and c o n t r o l as a n a l y t i c a l l y separate e n t i t i e s lays the foundation f o r a geographic p e r s p e c t i v e on crime i n i t s s o c i o - l e g a l context, for an examination of the e f f e c t s of c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p o l i c y on the a c t u a l geography of crime; i n s h o r t , for an i n t e g r a t e d a n a l y s i s of crime and i t s c o n t r o l . The e f f e c t of the " c o n t r o l environment" i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d at three d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . The f i r s t concerns the i n f l u e n c e of vari o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of o f f i c i a l crime s t a t i s t i c s on " s c i e n t i f i c " images of who the c r i m i n a l s a c t u a l l y are. C o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are reviewed, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r a c t i o n i s t and c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s which suggest that maps of crime based on o f f i c i a l p o l i c e s t a t i s t i c s may be s e r i o u s l y d i s t o r t e d in a way that geographers have r a r e l y considered; crime maps may be "mental maps" r e f l e c t i n g the s e l e c t i v e a c t i v i t y of c o n t r o l agents as much as they represent o f f i c i a l l y s anctioned c r i m i n a l behaviour. The second e f f e c t of the c o n t r o l environment on c r i m i n a l behaviour i s examined i n terms of " e c o l o g i c a l l a b e l l i n g " , the process through which law enforcement p r a c t i c e s may ( i n part) help shape the "problem" stat u s of various c i t y neighbourhoods or s u b c u l t u r a l groups. The t h i r d l e v e l of a n a l y s i s concerns the most d i r e c t impact of c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e on the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of crime. In terms of a geographic p e r s p e c t i v e at t h i s l e v e l of a n a l y s i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p i i i . between crime and c o n t r o l i s systematized through the concept of "displacement". Displacement e f f e c t s are d e f i n e d as changes of c r i m i n a l (or r e l a t e d ) behaviour i n response to changes i n l e g i s l a t i o n , case law, law enforcement p o l i c i e s , or crime p r e v e n t i o n programs. In t h i s s e c t i o n the emphasis changes from an a n a l y s i s of who the c r i m i n a l s are, to an a n a l y s i s of what c e r t a i n o f f e n d e r s do ( p a r t i c u l a r l y i n terms of t h e i r adaptive s p a t i a l b e h a v i o u r ) . A review of research demonstrating the wide-ranging occurrence of displacement phenomena i s presented to supplement two e m p i r i c a l v i g n e t t e s of crime i n Vancouver (one on s t r e e t p r o s t i t u t i o n p a t t e r n s , the other on pat t e r n s of b u r g l a r y ) which demonstrate the s p a t i a l adjustments of of f e n d e r s to changes in the " c o n t r o l environment". The d i s s e r t a t i o n concludes by d e s c r i b i n g the i m p l i c a t i o n s of an i n t e g r a t e d a n a l y s i s of crime and c o n t r o l for a p h i l o s o p h i c a l , e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and methodological r e o r i e n t a t i o n of the geography of crime. i v. TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i L i s t of Tables ix L i s t of F i g u r e s x Acknowledgements x i Chapter 1 A Preamble on Geography, Crime and S o c i a l C o n t r o l 1 Towards a R e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Geography of Crime 2 O u t l i n e of the D i s s e r t a t i o n 10 Chapter 2 The S o c i o l o g y of Deviance and the C r i t i q u e of T r a d i t i o n a l C r i m i n o l o g y 18 Preamble 18 The Emergence of the S o c i o l o g y of Deviance 23 The S o c i o l o g y of Deviance as Verstehen 26 The Verstehen E r k l a r e n Controversy 27 Verstehen P e r s p e c t i v e s and the C r i t i q u e of T r a d i t i o n a l S o c i o l o g y and C r i m i n o l o g y 30 P e r s p e c t i v e s W i t h i n Verstehen C r i m i n o l o g y 35 Symbolic I n t e r a c t i oni sm 37 S o c i a l Phenomenology 39 Ethnome thodol ogy 42 I n t e g r a t i v e Elements of the Verstehen Perspect i ves 44 The Substance of the S o c i o l o g y of Deviance 45 Chapter 3 P o w e r - C o n f l i c t and R a d i c a l Theory 51 Reactions to Verstehen C r i m i n o l o g y : Problems of S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Ideology and the P o l i t i c s of Theory 51 The Emergence of P o w e r - C o n f l i c t and R a d i c a l Perspect i ves 58 v. G e n e r a l T e n e t s o f P o w e r - C o n f l i c t and R a d i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s 62 T h e S t r u c t u r e A c t i o n P r o b l e m : A T h e o r e t i c a l F r o n t i e r 68 C h a p t e r 4 T h e G e o g r a p h y o f C r i m e : A C r i t i q u e 82 E l e m e n t s o f t h e C r i t i q u e 82 1. T h e A n a l y t i c S e p a r a t i o n o f C r i m e a n d J u s t i c e 85 2 . T h e C o n s e n s u s M o d e l o f L a w and S o c i e t y . . . 9 1 3 . The C o r r e c t i o n a n d P r e v e n t i o n o f C r i m e : Some Comments on V a l u e - J u d g e m e n t s a n d T h e i r T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 97 4 . T h e H y p o s t a t i z a t i on o f C r i m e 102 5 . T h e P h i l o s o p h i c B a s e s o f t h e G e o g r a p h y o f C r i m e : T h e D e f i c i e n c i e s o f I ns t r u m e n t a l i sm a n d P o s i t i v i s m 105 I n s t r u m e n t a l a n d P o s i t i v e I n f l u e n c e s on t h e G e o g r a p h y o f C r i m e I l l " T h e G e o g r a p h y o f C r i m e a n d V i o l e n c e " ; A n U n w a r r a n t e d T h e o r e t i c a l F o r e c l o s u r e 118 C h a p t e r 5 C r i m i n o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s i n A c t i o n : I n t e r p r e t i n g O f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c s 125 G e o g r a p h y and T r a d i t i o n a l C r i m i n o l o g y -P r i m a F a c i e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s 127 A l t e r n a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e s 128 T h e N a t u r e o f t h e C h a l l e n g e t o I n s t r u m e n t a l i s t I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s : " D i s c r e t i o n a r y B i a s " a n d t h e " I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t " P e r s p e c t i v e 139 T h e E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e 142 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l C r i t i q u e 147 F u r t h e r E l e m e n t s o f t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l i s t C r i t i q u e : M e t h o d i c a l a n d I n c i d e n t a l S u s p i c i o n 150 C o n t r o l o g y : F r o m C r i m e R a t e s t o C o n t r o l R a t e s 151 v i . P r o a c t i v e and R e a c t i v e Policework: Problems with the G e n e r a l i z a t i o n of D i s c r e t i o n a r y Bias...161 Conceptual Problems with the P r o a c t i v e / R e a c t i v e Dichotomy 173 C r i t i c a l Theory and the I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of O f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c s : A Return to the Problem of S t r u c t u r e and Ideology 178 O f f i c i a l S t a t i s t i c s and the Geography of Crime 181 Chapter 6 S o c i a l C o n t r o l and the S t r u c t u r e of S o c i a l L i f e : Crime C o n t r o l as a Context for Behav i our 187 P o l i c e P r a c t i c e s and Informal Influences on Crime Rates: P o l i c i n g as a Context for S o c i a l A c t i o n and the Problem of Crime A m p l i f i c a t i o n . . . 1 9 0 P o l i c e P a t r o l and Crime Rate P a t t e r n s 211 1. I nt r a j ur i sd i ct i onal E f f e c t s 211 2. I n t e r j u r i s d i c t i o n a l E f f e c t s -P o l i c i n g and Crime " S p i l l o v e r " 219 Chapter 7 Crime P r e v e n t i o n , Crime C o n t r o l and Displacement Phenomena: Towards An Int e g r a t e d Geography of Crime and J u s t i c e 224 The Displacement Concept 224 Temporal Displacement: An Example 232 T y p o l o g i c a l Displacement: Two Examples 233 Geographical Displacement: Three Cameos 236 A. Environmental Design as S o c i a l E n g i n e e r i n g : A Nineteenth Century A l legory? 238 B. S o c i a l C o n t r o l and M i g r a t i o n : The S p a t i a l E f f e c t of Poor Law P o l i c y i n Nineteenth Century England 241 C. V i c e Crusades and the D i s p e r s a l of Segregrated Areas 248 Chapter 8 P r o a c t i v e Law Enforcement and Displacement: The Problem of S t r e e t P r o s t i t u t i o n in Vancouver 1975 - 1979 256 v i i . A Changing Legal M i l i e u 256 P r o s t i t u t i o n S t a t u t e s - Ideology as Law 259 P o l i c e C u l t u r e , the P o l i t i c s of P o l i c e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the T r a n s l a t i o n of Law in the Books to Law i n the S t r e e t s 264 S t r e e t P r o s t i t u t i o n i n Vancouver: A Narrative...270 Chapter 9 Target Hardening and the Problem of Displacement Phenomena 289 "Neighbourhood Watch" in B r i t i s h Columbia 294 "Neighbourhood Watch": The R a t i o n a l e . . . 297 The Burnaby E x p e r i e n c e : Evidence for the D e t e r r e n t E f f e c t of Small S c a l e Programs 300 E f f e c t s of the General M u n i c i p a l Programs 303 Evidence f o r Displacement 312 (1) Burnaby: Evidence for Target Di s p l acement 312 (2) The West End Program in Vancouver: Evidence for A r e a l Displacement 316 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the A n a l y s i s 329 Chapter 10 C o n c l u s i o n : Towards an I n t e g r a t e d Geography of Crime and C o n t r o l 334 vi i i . LIST OF TABLES Table 1 P o t e n t i a l Displacement E f f e c t s A s s o c i a t e d with "Mechanical" S t r a t e g i e s 229 Table 1A P o t e n t i a l Displacement E f f e c t s A s s o c i a t e d with " S o c i a l E n g i n e e r i n g " S t r a t e g i e s 230 Table 2 Percentage of B u r g l a r i e s C l e a r e d in Vancouver and Burnaby P o l i c e J u r i s d i c t i o n s 310 Table 3 B u r g l a r y Rates in the West End of Vancouver: West End North and West End South ( P r o j e c t Area) 321 Tabl e 3A B u r g l a r y Rates i n the West End of Vancouver: West End West and West End East 322 i x. LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 Temporal Displacement of J u v e n i l e Offences 233 F i g u r e 2 Areas of S t r e e t P r o s t i t u t i o n i n Vancouver 277 F i g u r e 3 S o l i c i t i n g Charges i n Vancouver 1974 - 1978 283 F i g u r e 4 Burnaby R e s i d e n t i a l B reaking and E n t e r i n g s 1974 - 1981 305 F i g u r e 5 Vancouver R e s i d e n t i a l B reaking and E n t e r i n g s 1974 - 1981 308 F i g u r e 6 Vancouver West End Neighbourhood Watch P r o j e c t Area and Displacement Study Areas 319 F i g u r e 7 R e s i d e n t i a l Breaking and E n t e r i n g in Vancouver's West End: A Comparison of Rates in the Neighbourhood Watch P r o j e c t Area and West End North 325 x. A e k n o w l e d g e m e n t s My g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r t h e p a r t t h e y p l a y e d i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n : t o D a v i d L e y , J i m D u n c a n , P a t B r a n t i n g h a m , B o b R a t n e r , J o h n H o g a r t h a n d A r t h u r F a l l i c k f o r t h e i r comments on v a r i o u s d r a f t s o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t ; t o t h e B u r n a b y a n d V a n c o u v e r P o l i c e D e p a r t m e n t s f o r p r o v i d i n g t h e c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s u t i l i z e d i n C h a p t e r s 8 and 9 ; t o A . H u n t a n d K . W e i n e r f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o r e p r o d u c e d i a g r a m s f r o m t h e i r a r t i c l e a p p e a r i n g i n t h e J o u r n a l o f P o l i c e  S c i e n c e a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 5 : 4 : 4 0 7 - 4 1 2 ) ; t o t h e C a n a d a C o u n c i l , t h e H u m a n i t i e s a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , and t h e K i l l a m F o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e g r a d u a t e s c h o l a r s h i p f u n d i n g t h e y p r o v i d e d ; t o K a y C o o p e r f o r h e r d i l i g e n t t y p i n g s e r v i c e s ; t o P a u l J a n c e ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f G e o g r a p h y ) a n d t h e s t a f f o f t h e S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y G r a p h i c S e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r s k i l l e d p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s d i a g r a m s a p p e a r i n g i n t h e t e x t ; a n d t o L a u r a F r a s e r f o r h e r g e n e r a l s u p p o r t a n d p a t i e n c e . x i Chapter 1 A PREAMBLE ON GEOGRAPHY, CRIME AND SOCIAL CONTROL In very general terms there have been four major phases in the development of spa t ia l perspectives on crime; the nineteenth century cartographic school , the Chicago s o c i a l -eco log ica l school of the 1920's and 30's, the factor ana ly t i c school of the 1950's and 60's and, most recent ly , the development of environmental criminology and the geography of crime. Between each of the f i r s t three of these phases there was a waning of interest in spa t ia l perspect ives , p a r t i c u l a r l y fol lowing the gradual demise of soc ia l eco log ica l theory after 1930 (as a resul t of the work of such c r i t i c s as Robison, 1937 and A l i h a n , 1938). The development of factor ana ly t i c methods in the 1950's and 60's marked a resurgence of interest in spa t ia l perspect ives . And despite the devastating c r i t i q u e of Gordon (1967; see also Baldwin, 1979) some of the concepts of f a c t o r i a l ecology have been carr i ed over to the most recent phase of interest in spa t ia l perspect ives , one in which geographers, for the f i r s t time, have become involved with the study of crime. The study of crime has emerged as a d i s t i n c t , a lbe i t embryonic, subdi sc ip i ine of geography, and environmental approaches have been character ized as representing a d i s t i n c t perspective within criminology (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981A). By v ir tue of their mutual in teres t s , the geography of crime and environmental criminology have tended to merge, and 1. geographers have become d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d with mainstream cr iminology. The argument to be developed i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s that the convergence of geography and c r i m i n o l o g y has been rather too s e l e c t i v e on the part of geographers i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and use of companion p e r s p e c t i v e s and t h e o r i e s because i t appears to have been guided by s p e c i f i c world views, e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l persuasions and o n t o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s . T h i s tendency has been p a r t l y r e i n f o r c e d by environmental c r i m i n o l o g i s t s (and other r e s e a r c h e r s from r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s ) who ap p a r e n t l y share many of the same background assumptions and worldviews as a number of geographers i n t e r e s t e d in crime. It should be noted that t h i s convergence i s by no means complete, and the suggestion, at t h i s stage, that the geography of crime i s a coherent and u n i f i e d p e r s p e c t i v e would be hyperbole. But some dominant themes have been e s t a b l i s h e d and a number of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l and o n t o l o g i c a l g u i d e l i n e s l a i d down, e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y or i m p l i c i t l y . Towards a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the geography of crime The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to d e s c r i b e and ch a l l e n g e some of the b a s i c premises, i m p l i c i t o n t o l o g i c a l and e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l b e l i e f s and, by ext e n s i o n , the p o l i t i c a l values which form the core of the contemporary geography of crime. A l t e r n a t i v e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n s are cons i d e r e d , and a conceptual framework developed to help r e o r i e n t the geography 2. o f c r i m e t o w a r d s a s t u d y o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i m e c o n t r o l ) p r o c e s s e s as w e l l as t h e c r i m i n a l a c t o r o r t h e c r i m i n a l e v e n t . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t t h e d i s c u s s i o n c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e r e s e a r c h o f members o f t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s c i p l i n e . B u t b e c a u s e t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s a r b i t r a r y i n c e r t a i n c a s e s - a c a d e m i c d i s c i p l i n e s may t h e m s e l v e s be u n w a r r a n t e d a b s t r a c t i o n s o r r e i f i c a t i o n s o f a k i n d - t h e d i s c u s s i o n n e c e s s a r i l y g o e s b e y o n d t h e c o n f i n e s o f g e o g r a p h y t o c o n s i d e r r e l a t e d s u b - d i s c i p l i n a r y a r e a s w h i c h i m p o r t a n t l y i n f o r m , a n d a r e i n f o r m e d by t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e . A s a c r i t i c a l t h e o r e t i c a l e x e g e s i s , t h e p r i n c i p a l f o c u s o f t h e c r i t i q u e i s t h e a n a l y t i c s e p a r a t i o n o f c r i m e a n d t h e c o n t r o l o f c r i m e - o r m o r e p r o p e r l y t h e a n a l y t i c s e p a r a t i o n o f c r i m e a n d s o c i a l c o n t r o l 1 - t h a t has g u i d e d t h e g e o g r a p h i c r e s e a r c h m a n i f e s t o . G e o g r a p h e r s h a v e t e n d e d t o s t u d y e i t h e r c r i m e o r (much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y ) t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m w i t h o u t a n y s y s t ema t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i m p a c t o f l e g a l a n d o t h e r s o c i a l c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s on c r i m e p a t t e r n s . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t o s a y t h a t g e o g r a p h e r s h a v e c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d t h e c r i m e c o n t r o l s y s t e m as an i m p o r t a n t e x p l a n a t o r y v a r i a b l e , and a f ew e x a m p l e s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e a r e d i s c u s s e d a t v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n t h e t e x t . M o r e i m p o r t a n t l y a number o f g e o g r a p h e r s h a v e r e c e n t l y p o i n t e d t o t h e n e e d f o r a u n i f i e d g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e a n d c o n t r o l . K e i t h H a r r i e s , f o r e x a m p l e , i n C r i m e a n d t h e  E n v i r o n m e n t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f w h a t he c a l l s t h e 3. "criminal jus t i ce environment" in the genesis of crime patterns "should not be e n t i r e l y overlooked" (pp. 63-64, 116). Nevertheless , such considerations remain almost e n t i r e l y beyond the scope of his d i scuss ion . In one of the few geographic studies i l l u s t r a t i n g the way that law enforcement can structure crime patterns (Shumsky and Springer , 1981), the evidence was introduced in order to show how a study of control as opposed to the cr iminal has "s ign i f i cant implicat ions for the geographic study of the whole f i e l d of crime, deviance, and delinquency" (p. 88). But this insight has been large ly neglected. David Herbert also represents a s i gn i f i can t exception to the geographical mainstream by suggesting that the soc ia l processes underlying crime patterns are of key explanatory s i gn i f i cance , but goes on to lament that while the p o s s i b i l i t y of research into the "antecedents" of crime patterns has been i d e n t i f i e d , their importance remains large ly untested in the geographic l i t e r a t u r e 2 (1977, pp. 216-219; 1979, pp. 118-119; 1982, pp. 21-29). Although the themes of spat ia l ecology and the loca l environment f a l l most c l e a r l y into the domain of a geographical approach, Herbert suggests that i t is increas ingly evident that these cannot form the exclusive terms of reference for the geographer; as with other types of urban problem, the pattern of crime i t s e l f is merely the spa t ia l outcome of a complex of soc ia l processes (1979, pp. 118-119; 1982, pp. 26-29). Thus he contends "For crime studies , the soc io - l ega l system is an 'antecedent' in i t s role as the c r i t i c a l 4. s t r u c t u r a l e l e m e n t f r o m w h i c h d e f i n i t i o n s o f c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r , s a n c t i o n s on s u c h d e v i a n c e a n d s t a t i s t i c a l r e c o r d s o f c r i m e a n d d e l i n q u e n c y p r o c e e d . N e a r e r t h e g r o u n d , p o l i c e a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e p o i n t o f c o n t a c t w i t h l a w b r e a k e r s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e a n y p a t t e r n o f u r b a n c r i m e w h i c h may e m e r g e . " ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 1 8 ) H e r b e r t a l s o m o v e s b e y o n d a c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s y s t e m p e r s p e c t i v e b y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d c r i m e p a t t e r n s r e s e a r c h e r s m u s t c o n s i d e r a v a r i e t y o f s o c i e t a l a l l o c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o p e r s i s t e n t s o c i e t a l i n e q u a l i t i e s . T h u s f o r H e r b e r t , t h e m a i n v a l u e i n P e e t ' s p o s i t i o n ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ) i n h i s d e b a t e w i t h H a r r i e s ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ) o v e r t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f l i b e r a l and r a d i c a l p o s i t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y o f c r i m e has b e e n t o r e m i n d g e o g r a p h e r s o f t h e b r o a d e r c a n v a s a g a i n s t w h i c h w h i c h a n y p a t t e r n s o f c r i m e n e e d t o be v i e w e d ( 1 9 7 9 , p . 1 1 8 , 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 7 ) . I n h i s m o s t r e c e n t w o r k , T h e G e o g r a p h y o f U r b a n C r i m e ( 1 9 8 2 ) , H e r b e r t p r o v i d e s a m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s b r o a d e r c a n v a s b y d e l i n e a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c r i m i n o l o g y w h i c h h a v e t h u s f a r r e c e i v e d s c a n t a t t e n t i o n f r o m g e o g r a p h e r s ( p p . 2 1 - 2 5 ) . F o r t h e m o s t p a r t g e o g r a p h e r s h a v e l o o k e d t o " t r a d i t i o n a l " c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g s p a t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e s o f c r i m e u t i l i z i n g c o n c e p t s s p a w n e d i n t h e d a y s o f t h e C h i c a g o s o c i a l e c o l o g i s t s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ) o r w h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l l y d e v e l o p m e n t s o f t h i s e a r l y p e r s p e c t i v e - c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n , d i f f e r e n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n a n d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s u b c u l t u r e s . B u t i n so d o i n g t h e y h a v e l a r g e l y i g n o r e d i m p o r t a n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n c r i m i n o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f w h a t H e r b e r t t e r m s 5 . " t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e " , t h a t i s , t h e o r i e s f o c u s i n g " o n s o c i a l c o n t r o l s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s , a n d on c r i m i n a l l a w a n d t h e j u d i c i a l s y s t e m , r a t h e r t h a n on o f f e n d e r s " ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 4 ) . W h i l e t h e m o r e r a d i c a l b r a n c h o f d e v i a n c e t h e o r y may be s a i d t o f i n d i t s c o u n t e r p a r t i n g e o g r a p h y ( e . g . H a r v e y , 1 9 7 3 ; S a n t o s , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 8 ; P e e t , 1 9 7 8 ) , o n l y P e e t ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ) has s u g g e s t e d s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e f o r t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e . A n d s i m i l a r l y w h i l e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a n d p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s h a v e f l o u r i s h e d i n s o c i a l g e o g r a p h y ( e . g . R e l p h , 1 9 7 0 , 1 9 7 7 ; T u a n , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ; B u t t i m e r , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 5 ; L e y , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 7 8 , 1 9 8 0 ) , t h e y r e m a i n u n d e v e l o p e d i n t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e ( w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f L e y , 1 9 7 5 ) . H e r b e r t l a m e n t s t h a t w h i l e r a d i c a l g e o g r a p h y b r o u g h t a c l e a r a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s o t h e r t h a n t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t ( t h e g e o g r a p h e r ' s c o n v e n t i o n a l c o n c e r n ) m o s t human g e o g r a p h y c o n t i n u e s t o f o c u s on p a t t e r n s , p r o c e s s e s a n d r e s p o n s e s w i t h i n t h i s i m m e d i a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . S i m i l a r l y he a r g u e s , " . . . m o s t a v a i l a b l e g e o g r a p h i e s o f c r i m e . . . a r e f i r m l y c a s t i n t h i s m o u l d . " ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 6 ) . H e r b e r t ' s p u r p o s e , h o w e v e r , i n h i s G e o g r a p h y o f U r b a n  C r i m e i s p r i m a r i l y t o r e v i e w t h e e x i s t i n g g e o g r a p h i c l i t e r a t u r e a n d r e l a t e d s p a t i a l s t u d i e s o f c r i m e . H i s m a i n c o n c e r n i s t h u s a l s o r e s t r i c t e d t o p a t t e r n s , p r o c e s s e s a n d r e s p o n s e s a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e l o c a l e n v i r o n m e n t . B u t n o t b e i n g s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h i s f o c u s he d o e s a t t e m p t t o o u t l i n e a r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g y " w h i c h b o t h s e t s d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a c h e s i n t h e i r r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e o v e r a l l f r a m e w o r k a n d s e t s some c o n t e x t f o r 6 . the c r u c i a l task of integrat ing various ' sca les ' of analysis" (1982, p. 26). In very general terms, Herbert posits a three-leve l model of the geography of crime: level 1 (Production) SOCIAL FORMATION ideology, values, t r a d i t i o n s , power and resources leve l 2 (D i s t r ibut ion) Resource A l l o c a t i o n : urban managers, d i f f e r e n t i a l access, i nequali t i es. ALLOCATIVE PROCESSES Soc io - l ega l processes: p o l i c e , j u d i c i a r y , soc ia l serv ices , l a b e l l i n g , enforcement, sanct i ons. leve l 3 (Consumption) SPACE Patterns Processes Responses (crime areas) ( spat ia l behaviour) ( sub-cultures , meaning of place) Herbert notes that " . . . a s the geography of crime has developed (Harr ies , 1974, 1980; Pyle et a l . , 1974) i t has been contexted almost exc lus ive ly in the t h i r d level of a n a l y s i s . . . Levels 1 and 2 possess no empirical research record of note but i t is essent ia l at this stage to assess their place in a research strategy for c r i m e . . . " (1982, p. 16). Herbert has thus set the stage for substant ia l sh i f t s of emphasis in the geography of crime. But his contr ibut ion in 7. this respect remains at the programmatic level - i f he is correct about the importance of such s h i f t s , theoret ica l and empirical developments in these d irec t ions remain as important challenges s t i l l to be confronted. The purpose of this d i s s e r t a t i o n is to i n i t i a t e just such an engagement. With reference to Herbert ' s conceptual framework for a geography of crime this study represents an attempt, both t h e o r e t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y , to penetrate the "production" and "d i s t r ibut ion" scales of analys is ( leve ls 1 and 2 ) ; to out l ine the kind of analys is necessary for understanding how soc ia l formations and cr iminal jus t i ce a l l o c a t i v e processes are essent ia l for a more complete understanding of crime patterns . A word of caution is necessary at this juncture. Herbert ' s conceptual framework is a useful h e u r i s t i c for locat ing the type of ana ly t i c apparatus u t i l i z e d in the geography of crime, p a r t i c u l a r l y in terms of the level at which explanatory systems are constructed, and i t is in this h e u r i s t i c sense that I sha l l refer to i t . But a shortcoming is i t s impl icat ion that geographic approaches to crime have been remiss only in terms of the 1evel at which they operate. This is only part of the argument I wish to develop. More importantly, the ana ly t i c problems Herbert raises concern fundamental phi losophica l issues; geographers must respond to and accommodate the general c r i t i q u e developed in criminology and sociology during the past twenty years of the t r a d i t i o n a l crime perspective in these d i s c i p l i n e s , for i t is within this t r a d i t i o n a l perspective that the geography of crime is f irmly 8. l o c a t e d . A c c o m m o d a t i o n o f t h i s c r i t i q u e , w h i c h H e r b e r t s u g g e s t s has many t e l l i n g q u a l i t i e s ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 8 ) , w i l l n o t s i m p l y o c c u r b y i n c o r p o r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e t h e l e v e l s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . I n o t h e r w o r d s a l l t h e s e l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s w i l l n e e d t o be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e s e a l e o f a n a l y s i s . What t h i s means i s t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n a n d s o c i a l a l l o c a t i v e p r o c e s s e s c a n n o t s i m p l y be t a c k e d o n t o t h e t h i r d l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s w h e r e t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e has b e e n g e n e r a l l y l o c a t e d . R a t h e r , c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f " p r o d u c t i o n " a n d " d i s t r i b u t i o n " s h o u l d p e r m e a t e t h e s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s c o n d u c t e d a t l e v e l 3 . C o n s e q u e n t l y , H e r b e r t n o t e s t h a t t h e m o d e l o n l y " o f f e r s . . . a f r a m e w o r k w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among d i f f e r e n t s c a l e s o r l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s c a n be r e c o g n i z e d . What no d i a g r a m c a n do i s t o show w a y s i n w h i c h d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s c a n be r e c o n c i l e d o r i n t e g r a t e d " ( 1 9 8 2 , p . 2 5 ) . N o r i n d e e d , one m i g h t a d d , c a n i t show i f s u c h an i n t e g r a t i o n i s a t t a i n a b l e . I f t h e r e c o r d i n c r i m i n o l o g y i s a n y t h i n g t o go by - w h e r e a l t e r n a t i v e p o s i t i o n s c o e x i s t w i t h v e r y l i t t l e b u t p o l e m i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m - t h e r e i s n o t l i k e l y t o be an e a s y s y n t h e s i s o f t h e o l d and new p e r s p e c t i v e s w i t h i n g e o g r a p h y . A s y e t , t h e new p e r s p e c t i v e s H e r b e r t i s r e f e r r i n g t o h a v e h a r d l y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e , a n d i t i s t o t h i s t a s k t h a t t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s d i r e c t e d . 9 . O u t l i n e o f t h e D i s s e r t a t i o n T h e d i s s e r t a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h w h a t H e r b e r t c a l l s t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e l i t e r a t u r e a n d t h e c r i t i q u e o f t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y ( C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3) t o s e t a f o u n d a t i o n f o r a c r i t i q u e o f t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e a n d d e v i a n c e ( C h a p t e r 4 ) . A t t h i s p o i n t i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t H e r b e r t i n h i s u s e o f t h e t e r m " s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e " i n c l u d e s " r a d i c a l " o r c r i t i c a l c r i m i n o l o g y , w h e r e a s i n t h e c r i m i n o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e t h e t e r m r e f e r s e x p l i c i t l y t o w h a t I s h a l l s u b s e q u e n t l y t e r m " v e r s t e h e n " p e r s p e c t i v e s - p h e n o m e n o l o g y , s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , t h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e a n d e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y . C h a p t e r 2 t h u s c o n s i d e r s v e r s t e h e n p e r s p e c t i v e s a n d t h e c r i t i q u e o f t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y on w h i c h t h e y a r e f o u n d e d . My s u b s e q u e n t u s e o f t h e t e r m " s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e " i s r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e v e r s t e h e n p e r s p e c t i v e s as c o n t r a s t e d t o r a d i c a l c r i m i n o l o g y . C h a p t e r 3 d e s c r i b e s r a d i c a l c r i m i n o l o g y a n d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l b r e a k w i t h t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e . T h e c r i t i q u e o f t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e d e v e l o p s a s p e c t s o f t h e c r i t i q u e o f t r a d i t i o n a l o r " p o s i t i v i s t " c r i m i n o l o g y r e g i s t e r e d by p r o p o n e n t s o f v e r s t e h e n a n d r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e d i s c u s s i o n e x a m i n e s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s w h i c h t r e a t c r i m e a n d c r i m e c o n t r o l as a n a l y t i c a l l y s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . T h e i m p l i c i t p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e g u i d i n g many g e o g r a p h i c s t u d i e s o f c r i m e i s r e c o n s t r u c t e d by u n e a r t h i n g t h e i r 10. e p i s t e m o l o g y and m e t h o d s . T h e t e r m " r e c o n s t r u c t e d " i s u s e d a d v i s e d l y h e r e b e c a u s e g e o g r a p h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n c r i m e h a v e g e n e r a l l y p a i d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l q u e s t i o n s c a u s i n g d e e p i n s t i t u t i o n a l r i f t s i n c r i m i n o l o g y a n d e l s e w h e r e i n g e o g r a p h y . E v e n P e e t ' s p o s i t i o n ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ) i n h i s d e b a t e w i t h H a r r i e s ( 1 9 7 5 , 1 9 7 6 ) r e m a i n s a t a p r o g r a m m a t i c l e v e l , a p r o g r a m , i t i s w o r t h n o t i n g , t h a t has l e d t o v e r y l i t t l e a c t i o n . T h e c r i t i q u e d e v e l o p e d i n C h a p t e r 4 a r g u e s t h a t f o r t h e m o s t p a r t t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e ha s f o l l o w e d a p o s i t i v i s t o r i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e and a " c o r r e c t i o n a l i s t " p o l i t i c ( c o r r e c t i o n a l i s t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t " s c i e n t i f i c " r e s e a r c h i s g e a r e d t o p r o d u c i n g k n o w l e d g e w h i c h a i d s e i t h e r t h e " c o r r e c t i o n " o f c r i m i n a l s o r t h e " f i g h t " a g a i n s t c r i m e ) . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e s e u n d e r l y i n g p o l i t i c a l and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e n d e n c i e s w i l l be e x a m i n e d by c o n t r a s t i n g t hem t o a r g u m e n t s f r o m t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e a n d r a d i c a l t h e o r y w h i c h a s s i g n c e n t r a l i m p o r t a n c e t o s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n a n d t h e s o c i a l c o n t r o l p r o c e s s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g c r i m e . T h e p u r p o s e o f t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o e x a m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a n d c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e p o l i c y on t h e a c t u a l g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e ; t h a t i s , t o d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e g r a t e d a n a l y s i s o f c r i m e a n d j u s t i c e . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e " c o n t r o l e n v i r o n m e n t " i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w a y s . T h e f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o f f i c i a l c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s on c r i m i n o l o g i c a l i m a g e s o f who 1 1 . t h e c r i m i n a l s a r e . T h e t r a d i t i o n a l t a c t i c i n t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e ha s b e e n t o t a k e a p r i m a f a c i e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s . A l t e r n a t i v e a r g u m e n t s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , h o w e v e r , c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d as s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s p a t i a l l y s k e w e d - t h a t t h e y do n o t r e p r e s e n t r a t e s o f c r i m e , b u t r a t e s o f c o n t r o l . B r a n t i n g h a m a n d B r a n t i n g h a m a p t l y s u m m a r i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s d e b a t e f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i m i n o l o g y , a n d , by e x t e n s i o n , f o r t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e : " T h e s t a n d a r d a t t a c k on o f f i c i a l c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s i s o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e s p a t i a l a n a l y s i s o f c r i m e . . . i f o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s p a t i a l l y b i a s e d s a m p l e s o f c r i m e w i t h i n a c i t y , t h e n a l l p a t t e r n s p r o d u c e d by e n v i r o n m e n t a l c r i m i n o l o g i s t s a r e s u s p e c t , a n d i n r e a l e c o n o m i c t e r m s , no p r o s p e c t s e x i s t f o r o b t a i n i n g b e t t e r s o u r c e s o f d a t a . " ( 1 9 8 1 , p . 23) I n C h a p t e r 5 t h e v a r i o u s a r g u m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e r e v i e w e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be an o b j e c t o f s t u d y i n t h e i r own r i g h t , a n d t h a t t h e y may s e r i o u s l y d i s t o r t a c r i m e r a t e map s o t h a t i t becomes a m e n t a l map r e f l e c t i n g t h e a c t i o n s o f c o n t r o l a g e n t s as w e l l as a d e p i c t i o n o f s a n c t i o n e d c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r . T h e s e c o n d e f f e c t o f t h e c o n t r o l e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e i s e x a m i n e d i n t e r m s o f " e c o l o g i c a l l a b e l l i n g " ( B r a n t i n g h a m and B r a n t i n g h a m , 1 9 8 1 A ) s u g g e s t i n g w a y s t h a t l a w e n f o r c e m e n t p r a c t i c e s may i n p a r t h e l p s h a p e t h e i d e n t i t y o f v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s a n d s u b c u l t u r a l ( a n d s o m e t i m e s c r i m i n a l ) g r o u p s . T h e a r g u m e n t i n C h a p t e r 6 d e v e l o p s o u t o f 1 2 . t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f c r i m e s t a t i s t i c s n o t i n g t h a t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n n o t o n l y o f d i s c r e t i o n a r y l a w e n f o r c e m e n t b u t a l s o o f o t h e r i n f o r m a l s e l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e s o f c o n t r o l p e r s o n n e l may be n e c e s s a r y f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e way t h a t c o n t r o l p r o c e s s e s i n d i r e c t l y s h a p e c r i m e o r c r i m i n a l r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n s . M u c h o f t h e p o l i c e m a n d a t e , f o r e x a m p l e , i s t o g e n e r a l l y k e e p o r d e r , a n d t h e y i n t e r a c t w i t h many c i t i z e n s who do n o t e v e n t u a l l y end up b e i n g f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d as c r i m i n a l . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e p o l i c e c a n o f t e n m a i n t a i n o r d e r w i t h o u t t h e n e e d t o r e s o r t t o c r i m i n a l l a w . B u t i n so d o i n g t h e y s e l e c t c e r t a i n p r o b l e m p o p u l a t i o n s a n d i n t h i s s e n s e c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s may h a v e s o m e t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e g e n e s i s o f " c r i m i n a l a r e a s " o r " c r i m i n a l s u b c u l t u r e s " . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , s e l e c t i v e c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s p l a y an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e . T h e d i s c u s s i o n o f e c o l o g i c a l l a b e l l i n g i s e x t e n d e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e m o r e g e n e r a l e f f e c t s o f p o l i c e i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h c i t i z e n s w h i c h do n o t r e s u l t i n a c r i m i n a l c h a r g e - on t h e f o r m a t i o n o f " s u b c u l t u r a l g r o u p s " w h o s e p a r t i c u l a r i d e n t i t y i s p a r t l y c o n s t i t u t e d by t h e i r l a w - b r e a k i n g a c t i v i t y . T h e s e c o n d p a r t o f C h a p t e r 6 e x a m i n e s t h e m o r e g e n e r a l i m p a c t o f p o l i c e p a t r o l d i s t r i b u t i o n i n s h a p i n g c r i m e p a t t e r n s as o p p o s e d t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e i r a c t i v i t y i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f c r i m e ( a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be r e c o g n i s e d t h a t t h e s e two i s s u e s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e d ) . T h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h e e f f e c t o f b o t h i n t e r - a n d i n t r a - j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f l e v e l s o f p o l i c i n g on c r i m e r a t e s i s r e v i e w e d . T h e r e v i e w r a i s e s t h e 13. p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p a t r o l p a t t e r n s may t e n d t o d i s p l a c e c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y , a l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s o f a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h a r e e q u i v o c a l i n t h i s r e s p e c t . M o r e g e n e r a l l y t h e d i s c u s s i o n s e r v e s t o i n t r o d u c e t h e c o n c e p t o f " d i s p l a c e m e n t " , t h e theme t o be s y s t e m a t i z e d i n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . T h e t h i r d e f f e c t o f t h e c o n t r o l e n v i r o n m e n t on t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e c o n c e r n s t h e m o s t d i r e c t i m p a c t o f c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e on t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f c r i m e . G i v e n t h a t c o n t r o l p e r s o n n e l o r c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s a r e n o t d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y , one o f t h e m o s t p o t e n t d e v i c e s f o r p e o p l e t o a v o i d t h e p o t e n t i a l o f c r i m i n a l l a b e l l i n g i s m o v e m e n t ; m o b i l i t y i s an a d a p t i v e s t r a t e g y t h r o u g h w h i c h c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s c a n be m a x i m i z e d a n d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a c r i m i n a l l a b e l m i n i m i z e d . W h a t I am m o s t i n t e r e s t e d i n h e r e i s t h e c o n c e p t o f m o b i l i t y as an a d a p t i v e s t r a t e g y a n d t h e i m p a c t o f l a w e n f o r c e m e n t o r c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s on p a t t e r n s o f s o c i a l ( p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i m i n a l ) a c t i v i t y . T h e s e i s s e s a r e t a k e n up i n C h a p t e r s 7, 8 a n d 9. T h e a p p r o a c h t a k e n i s p r o c e s s u a l ( r a t h e r t h a n t h e s t a t i c t y p e a n a l y s e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e g e o g r a p h y o f c r i m e ) f o c u s i n g on t h e i m p a c t o f c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l a w c h a n g e s , l a w i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c h a n g e s o r e n f o r c e m e n t c h a n g e s . I n t e r m s o f a g e o g r a p h i c a n a l y s i s a t t h i s l e v e l , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c r i m e a n d c o n t r o l i s s y s t e m a t i z e d t h r o u g h a c o n c e p t o f " d i s p l a c e m e n t " . D i s p l a c e m e n t e f f e c t s a r e d e f i n e d as c h a n g e s o f c r i m i n a l ( o r r e l a t e d ) b e h a v i o u r i n r e s p o n s e t o c h a n g e s i n w r i t t e n l a w , c a s e l a w o r l a w e n f o r c e m e n t . 1 4 . C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f d i s p l a c e m e n t phenomena i s o f f a i r l y r e c e n t v i n t a g e i n c r i m i n o l o g y w i t h a m o r e l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n t h a n t h e one s u g g e s t e d h e r e . I n 1976 Thomas R e p p e t t o p u b l i s h e d an i n t r o d u c t o r y a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " m e c h a n i c a l " c r i m e p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s , i . e . t h o s e a i m e d a t r e d u c i n g c r i m i n a l o p p o r t u n i t y o r i n c r e a s i n g t h e r i s k t o o f f e n d e r s . I n C h a p t e r s 7 , 8 , and 9 e v i d e n c e i s p r e s e n t e d s u g g e s t i n g t h a t d i s p l a c e m e n t phenomena a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a w i d e r r a n g e o f c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e a n d o t h e r s o c i a l c o n t r o l p o 1 i c i e s . A r e v i e w o f r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e w i d e - r a n g i n g o c c u r r e n c e o f d i s p l a c e m e n t phenomena i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 7 t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s u b t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c r i m e a n d c o n t r o l . I n C h a p t e r s 8 and 9 two o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h v i g n e t t e s a r e p r e s e n t e d . T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e d e v e l o p s f r o m l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r 7 c o n c e r n i n g t h e i m p a c t o f l a w e n f o r c m e n t on t h e l o c a t i o n o f v i c e a r e a s . T h e e m p i r i c a l v i g n e t t e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 8 d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e way c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s h a v e b e e n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t i n e x p l a i n i n g c h a n g e s o f s t r e e t p r o s t i t u t i o n i n a c o n t e m p o r a r y C a n a d i a n c i t y . I n t h i s c a s e p a t t e r n s o f c r i m e i n c i d e n c e r e f l e c t c h a n g e s i n t h e s o c i o - l e g a l r e a c t i o n t o p r o s t i t u t i o n r a t h e r t h a n c h a n g e s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f o f f e n d e r s . I n d e e d , t h e i s s u e o f j u s t who t h e o f f e n d e r s a c t u a l l y w e r e a l s o c h a n g e d . T h i s e x a m p l e s e r v e s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e p o t e n t i a l l y b r o a d a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e d i s p l a c e m e n t c o n c e p t -1 5 . displacement phenomena may not only be a s s o c i a t e d with mechanical crime p r e v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . But even in the case of most mechanical s t r a t e g i e s , d i s c u s s i o n s of displacement have remained h y p o t h e t i c a l . For example, the suggestion that displacement e f f e c t s are a s s o c i a t e d with environmental design s t r a t e g i e s has never a c t u a l l y been demonstrated; as a r e s u l t t h i s issue becomes the subject of the second e m p i r i c a l v i g n e t t e . In Chapter 9 a t t e n t i o n turns to " t a r g e t hardening" crime p r e v e n t i o n programs and the p o t e n t i a l displacement e f f e c t s a s s o c i a t e d with them. The study examines the impact of "Neighbourhood Watch" b u r g l a r y p r e v e n t i o n programs on crime r a t e s , o f f e r i n g evidence which appears to c o n f i r m the hypothesis that although c e r t a i n types of crime p r e v e n t i o n program may deter or suppress crime i n one area, i t i s p a r t l y as the r e s u l t of displacement of a c t i v i t i e s to other t a r g e t s or areas (or because of changes in time or type of crime commi ss i o n ) . The c o n c l u s i o n of the d i s s e r t a t i o n examines the i m p l i c a t i o n s of analyses of crime c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s for the development of theory i n the geography of crime, and the new res e a r c h avenues that such a c o n s i d e r a t i o n promises. 16. N o t e s t o C h a p t e r 1 1. A n y s e p a r a t i o n o f c r i m e c o n t r o l f r o m t h e w i d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l c a n o n l y be j u s t i f i e d i n t e r m s o f a n a l y t i c c o n v e n i e n c e a n d m a n a g e a b i l i t y ; t h e c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e s y s t e m c a n n o t be t r e a t e d as a c l o s e d s y s t e m . 2 . A l t h o u g h , as we s h a l l s u b s e q u e n t l y s e e i n C h a p t e r s 5 a n d 6 , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g i n t e r e s t i n many o f t h e s e i s s u e s i n t h e c r i m i n o l o g i c a l a n d s o c i o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e e . g . A r m s t r o n g and W i l s o n ( 1 9 7 3 ) ; Darner ( 1 9 7 4 ) ; B a l d w i n , B o t t o m s and W a l k e r ( 1 9 7 6 ) ; G i l l ( 1 9 7 7 ) ; Mawby ( 1 9 7 9 ) ; B o t t o m s a n d X a n t h o s ( 1 9 8 1 ) . 17 . C h a p t e r 2 THE S O C I O L O G Y OF D E V I A N C E AND THE  C R I T I Q U E OF T R A D I T I O N A L C R I M I N O L O G Y P r e a m b l e D a v i d H e r b e r t has n o t e d t h a t some o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s o f c r i m i n o l o g y i n t h e p a s t t w e n t y y e a r s h a v e b e e n l a r g e l y i g n o r e d b y g e o g r a p h e r s i n t e r e s t e d i n c r i m e . G e o g r a p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e s h a v e t y p i c a l l y f o l l o w e d t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y a n d p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p m e n t s o f w h a t H e r b e r t c a l l s t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e l i t e r a t u r e a n d i t s t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e g e o g r a p h i c s t u d y o f c r i m e ' 1 T h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e as d e s c r i b e d by H e r b e r t ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 4 - 2 5 ) o f f e r s a t h e o r e t i c a l u n i t y i n o n l y one s e n s e a n d t h a t s e n s e i s n e g a t i v e . I t s u n i t y l i e s m o r e i n w h a t i t i s o p p o s e d t o t h a n t o w h a t i t i s ; a u n i t e d f r o n t d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d 6 0 ' s a n d i n B r i t a i n i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s , a g a i n s t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y o f c r i m e - e s p e c i a l l y v a r i e t i e s o f w h a t a r e r e f e r r e d t o as " p o s i t i v i s t " a n d " f u n c t i o n a l i s t " t h e o r i e s o f c r i m e a n d s o c i e t y . T h e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , a n d t h e c r i t i c a l o r r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s p a r t l y g r o w i n g o u t o f t h e m , a l s o s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t i n t h e s t u d y o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a n d c o n t r o l l e r s as w e l l as ( o r i n s t e a d o f ) t h e c r i m i n a l . T h e s e 1 8 . c o m m o n a l i t i e s a s i d e , t h e v e r y g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e a n d r a d i c a l t h e o r y ( t h e p r e d o m i n a n t f o r m o f c r i t i c a l t h e o r y ) m u s t a l s o be r e c o g n i s e d . T h e y a r e p e r s p e c t i v e s a t o n c e u n i t e d and d i v i d e d , a n d , i f t h e r e c e n t l i t e r a t u r e i s a n y t h i n g t o go b y , t h e r i f t s c o n t i n u e t o d e e p e n (Downes a n d R o c k , 1 9 7 9 ) . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , t h e n , t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , a l a r g e l y h u m a n i s t i c p r o j e c t , i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h t e n d s t o f o c u s on s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . 2 T h e s e two p e r s p e c t i v e s may be f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d . T h e h u m a n i s t t r a d i t i o n e m b r a c e s s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , p h e n o m e n o l o g y a n d e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y . T h e s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m G e o r g e H e r b e r t M e a d ' s s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( e g . 1 9 3 4 , 1 9 3 8 ) , w h i l e t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m A l f r e d S c h u t z ' s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y ( e g 1 9 7 0 ) . E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y i s a h y b r i d d r a w i n g on b o t h S c h u t z a n d M e a d - t h e r e i s much i n common i n t h e w o r k o f t h e two a u t h o r s ( b u t t h e r e a r e some i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e p o s i t i o n s s h o u l d n o t be c o n f l a t e d ) . O f t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m has r e c e i v e d m o s t a t t e n t i o n i n c r i m i n o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r o u g h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e a n d r e l a t e d themes i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d B r i t a i n s i n c e 1 9 5 0 . 3 T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n c r i m i n o l o g y has b e e n much m o r e r e c e n t - m a i n l y i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . T h e c r i t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i n b o t h N o r t h A m e r i c a a n d B r i t a i n i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y M a r x i s t a n d i s r e f e r r e d t o h e r e as t h e " r a d i c a l " 1 9 . p e r s p e c t i v e . 4 O t h e r c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s ( c r i t i c a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y s e e c r i m e as t h e p r o d u c t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s and t h e s o l u t i o n t o c r i m e i n t e r m s o f t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ) may u s e M a r x i a n a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s b u t d i s a s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s f r o m a M a r x i s t l a b e l ( e g . R e a s o n s d i s c l a i m e r t o t h i s e f f e c t on t h e c o v e r o f Q u i n n e y ' s M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s i n C l a s s ,  S t a t e a n d C r i m e , 1 9 7 7 ) . C r i t i c a l t h e o r y i n g e n e r a l ( M a r x i s t o r o t h e r w i s e ) s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l s c i e n c e c a n n o t be o b j e c t i v e t h u s i m p l y i n g t h a t t h e t h e o r i s t / r e s e a r c h e r m u s t t a k e a p o l i t i c a l s t a n c e . A t h i r d p o s i t i o n p a r t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i s a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g a t t h i s p o i n t -" p o w e r - c o n f l i c t " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f c r i m e a n d l a w a r e s i m i l a r t o c r i t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e i r v i s i o n o f t h e r o l e o f power i n t h e g e n e s i s o f c r i m i n a l i t y , b u t r e a s s e r t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o b j e c t i v e s o c i a l s c i e n c e a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a c o n f l i c t a n a l y s i s w h i c h i s n o t p o l i t i c a l l y p a r t i s a n ( e g . T u r k 1 9 6 9 , 1 9 7 8 ; M c D o n a l d , 1 9 7 6 ) . A s w i t h t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , c a u t i o n s h o u l d be t a k e n i n v i e w i n g t h e r a d i c a l l i t e r a t u r e as a f u l l y c o h e r e n t e n t i t y . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f d i s a g r e e m e n t i n g e n e r a l i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e o v e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M a r x ' w r i t i n g s , a n d a number o f a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e b e g i n i n g t o a p p e a r i n t h e c r i m i n o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e ; i n t h e h i s t o r i c a l f i e l d T h o m p s o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) , a l t h o u g h o n l y p e r i p h e r a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n c r i m e , has a d o p t e d a h u m a n i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f M a r x i m p l i c i t l y i n o p p o s i t i o n t o e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( G o r d o n 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 3 ) a n d w h a t c a n be d e s c r i b e d as s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s t 2 0 . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s ( Q u i n n e y 1 9 7 2 , 1 9 7 4 , 1 9 7 7 ; M i e h a l o w s k i and B o h l a n d e r 1 9 7 6 ; W e r k e n t i n , H o f f e r b e r t and B a u r m a n n 1 9 7 4 , S p i t z e r 1 9 7 5 ) . 5 A s i n s o c i o l o g y i n g e n e r a l , t h e s t r u c t u r e / a c t i o n i s s u e d i s t i n g u i s h e s M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s f r o m e a c h o t h e r ; i n d e e d m o s t o f t h e m a j o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l d e b a t e s a r o u n d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d o l o g i e s a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i e s f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s seem t o be r e c o n s t i t u t e d w i t h i n M a r x i s m s u c h t h a t t h e t e r m , l i k e t h e t e r m s c i e n c e , has a h i g h l y p r o b l e m a t i c 0 m e a n i n g ( H o o k , 1 9 8 0 ) . A s M a r x i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s f l o u r i s h i n c r i m i n o l o g y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t a i n , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s may become p a r a m o u n t , d e s p i t e H i r s t ' s c l a i m s ( 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 5 ) t h a t b e c a u s e " c r i m e " i s n o t a p r o p e r l y c o n s i t i t u t e d a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r y i n a M a r x i s t t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k i t c o n s e q u e n t l y c a n n o t be an o b j e c t o f M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s . B u t t o t h i s p o i n t i n t i m e r a d i c a l c r i m i n o l o g y has t e n d e d t o o p e r a t e a t a s t r u c t u r a l l e v e l . I t i s t h u s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t i s a l s o o v e r t h e s t r u c t u r e / a c t i o n i s s u e t h a t r a d i c a l t h e o r y p a r t s company w i t h t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , d i s m i s s i n g i t as t o o s u b j e c t i v i s t by v i r t u e o f f a i l i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e a n y s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f i d e o l o g y o r o t h e r a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( T a y l o r , W a l t o n a n d Y o u n g , 1 9 7 3 ; M a n d e r s , 1 9 7 5 ; R e a s o n s a n d P e r d u e , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e r a d i c a l c r i t i q u e o f t h e i m p u t e d s u b j e c t i v i s m o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e does n o t e n t a i l a s w e e p i n g d i s m i s s a l o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f an i n t e r a c t i o n i s t l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s . S e v e r a l a d v o c a t e s o f a r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t r e s s t h e n e e d t o i n c o r p o r a t e an i n t e r a c t i o n i s t l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i n a n y 2 1 . s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y o f d e v i a n c e ( e g . T a y l o r , W a l t o n a n d Y o u n g , 1 9 7 3 ; H a l l , e t a l 1 9 7 8 ) a n d t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n s t i m u l a t i n g and d e v e l o p i n g r a d i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . A s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r t h e r e a c t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y i n B r i t a i n b e g a n w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l D e v i a n c y C o n f e r e n c e ( t h e " Y o r k G r o u p " ) w h i c h was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n i m p o r t i n g i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a n d l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s t o B r i t i s h c r i m i n o l o g y . T h e Y o r k G r o u p d e v e l o p e d i n t o a t l e a s t two g e n e r a l f o l l o w i n g s - one o f i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , t h e o t h e r o f a r a d i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . S i g n i f i c a n t l y t h e f i r s t c o l l e c t i v e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p ( C o h e n , 1 9 7 1 ) f a l l s s q u a r e l y i n t o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t f r a m e w o r k ( E r i c s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . A n d as much as t h e two f o l l o w i n g s a r e now i n o p e n d i s a g r e e m e n t o v e r c e r t a i n i s s u e s ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , Downes a n d R o c k , 1 9 7 9 ) t h e y a r e s t i l l u n i t e d i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o p o s i t i v i s t a n d f u n c t i o n a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e s . B u t t h i s i s n o t t h e o n l y p o i n t o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n i n t e r a c t i o n i s t a n d c r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s . U n l i k e t h e e x p l i c i t f o c u s on t h e c r i m i n a l a c t o r c h a r a c t e r i s i n g t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y , t h e p r o c e s s a n d e f f e c t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l a l s o f i n d t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e a n d r a d i c a l t h e o r y t h u s g i v i n g t h e two p e r s p e c t i v e s f u r t h e r common g r o u n d ( i n d e e d some r e s e a r c h e r s f o c u s o n l y on s o c i a l c o n t r o l w i t h v e r y l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e c r i m i n a l a c t o r ) . A n d i n t h i s s e n s e , one o f t h e m a j o r c r i t i c i s m s t h e two p e r s p e c t i v e s make o f t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y i s t h e g e n e r a l f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e d i a l e c t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c r i m e a n d c o n t r o l . T h i s a r g u m e n t c a n be e x t e n d e d t o t h e g e o g r a p h y o f 22. c r i m e by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t v e r y l i t t l e s y s t e m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n ha s b e e n g i v e n t o t h e e f f e c t o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l p r a c t i c e s i n m o d i f y i n g o r m o u l d i n g c r i m e p a t t e r n s . " ^ T h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s a r g u m e n t i s l a i d i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e f r o m t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , a n d i n t u r n t h e m a n d a t e o f c r i t i c a l t h e o r y i n i t s b r e a k f r o m t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e . T h e E m e r g e n c e o f t h e S o c i o l o g y o f D e v i a n c e W h i l e i t was n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e d e v e l o p e d as a r e a c t i o n t o t h e d o m i n a n t p e r s p e c t i v e s h o l d i n g sway on b o t h s i d e s o f t h e A t l a n t i c up t o t h e 1 9 5 0 ' s a n d 6 0 ' s , t h i s i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e no l o n g e r i m p o r t a n t . R a t h e r , t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e has d e v e l o p e d ( o f t e n i n p o l e m i c a l f o r m ) a l o n g s i d e e s t a b l i s h e d p e r s p e c t i v e s . T h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , i n f o r m e d by a s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t e p i s t e m o l o g y , a r o s e t o c h a l l e n g e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h v i e w e d d e v i a n c e a n d c r i m e s i m p l y as f o r m s o f s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y , s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i n t e r m s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s and d y s f u n c t i o n s . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h a r e p r e d i c a t e d u p o n t h e i d e a t h a t d e v i a n c e l e a d s t o s o c i a l c o n t r o l , t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e r e v e r s e d t h e f o r m u l a t o s u g g e s t t h a t d e v i a n c e i s o f t e n t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l , o r a t l e a s t may be a m p l i f i e d by c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s . T h i s t h e s i s became t h e c e n t r a l a x i o m o f t h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e t a k e n t o i t s 23. e x t r e m e i n B e c k e r ' s e a r l i e r w r i t i n g - s o c i a l g r o u p s c r e a t e d e v i a n c e a n d d e v i a n t b e h a v i o u r i s t h a t w h i c h i s so l a b e l l e d ( 1 9 6 3 p . 9 ) . W h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s h a d c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f c a u s a l t h e o r i e s o f d e v i a n t and c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o u r , s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t t h e o r y ( p a r t i c u l a r l y l a b e l l i n g t h e o r y ) , c h a n g e d t h e e m p h a s i s o f a n a l y s i s t o s o c i a l c o n t r o l a s a n a d d i t i o n a l o r e v e n p r i m a r y e l e m e n t i n i t s r e s e a r c h m a n i f e s t o . E a c h o f t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e r e t a i n s a c e n t r a l p l a c e f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l i n t h e e x p l a n a t i o n o f c r i m e a n d d e v i a n c e , a n d i t i s h e r e t h a t t h e y f o r c e f u l l y b r e a k f r o m t h e t r a d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e f i r s t b r i e f i n t e r p r e t i v e i d e a s a d u m b r a t i n g t h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e w e r e p r e s e n t e d as e a r l y as 1938 b y F r a n k T a n n e n b a u m w i t h h i s comments on t h e d e f i n i t i o n and d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f e v i l i n C r i m e and t h e C o m m u n i t y ( p p . 1 7 -2 2 ) . T a n n e n b a u m d i s c u s s e s t h e m a n n e r i n w h i c h t h e o f f i c i a l r e a c t i o n t o c r i m e a n d d e l i n q u e n c y t h r o u g h t h e " d r a m a t i z a t i o n o f e v i l " o p e r a t e s as a s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e c y m a k i n g a p e r s o n become t h e t h i n g h e / s h e i s d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g . L e m e r t ' s w o r k s o n s o c i o p a t h i c b e h a v i o u r ( 1 9 4 8 ) a n d S o c i a l P a t h o l o g y ( 1 9 5 1 ) w e r e t h e f i r s t a t t e m p t s a t c r y s t a l i z i n g t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w . B u t n o t u n t i l some t e n y e a r s l a t e r d i d t h e p o s i t i o n d e v e l o p i n t o w h a t has v a r i o u s l y b e e n c a l l e d t h e " l a b e l l i n g s c h o o l " ( g e n e r a l l y ) , t h e " n e o - c h i c a g o a n s " ( M a t z a 1 9 6 9 ) , a n d t h e W e s t C o a s t S c h o o l o r T h e P a c i f i c S e m i n a r ( L e m e r t 1972 p . 1 5 ) . L e m e r t l i s t s t h e w o r k o f K i t s u s e ( 1 9 6 0 ) , G o f f m a n ( 1 9 6 1 ) , E r i k s o n 2 4 . (1962), Becker (1963) and Scheff (1963) as the most i n f l u e n t i a l in d e s c r i b i n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g a new p e r s p e c t i v e f o c u s i n g on the moral order and s o c i a l c o n t r o l , seeking to show how c a t e g o r i e s of deviance are c r e a t e d and a p p l i e d to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups (1972 p. 15). While eastern' establishment s o c i o l o g y in the U n i t e d S t a t e s was p r i m a r i l y concerned with the e t i o l o g y of deviance, "the western l o o k i n g s o c i o l o g i s t s . . . h a v e given currency to such concepts as s o c i e t a l r e a c t i o n , stigma, degradation, m o r t i f i c a t i o n of s e l f , p o l i c e d i s c r e t i o n and t y p i f i c a t i o n , ideas which are e s p e c i a l l y s u i t e d to showing how agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s o s t e n s i b l y organized for w e l f a r e , reform, r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , and treatment give form and meaning to deviance and s t a b i l i z e i t as secondary d e v i a t i o n " (Lemert, 1972 p.15). The importance of s e v e r a l of these concepts f o r geographic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of crime w i l l be d i s c u s s e d subsequently in terms of area or e c o l o g i c a l l a b e l l i n g (Brantingham and Brantingham, 1981A p. 8). Some of these same i n t e r e s t s were a l s o taken up i n other more recent t h e o r e t i c a l ventures, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the development of ethnomethodology. During the l a t e 1960's the ethnomethodological p e r s p e c t i v e emerged in North American s o c i o l o g y as a polemic against p o s i t i v i s m and s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s m . The foundation of the ethnomethodological program was l a i d down by G a r f i n k e l (1967) and subsequently e l a b o r a t e d by C i c o u r e l (1968, 1972), G a r f i n k e l and Sacks (1972) and Turner (1974). Ethnomethodology focuses on the conventions of the "commonsense" everyday world showing 25. how the meaning of s o c i a l o b j e c t s i s s o c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d and r e c o n s t r u c t e d , and how r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o l l o w s t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d r u l e systems. Ethnomethodology and s o c i a l phenomenology refocus the concern of s o c i o l o g y to everyday l i f e p r o b l e m a t i z i n g what t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g i s t s have taken for granted - the hidden meaning and s t r u c t u r e s of mundane e x i s t e n c e . When compared to the l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , ethnomethodology provides a rather d i f f e r e n t i n s i g h t i n t o s o c i a l c o n t r o l processes s u g g e s t i n g how the meaning of c r i m i n a l and delinquent behaviour i s c o n s t i t u t e d through s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and can not simply be " r e a d - o f f " from c r i m i n a l s t a t u t e s . In Chapter 5 t h i s issue w i l l be taken up in a d i s c u s s i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of ethnomethodological s t u d i e s of the working p r a c t i c e s of the p o l i c e for the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . While the ethnomethodological p e r s p e c t i v e tended to g a i n more currency i n the s o c i o l o g y of deviance than d i d s o c i a l phenomenology, the phenomenological p o s i t i o n i s s i m i l a r by v i r t u e of i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y of the "commonsense" world. In sh o r t , these are attempts to make s o c i o l o g i c a l sense of commonsense. In terms of deviancy theory ethnomethodology makes sense of l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s by attempting to understand the commonsense notions that a c t u a l l y imbue them with meaning. The S o c i o l o g y of Deviance as Verstehen In order to be able to understand the c r i t i c i s m s of 26. t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s i t u a t e t h i s c r i t i q u e i n a w i d e r p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e x t . T h e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e as " v e r s t e h e n " c r i m i n o l o g y s u g g e s t s a v e r y d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s t o t h a t i n f o r m i n g v a r i o u s t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s . I n v e r y s i m p l e t e r m s v e r s t e h e n means i n t e r p r e t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and t h e s t r e s s on t h e s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f m e a n i n g so c e n t r a l t o s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y a n d e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y s t a n d s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o p e r s p e c t i v e s w h i c h a t t e m p t e x p l a n a t i o n i n t e r m s o f d e t e r m i n i s t i c c a u s a t i o n . T h e d e b a t e b e t w e e n t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s i s f u n d a m e n t a l i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e , a n d r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e i s s u e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e e p i s t e m o l o g y , o n t o l o g y a n d m e t h o d o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e ( o r a t l e a s t t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t ' s v i s i o n o f n a t u r a l s c i e n c e ) f o r e x p l a i n i n g human b e h a v i o u r . T h e d e b a t e o v e r t h e u n i t y o f s c i e n c e has i t s f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e e n l i g h t e n m e n t v i e w o f s c i e n c e , and s u b s e q u e n t r e a c t i o n s t o i t . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s d e b a t e s e r v e s t o l o c a t e t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , and i t s r e a c t i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . T h e V e r s t e h e n - E r k l a r e n C o n t r o v e r s y T h e v e r s t e h e n - e r k l a r e n c o n t r o v e r s y i n G e r m a n s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y i s a s p e c i a l c a s e o f a m o r e g e n e r a l d i s p u t e o v e r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a . A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h i s d e b a t e p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l c o n t e x t f o r a 27 . d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s t e n s i o n s s e p a r a t i n g c r i m i n o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . E r k l a r e n i s a p e r s p e c t i v e d e v e l o p e d i n t h e s p i r i t o f t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l u n i t y o f n a t u r a l a n d s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a n d t h e u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s c i e n t i f i c m e t h o d s makes p o s s i b l e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t a b l e o b j e c t i v e k n o w l e d g e o f s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a . T h i s was t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f n o t o n l y n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p o s i t i v i s m , b u t a l s o o f many s u b s e q u e n t f o r m s o f e m p i r i c i s m , b e h a v i o u r i s m a n d n a t u r a l i s m . T h o s e M a r x i s t s who b e l i e v e i n u n i v e r s a l d i a l e c t i c a l l a w s o f n a t u r e , s o c i e t y and human t h o u g h t a l s o b e l o n g h e r e ( M a r k o v i c , 1972 p . 2 8 ) . T h e o p p o s i t e t e n d e n c y was f i r s t e l a b o r a t e d i n D i l t h e y ' s L e b e n s p h i 1 o s o p h i e and d e v e l o p e d by t h e n e o - K a n t i a n s R i c k e r t a n d W i n d e l b a n d , who s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g o a l s o f s o c i a l i n q u i r y s h o u l d n o t be t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f g e n e r a l l a w s o f human b e h a v i o u r , b u t t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f s o c i a l a c t o r s ' s u b j e c t i v e m o t i v e s a n d i n t e n t i o n s ( M a r k o v i c , 1 9 7 2 ) . T h i s a n t i -E n l i g h t e n m e n t a n d , i n a l i m i t e d s e n s e , a n t i - s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t 8 came t o e x p r e s s i o n i n v a r i o u s b r a n d s o f p h e n o m e n o l o g y , e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y , h u m a n i s t i c v e r s i o n s o f M a r x i s m ( e s p e c i a l l y e x i s t e n t i a l M a r x i s m ) , a n d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e C r i t i c a l ( o r F r a n k f u r t ) S c h o o l o f G e r m a n s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h y . W h i l e b o t h e r k l a r e n ( i . e . g e n e r i c p o s i t i v i s m ) a n d v e r s t e h e n p o s i t i o n s c l a i m t o be e m p i r i c a l , t h e y d i f f e r o v e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y ; t h e y d i f f e r o n t o l o g i c a l l y 2 8 . a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l l y ( a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t M a r k o v i c , who I h a v e p a r t l y f o l l o w e d h e r e , does n o t s e e t h e two p o s i t i o n s as i r r e c o n c i 1 i a b l e ) . V e r s t e h e n p e r s p e c t i v e s g i v e o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s t o human i n t e n t i o n s a n d m e a n i n g s , b u t t h e s e a r e l a r g e l y e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e e r k l a r e n p e r s p e c t i v e o r b l a c k -b o x e d i n a s t i m u l u s - r e s p o n s e v i e w o f human m o t i v a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e s t r e s s on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n t e n t i o n s and m e a n i n g s o f s o c i a l a c t o r s , a n d t h e v i e w t h a t t h e s e a r e p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h human i n t e r a c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n d e r i v i n g f r o m some p r e g i v e n c o s m i c o r d e r , v e r s t e h e n p e r s p e c t i v e s d e n y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g g e n e r a l l a w s o f human b e h a v i o u r t h r o u g h a p r i n c i p l e o f c a u s a l d e t e r m i n i s m . I n v e r y g e n e r a l t e r m s t h e s c i e n t i f i c mode o f i n q u i r y s e e k i n g t o p r o d u c e c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r d e t e r m i n i s t i c p r o c e s s e s has p r o d u c e d m o r e d i s p u t e i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h i s c e n t u r y t h a n a n y o t h e r i s s u e . A l t h o u g h t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l m o t i v e o f t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t was m a n i f e s t l y h u m a n i s t i c i n i t s i n t e n t i o n s , w h a t a t f i r s t was s e e n as a means o f human e m a n c i p a t i o n came t o be s e e n as a c e n t r a l i n s t r u m e n t o f human d o m i n a t i o n . N a t u r a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s s e e i n g man as p r o p e l l e d by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s o r c o m p e l l e d by p r e g i v e n i n t e r n a l f o r c e s l e a v e h i m as a " p s y c h i c r o b o t " o r " j u d g e m e n t a l d o p e " w i t h a p p a r e n t l y no f r e e - w i l l ( H o l l i s , 1 9 7 7 ) . Man t h u s becomes an o b j e c t r a t h e r t h a n a s u b j e c t , a f o r m o f o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n w h i c h may h a v e f a r - r e a c h i n g p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . T h e r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e e r k l a r e n p o s i t i o n has t h u s b e e n b o t h p h i l o s o p h i c a l a n d p o l i t i c a l . H u s s e r l ' s c r i t i c i s m s o f p o s i t i v i s m w e r e 2 9 . d e v e l o p e d by h i s d i s c i p l e S c h u t z , a n d t h o s e o f S c h u t z a n d M a n n h e i m w e r e b u i l t i n t o t h e p o l e m i c s d e v e l o p e d m u c h l a t e r i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e . S i m i l a r l y M e a d ' s a t t a c k s on c r u d e b e h a v i o u r i s m f i n d t h e i r way i n t o t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e by v i r t u e o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n i n f o r m i n g i t . P h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t h e e r k l a r e n - v e r s t e h e n d e b a t e r e v o l v e s a r o u n d t h e i s s u e o f f r e e - w i l l a n d d e t e r m i n i s m a n d ha s b e e n r e c a p i t u l a t e d i n many s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n t h e p a s t t h i r t y y e a r s - i n g e o g r a p h y t h e r e a c t i o n t o t h e " q u a n t i t a t i v e r e v o l u t i o n " ( s o - c a l l e d ) o f t h e 1 9 6 0 ' s has a l s o r e c e n t l y b e e n c o u c h e d i n t e r m s o f t h i s d e b a t e ( L e y , 1 9 7 7 , 1 9 8 0 , 1 9 8 2 ; L e y a n d S a m u e l s , 1 9 7 8 ) a n d i s p a r a l l e l l e d b y e a r l i e r d e v e l o p m e n t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i o l o g y . ^ T h i s , t h e n , i s t h e g e n e r a l p h i l o s p h i c a l b a c k d r o p a g a i n s t w h i c h t h e r e a c t i o n o f v e r t e h e n p e r s p e c t i v e s t o t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s o f s o c i o l o g i c a l c r i m e t h e o r y m u s t be u n d e r s t o o d . V e r s t e h e n P e r s p e c t i v e s a n d t h e C r i t i q u e o f T r a d i t i o n a l  S o c i o l o g y a n d C r i m i n o l o g y H a v i n g s i t u a t e d t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e i n t h e w i d e r c o n t e x t o f d e b a t e s i n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , t h e d i s c u s s i o n now m o v e s t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e s p e c i f i c i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r i t i q u e o f t h e " t r a d i t i o n a l " s o c i o l o g i e s o f c r i m e ( v a r i e t i e s o f p o s i t i v i s m , s t r u c t u r a l i s m and s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s m ) . T h e d i s c u s s i o n b e g i n s w i t h c r i t i c i s m s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m a n d s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s m a n d t h e n moves on t o 3 0 . a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f p o s i t i v i s m , a n d t h e s u g g e s t e d p o s i t i v i s t e l e m e n t s o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m . F i n a l l y t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e p o s i t i o n s a r e e x a m i n e d . I n a p a p e r on d e v i a n c e , P h i l l i p s o n a n d R o c h e ( 1 9 7 6 ) i d e n t i f y f i v e m a i n c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h p h e n o m e n o l o g y a n d e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y m i g h t e n t e r a g a i n s t t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y ( p . 1 4 1 ) . T h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e p o i n t s a r e b a s e d u p o n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n : 1. T h e l a c k o f c o n n e c t i o n a n d a r t i c u l a t i o n b e t w e e n s o c i a l t h e o r y a n d e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i e d t o s t r u c t u r a l s o c i o l o g y w h i c h i s d e p i c t e d as a k i n d o f s o c i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m i n w h i c h s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s t h e t h e o r i s t i d e n t i f i e s by means o f l o g i c a l a r g u m e n t s a r e s a i d t o d e t e r m i n e human a c t i v i t y . I n w i d e r s o c i o l o g y t h i s s o c i o l o g i c a l d e t e r m i n i s m i s s u g g e s t e d as a p p l y i n g t o c e r t a i n v e r s i o n s o f M a r x i s m ( p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r u c t u r a l i s t a n d e c o n o m i c d e t e r m i n i s t r e n d i t i o n s ) a n d t o t h e w o r k o f D u r k h e i m , M e r t o n a n d P a r s o n s , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e s e t h e o r i s t s a r e s e n s i t i v e t o t h e p r o b l e m o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d m e a n i n g ( p a r t i c u l a r l y M a r x - d e p e n d i n g on how h i s w o r k i s i n t e r p r e t e d ) . K e a t a n d U r r y ( 1 9 7 5 , p . 1 3 8 ) r e f e r r i n g m o r e e x p l i c i t l y t o an e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c r i t i q u e o f s t r u c t u r a l i s m s u g g e s t t h a t as much as s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s may be s e e n t o c a u s e human a c t i v i t y , i t c a n n o t be d e n i e d t h a t human a c t i v i t i e s c r e a t e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h e r e a r e p a r a l l e l s h e r e w i t h c r i t i c i s m s o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m a n d h o l i s m i n human g e o g r a p h y ( D u n c a n , 1 9 8 0 ; D u n c a n a n d L e y , 1 9 8 2 ) . 3 1 . 2. the gross i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and i r r e l e v a n c e of much of the r a t i o n a l i d e a l - t y p e c o n s t r u c t i o n used to e s t a b l i s h a theory - r e s e a r c h connection ( C i c o u r e l ' s -1968- work on j u v e n i l e j u s t i c e represents a good example of the development of t h i s cr i t i c i sm). 3. S o c i o l o g y ' s a s p i r a t i o n to be an e m p i r i c a l d i s c i p l i n e concerned to understand and e x p l a i n r e a l and e x i s t e n t s o c i a l phenomena i s not served by i t s l a r g e l y i g n o r i n g the key f a c t that such phenomena are meaningful for both the a c t o r s and the s o c i o l o g i s t . In the same sense Keat and Urry (1975, p. 138) suggest that s t r u c t u r a l i s t accounts f a i l to consider the s u b j e c t i v e meanings a c t o r s place upon t h e i r experiences w i t h i n suggested s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s ; there is no adequate a n a l y s i s of such meanings, how they are shared, and of how a c t o r s do not simply and d i r e c t l y respond to o b j e c t i v e s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r s . T h i s theme i s a l s o taken up i n C i c o u r e l ' s S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  of J u v e n i l e J u s t i c e 1969 and p a r t l y i n Matza's Becoming Devi ant. 4. T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y does not show how meanings are c o n s t i t u t e d and n e g o t i a t e d between a c t o r s . Verstehen p e r s p e c t i v e s focus on t h i s " s o c i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n " of meaning. 5. T r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y has been incapable or u n w i l l i n g to make i t s own p r a c t i c e s and r e s e a r c h procedures the subject of r e s e a r c h ; research p r a c t i c e s must be r e f l e x i v e . It i s with these c r i t i c i s m s i n mind that P h i l l i p s o n and Roche conclude "Phenomenology and Ethnomethodology d i s c o v e r a theme and a problem in the n e c e s s a r i l y 32. intimate r e l a t i o n of the s o c i o l o g i c a l observer researcher and the observed actors in a common l i v e d world of meanings. The c r i t i c i s m of conventional sociology is not merely that i t has never had the imagination to discover this problem, but, more importantly, that this problem is of central s ign i f i cance for s o c i o l o g i c a l research methodology." (1976 p. 141) Some of the more extreme prac t i t i oners of ethnomethodology hold that sociology in general has no advantages whatsoever over commonsense (Douglas, 1971). P o s i t i v i s t sociology, i t is charged, in general assumes that consensual norms underly laws and that these w i l l be c l e a r l y followed except by deviants who are b a s i c a l l y and cons i s tent ly d i f ferent from other members of society ( i . e . they offer a consensus model of law and s o c i e t y ) . In contrast , ethnomethodologists argue that people follow the procedural rules of everyday l i f e , and these may be at odds with the p r e s c r i p t i o n of somebody e lse 's norms encoded into law ( i m p l i c i t l y a p l u r a l i s t model of soc i e ty ) . Indeed the procedural rules of everyday l i f e ac tua l ly give meaning to formal rules and categories . Thus formal rules and categories cannot be taken-for-granted as meaningful without documentory in terpre ta t ion of the s tructure of the rules of p r a c t i c a l a c t i v i t y . It is this argument that w i l l be taken up in much greater d e t a i l in chapter 5 on the meaning of o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s . The i d e a l - t y p i c a l form of pos i t i v i sm that prac t i t i oners of the sociology of deviance have suggested underpins t r a d i t i o n a l theory is broadly consistent with the erklaren version of German philosophy. Fol lowing Kolakowski (1972) there are 33. s e v e r a l b a s i c p o s t u l a t e s o f l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m : 1. A h y p o t h e t i c o - d e d u c t i v e m e t h o d . 2 . T h e r u l e o f p h e n o m e n a l i s m - t h e r e i s no r e a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n e s s e n c e and p h e n o m e n a . 3 . T h e r u l e o f n o m i n a l i s m : no i n s i g h t f o r m u l a t e d i n g e n e r a l t e r m s c a n h a v e a n y r e a l r e f e r r e n t s o t h e r t h a n i n d i v i d u a l c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s ; t h e w o r l d we know i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l o b s e r v a b l e f a c t s a n d s c i e n c e a i m s a t o r d e r i n g t h e s e f a c t s . 4 . A s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f 2 . a n d 3 . an e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n d e s c r i p t i v e and n o r m a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s i s w r o u g h t ; p o s i t i v i s m r e f u s e s t o c a l l t h e l a t t e r k n o w l e d g e . One m i g h t w i s h t o q u a l i f y K o l a k o w s k i ' s c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m as e s s e n t i a l l y f o l l o w i n g a h y p o t h e t i c o -d e d u c t i v e mode o f r e a s o n i n g t o i n c l u d e an i n d u c t i v e - s t a t i s t i c a l mode a n d t h u s t o d e s c r i b e w h a t we m i g h t l a b e l as " g e n e r i c p o s i t i v i s m " ; t h i s w o u l d c o n f o r m i n g e n e r a l t o a n o m o l o g i c a l mode o f t h i n k i n g a n d i s q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r c l a i m s K o l a k o w s k i i d e n t i f i e d . T h e h y p o t h e t i c o - d e d u c t i v e m o d e l i s i t s e l f an i d e a l - t y p e w h i c h i n p r a c t i c e i s n e a r l y a l w a y s i n f o r m e d by e l e m e n t s o f i n d u c t i v e t h i n k i n g . I n g e n e r a l , t h e p o s i t i v i s t p e r s p e c t i v e a i m s a t d i s c o v e r i n g t h e c a u s e o f e v e n t s . T h r e e c r u c i a l a s p e c t s o f c a u s a t i o n c a n be o u t l i n e d . 1. T h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n two d i s c r e t e e v e n t s o r o b j e c t s . 2 . C a u s e m u s t be t e m p o r a l l y p r i o r t o e f f e c t . 3 . T h e r e m u s t be a c o n s t a n t c o n j u n c t i o n b e t w e e n 3 4 . c a u s e a n d e f f e c t . W h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y i s o f t e n c l a s s i f i e d as p o s i t i v i s t by i t s r i v a l s , t h e u s e o f t h e t e r m t o i n c l u d e e m e r g e n t h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s s u c h as t h o s e d e v e l o p e d b y D u r k h e i m a n d M e r t o n i s a t t h e b e s t m i s l e a d i n g , a t w o r s t i n c o r r e c t . T h e r e a s o n f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s as p o s i t i v i s t l i e s i n t h e a t t e m p t o f v a r i e t i e s o f s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n a l i s t t h e o r y t o s p e c i f y c a u s a l d e t e r m i n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e a n d human a c t i o n i n w h a t i s p e r c e i v e d as c l a s s i c s c i e n t i f i c r e a s o n i n g . B u t a n y h o l i s t i c s t r u c t u r a l i s t o r f u n c t i o n a l i s t a r g u m e n t b r e a c h e s t h e p o s i t i v i s t r u l e o f n o m i n a l i s m ; s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c a n h a r d l y be c o n s i d e r e d an i n d i v i d u a l c o n c r e t e o b j e c t . F u n c t i o n a l i s m a l s o b r e a k s t h e r u l e o f p h e n o m e n a l i s m ; M e r t o n ' s l a t e n t f u n c t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , m o s t d e f i n i t e l y e n t a i l a d i s t i n c t i o n o f e s s e n c e a n d p h e n o m e n a . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k o f D u r k h e i m a n d M e r t o n i s t h u s b e t t e r c l a s s i f i e d ( a t l e a s t p a r t l y ) as r e a l i s t ( i n t h e s e n s e o u t l i n e d by K e a t a n d U r r y - - 1 9 7 5 , p p . 8 1 - 8 7 - r e f e r r i n g t o D u r k h e i m ) . T r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y t h u s e m b r a c e s a v a r i e t y o f a p p r o a c h e s . S i m i l a r l y , v e r s t e h e n c r i m i n o l o g y i n c l u d e s a number o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . P e r s p e c t i v e s W i t h i n V e r s t e h e n C r i m i n o l o g y T h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e c a n g e n e r a l l y be d e s c r i b e d as t a k i n g a v e r s t e h e n p o s i t i o n i n i t s a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f 3 5 . c r i m e a n d s o c i a l c o n t r o l . I t s t a n d s i n s t a r k c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o t h e e r k l a r e n t y p e p o s i t i o n o f p o s i t i v i s m w i t h i n c r i m i n o l o g y , a l t h o u g h , as has b e e n s u g g e s t e d , a number o f c r i t i c s o f t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y h a v e o f t e n t e n d e d t o make t h e t e r m p o s i t i v i s m e m b r a c e p o s i t i o n s t h a t i t r e a l l y does n o t a d e q u a t e l y d e s c r i b e . N e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s e s t r u c t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e s do s h a r e a common g r o u n d w i t h p o s i t i v i s m t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e v e l o p i n g d e t e r m i n i s t i c c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n s . A n d i t i s t h e v i s i o n o f c a u s a l d e t e r m i n i sm e m b o d i e d i n t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y t h a t p r o m p t e d t h e l i k e s o f M a t z a ' s c r i t i q u e o f t h e m o d e l o f man u n d e r p i n n i n g b o t h p o s i t i v i s m a n d s t r u c t u r a l i s m . H i s D e l i n q u e n c y a n d D r i f t ( 1 9 6 4 ) t h u s b e g i n s w i t h a c r i t i q u e o f t h e " p o s i t i v e d e l i n q u e n t " , t h e d e l i n q u e n t o f t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r y , a n d p r o c e e d s t o r e i n t r o d u c e t h e c l a s s i c a l n o t i o n o f f r e e - w i l l o f f e r i n g a " s o f t " d e t e r m i n i s m a c k n o w l e d g i n g t h a t man i s f r e e t o c h o o s e a l b e i t i n a c o n s t r a i n e d way ( 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 6 9 ) . M a t z a i s d i f f i c u l t t o l o c a t e e x a c t l y w i t h i n t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e , a l t h o u g h c l e a r l y h i s s y m p a t h y l i e s w i t h i n t e r a c t i o n i s m . S i m i l a r l y o t h e r a u t h o r s c a n o n l y be l o c a t e d g e n e r a l l y i n w h a t I h a v e d e s c r i b e d h e r e as t h e v e r s t e h e n a p p r o a c h . A number o f d i s t i n c t p o s i t i o n s h a v e e m e r g e d - my i n t e n t i o n i s s i m p l y t o p r o v i d e c a p s u l e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e m by r e v i e w i n g t h e m a j o r a r g u m e n t s o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t a u t h o r s . T h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e n e c e s s a r i l y i n a d e q u a t e f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e r a n g e o f a r g u m e n t s , a n d t e n d t o mask c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s . My p u r p o s e i s s i m p l y t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e c o m m o n a l i t i e s o f t h e p o s i t i o n s t h a t make t h e m c o m p a t i b l e 3 6 . f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f c r i m i n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y . S y m b o l i c I n t e r a c t i o n i s m r e f e r s t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t o f o n t o l o g i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s a n d a m e t h o d o l o g y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e m . M i t c h e l l ( 1 9 7 9 , p p . 1 7 6 - 1 7 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s o c i a l m e t a p h y s i c s o f s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m r e s t on t h r e e b a s i c p r e m i s e s : 1) t h a t human b e i n g s a c t t o w a r d s o b j e c t s on t h e b a s i s o f m e a n i n g t h a t t h o s e o b j e c t s h a v e f o r t hem ( t h u s i m p l i c i t y d e n y i n g d e t e r m i n i s m t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t m e a n i n g i s r e l a t i v e , n o t a b s o l u t e ) 2) t h a t t h e m e a n i n g s o f s u c h o b j e c t s a r i s e o u t o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n 3) t h e s e m e a n i n g s a r e m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h an i n t e r p r e t i v e p r o c e s s u s e d by a p e r s o n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e o b j e c t s h e / s h e e n c o u n t e r s . G i v e n t h e s e p r e m i s e s , s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i s v i e w e d as e m e r g i n g f r o m s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , a n d c o n s t a n t l y i n f l u x . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y , t h e p e r s p e c t i v e i s " n a t u r a l i s t i c " i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t s t r e s s e s t h e s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s o r s u r v e y s t u d i e s ( i t s h o u l d be n o t e d h o w e v e r t h a t i t i s n o t n a t u r a l i s t i c i n t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e n s e ) . T h e p e r s p e c t i v e i s p h e n o m e n a l i s t i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n j u n c t i o n s c a l l f o r an a t t i t u d e o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e phenomena u n d e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n - t h e r e s e a r c h e r m u s t g a i n f i r s t - h a n d k n o w l e d g e o f t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h w h i c h he o r s h e i s c o n c e r n e d , a n d d e p i c t i t as i t i s u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e who l i v e i n i t ( M i t c h e l l , 1 9 7 9 , p p . 1 7 6 - 1 7 7 ) . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e r e s e a r c h e r d e s c r i b e s t h e a n a l y t i c e l e m e n t s o f t h e s e t t i n g t h r o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f o r m e d o b s e r v a t i o n . I t i s t h e s y m b o l i c 37 . i n t e r a c t i o n i s t f o c u s on l i n g u i s t i c a n d g e s t u r a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y t h e r o l e o f l a n g u a g e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f m i n d , s e l f , a n d s o c i e t y ( T h e o d o r s o n a n d T h e o d o r s o n , 1979, p . 430) t h a t i s t a k e n up by e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y . T h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p o s i t i o n c a n be t r a c e d t o M e a d ' s s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r i s m , an a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e c r u d i t i e s o f e a r l y b e h a v i o u r a l p s y c h o l o g y by s h o w i n g t h a t s t i m u l u s a n d r e s p o n s e a r e m e a n i n g f u l o n l y when v i e w e d as p a r t o f a c o m p l e t e c o m m u n i c a t i v e s y s t e m ( D e s m o n d e , p . 5 9 ) . M e a d ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e human s e l f s u g g e s t s t h a t s e l f i s a p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n a s t r u c t u r e , c o n s t i t u t e d by w h a t he c a l l e d t h e " I " a n d t h e " m e " ; a c c o r d i n g t o Desmonde (1970, p .60) t h e " I " i s t h e r e s p o n s e o f a p e r s o n t o t h e a t t i t u d e o f o t h e r s ( a r e s p o n s e p a r t l y s h a p e d by a p e r s o n ' s b i o l o g i c a l c o n s t i t u t i o n ) , t h e "me" i s t h e o r g a n i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f o t h e r s t h a t one a s s u m e s o n e s e l f . P e r s o n a l i t y a f f e c t s i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e I a n d me a n d M e a d ' s f o r m u l a s u g g e s t s t h a t human b e h a v i o u r i s c o n s t a n t l y a d j u s t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e a c t i o n o f o t h e r p e o p l e . T h e " g e n e r a l i z e d o t h e r " r e p r e s e n t s a p e r s o n ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e m e . T h u s f o r M e a d , an a c t i s c o n d u c t c o n s t r u c t e d by t h e a c t o r i n s t e a d o f a r e s p o n s e s o l i c i t e d f r o m h e r / h i m ( a s i n c r u d e f o r m s o f b e h a v i o u r i s m ) o r t h e r e s u l t o f some p r e f o r m e d o r g a n i z a t i o n i n h i m / h e r ( B l u m e r , 1970, p . 283), as i n t h e c a s e i n b i o l o g i c a l p o s i t i v i s m . B e c a u s e o f t h e s y m b o l i c n a t u r e o f s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , o b j e c t s h a v e no i n t r i n s i c v a l u e - t h e y a r e human c o n s t r u c t i o n s 38. d e p e n d e n t on t h e o r i e n t a t i o n a n d a c t i o n o f p e o p l e t o w a r d t h e m ( B l u m e r , 1 9 7 0 , p . 2 8 7 ) . A s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n has become c r i t i c a l i n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l e g a l c a t e g o r i e s , a n d i n t h e a m p l i f i c a t i o n o f d e v i a n c e t h e s i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e l a b e l l i n g p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r M e a d n e i t h e r r e s o r t i n g t o e x p l a n a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f s o c i e t a l f a c t o r s ( s u c h as r o l e s , v a l u e s o r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s ) n o r t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p e r a t i v e s ( m o t i v e s , f e e l i n g s a n d a t t i d e s ) i s s u f f i c i e n t . Human b e i n g s r e s p o n d d i r e c t l y t o one a n o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s , a n d t h i s s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n becomes a p o s i t i v e s h a p i n g f o r c e ; e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s o f g r o u p l i f e a r e d e p e n d e n t on t h e r e c u r r i n g a f f i r m a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n . T h u s " j o i n t - a c t i o n " becomes t h e m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k o f s o c i e t y r a t h e r t h a n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ( a l t h o u g h M e a d d i d r e c o g n i z e t h e i r e f f e c t ) o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l e s s e n c e s ( B l u m e r , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 2 8 6 - 2 8 9 ) . S o c i a l P h e n o m e n o l o g y ( o r p h e n o m e n o l o g y o f t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e ) . A l t h o u g h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g y o f t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e a n d t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y was d e v e l o p e d by H u s s e r l , much o f h i s w o r k was d e v o t e d t o t h e e l u c i d a t i o n o f t r a n s c e n d e n t a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y . A l f r e d S c h u t z ( 1 9 7 0 ) was t h e f i r s t a u t h o r t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d s o c i a l t h e o r y i n a p e r s p e c t i v e d r a w i n g as much f r o m Webe r as f r o m H u s s e r l . S c h u t z a d o p t e d H u s s e r l ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e as 3 9 . r o o t e d w h o l l y i n t h e " l e b e n s w e l t " ( l i f e w o r l d ) i n w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s s h a r e i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e m e a n i n g . T h e c o n n e c t i o n w i t h Webe r l a y i n S c h u t z ' d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e m e t h o d o f v e r s t e h e n as an a p p r o p r i a t e means o f p e n e t r a t i n g t h e l i f e w o r l d s o f o t h e r p e o p l e , a n d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e m e a n i n g s t h e y s h a r e d . W e b e r ' s w o r k , b e c a u s e o f i t s c o n c e n t r a t i o n on s u b j e c t i v i t y , r e p r e s e n t e d a b r i d g e b e t w e e n p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p h i l o s o p h y a n d s o c i o l o g y , t h e s o c i o l o g i s t i n S c h u t z ' p r o g r a m b e c o m i n g an i n t e r p r e t e r o f human m o t i v a t i o n s ( c f W a g n e r ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o S c h u t z , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 1 - 1 1 ) . S c h u t z ' s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y f o c u s e s on t h e c o g n i t i v e s e t t i n g o f t h e l i f e - w o r l d , a c t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l w o r l d , a n d t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e n s e he s o u g h t t o d e s c r i b e a p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r s o c i o l o g y , a n d i n s o d o i n g t o d e m a r c a t e t h e p r o v i n c e o f s o c i o l o g i c a l r e a s o n i n g a n d m e t h o d o l o g y i n t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i n p a s s i n g t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f S c h u t z ' p r o j e c t a n d t h a t t a k e n up by s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t s - b o t h f o c u s on mundane e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r m s o f t h e o r d e r a n d m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r l d s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . S c h u t z ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e c o g n i t i v e s e t t i n g o f t h e l i f e w o r l d e x a m i n e d t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e s o c i a l a c t o r s , t h e f a c t o r s c i r c u m s c r i b i n g t h e n a t u r a l a t t i t u d e a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t o c k o f k n o w l e d g e f o r a c t o r s ' m e a n i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n i n an i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e s e t t i n g . M e a d ' s n o t i o n o f " j o i n t a c t i o n " i s s i m i l a r t o S c h u t z ' u s e o f " i n t e r s u b j e c t i v i t y " - b o t h s u g g e s t m e a n i n g i s n o t a b s o l u t e , b u t c r e a t e d t h r o u g h p e o p l e ' s 4 0 . i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h e a c h o t h e r . S c h u t z t h e o r y o f s o c i a l a c t i o n c e n t r e d o n t h e s u b j e c t ' s " i n t e n t i o n s " . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e m e a n i n g o f " i n t e n t i o n " c a n be c o n f u s i n g i n t h i s c o n t e x t , s i n c e t h e s u b j e c t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a w a r e o f h i s / h e r i n t e n t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l p r o g r a m c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a l w a y s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s o m e t h i n g , a n d i n t h i s s e n s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l w a y s has an " i n t e n t i o n a l o b j e c t " ( S c h u t z , 1 9 7 0 , p p . 1 5 0 - 1 5 2 , 3 1 8 - 3 1 9 ) . N a t u r a l a t t i t u d e p h e n o m e n o l o g y has two i m p e r a t i v e s ; t h e d e s c r i p t i v e i m p e r a t i v e shows w h a t t h e phenomenon i s ( i n a s i m i l a r way t h a t p a r t o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t p r o g r a m a t t e m p t s t o d e p i c t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s as t h e y a r e u n d e r s t o o d by t h o s e who l i v e i n t h e m ) , t h e c o n s t i t u t i v e i m p e r a t i v e shows how i t i s c o n s t i t u t e d ( t h e i n t e r a c t i o n i s t s t h e o r e t i c a l a c c o u n t o f t h e a n a l y t i c e l e m e n t s o f a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n ) . T h e c e n t r a l s l o g a n o f m o r e r e c e n t p h e n o m e n o l o g i s t s e c h o e d b y s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s t s " b a c k t o t h e t h i n g s t h e m s e l v e s " i s a p l e a t o g e t away f r o m s o c i o l o g i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s n o t d e r i v e d f r o m s o c i a l r e a l i t y . A s we s h a l l s e e s h o r t l y , i t was t h i s b e l i e f t h a t p r o p e l l e d c r i m i n o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t i n t h e s e o n t o l o g i c a l a n d e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s as a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o u n d e r s t a n d c r i m e , d e l i n q u e n c y a n d g e n e r a l d e v i a n c y n o t f r o m an " o b j e c t i v e t e c h n i c a l " p o s i t i o n , b u t i n t h e s u b j e c t i v e t e r m s o f d e v i a n t s t h e m s e l v e s . I t r e p r e s e n t e d an e x p e d i t i o n i n t o t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y d e v i a n t r e a l i t y ; t o d e s c r i b e i t , u n d e r s t a n d i t s s t r u c t u r e , a n d r e p r e s e n t i t s r a t i o n a l i t y when u n d e r s t o o d f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . T h e p h e n o m e n o l o g y o f S c h u t z 4 1 . s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e s a n d h i d d e n i m p e r a t i v e s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d , a n d o n l y by d i s t a n c i n g o u r s e l v e s f r o m i t c a n we e v e r b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d i t . I n t h i s r e g a r d , t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e t u r n e d t o t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d i m p e r a t i v e s u n d e r l y i n g d e v i a n t r e a l i t i e s a n d a c t i o n s ; o n l y t h r o u g h t h e p e n e t r a t i o n o f t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d w o r l d c o u l d i n t e r p r e t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( a s o p p o s e d t o c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n i n i t s d e t e r m i n i s t i c s e n s e ) o f c r i m e a n d d e v i a n c e be c o n s t r u c t e d . S i m i l a r l y e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i s t s , g u i d e d by s y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , p h e n o m e n o l o g y a n d c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f W i t t g e n s t e i n ' s l a n g u a g e p h i l o s o p h y , make t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y l i f e t h e i r c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t . E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e d e s c r i p t i v e a n d i n t e r p r e t i v e e l e m e n t s o f s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y . T h u s e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y c a n be v i e w e d as a b r a n d o f p h e n o m e n o l o g y ( T a y l o r , W a l t o n a n d Y o u n g , 1 9 7 3 , p . 1 9 9 ) a l t h o u g h C o u l t e r a r g u e s t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t c l e a r ( 1 9 7 4 , p . 1 2 3 ) , a n d Baumann ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t i n a p u r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l s e n s e e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y i s c l o s e r t o i t s p r o f e s s e d a r c h enemy p o s i t i v i s m t h a n i t i s t o H u s s e r l i a n p h e n o m e n o l o g y ( t h e s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y i s s i m p l y t r y i n g t o s p e c i f y a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r u l e s b e t w e e n o b s e r v a t i o n a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l t e r m s t h a n t h o s e s u g g e s t e d by p o s i t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h y ) . L e a v i n g a s i d e f o r t h e moment t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l s t a t u s o f e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y , i t s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h 4 2 . p h e n o m e n o l o g y , d e s p i t e C o u l t e r ' s a r g u m e n t , does seem s u f f i c i e n t l y c l e a r - b o t h G a r f i n k e l (who c o i n e d t h e t e r m ) a n d C i c o u r e l (who i s a s e l f - a c k n o w l e d g e d p r a c t i t i o n e r o f t h e p o s i t i o n ) p a y c o n s i d e r a b l e homage t o S c h u t z . A c c o r d i n g t o G a r f i n k e l : " E t h n o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s a n a l y s e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s as m e m b e r s ' m e t h o d s f o r m a k i n g t h o s e same a c t i v i t i e s v i s i b l y r a t i o n a l a n d r e p o r t a b l e f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s i . e . ' a c c o u n t a b l e ' as o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f c o m m o n p l a c e e v e r y d a y a c t i v i t i e s . " ( 1 9 6 7 , p . 7 ) L i k e p h e n o m e n o l o g y , e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y o f t h e commonsense w o r l d . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o t h e " i n d e x i c a l i t y " o f l a n g u a g e a n d l a n g u a g e c a t e g o r i e s . L a n g u a g e i n d e x e s t h e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d r u l e s u n d e r l y i n g d a i l y e x i s t e n c e , r u l e s w h i c h c a n n o t be u n c o v e r e d by s i m p l y s t u d y i n g t h e r u l e s o f l a n g u a g e u s a g e . T h e " e t c e t e r a a s s u m p t i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e u n s p o k e n i m p l i c a t i o n s o f l a n g u a g e t h a t a r e t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d by i t s u s e r s ; f o r e x a m p l e t h e t e r m " d e l i n q u e n t " c o n t a i n s a p a r t i c u l a r , b u t o n l y i m p l i c i t , s e t o f i m a g e s a b o u t t h e s o c i a l t y p e s who w h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d d e l i n q u e n t as w e l l as r e f e r r i n g t o s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f b e h a v i o u r . I n g e n e r a l e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y s u g g e s t s t h a t s o c i a l r e a l i t y i s an o n - g o i n g p r a c t i c a l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e c o n c e r t e d a c t i v i t i e s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . T h e w o r l d o f e v e r d a y l i f e i s a s s u m e d b y i t s i n h a b i t a n t s t o be known i n common s u c h t h a t t h e y t r e a t i t s f e a t u r e s as n a t u r a l o b j e c t i v e f a c t s ; t h e s e a t t i t u d e s e n s u r e t h a t t h e w o r l d o f e v e r y d a y l i f e i s u n q u e s t i o n e d and exempt f r o m s c r u t i n y ( M i t c h e l l , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e c r i t i c a l and o f t e n 43. p o l e m i c a l t h r u s t o f e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y l i e s i n t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s o c i o l o g i s t s a r e no d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r s o c i a l a c t o r s i n t h a t t h e y a l s o t a k e t h e mundane s o c i a l w o r l d f o r g r a n t e d , t y p i c a l l y b e i n g m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w h i c h t h e y p r e s u m e a r e " b e h i n d " t h e a p p e a r a n c e s o f mundane s o c i a l r e a l i t y ( M i t c h e l l , 1 9 7 9 ) . S y m b o l i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s m , s o c i a l p h e n o m e n o l o g y a n d e t h n o m e t h o d o l o g y s h a r e i n common t h e r e j e c t i o n o f s t r u c t u r a l l y b a s e d a n a l y s e s w h i c h do n o t s t a r t f r o m t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f e v e r y d a y l i f e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s , t h e y a r e e s s e n t i a l l y c o m p a t i b l e . T h e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h i s c o m p a t i b i l i t y may now be s p e c i f i e d m o r e c o n c r e t e l y . I n t e g r a t i v e E l e m e n t s o f V e r s t e h e n P e r s p e c t i v e s T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l u n i t y o f t h e t h r e e p e r s p e c t i v e s i d e n t i f i e d as c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e i s t h a t r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v e l o p d e t e r m i n i s t i c c a u s a l e x p l a n a t i o n s t h e y s e e k t o d e v e l o p i n t e r p r e t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . I n t h i s e n d e a v o r t h e v a r i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s h a v e t h r e e p r i n c i p a l e l e m e n t s i n common. A c c o r d i n g t o A n d r e w T u d o r , t h e y a r e ( 1 9 7 7 , p p . 4 8 2 - 4 8 3 ) : 1. T h e P o s t u l a t e o f I n t e g r i t y o f t h e P h e n o m e n o n : s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e s e a r c h e r m u s t a d h e r e t o t h e c a t e g o r i c a l s y s t e m s a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n e v e r y d a y a c c o u n t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . I t i s an a t t e m p t t o r e m a i n t r u e t o t h e s t a t e o f a f f a i r s i n t h e phenomenon u n d e r s t u d y ( t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s a r e u s u a l l y q u i t e e x p l i c i t as i n D o u g l a s , 1 9 6 7 ; C i c o u r e l , 1 9 6 8 ; a n d 4 4 . M a t z a , 1 9 6 9 ) . 2 . T h e p o s t u l a t e o f t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f e v e r y d a y l i f e : t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t s t u d i e s m u s t b e g i n w i t h t h e phenomena o f e v e r y d a y l i f e , a t r a d i t i o n b e g i n i n g w i t h H u s s e r l i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o E n l i g h t e n m e n t p h i l o s o p h y . D o u g l a s ( 1 9 7 1 ) a s s e r t s t h a t t h i s b e g i n n i n g i s a l s o t h e end o f s t u d y a n d t h a t a n y m o r e a b s t r a c t l e v e l o f a n a l y s i s i s u n w a r r a n t e d . 3 . T h e p o s t u l a t e o f t h e c e n t r a l i t y o f m e a n i n g : w h i c h s p e c i f i e s w h a t c a n be c o u n t e d as e v e r y d a y l i f e . T h e phenomena s t u d i e d by t h e s o c i o l o g i s t a r e d e f i n e d by t h e m e a n i n g s t h a t a c t o r s g i v e t o t h e i r own a n d o t h e r s ' s i t u a t i o n s . T h e S u b s t a n c e o f t h e S o c i o l o g y o f D e v i a n c e W h i l e much o f t h e s o c i o l o g y o f d e v i a n c e has b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t h e o r e t i c a l c r i t i q u e o f t r a d i t i o n a l c r i m i n o l o g y a n d t o o f f e r i n g p r o g r a m m a t i c s t a t e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o r e o r i e n t t h e e p i s t e m o l o g y and m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e c r i m i n o l o g i c a l e n t e r p r i s e , a s i g n i f i c a n t b o d y o f e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h has f o l l o w e d t h e g u i d e l i n e s e s t a b l i s h e d by M a t z a ( 1 9 6 4 , 1 9 6 9 ) , L e m e r t ( 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 6 7 ) , K i t s u s e a n d C i c o u r e l ( 1 9 6 3 ) a n d o t h e r s i n d e v e l o p i n g an i n t e r p r e t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c r i m e a n d d e l i n q u e n c y . Two m a i n b o d i e s o f e m p i r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e h a v e d e v e l o p e d , b o t h o f w h i c h g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w an e t h n o g r a p h i