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The South Park water transfers : the geography of resource expropriation in Colorado, 1859-1994 Kindquist, Cathy Elsa 1996

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THE SOUTH PARK WATER TRANSFERS: THE GEOGRAPHY OF RESOURCE EXPROPRIATION IN COLORADO, 1859-1994 by Cathy E l s a K i n d q u i s t B . A . , C o l b y C o l l e g e , 1978 M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f Geography) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1996 © Cathy E l s a K i n d q u i s t , 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S f e O f e R r t frl-W The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date vtLctt-cU. oLDK, t99C» DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s examines the a g r i c u l t u r a l - t o - m u n i c i p a l water t r a n s f e r p r o c e s s and the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f South P a r k , a h i g h in te rmontane b a s i n l o c a t e d west o f the Denver m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i n t h e Rocky Mounta ins o f C o l o r a d o . The f o r m a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n and exchange o f water i n t h i s a r e a began i n 1859 w i t h the a r r i v a l o f m iners and the f i r s t d i v e r s i o n s o f water i n t o s l u i c e b o x e s . In the 1860s, r a n c h e r s c l a i m e d water on a more permanent and e x t e n s i v e b a s i s , u s i n g i t t o i r r i g a t e bo t tomlands t o produce hay and o t h e r f o d d e r c r o p s . T h i s s tudy d i s c u s s e s the e v o l u t i o n o f r a n c h i n g i n South Park from the 1860s t o the p r e s e n t , w i t h s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n t o the d e l i c a t e l y b a l a n c e d system t h a t had t o be worked out i n such a h a r s h env i ronment . More c e n t r a l l y , the t h e s i s o u t l i n e s the l e g a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system t h a t d e v e l o p e d i n the s t a t e o f C o l o r a d o t o govern the use and the exchange o f wa te r ; and i t f o c u s e s upon t h e South Park water t r a n s f e r s and t h e consequent r e t i r e m e n t o f r a n c h l a n d s , from the 1890s t o the 1990s. Wi thout t h e c r i t i c a l components o f water and p r o d u c t i v e h a y l a n d s , y e a r - r o u n d r a n c h i n g c o u l d no t e x i s t i n t h i s m a r g i n a l l a n d . B e g i n n i n g i n t h e 1890s, the c i t i e s a t the f o o t o f the C o l o r a d o F r o n t Range began t o a s s e s s t h e water r e s o u r c e s o f the h i g h b a s i n and contempla te a c q u i s i t i o n s o f key water r i g h t s t o s u p p l y the needs o f the growing urban c o r e . In the c e n t u r y t h a t f o l l o w e d , water r i g h t s were s o l d v o l u n t a r i l y by South Park r a n c h e r s , by t h e i r h e i r s , i i and by s p e c u l a t o r s , t o Denver , C o l o r a d o S p r i n g s , and l a t e r the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f A u r o r a and T h o r n t o n . The t r a n s f e r o f water t o urban hands t i p p e d the b a l a n c e -e c o n o m i c a l l y , e c o l o g i c a l l y , and p o l i t i c a l l y . What was r e l i n q u i s h e d was not s i m p l y c o n t r o l o f w a t e r , but a l s o c o n t r o l the s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n ' s most v i t a l r e s o u r c e and c o n t r o l o f the a r e a o f o r i g i n ' s f u t u r e . T h i s t h e s i s a d d r e s s e s t h e s e i s s u e s t h r o u g h use o f a r c h i v a l m a t e r i a l s ( l a r g e l y government r e c o r d s ) and t h r o u g h the use o f maps, p h o t o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s , newspapers , d i a r i e s , and o t h e r h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s . I n t e r v i e w s and f i e l d work were a l s o c o n d u c t e d , and i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d i n v i s u a l , t a b u l a r , and w r i t t e n fo rm. As economic development and p o p u l a t i o n e x p a n s i o n i n a r i d and s e m i - a r i d a r e a s c o n t i n u e , p r e s s u r e on water r e s o u r c e s i s i n c r e a s i n g . More and more, c i t i e s a r e t u r n i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r a l water r i g h t s and r u r a l communit ies t o o b t a i n t h e i r s u p p l i e s . In t h i s c o n t e x t , i t i s impor tan t t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the e x p r o p r i a t i o n p r o c e s s , and t h a t i s p r e c i s e l y what t h i s t h e s i s seeks t o d o . i i i TABLE OP CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s i v L i s t o f T a b l e s v i L i s t o f F i g u r e s v i i Acknowledgements x i C h a p t e r One Introduction: The South Park Water Transfers 1 C h a p t e r Two Water and the West Water and the West i n G l o b a l P e r s p e c t i v e 16 E n v i r o n m e n t a l H i s t o r y and t h e New Western H i s t o r y 19 Geography 32 Economics and O t h e r D i s c i p l i n e s 38 The C h a l l e n g e o f I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 49 C h a p t e r Three South ParX: Beginnings and Transformations 58 South Park 61 B e g i n n i n g s 65 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 68 The South Park System o f Ranch ing 79 South Park Water 97 C h a p t e r Four Water Administration The Framework 104 The Emergence o f the S t a t e E n g i n e e r 1 s O f f i c e 111 A d j u d i c a t i o n 118 S t a t e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n South Park 124 C h a p t e r F i v e The Early Transfers The Denver Water System 154 E a r l y D e s i g n s and P l a n s 159 The F i r s t M u n i c i p a l A c q u i s i t i o n s 167 Developments i n the M i d - T w e n t i e t h C e n t u r y 187 C h a p t e r S i x Dry Up Expand ing Demand 203 The B e g i n n i n g s o f Who lesa le E x p r o p r i a t i o n 212 The J a n i t e l l T r a n s f e r 229 The T r a n s f e r s 236 i v C h a p t e r Seven "Making Water Flow U p h i l l : " The Upper South Platte Water Conservancy D i s t r i c t ( F o r m a t i o n o f the Conservancy D i s t r i c t 270 The C h a l l e n g e o f the Water T r a n s f e r s 279 R e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Conservancy D i s t r i c t 284 L o c a l Power 290 C h a p t e r E i g h t Headwaters The L e g a l and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Framework 304 A r e a o f O r i g i n I s s u e s 310 Water , Power, and the Meaning o f Resource E x p r o p r i a t i o n i n the R u r a l West 316 B i b l i o g r a p h y 324 Appendix A G r a p h i c s : C r e d i t s and S o u r c e s 360 Appendix B South Park Water T r a n s f e r s , Database 367 Appendix C South Park D i t c h e s , Database 371 Appendix D 1885 A g r i c u l t u r a l C e n s u s , South Park 409 Appendix E D i v e r s i o n s , South Park D i t c h e s , 1950-1992 427 Appendix F C o n v e r s i o n s 449 Appendix G D i s t r i c t 23 Water Commiss ioners 450 Appendix H Case Numbers, South Park Water T r a n s f e r s , 1933-1992. 451 v LIST OF TABLES 3 - 1 . C o l o r a d o P o p u l a t i o n , 1860. 69 3 - 2 . Park County P o p u l a t i o n , 1860-1890. 79 3 - 3 . Park County A g r i c u l t u r e , 1870-1890. 85 5 - 1 . Growth o f Denver , 1860-1950. 155 5 -2 . P o p u l a t i o n by P r e c i n c t s , Park C o u n t y , 1890-1950. 165 5 - 3 . T o t a l A c r e s , S e l e c t e d Ranches , E a r l y Denver A c q u i s i t i o n s . 178 5 -4 . Water R i g h t s and P r i o r i t i e s , South Park Water T r a n s f e r s , 1932-1934. 181 5- 5. Water T r a n s f e r r e d t o M u n i c i p a l U s e , 1932-1934. 181 6- 1. Growth o f C i t i e s , 1860-1990. 204 6 - 2 . Water R i g h t s and P r i o r i t i e s , South Park Water T r a n s f e r s , 1932-1993. 221 6 - 3 . T o t a l A c r e s , S e l e c t e d Ranches , South Park Water T r a n s f e r s . 225 6 -4 . Water T r a n s f e r r e d t o M u n i c i p a l U s e , 1932-1993. 238 6 - 5 . P r i c e p e r A c r e F o o t , A u r o r a and T h o r n t o n P u r c h a s e s , 1968-1993. 243 6 - 6 . I r r i g a t e d Acreage R e t i r e d , 1968-1993. 245 6 - 7 . Ranch C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Park County , 1870-1987. 250 6 -8 . L i v e s t o c k P r o d u c t i o n , Park C o u n t y , 1870-1987. 250 6 - 9 . Hay P r o d u c t i o n , Park County , 1870-1987. 251 6 -10 . P o p u l a t i o n , Park County , 1860-1990. 251 v i LIST OF FIGURES 1-1 . Map: L o c a t i o n Map. 2 1-2. Map: South P a r k , Nor th P a r k , M i d d l e P a r k . 3 1 -3 . South Park from G e o r g i a P a s s , 1983. 4 1-4. I r r i g a t i o n D i t c h , South P a r k , 1992. 7 1-5 . C a t t l e i n South P a r k , 1993. 10 1-6 . Abandoned ranch house , South P a r k , 1992. 15 3 - 1 . Map: South Park P h y s i o g r a p h y . 62 3 -2 . Map: E a r l y Towns, Wagon Roads , and R a i l r o a d s , South P a r k , 1858-1918. 71 3 - 3 . Map: A c c e s s t o South P a r k , Mounta in P a s s e s . 74 3 -4 . S a l t Works, South P a r k , n . d . 75 3 - 5 . Samuel H a r t s e l , prominent South Park r a n c h e r n . d . 80 3 -6 . A d o l p h G u i r a u d ' s r a n c h on the M i d d l e F o r k o f the South P l a t t e R i v e r , n . d . 83 3 - 7 . Map: Components o f the L a n d . 86 3 - 8 . Map: I r r i g a t e d L a n d s , South P a r k . 88 3 - 9 . A e r i a l v iew o f South Park showing the open p a r k l a n d , f o o t h i l l s , and h i g h mounta in r a n g e s , n . d . 89 3 -10 . F l o o d i r r i g a t i o n on Twe lvemi le C r e e k , 1993. 91 3 - 11 . Hay b a l e s , F r e d a Wahl Ranch , 1992. 93 4 - 1. Map: C o l o r a d o Water D i v i s i o n s . 108 4 - 2 . Stream gaug ing s t a t i o n , 1993. 115 4 - 3 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f D i t c h e s , P l a t t e D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1860-1990. 120 4 - 4 . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f D i t c h e s , T a r r y a l l D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1860-1990. 121 v i i 4 - 5 . Map: South Park D r a i n a g e . 123 4 - 6 . L i n e Drawings: South Fork South P l a t t e R i v e r , Upper and Lower R eaches . 125 4 - 7 . L i n e Drawings: South Fork South P l a t t e R i v e r P r i o r t o R e s e r v o i r C o n s t r u c t i o n . 126 4 - 8 . L i n e Drawings: M i d d l e F o r k South P l a t t e R i v e r , Upper and Lower R e a c h e s . 127 4 - 9 . L i n e Drawings: F o u r m i l e Creek and H i g h C r e e k . 128 4 -10 . L i n e Drawings: Twe lvemi le Creek and B u f f a l o and S a l t C r e e k s . 129 4 - 1 1 . L i n e Drawings: T a r r y a l l Creek and Rock C r e e k . 130 4 -12 . L i n e Drawings: M i c h i g a n Creek and J e f f e r s o n C r e e k . 131 4 - 1 3 . Headgate i n d i s r e p a i r , Benjamin S p i n n e y ' s r a n c h on the South Fork o f the South P l a t t e R i v e r , 1910. 135 4 -14 . Newly a p p o i n t e d water commiss ioner A l o n z o Wr ight and d i v i s i o n e n g i n e e r F i l l m o r e C o g s w e l l c l o s i n g down t h e Raynor and Edmondson No. 2 D i t c h on the M i d d l e F o r k o f the South P l a t t e R i v e r , 1910. 136 4 - 1 5 . M e a s u r i n g f l u m e , Sheeprock D i t c h on J e f f e r s o n C r e e k , 1993. 143 4 - 16. Water commiss ioner Den ise P a p r o c k i measur ing the f low o f one o f the few r e m a i n i n g i r r i g a t i o n d i t c h e s i n South P a r k , l o c a t e d on Twe lvemi le C r e e k , 1993. 146 5- 1. The town o f H a r t s e l , w i t h f r e s h l y mown hay i n the meadows i n the b a c k g r o u n d , n . d . 163 5 - 2 . A n t e r o Dam, 1924. 171 5 - 3 . E l e v e n M i l e Canyon dam s i t e a t the t ime o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , 1931. 173 5 -4 . Map: E a r l y Denver A c q i s i t i o n s , E l e v e n M i l e R e s e r v o i r B a s i n , 1929-1932. 177 v i i i 5 - 5 . South P l a t t e R i v e r , d i v e r s i o n dam, and headgate o f the Weed D i t c h ( p r i o r i t y n o . 102) , 1910. 180 5 - 6 . The C o l o r a d o M i d l a n d Ra i lway y a r d a t H a r t s e l , w i t h the meander ing P l a t t e and the H a r t s e l ho t s p r i n g s r e s o r t on the r i g h t , n . d . 191 5- 7. Map: The H y d r a u l i c P a r k , 1994. 193 6- 1. D e n v e r ' s M u n i c i p a l Water S u p p l y , 1990. 2 06 6 -2 . A u r o r a ' s M u n i c i p a l Water S u p p l y , 1990. 208 6 - 3 . Map: The Denver M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a , 1990. 210 6 -4 . Hay ing i n South P a r k , F a l l 1993. 213 6 - 5 . S t a t u s o f D i t c h e s , P l a t t e D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 214 6 -6 . S t a t u s o f D i t c h e s , T a r r y a l l D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 215 6 - 7 . Map: Water and Acreage R e t i r e d from P r o d u c t i o n , South P a r k , 1915-1994. 219 6 -8 . F o r m e r l y i r r i g a t e d hay meadows, McDowell Ranch 1993. 222 6 - 9 . J e f f e r s o n L a k e , 1993. 232 6 -10 . Map: M u n i c i p a l Water T r a n s f e r s , South P a r k , 1915-1994. 237 6 -11 . M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l , P l a t t e D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 240 6 -12 . M u n i c i p a l C o n t r o l , T a r r y a l l D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 241 6 -13 . Water T r a n s f e r s , P l a t t e D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 246 6 -14 . Water T r a n s f e r s , T a r r y a l l D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 247 6 -15 . Map: Ranch Ownership a t the Time o f T r a n s f e r , South P a r k , 1915-1994. 248 6 -16 . Abandoned r a n c h , South P a r k , 1993. 261 i x 7 - 1 . I r r i g a t i o n Water R i g h t s , P l a t t e D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 291 7 -2 . I r r i g a t i o n Water R i g h t s , T a r r y a l l D r a i n a g e , South P a r k , 1993. 292 7 - 3 . Map: F e d e r a l and S t a t e L a n d , South P a r k , 1992. 294 7 -4 . Map: S e l e c t e d Ranch B o u n d a r i e s , South Park Water T r a n s f e r s , 1932-1994. 295 7- 5. Map: South Park S u b d i v i s i o n s , 1989. 297 8- 1. B r i s t l e c o n e P i n e , South P a r k , 1981. 315 8 -2 . Rainbow o v e r an abandoned r a n c h , South P a r k , 1993. 320 x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Many p e o p l e were o f a s s i s t a n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y i n the c o u r s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . F i r s t I must thank C o l e H a r r i s , my a d v i s o r , f o r c a r e f u l e d i t o r i a l and s u b s t a n t i v e comments, and f o r the encouragement he gave i n t h e f i n a l y e a r s o f t h i s work. Thanks must a l s o be g i v e n t o members o f my d o c t o r a l committee a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia - Maureen Reed, Graeme Wynn, and M i c h a e l B o v i s i n p a r t i c u l a r . C o l l e a g u e s and f r i e n d s Donald Akenson , Jeanne Kay, V i c t o r K o n r a d , H a z e l Mor row-Jones , John Wiener , C i n d y M i l l e r , Dawn Bowen and J o n a t h a n L i e b p r o v i d e d encouragement and i n t e l l e c t u a l s u s t e n a n c e t h r o u g h o u t . Some s u p p o r t a l s o came from my c o l l e a g u e s a t R a d f o r d U n i v e r s i t y i n V i r g i n i a , e s p e c i a l l y Susan Woodward, R i c k R o t h , and John DeWi t t . Thanks t o my department cha i rman Bernd Kuennecke and my dean S teven P o n t i u s f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e and i n d u l g e n c e . S p e c i a l thanks t o B i l l O ' B r i e n a t V i r g i n i a T e c h , D a v i d Ware i n Wyoming, L i n d a Winograd i n R e s t o n , V i c t o r E d v a l s o n a t WordPer fec t s u p p o r t , and my c o u s i n Rob C i t c o w i t z f o r e s s e n t i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the f i n a l phases o f t h i s p r o j e c t . Pat W i l e s and Kathy L imborg d i d an e x t r a o r d i n a r y j o b w i t h the maps and l i n e d r a w i n g s . T h e i r c a r e and p a t i e n c e t h rough rounds o f r e v i s i o n s a r e d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t e d . Sarah B l a c k , T e r i V e r m i l l i o n , and Sharon Dumont h e l p e d w i t h da tabase e n t r y . Susan Larcom V i n e s , Susan E a r n h a r t , C h r i s R i v e r s , K a r o l y n E l l i s , D . J . x i R o s s , Judy R o b b i n s , B a r b a r a Moore, Dawn B u f f i n g t o n , and C a r o l y n S u t p h i n h e l p e d w i t h l i f e i n g e n e r a l . Simon Kane wrote the " A v e r a g e r " program f o r the da tabase a n a l y s i s , and my b r o t h e r D a v i d K i n d q u i s t was a v a i l a b l e day and n i g h t f o r q u e s t i o n s as I p r o c e s s e d l a r g e d a t a b a s e s u s i n g a most u n f r i e n d l y computer program. My o l d f r i e n d s John A l l a n and P h y l l i s Smith p r o v i d e d e s s e n t i a l s u p p o r t . So d i d M e l a n i e and Zeke . I would l i k e t o ex tend s p e c i a l thanks t o Mark C u r r y and Den ise P a p r o c k i o f the D i s t r i c t 23 water commiss ioners o f f i c e . T h e i r knowledge o f South Park d i t c h e s was i n v a l u a b l e , as was t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o answer q u e s t i o n s and make r e c o r d s e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . Thanks as w e l l t o J i m C a m p b e l l , deputy water c o m m i s s i o n e r i n the d i s t r i c t s i n c e 1993. S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e must a l s o be e x p r e s s e d t o South Park r a n c h e r s James McDowel l , W a l t e r C o i l , Roy T e t e r , and James and T w i l a Brompton. No one knows the p a r k as w e l l as the p e o p l e who have ranched t h e r e . The Denver Water Department (DWD) d e s e r v e s r e c o g n i t i o n as w e l l . Sandy Chotechuang , head o f the a r c h i v e s and r e c o r d s depar tment , was o f g r e a t a s s i s t a n c e , as were members o f h e r s t a f f . L a r r y D i r k s i n the e n g i n e e r i n g depar tment , and a t t o r n e y M i c h a e l Walker o f the DWD's l e g a l department were a l s o o f g r e a t h e l p . C h i p s B a r r y , manager o f the Denver Water Department , took t h e t ime t o d i s c u s s w i t h me h i s v iews on the c i t y ' s water s u p p l y , c u r r e n t p o l i c i e s , and p r i o r i t i e s . H i s t ime and t h o u g h t f u l n e s s a r e most a p p r e c i a t e d . x i i Thanks a l s o t o Pau l F l a c k and Doug Kemper, w i t h the Department o f U t i l i t i e s , c i t y o f A u r o r a ; t o Doug Clements a t Spronck Water E n g i n e e r s ; t o Dave Bennet t w i t h the c i t y o f T h o r n t o n ; t o Mark G r i f f i n Smith a t C o l o r a d o C o l l e g e ; and t o C h a r l e s Howe a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o i n B o u l d e r . Warm thanks t o Frank M i l e n s k i S r . , farmer i n the A r k a n s a s V a l l e y and water a c t i v i s i t . A t D i v i s i o n 1 water c o u r t i n G r e e l e y , I found my way t h r o u g h vo luminous c a s e f i l e s and an a t t i c f i l l e d w i t h c o u r t e x h i b i t s w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f C o u r t C l e r k Mary C r e s p i n , h e r deputy c l e r k , and Water R e f e r e e Ray L i e s m a n . A t the D i v i s i o n 1 o f f i c e o f the C o l o r a d o S t a t e E n g i n e e r . L e s D a l b y , Dav id N e t t l e s , A l l e n Berryman, and Becky N i c h o l s were a l l h e l p f u l . B e t t y Dyce and Bonnie T u s i n g e r d e s e r v e thanks a t the C o l o r a d o Department o f N a t u r a l R e s o u r c e s i n Denver , as do the s t a f f s a t the C o l o r a d o S t a t e A r c h i v e s , t h e U . S . G e o l o g i c a l Survey (USGS) L i b r a r y , the USGS P h o t o g r a p h i c L i b r a r y , the C o l o r a d o H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , and t h e Denver P u b l i c L i b r a r y (Wayne C o f f e y i n Government Documents and B a r b a r a Wal ton i n Western H i s t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y ) . Thanks a l s o t o the members o f the b o a r d o f the Upper South P l a t t e Water Consevancy D i s t r i c t : S teve Spann, Dave W i s s e l , Verne B u t l e r , Leona N e l s o n , and D i c k Housum; and t o board s e c r e t a r y L i l l i a n W i s s e l . In e n d i n g t h e s e acknowledgements i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e the l o v e and s u p p o r t o f my p a r e n t s , E r i c and C a r o l K i n d q u i s t . Throughout t h i s p r o j e c t and t h r o u g h o u t my x i i i l i f e , t h e y have g i v e n me t h e i r encourangement and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . They have o f f e r e d c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m . Two a s t u t e and q u i c k minded p e o p l e , my p a r e n t s have a lways c h a l l e n g e d me t o t h i n k d e e p l y and examine t h i n g s c a r e f u l l y . They have i n s p i r e d me, by t h e i r example and th rou g h t h e i r b e l i e f i n me, t o push t h e l i m i t s o f e x p e r i e n c e and i d e a s . Wi th a f f e c t i o n , r e s p e c t , and g r a t i t u d e I d e d i c a t e t h i s work t o them. x i v CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION: THE SOUTH PARK WATER TRANSFERS T h i s i s a s tudy i n h i s t o r i c a l geography , b l e n d i n g l a n d and l i f e , p a s t and p r e s e n t , t o u n d e r s t a n d c h a n g i n g p a t t e r n s o f c o n t r o l o v e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . I t has o f t e n been s a i d t h a t water f l o w s i n the d i r e c t i o n o f money and power. Such i s the c a s e i n South P a r k , a h i g h , windswept b a s i n i n the Rocky Mounta ins o f C o l o r a d o ( F i g u r e s 1-1 t o 1 -3 ) . Water r e s o u r c e s were f i r s t a p p r o p r i a t e d and put t o l o c a l use by miners and r a n c h e r s i n the m i d d l e o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . Today , as the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y draws t o a c l o s e , few water r i g h t s remain i n l o c a l h a n d s . Most o f South P a r k ' s water has been removed from use i n the m o u n t a i n s , and the r i g h t s a r e now owned and used by c i t i e s l o c a t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 m i l e s downstream. How has t h i s s h i f t i n c o n t r o l o v e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s been a c c o m p l i s h e d ? T h i s s t u d y a t tempts t o a d d r e s s t h i s q u e s t i o n by t r a c i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n and t r a n s f e r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l water r i g h t s i n South Park from 1859 t o the p r e s e n t . When I began t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t was w i t h the i n t e n t i o n o f c o n d u c t i n g a s tudy t h a t a d d r e s s e d t h r e e a s p e c t s o f the South Park water t r a n s f e r s . I i n t e n d e d t o r e c o n s t r u c t the chang ing p a t t e r n o f i r r i g a t i o n i n South P a r k , s t a r t i n g w i t h the e x p a n s i o n o f the system o f d i t c h e s and f o l l o w i n g t h r o u g h t o t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l - t o - m u n i c i p a l water t r a n s f e r s o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . S e c o n d , I p l a n n e d t o d e a l 1 rx.w. Figure 1-1. Map: L o c a t i o n Map. Note : S o u r c e s and c r e d i t s f o r a l l maps and l i n e drawings i n t h i s t h e s i s a re c o n t a i n e d i n Appendix A . 2 WYOMING NEW MEXICO S O U T H P A R K N O R T H P A R K M I D D L E P A R K 25 50 75 100 MILES M.IK CCA LEGEND SOUTH PARK NORTH PARK MIDDLE PARK TOWNS STATE BOUNDARY F i g u r e 1-2. Map: South P a r k , Nor th P a r k , M i d d l e P a r k . The term "park" r e f e r s t o an in termontane b a s i n . T y p i c a l l y , a mounta in p a r k i s sur rounded by mounta ins . In the i n t e r i o r , the r e l a t i v e l y f l a t s u r f a c e i s broken by r i d g e s and o t h e r f e a t u r e s . C o l o r a d o has t h r e e p a r k s : South P a r k , N o r t h P a r k , and M i d d l e P a r k . A l l c o n t a i n the headwaters o f some o f the s t a t e ' s major r i v e r s , t h e South P l a t t e , N o r t h P l a t t e , and the C o l o r a d o r i v e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . Chap te r t h r e e c o n t a i n s some f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n on t h e term "park" - i t s meaning and i t s o r i g i n s . 3 Figure 1 - 3 . South Park from Georgia Pass, 1983. 4 i n dep th w i t h the impact o f water t r a n s f e r s on the a r e a o f o r i g i n . T h i r d , I wanted t o g r a p p l e w i t h some o f the t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s s u r r o u n d i n g s h i f t i n g power r e l a t i o n s , as c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s p a s s e d from r u r a l t o urban hands . I t soon became c l e a r t h a t s o r t i n g out t h e s i m p l e geography o f c h a n g i n g water use was a gargantuan t a s k . Records were i n c o n s i s t e n t , i n c o m p l e t e , ,. and sometimes c o n t r a d i c t o r y . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f water r i g h t s i n a d i s t r i c t w i t h o v e r 400 d i t c h e s was q u i t e c o m p l i c a t e d as w e l l . The t r a n s f e r s which were t aken t h r o u g h the c o u r t s i n v o l v e d more than two dozen s e p a r a t e l e g a l p r o c e e d i n g s . I t seemed t o me t h a t b e f o r e moving on t o such heady m a t t e r s as s h i f t i n g power r e l a t i o n s , I had t o e s t a b l i s h how much water was i n v o l v e d . How much acreage had come under the d i t c h b e f o r e the t r a n s f e r s s t a r t e d removing i r r i g a t i o n water from use and hay meadows from p r o d u c t i o n i n South Park? In each o f the t r a n s f e r s , had the s a l e s been v o l u n t a r y o r not? Who was s e l l i n g ? Answer ing t h e s e and o t h e r b a s i c q u e s t i o n s took y e a r s o f r e s e a r c h w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d s . I n f o r m a t i o n was checked and doub le c h e c k e d . In the e n d , what appears h e r e i s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from what I had o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d . T h i s work i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y e m p i r i c a l . I t seeks t o a d d r e s s b a s i c q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the p a t t e r n o f water r e s o u r c e use i n South Park and the f a c t s s u r r o u n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l - t o -m u n i c i p a l water t r a n s f e r s . I t seeks t o e l u c i d a t e the water t r a n s f e r p r o c e s s . 5 The t r a n s f e r o f South P a r k ' s water took p l a c e w i t h i n the r u b r i c o f the l e g a l d o c t r i n e o f p r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n . P r i o r a p p r o p r i a t i o n t r e a t e d water r i g h t s as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y r i g h t s . Water c o u l d be c l a i m e d t h r ough p e r s o n a l l a b o r , and once a p p r o p r i a t e d c o u l d be s o l d and exchanged w i t h i n the b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e law. I t c o u l d be s o l d s e p a r a t e l y from the l a n d on which i t had been u s e d . I t c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d from one t y p e o f use t o a n o t h e r and from one l o c a t i o n o f use t o a n o t h e r . P r o f i t s from the s a l e and exchange o f water r i g h t s a c c r u e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l s s e l l i n g t h o s e water r i g h t s . In South Park water was f i r s t c l a i m e d by miners b e g i n n i n g i n t h e l a t e 1850s. In the 1860s r a n c h e r s e s t a b l i s h e d a g r i c u l t u r a l water r i g h t s , d i v e r t i n g the r e s o u r c e s o f l o c a l s t reams t o grow hay i n the b o t t o m l a n d s . A t h r i v i n g r a n c h i n g economy and a v i b r a n t r a n c h i n g c u l t u r e took shape i n the h i g h in te rmontane b a s i n . C o l o r a d o i s d r y , l i k e much o f the Amer ican West . By the 1890s the c i t i e s growing on the piedmont e a s t o f the Rocky Mounta ins began t o t u r n t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l water s u p p l i e s i n the mounta ins . C o n t i n u e d m u n i c i p a l growth r e q u i r e d a r e l i a b l e water s u p p l y , and South Park was the l o g i c a l p l a c e t o t u r n . I t l a y a t the headwaters o f the South P l a t t e R i v e r , which r a n t h r o u g h Denver , the r a p i d l y expanding "Queen C i t y " o f the p l a i n s . The c i t y ' s e n g i n e e r s and c o n s u l t a n t s a s s e s s e d the water r e s o u r c e s o f South Park and found hundreds o f s m a l l d i t c h e s i r r i g a t i n g f o d d e r c r o p s ( F i g u r e 1 -4) . They r e c o g n i z e d t h a t 6 Figure 1-4. Irrigation Ditch, South Park, 1992. 7 r a n c h e s and water r i g h t s c o u l d be p u r c h a s e d f o r r e a s o n a b l e p r i c e s , and t h a t water r i g h t s c o u l d be t r a n s f e r r e d t h r o u g h the c o u r t s f o r use downstream i n the c i t y . Through v o l u n t a r y s a l e s and l e g a l t r a n s f e r s , i n the next f o u r decades Denver a c q u i r e d some s m a l l but s t r a t e g i c h o l d i n g s i n South P a r k , and t o o k l e s s t h a n 10% o f the water d e c r e e d f o r i r r i g a t i o n i n the d i s t r i c t . I t was no t u n t i l the l a t t e r h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y t h a t c o n t r o l o f water r e s o u r c e s p a s s e d d o m i n a n t l y t o urban h a n d s . S i n c e 1968 m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a l o n g the C o l o r a d o F r o n t Range have a c q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 75% o f the water r i g h t s once used f o r i r r i g a t i o n i n South P a r k . C l o s e t o 40,000 a c r e s o f h a y l a n d s have been r e t i r e d from p r o d u c t i o n i n r u r a l Park County . South Park i s no l o n g e r a v i t a l r a n c h i n g a r e a . Water s a l e s have been v o l u n t a r y . There i s no Owens V a l l e y s t y l e s u b t e r f u g e o r c o e r c i o n . S t i l l , t h i s q u i e t l e g a l p r o c e s s has p r o d u c e d p r o f o u n d changes i n South Park - the a r e a o f o r i g i n i n t h e s e water t r a n s f e r s . W i t h i n the r u b r i c o f the law, which v iews water as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and the r i g h t t o s e l l as b o r d e r i n g on t h e s a c r e d , l i t t l e account has been taken o f the consequences o f t h e s e water s a l e s and t r a n s f e r s t o the p e o p l e o f r u r a l Park County o r the a r e a o f o r i g i n more g e n e r a l l y . The q u e s t i o n o f the impact o f the water t r a n s f e r s i s a complex one . Change i n South Park i s not a t t r i b u t a b l e t o water s a l e s a l o n e . The South Park water t r a n s f e r s o c c u r r e d i n the c o n t e x t o f m o d e r n i z a t i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n i n Amer ican a g r i c u l t u r e . F l u c t u a t i n g c a t t l e p r i c e s , i n c r e a s i n g overhead 8 c o s t s , u n r e l i a b l e s u b s i d i e s and s u p p o r t s , and many o t h e r f a c t o r s made r a n c h i n g p r o f i t s s m a l l and u n p r e d i c t a b l e . The economic m a r g i n a l i t y o f h i g h c o u n t r y r a n c h i n g c r e a t e d an i n c e n t i v e f o r South Park r a n c h e r s t o s e l l t h e i r water r i g h t s . M i l l i o n s o f d o l l a r s c o u l d be made - f a r more than c o u l d be earned o v e r many y e a r s by b r a v i n g the e l e m e n t s , work ing seven days a week, and engag ing i n b a c k - b r e a k i n g l a b o r ( F i g u r e 1 -5 ) . Once water was s o l d , i t was d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e f o r a r a n c h e r t o c o n t i n u e t o o p e r a t e even a m a r g i n a l l y p r o f i t a b l e y e a r - r o u n d l i v e s t o c k o p e r a t i o n . In South P a r k , which i s a t an e l e v a t i o n o f 9,000 t o 10,000 f e e t above sea l e v e l , w i n t e r s a re l o n g . W i n t e r f e e d i s grown w i t h i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r . Wi thout i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r , t h e r e i s no w i n t e r f e e d . Wi thout w i n t e r f e e d , t h e r e i s no w i n t e r i n g o f l i v e s t o c k , no y e a r - r o u n d r a n c h i n g i n d u s t r y . Wi thout i r r i g a t i o n water , the l a n d was o f l i m i t e d v a l u e f o r r a n c h i n g . The s a l e o f r a n c h water r i g h t s t o the c i t i e s o f t e n went hand i n hand w i t h the s a l e o f r anch l a n d s t o s u b d i v i d e r s . T h i s changed the l a n d s c a p e , the c o m p o s i t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e n a t u r e o f the l o c a l economy. As former a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s became r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s , a new p o p u l a t i o n began t o make i t s p r e s e n c e f e l t i n Park County . Many o f the new p e o p l e were p u r c h a s i n g l a n d f o r second homes - some f o r r e t i r e m e n t , o t h e r s f o r weekend o r s e a s o n a l r e c r e a t i o n . The p o p u l a t i o n c o m p o s i t i o n o f South Park changed . The r a n c h e r s and p e o p l e employed i n more t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s were d i s a p p e a r i n g . R e t i r e e s , wh i te and 9 F i g u r e 1 -5 . Cattle i n South Park, 10 b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e were r e p l a c i n g them. The newcomers were not mountain p e o p l e , they were from the f l a t l a n d s , the e a s t , C a l i f o r n i a , and the c i t i e s . The c h a r a c t e r o f South Park was c h a n g i n g . I f i r s t saw South Park i n the f a l l o f 1980. The peaks t h a t r i n g the g o l d e n f l o o r o f the h i g h b a s i n were d u s t e d w i t h the f i r s t snow. They g l i s t e n e d i n the e a r l y morning l i g h t . I s o l a t e d r a n c h e s were d o t t e d a c r o s s the p a r k ' s u n d u l a t i n g s u r f a c e . Twenty m i l e s d i s t a n t the c raggy peaks o f the Mosqu i to Range, a 14,000 f o o t s p i n e o f mountains t h a t s e p a r a t e s the headwaters o f the South P l a t t e R i v e r from t h o s e o f the A r k a n s a s , were s t a r k l y o u t l i n e d by pendulous b l a c k c l o u d s . S e v e n t y - f i v e m i l e s t o t h e s o u t h , the f a r edge o f the park was framed by the hazy p r o f i l e o f the Sangre de C r i s t o M o u n t a i n s . South Park seemed v a s t and r e l a t i v e l y untouched by the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y urban w o r l d . In t h a t second assessment I was m i s t a k e n . Beneath a t h i n v e n e e r t h a t combines e lements o f the p i c t u r e s q u e n i n e t e e n t h and t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y Amer ican West , l i e s the web o f a modern water system t h a t s u p p l i e s the needs o f b u r g e o n i n g c i t i e s , a t the e a s t e r n edge o f the C o l o r a d o R o c k i e s . The pages t h a t f o l l o w e x p l o r e the development o f t h i s system and the d e c l i n e o f i r r i g a t i o n and r a n c h i n g i n South P a r k . T h i s c h a p t e r has b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e d the s t u d y . Chapte r Two s e t s out t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l framework - the i d e a s and p e r s p e c t i v e s deemed most u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e o p l e and water r e s o u r c e s i n the Amer ican West. I t summarizes 11 s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f a v a s t l i t e r a t u r e , drawing on work i n a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s i n c l u d i n g geography , h i s t o r y , and e c o n o m i c s . The next f i v e c h a p t e r s a r e l a r g e l y e m p i r i c a l . Chap te r Three i n t r o d u c e s the r e a d e r t o South P a r k , the p l a c e and i t s p a s t . C h a p t e r Four d e a l s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f water r e s o u r c e s i n South Park and d i s c u s s e s the l e g a l and b u r e a u c r a t i c framework w i t h i n which use and exchange o c c u r . Chapte r F i v e d e s c r i b e s the e a r l i e s t m u n i c i p a l water t r a n s f e r s , i n which a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f water r i g h t s were s o l d by l o c a l r a n c h e r s and t h e i r h e i r s t o urban i n t e r e s t s and e f f e c t i v e l y removed from use i n South P a r k . Chapte r S i x c o n t i n u e s the t a l e , f o c u s i n g on more r e c e n t t r a n s f e r s t h a t have removed most o f t h e r e m a i n i n g water r i g h t s from use i n the h i g h , windswept b a s i n . No l o n g e r does i r r i g a t i o n water c o u r s e a c r o s s the h a y l a n d s o f South P a r k . No l o n g e r do a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s s u p p o r t one o f t h e most v i g o r o u s l o c a l c a t t l e i n d u s t r i e s i n the s t a t e o f C o l o r a d o . Chapte r Seven d i s c u s s e s the Upper South P l a t t e Water Conservancy D i s t r i c t , a l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t r i e s i t s b e s t t o r e p r e s e n t the headwaters communi ty 's need f o r c o n t i n u i n g a c c e s s t o wa te r . Formed o r i g i n a l l y t o p r o t e c t the water r i g h t s o f l o c a l r a n c h e r s and water u s e r s , o v e r t ime the o r g a n i z a t i o n has taken on a b r o a d e r o r i e n t a t i o n , l e s s concerned w i t h s a f e g u a r d i n g the r i g h t s o f i n d i v i d u a l r a n c h e r s than w i t h g u a r a n t e e i n g a base f o r f u t u r e deve lopment . Each o f t h e s e f i v e c h a p t e r s c e n t e r s on a d i f f e r e n t group o r c o m b i n a t i o n o f r e c o r d s : h i s t o r i c a l c o l l e c t i o n s i n Chapte r 12 T h r e e ; the r e c o r d s o f the C o l o r a d o S t a t e E n g i n e e r ' s O f f i c e ( i n c l u d i n g the s t a t e , d i v i s i o n , and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s ) i n Chapte r F o u r ; Denver Water Department r e c o r d s i n C h a p t e r F i v e ; m u n i c i p a l , s t a t e , and c o u r t r e c o r d s i n Chapte r S i x ; and the r e c o r d s o f the Upper South P l a t t e Water Conservancy D i s t r i c t i n C h a p t e r S e v e n . The e i g h t h and f i n a l c h a p t e r a d d r e s s e s the impact o f the water t r a n s f e r s , and draws some c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g c o n t r o l o f key r e s o u r c e s and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r u r a l communi t i es . R u r a l a r e a s have h i s t o r i c a l l y been dependent on r e s o u r c e based i n d u s t r i e s and economies . Peop le eke out a l i v i n g i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the l a n d . Y e t , t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p does not e x i s t i n i s o l a t i o n . Wi thout the market p r o v i d e d by the c i t y , t h e r e would be no r e s o u r c e based economy i n the h i n t e r l a n d . However, when r u r a l communi t ies l o s e c o n t r o l o v e r key r e s o u r c e s the r e s u l t can be economic d e v a s t a t i o n and s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . A way o f l i f e d i s a p p e a r s . The l a n d i t s e l f i s t r a n s f o r m e d . Such i s the c a s e i n South P a r k . Today South Park appears as a v a s t , brown expanse . Water no l o n g e r shimmers i n the s u n l i g h t as i t c o u r s e s a c r o s s t e n s o f thousands o f a c r e s o f p r o d u c t i v e h a y l a n d . The wind whips up the d u s t as i t p a s s e s o v e r the g r a v e l l y , s p a r s e l y v e g e t a t e d s u r f a c e o f the h i g h p a r k . Many o f South P a r k ' s r e s i d e n t s a r e s e a s o n a l . The economic backbone today i s t o u r i s m and o u t d o o r r e c r e a t i o n . The l a r g e s t employers a r e the c o u n t y , s t a t e , and f e d e r a l governments . Most o t h e r r e s i d e n t s work o u t s i d e the b o u n d a r i e s 13 o f t h e headwaters b a s i n . A few d i e h a r d r a n c h e r s hang o n , r e f u s i n g t o s e l l o r w a i t i n g t o g e t t h e i r a s k i n g p r i c e f rom t h e c i t i e s f o r t h e i r water r i g h t s . Water f lows t h r o u g h South P a r k , from t h e mounta ins and the s n o w f i e l d s t o the c i t i e s . I t i s drawn by g r a v i t y , but a l s o by the c i t i e s ' t h i r s t and power. T r a n s f o r m e d once by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f water t o the l a n d , South Park i s b e i n g t r a n s f o r m e d a g a i n t h r ough i t s r e m o v a l . As the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y comes t o an e n d , the p r o c e s s o f d r y i n g up South Park i s n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s examines t h a t p r o c e s s ( F i g u r e 1 -6 ) . 14 F i g u r e 1-6 . Abandoned ranch house, South Park, 1992. 15 CHAPTER TWO WATER AND THE WEST Water and the West in Global Perspective As we approach the t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y , the s p e c t r e o f water s c a r c i t y on a g l o b a l s c a l e looms l a r g e . Expand ing p o p u l a t i o n s , i n c r e a s i n g imba lances between the l o c a t i o n s o f s u p p l i e s and demands, c o n t a m i n a t i o n o f f r e s h water r e s o u r c e s , and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c l i m a t e change - a l l combine t o sugges t a p o t e n t i a l c r i s i s . In d r y a r e a s where urban p o p u l a t i o n s a r e g r o w i n g , the s i t u a t i o n i s becoming p a r t i c u l a r l y a c u t e . C i t i e s a c r o s s the g l o b e a r e e x c e e d i n g the l i m i t s o f t h e i r water s u p p l i e s , and i n c r e a s i n g l y a r e b e i n g f o r c e d t o t a p d i s t a n t s o u r c e s , a t ever g r e a t e r c o s t and l e v e l s o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y . 1 In i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , c o n s e r v a t i o n i s becoming an economic n e c e s s i t y , and p r i o r i t i e s a r e s h i f t i n g " f rom meet ing demand, t o managing demand." 2 But the s h i f t i s s t i l l i n c o m p l e t e , bo th i n d e v e l o p e d and d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s . D e s p i t e c o n s e r v a t i o n measures such as x e r i s c a p i n g , m e t e r i n g , l o w - f l o w f i x t u r e s , and l i m i t a t i o n o f the number o f new b u i l d i n g p e r m i t s , many i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c i t i e s c o n t i n u e t o expand t h e i r s u p p l i e s . In a r e a s where water i s s c a r c e , c i t i e s a re t u r n i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y t o a g r i c u l t u r e , c o n v e r t i n g i r r i g a t i o n water t o m u n i c i p a l u s e . 3 In d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where c o n f l i c t i s not r a t i o n a l i z e d t h r ough water markets o r media ted th rough w e l l - d e v e l o p e d l e g a l and 1 6 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s , c o n f l i c t between a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and c i t y d w e l l e r s i s more d i r e c t . Urban demand f o r water i s i n c r e a s i n g and shows no s i g n s o f l e v e l i n g o f f . On the eve o f the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n , o n l y 3% o f the w o r l d ' s p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n c i t i e s . 4 By 1920 t h a t f i g u r e had r i s e n t o 14%, and by 1980 t o 41%. 5 Water i s a f i n i t e r e s o u r c e . On a g l o b a l s c a l e , a g r i c u l t u r e c l a i m s 68% o f the water withdrawn from streams f o r human u s e , i n d u s t r y ano ther 25%, and 7% i s used i n t h e home. 6 In t h e d r y Amer ican west , a g r i c u l t u r e c l a i m s an e s t i m a t e d 75-91% o f the w a t e r , a l t h o u g h r o u g h l y 75% o f the r e g i o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n i n u r b a n i z e d . 7 T h i s p a t t e r n has prompted many s c h o l a r s and p o l i c y makers t o v iew t r a n s f e r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l water t o m u n i c i p a l uses f a v o r a b l y , on the b a s i s t h a t water i s b e i n g a l l o c a t e d t o h i g h e r v a l u e u s e s . 8 Indeed t h i s i s the c a s e i n s t r i c t l y economic t e r m s , but t h i s g e n e r a l a n a l y s i s o b s c u r e s l o c a l e f f e c t s o f water t r a n s f e r s , and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t a l , c u l t u r a l , and p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . In any e v e n t , a growing consensus t h a t water t r a n s f e r s and water m a r k e t i n g p r o v i d e s o l u t i o n s t o problems o f urban s u p p l y make i t more l i k e l y t h a t p r e s s u r e w i l l i n c r e a s e f o r urban e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l water . As F o l k - W i l l i a m s e t a l p o i n t out i n t h e i r s tudy o f twenty southwestern Amer ican c i t i e s , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s a r e a l r e a d y the most a c t i v e d e v e l o p e r s and p u r c h a s e r s o f water i n the d ry w e s t . 9 P r e s e n t day water wars a r e b e i n g fought on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , be i t w i t h i n a n a t i o n s t a t e (Co lorado farmer v s . C o l o r a d o 17 c i t y , and A r i z o n a v s . C a l i f o r n i a ) , o r between n a t i o n s t a t e s ( I s r a e l v s . J o r d a n and S y r i a ) . As s u p p l i e s become more s c a r c e , and d i s p u t e s o v e r water remain u n r e s o l v e d , water w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y become a s o u r c e o f p o l i t i c a l and economic i n s t a b i l i t y . The s c a l e o f c o n f l i c t w i l l expand. A c c o r d i n g t o one e x p e r t , n a t i o n s may be expec ted t o go t o war o v e r water i n the f u t u r e . 1 0 S i n c e the mid -1980s , the p o l i t i c s o f water has i n c r e a s i n g l y p e n e t r a t e d the Amer ican c o n s c i o u s n e s s . There has been a d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e i n the l e v e l o f a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o water i s s u e s by t h e med ia . The New York Times g i v e s r e g u l a r coverage t o g l o b a l and weste rn water i s s u e s . In 1991, an i s s u e o f Newsweek f o c u s e d on the West , and p r o m i n e n t l y f e a t u r e d water p r o b l e m s . In t h e f a l l o f 1993, a s p e c i a l i s s u e o f N a t i o n a l G e o g r a p h i c was e n t i t l e d "Water: The Power, P r o m i s e , and T u r m o i l o f Nor th A m e r i c a ' s F r e s h Water ; " P u b l i c B r o a d c a s t i n g (PBS) a i r e d a r e l a t e d s p e c i a l on t h e s u b j e c t . P i e c e s on water c o n t i n u e t o be b r o a d c a s t on the M c N e i l - L e h r e r Newshour, p u b l i c r a d i o , and on n a t i o n a l and l o c a l t e l e v i s i o n n e w s c a s t s . Time magazine d i d a c o v e r s t o r y . A t the cusp o f the t w e n t i e t h and t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r i e s , water i s no l o n g e r j u s t an i s s u e f o r p l a n n e r s , e n g i n e e r s , s c h o l a r s , p o l i t i c i a n s , and r e s i d e n t s o f d r y a r e a s . I t has become a mat te r o f n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and i n c r e a s i n g l y i s b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d as an i s s u e o f g l o b a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Accompanying , and i n some c a s e s p r e c e d i n g , t h i s g e n e r a l l y r a i s e d l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s about water has been a 18 p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s c h o l a r s h i p on the s u b j e c t . H i s t o r i a n s , e c o n o m i s t s , p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s , l e g a l s c h o l a r s , a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s , e n g i n e e r s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l s c i e n t i s t s , and geographers have a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o a r a p i d l y growing and d i v e r s e l i t e r a t u r e . In the pages t h a t f o l l o w , I r e v i e w t h i s l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the Amer ican West and w i t h an eye t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the dynamics and meaning o f water t r a n s f e r s a l o n g the C o l o r a d o F r o n t Range. The f i r s t s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on the work o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l h i s t o r i a n s and on p e r s p e c t i v e s o f f e r e d by t h e new weste rn h i s t o r y . The next s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f geographers t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g western water and the t h i r d f o c u s e s on the work o f e c o n o m i s t s and o t h e r s c h o l a r s . The c o n c l u d i n g s e c t i o n b r i n g s t o g e t h e r s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f t h e s e d i v e r s e l i t e r a t u r e s . The o b j e c t i v e i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r o v i d e a framework f o r t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e South Park water t r a n s f e r s t h a t a r e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s t h e s i s . Environmental History and the New Western History H i s t o r i a n s a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f water i n the West th rough m e t i c u l o u s e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h and t h e o r e t i c a l engagement. T h e i r work i s l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e s c r i b i n g , c a t e g o r i z i n g , m o d e l i n g , and p r e d i c t i n g t h a n i t i s w i t h u n d e r s t a n d i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g , and e x p l o r i n g meaning. As s u c h , the h i s t o r i a n s ' work i s perhaps c l o s e r t o t h a t o f the h i s t o r i c a l geographer than i s the work o f o t h e r s c h o l a r s . 19 W a l t e r P r e s c o t t Webb was the f i r s t t o note the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a r i d i t y i n d e f i n i n g the Amer ican west as a r e g i o n , hence i n d e f i n i n g i t s h i s t o r y and t h e s o c i e t y t h a t t o o k s h a p e . 1 1 None the l e s s , some h i s t o r i a n s t r a c e the e x i s t e n c e o f water r e s o u r c e s h i s t o r y as a s e p a r a t e f i e l d t o Samuel P. Hays ' C o n s e r v a t i o n and the G o s p e l o f E f f i c i e n c y : The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i o n Movement. 1890-192 0. p u b l i s h e d i n 1959 . 1 2 Through a s tudy o f the emergence o f m u l t i p l e - u s e water p l a n n i n g on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , Hays a d d r e s s e d the r e l a t i o n s o f b u r e a u c r a c y , growth , s c i e n c e , and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . Hays ' i n t e r e s t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g p o l i t i c a l and economic change moved water h i s t o r y beyond s e l f -c o n g r a t u l a t o r y a c c o u n t s o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e n g i n e e r i n g wonders and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o a f u n d a m e n t a l l y r a p a c i o u s s o c i e t y , t o a c r i t i q u e o f t h a t s o c i e t y and o f water development more g e n e r a l l y . In the 1960s and 1970s, p r o f e s s i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s began t o produce s t u d i e s o f r e c l a m a t i o n l e a d e r s , 1 3 i n t e r s t a t e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l water c o n f l i c t s , 1 4 l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y development a t the s t a t e and f e d e r a l l e v e l s , 1 5 and i r r i g a t i o n . 1 6 P r i o r t o t h a t t i m e , r e c l a m a t i o n and water r e s o u r c e s h i s t o r y had l a r g e l y been w r i t t e n by j o u r n a l i s t s , p o l i c y makers , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and e c o n o m i s t s . 1 7 The work emerging i n h i s t o r y was a d i v e r s e l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e d on a r i d and s e m i - a r i d l a n d s , i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r e , and e n g i n e e r i n g s o l u t i o n s . 1 8 20 Much o f t h e weste rn water h i s t o r y p roduced i n the 1960s, 70s and 80s f o c u s e d on a g r i c u l t u r e , examined f e d e r a l r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t s and p o l i c i e s , and e x p l o r e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f e d e r a l government and s t a t e and l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . 1 9 O ther s t u d i e s a d d r e s s e d l e g a l a s p e c t s o f water r e s o u r c e s i s s u e s , i n C a l i f o r n i a and o t h e r s t a t e s . 2 0 These i n c l u d e d Rober t D u n b a r ' s F o r g i n g New R i g h t s i n Western Waters , a s tudy o f t h e e v o l u t i o n o f wes te rn water law i n the 19th and 20th c e n t u r i e s . 2 1 In t h i s work, Dunbar e l u c i d a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t rea tment o f water as p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and a b u s i v e and w a s t e f u l p r a c t i c e s . In the 1980s t h e r e was a p r o f u s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p . Much o f t h i s work f o c u s e d on C a l i f o r n i a , the s t a t e w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t a g r i c u l t u r a l consumpt ion o f water and the most r a p i d urban growth i n the Amer ican s o u t h w e s t . 2 2 S t u d i e s by Abraham Hoffman and W i l l i a m K a h r l d e a l t w i t h the Owen's V a l l e y , t apped by Los A n g e l e s f o r i t s m u n i c i p a l s u p p l y . 2 3 K a h r l and Hoffman i n t e r p r e t e d the h i s t o r y o f t h i s w e l l known water t r a n s f e r d i f f e r e n t l y . To K a h r l , a p i c t u r e emerged o f c o l l u s i o n between c i t y o f f i c i a l s , l a n d s p e c u l a t o r s , and t h e f e d e r a l government . Owens V a l l e y was tantamount t o w i l l f u l g e o g r a p h i c a l r a p e . To Hoffman, the s i t u a t i o n was l e s s c l e a r c u t . Where K a h r l saw c o l l u s i o n , Hoffman saw compromise and c o o p e r a t i o n . Where K a h r l saw u n i f i e d i n t e r e s t s , Hoffman saw d i s p a r a t e groups drawn t o g e t h e r by a v i s i o n . Both books made an impor tan t c o n t r i b u t i o n 21 by s h i f t i n g a t t e n t i o n from f e d e r a l i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t s and dam b u i l d i n g t o the r o l e o f c i t i e s i n western water d e v e l o p m e n t . 2 4 The most i n f l u e n t i a l work was p u b l i s h e d i n 1985: Donald W o r s t e r ' s R i v e r s o f E m p i r e . 2 5 On the l e a d i n g edge o f the new wes te rn h i s t o r y , Wors te r v iewed weste rn water development as a p r o c e s s o f conquest e n t a i l i n g a t tempted mastery o v e r n a t u r e and c o n t r o l o v e r s o c i a l l i f e . H i s work, so r i c h l y w r i t t e n , reached a u d i e n c e s i n s i d e and o u t s i d e u n i v e r s i t y w a l l s . W o r s t e r ' s h i s t o r y had resonance w i t h the q u e s t i o n s and s e n s i t i v i t i e s o f the t i m e . Wors te r drew h e a v i l y on the i d e a s o f K a r l W i t t f o g e l . 2 6 A t the h e a r t o f W o r s t e r ' s p r o j e c t was the q u e s t i o n , posed by W i t t f o g e l i n 1929: "How does a s o c i e t y ' s i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e l e a d t o i t s own r e s t r u c t u r i n g , t o i t s e v o l u t i o n from one form t o a n o t h e r ? " 2 7 To bo th Wors ter and W i t t f o g e l , a m a n a g e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h n a t u r e was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e v e r i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , m a n i f e s t e d u l t i m a t e l y i n t o t a l i t a r i a n forms o f power. When h i e r a r c h i c a l s o c i e t i e s a r o s e i n c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the c o n t r o l and t r a n s p o r t o f water , W i t t f o g e l d e s c r i b e d them as h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t i e s . Wors te r a rgued t h a t the Amer ican West was a modern h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t y , "shaped by i t s advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l mastery o f w a t e r . " 2 8 A t the o u t s e t he made c l e a r t h a t h i s p r o j e c t was much l a r g e r than s i m p l y the s tudy o f water i n the wes t , he was a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c a s t wes te rn h i s t o r y i n l i g h t o f q u e s t i o n s o f power. The h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t y t h a t emerged i n the t w e n t i e t h 22 c e n t u r y west was, i n h i s v iew , more c o e r c i v e and h i e r a r c h i c a l than e a r l i e r forms found i n A s i a , the M i d d l e E a s t , and S o u t h e r n E u r o p e . L i k e W i t t f o g e l , Wors ter argued t h a t as the s c a l e and c o m p l e x i t y o f i r r i g a t i o n and water c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e s , power s h i f t s t o e l i t e g r o u p s . 2 9 In R i v e r s o f E m p i r e . Wors te r i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l modes o f water c o n t r o l : the l o c a l s u b s i s t e n c e mode, the a g r a r i a n s t a t e mode, and the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e mode, each w i t h i t s own t e c h n i q u e s and a p p a r a t u s e s , power r e l a t i o n s , and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . 3 0 The Amer ican West i s an example o f the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e mode, i n which c e n t r a l i z e d p l a n n i n g , c o n t r o l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x p e r t i s e by e l i t e s , m o b i l e c a p i t a l , and markets combine t o c r e a t e a d i s t i n c t i v e form o f the h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t y . 3 1 C e n t r a l t o W o r s t e r ' s work i s the i d e a t h a t r e g i o n s o r g a n i z e around e c o l o g i c a l modes o f p r o d u c t i o n , and t h a t the s c a l e o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o the e x t e n t o f t o t a l i t a r i a n t e n d e n c i e s w i t h i n a s o c i e t y . Wors te r was a t the c u t t i n g edge o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l h i s t o r y , a f i e l d t h a t emerged from work on the c o n s e r v a t i o n movement and from the g r a s s l a n d s t u d i e s o f James M a i i n and W a l t e r P r e s c o t t Webb. The "new" e n v i r o n m e n t a l h i s t o r y , i n W o r s t e r ' s words began "where M a l i n and Webb l e f t o f f . " 3 2 I t was a d i r e c t r e s p o n s e t o c a l l s f o r r e l e v a n c e on c o l l e g e campuses i n the 1960s and 70s and t o the e n v i r o n m e n t a l movement t h a t began w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f R a c h e l C a r s o n ' s S i l e n t S p r i n g i n 1962 . 3 3 Wors ter d e f i n e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l h i s t o r y as the s tudy o f the " i n t e r a c t i o n s o f 23 p e o p l e and n a t u r e o v e r t i m e , l o o k i n g f o r t r e n d s , s e e k i n g the o r i g i n s o f contemporary p r o b l e m s , l i s t e n i n g t o the a g e - o l d d i a l o g u e o f humans and t h e e a r t h . " 3 4 In h i s f i r s t book, Dust Bowl . Wors te r i n t e r p r e t e d the d u s t s torms o f the 1930s on the s o u t h e r n p l a i n s as one o f the most d e v a s t a t i n g human-made e c o l o g i c a l d i s a s t e r s i n h i s t o r y , c r e a t e d by the same s o c i e t y - the same s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , t e c h n o l o g i e s , and economies - t h a t p roduced the g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n . 3 5 In R i v e r s o f E m p i r e , he a g a i n f o c u s e s upon the i n t e r a c t i o n o f p e o p l e and n a t u r e , t u r n i n g t h a t same c r i t i c a l and p e r c e p t i v e gaze t o water s t r u c t u r e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n C a l i f o r n i a , and more b r o a d l y , the Amer ican West . I n t e l l e c t u a l l y , Wors te r i s a t the vanguard o f a movement c a l l e d the new weste rn h i s t o r y . A l o n g w i t h P a t r i c i a N e l s o n L i m e r i c k and R i c h a r d W h i t e , two o f the l e a d i n g p r o p o n e n t s , Wors te r i s a r g u i n g a g a i n s t a T u r n e r i a n p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h " f r o n t i e r . " He d e s c r i b e s T u r n e r ' s p r o c e s s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Amer ican West "a vaporous n o t i o n . " 3 6 The West , Wors ter i n s i s t s , s h o u l d be d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y - as a p l a c e r a t h e r than a p r o c e s s . H i s t o r i a n s need t o be r e g i o n a l i s t s . A r e g i o n emerges as p e o p l e t r y t o make a l i v i n g from a p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f the e a r t h , as they adapt themse lves t o i t s l i m i t s and p o s s i b i l i t i e s . What the r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i a n s h o u l d f i r s t want t o know i s how a p e o p l e o r p e o p l e s a c q u i r e d a p l a c e and , t h e n , how they p e r c e i v e d and t r i e d t o make use o f i t . He [or she] w i l l i d e n t i f y the s u r v i v a l t e c h n i q u e s they a d o p t e d , t h e i r p a t t e r n s o f work and economy, and t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 3 7 R e g i o n s d e r i v e t h e i r i d e n t i t y f rom " e c o l o g i c a l l y adapted modes o f p r o d u c t i o n . 1 , 3 8 He i d e n t i f i e s two dominant modes i n t h e West: 24 r a n c h i n g and i r r i g a t e d a g r i c u l t u r e , bo th o f which i n v o l v e c o n t r o l o f l a n d and water r e s o u r c e s . In the h i s t o r y o f the Amer ican West , t h e new w e s t e r n h i s t o r i a n s see conques t and c o n t i n u i t y : conquest o f n a t u r e , p e o p l e s , t e r r i t o r i e s , and c u l t u r e s ; c o n t i n u i t y i n terms o f p e r s i s t e n t problems and i s s u e s . These i n c l u d e the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the env i ronment , dependence on e a s t e r n c a p i t a l , t e n s e r a c e r e l a t i o n s and s o c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , and the W e s t ' s ambiva lence toward the f e d e r a l government . Threads o f c o n t i n u i t y , t o o , a re no ted i n terms o f fundamenta l s i m i l a r i t i e s between e a s t e r n and wes te rn c u l t u r e . The new western h i s t o r y i n t e r p r e t s the p a s t , not i n terms o f d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s and b r e a k s , but as p a r t o f a n a t i o n a l l e g a c y . P a t r i c i a N e l s o n L i m e r i c k , i n h e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y book The Legacy o f Conques t , d e s c r i b e s the h i s t o r y o f the Amer ican West as t h a t o f "a p l a c e u n d e r g o i n g c o n q u e s t . " 3 9 Her c o n c e p t o f c o n q u e s t i s e m i n e n t l y g e o g r a p h i c a l : i t i s the d i v i s i o n o f space - d e f i n i n g a r e a s , a l l o c a t i n g r e s o u r c e s . L i m e r i c k d i s t i n g u i s h e s two phases o f c o n q u e s t : drawing l i n e s on maps and g i v i n g s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l meaning t o t h o s e l i n e s . 4 0 A c c o r d i n g t o W o r s t e r , h e r c o n c e p t o f conquest has two d i m e n s i o n s : c o m p e t i t i o n f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r c u l t u r a l d o m i n a n c e . 4 1 To W o r s t e r , the h y d r a u l i c West i s the u l t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n o f c o n q u e s t , i n c o r p o r a t i n g bo th c o n t r o l o v e r r e s o u r c e s and c u l t u r a l dominance. "The h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t y o f the W e s t , " he w r o t e , 25 i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a c o e r c i v e , m o n o l i t h i c , and h i e r a r c h i c a l s y s t e m , r u l e d by a power e l i t e based on t h e ownership o f c a p i t a l and e x p e r t i s e . I t s f a c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n eve ry m i l e o f t h e i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l . One might see i n t h a t r e f l e c t i o n t h e q u a l i t i e s o f c o n c e n t r a t e d w e a l t h , t e c h n i c a l v i r t u o s i t y , d i s c i p l i n e , h a r d work, p o p u l a r a c q u i e s c e n c e , a f e e l i n g o f r e s i g n a t i o n and n e c e s s i t y , but one cannot f i n d i n i t much o f what Thoreau c o n c e i v e d as f r e e d o m . 4 2 To W o r s t e r ' s c r i t i c s , p r i n c i p a l l y Donald P i s a n i and N o r r i s Hund ley , t h i s i s the A c h i l l e s h e e l . They argue t h e r e i s no m o n o l i t h . Where Wors ter sees c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , P i s a n i sees f r a g m e n t a t i o n and d i f f u s i o n o f power. Where Wors te r sees c o n s p i r a c y , c o l l u s i o n , and c o r r u p t i o n , Hundley sees a l l i a n c e s between i n t e r e s t groups t h a t s h i f t l i k e q u i c k s a n d . P i s a n i i s the most p o i n t e d i n h i s c r i t i c i s m . He d e s c r i b e s R i v e r s o f Empire as " d e e p l y f lawed - a r r o g a n t , d i s t o r t e d , m o r a l i s t i c . " 4 3 P i s a n i a rgues t h a t the e x t e n t t o which a s o c i e t y i s c o n t r o l l e d by power e l i t e s i s more a f u n c t i o n o f how l a r g e t h a t s o c i e t y i s than o f dependence upon i r r i g a t i o n . 4 4 He contends t h a t W o r s t e r ' s v iew i s p e s s i m i s t i c , o v e r l y c r i t i c a l o f n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y s o c i e t y , and f a i l s t o make n e c e s s a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s between e a s t and west and between h y d r a u l i c and n o n - h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t i e s . 4 5 N o r r i s Hundley J r . , i n h i s r e c e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d The Grea t T h i r s t , m a r s h a l s a l i f e t i m e o f s c h o l a r s h i p on C a l i f o r n i a and the C o l o r a d o R i v e r b a s i n t o q u e s t i o n W o r s t e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the west as a h y d r a u l i c s o c i e t y . F i r s t , based on s t u d i e s o f the Owens V a l l e y P a i u t e - and n a t i v e groups a l o n g r i v e r s i n C a l i f o r n i a , New M e x i c o , and p a r t s o f the G r e a t B a s i n - Hundley 2 6 c o n c l u d e s t h a t e x t e n s i v e i r r i g a t i o n can be p r a c t i c e d i n the r e l a t i v e absence o f w e l l d e v e l o p e d s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s . 4 6 C i t i n g the c o n c l u s i o n s o f a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s and o t h e r s c h o l a r s , he a rgues p e r s u a s i v e l y t h a t i r r i g a t i o n - d e p e n d e n t s o c i e t i e s a r e as l i k e l y t o be d e c e n t r a l i z e d as c e n t r a l i z e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic o r g a n i z a t i o n . 4 7 In the next 400 p a g e s , Hundley p a i n t s a p i c t u r e o f C a l i f o r n i a i n which m o n o p o l i s t i c e x c e s s e s and communal i m p u l s e s c o e x i s t . L o c a l , s t a t e , and f e d e r a l governments , on the one hand , and p r i v a t e and p u b l i c i n t e r e s t s , on the o t h e r , compete i n one s e t t i n g and c o o p e r a t e i n a n o t h e r . L i k e W o r s t e r , Dunbar, and o t h e r s , he i s c r i t i c a l o f a l e g a l system t h a t promotes and p e r m i t s w a s t e f u l p r a c t i c e s and e n v i r o n m e n t a l a b u s e . 4 8 L i k e P i s a n i , he i s c r i t i c a l o f c h a o t i c management i n which two f e d e r a l , f o u r s t a t e , and one thousand l o c a l a g e n c i e s fragment water a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l . T h i s l e v e l o f s p l i n t e r e d a u t h o r i t y p roduces i n e f f i c i e n c y , d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , and a r e a s o f n e g l e c t . 4 9 A c c o r d i n g t o Hund ley , the water e s t a b l i s h m e n t has never been a m o n o l i t h d r i v e n by a s i n g l e purpose o r v i s i o n , save the i d e a t h a t water (and n a t u r e g e n e r a l l y ) e x i s t s t o s e r v e humankind. R a t h e r , as t h i s account has s u g g e s t e d , i t has c o n s i s t e d o f many d i s c r e t e g r o u p s , bo th i n and o u t s i d e o f the s t a t e , each w i t h i t s own ( f r e q u e n t l y changing) agenda t h a t has sometimes l e d t o c o n f l i c t . . . , a t o t h e r t i m e s t o f o o t d r a g g i n g . . . , and on s t i l l o t h e r o c c a s i o n s t o compromises and a l l i a n c e s r e s u l t i n g i n a major u n d e r t a k i n g . . . . The a l l i a n c e s have o f t e n been f l e e t i n g , but t h e i r f r e q u e n c y and c o m p o s i t i o n have been such as t o c r e a t e i n C a l i f o r n i a t h e w o r l d ' s l a r g e s t and most complex h y d r a u l i c s y s t e m . 5 0 As p o l i t i c a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y a p p e a l i n g as W o r s t e r ' s arguments a r e , e v i d e n c e appears t o be on P i s a n i and H u n d l e y ' s 27 s i d e . The c r i t i c i s m s a r e not t h e o r e t i c a l , t h e y a r e e m p i r i c a l . Based on two decades o f r e s e a r c h on r e c l a m a t i o n , P i s a n i b e l i e v e s t h a t f r a g m e n t a t i o n and c o m p e t i t i o n a r e more dominant f o r c e s i n wes te rn water h i s t o r y than c e n t r a l i z a t i o n . 5 1 Based on t h r e e decades o f work on water law, i n t e r s t a t e compacts , i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r e s t a t e c o n f l i c t s , and the C a l i f o r n i a w a t e r s c a p e , N o r r i s Hundley has a r r i v e d a t the same c o n c l u s i o n . 5 2 W o r s t e r de fended h i m s e l f r e c e n t l y a t a meet ing o f the Western H i s t o r y A s s o c i a t i o n . He sugges ted t h a t h i s c r i t i c s had overdrawn h i s p o s i t i o n . There was "no h a r s h , t o t a l i t a r i a n power i n the W e s t . " There was no c o n s p i r a c y . R a t h e r t h e r e was a " c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power , " m a n i f e s t i n a p e r s i s t e n t c o n q u e s t o f n a t u r e t h a t o v e r r o d e the v e r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d t o c o n t a i n i t . He r e i t e r a t e d t h a t the West was d e f i n e d by the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between n a t u r e , t e c h n o l o g y , and c u l t u r e , and t h a t f o r the West the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h water remained most i m p o r t a n t . 5 3 The debate between W o r s t e r , Hund ley , and P i s a n i o v e r the q u e s t i o n o f the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o r d i f f u s i o n o f power i s perhaps the s h a r p e s t edge o f contemporary h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p on weste rn w a t e r . B u t , s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n o f R i v e r s o f E m p i r e , h i s t o r i a n s have been w r i t i n g v o l u m i n o u s l y . Works r e p r e s e n t mature s c h o l a r s h i p on wel l -known t o p i c s 5 4 and s t u d i e s o f l o c a l and r e g i o n a l water i s s u e s i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f the W e s t . 5 5 S t u d i e s appeared d e a l i n g w i t h i n t e r s t a t e c o m p a c t s , 5 6 water l a w , 5 7 and a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r t o p i c s . 5 8 28 Western water h i s t o r y i s e n j o y i n g a s o r t o f r e n a i s s a n c e . R e p r e s e n t i n g a s y n t h e s i s o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l h i s t o r y and the new w e s t e r n h i s t o r y , t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s body o f s c h o l a r s h i p which seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d our p r e s e n t and f u t u r e i n terms o f the p a s t , and a t tempts t o g r a p p l e w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s by u n d e r s t a n d i n g the n a t u r e o f human- land r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Western w a t e r , t o o , i s b e i n g used as a window t o w ider q u e s t i o n s . As John Wal ton wrote i n the p r e f a c e t o h i s 1992 s t u d y o f t h e Owens V a l l e y , h i s work was a h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f t h e " c h a n g i n g r o l e o f t h e s t a t e i n l o c a l s o c i e t y . " 5 9 Power, and the p e n e t r a t i o n o f the s t a t e , a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y t h e f o c u s o f h i s t o r i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p , even i f not e x p r e s s e d i n p r e c i s e l y t h o s e t e r m s . 6 0 I n c r e a s i n g l y , f o c u s on t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i s s u e s and prob lems i s an a c c e p t e d p a r t o f the h i s t o r i a n ' s c r a f t . G e r a l d Nash l e d the way w i t h h i s p o w e r f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the Amer ican West as an urban o a s i s c i v i l i z a t i o n . 6 1 By drawing a t t e n t i o n t o changes i n the r e c e n t p a s t , Nash argued t h a t the West t r u l y emerged as a r e g i o n i n c o n c e r t w i t h r a p i d l y chang ing t e c h n o l o g y and r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t . 6 2 The West , w h i l e d e f i n e d i n the i m a g i n a t i o n by i t s open spaces and n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y p a s t , t o Nash , i s d e f i n e d i n r e a l i t y by urban c e n t e r s and t h e r e g i o n ' s emergence i n the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . 6 3 H i s t o r i a n s d e f t l y b r i n g t o g e t h e r t h e u rban w i t h t h e r u r a l , and t h e s o c i a l w i t h the e n v i r o n m e n t a l . W i l l i a m R o b b i n s , i n an e s s a y e x p l o r i n g Bernard D e V o t o ' s p l u n d e r e d p r o v i n c e t h e s i s , 29 argued f o r c o n t i n u i t y i n western h i s t o r y , f o r a p e r s i s t e n t h e a r t l a n d - h i n t e r l a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which c a p i t a l inves tment t r a n s f o r m s n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s i n t o marke tab le c o m m o d i t i e s . 6 4 F o r Robbins c o l o n i a l i s m o p e r a t e s on a r e g i o n a l s c a l e , as opposed t o a n a t i o n a l s c a l e , as i t d i d f o r DeVoto. Where DeVoto saw t h e e a s t p l u n d e r i n g the west , Robbins saw the " i n c r e a s i n g hegemony o f . . . u rban power c e n t e r s o v e r much o f t h e W e s t . " 6 5 T h i s e n t a i l e d the c o n t r o l o f r e s o u r c e s , t e r r i t o r y , and c a p i t a l . Robb ins no ted t h a t the growth o f c i t i e s i n the West p roduced an i n t e r n a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h a t c r e a t e d an u n d e r c l a s s w i t h i n each c i t y . 6 6 I would ex tend t h a t argument and s u g g e s t t h a t the growth o f c i t i e s made an u n d e r c l a s s o f p e o p l e i n the r u r a l h i n t e r l a n d as w e l l . As Robbins p o i n t s o u t , " i s o l a t e d , w i t h r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n s , and l a c k i n g s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e i n t h e t r a d e and exchange r e l a t i o n , r e s o u r c e - d e p e n d e n t communi t ies a r e b y - p r o d u c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l s t r a t e g i e s and d e c i s i o n s made e l s e w h e r e . " 6 7 In sum, R o b b i n s , W o r s t e r , and o t h e r h i s t o r i a n s a r e a d v o c a t i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f o r m e d , p o l i t i c a l l y and g e o g r a p h i c a l l y s e n s i t i v e approach t o the western p a s t . 6 8 W i l l i a m Cronon f u r t h e r d e v e l o p s the h i s t o r i a n s ' a n a l y s i s o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the urban and the r u r a l i n t h e Amer ican West . In h i s s tudy o f Ch icago and i t s h i n t e r l a n d , N a t u r e ' s M e t r o p o l i s : C h i c a g o and the Grea t West . Cronon w r i t e s , "Amer icans have l o n g tended t o see c i t y and c o u n t r y as s e p a r a t e p l a c e s , more i s o l a t e d from each o t h e r than c o n n e c t e d . We 30 c a r e f u l l y p a r t i t i o n our n a t i o n a l l a n d s c a p e i n t o urban p l a c e s , r u r a l p l a c e s and w i l d e r n e s s . " 6 9 He a d d s , " c i t y and c o u n t r y have a common h i s t o r y , so t h e i r s t o r i e s a r e b e s t t o l d t o g e t h e r . " 7 0 E s s e n t i a l l y Cronon i s a r g u i n g t h a t the d i v i s i o n o f space i n t o the u rban and the r u r a l r e p r e s e n t s a f a l s e d i c h o t o m y . The two a r e i n e x t r i c a b l y i n t e r t w i n e d . He n o t e s how, when C h i c a g o was becoming urban ( i n d u s t r i a l i z e d and b u i l t ) , i t s h i n t e r l a n d was becoming r u r a l ( c u l t i v a t e d and s e t t l e d ) . Each p r o v i d e d a market f o r the o t h e r ' s g o o d s . The c o u n t r y s i d e p r o v i d e d the f o o d and t h e raw m a t e r i a l s t h a t e n a b l e d l i f e and economic p r o d u c t i o n t o go on i n t h e c i t y . The c i t y p r o v i d e d the market f o r farm p r o d u c t s , t i m b e r , and the l i k e . The c o u n t r y s i d e p r o v i d e d the market f o r t h e c i t y ' s f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s . C i t y and c o u n t r y were m u t u a l l y dependent and e x i s t e d i n r e l a t i o n t o each o t h e r . To C r o n o n , one o f the d e f i n i n g f e a t u r e s o f the Amer ican w e s t e r n " f r o n t i e r e x p e r i e n c e " i n v o l v e d " the e x p a n s i o n o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n economy i n t o r e g i o n s t h a t had not p r e v i o u s l y been t i g h t l y bound t o i t s m a r k e t s , and the a b s o r p t i o n o f new p e r i p h e r a l a r e a s i n t o a c a p i t a l i s t o r b i t . " 7 1 Most c e n t r a l l y t h i s i n v o l v e d the c o m m o d i f i c a t i o n o f n a t u r e , the d e s i g n a t i o n o f e lements i n n a t u r e as r e s o u r c e s f o r human use and development f o r p r o f i t . No l o n g e r were t r e e s s i m p l y t r e e s , nor water s i m p l y w a t e r ; they became " f o r e s t r e s o u r c e s " and "water r e s o u r c e s " r e s p e c t i v e l y . In d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o one a n o t h e r , t h e urban and t h e r u r a l were a r t i c u l a t e d . 31 The p e r s p e c t i v e s o f f e r e d by Cronon and Robb ins p rove c r i t i c a l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the development o f water r e s o u r c e s i n the Amer ican West. Wh i le d i r e c t e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f r u r a l water s u p p l i e s by c i t i e s would not o c c u r u n t i l the l a t t e r p a r t o f the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and i n t o the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , development o f s u p p l i e s on farms and ranches a c r o s s the d r y west o c c u r r e d i n the c o n t e x t o f expanding r e g i o n a l , n a t i o n a l , and w o r l d economies . S u p p l i e s were d e v e l o p e d l e s s t o meet i n d i v i d u a l s u b s i s t e n c e needs than t o s u p p l y produce and meat t o b u r g e o n i n g towns and m i n i n g camps and i n c i p i e n t c i t i e s . Geography Geographers have approached water from bo th human and p h y s i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s . In human geography , the work o f G i l b e r t F . White s t a n d s o u t . L i k e many i n the f i e l d , White c o n s i d e r s water r e s o u r c e s a t the g l o b a l s c a l e . He i n t e r p r e t s water prob lems as problems o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and management, 7 2 and t r i e s t o draw t o g e t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n from d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s i n o r d e r t o draw compar isons and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . 7 3 Most v a l u a b l e i s W h i t e ' s emphasis on human adjustment and a d a p t a t i o n , be i t t o h a z a r d s , r e s o u r c e s c a r c i t y , o r a range o f p h y s i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . He sees human s o c i e t i e s i n i n t e g r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the env i ronment . In a 1984 e s s a y f o c u s i n g on water s c a r c i t y and a g r i c u l t u r e i n the Amer ican West, White p r e d i c t s t h a t water would be taken from a g r i c u l t u r e t o be r e a l l o c a t e d t o o t h e r u s e s , and 32 acknowledged t h a t t h i s would have a r i p p l e e f f e c t i n economic and s o c i a l t e r m s . 7 4 B u t , he n o t e s , r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n would d e c l i n e w i t h o r w i t h o u t i r r i g a t i o n . He q u e s t i o n s whether t h e r e i s s o c i a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a t t e m p t i n g t o f o r e s t a l l the d e c l i n e o f r u r a l communi t i es , where water t r a n s f e r s l e a d t o o u t m i g r a t i o n and a drop i n ne t i n c o m e . 7 5 White c o n c l u d e s by e x p r e s s i n g the b e l i e f t h a t change and ad justment can take p l a c e b e f o r e the West r e a c h e s a water c r i s i s . 7 6 W h i t e ' s work has been i n f l u e n t i a l i n water r e s o u r c e s management, p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s 1969 S t r a t e g i e s o f Amer ican Water Management . 7 7 In t h i s book, White p r e s e n t s a h i s t o r i c a l framework f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g water development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . He d e s c r i b e s a s h i f t from s i n g l e purpose p r o j e c t s , a t the t u r n o f the c e n t u r y , t o m u l t i p l e purpose p r o j e c t s and water p l a n n i n g by the m i d d l e o f the t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . He e l a b o r a t e d t h i s v iew i n 1 9 7 7 , 7 8 p e r c e i v i n g the c o u n t r y as b e i n g i n t h e m i d s t o f a n o t h e r t r a n s i t i o n i n which m u l t i p l e purpose p l a n n i n g and t h e consequences o f complex r i v e r development were b e i n g c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n . W h i t e ' s work draws a t t e n t i o n t o t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l impacts o f r i v e r b a s i n deve lopment . James Wescoat b u i l d s on G i l b e r t W h i t e ' s work i n h i s 1984 book I n t e g r a t e d Water Development - a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n o f h i s P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n . Wescoat d e f i n e s i n t e g r a t e d water development as "a p r o c e s s o f ad justment i n water use and p a t t e r n s and p r a c t i c e s t h a t r e s u l t s from the s e a r c h f o r c o o p e r a t i v e l i n k a g e s among water u s e r s . " 7 9 I n t e g r a t e d water 33 development r e p r e s e n t s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c o m p e t i t i o n . B u i l d i n g on W h i t e ' s range o f c h o i c e c o n c e p t i o n , Wescoat seeks t o i d e n t i f y t h e range o f g e o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s under which c o o p e r a t i o n and c o n s e r v a t i o n might e v o l v e i n western C o l o r a d o . 8 0 In geography much o f the work on water r e s o u r c e s i s b u r i e d i n t h e s e s and d i s s e r t a t i o n s 8 1 o r found i n more o b s c u r e r e g i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . 8 2 As G i l b e r t White noted i n a 1974 r e v i e w , up t o t h a t t i m e , g e o g r a p h i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s had been " m o d e s t . " 8 3 L i k e many n a s c e n t f i e l d s , rev iews r e f e r f r e q u e n t l y t o work i n o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s . 8 4 L i t t l e has been p u b l i s h e d by h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h e r s on the s u b j e c t , 8 5 a l t h o u g h water has been touched upon t a n g e n t i a l l y by M a r s h a l l Bowen i n h i s work on d r y l a n d f a r m i n g . 8 6 The r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f Rober t A . S a u d e r ' s The F r o n t i e r : Water D i v e r s i o n i n the Growth and D e s t r u c t i o n o f Owens V a l l e y A g r i c u l t u r e i s an impor tan t d e p a r t u r e . 8 7 S a u d e r ' s work r e p r e s e n t s the f r u i t s o f y e a r s o f s c h o l a r s h i p on the s e t t l e m e n t and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f the Owens V a l l e y . Whi le water f i g u r e s p r o m i n e n t l y i n h i s book, h i s p r i m a r y c o n c e r n i s w i t h the s e t t l e m e n t p r o c e s s , i r r i g a t i o n , and water e x p r o p r i a t i o n as they r e l a t e t o changes i n p a t t e r n s o f p o p u l a t i o n and economy. Sauder o f f e r s a h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t . H i s approach i s c o n c r e t e . He eschews p o l i t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l problems and d i m e n s i o n s . Geographers have a l s o produced some u s e f u l work on water r e s o u r c e s i n A u s t r a l i a , which p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t c o m p a r a t i v e example f o r s c h o l a r s o f the Amer ican W e s t . 8 8 As w e l l , a r e c e n t volume e d i t e d by Denis Cosgrove and G e o f f P e t t s a t tempts t o 34 p r o v i d e a g e o g r a p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e on the r e l a t i o n s o f t e c h n o l o g y , c u l t u r e , and water r e s o u r c e s . 8 9 Cosgrove and P e t t s draw m a t e r i a l from d i v e r s e l o c a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the E n g l i s h F e n l a n d s , t h e c i t y o f V e n i c e , t h e Sahara D e s e r t , Zimbabwe, and Quebec. Contemporary c o n c e r n s t e n d t o dominate t h e s t u d y o f water r e s o u r c e s i n geography . In a r e c e n t rev iew o f the f i e l d t h a t appeared i n Gary G a i l e and C o r t W i l l m o t t ' s Geography i n A m e r i c a . T o b i n e t a l i d e n t i f y s i x r e s e a r c h components: h y d r o l o g y , water q u a l i t y , water management, f l o o d h a z a r d , groundwater r e s o u r c e s , and law and water r e s o u r c e s . 9 0 Of t h e s e s i x , two a r e o f r e l e v a n c e h e r e : the management component, i n c l u d i n g urban s u p p l y and demand, and the l e g a l component. S t u d i e s o f water r e s o u r c e management have f o c u s e d on c o n s e r v a t i o n , demand f o r e c a s t i n g , d rought management, and p o l i c y . 9 1 Work on the law and water r e s o u r c e i s s u e s has examined l e g a l s o l u t i o n s , the impact o f s p e c i f i c l aws , the l e g a l framework, and l e g a l r e s e a r c h t e c h n i q u e s . 9 2 In the rev iew by T o b i n e t a l , f u t u r e r e s e a r c h d i r e c t i o n s a r e o u t l i n e d i n terms o f " t h e o r y development and model f o r m a t i o n , 1 , 9 3 a p p l i c a t i o n s , and p o l i c y recommendat ions. Water r e s o u r c e s geographers a r e a p p r o a c h i n g t h e s e i s s u e s on a g l o b a l s c a l e , i n c r e a s i n g l y w i t h an eye t o c l i m a t e change and i t s p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s work d i f f e r s markedly from my own p r o j e c t , which i s much c l o s e r t o the h i s t o r i a n s ' - l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n methodology 35 and m o d e l s , than i n i n t e r p r e t i n g c h a n g i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s between p e o p l e and the l a n d , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i r r e l e v a n c e t o contemporary s o c i e t y . Indeed the g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e has i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n , but the h i s t o r i a n s a r e r e a c h i n g a w ider a u d i e n c e w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s and i d e a s . They a re p u b l i s h i n g w i t h major u n i v e r s i t y p r e s s e s . T h e i r work i s r e a c h i n g s c h o l a r s i n a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s , as w e l l as the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . The h i s t o r i a n s a r e e l o q u e n t l y a d d r e s s i n g growing c o n c e r n r e g a r d i n g s o c i e t y ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the envi ronment i n a way t h a t , s a d l y , geographers a re n o t . The d i s c i p l i n e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h space