Classical Simulation of Quantum Systems Van den Nest, Maarten; Verstraete, Frank
The study of quantum computations that can be simulated efficiently classically is of interest for numerous reasons. On a fundamental level, such an investigation sheds light on the intrinsic computational power that is harnessed in quantum mechanics as compared to classical physics. More practically, understanding which quantum computations do not offer any speed-ups over classical computation provides insights in where (not) to look for novel quantum algorithmic primitives. On the other hand, classical simulation of many-body systems is a challenging task, as the dimension of the Hilbert space scales with the number of particles. Therefore, to understand the properties of the systems, suitable approximation methods need to be employed. The lectures will be divided into two parts. In the first part we discuss classical simulation of quantum computation from several perspectives. We review a number of well-known examples of classically simulatable quantum computations, such as the Gottesman-Knill theorem, matchgate simulation and tensor contraction methods. We further discuss simulation methods that are centred on classical sampling methods (‘weak simulation’), and illustrate how these techniques outperform methods that rely on the exact computation of measurement probabilities (‘strong simulation’). The second part focuses on "Entanglement and variational wavefunctions in quantum many body physics". We review the idea of entanglement in quantum many-body systems and how it helps us to understand the success of numerical renormalization group methods. In particular we will discuss a few variational wave-function based methods for simulating strongly correlated quantum systems, which include (1) matrix product states (2) multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (3) projected entangled pair states and (4) continuous matrix product states for quantum field theories.
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