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Re-assessment of hierarchical cosmologies Krebes, Edward Stephen

Abstract

The extension of the concepts of Newtonian cosmology to a universe consisting of a hierarchy of metagalaxies is fairly straightforward. However, in general relativistic cosmology, the construction of such a hierarchical universe is a difficult problem. It is the purpose of this work to examine some aspects of hierarchical cosmology in both the Newtonian and general relativistic cases. It is suggested that the metagalaxy may be a black hole or Schwarzschild object,(to account for the fact that no objects which could be identified as metagalaxies have been, as yet, observed. Some features of this concept are discussed. Tidal forces exerted on a metagalaxy, due to others distributed around it, are estimated in the Newtonian case. Such tidal forces may or may not be detectable, depending on the distance between metagalaxies. The interior of a metagalaxy is represented by a Fried-mann model, with given values of k and A. The Friedmann model is matched at the boundary to a Schwarzschild spacetime. The consequences of this and related calculations suggest that in most cases, a metagalaxy may be a black hole for only part of its lifetime, i.e., for other times, it may be optically detectable to an exterior observer.

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