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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A large-scale empirical study of low-level function use in Ethereum smart contracts and automated replacement Xi, Rui


The Ethereum blockchain stores and executes complex logic via smart contracts written in Solidity, a high-level programming language. The Solidity language provides features to exercise fine-grained control over smart contracts, termed low-level functions. However, the high-volume of transactions and the improper use of low-level functions lead to security exploits with heavy financial losses. Consequently, the Solidity community has suggested secure alternatives to low-level functions. In this thesis, we first perform an empirical study on the use of low-level functions in Ethereum smart contracts. We study a smart contract dataset consisting of over 2,100,000 real-world smart contracts. We find that low-level functions are widely used and that 95% of these uses are gratuitous, and are hence replaceable. We then propose GoHigh, a source-to-source transformation tool to eliminate low-level function-related vulnerabilities, by replacing low-level functions with secure high-level alternatives. Our experimental evaluation on the dataset shows that, among all the replaced contracts, about 80% of them do not introduce unintended side-effects, and the remaining 20% are not verifiable due to their external dependencies. Further, GoHigh saves more than 5% of the gas cost of the contract after replacement. Finally, GoHigh takes 7 seconds on average per contract.

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