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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of multi-modal gaze-supported zoom and pan interactions in ultrasound machines Halwani, Yasmin


We are investigating the potential and the challenges of integrating eye gaze tracking support into the interface of ultrasound machines used for routine diagnostic scans by sonographers. In this thesis, we follow a user-centred approach by first conducting a field study to understand the context of the end user. As a starting point to a gaze-supported interface, we focus on the zoom functions of ultrasound machines. We study gaze-supported approaches for the often-used zoom function in ultrasound machines and present two alternatives, One-step Zoom (OZ) and Multi-step Zoom (MZ). A state-based analysis on the zoom functions in ultrasound machines is presented followed by a state-based representation of the gaze-supported alternatives. The gaze-supported state representation extends the manual-based interaction by implicitly integrating gaze input to OZ and offering a gaze-supported alternative to moving the zoom box in MZ. Evaluations of the proposed interactions through a series of user studies, seventeen non-sonographers and ten sonographers, suggest an increased cognitive demand and time on task compared to the conventional manual-based interaction. However, participants also reported an increased focus on main tasks using the gaze-supported alternative, which could offer benefit to novice users. They also report a lowered physical interaction as the gaze input replaces some functions of the manual input.

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