UBC Theses and Dissertations
Simulation of lithium-ion batteries based on pulsed current characterization Fok, Chi Wah Eddie
Simulation of lithium-ion and other cells is important for basic understanding, design of cells, application in devices including automotive, and as part of system simulations for control and safety purposes. This thesis proposes a new cell equivalent circuit model, called the distributed state of charge model, which consists of a series resistance, and a non-linear RC transmission line. The circuit model components are dependent on the SOC, with the circuit being unique in considering the local (depth dependent) charge state. A pulsed discharge and charge technique is put forth for extracting the model parameters, and their dependence on cell state of charge. The extraction method is applied to commercial lithium-ion cells. It is shown that the extracted parameters are largely independent of magnitude of the pulsed currents. This distinguishes the model from other widely used equivalent circuits in which parameter extraction is generally performed as a function of current. Therefore, this approach is promising for reducing time required for this extraction phase. Validation experiments are performed using both static discharge and a variable-current profile. Two versions of the model are developed based on the governing diffusion mechanism – planar or spherical. Simulations using the planar model matched experimental results well for large current pulses (up to 2.0 C discharge) with slow average discharge (0.20 C discharge) – root-mean-square error typically within 0.84%, and maximum error within 3.7%. On the other hand, the spherical model performs well for higher continuous discharge current (up to 0.50 C discharge), but for lower current pulses (up to 0.67 C discharge) – root-mean-square error typically within 0.95%, and maximum error within 3.3%. This tradeoff may be attributed to the distribution of capacitances in the corresponding electrode models. Parameters of the proposed equivalent-circuit are also extracted for a lithium-alloying tin electrode. Tin is an electrode of interest due to its high specific and volumetric capacity. The response is much different from those obtained from the commercial lithium ion cells, including apparent drops in effective diffusion coefficient by three orders of magnitude over narrow regions of SOC. These characteristics are explained qualitatively using the phase transformation effect.
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