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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Multi-layer flows with yield stress fluids Hormozi, Sarah


Interfacial instabilities of multi-layer shear flows may be eliminated by astute positioning of yield stress fluid layers that remain unyielded at the interface(s). The contribution of this thesis comes in three parts. Firstly, we have performed a computational study of these flows in the setting of a Newtonian core fluid surrounded by a Bingham lubricating fluid, within pipe and channel configurations. The simulations include an inlet geometry in the computational model and study the multi-layer flows, both as the fluids are initially injected (start up) and later the established steady flows (development lengths). Nonlinear perturbations are also studied, showing in particular that during energy decay of stable perturbations the initial rapid decay of the perturbation kinetic energy relates to reforming/breaking of the unyielded plug and is followed by slower viscous decay. For axisymmetric perturbations these flows can be stable to order unity initial perturbation amplitudes and for Re[sign omitted]10². The channel geometry allows for symmetry breaking and appears to be less stable. A number of interesting effects are explored using the channel geometry. Secondly, we focus on demonstrating whether the stable core annular flow can be achieved when lubricating a visco-elastic core fluid with a yield stress fluid. We have performed over 100 experiments using Carbopol solutions as the lubricating yield stress fluid and Polyethylene Oxide solutions as the visco-elastic fluid. Thirdly, we have applied the energy stability method to study nonlinear stability of a core-annular flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid surrounded by a Bingham fluid. Together with the experimental study, this shows that visco-elasticity is not a barrier to use of this methodology.

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