UBC Faculty Research and Publications

Platelet Activating Factor Receptor and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule–1 Expression Increases in the Small Airway Epithelium and Parenchyma of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Implications for Microbial Pathogenesis Shahzad, Affan Mahmood; Lu, Wenying; Dey, Surajit; Bhattarai, Prem; Gaikwad, Archana Vijay; Jaffar, Jade; Westall, Glen; Sutherland, Darren; Singhera, Gurpreet Kaur; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; et al.

Abstract

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an irreversible lung fibrotic disorder of unknown cause. It has been reported that bacterial and viral co-infections exacerbate disease pathogenesis. These pathogens use adhesion molecules such as platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM–1) to gain cellular entry, causing infections. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was carried out for lung resections from IPF patients (n = 11) and normal controls (n = 12). The quantification of PAFR and ICAM–1 expression is presented as a percentage in the small airway epithelium. Also, type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages were counted as cells per mm2 of the parenchymal area and presented as a percentage. All image analysis was done using Image Pro Plus 7.0 software. Results: PAFR expression significantly increased in the small airway epithelium (p < 0.0001), type 2 pneumocytes (p < 0.0001) and alveolar macrophages (p < 0.0001) compared to normal controls. Similar trend was observed for ICAM–1 expression in the small airway epithelium (p < 0.0001), type 2 pneumocytes (p < 0.0001) and alveolar macrophages (p < 0.0001) compared to normal controls. Furthermore, the proportion of positively expressed type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages was higher in IPF than in normal control. Conclusions: This is the first study to show PAFR and ICAM–1 expression in small airway epithelium, type 2 pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in IPF. These findings could help intervene microbial impact and facilitate management of disease pathogenesis.

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CC BY 4.0