UBC Faculty Research and Publications

The Multidimensional Lexicon of Emojis : A New Tool to Assess the Emotional Content of Emojis Godard, Rebecca; Holtzman, Susan


Emerging studies suggest that emojis can make important contributions to the emotional content and meaning of digital messages. Yet researchers currently lack adequate tools to incorporate emojis into their analyses. To address this gap, we used over 3 million Twitter posts from a period of 17 months and emotion ratings provided by 2,230 human raters to develop and validate the Multidimensional Lexicon of Emojis (MLE). This new lexicon consists of 359 common emojis rated on ten emotion and sentiment dimensions. The MLE is an open-access tool that holds promise for those interested in conducting a comprehensive analysis of the emotional content of digital communication that incorporates emojis and goes beyond the dimensions of negativity and positivity.

Item Citations and Data


Attribution 4.0 International