An integrated framework to prevent unsafe proximity hazards in construction by optimizing spatio-temporal constraints Esfahan, Nazila Roofigari; Wang, J.; Razavi, Saiedeh
Hazardous proximity of construction resources, such as construction equipment, materials, and workers-on-foot has been identified as a distinct safety issue on construction jobsites. Spatial and temporal limits are practical constraints that coexist in movement of construction resources. Space and time conflicts could substantially hinder the productivity of ongoing activities as well as causing safety issues. Therefore, the spatial and temporal constraints and the state of construction resources need to be considered to prevent space-time conflicts and unsafe proximities. The state of a moving construction resource includes its position, moving direction/heading, speed, orientation, and other safety-related information. The area around each resource is divided into alert and warning areas which are quantified for them according to their corresponding spatial or proximity constraints. By integrating the states of resources, their warning/alert areas, and proximity constraints, as well as by visualizing them in time-integrated 2D space, a more precise understanding of potential hazardous situations can be achieved and therefore prevented. This paper presents a visual support tool aiming to reduce safety hazards in project planning stage by optimizing spatio-temporal proximities of resources. For this purpose, the developed method first optimizes potential movements of the resources by minimizing intersection of their warning areas and avoiding overlap of their alert areas. Thereafter, it visualizes the optimized locations of resources in time-integrated 2D space throughout the duration of their corresponding activities. In this way, the integrated visualization framework enables managers to make more judicious decisions and take corrective actions pertinent to safety hazards prevention. A numerical example with different scenarios and proximity measures is analyzed to test and validate the proposed framework.
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