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The Ubyssey Feb 21, 1962

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Vol. XLIV.
No. 57
Peace, is it worth working for? Is it
worth supporting? Is it worth supporting
an Institution which plans to do "Research
for Peace"?
Lately we've been hearing quite a
bit about a group calling itself the Canadian Peace Research Institute. This
group, headed by ex-research scientist
Dr. Norman Z. Alcock, is at present conducting a fund raising drive.
From the stories on pages two and
three of this issue we find Alcock, and his
group, have evoked a variety of responses.
In some instances. Dr. Alcock has
clearly outlined his proposals and his
methods of implementing them. On other
occasions he could not give adequate
answers to many of the questions he had
answered earlier. Why?
Dr. Alcock is obviously a man of sincerity. On this point no one disagrees.
Many, however, quarrel with his method
of presenting the facts to back up his case
far peace research. He is often charged
with over-simplifying the problems of
communicating with scientists of the communist bloc. Yet he has told many people
he is fully aware of the problems involved.
He is often accused of neglecting to
mention the peace research already done.
Such is not the case. He recognizes it—
and says it's not enough. He has stated
several times that one of the first jobs the
Institute will have to undertake will be
the collection of the material already
available on the subject.
It has been said that Alcock is not a
social scientist, and the work he plans to
do lies properly in the field of the social
sciences. Alcock's answer: hire social
scientists. f
Skeptics say the Research Institute
will be infiltrated by communists. Alcock's
supporters say any such group is subject
to infiltration. They are confident that
their leaders can withstand any pressures
brought to bear on them.
Many people maintain that the Insti
tute will not be able to affect government
policy and is thus without practical value.
Alcock has neatly side-stepped that one:
"Our material will go directly to the public, and it will pressure the government
into action, if it wishes action."
Alcock's scheme of having all the
findings of the Institute published tor public consumption is a good one. Governments can then no longer keep important
scientific information from the voters.
Governments may, indeed, be forced into
action if they wish to stay in power. It
Alcock's idea of public information is
actually put into practice, his Institute will
be able to by pass the government it it
so desires—if it is put into practice. This
depends on the men in the Institute.
It seems to us that a great many of
Alcock's schemes depend on the men involved in them. They will depend on the
men doing the actual research. It the men
are good the results will be good.
This seems to be Dr. Alcock's biggest
problem. Who's he going to hire? The Canadian Peace Research Institute is being introduced
to Canadians by a non-practicing nuclear physicist Norman Z.
Alcock. He quit his $15,000-a-yeaT job and spent his entire personal savings trying to establish a peace research institute.
He believes—rightly or wrongly—thai others will support his
institute, others who want peace, and scientists working in
them can learn how to Ward off World War III.
(Reprinted from McLeans)
Of all the riddles of man none has seemed so easy
and proved so hard as the riddle of war and peace.
How can a race that apparently wants to survive stop
attempting to destroy itself again and again and —
perhaps this final time — again?
One member of the species who believes he has
found a hitherto-- untried' answer is Norman Zinkan
Alcock, a forty-three-year-old physicist of Oakville,
Ontario. Alcock has bet his life and his livelihood that
science, which has established its power to wipe us
out, may also hkve the power to save us. In the determination to see the second power put' to greater use
he has quit a $15,000-a-year job in private business
and invested his savings and his career in what he
hopes will become an international network of Peace
.Researph Institute.
In Alcock's dream the first Institute, already
formed in Canada, will soon be follbwed by others
all over the world: They will seek state support in
their various countries on both sides of the iron cur-
; tain, but will strrve for pplitifeal independence as state-
supported universities do. They will not try to supersede th* many -other, pacifist groups already in existence. Biit they'll differ in their approach. Tneir main
concern' will not be "what is right?" but "what Will
Vast area for exploration
Alcock has concluded that what might work is a
prograni of research based mainly on ttie social
sciences and run-by a small and dedicated grbup' of"
specialists. We spend hundreds of biHiona, Ms argument Ans, to build" more missiles antf thehjWte sjb&M
more Urundreds of billions to build physical' debtees
and hideouts against taem. But we spe%id almost asbrtt
ing to'shore up our slJeial defences, 4o seek1 ffc resft
antidotes that lie in human attitudes.
Hire is a whole great "terra intogniti" &yt&&
for exploration, Albofcl? tA&ntains. A* him' spfeeSrlS-
ally wfiat he'd tatfk for there and Ae's ready wrfife
Suppose the cold war ends. Suppose evfif$&iie
disarms and the efieieiSfce1 contracts rurfout. will $tf##e'
again be queues before the soup kitchens of Win»fpeg
and Toronto? Will apple salesmen reappear on Wifltf
Street? Will' England go' back oii the dfole? "ISr
theory," Alcock says, "disarmament should bring
prosperity. In practice, it would to the East, wfiere
a transition to civilian goods would be a welcbrhe
relief from an overly austere life. But to the West,
riding on a wave of affluence, it would brings a siumpL
This would not have to be so, if a way could be found
for diverting the West's surplus production.
"Logically, foreign aid is that way, bringing comfort to pfo'dfu'cW itt& cWfcrurtifer ailfce. £ut to convince
the Welt th#£ ft «rfl gain ^edhofnieally by a tiansrtibri
front tfftras «J aifl win tiflte plans and data. These can
only come iron* extensive study."
Another key question that Alcock thinks cduld
be best examined by some uhcb'Mniitted, noh-pnlitieal
agency is this: Htiw cari the etinsciehce tif the individual be recrtfite'd hi a cause higher than, "My cbun-
try, right or wrdrig"? Suppose, for instance, there's
a general agreement to stop working on a germ warfare and a Russian, ah American or a Canadian discovers his ctiuntry is cheating. Is there any way to
make it tibt dhly safe but respectable for such a person to report his suspicitins to some supranational
authority? Is there any way to have it established that
loyalty to humanity is just as honorable as loyalty to
a nation?
Alcock—disturbing facts
Suppose someone sets off a nuclear missile
through a genuine accident. Is there any way to identify it as ah accident in time to prevent the catastrophic chain reaction that otherwise would follow?
Alcock has spelled out some of his ideas and
proposals in a booklet called The Bridge of Reason.
The book is full of disturbing statements and reminders. "Of the present U.S. defence budget of $40,000,-
000,000 a sizable proportion is going to scientific
research on methods of waging war. Yet time and
again the chairman of the Senate Disarmament Com
mittee has sought an appropriation of $400,000 for
studies relating to disarmament, and time and again
the funds have been refused, though $400,000 is one
thousandth of one percent of the annual defence
Alcock quotes a U.S. Senate subcommittee as
having said, in 1957 after nearly a dozen years of disarmament negotiations; "No agency of the executive
branch has made efforts to ascertain the economic
consequences of a reduction • in armaments.
. . . There are only six or seven persons who work
full time on disarmament in the State Department.
The subcommittee is struck by the disparity in the
effort the world is putting into thought and action for
controlling and reducing the armaments and the effort
going into the -development, fabrication and build-up
of armaments."
N& shelters at home
Although there are alarming implications in
everything he says, Alcock doesn't look alarmed at
all. He smiles easily and talks pleasantly. He and his
handsome wife Patricia and their four children live
in a ranibling big house oh the shore of Lake Ontario
and there's a rambling wave-washed lot in front. It's
an ideal' place for digging shelters but none of the
family has even thought of digging. To hide would be
the negation' Of all1 that Alcock stands for; so would
be a meeR acceptance of doom.
"The next war is not inevitable at all," he says.
"It w-On't be easy to stop but it can be stopped."
Notfman Alcock admits without rancor or self-
pity that he's had his ups and downs too, and his times
of genuine doubt. After two years of quietly persistent
$da2ih|f, His blueprint for a network of Peace
iSstm/teh has won a surprising amount of
su&i&rt. #k? greatest single lift cattie shortly after the
p^Mfcaf&bn a* year ago of his HftTe book.
&0t Hi $fe 'bine he received a letter from forty-
1sn¥^ye&£-e^tf social service worker in Florida saying
&e'■■&&§ sti fflfpt&sed that he was sending a donation.
&rte#fe1y, Jm&i Griggs not only gave $6,000 from
K& #&n Miings — whidh like Aleock's own were
iM&SSt — iSifi decided to move to Canada with his wife
sti4 fotrr children to give what further help he eottld.
No# he livens hear the Alcd'eks in Oakvllle and helps
tiiti the Peace Research Institute caihpalgti office ill
Toronto'. "Julian Griggs has been Our greatest Supporter," Alcock says, "rind his help came at the best
possible time."
Personal assets dwindle
Alcock's personal assets of $20,000 have disappeared since he quit his job with an American Manufacturing firm. In its first two years this, along with
Grigg's $6,000 and another $1,500 in small donations
from other wellwisHers, has been the Canadian Institute's only source of money. When the first 'fund-
raising campaign is Completed he expects to go oh a
modest salary, along with the other full-time staff
members that the Institute is able to enlist and sustain.
The Institute's ideas have already been endorsed
by half a dozen oldfer and larger organizations. These
include the Canadian Committee for the Control of
Radiation Hazards; sparked by the remarkable yeuhg
model and housewife of Edmonton, Mary van Stolk;
the movement called Voice of Women; the Combined
Universities Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament; and
the Society of Friends. AmOng Alcock's directors and
active workers are a former moderator of the United
Church, Dr. James S. Thomson; a former head of the
World Health Organization, Dr. Brock Chisholm; a
wealthy mining man, Dr. Franc Joubin, and a dozen
well-known radio, television and theatre people.
The fundamental hurdle, getting the co-operation
of governments, is not insuperable, Alcock insists.
One key condition he envisages for his international
chain of institutes is that they'll use only unclassified
data in their work. They won't seek to usurp or duplicate the functions of the United Nations or come
within its framework. Being "independent of their
national governments and of one another" they'll
work closely "with their individual departments of
State and National Defence, through general directives or specific assignments." With these ground rules
peace researcher
set up he mairrtstins that "national governments, rather
than resisting, will actually welcome proposals for
Peace Research Institutes."
Critics may say, He admits, that his plan is "too
ambitions; that it is destined to failure because some
portion of humanity will not respond."
He offers three answers to those who say the East
will not respond. "First, we do not really know; they
might, so why hot find out? Second, while Russia and
China may hot, other countries in the Communist
orbit may — Poland and Hungary for instance. Third,
if a number Of neutral nations establish Peace Research Institutes and later one or two from the West
join in, it may not matter Whether or not the East
fever joins. Yet is it reasonable to suppose that proud
and powerful nations like China or Russia would stay
outside for long?"
Though scientists aren't always considered to be
men of faith, it is precisely because of his scientific
background that Alcock's faith in his idea remains
so stubborn. As a young defence engineer at the National Research Council, Ottawa, and Great Malvern,
England, he saw, and in a modest way, helped in, a
number of unbelievable occurrences including the
development of radar. Only a handful of men were
involved in perfecting what the German Admiral Karl
Doenitz described as, next to the atomic bomb, the
most decisive weapon of the war.
The same kihd of concentrated genius and devotion — and the effort of "the critical few" — can
accomplish just as many dramatic and difficult things
in the social sciences as it's accomplished so often in
the physical Sciences.
The people needed, though they may number
only a few hundred, won't be easy to find, Alcock
"They must be possessed of a great sense of
urgency . . . must be first and foremost internationally,
not nationally minded: professionally self-propelled
and very competent . . . sufficiently foolhardy, or
courageous, to drop present quests and throw energies
and reputations into a search for peace . . . ready to
do this for a minimum salary, or, in perhaps exceptional circumstances, no salary at all.
"Probably such men and women," Alcock goes
on, "are only found in trace amounts in our scientific
population — one tenth or one fiftieth of one percent.
No matter, there may be just enough of them if they
but find each other.'' Pierre Berion
In the days ahead you are
going to be hearing more and
more about (and from) a cheerful pessimist named Dr. Norman Alcock.
I call -him that because —
though the personality of this
slight, dedicated scientist radiates a sort of matter-of-fact
good humour^—he is darkly
realistic about the fate of the
*.   •    •
"We've got about 10 years,"
Alcock remarked cooly to me
last week. "It's even money, I
think, that we won't make it."
Alcock's qualifications for
.believing this are fairly impressive. As a research scientist in both radar and nuclear
fission, he has earned his niche
in the college texts. It was he
who designed the radar antenna
that detected the core of Berlin for RAF Pathfinders. He
co-founded a firm that harnessed the atom for industry; he
developed a nuclear device now
in wide use. He's a $15,000-a-
year man — or he was until
he quit cold two years ago.
Now, when people ask him
what he does for a living, he
says: "I am consulting on how
to engineer peace."
•   •   •'
It is an unexpected answer
to get from this hatless, casual
man in the hornrimmed spectacles.   Yet   few  people have
called him "crackpot" since he
so obviously isn't one. In the
past two years he has beggared
himself in order to work at his
newly chosen, unpaid profession. (Twenty thousand dollars
in savings gone forever). But
the encouraging thing is that
he is no longer a voice in the
wilderness. People have started
to listen to Alcock because
what Alcock says makes sense.
The core of Alcock's philosophy and the program that he
envisions is set out in a remarkable pamphlet titled "The
Bridge of Reason." In this little
book Alcock sets out with
great clarity the argument and
plan of action for a Peace Research. Institute. There is nothing emotional about this pamphlet, and there is nothing
vague about it. Month in and
month out, while other people
have been worrying about
bomb shelters, Alcock, with his
cool scientist's mind, has been
working on a positive program
to avert war.
•    *    *
Now, he is ready to begin.
It is his intention to raise four
million dollars this winter, and
open the first Peace Research
Institute in Canada with a staff
of 55 this spring. I have every
confidence that he will succeed.
Alcock's   ideas,   like    most
great ideas, were slow to germinate.
"A lot of things got churned
over during the war," he explains. "I remember being
struck by a remark made by
Blackett (P. M. S. Blackett,
Nobel Prize-winner and a member of the team that developed
radar) about two-thirds. of the
world being hungry and sick.
It hit me that .while we were
worrying about winning the
war Blackett was worrying
about after the war. These
things continued to turn over
in my subconscious.
•    •   ,•
"When the nuclear age eame
I saw it, at first, only as an exciting event—something for a
scientist to get into. I was reasonably immature on social
problems. But over the years
some of the things that had
been in the back of my mind
.moved up to the front.
"For one thing, I began to
wonder about the physical
sciences in relation to the social sciences and whether we
weren't doing too much in the
former and not enough in the
"Research in physics falls
* into four areas: First, there's
pure research and it seemed
to me that we could do without
that for a while—after all,
everybody has eyclotrons now.
Theji there's military research,
which is sinjply detrimental.
Industrial research in the West,
is devoted (a) to a lot of frivolities we don't need, and (b)
to building up the wealth of
the Western world and thus
aggravating a lot of social issues."
• *    *
While Alcock was thinking
this through, the firm which
employed him moved to the
United States and he was faced
with a basic choice. It was this
that triggered his •remarkable
decision to get out of physics.
At first he wasn't sure what
the world's chief social problems were: Starvation? The
population explosion? Or the
threat of nuclear war? As a
scientist he soon realized that
the most imminent danger was
world destruction through nuclear holocaust. He decided to
devote all his energies to finding some way of investigating
and solving the problems of
war and peace on a massive
Alcock soon discovered that,
in odd nooks and crannies
about the globe, other intelligent men were also applying
their thoughts to the same problem. But they were working in
a leisurely and scholarly fashion, part-time, without funds.
• •   *
"The trouble is we have to
solve this thing in five or 10
years—not 50," says Alcock.
"We can't treat this as a leisurely research .project. We're
15 years late as it is anjl every
month counts. What I envisage
is a crash program. That's my
background, after all- That's
the way we do it in physics,
when we want to solve something.
And thus Dr. Norman Z. Al
cock's crash pr.Qgram>f or peace
has begun. 'Fortunately for him,
the conscience of the nation
was stirring at the .same time
as his own. The;Jasttwo years
in Canada hay* witnessed 3 remarkable renaissance of idealism such as we have not seen
since the mid-thirties. Six organizations: The Committee for
the Control of Radiation Hazards, the Universities' Campaign for -Nuqlear Disarmament, the Voice of Women, the
Society of Friends (Quakers),
and the World Federalists have
been groping for some alternative to nuclear disaster. Their
aims have seemed vague and
diffuse to many. Now Alcock,
with his program of concentrated research jpto the international causes of..war and tension, has .given them, a focus.
•   *   •
Alcock now has these six organizations fully behind him,
together with some pretty impressive personnel. His board
of directors includes such people as Dr. Frapc Joubin, the
geologist who discovered uranium in Algoma; Dr. Kenneth
Boulding, once head of McGill's
Economic Department; Dr.
Brock Chisholm, former director of the World Health Organization; and Dr. James
Thomson, former Moderator of
the United Church of Canada.
I think it heartening that
this movement which intends
to become world wide, should
have had its beginning in Canada. And I think it likely that
future history books inscribing the names of our heroes,
may write beside those of Best
and Banting, Macdonald and
Laurier, Graham Bell and Osier, the name of Norman Z.
That is, if we survive at all.
Two editors
look at CAPRI
Ubyssey Editor-in-Chief
What kind of people are working in
the CAPRI office at the local level?
Why do they spend as much as 40 hours
a week "on the job?" Do they realjy
believe in what they are doing? Do
they consider Dr. Norman Alcock a
good leader? Do they agree with all
his theories?
In an effort to find out I dropped into
the rambling West Georgia office with
Commodore A.C.M. Davy, chairman of
the six-week local fund drive.
"People working for CAPRI are just
ordinary, everyday people. Few of
them are the types who jump from one
cause to another. Most of them are just
normal, concerned people," he assured
The commodore said there were
about seven "full-time" people working
in the CAPRI office. This "full-time"
staff is augmented by about 30 part-
time helpers.
Many of the part-time workers are
women who come in for a few hours
per week and handle typing and mailing chores for the institute.
Commodore Davy was the only man
in the office when I visited. He explained, "The women have more time during
the day than the men have. Men are
still the bread winners."
The commodore said he felt one of
the first jobs CAPRI would have to
undertake would be gathering data on
all peace research done by others and
classifying and analyzing through it.
tackle a job which has hitherto  been
How's a nuclear scientist going to
considered the task of the social scientist? he was asked. The retired naval
officer replied that Dr. Alcock plans
to hire social scientists as the first employees of the Institute.
Salaries? "The Institute plans to pay
salaries comparable to those paid by
Universities and research departments."   the   commodore  explained.
Will CAPRI have to  appeal  to the
public for   support   every year?
"This one canvass, if it reaches its
objective should mean the Institute wUl
have enough funds to keep it operating for four years," the -commodore
Will the Institute establish provincial
branches after the initial canvass is
Commodore Davy sees the Institute
developing auxiliary bodies locally and
aiding the Institute's work by disseminating its findings.
What about the bugaboo of communist infiltration? The commodore said
he is not too worried about communist
infiltration changing the Institute's purpose. He seemed to be under the impression that the principles of the men
in the key positions within the group
are unshakeable. He did, howeved express the fear that an infiltrator would
damage the group through an "exposure" of certain members of the Institute — that is, by making untrue statements reflecting upon the integrity of
the Institute's leaders .
Most of the workers seemed optimistic about Dr. Alcock and his problem.
They weren't however, all sheep.
Some disagreed with Alcock's over-simplification of the topic. Many said they
knew he didn't feel everything would
be as rosy as he predicted, especially
in dealing with the Soviet Union. They
said Alcock, in trying to make a complex problem simple, sometimes went a
little too far.
Most people I talked to, although enthusiastic, were able to evaluate it critically in terms of its aims and objectives.
They seemed to realize they were
and would continue to come under fire
from many who felt their group was
too idealistic, too impractical. They
seemed to realize they would be attacked by persons of widely varied political beliefs.
"We are a natural target for people
for both extremes," one of the group
members said.
Ubyssey News JEditor
Norman Z. Alcock, founding fattier
of the Canadian Peace -Research Institute, also known as CAPRI, newest
plaything for the idealists, was faced
with a barrage of down-toTearth questions at the Academic •Symposium .Feb.
9 and 10.
Earnest students and professors, not
all of them skeptics or cynics, cornered the slim, bespectacled scientist
seeking concrete answers to concrete
questions. By and large, they didn't
get them.
The redoubtable Dr. Alcock always
had an answer, but the answer wasn't
always satisfactory. Too often he was
vague, beating around the bush without getting the fox.
At the symposium, he called upon
the universities to lead the world out
of its present problems. But, when confronted with the historical fact that
universities and university people are
conservative — servants of society
rather than leaders of it — this dedicated gentleman could only purse his
lips, sway back and forth in his characteristic manner and say it isn't too
late to start.
Dr. Alcock has clearly defined aims,
but no clearly defined methods. This
much he admits. He was quoted
recently as saying that it was too early
to spell out what kind of research his
institute would be doing. "When you
contribute to the Arthritis Foundation,
you don't ask for details of their research, do you?" he is quoted as saying.
Judging from the reactions at the
symposium, broad aims just aren'l
enough for cautious university people
There were many who appeared t<
wish they could throw their full support behind the institute, but who fee!
they can't until they are convinced 0:
its  value.
And, unfortunately for the institute
Dr. Alcock couldn't convince them. .
But the picture-wasn't all that black
This intense, little man, similar in ap
pearance and stature to Tommy Doug
las, personally impressed many. Hi
convictions are unshakable. Not a nat
urally good speaker, he has been im
proving every time out.
This may be an indication that, see
ing the need for something more cor
crete to sell his idea, he'll produce
program that will do the trick.
it .was evident at the symposium tha
he was making mental notes of all th
criticisms and questions. His conceri
tration on questions and the comment
of others was often unbelievably ii
■The man is impressive, and becon
ing more so. The idea is impressiv
both in scope and aims. But the pr<
gram will have to be equally impress
ive before any large segment of th
university community can-be brougl
to support it.
The institute will have to know wh
it   is   going   to  hire   and  where   it
going to start.
And, as a postscript, it will also ha\
to worry about what it is going to d
with its results .when it gets them. Is RCMP out to get
CUCND members?
By the Canadian University Press
Is the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police force out to "get" the Combined
Universities Campaign for Nuclear
''No," says the Force.
"The RCMP, as a police force in a
democracy, has no particular official
interest in any organization in the
country unless certain circumstances
are apparent," explained a spokesman.
"More precisely, what we are concerned about," he added, "is the infiltration and pressures which Communists can accomplish by using such
"We are interested in the 'knowns',
the Communist party workers who
have become associated directly or indirectly with such groups as the
CUCND," he said.
"Our duty is to maintain the internal
security of this nation. Anyone who
studies   international   communism
knows that infiltration is  a threat to
a country's security."
In the past year, the name "communist" has been rigorously applied
to the Combined Universities Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament activities and personnel. No substantiation
for these accusations is given, but the
allegation is still made by those who,
for various reasons, dislike the organization.
The RCMP, in carrying out its duty
of internal security, met with unfavorable publicity on a number of university campuses because of its methods.
At Laval University, the Mounties
were charged with acting like a secret
police force when they started to ask
questions about individuals in a nuclear disarmament group. The 35th
Congress of the National Federation of
Canadian University Students, in a
resolution proposed by Laval, "disap
proved of the actions of an agent of
the RCMP with regard to the students
at Laval interested in nuclear disarmament."
At McMaster, where the council
refused to grant official recognition to
the CUCND chapter, it was revealed
that the RCMP had aiso made inquiries
"It would be nice if the RCMP could
carry out its enquiries without having
to question, not only university students, but citizens in any other walk
of life,"- said the spokesman. "However, the RCMP is not gifted with
occult powers; they do not have second
sight, and, being human, most of their
information must be obtained by asking questions."
"Surely no Canadian can object to
being asked to assist the Force in this
manner," he asked, "provided of course
his rights are always protected and he
completely understands that he is not
required to give such information?"
"It has not been Combined Universities Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament under investigation," emphasized
the spokesman. "It has been individuals associated directly or indirectly with it."
The only true evidence of Commu
nist association with CUCND has been
at the University of Toronto, where
Danny Goldstick, a professed Communist, was instrumental in the group's
Goldstick was expelled from the
Toronto CUCND chapter last term because he is a Communist, supporting
the nuclear explosions of the Soviet
Union. This was taken as being in contradiction to the terms of membership
in CUCND and he was expelled.
Police investigation has shown the^
facts to be that a communist conspiracy does exist in Canada, as in
every other country. This conspiracy
anticipates taking control of the country and setting up a communist regime.
While the communists today profess
publicly that they hope to attain their
means in a democratic way, their
earlier utterances were to .the effect
that control could only be seized by
force and violence. Whatever the communists may say today, the works of
Lenin- are still their bible, and the program laid down by Lenin for world
domination is one of conspiracy, revolution, deceit, force, violence, and civil
war. No- communist has ever denied
that is the source of communist truth.
The other day I saw a real depressing sight; I really did. I was at this
here Pep Meet in the gym where they
were celebrating or advertising for
some stupid dance called the Mardi
Gras. It was supposed to last for two
nights or something. A real big deal.
Anyway, I was sitting in the gym
with about fifty million other guys
listening to the band trying to play
this phony jazzy stuff and waiting for
the Kings and Queens of the Mardi
Gras and all. Then this big hairy
Australian guy with glasses came
bounding out like a kangaroo or some
other goddam beast. He was supposed
to be some big deal comedian or something. I don't mean that he wasn't
funny or anything like that; sometimes he was phony as hell, but usually
he was real funny. He was always
pointing at these loud guys in the
audience and all. That killed me.
. The trouble was he kept trying to
be a perverty sort of guy lifting up his
leg and talking in this high squeaky
voice and all. All the stupid bastards
sitting in the audience were trying to
be witty as hell, seeing who could be
the first one to laugh at this Australian
guy's corny jokes, and making these
goddam boring comments. What a
bunch of phonies. What really depressed me, though, was all these
dames in the audience snickering and
blushing and giggling at all his sexy
jokes when they didn't even know
what he was talking about-half the
time.or else they pretended they were
hearing it for the first time. That made
me real sad—it really did.
Alt a very big deal!
Anyway, this Australian guy with
glasses was supposed to be master of
ceremonies and introduce all the Kings
and Queens of the Mardi Gras and
they'd come out all dressed up and
do a little stunt and wave at the audience and they'd applaud like hell —
all very big deal. Some of the Kings
and Queens were real neat and all, but
some were so damn phony that I got
bored. Some of the Kings were trying
to be real sexy and perverty like the
Australian guy with glasses but all
they did was show their ignorance.
Some of the Queens were real pretty
but some were sort of homely — I
even felt sorry for some of them when
the goddam stupid audience didn't
even applaud, for God's sake. When
that happened, I felt depressed as hell.
The Mardi Gras is put on by all the
fraternities and sororities and they are
supposed to make a lot of money and .
give it to the crippled kids to make
them happy and all. At first that made
me feel real neat, but after I started
thinking about it I got depressed as
hell — what a phony excuse. All these
phony guys in the frats. and sororities
are all rich as hell anyway — half of
them have fathers that are millionaires, for God's sake. Instead of giving
all their money to the little crippled
kids they have to have, a big deal
dance so they can have a real booze
and get sexy and all. God, that's a
lousy excuse—it really is.
Laughs meet little king
What really made me depressed,
though, was when they brought this
little crippled kid right up onto the
stage. I nearly puked. The stupid bastards in the audience didn't know
whether it was a joke or not; some of
them were laughing and some looked
as uncomfortable as hell scratching and
all. That was one time when this big
Australian was really phony. He kept
saying, "This is serious . . . this is very
serious . . . this is serious now," for
about an hour and a half. I could've
puked. Some of the stupid bastards in
the audience thought that was real
funny and they were laughing all the
time they were wheeling this little
crippled kid in his wheelchair right
up onto the damn stage. God, I almost
started to cry. These two big deal frat
guys were wheeling this kid along
trying to be real friendly and all, you
could almost hear them saying, "How
are you, Timmy, old bean?" and all
that buddyroo sort of stuff. Then there
was a real hush in the audience for
once while all the phonies on the stage
stopped running around and this one
frat guy said some nice stuff about
Timmy should be the real King of the
Mardi Gras and all the money should
go to a worthy cause and all. I sort
of liked what that frat guy said but
somehow it didn't sound right. I don't
know why but I almost started to cry.
When this frat guy said all that crap
about making Timmy King and all, the
stupid bastards in the audience started
to clap like hell, for God's sake. They
just had to or they would have started
to bawl or puke — it was sure easy
to see that some of the phonies sure
wished they weren't around.
God, did I ever feel sorry for that
frat guy trying to be sincere and all.
I even felt sorry for the Australian
guy with glasses. Was I ever depressed
— I really was. It was sure funny,
though, because I didn't feel sorry for
the crippled, kid at all. It was easy to
see that he was a real neat little guy
and he was sure getting a bang out of
it all. But what do you expect? He was
just a little kid, for cripes sake. He
didn't know what was going on, but
he was sure excited and getting a kick
out of it all. When I just looked at
him I didn't feel so bad — he was such
a cute little kid. Right then I wished
he would come up and sit beside me—
I really did. Gee, that would've been
neat. But then I thought how all the
phony slobs sitting around me would
probably get scared as hell seeing that
wheelchair and him all crippled and
then they'd sneak out or something.
Or maybe they'd all flock around and
stare and try to say these phony
friendly things like, "Hi, Timmy. How
are you today?" That would scare hell
•. 3
out of me, for God's sake. People are
so damn phony.
Then they even tried to make the
little kid say something. You could
sure tell he didn't want to say anything. All he said was, "Thank you
very much," or something like that.
He was just a little kid, for cripes sake.
Then these two big deal frat guys
started wheeling the cute crippled kid
away and all the time they were trying to be so goddam careful and
friendly and all — they sure were
nervous. When they took him away, I
got depressed as hell. I really did.
All the phony guys in "the audience
were scratching and whispering and
being uncomfortable as hell, until the
big Australian guy with glasses started
to shoot the bull again. I damn near
puked. You could tell right away he
couldn't wait to get back to being sexy
and perverty and all. The audience
couldn't wait either; the whole lot of
them were nervous as hell. The trouble
was he didn't wait. Right away he
started trying to be sexy and perverty
and all, and the audience started
laughing right away. They were just
trying to forget about the cute little
kid, for cripes sake. I almos \ cried.
God, I felt sad. Dave Edgar views Russia
1960-61   AMS  President
(as told to V. J. Scott)
After spending a month touring the more important cities, youth organizations, and institutions
of higher learning with the first delegation of Canadian university exchange students to the USSR, I
came to the conclusion that the human mind, under
stern and unyielding discipline of propaganda experts,
ban be rendered as malleable as the mechanism of
robots in.the hands of skilled technicians.
Soviet administrators of education and educators
are aware of this and, in an effort to minimize the
danger of strong, individual minds asserting themselves to the detriment of the State, have instituted
their conception of Russia's ideal "new man."
The concept of the new man is insinuated into all
domestic propaganda; it is the basis of the USSR's
educational system from primary school up; it is the
alpha and omega of everyday life.
The first part of the new man concept is commendable. The new man must be honest, reliable,
skilled, resourceful, and highly educated. But t h e
second part, debasing the fine tenets of the first, demands that this honest, reliable, skilled, and highly
educated individual must be so trained and prepared
mentally as to inherit a true communist society. He
must be willing at all times to sacrifice himself for
communism, and subject himself, unquestioningly, to
the communist way of life and ideology.
When I talked with the average Russian about the
new man concept, he seemed only aware of the obvious benefits which would accrue from his own and
others' honesty, reliability, and so on, without giving
consideration to the demoralizing effect his total subjection to the state, and loss of his own individuality
would'have on his power to reason fairly, freely, and
intelligently without direction from the ruling powers.
Our deligation knew little of the new man concept when we first arrived in Moscow on a lovely,
sunny morning in May of last year. The idea was
gradually transmitted to us during our tour. We could
aot escape it.
Ideas graciously rejected
One girl and five men made up our delegation
jf Canadian university students to Russia. The girl
was a sociology student from the University of Sas-
otchewan. The others included a French-Canadian
studying engineering at the University of Montreal;
i medical student from McGill; a post graduate from
he University of Toronto, who was an expert on
soviet affairs, and spoke fluent Russian; the president
>f NFCUS, who was a student in law at the Univer-
;ity of Saskatchewan, and I, who had just graduated
n law from UBC.
In Moscow we were met at the train depot toy
ifficials from the Student Council of the USSR. The
est of the welcoming, procedure was typical of the
ottern to be followed in other cities we visited.
After introductions, we would be driven to our
ntourist hotel, turn our passports over to hotel of-
icials, and then have the special meal, already pre-
iared for us, which would be served in the hotel din-
ng room.
During the day of our arrival, we would usually
leet with the president and several members of the
ost Youth Organization in their offices. We would sit
round a long table in the centre of which would ba
encils, paper, and the ever-present bottles of Rus-
ian mineral water, flavored with lemon, or straw-
erry, which are considered healthful.
Our opinion would be asked on several subjects,
nd then suggestions called for regarding our itiner-
ry. We often requested that some small change be
lade such as that we see a hospital instead of a fac-
>ry, or that we be given a little more time to our-
;lves. These suggestions were always graciously re-
aived and, just as graciously for some some reason
r other, put aside. Apparently everything had been
loroughly prepared for us before we arrived and it
as seldom that we deviated from the original plans.
Casual chats discouraged
An interpreter and a guide were assigned to us
i Moscow for the duration of our stay in the USSR,
oth were university graduates, good looking, and
robably in their late twenties. They were friendly
it inclined to be wary of us, watchful of anyone who
ied to speak to us unofficially, and anxious to cre-
e a good impression of their country. They did not
le us to go sightseeing by ourselves. Informal, un-
anned meetings were more than discouraged, and
i student ever dropped in on us for a casual chat.
I found Moscow to be an imprsssive city. It has
beautiufl buildings, some with tall spires, others ornately decorated as wedding cakes. Wide roads seem
to have been built with an eye to the future when
cars for the general population are more plentiful than
at present. There are scores of recently built apartment houses.
In the rush to provide housing quarters for their
people, the Russians are not so much concerned with
beauty as with shelter. Even though some of these
modern buildings are already disintegrating, they
maintain that "it is better to have poor shelter than
none at all."
Our guide pointed out St. Basil's Cathedral in
Red Square which is now used as a museum; the
mausoleum where, until recently, the bodies of Lenin
and Stalin were on display for the hundreds of people
who paused to pay their respect each day, and Gum's
great department store. But I remember Red Square
for the incident which occurred there to one of our
delegation which was to us both startling and embarrassing.
Our student had wandered away from the group
for a moment and whether the harassed looking man
who approached him with a letter in his pocket for
the American Embassy, and 200 rubles for the student
if he delivered it, came of his own accord or was sent
to test our integrity, we never found out. But our
student refused the offer as tactfully as he could under the circumstances.
Praise—to young worker
Soviets seldom waited for us to pass an opinion
of our own about any point of interest being shown
us without precipitating our remarks with "Don't you
think that is a magnificent building?" or "Don't you
think this is an excellent idea?" After we had said
what we intended to say, they would always, without
exception, launch into praise for the young worker.
I once asked why it was that only young workers
were praised, and what happened to the old ones. I
was assured that old workers were well provided for,
and happy. j
No matter where we went, what we saw, the
young worker was always praised. Toward the end of
our trip we had grown so accustomed to it that it was
difficult to keep from smiling.
I think that our interpreter, usually stony-faced
through his translations, must have caught the humor
of the situation because once in the middle of a translation of praise for- the young worker, and despite his
training, he paused, and grinned helplessly. But the
lapse was only momentary. He straightened his face
quickly, and resumed his work to the end.
Another impressive area in Moscow is a natural
elevation point from where we could look down over
the city. Immediately below this vantage point is the
Lenin Athletic Centre which includes a stadium which
seats over 100,000 .people, a hockey arena, and a stadium for indoor sports.
About a mile back of this ridge, on the edge of
the city, is the main building of the Moscow University. Russian devotion to education is exemplified in
this magnificent building which boasts the tallest spira
in Moscow. It houses about 3,000 of the 22,000 students
Education free to student
University education in Russia is free, and students
are paid while attending according to their needs and
ability. Entrance to Moscow University is based on the
results of entrance examinations. The requirements
depend on the field of study undertaken. Very often,
as in most institutions in the Soviet Union, preference
is given to those 'students who have labored one or
two years after high school.
The idea of students working in the labor field
before continuing their studies has two purposes, first:
to give the student an idea of the practical life, and
appreciation of hard physical labor before entering
the field of higher education. Second: to put to work
for the benefit of the country an extra labor force
which would be lost if all students went straight to
university from high school.
We talked with some of the students and discovered that they are eager for first hand knowledge of
other countries and their customs.
The questions fired at us followed a set pattern
such as: "How much do you earn in Canada?" "Have
you got a T.V.?" "Do you own your own car?" "Where
do you go on vacation?" "How often do you have your
hair cut?" "Do you pay for your own university education?" "How many rooms in your flat?" "Oh, you
have a house! Well, how many rooms in your house?"
One student asked a totally unexpected question.
"Why," he said, smiling, "has Canada the highest rate
of unemployment in the world?"
.He had not thought of that by himself. He had
just read it in "Time" magazine. "'Time" is not circulated in Russia but we happened to have a copy
in our possession. \,
The question of how other countries react to
religion is ever in their minds. Though we seldom
brought up the subject ourselves, we could depend
on it being asked by someone. The question was:
"Do you believe in God?" '
Religious freedom — yes
My answer to this was, "The important thing ia
whether or not I am free to believe in Him. Do you
feel that you have religious freedom in Russia?"
The answer was usually an emphatic "yes."
One student explained: "Our churches are open
to any who care to attend. That only old people go
to church indicates the inability of religion to meet
the  problems  of  modern society."
An artist who was painting the harsh, down-to-
earth stuff that the USSR demands of its successful
contenders in that field, observed dryly: "Bad gov-  •
ernment and religion are brothers. Eliminate religion
and you eliminate bad government."
It is obvious that the young people of Russia today associate the church with Russia's pre-revolution
miseries. They feel that religious services are archaic,
useless, fraught with superstition.
Before ending our four-day stay in Moscow, we
attended a grade six history class. The history period
was preceded by a resume of current world affairs
in which the USSR played the dominant role of defender of the peace, and the capitalist countries- were
relegated to the part of the "big, bad wolf."
The children, ranging in age from 10 to 12, were
all in uniform. They appeared well fed, happy and
paid strict attention to what was being taught. After
they had listened to and taken part in what I could
only call the day's propaganda, the history lesson be^
From Moscow, we flew to Kiev, which is the
capital of the Ukraine. Whether it was that I was beginning to get the feel of the Soviet Union, or that
this city reminded me of Montreal, I felt more comfortable there than in Moscow. The people seemed
more naturally friendly, more cosmopolitan. They did
not, as happened several times in Moscow, question
us with intent to embarrass.
Propaganda for party
We spent four days in Kiev,_and were shown
some of the beautiful parks in which soft music of
the classical style was played through loud speakers,
and interrupted periodically with bulletins of some
progressing, or new achievement, accomplished in the
glorious land of the USSR by its devoted workers.
This  technique,   extensively  used   in  the   Soviet
Union, is a form of propaganda to keep the people
always aware of the efforts made on their behalf by .
the communist party.
Another place of interest which we were shown
in Kiev, was a tractor factory. The factory was clean,
well organized, and efficiently fun. It was interesting,
however, not for its efficiency or output, but for the
propaganda methods used to spur the workers on to
greater and more effective efforts.
Slogans and posters were seen everywhere. In
short concise phrases they glorified the position of the
worker in the Soviet society and emphasized what
an honor and privilege it was to labor on behalf
of the Communist State. Themes such as how much
the state was doing for the worker, and how much
better off the worker was now than before, as well
as recent advances of the Soviet Union, were much in
We saw a display of pictures featuring workers
in the factory who had performed outstanding service. There were those who had greatly surpassed their
production quota, others who had been absent-free
for a record length of time, and some whose suggestions had resulted in a time, or material, saving for
the factory. These workers, many of them women,
were known as "heroes."
Stalingrad, which is a thoroughly Russian city,
was our next stop. Well known for its wartime stand
against the Germans, Stalingrad still bears the war's
ugly scars. Large areas remain to be reconstructed.
It impressed me as a bleak city with shattered buildings, and gaping holes, for some reason left untouched
as if to remind residents and visitors of the miseries
suffered during the war years.
There seems no joy in this city. The people have
a dejected, almost haunted air about them as if they
could not forget the past, and are little interested in
the future. They move at a slower pace than in other
(Continued over page) « Dave Edgar views Russia
" places we visited and, in my opinion, i*^wtll take: more
'. material -reconstruction Uy bring hope and cheer back
to their hearts.
As almost half of our time in the USSR was over,
we were given a period of relaxation at the beautiful
'   health and holiday resort of Soche which is situated
onthe Black Sea coast, at the foot of the Great Caucasian Range.
Students under strain
We needed a rest because since our arrival we
had been under considerable strain. We were not
visiting Russia as casual tourists on vacation but for
the purpose of exchanging academic and cultural
ideas with Russian students. We were there too, to
promote, if possible, an understanding and friendship
among -the various student bodies and youth organizations. We had to be on guard all of the time so as not
to* do or say anything which might antagonize the
Soviets and ultimately embarrass our own country.
It was, curious to find that while the Soviets were
fully aware of the history and current political activity in other countries than their own, their knowledge
of foreign political systems indicated a shallow understanding. They talked by rote rather than by reason.
An interesting incident occurred one day in the
hills back of Soche. We were driving with our guide
and interpreter, when we noticed a stockily built, elderly man dressed in khaki shorts and shirt, and
carrying a rough hiking stick, walking along the road
toward us. As he drew near, I could see that his body
was tanned, his hair grey, and that he had an open,
pleasant face. An old worker I thought, enjoying leis-
:   ure and peace in his declining years.
But byr guide excitedly stopped the car. "He may
talk to us," he said. He and the interpreter got out of
the car and went toward the man. A few moments
later we were-being introduced to no other than
Marshal Voroshilov.
At ;the time of our meeting, Voroshilov was one
of the .most highly regarded elder statesmen in the
USSR. .Alwsftys an-outstanding military figure, he had
been a (leader during the revolution, and prior to his
retirement, :May 7th, I960, he was chairman of the
Presidium of the Supreme Spviet. This^ in effect is
Soviet Hepdflf State. Honors and some of the highest
Soviet awards were heaped on him when he retired
from duty.
Voroshilov on road
He welcomed us in a strong, resonant voice, and
wished us well in his country.
I have wondered since if he had any inkling that
he was so soon to be discredited in the country he had
served so well by Khrushchev's diatribe at the 22nd
Party Congress. I remember him yet, his smile, as he
finally turned away and continued his walk.
From (Soche we flew to Tbilisi which is south and
east of the holiday resort. Tbilisi is the capital of
Georgia which was Stalin's state. Here the Turkish
influence in the people is obvious in their olive skin,
dark hair and eyes. |
Tbilisi is one of the Soviet Union's major wine
producing areas, and the people spare no effort to
impress the visitor with the excellence, abundance,
and effectiveness of their local produce.
We did the usual round of meetings in Tbilisi and
then visited one of the art centres.
An officially accepted artist is no longer an artist
in Russia. He is a worker conforming with all other
workers. His paintings depict what is understandable
to the masses, and considered beneficial to the country. There are few inspirational works to delight the
mind and trigger the imagination.
We were driven about 50 miles out of Tbilisi to
see a wine producing collective farm which comprises
the farming area of about 4,000 people. The people
live in the village nearby and work the land and
fruit together. The purpose of this is to co-ordinate
the effort of farmers who make up this particular
But the farmers of the collectives are a more
independent breed than industrial or factory workers
laboring under similar managerial conditions. While
they generally are assured of a comfortable living
under the collective system, they do not always appreciate it. For this reason the state sometimes gives
them the right to sell privately any produce over and
above a set quota.
About three o'clock we stopped f o r a special
luncheon prepared for us in the village. We sat at a
long table with about a dozen local workers, and
some of the staff who had hosted the affair.
The table was laden with a variety of cheeses,
hot and cold meats, different breads including the
traditional black bread, caviar, salads, cucumbers and
sour cream. {Russians seldom indulge in sweets at
meals.) Our glasses were kept filled with a thick,
heavy and rather pleasant wine which was a product
of the farm, and potent.
Our host proposed a toast to our health with a
good three ounces of vodka, explaining the Georgian
tradition of draining the glass to the bottom every
time one drinks. He followed this custom religiously
toast after toast and we were obliged to follow.
Though we expected to see more of the farm
after lunch, that was impossible. The luncheon lasted
five hours. The Russians took it in shifts but we Canadians sat through the entire ordeal. It was eight
o'clock in the evening when we finally rose from the
table—how I don't know—and were driven to our
hotel. There was no talking that night. We slept.
Cup raised repeatedly
In the morning, our host, was ready with brandy.
"It is an old Georgian custom," he explained, as he
filled our glasses, "of ridding ourselves of the ill effects of the previous day."
Shortly after breakfast we were driven back to
Tbilisi. Apparently no further sightseeing of the collective farm had been arranged.
We continued our journey from Tbilisi and arrived in the Central Asian city of Tashkent. Located
close to the Afghanistan border, Tashkent is considered to be one of the oldest cities in the world. The
architecture provides a stark contrast between eastern
and western styles. The old part of the city is dominated by low slung mud adobe style huts, while the
newer part boasts of those advancements which exist
in present day Soviet construction.
The people of Tashkent were the most receptive
to visitors that we met. They were extremely interested in any tourists and it was not uncommon, when
standing in front of our hotel, to find ourselves surrounded by a group of people. They would question
us through a local resident who could speak English
and was glad to have the opportunity of practising
the language.
A relatively large proportion of the people in
Tashkent are Moslem. We found, when we visited the
university, that efforts to combat what religion
exists in this area have been made by establishing
in the history department of the university a division
for atheistic affairs.
This division teaches subjects on religion, and
religious philosophy, generally with a view of supplying students with arguments to counter arguments against orthodox religious thought. Many of
these students will ultimately become teachers, and
the teachers will be well equipped to develop in the
younger generation the tenets of Communist ideology.
The new man—a question
It was in Tashkent that I was struck with the
full magnitude of the U.S.S.R.'s -"new man" concept.
I experienced the uncomfortably sensation of being
caught between floors in an elevator shaft. What sort
of new man will eventually emerge from this vast
training ground when the millions of people with
different ideas, customs, religions, and philosophies
now living there have been moulded to the conformity of one ideology.
Only time—if there is enough time—can answer
We returned to Moscow for another four days
spent in visiting more educational and youth centres
such as the Moscow Sports Centre, Moscow Institute
of Municipal Engineering, Moscow Technical Institute,
and the Moscow University.
- At this time we met again with the Student
Council of the U.S.S.R. for formal talks. We laid the
groundwork for what we hoped would be more extensive and longer termed exchanges between students
of the U.S.S.R. and Canada. ' '       '
Leningrad was the last city on our list. It is considered by many to be the most beautiful city in
Russia, and among the most beautiful in the world.
There is a spirit in Leningrad which makes the
people more understanding and receptive of ideas.
This liberalism is something upon which the people
there pride themselves, and it was evident to most
members  of our  group.
We left the Soviet Union the same way we arrived, by train running between Leningrad and
Helsinki. The trip was quiet and uneventful. For
me most of the journey was spent trying to sort out
and clarify in my own mind my impressions of the
country. In particular, I thought about the achievements of the Soviet  people  to  which  for  the  past
month we had been constantly exposed.
The advances made in the U.S.S.R. during th
past forty years cannot be denied: To what exten
the communist form of government is responsibl
for these advances is a matter of academic specul;
tion. Undoubtedly the burning Russian nationaiisr
has had much to do with it. But my journeys throug
the Soviet Union left me more concerned with t*
future than with the past.
The economical and political effectiveness of dj<
tatorial government are brought to the Soviet Unio
by the Communist system. But such a system require
certain sacrifices by the people. They must be willya
to work for the State, and to subject themselves '
the State. They must be willing to give up certai
freedoms, privileges, and rights. Without such s?.
rifices the system cannot work.
Most in the West would not make these sacrifice
partly because our political training does not alio
it, but mostly because there is no obvious need for i
In the U.SS.R., however, Russian history will easi'
show the past need, and Soviet education and prop
ganda  systems  provide present day willingness.
The West, then, faces competition from th
fiercely nationalistic, highly dedicated, and well-c
ganized people. This, for me, is a frightening pre
pect, the more so since having had the opportuni
of seeing our opponents in their own environmei
'New' students
Social Work I
"There are many workers fleeing the imperiali
of West Berlin for East Germany."
"What is the cause of the economic stagnation
East Germany?"
"There's a shortage of workers."
"What about the workers who have come in fr<
the West?"
"What do you think of this statue of Lenin?"
The above is part of a conversation I had 1
summer with a PhD student at Moscow Universi
It shows that the wishful thinking of the West
that Soviet students would lead their country aw
from the narrow party line — is just that: wish
According to  this  theory,  Soviet  students
supposed to  apply their analytically trained  mi)
to see the contradictions  in  their own system.  1
they don't.
Of course material written from a western vi-
point or any non-party viewpoint is not available
the Soviet Union. The only "western" newspape
saw was the Daily Worker.\"But," I was told, '
not the workers tell the truth that the capita
bosses deny?" Dickens is the major representative
English literature.
•    •    •
"Not  everything  that   is   true  is  good for
people," goes the usual rationalization for censors!
And apparently the government is the only body t
to determine what is both true and good.
Or, so I was told time after time on my trif
the Soviet Union last summer. I was travelling v
12 other students, American capitalists all. We w
to Leningrad, Moscow, Kiev and Lvov.
Throughout the trip we were hospitably recei
and lavishly indoctrinated. The only people we fo
hard to get along with were the official guides
official students delegated to meet us.
To be a student two things are necessary: br;
and membership  in the  Young   Communist Lea;
The second requirement does not imply that you
a fervent   believer   in Communism,   only   that
attend a political meeting once a week.
"I don't have anything against Americans,
student once told me, "but to stay in favor I'll
nounce anything on Wednesday nights."
The   most   significant   characteristic   about
Soviet student is his love of money and what it
buy.  The student  class in Russia  is second onl;
that of the higher governmental echelons,  and
greater security of tenure.
"How much does your government pay yoi
go to university?" is the favorite question of
Soviet student.
But even  those   in  the  commercial  subject
Soviet study, the applied sciences, receive some
cation  in   the  humanities  —  there   are  compul
courses in the history of the Communist Party
the philosophy of atheism. W. J. STANKIEWICZ
Associate Professor of Political Science
Book reviews, particularly in scholarly journals, -
we become a sorry business. Confronted with newly
iblished books, an editor faces the problem of how
find   competent  and   honest  reviewers  for  them,
/en if he is not pressed for time and prone to discard the  suitability  of  the prospective  reviewers,
; may often prove wrong in' his choice. More often
an not, the critical appraisal for which the reviewer-
is been asked to use his expert knowledge and judg-
ent does not do the book justice. It is too perfunn-
ry, or too flippant, or too one-sided and uninformed,
_;it is a  mere expansion of  the publisher's  blurb.
.1 too often it advances the reviewer's pet idea and
sregards the intentions of the author and the values
his book. Seemingly unaware of the scholarly ef-
rt that lies behind it, the review is often apt to dis-
iss the work in a few sentences and then hide bond cliches like "despite its many shortcomings, this
ok fills an important gap." All too often the review
ijsed by its author as a vehicle for self-aggrandise-
mi—a tendency common to beginners. All too often,
shows that the critic has failed to make a real ef-
.-t: that he merely scanned the chapter headings or
Unmed through the book in a superficial fashion.
1 too often, it shows the critic's strong bias which
wis him to irrationalism and even the rejection of
; work. It is fortunate that the latter type ofcritic—
■ whom there should be no room in scholarly jour-
Is with any pretence to objectivity—is vulnerable:
betrays his state of mind even to a layman whose
owledge of the subject is superficial. C. J. Keyser
bisbppk, The Rational and the Superrational speaks
"portraits of book-reviewers drawn by themselves."
Review portrays reviewer
"Readers -of a serious book-review," he says,
ay rightfully expect to find it in two portraits, one
i!he rbopk and one of the reviewer. A reviewer may
i to portray the book but he cannot fail to portray
'iseif—he is pictured by his performance. If he por-
ys: the-book, he thereby portrays himself as having
•illectualandscholariycom-petence and an imperious
;seof honor incrwKng-loyalty to the author,-loyalty
the'editor, loyalty to the public, and loyalty to the
th. His picture is that of a worthy citizen of the
-tmonwealth-of science and letters. If he fails to
portray the book, he thereby portrays himself as one
lacking intellectual or scholarly or moral competence
or two of these or all three of them. All such portraits
are spiritually ugly. Of all of them the ugliest is perhaps that of a reviewer who uses che book merely or
mainly as a trapeze upon which to mount and display
himself. It is the picture of one who is vain, deceitful,
and cowardly—intellectually a knave, morally a fool."
Despite all his vulnerability, the reviewer often
goes unpunished: the author may be reluctant to point
out the misrepresentations of the biased and dishonest
reviewer; and there is no agency which will expose
the reviewer's dishonesty, make him accountable for
his professional crime and apply some form of sanctions. Short of writing what can be considered a libel,
reviewers are free to besmirch the work of others as
they please.
Ignore central problems
Apart from this major sin (dishonesty, lack of
profession ethics) there are other minor sins: bias of
specialty (expert's myopia), unwillingness to impart
information, and preoccupation with petty problems •
and minor errors while ignoring central problems and
major issues. A good review must be both informative
and informed^—two qualities rarely found in conjunction. Many reviewers betray a curious aversion to
being informative. At best they belong to the group
of elementary resumeurs who think of book-reviews
in terms ©f summaries and precis. Normally they shirk
the effort required in an essay-type review that intermingles description with analysis, gives the gist of
the book's content, appraises its aims, and adds a balanced critique of its character and achievement. "The
essentials of a book review," wrote Hazlitt, "are that
it give an adequate description of the book itself, and
convey something of its tone and quality." Instead,
many reviewers seem to be engaged in an irresponsible play with the text, sampling it, taking a paragraph here, a sentence there, extracting from their
proper context and finding them faulty or inaccurate
within an assumed frame of reference. It is an easy
way out, if one is unwilling to read the book carefully and find out what the author was trying to say.
It is a different kettle of fish to digest the book and
then give a full, critical appraisal while suggesting
other possible methods of approach and outlining the
state of research on the subject—instead of picking
out a few points of style, terminology, emphasis and
presentation. The last type of critic delights in questioning the meaning of the title nnd chapter-heads,
is severely critical of footnotes, is habitually displeased with the bibliography, grunts at the very sight of
the index. Yet how often does he give the impression
of having read the book, let alone having looked into
the heart of the matter? How often does he pause to
think what was the conception underlying the work
and how successful the author was in his self-imposed
task? "The reviewer," wrote R. A. Scott-James ("The
Perfect Reviewer," The Spectator, Feb. 27, 1953), "by
adequate knowledge of the subject, by understanding
of the language used, by power of sympathy with the
mind of the author and sensibility to literary form,
must be able to reconstruct in his own mind whatever
has been intelligibly constructed by the author."
Many reviews inadequate
Many book-reviews are hopelessly inadequate because their writers present either a catalogue of facts
taken from the table of contents, or a catalogue of
their own biases and .prejudices illustrated by examples picked almost at random (this game can be played with any text, if one is not concerned with objectivity). Too many reviewers are not informed ertough
to be able to relate the book to the existing body of
scholarship and reveal some of the findings of the
latter. For most it is too onerous a task. In a world
where quantity is tending to become the measure of
scholarship, and where editors fail to apply the standards by which they usually abide when judging the
worth of articles and fail to prune out shoddy and
dishonest reviews, the substandard reviewer has no
incentive to learn his trade. Perhaps, after aM, not too
much harm is 'being done, for who read^ book-reviews
but the publishers (in quest of quotable passages), and,
occasionally, the sadly misrepresented authors?
The editors' likely line of defence against the
accusation that they fail to do their duty in regard to
book-reviews is that they fail to do their duty in regard to book-reviews is that they can hardly edit
material which they have solicited. But if editors cannot respond to" the call for a more critical editing of
book-reviews,- the least they should do is choose their
reviewers with care. (The indiscriminate publication
of book-reviews acts like Gresham's law: bad reviews
drive good ones out of circulation.) They might also
do well, when exercising their right to choose to limit
their review sections to books of special interest, related to the periodical's special field. Another remedy
might be a'special journal dealing, with book-reviews.
"A periodical Review of Book-Reviews," suggests Keyser, "could render a very great and precious service.
Its ehief function would be, on the one hand; to signalize and commend competent reviews and review-'
ers, and, on the other, tor signalize and denounce incompetent reviews and the nasty little scoundrels who
perpetrate them."
g^ggssg^ -«&*#>-. /r*t-
'   .. .*'-..      S. **   V
Ex*professor boosts undergrad sex
"Ih Hong Kong everybody is a tailor." Heard this before? So had I. But I didn't believe it. So I went to Hong
Kdng to find out. The captain of the sampan that took me
off my ship asked me what kind of material I preferred.
The taxi driver took my measurements. The bell-boy at
the hotel collected my money, and when I arrived at my
room the suit was waiting for me.
I put it on and walked out the door. A rickshaw boy
told me it looked awful. He took me to a shop. Ten minutes
later I had another suit.
That night I went out to a restaurant. A lovely Chinese
girl came up to me and said, "How would you like to come
to my apartment?"
Pantingly, I agreed. We went up to her place and she
turned on the light. In one corner was her father with a
sewing machine. Her mother had scissors, and her brother
took my measurements while her sister copied them down.
This time it took five minutes, and I was out the door with
another suit. I got out as soon as I could. Shaking off the
assorted persons trying to sell me a suit, I escaped to the
I was safe. I climbed on, to be greeted by the Scottish
engineer, "Want to buy a kilt, laddie?"       '
KINGSTON (CUP)—"Sexual Intercourse, with modern
contraceptives and medical
advice readily available,
should be condoned among
college students sufficiently-
mature to engage in it," says
Dr. Leo Koch.
A biology professor, ousted
from the University of Illinois
for his views on sex and the
collegian, Dr. Koch advocates
"a great deal more freedom
for college students to decide
for themselves when and
how, they are to indulge their
sexual desires."
He also believes, "there are
excellent reasons why collegians should engage in he-
tero-sexual relations before
Dr. Koch's reasons are centered around individual
"A healthy mature personality — healthy physically,
emotionally and intellectually, is impossible without sexuality," says the professor.
"Sexual organs are so basically integral to the human
organism that they influence
human behavior profoundly
and inevitably, sexuality cannot be warped without also
warping the personality."
Aware that the clergy's first
outcry is mat greater sexual
freedom among unmarrieds
would seriously increase the
incidence of contagious venereal disease and of illegiti-
mate pregnancy, Dr. Koch
swbmits that "greater sexual
freedom, when accompanied
by intelligent educational
measure, will decrease the incidence of both disease and
This has been the case in
Sweden. Besides which, neither veneral disease nor pregnancy are major tragedies unless they are exaggerated out
of all proportion and are not
properly handled."
Dr. Koch stated that the
most important goal in liberalizing attitudes toward sex
is not more sexual experience
for all, but rather a greater
sexual responsibility and education about sex. "College students can no longer avoid
sex," opines Dr. Koch.
"They should participate selectively. To be specific, they
should not without contraceptives; they should not sex
with strangers; and they
should not sex for the wrong
reasons." C ONFEDERA HON:
Success or Failure?
]. A. Raymond Noel
The above, was the subject
of discussion last November
JM^, 1961, at the First Conference on Canadian Affairs
held at Laval University in
Quebec City.
'As a representative of UBC
along with Mr. R. Brown, I
had the opportunity of attending this conference which I believe, has produced more in
the way of improving relations
between French - speaking and
English - speaking Canadians
than has ever been done before.
The subject of discussion,
the leading speakers such as
Mr. Andre Laurendeau, Mr.
Eugene Forsey, Mr. Gerard
Feiletier, M*. Michael Oliver
etc. . . . , the delegates from
28 universities, schools and
colleges' dispersed throughout
Canada from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, all, contributed in
making it a most successful
All rights remain
Where does Canada stand
Is Confederation in danger
of falling apart, crumbling
down and never reaching its
100th anniversary of existence?
No. In my personal opinion,
Confederation is in reasonably
good health.
But, why reasonably and not
extremely good health?
Confederation as it was defined in the year 1867 is no
: more suitable as such to the
; needs of all Canadians whether
■■( they are French-speaking or
r English-speaking. Thus, new
adjustments will have to be
made to insure that the rights
and privileges of every Canadian wiU be guaranteed in all
parts of our country.
Furthermore, these adjustments in Confederation must
become effective not in 100
years from now, but today, in
the year 1962.
For many   years,   centuries
even,   either   before  or  after
1867, up to not so long ago,
^whale   French-speaking    and
English - speaking   Canadians
were trying to endure each
other's presence, they never
considered that their counterparts were really Canadians
but more so invaders in this
promising land of North America.
Till very recently, grudges
of all kinds were an important
factor in the consideration of
one group for the other. These,
rendered the work of eminent
Canadians, who were trying
very hard to conciliate both
groups, extremely difficult and
kept our Canada, for a long
time, in a grave state of turmoil.
' Generation after generation,
these mixed feelings towards
one another were being handed
down from fathers to sons.
The cultural barrier was not
the only predominant factor in.
this continual conflict between
English-speaking   and   French-
speaking Canadians.
Religion had also a great influence in this challenging battle being, fought in a politically
and economically unified Canada..
Thus, there they stood:
French - speaking Canadians
versus English-speaking Canar
dians; Protestants versus Catholics. -
These differences are still
present today.
However, the element of
time plus a greater recognition
by each group of the right of
their counterparts to be Canadians have brought about
prominent changes in the
minds of all Canadians.
As a French-speaking Canadian, I have detected quite
often, during the last two and
a half years, here in British
Columbia, this new change in
attitude especially on behalf of
English - speaking Canadians.
More than ever, the need for
.improvement of one's knowledge of French-speaking Cana*
dians, their language, their culture and their traditions is becoming very important.
From." all across Canada, th#"
younger generation is pressing
For Your Book Requirements
Hard Back
Medical Paper Back
The University Book Store
the University of B.C., Vancouver 8, B.C.
for a more profound unity in
our country and a more thorough implementation of its
official bilingual status from
St. John, Newfoundland to
Victoria, B.C.
It is the irrevocable duty of
our governments, provincially
and federally, to satisfy this
need of Canadians. Through
appropriate legislation it
should be made compulsory
for each and every Canadian
to learn the second official
language of our Confederation,
whether it is French or English.
Moreover, cultural exchanges
between French-speaking and
English-speaking communities
should be made more prevalent
as it is through these that each
group, will be able to understand better the other.
Sea to sea
Along a more specific line
Of thinking, French-speaking
Canadians of the province of
Quebec must acknowledge the
fact that French-speaking Canada or French Canada as it is
most commonly called, does
not lie only within the borders
of "La Belle Province" but
that it extends from British
Columbia to Newfoundland.
Large French-speaking Canadian villages, towns and cities
are existing all over Canada
and they, much more so than
their fellow countrymen of
Quebec, have met, throughout
the. years, the challenges of
keeping alive their language,
their culture and their traditions and this, within the
boundaries of predominantly
English-speaking Canadian
provinces. They fought hard to
keep their rights and privileges as Canadians of French
expression. They had to content with Canadians of English
.expression who were trying as
hard as they could to stamp
out the beliefs of these courageous French-speaking Canadians and force them to become strictly English-speaking
IFes, on%Lmust agree that
English-speaking Canadians
have not always done thebr
best to be true Canadians in
this regard.
Even today, in our year 1962,
many of them are still not accepting the fact that our country must be a truly bilingual
and bi-cultural Confederation,
if it is to stand as a completely
United Canada.
On the other hand, one cannot say that French-speaking
Canadians themselves, in general, have always done their
utmost to improve the relationship between English-
speaking and French-speaking
It is only since ten years
ago, approximately; that they
have realized the importance
of bringing their language,
their culture and their traditions to English-speaking Canadians in order that they may
assimilate them properly.
Provincial autonomy, as understood by some French-
speaking Canadians during the
course of the last twenty years,
did not help to better the relations between both groups.
Even more so, it deteriorated
to a large extent whatever
good mutual understanding
had been built throughput the
previous centuries.
Yes, by thorough" analysis,
one can find that both groups
have been at fault in many occasions and possibly, one just
as often as the other.
Now however, we must look
up to the future and see what
it has in store for us.
Confederation, as stated before, is in reasonably good
Will it ever reach an extremely healthy status, at
which point, French-speaking
and English - speaking Canadians will live together in complete unison,, culturally, polk
tically, economically and industrially speaking?
If so, how .can this ever.be
What must be done to insure
the full success of such an undertaking?
Having faith in Confederation as the only mean of providing for all Canadians, English-speaking and French-speaking, the best standards of living, I believe that we must
all, starting today, co-operate
in the elaboration of a long-
scale program of action which
will basically solidify its structure and its foundations.
Start in schools
The mam items in this program must comprise, first and
most important, the teaching in .
all Canadian schools, from
British Columbia to-Newfoundland, of both official languages, French and English.
Furthermore, to produce concrete results in this regard one
way or the other, the teaching
of these languages must be put
into effect at the elementary
stage of our education system,
preferably in Grade three or
even Grade two if at all possible.
Incredible capacity
Generally speaking, it is
well recognized that within
this earlier part of life, the
majority of human beings,
children as they are called,
have an incredible capacity for
learning languages and thus,
we should make use, through
proper handling, of this intellectual potential which is
readily available.
A working knowledge of
both official languages of our
country, would certainly prove
to be the longest step forward,
towards a deeper unity in Canada, as it would provide all
Canadians with the necessary
means of communication to understand well one another.
Moreover, one cannot truly
assess the many cultural gains
of a proficient bilingual Canadian.
Secondly, federal and provincial legislation should be
passed, making it compulsory
for all civil servants to speak,
read and write well both English and French.
The Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation, in the establishment of French-speaking Trans-
Canada   television   and   radio
networks, would definitely
activate the development of
the little knowledge that Eng-*
lish-speaking Canadians possess on -behalf of "their fellow
countrymen, the French-speaking Canadians.
These, plus many others,
plus individual research and
individual contacts, will secure
throughout the land the officii bilingual status of our
But, words only, are no more
In order to support favorably their willingness to create
a total unity in our country,
English - speaking Canadians
must develop a new eagerness
for positive steps to be taken
along these lines.
Fortunately, this development is now taking place to an
appreciable degree. .
Meet half way
More and more, the English-
speaking population of Canada
is cultivating this need for a
greater understanding of
French - speaking Canadians
themselves through their language, their culture and their
Contrary to what some radical French-speaking Canadians
may believe^ Confederation is
not a failure.
I sincerely believe that it is
a partial success.
This will require evidently
that new adjustments be made
to the Act of Confederation as
it presently stands.
' English-speaking Canadians
may find that French-speaking
Canadians are very pressing in
their actual demands. However, these demands are nevertheless legitimate and seek
only to determine a normal
equality between all Cana
A quick and thorough imple
mentation of the three mair
points on which I elaborated
previously, would certainlj
provide English-speaking Cana
dians with the necessary con
tacts with French - speakinj
Canadians to get to know then
To have faith in our Con
federation, is the primary fac
tor of being successful in meet
ing this difficult task of pre
moting a perfect unity for ou
country, Canada.
All the possible solutions t
our problematic situation hav
not all been found yet; the;
may be found, within th
framework of Confederatior
by conducting a thorough
search in our hearts.
A lot of work still has to b
accomplished, part of it as soo
as. possible, to consolidate th
position of our Confederatioi
Are we all ready, Frencl
speaking as well as Englisl
speaking Canadians, to assttm
our duties on this behalf?
Our country, Canada, stanc
as one of the most respecte
countries in the world.
Its brilliant cultural, ec>
nomic and industrial futui
which lies ahead, can estal
lish it as one of its most ou
standing leaders.
Only through a unified cou
try may we achieve this gos
Canadians, it is up to you.


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