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UBC Reports Mar 25, 1970

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VOLUME     16,     NUMBER     ELEVEN
MARCH   25,   1970,   VANCOUVER   8,   B.C.
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New Life for the Earth Sciences
See Pages Two and Three
See Pages Eight and Nine
Foreign Academics in Canada
UBC Buys St. Mark's Residences
See Page Ten UBC President Walter Gage is forming an Earth
Sciences Committee to co-ordinate inter-disciplinary
research in the earth sciences.
The committee will include representatives from
the Departments of Metallurgy, Civil Engineering and
Mineral Engineering in the Faculty of Applied
Science, the Departments of Geology and Geophysics
in the Faculty of Science, the Soil Science
Department in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences,
and the Institute of Oceanography.
Co-ordination of earth science techniques is
necessary because work in this area can no longer be
sharply defined by discipline. It is becoming
increasingly common for the various earth sciences to
deal with the same problems. Solution of these
problems will require inter-disciplinary co-operation.
The earth science disciplines are being brought
together physically under a long-term scheme to
establish an Earth Sciences Complex of buildings in
the southern section of UBC's central academic core.
The hub of the complex will be the $4-million
Geological Sciences Center. Construction of the
Center at West Mall and Stores Road will begin this
The earth science disciplines have pooled their
talents and resources on a number of ventures in the
past. Their most recent project is to bring the
sub-economic ore deposits of western Canada into
profitable operation.
Involved in this project are the Departments of
Geology, Metallurgy and Mineral Engineering, which
together form one of the largest concentration of
mining brain power in North America.
The departments are drawing up an inventory of
known deposits which cannot be exploited profitably
using today's technology.
They are also planning to install a comprehensive
analytical facility to assay samples from the ore
"To be able to evaluate the economic feasibility of
2/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970
low-grade ore bodies we must know what amounts of
metals are present during each step of mineral
exploration, mining, mineral concentration and
metallurgical processing," said Prof. John B. Evans,
head of the Department of Mineral Engineering.
"A significant proportion of the basic equipment
for the laboratory is scattered among the three
departments. The equipment will be co-ordinated
into one major facility which will be part of the Earth
Sciences Complex."
Canadian participation in B.C.'s mining ventures is
greater than most people think. According to the
Mining Association of B.C., about 80 per cent of the
major operating mining companies in the province or
those about to go into operation are under effective
Canadian control.
Mining is already B.C.'s second industry. Total
value of mineral production in B.C. this year will be
about $500 million. Mineral production in 1958,
expressed in today's dollars, was $200 million.
If only the value of future production which has
already been announced is taken into consideration,
mineral production in 1975 will probably total $1
billion,  according to Prof. Evans.
Yet even $1 billion per year is far below potential
mineral production of the province. An area similar in
size and geology in the Western Cordillera in the
United States currently produces $4 billion of metal
wealth annually.
Expansion of B.C.'s mining industry is really
synonymous with development of the Interior. In
1958, eight per cent of the 11,200 people directly
employed by the industry in B.C. lived in the
northern half of the province.
Last year 33 per cent of the 14,300 people
directly employed lived in the northern section.
Mining development will mean the expansion of
power, transportation and social services throughout
the Interior.
Co-ordination   of  the   resources  of  the  three
departments in a single project is quite logical, since
each discipline is responsible for a segment of the
production process from exploration to metal
fabrication. ^fjk
Geological techniques are used to discover the ore
body and determine its size and shape and value.
Mining engineers extract the ore from the ground and
mineral processing engineers crush and grind it and
produce a metal concentrate. Metallurgists extract
and refine metals from the mineral concentrate to
produce finished products.
Exploration and development are closely related.
For this reason field trips have been organized this
year to operating mines in B.C. for students in
Mineral Engineering. The last trip was a mixed group
of geology and engineering students.
Geophysical techniques can also be used in
exploration. The Geophysics Department in the
Faculty of Science occupies the old B.C. Research
Council building immediately east of the Geological
Sciences Center. It is the major source of exploration
geophysicists at the B.Sc. level in Canada and one of
the principal sources in North America.
The department produces about 50 per cent of the
Canadian graduates in this field. Half of UBC's
geophysics graduates who go into industry are
absorbed by the mining industry and half go into oil
and gas exploration.
The Mineral Engineering Department is one of the
three major mining schools remaining in Canada. It
has eight students in their final year, 12 in their third
and nine students in second year. Prof. Evans said his
department could double its enrolment using existing
"And I want to double our enrolment as quickly
as possible," he said. "Industry is desperate for
mining and mineral processing engineers. Two B.C.
companies wanted to hire our entire graduating class,
this year. One company got three and the other
He said the only limiting factor on student
enrolment is student interest in the discipline.
The Metallurgy Department, located in the Frank
fA-^L\rward Building for metallurgy adjacent to the
Geological Sciences Center, is the largest in Canada.
UBC's Geology Department is the largest in the
western world. About 1,200 students are taking
geology in the 1969-70 session.
Nearly 30 per cent of the students enrolled in first
year geology are science students. More than 43 per
cent are in the Faculty of Applied Science and 15
per cent are in the Faculty of Arts.
"Though they form a small portion of our total
enrolment, their interest indicates to me at least that
there is a general appreciation of the subject in
society," said Prof. W.H. Mathews, head of the
Since 1916 the department has produced more
than 700 graduates, about 20 per cent of all
geologists in Canada and one out of every 60 trained
in North America. In the past five years it has
graduated nearly 25 per cent of all geologists in
Its graduates have directly or indirectly
contributed to the discovery of $35 billion of mineral
resources in Canada and $13 billion in B.C.
The department will be the main occupant of the
Geological Sciences Center.
UBC is contributing $930,000 towards the
building, close to one-sixth of its 1970 provincial
capital grant. Companies and indivicuals connected
with the mineral industry are being asked to
contribute $3.1 million.
The mineral industry supported the 3 Universities
Capital Fund launched in 1964. Simon Fraser
University and the University of Victoria were also
t involved in the drive. UBC's 42 per cant share of the
contributions from the mineral industry amounted to
$1.4 million.
The money to a large extent made possible the
construction of the $2.6-million Frank A. Forward
Building for Metallurgy and renovation of the B.C.
Research Council building for the Geophysics
Department for $384,650.
The University's search for new metal resources
isn't limited to land. The Mineral Engineering
Department is interested in developing techniques in
conjunction with the Institute of Oceanography to
extract minerals from the sea and the ocean floor.
"The world faces a critical shortage of metals,"
said Prof. Evans, "so we had better develop
technology now which we will need in the not too
distant future.
"Through the processes of weather and erosion the
sea is constantly receiving minerals from the land. If
we could find a way of recovering these minerals
economically — possibly by extraction techniques
now being studied — we could save for man's use a
portion of the metals perpetually being lost to the
Extension of mineral engineering into the ocean is
part of a scheme to establish a program of Ocean
Engineering in the Faculty of Applied Science,
starting at the graduate level. "Most of the traditional
departments in the Faculty have interests in the sea,"
said Prof. Liam Finn, Dean of the Faculty of Applied
Science. "Food resources from the sea will involve
Agricultural Engineering. Power generation might
involve Electrical Engineering. And there are the
problem areas of underwater stability of the
continental shelf, soil engineering and oil exploration.
"There is an urgency for us to start on this kind of
work. Quite simply, if we don't develop our own
off-shore resources, someone else will do it for us and
reap the benefits.
"Increased resources are being allocated to the
Mineral Engineering Department so that it can go into
the ocean yet at the same time continue its concern
for the day-to-day problems of the mining industry."
UBC's Senior Appointments Committee met
yesterday (Tuesday) under the chairmanship of
Dean B.E. Riedel to begin a review of two
disputed tenure cases.
The committee has been asked by President
Walter H. Gage to conduct a thorough and
impartial review of the cases of Dr. David Powell
and Mr. Brian Mayne, assistant professors in the
Department of English, who are protesting
recommendations that they not be granted
tenure, or permanency of employment.
Dean Riedel, who is head of UBC's Faculty of
Pharmaceutical Sciences, said the committee will
respond to President Gage's wish that the matter
be dealt with as expeditiously as possible.
The purpose of yesterday's meeting was to
discuss procedures to be followed in conducting
the review, Dean Riedel said.
"I can't predict when the committee will be
able to arrive at its decision on this very difficult
and controversial matter," he said, "but I want
to assure the entire Universtiy community that
we will move as rapidly as possible, compatible
with the need to examine very carefully all the
issues that have been raised."
He said he could not say precisely what
procedures the committee will adopt, but he
said he expected the committee would be willing
to have the central figures in the dispute appear
before it to state their positions and to answer
questions. These would include Mr. Mayne and
Dr. Powell; Prof. Robert Jordan, head of the
Department of English; and Dr. D.T. Kenny,
Acting Dean of Arts.
He said he will also suggest to the committee
that it will probably be necessary to call on
scholars from other universities for opinions on
the scholarly works of Dr. Powell and Mr.
Mayne, one of the issues in question.
The Senior Appointments Committee is a
body appointed by the President and normally
deals with recommendations for appointment,
re-appointment and promotion at the rank of
associate professor or above.
It consists of 28 senior faculty members
drawn from almost all Faculties and a wide
range of academic disciplines. "It's about as
representative as a committee of workable size
can be," Dean Riedel said.
(The dispute surrounding the granting of
tenure to the two English Department professors
was debated at four campus rallies recently. A
summary of the opinions expressed at the rallies
was carried in the March 18 campus edition of
UBC Reports. A copy of that edition can be
obtained by writing to the Department of
Information Services, UBC, Vancouver 8).
UBC Reports/March 25, 1970/3 OPEN HOUSE 70
Torrential rain on Friday, March 6, forced B.C.'s
Lieutenant-Governor, the Honorable John Nicholson, to declare
Open House 70 officially open from the dry confines of the
lobby of the Frederic Wood Theatre. Seated at the left of Mr.
Nicholson in the photo above are Mrs. Nicholson and Gordon
McNab, student chairman of the Open House Committee.
Friday's rain didn't prevent thousands of elementary and high
school students from visiting the campus. On Saturday, March
7, the second day of Open House, the weather cleared so that
student rock groups (below) could perform for spectators
sunning themselves on the steps of the Student Union Building.
— will you just hold vol .
horses for a minute. I don't know what's got into you. All
those nice students are getting ready to play their rock and
roll music and all you want to do is run off and see the
exhibits in the Physics Building.
"Boy this sure is a big campus. I must have walked a
hundred miles today looking at all those displays the
students set up for Open House. They sure do a great job.
"Such a nice lot of young people too. Not at all like
those radicals you read about in the newspapers and see on
television with their signs and placards and demonstrations.
"Those  students  are certainly  concerned about the
pollution issue. Almost everywhere you go on the campus
you see something about it And that computer! Didn't'
understand a word they said about it, but it eertainly was-
"Daddy says he wants to have a look at the medical v
buildings now, Billy, fto, you can't have arcythin&^'e|pf
Why I bought you a big hamburger and. a drink flinty '**.
hour ago.
» " •■'"■■( "i
Billy, wait fot us or I won't take yoii tQthea^ittitturW 'fe*'
building to see the ojflO ^ , j^.'/v;., ?^2&
■: ■■■* ■.
=■ • v
4/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970 Pavilion built by the Chinese Varsity Club in the
Women's Gymnasium, above, was one of the most
attractive displays at Open House 70 on March 6
and 7. Visitors could try their hand at painting
Chinese characters on paper strips. Perrenial Open
.House favorite is the glassblowing display put on
by Mr. John Lees, of UBC's Physics Department.
At far right he displays a glass trombone created
during the show. Many of the UBC science
departments and allied professional schools used
microscopes to illustrate various facets of their
work.   The  one  on   the  right in  the Faculty of
forestry was a magnet for small boys. All photos
on Pages Four and Five by UBC Extension Graphic
UBC Reports/March 25, 1970/5 I study and research
trip to Venice has
transported a group of
'UBC architecture students
out of the ivory tower and into
the real world. The students are
continuing their regular course work for credit toward
their degrees at UBC while at the same time conducting
an on-the-spot study of urban renewal in Venice,
financed by a $10,000 research grant from the Venice
Island of Studies Association.
Two groups of architecture students are participating
in the study-and-research project. The first group of
about 40 students spent the first term in Venice and
returned to the UBC campus at Christmas. The second
group left for Venice in mid-January and will continue
research and studies there until the end of term.
UBC architecture professor Abraham Rogatnick, who
is a member of the Venice Studies Association with a
long-standing   interest   in   the   history   of   Venetian
architecture, helped make the trip possible. He and
Randle Iredale of Rhone and Iredale, a Vancouver
architecture firm, provide most of the formal lectures.
The students, who studied Italian in preparation for
the trip and took a library of about 200 texts with them,
also hear lectures from Venetian civic officials and
professionals and from visiting European architects.
The streets and canals of Venice become living
textbooks as the students encounter in reality many
of the famous structures they had previously only seen
in books.
While in Venice the students and professors, many of
them accompanied by their wives and children, have
been living in a renovated 18th century palace.
For two third-year architecture students who
participated - Larry McFarland and Denis Christianson
— the change in learning environment and the communal
living arrangements became "a continuing 24-hour-a-day
learning experience of one form or another."
Being able to leave the UBC campus and continue
their studies as registered UBC students in another part
of the world has altered their perception of the role of
the university. For them it has become a resource tool
for studying the world at large.
"I think there should always be an institution such as
a university to structure lectures and courses for those
/ /
UBC architecture students stayed at
Palazzo Scertman, a former palace now
operated as a hotel, during their study
visit to Venice. The cool and elegant
dining room at top left was equipped
with a glass chandelier. Below, students
gather around an instructor at the edge
of a canal. On the other side of the canal
can be seen the campanile of famed St.
Mark's Cathedral at right and the domes
and towers of the Church of Santa Maria
Delia Salute. The latter church is shown
closeup at right. First year students wait
on the steps of the church to hear a
lecture about it and Baroque
architecture in general from Professor
Abraham Rogatnick, a member of the
Venice Studies Association, whose
research on Venice was instrumental in
obtaining a grant to enable architecture
students to undertake the study trip. All
photos were taken by students.
6/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970 who need and want this type of service, but I think a lot
of students are capable of structuring their own
programs. They could form into smaller units, go
anywhere in the world, and use the university and its
standards as a reference point for their studies," said
Denis Christianson.
"This need not apply just to architects," added Larry.
"Experiencing another kind of environment is an
educational experience that could be equally useful for a
sociologist, engineer, or any one of a number of other
Larry said he enjoyed dealing "with real problems
instead of tissue paper ones" and added: "The Venice
experience develops you as a whole person, and this is
the kind of education that should be encouraged...not
just the small textbook kind."
Both Larry and Denis came back with vivid
impressions of the contrast between the learning
environment in Venice and on the UBC campus. They
miss the close people-contact possible within a small
cohesive group and feel lost once again in the anonymity
of UBC's crowds.
"When we came back the contrast between the two
learning  environments  was startling.  As a group we
became quite close and now we are separated again,"
said Denis.
Larry and Denis also noticed contrasts between the
way Venice and most North American cities function as
cities. "In Venice the downtown area is not a
concentration of building forms. It is a concentration of
activities. Here we classify the buildings as the
downtown core, instead of the activities."
HE study being done
by UBC students in
Venice involved re-
■'""} search on the cultural, social and economic effects of revitaliza-
tion of two economically
'decaying areas of Venice.
'^One of the areas includes a
• new hospital project based on a
radical design by the late architect
Le Corbusier and the other includes a large congress hall
project designed by noted U.S. architect Louis Kahn.
Results of the study will be published and given to
civic officials in Venice, the Venice Studies Association,
and other interested bodies.
UBC students watched the annual "historic regatta" of
Venetian gondolas from the balcony of a palazzo on the
Grand Canal.
UBC students about to stage a "happening." They played
the part of well-disciplined tourists, marching in unison and
snapping photographs simultaneously on command from
first year student Chuck Barrett at left. The natives were
delighted and some applauded.
Light floods through a glass curtain seen by the students
during a visit to a Venetian manufacturing firm specializing
in glass for architectural purposes.
UBC Reports/March 25, 1970/7 9)
Editor, UBC Reports
Ten years ago Canadians were worrying about the
"brain drain" — the disappearance into the United
States of the best products of Canadian universities.
In 1970, largely because of a couple of Ottawa
university professors, Canadians are worrying about
the influx of foreign (and especially American)
university teachers and accusations that Canadian
universities are becoming academic banana republics.
What is characterized by Mr. Robin Mathews and
Dr. James Steele, the Carleton University professors
who started the discussion, as "the struggle for
Canadian universities" began in December, 1968, at
the institution where both teach English.
At a meeting of the Carleton University Staff
Association, Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele sparked
debate on motions asking:
—That Carleton employ enough Canadians to
ensure a clear two-thirds majority of full-time faculty
in each department;
—That before recommending a non-Canadian for a
teaching post, Carleton departments demonstrate that
they advertised for at least a month in three Canadian
publications and sent notices of vacancies to other
Canadian universities;
—That Canadian citizenship be a necessary
qualification for all new appointments to
administrative posts from department head to
—That Carleton ascertain and maintain a record of
the citizenship of its faculty, and
—That the Canadian Association of University
Teachers be requested to obtain information about
the citizenship-composition of Canadian faculties and
consider formulation of a national policy on the
The motions were roughly handled.
The   Carleton   faculty   passed   a  counter-motion
which asked that it be the general policy of the
University "to employ academic staff solely on the
basis of academic competence regardless of
citizenship." The motion passed 138-2. The
dissenters, presumably, were Mr. Mathews and Dr.
The skirmish at Carleton was, however, only the
opening clash in guerilla war which came to UBC
early in March when Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele
spent a week on campus as participants in a series of
panel discussions and addresses on the topic of
American domination of Canada.
Since raising the question in 1968, Mr. Mathews
and Dr. Steele have been busy. They have formed a
Montreal Committee on the De-Canadianization of
the Universities, published a book entitled The
Struggle for Canadian Universities, made countless
speeches and kept up a steady barrage of letters to
the editor to (chiefly) eastern Canadian newspapers,
many of them comments on letters which
commented on their earlier letters.
Their appeals to higher courts for consideration of
their original suggestions have been rejected. Both the
Canadian Association of University Teachers and the
Committee of Presidents of the Universities of
Ontario have reiterated, at greater length, the basic
notion embodied in the counter-motion approved at
Carleton in December, 1968.
Quite apart from the counter-argument that the
academic world is a sort of common market which
takes no notice of citizenship, the Mathews—Steele
case has failed to make much headway with
academics for the simple reason that no one in
government or the universities is able to say for
certain whether or not Canadians, as Mr. Mathews
Please turn to Page Eleven
In the course of gathering opinion on the question of
foreign academics in Canada, UBC Reports wrote to Dr.
Carl Baar, an American who taught in UBC's political
science department from 1966 to 1968. We asked him if
he had any thoughts to contribute to the discussion. Dr.
Baar responded with the following article, which
contains some interesting and useful suggestions for
alleviating the problem. Dr. Baar is now an assistant
professor at Michigan State University in East Lansing,
The editor of UBC Reports has asked for my
thoughts on the problem of foreign academics in
Canadian universities. Since I am an American citizen
trained in political science, I will direct my discussion
more specifically to issues of the American influx into
Canadian universities in social science fields.
First, I would strongly agree that there is a problem.
American training and temperament do not develop a
sensitivity for Canadian political or social institutions.
When I arrived in Canada in 1966, I understood the
parliamentary system and cabinet responsibility at an
intellectual level, but I was emotionally unprepared to
find that the federal finance minister could announce
government plans for a tax increase in November, and
the University would be withholding that tax \j—9^
January. Why wasn't it killed in committee, or amendel^^
on the Senate floor?
The availability of foreign academics is also a problem
because of the manipulative possibilities open to
Canadian academic departments. In my field of political
science, they are many departments in Canada which are
traditional, and reject young people trained in the
contemporary scientific methodology essential for much
of the teaching and research in that field. I know of two
departments at prominent Ontario universities which
have hired American academics who, while well
qualified, were recruited in order to maintain a one-sided
traditional orientation.
At the same time, the motivations of American?
coming to Canada may be changing. Instead of young,
more liberally-oriented persons leaving the United States
because of the war in Vietnam, Canadian universities
may begin getting older academics escaping the more
volatile atmosphere of American campuses, and avoiding
the requirements to readjust to new scientific
methodologies. Unless Canadians are fully aware of the
dynamics of American academic life and American social
science, they may hire experienced professors who will
have a negative impact on the development of many
disciplines in Canada.
Thus the existence of a pool of foreign professors in
Canadian universities can create difficulties for Canadian
national development. However, some of the proposed
remedies are worse than the sickness. A quota system,
for example, would open positions to Canadians who
have less training than their American counterparts, for
example in techniques of comparative cross-cultural
research and analysis which are increasingly important in
the social sciences. A quota system would discourage
Canadian students from getting the best possible
graduate education, and would therefore increase the
likelihood that second-rate scholarly work would be
done in Canadian universities. American academics have
learned through painful experiences that their
knowledge is essential to the wielding of political power
today. If Canadians are to wield political power more
wisely — if at all — a strong university system with
well-trained scholars is essential.
How can the imbalance of foreign academics in
Canadian universities be redressed without damaging the
development of scholarship in Canada? In a number of
ways, many of which have already been suggested in the
past    months.    They    fall    into    three   different    but
8/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970 AGREE THAT THERE IS A PROBLEM'
interrelated approaches: (1) maximizing the availability
of existing Canadian manpower; (2) developing
opportunities for graduate education in Canada; and (3)
improving the skills and information of foreign
academics in dealing with Canadian material.
The first approach has been incorporated into certain
proposals of Profs. Mathews and Steele of Carleton
University. For example, they recommend the
establishment of a placement service to be operated in
« conjunction with the annual meetings of the Learned
Societies. Ironically, this is a well-established American
practice. Yet in Canada, Mr. Robert Stanfield, the
Progressive Conservative leader, rose in the House of
Commons in the spring of 1969 to ask the manpower
minister if such a service would be set up at the June
1969 meetings. It was not.
It could be argued that a placement operation would
destroy the existing tone of the Learned Societies'
meetings, converting them into a "slave market" — the
term American graduate students have long applied to
professional meetings of the disciplines in the United
States. And the June meetings fall at a time when it is
tc^^pe to hire for September and too early to judge the
beneticience of a provincial parliament 15 months
hence.   A   more   effective  system   might   be  for  each
* discipline to establish a list of available positions and
available scholars, to be circulated to university
departments or printed in conjunction with the journal
of that discipline.
Canadian schools which grant doctorates could list
their Ph.D. candidates seeking positions, and indicate the
candidates' areas of specialization. Such a system would
increase the efficiency of departmental recruiters, many
of whom are now foreign academics who are not even
certain about the other Canadian schools which grant
doctorates. The published list would encourage graduate
students, by providing them with some clues about
where their services will be sought, and would provide a
veJALe for persons with graduate training employed in
goiBmment or industry to indicate their availability to
university departments. Already many Canadian
sociology departments advertise their openings in the
American Sociologist. Why not make certain that similar
•• communications mechanisms work for Canadians?
Such a practice might reduce the cost of retrieval
operations now pursued in England and the United
States and enable those Canadians who have done both
undergraduate and graduate work outside Canada to gain
information about academic openings. At present,
efforts to retrieve Canadians doing graduate study
abroad are directed only at those who received B.A.s
from   Canadian   universities,   ignoring  a   pool   of  able
, Canadian high school graduates who pursue their higher
education at many of the distinguished universities
outside Canada. In addition, programs such as the
newly-established Canadian Parliamentary Internships,
which would attract potential Canadian academics, must
be open to all Canadians no matter where they obtained
their B.A. degrees. In too many instances, officials have
hitherto operated on the fallacious assumption that
Canadians without a Canadian undergraduate education
* are not really Canadians.
The second approach concedes the obvious: a
discipline  is more likely to be dominated  by foreign
* academics if Canadian universities do not produce Ph.D.s
in that discipline. When I left UBC in 1968, it was in the
process of granting its first doctorate in political science.
Recruitment discussions often focused on Canadians,
but they invariably were doing graduate work in the
United States and not in Canada. A number of Canadian
political science departments are on the threshold of
active graduate programs and it is essential that these
•programs have the opportunity to develop.
This requires government support. Thus Canada
Council policies must reflect the need for qualified
Canadian academics, and for the systematic development
of data about Canadian society. But the criteria used by
the Council in judging applications are not clearly
defined. In the past, extremely able doctoral candidates
at UBC with well-defined proposals were not granted
any support from Canada Council. Such action impedes
the rapid production of qualified Canadian doctorates. It
forces students to become part-time students instead of
enabling them to proceed rapidly to completion of their
degrees. And when no explanation is forthcoming for
refusals of support, many students can only conclude
that Canada Council grants go more heavily to
traditional research, and that the Council is in fact
discouraging projects which develop new skills essential
for modern social scientists.
Perhaps instead of granting income tax exemptions to
American professors entering Canada, the federal
government could increase its support of Canadian
graduate education. One technique might well be
borrowed in modified form from the United States:
make low-interest loans available, payable upon the start
of employment, with the proviso that ten per cent of the
principle is waived for each year spent teaching in a
Canadian University.
But support of graduate students is not enough. The
faculty in many departments is not equipped to operate
a graduate program. It is not unusual for departments
granting doctorates to include a number of faculty still
writing their own dissertations. At least one eminent
Canadian university recently gave a faculty member
sabbatical leave to finish his dissertation. Academic
departments with doctoral programs must provide
incentive for its own faculty to rapidly complete their
work so that they can more effectively direct the work
of others.
Furthermore, experienced faculty often find it
difficult to maintain a substantial commitment to
scholarly research. The material and personal rewards
which come from government consulting or work in the
mass media are frequently more attractive than those of
major scholarly research. While public agencies and
commissions often require the expertise of skilled
academics, the short-term gain may be mitigated by the
long-term loss of additional scholarly work. Thus public
agencies  and   private  groups   must   also   be  willing to
subsidize substantial scholarly research efforts in the
social sciences. Such research work will have two
benefits: (1) it will maintain the scholar's awareness of
trends in his discipline; and (2) it will allow graduate
students to gain experience as research assistants, and
develop material for their own dissertations. The relative
absence of team research in Canada makes it difficult to
define more intricate research problems, and forces
graduate students to devise their own dissertation
projects from scratch, lengthening the period of graduate
education and increasing competition from their
American counterparts.
The third and last approach assumes that foreign
academics will continue to migrate to Canadian
universities in the foreseeable future, and asks what
techniques are available to make them more effective on
the Canadian scene. Neither Canadian citizenship nor
Canadian training assures a social scientist the greatest
competence in his field or thorough and accurate
information about Canadian society. But in hiring
foreign social scientists, Canadian universities should
seek those who are committed — as teachers and
researchers — to applying their specialized knowledge to
the problems and concerns of Canadian society, and
whose outlook upon the social and political issues which
transcend national boundaries is not limited to the
narrow perspective of a single foreign culture.
Foreign academics should be encouraged to increase
their knowledge of Canada. One simple way would be
through the awarding of a modest summer grant, so that
a new professor could come to Canada in the early
summer and gain background in Canadian materials
before he begins teaching. Similar grants could be made
available to foreign academics already in Canada. UBC
made summer research grants of up to $1,000 available
to natural scientists when I taught there. If it is
important to bring a Canadian perspective to social
science departments, why not use a similar grant system?
These three approaches to the problem of foreign
professors in Canadian universities are closely
interrelated. For example, increasing substantial social
science research in Canadian universities will increase the
amount of analytical material available for teaching, and
reduce the need for foreign professors to rely on their
home country's material. Often the difficulty which an
American social scientist would have comprehending the
Canadian experience is magnified by the absence of
adequate systematic studies of many phases of Canadian
life. In turn, the lack of Canadian data increases the
probability that extra-Canadian solutions will be
imposed — by Canadian as well as foreign scholars —
upon Canadian problems. And the ensuing national
crises will require the government to set up commissions
and consult scholars, thus once more directing academics
away from the research which will develop their
disciplines. It would be valuable to break this cycle and
establish a strong Canadian academic community. The
strength of its universities in teaching and in research
will be the measure of Canadian society's ability to meet
its own future on its own terms.
Frantz Fanon, in Les damnes de la terre, wrote of the
need of the black man in Africa to escape the idea
systems of the white man and develop his own history
and community. Since the process of liberation is still
only beginning, new idea systems have not yet
developed, and Fanon would not expect to see them for
some time. Canadians do not have the luxury of time.
The forces of "liberation"must move as swiftly as the
accelerating threat of foreign domination. Only out of
the vigorous activity of an independent Canadian society
can its universities attain the scholarship necessary to
develop new idea systems strong enough to sustain that
UBC Reports/March 25, 1970/9 RESIDENCES PURCHASED FOR $457,235
To the advantage of both institutions, the
University of British Columbia has acquired the
residence halls of St. Mark's College on the northeast
corner of the UBC campus.
The purchase will provide the University with
approximately 30,000 gross square feet of space
which will be converted to academic and other
University purposes. This provision is being made at
less than the cost of equivalent new construction. The
buildings were built in 1958 and 1960; the purchase
price is $457,235.
"The Board of Management of St. Mark's College
undertook this course of action for many reasons,"
said Rev. R.W. Finn, Principal of the College.
"Almost all the sale price will be used towards
elimination of a crushing debt at rising interest rates.
"The staff of the College can turn its attention and
energy more directly to the religious and intellectual
life of many more University men and women. The
staff will be more free to engage in the academic life
of the whole University.
"The College will  be much  more viable; it will
UBC has purchased residence units (buildings at left in photo) of St. Mark a College for $457,235.
Scholarship Forms Must Be
Filed Not Later Than May 1
President Walter Gage has issued the following
statement with regard to 1970 Provincial
Government scholarships in his capacity as Dean
of Inter-Faculty and Student Affairs and chairman
of the UBC Awards Committee.
Students who wish to be considered for
Government of B.C. Scholarships must apply on
application forms obtainable at Room 207,
Buchanan Building. (Dean Gage's Office). The
completed application form must be filed at that
office not later than May 1st.
These scholarships are open only to students
who successfully complete by May 1 a full course
of studies as prescribed by the Faculty concerned
(e.g., 15 units in the Faculty of Arts). Awards will
not be made for subjects completed later or on the
basis of grades received on some deferred basis
after the regular examination period.
Awards will no longer be made on the basis of
first class, high second class and lower second
standing. The Provincial Government has recently
announced that scholarships will be awarded to
the highest ranking 17 per cent of full-time
undergraduate students who meet residence
qualifications for B.C. (See below). The
scholarships are tenable in the immediately
following regular academic session generally and
will have the values of 3/4, 1/2, and 1/3 of basic
tuition fees, as follows:
(a) 3/4 basic fee — the highest ranking 5 per
cent of the full-time undergraduate enrolment
qualifying through the final grades received for the
regular session 1969—70.
(b) 1/2 basic fee — the next highest 6 per cent.
(c) 1/3 basic fee — the next highest 6 per cent.
At UBC it is expected that the awards in each
Faculty will be made to the top 17 per cent of
qualifying students in that Faculty. Since some
students may, for one reason or another, not
qualify for awards, students likely to rank in the
upper 20 per cent of their Faculty and Year (1st,
2nd, etc.) are advised to apply.
However, the minimum acceptable average In
most faculties is 70 per cent. In the Faculty of
Law, a lower average may be considered. Students
must have clear standing in all subjects.
Residence Qualifications — For the purpose of
establishing eligibility for a Province of British
Columbia Scholarship Award, the place of
residence is as defined by the British Columbia
Student Aid Committee hereunder:
A. A scholarship applicant, competing on the
basis of achievement while in attendance at a
designated post-secondary educational institution
in British Columbia, must have resided
permanently and continuously in this Province for
a minimum of the 12 consecutive months
calculated to the end of the month (April 30,
1970) in which the competition examinations are
B. A scholarship applicant must be a Canadian
citizen or must have possessed landed immigrant
status for a minimum period of the 12 consecutive
months calculated to the end of the month (April
30, 1970) in which the competition examinations
are held. A candidate on a non-immigrant visa or a
student entry form is not eligible for a scholarship
Notes. (1) The regulations announced by the
B.C. Department of Education are the only official
regulations. In selecting scholarship winners and
applying regulations, no account can be taken of
errors, if any, that may occur in this or other
circulars. The decision of the British Columbia
Student Aid Committee will be final in all cases.
(2) Late applications cannot be accepted under
any circumstances.
(3) Please note that the application form may
not have been up-dated and therefore, may not
contain the revised terms of award.
provide a liturgical center, a library of Christian
classics, a center for forums and discussions, and
offices and lecture rooms."
Conversion of the residence halls will mean the
short-term loss to the University community of living
quarters for 105 students.
However, UBC's housing director Leslie Rohringer
said this loss will be partly offset by the addition of
36 single rooms for senior students at UBC's Place
Vanier and Totem Park residence complexes. These
additions will be accomplished by the relocation of
study areas into common rooms which are not now
being used to full advantage.
In addition, Mr. Rohringer said, the University has
been assured that a loan of $5.17 million from
Central Mortgage and Housing Corp. will be
forthcoming in the immediate future.
This will enable a start on construction of two new
high-rise residence towers for single students and a
common block, to be built on the site of a former
wireless station just north of the Student Union
Building. The towers will house 788 students.
The project has been stalled for months because of
a shortage of mortgage money in 1969. UBC has been
told, however, that it has been allocated S5.17
million of CMHCs student-housing fund for 1970.
The decision by CMHC to allocate federal
government funds was based on a recommendation
by the office of the B.C. minister of municipal affairs.
It is hoped that the two towers and common block
will be ready for use by September, 1971.
Head Named
Professor Peter Remnant, a University of B.C.
graduate and native of Vancouver, has been
appointed head of UBC's Department of Philosophy.
Prof. Remnant, 48, who has been a member of the
UBC faculty since 1949, succeeds Dr. Barnett Savery
as head of the Philosophy Department. Dr. Savery,
who continues to teach in the UBC department,
resigned in June, 1969, and Dr. Remnant has been
acting head of the department since that time.
Prof. Remnant received the degrees of bachelor
and master of arts in philosophy at UBC in 1947 and
1948 respectively and his doctor of philosophy
degree from Cambridge University in 1958.
He taught briefly at the University of California at
Berkeley in 1948 before joining the UBC staff as a
lecturer in 1949. He was appointed to the rank of
professor in 1968.
Prof. Remnant is a member of both the Canadian
and American Philosophical Associations and the
Aristotelian Society. He is married and has three
Grad Class
Plants Tree
On Thursday
The 1970 graduating class' tree-planting ceremony
will take place tomorrow (Thursday) at 1 p.m. at
Traditionally part of graduation ceremonies, the
tree-planting ceremony has been scheduled earlier this
year to permit more members of the University
community to participate.
Each year's graduating class plants a tree as a living
legacy to the University. This year's tree will be a
sugar maple.
Participating in the ceremony will be the
graduating class historian, Karen Goshulak, the will
writer, Brian Taylor, and the Honorary President, Dr.
H.V. Warren.
10/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970 CONTINUED FROM PAGE EIGHT
and Dr. Steele claim, are in a minority as university
No Canadian government department has collected
statistics on this subject and until recently Canadian
universities studiously ignored the citizenship of
faculty members.
At UBC, for instance, citizenship data was not
gathered prior to 1964. As a result UBC knows the
citizenship of only 60 per cent or 988 of its full-time
faculty members. Of this 60 per cent, 49.8 per cent
are Canadians, 23.3 per cent are American, 14.6 per
cent come from the British Isles and the balance —
12.4 per cent — are from various other continents and
The UBC figures are not likely to get more
extensive. A motion by a student at a UBC Senate
meeting earlier this year requesting the UBC Office of
Academic Planning to ascertain by departments the
percentage of faculty members who are Canadians
was defeated. Reliable data on a national basis will have
to await the results of a survey being undertaken by
the Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
The original argument put forward by Mr.
Mathews and Dr. Steele to support their case used
statistics in a way that smacked of comparing horses
and camels.
They began by using an analysis of 1961 census
data which showed that of Canada's 8,779 male
university professors, 2,238 or 25 per cent were
foreign born and 6,541 or 74.5 per cent were
Canadian-born and therefore probably Canadian
For the purposes of comparison, Mr. Mathews and
Dr. Steele used figures which resulted from an
examination of the 1968-69 arts ancl science
calendars of 15 Canadian universities (including UBC
but excluding the Universities of Toronto, Montreal,
McGill and Queen's). This examination revealed "that
of the two-thirds of those faculty members in
non-professional disciplines for whom a degree is
listed, more than 51 per cent obtained their first
degree outside of Canada."
This percentage is a rough indication of
citizenship, Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele contend, and
this leads them to maintain that "there is evidence for
believing that the proportion of Canadians in
Canadian universities has diminished by about 25
per cent between 1961 and 1968..."
Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele have resolutely stuck
to the conclusions which they originally drew from
this shaky comparison of unrelated statistics. Thus,
earlier this month at UBC, Dr. Steele baldly stated
that "The basic, fundamental fact is that Canadians
are now probably in a minority of 49 per cent in the
sensitive arts and science faculties of Canadian
The figures based on the arts and science calendars
were clearly open to attack. The critics pointed out
that some of those who received their first degree
abroad were probably Canadians, that exclusion of
teachers in professional faculties would distort the
figures and that many of those who were educated
elsewhere had been in Canada for such lengthy
periods that they had either acquired Canadian
citizenship or could be considered Canadians.
To reinforce their arguments that Canada is
committing "cultural genocide" by importing foreign
academics, Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele have zeroed in
on what they describe as "sensitive" departments in
Canadian universities, such as history, anthropology
and sociology, economics and political science,
although they have also tried to make a case for the
idea that even in pure science departments foreign
academics will bring with them research biases that
might preclude work being done on problems unique
to Canada.
Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele claim there are certain
implications for the sensitive university departments
which have appointed a large number of foreign
academics. Steele made these points in his UBC
speech early in March:
1. The diminishing proportion of Canadians means
a diminishing likelihood that problems that arise
uniquely and particularly from Canadian society will
be considered.
"There is only one academic community in the
world which can really study Canadian problems," Dr.
Steele said, "and that is the academic community in
Canada. I would argue that if we fail to study our
own society...we are not only being academic but
unscholarly and unscientific."
This idea is disputed by many academics, including
the head of UBC's Department of Anthropology and
Sociology, Prof. Cyril Belshaw, who says, first, that
much of the work in his field today is of an abstract
nature in which nationality plays no part.
His second point is that because of the terrible
dearth of research funds in Canada until recently,
most of the best work done on Canadian society has
in fact been done by non-Canadian scholars. "If the
criterion of nationalism were to be applied to the
support of such work we would know even less about
Canadian society than we do now," he argues.
2. De-Canadianization, the jargon term which Mr.
Mathews and Dr. Steele have developed for referring
to the problems they have raised, is also having an
effect on the content of university curriculum, they
claim. They point to the fact that most of the text
books used in humanities and social science
departments are written by non-Canadians and
published by American firms which have little or no
interest in developing uniquely Canadian material.
3. De-Canadianization, Dr. Steele said at UBC, is
having a serious effect on admission policies at
Canadian universities. He put it this way: "As
admissions committees...come to be more and more
staffed by non-Canadians who know little of
Canadian graduate schools, who are sometimes
ignorant of Canadian grading systems and who feel
little commitment to develop Canadian talent, it
becomes more and more difficult to gain entry to
Canadian graduate schools."
Dr. Steele cited an impressive statistic in this
connection: 50 per cent of all full-time Ph.D.
students studying at Canadian universities are
non-Canadians. But he failed to cite a source for the
figure, which is likely to make it as suspect as those
cited for the citizenship composition of faculty
members at Canadian universities.
4. De-Canadianization will also have an effect on
the employment practices at Canadian universities,
Dr. Steele told his UBC audience. Again, because of
a preponderence of non-Canadians on appointment
committees it is claimed that preference will be given
to academics trained at institutions which committee
members are familiar with.
This will result in less and less desire on the part of
the committee to advertise and a minimal desire to
seek out Canadians. The final result is that Canadians
will find it more difficult to obtain employment in
their own country and many graduate students,
brought to high qualifications at public expense, will
join the ranks of the unemployed.
If there has been a shift in the thrust of the
Mathews-Steele campaign recently it has been to
place the university problem in the larger context of
American cultural and economic domination of
Canada, a spectre which has increasingly obsessed
Canadians since the end of World War Two.
The role of giant-killer seems to have devolved on
Mr. Mathews, a colorful, and somewhat flamboyant
figure who presents a sharp contrast to the
low-keyed, rather plodding approach, of Dr. Steele.
"In Canada, we are going to be masters in our own
house," Mr. Mathews forcefully told his UBC
audience. "We are going to win, of that I have no
doubt. And to win we are going to have to fight, you
and me, as never for a long time... have Canadians had
to fight for the basic survival of their nation."
He referred to the increasing control of the
Canadian economy, unions and the periodical press
by American interests and added that "the right
honorable prime minister (Mr. Trudeau) has been on
the way to handing the Canadian Arctic territory to
the United States and has only changed his mind
because of the fury of the Canadian people."
Mr. Trudeau asks "Do you want war?" when the
question of declaring Canadian sovereignty in the
Arctic is raised, Mathews continued. "The answer, if
America has serious expansionist designs in Canada, is
...we do not want war, but if those are your terms, we
will have war. We beat the pants off them in 1812
and we may ..." The rest was drowned in laughter and
cheers from the predominantly student audience.
Despite the fact that Mr. Mathews refers to "our
warm and friendly neighbours to the south" and
insists that the campaign mounted by himself and Dr.
Steele is carried on "not with contempt for others or
hatred for strangers who are within our house," the
burden of his remarks betrays something very close to
contempt for the American educational system.
"The United States," he said dramatically, "grinds
out massive quantities of very ordinary Ph.D.'s. They
have needless non-meetings where scholars give
non-papers. It has more non-journals, publishing more
non-articles than Canada could dream of in the heart
of the night."
Indeed, Mr. Mathews seems to have something of
an obsession about the Ph.D. degree, which he claims
is another superimposition on Canada. "It is presently
in the interests, consciously or unconsciously, of the
U.S. takeover that the Ph.D. be considered the
primary qualification even above and beyond a
familiarity with the students being taught and the
research which must be done on this landscape."
Since beginning their campaign at Carleton
University in 1968, Mr. Mathews and Dr. Steele have
moderated somewhat their demand that two-thirds of
Canada's university faculties should be made up of
Canadian citizens.
The third of ten points which Mr. Mathews read at
the UBC meeting asked that "all departments give
measureable evidence of seeking to maintain or effect
a full majority of Canadians on staff."
Some other points:
—All positions should be advertised "insistently,
effectively and by law";
— Establishment of a faculty-student committee in
every Canadian university "to research and
implement the teaching of Canadian material
wherever it is academically reasonable and desirable
to do so";
—Every candidate for a university teaching post in
Canada should be assessed as to his knowledge of
Canada. "Candidates who are ignorant of Canada,
especially in the areas of their own specialization,
should be ruled unqualified to teach here."
—"We should demand imaginative and unique
Canadian solutions to present problems. We should
insist on a whole new approach to French studies...so
that Anglophone Canadians may effectively read,
write and speak French."
—"We should demand special task force summer
study programs, concentrating Canadians scholars and
graduate students in those areas where Canadians are
a dangerous minority on university faculties."
There is little question that serious consideration
of some of the questions which Mr. Mathews and Dr.
Steele have raised has suffered because of the way in
which they have used unreliable and incomplete
statistics and their inflammatory statements about
U.S. higher education, which have tended to reflect
on highly-regarded Americans teaching in Canada.
Still, the debate may have caused academics across
Canada to reflect on the problem of maintaining and
expanding a unique Canadian identity through the
universities and it seems certain that the
Mathews-Steele suggestions will have led to closer
consideration being given to the hiring of Canadian
■ ■■fcffc Volume 16, No. 11 -Mar. 25,
I I mm I " 1970. Published by the Univer-
BB B B B B sity of British Columbia and
^^ mm^ ^^ distributed free. J.A. Banham,
REPORTS Edilor; Barbara Clayhorn, Production Supervisor. Letters to the Editor
should be addressed to the Information Office,
UBC, Vancouver 8, B.C.
UBC Reports/March 25, 1970/11 A0a± UBC ALUMNI    ■ ■
EDUCATION Undergraduate Society internal affairs
officer Kerry Bysouth discusses COFFE report at a
meeting of Prince George teachers. Alumni Association
is co-sponsoring a series of such meetings throughout
B.C. to get wide discussion of the report's proposed reforms of UBC Education Faculty. Rick Hull photo.
Probe Summer Job Picture
The UBC Alumni Association is assisting a
province-wide student project aimed at improving the
summer employment situation for university and
regional college students.
The B.C. Union of Students Task Force on
Student Employment has received $1,600 in financial
aid and the use of an office and supportive services in
the Alumni headquarters at Cecil Green Park. The
project is also being sponsored by the B.C. Chamber
of Commerce, the B.C. Federation of Labor, the B.C.
Union of Students and is being conducted in
cooperation with the B.C. regional office of Canada
The Task Force, which is working on behalf of all
students at B.C. universities and regional colleges, has
a two-fold aim — to conduct an informational,
co-ordinating campaign to find more jobs for students
this summer and to conduct longer-term surveys to
get a clearer idea of the student employment
The Task Force director is Norman Wright, the
former president of the University of Victoria student
society. "The project arose out of the frustrations of
our student employment campaign of last year," he
said. "Last year the political attitude was
predominant and we found that discussion of the
problem in political terms really did not read to
answers. It's a problem that can't be solved by
regarding students in isolation. We found that we've
got to get down and talk to labor and employers —
and that's what we're doing."
Wright pointed out that student employment is a
problem of considerable economic significance, since
students make up five to eight per cent of the labor
force. This summer 44,000 students will be seeking
12/UBC Reports/March 25, 1970
At the same time, he said, the income earned by
students through part-time and summer employment
represents considerable assistance to the financial
support of higher education. The income earned by
university students contributes $30 million of the
estimated $114 million it presently costs students and
their families in the province in maintenance and
tuition expense per year.
The point that Wright stressed is that failure to fit
students into the labor market for summer and
part-time work represents wastage of manpower. At
the same time, he emphasized that the money
students earn is a vital contribution to the total cost
of higher education, money which otherwise would
have to come from some other source.
Each university and regional college campus has
set up its own student employment team to
cooperate with Canada Manpower and their
placement offices. They will work to
encourage maximum student registration for jobs,
canvass employers and provide information for news
The student teams will also conduct two
undergraduate surveys during the last week in March.
The first survey will concern job expectations of the
first to third-year students and the second will
concern only graduating students. In September a
follow-up survey will be made of these two groups, in
order to discover their experience in the employment
market. B.C. employers have been surveyed regarding
student employment through a mail questionnaire.
Wright said that when the project has completed
its findings, they will be discussed with
representatives from labor, industry and Canada
Manpower with a view to achieving longer term
improvement in student employment.
Alumni To Hear
Lester Pearson
The Right Honorable Lester B. Pearson, former
. Prime Minister of Canada, will address a dinner
meeting of the UBC Alumni Association in
Vancouver on April 9.
Pearson is presently chairman of the Committee
on International Development of the World Bank. In
this capacity he was primarily responsible for a major
study of international development programs, the
findings of which were released earlier this year in an
influential report entitled Partners In Development.
The report pointed out serious inadequacies in
foreign aid and called on the "have" nations to give
greater aid to the "have-nots."
The dinner meeting will be held at 6:30 p.m. on
April 9 in the ballroom of the UBC Faculty Club. The
price per person is $6 and tickets can be obtained
through the UBC Alumni office, 6251 N.W. Marine
Drive, Vancouver (228—3313).
The above event is not to be confused with the
Annual General Meeting of UBC Alumni Association.
The Association's Annual Meeting will be held on
May 26 in Cecil Green Park and will be a purely
business meeting. There will be no feature speaker.
The meeting will concern itself with the election of a
new executive and board of management, with
financial statements, constitutional revisions and new
business. Alumni are urged to attend this important
meeting, which gets underway 6:30 p.m. on May 26.
Another Alumni meeting has also been set for
May. This is the Commerce Division annual meeting
which is to be held May 8 in the University Club,
1021 West Hastings Street.
The Honorable Jean-Luc Pepin, federal minister of
trade and commerce, will address the meeting on the
topic of continuing education for businessmen.
Further information may be obtained by calling
Alumni returning to study at UBC in the 1970-71
academic year may qualify for preferred parking
spaces. Such parking is restricted to students who by
Aug. 31, 1970, have completed at least three years
study at UBC or are enrolled in fourth year or more
senior courses for 1970-71. Inquiries and applications
(together with a $1 fee) should be directed to the
Traffic Office, Wesbrook Crescent, University of B.C.,
Vancouver 8, after April 1.


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