UBC Publications

UBC Publications

UBC Publications

The Graduate Chronicle Jul 31, 1944

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JULV, 1944 Laux-Glued
Manufactured by Unit Structures
Inc., the basic engineering studies
necessary to the successful design of
such arches was done in the U.S.
Forest Products Laboratory and
shows not only the strength of such
arches but the graceful lines of the
bridge give evidence of the architectural advantages inherent in the
laminated-with-glue arch construction. Hundreds of arches built on
the U.S.F.P.L. standards and employing Laucks Glues, are now in use
in hangars, gymnasiums, warehouses,
recreation centers, chapels, etc. . . .
"Your Glue Headquarters"
Granville Island, Vancouver, Canada
("It Lasts Because It's Glass")
No. 60 Molded
Sizes:   Yz" to 12"
*   High Insulating Efficiency.
•   Light Weight.
•   Not Affected by Moisture.
•   Easy to Apply. i
Telephone HAstings  5241-2
\What Drex Sells Excels
66-lOlh  St., New Westminster, B.C.
Manufacturers Since 1874 Th
Published by the Alumni Association of
the University of British Columbia
JULY, 1944
M, <f 7
Editor: Darrell T. Braidwood, M.A., Barrister at Law
Associate Editor: A. D. Creer, M.E.I.C, M.Inst.C.E.
Assistant Editors:
Dorothy Taylor, B.A.; Donald A. C. McGill, B.A.
Business Manager: W. E. G. Macdonald
EMPLOYMENT—By A. L. Carruthers, Chief
Engineer, Provincial Department of Public Works    2
CORRESPONDENCE—Views of Writers on
Collective Bargaining for Professional Engineers  26
Editorial Office: j^^ Qffke:
Alumni Assn. Office,
„ 16 - 555 Howe Street
Brock Bldg.,
University of B. C. Vancouver, B. C.
Published at Vancouver, British Columbia.
%- 1944
Electric  Vibrators
with Rheostat Controlled Power
• Vibrating Containers to
increase their weight
• Vibrating Screens to increase their capacity.
* Vibrating Bins, Hoppers
and Chutes to keep material flowing freely.
• Vibrating Forms to
eliminate air pockets
and voids.
The electronic valve in the Controller changes alternating current to pulsating waves with a time interval
between each wave. These give the vibrators a long
stroke, consequently amplitude or power not possible
on straight A.C. This is an exclusive, patented Syntron
Simple, Electromagnetic Vibrators that set up
a flow of powerful vibrations
from alternating
Complete facilities for servicing all types of
electrical power equipment.
VANCOUVER B.C. Substantially Full
In dealing with social and economic problems, people
are very prone to forget the fundamentals, to forget to
take into account nature and her laws and men and their
Heredity and environment are important factors in
human affairs, but the most important factor of all is
man's response to life as he understands it; That he can
lift himself upwards in spite of serious handicaps is quite
possible; indeed the handicaps may be the needed spur to
supreme effort; but unfortunately they may be such as to
break him down in futility and defeat.
Our duty to each other may be expressed in a few
words; namely, to see that each and every citizen has a
fair chance to make a proper response to life, a worthwhile contribution to the welfare of all. That cannot
possibly be done unless there is substantially full, worthwhile employment for all those prepared to render satisfactory service.
Much is being said to the effect that there must be no
employment, be an end to poverty and distress, that peace
and plenty should reign and the four freedoms be guaranteed to all. But these great benefits are not going to be
made available simply by wiping out certain powerful interests, by getting rid of certain wicked men, by establishing some new social order. Be that as it may great responsibilities are contingent upon 'those benefits. Peace, plenty
and freedom of themselves cannot release us from observance of the moral code, the practice of the golden rule.
There remains forever the duty "to do justly, love mercy
and walk humbly." We cannot live down injustice; we
must correct it. If we refuse to extend mercy we cannot
expect to obtain it. If in search of truth we must walk
humbly or we shall never find it.
While employment will always be a world problem, the
solution insofar as this country is concerned will devolve
upon ourselves. Much perhaps can be learned from other
countries and to some extent our future will depend upon
what they may do. On the other hand we must solve the
problem for ourselves and in doing so take into account
our own history, progress, geography, resources, climate
and more particularly our own people. What may work
quite satisfactorily in other countries may be a dismal failure here.
The proposals to be presented herein are based upon
fundamentals in human relations and in our own social
economy. It is contended that they are very valid under
any social and economic system that may be adopted and
are accepted as valid by all right minded citizens, otherwise the proposals will lack the support essential to their
success. These fundamentals will now be presented.
Chief Engineer, Provincial Department of Public Works.
1. There should be no rights without duties and no
privileges without responsibilities; and this should apply to
all citizens, everybody. If men with health, education, skill
or capabilities of any kind and especially those owning or
controlling property, wealth and the means of production
demand their rights and privileges without discharging
their duties and responsibilities in the years to come, this
country is headed for disaster. All this emphasis on rights
and privileges, all this abuse of power, all this taking everything one can get and giving as little as possible in return,
can end only in one thing; namely, everybody ultimately
will suffer. There is a very disturbing lack of discipline, a
low sense of honour and integrity prevalent in every class
in the country. It is hoped and believed that the majority
of our people do not mean it to be so; but they have permitted and supported their class organizations in abuse of
their power. The tendency has been generally to get all you
can, your efficiency and pay will be measured by what you
can get for us.
2. The social unit is the family, not the individual, the
community or the state. Without the family the individual
and the state would soon cease to exist. The birthrate is
becoming a great national, race and empire problem. Within the walls of the home are inspired all our most compelling emotions. It is life as lived around the fireside that
is of prime national importance. The resounding sermons
and speeches on the worth of human personality, the rights
of the common man and the glory of the state are just so
much wasted breath unless thoughts, affections, plans and
efforts are inspired and directed primarily to make possible
a high standard of family life. After all, what is this standard of living so much talked about? If asked to gauge
the standard, let us see your homes, your show places need
not be inspected. Our post-war rehabilitation will fail miserably if our efforts as a whole do not culminate in respectable family life.
3. People are perturbed about the manifest moral bankruptcy which is abroad. Governments, business concerns,
labour unions and individuals neglect and in some cases
refuse to keep their word, abide by their agreements, pay
their debts. Their defense is that they are unable to do so;
the system is wrong or others don't do it if they can help
it, why should we?
There are hosts of people (thank God) who still have
a high sense of honour; they do not believe that stability
and equity of human affairs is at all possible so long as
some people neglect or refuse to pay for goods and services
which they receive. It is all too plain that someone, somewhere, somehow must pay. It is far too easy to pass it off
with the general statement that society should foot the
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE 4. It is complained that modern life is so upsetting,
so confusing, so nerve racking, we will all go 'mental.'
So we will, if we don't simplify it for ourselves. Life is
complex but so is an ordinary wool sock. Even the high-
browed intellectual cannot explain how the stitches are
linked together let alone how the heel is turned; but his
practical wife who never got beyond public school understands it well and can knit a pair complete for his Ph. D.
cold feet. Fortunately for him she keeps right on knitting
only mildly interested in his dissertations on the new social
order, the new world of substitutes, all made by machines
(an unhappy, dull world indeed without sheep, wool, yarn
and knitting needles).
We are organized to death largely to interfere in other
people's businesss at other people's expense; wasting our
own time and what is more serious—confusing people with
real work to do. We have to be constantly reminded to
give the trained man the tools and the job and leave him
alone. An educated, trained and experienced man soon
simplifies life for himself. He must do so. The most complicated machine to the amateur, is simplicity itself to the
skilled machinist. To attain simplicity is to master the art
of living together successfully and gracefully. Experienced, capable people are having their daily round and common task made unbearable by a succession of rules, regulations and interference on the part of authorities and organizations contributing little or nothing to the national welfare.
5. National wealth may be properly defined as consisting
of those things, facilities and services which contribute
to the common safety and welfare. So defined, national
wealth can be built up only by producing good-quality,
desirable goods and services at low relative costs. This is
an economic law. Note that the goods and services must
be of good quality and desirable, and the costs low with
respect to the cost of living. In other words, the national
effort as a whole must be profitable.
The thrifty, hard-working, capable people of the country are being upset and confused by advocates of a national economy that does not require that we compete in price,
quality and service, that thrift is unnecessary and perhaps
a mistake, that it is possible as a nation to get something
for nothing. To our forefathers these were economic heresies—and they still are. Waste, idleness, inefficiency, thrif t-
lessncss and gambling are economic sins. So long as we require the goods and services of other countries we will
have to compete in world markets. In spite of tariffs, embargoes, quotas, subsidies and subventions the prices paid
and obtained by the nation as a whole are world prices
and no more. We can compete and trade on those terms
or do without—facts which cannot be over emphasized.
Futhermore, as long as we have drought, floods, epidemics, poor crops, war and other calamities and so long
as we have obligations falling due or expansions and improvements necessary in the future we must save. True,
we must spend to save but it also true we must save to be
able to spend. A lazy, thriftless nation cannot hope to be
solvent let alone prosperous anymore than a farmer can
hope to have a crop if he has not saved seed grain, prepared
the ground and sown the seed. To people with sense these
are simple economic facts which they accept without question; but there are very vocal citizens who ignore these
facts and are misleading those that haven't given the matter
much thought.
6. No one in his sane mind believes that a nation can
really prosper and progress without skill and work;  nor
does he believe that national security is possible in this
man's world otherwise. Futhermore, mental and physical
health and strength are not possible without hard mental
and physical work. To teach young pepole that but for
some wicked men or some bad system they would not have
to work more than a very few hours per day and have all
they need or desire, be comfortable, happy and secure is
sheer madness. Nations that settle down after this war
in comfort and idleness will be wiped out and it will not
require another war to bring about their defeat. They will
be pushed off the map by the onward march of enterprising
peoples. The unrelenting struggle goes on, war or no war,
and we must not be misled by grandiose dreams of a mil-
7. Hopes of what science and the machine can do for
us are too sanguine altogether. For the most part all they
do is make available for our use quickly and in great
quantities our natural resources. Many of these are not
replenishable. We will reap only the one crop. Oh, but
you say, how about substitutes? Yes, but these in turn are
largely derived from other diminishing sources. We must
possess ourselves of the disturbing fact that the machine
will bankrupt us unless we soon learn to direct its use to
producing those things which in the years to come will
prove profitable and not wasteful. To continue to slash
down and cut up our forests, our national heritage, our
one great crop, which took hundreds of years to produce,
and sell in the world's markets to buy goods and services
of little or no real value is plain economic suicide. Science
and the machine should be directed mainly to taking the
drudgery out of life and releasing our people for finer and
more profitable work.
8. People are not going to surrender the measure of
freedom they have been accustomed to without a fight
not even on the promise of a Heaven on earth. They will
rebel against being pushed into Heaven, even if that were
possible; especially if Heaven is to be peopled by the
'pushers.' During the present emergency they will submit
to taxation, regulations and restrictions but there is bound
to be a profound reaction to all this as soon as the emergency has passed. Those talking revolution should understand that the degree to which people will surrender their
freedom will be determined by themselves or a counter
revolution will be in the making.
9. The contention that all wealth is produced by labour
is at best half-truth. Even if both mental and physical
effort are included in the term 'labour,' the contention has
to be qualified. Without capable management, forethought,
skill and sustained effort on the part of all concerned,
the results will be wasteful and unprofitable. To a degree
sheer luck is a factor in human affairs, and we have about
as much control over luck as we have over the weather;
we simply have to make the best of it. Of this, however,
we can be fairly certain,—Dame Fortune may smile on the
wide awake but laughs at the fast asleep.
10. That there is such a thing as a labour 'market' is
in itself a reproach. The thought of it should blast us out
of our complacency. That able-bodied, willing men should
at times have to queue up day after day on the chance of
a few days work, or that an employer at other times should
have difficulty in securing satisfactory workmen or men of
any kind, shows that we are constantly faced with conditions beyond our control or there is something lacking
in our management and control of human affairs, and
something must be done about it.
JULY, 1944 It is not always practicable or wise to over simplify
but if asked to reduce our post-war problem to one word—
it is—JOBS—decent, steady worthwhile jobs for all. We
can then close, pull down and burn up that old institution, the labour market.
11. The wives and mothers of Canada have a better
sense of economics than the men. It has been well and truly
said that national economy is no different to household
economy. Certainly women are much more aware than
men of what is best for the family. One of the most heartfelt wishes expressed by the women of Canada is: "I wish
my husband, my son, had a good, steady job." They know
that it makes for security, contentment, assured annual
income, proper planning for future needs and all-round
satisfactory family life. There is an appalling amount of
anxiety and distress simply due to the fact that the husband and father may come home without a job and no
other job in sight. There is a lot of marital difficulty and
domestic unhappiness, the result of the husband hanging
around home, walking the streets, or frequenting beer parlors for want of anything better to do.
12. As governmental authorities and financial industrial
concerns expand, as management and technical operations
become more highly mechanized, the ratio of salaried
employees to wage earners steadily increases; but when
plants are closed down or their output reduced, wage earners are immediately discharged but the salaried employees
are largely retained. The answer ususually is that the
organization must be held together but the loss must be
cut down. That answer is not sufficient. There is an opinion widely held that this is an injustice which must be
corrected. The wage earner is essential to the enterprise,
why should he alone be made to suffer? Cannot industry
be so conducted that shareholders, management, salaried
and wage-earning employees be all treated as essential
elements in the enterprise, each with duties and responsibilities to the whole, prepared to invest, plan and work,
give and take, live and let live? Until industry has learned
how to live it is not civilized.
13. Perhaps the fundamental cause of strife between
capital and labour is the fact that thousands of employees
feel that they are treated as if they are not essential and
can be dispensed with, they don't belong anywhere or to
anything or anybody insofar as their services are concerned.
Naturally they decide to join a union in order to get recognition and secure fair treatment. On the other hand management at times feels that labour unions have no proper
sense of their responsibilities, cannot be depended upon to
abide by their agreements, are not prepared to give and
take. Thus we have industrial strife which like all strife
bears down hardest on innocent neutrals. It is significant
that there are few labour troubles in concerns where employees are steadily employed. They become part of the
concern, known, respected, and (as years go by) indispensable in the opinion of the management. Also their
annual incomes are relatively high. Too much emphasis
is put upon daily wage and too little on annual income
which is what really matters. The highest wages paid are
in the building construction industry but the annual incomes of the employees are the second lowest in the country.
14. Proper human relations are not possible unless the
employee is free in his choice of a job and the employer
free in his choice of help; but in the exercise of this freedom thei'e must be in all things substantial justice to both
parties concerned. Employment by the month would tend
strongly towards both parties using care in making the
choice and once made to stick to that choice and the longer
the association continues on agreeable terms the less chance
there is of injustice being attempted. Young men would
approach their life's work with more thought and care.
Management would take more care in selecting and training men. At present the initial employer-employee relationship is taken far too lightly. The employer says "I
can get another man," and the employee "I can get another job," which makes for industrial and social instability. Of course, this is far from being all there is to
labour relations but we are considering only one phase of
it at the moment.
15. When one begins to discuss social, economic and
industrial changes the question is raised "but how about
the finance?" The answers we get are often ill-considered
and generally the emphasis is on things not people. Out
of all the discussion about finance it is self-evident that
in the long fun and as a nation, whether we so plan it or
not, we have to provide all our people with a subsistence
by way of wages, salaries and incomes or by doles, relief,
unemployment, sickness and other benefits. The most expensive and demoralizing way is by doles, as we have seen
many times but never learned. Why is it that we continue
to finance things with little regard to people? Resources
in the ground are almost worthless. It is the skill and
labour expended on them that gives them value. If finance was seized of its responsibility in this respect, that
come what may the salaries of so many people will have to
be paid, the whole economic system would be steadied and
improved. Management would hesitate to take on business
requiring a sudden increase in staff with little chance of
that business continuing. Governments would budget on a
basis of so many employees, equipment, etc., to be steadily
employed. Expansions would be more carefully planned
with more regard for permanence. A check would be put
upon wild-catting, exploitation and waste. It would appear at times that millions can be obtained to finance
machines, equipment and buildings (much of which is
imported) make a big show until someone gets cold feet,
then close the whole thing down, discharge employees without one thought of what happens to them. The remains
of this kind of finance are scattered all over the land. Let
us finance our people, the primary indispensable asset of
the country. Assuming there are, say, 3,000,000 employable people; they should have an average annual per capita income of, say, $1,800.00, or a total of national income
of 5,400 million. Finance, industry and governments
should undertake to maintain the national income at that
level. Impossible you may say. Alright, we have to set
up relief. In the depression years up to 1937 there was
spent on relief alone in Canada, 768 million dollars, a
classic case of, 'we pay if we do and we pay if we don't.'
16. Steadily employed salaried people are the best risks
in the country. For the most part they pay their bills,
own their own homes, take proper care of their families,
provide their own security, pay their taxes, budget their
expenditures, avoid strife, support worthy community
services, resist booms and remain steady in a depression.
That booms and depressions can be completely levelled
off is not possible but certainly with a large part of our
people in the salaried and steady income class a more stable
economy would result. About 90% of all national income
is expressed finally in pay envelopes.    The annual total in
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE those envelopes determines the economic state of the nation,
not the dividends on investments.
17. Some advocates of social security seem to base their
plans upon the assumption that young men seek a life
without worry, struggle, risks or disappointments—a comfortable, non competitive, feather-bed existence. This
is in the main face a false assumption. Young manhood
asks no favours, courts adventure and danger, and will
take on competitors in any enterprise. All that they ask,.
all that the returned men will ask, is a chance to show
what they can do.
In proposals to deal with social security we are going
on the defensive. In a new country like Canada that may
mean defeat. We should attack the problem; reduce unemployment, prevent a large percentage of accidents, wipe
out epidemics and improve the general health, reduce the
cost of raising a family and extend the period of useful
Social security is advisable and necessary up to a point;
but when it is predicated upon a sick or going-to-be sick
country, when it fosters a life that is on the defensive,
lulls us into a false security, a Maginot Line instead of a
springboard for attack on those things that lower National
vitality and strength, the security intended will prove
There still remains the inevitable hazards of life but
these can be and should be provided for by some sane insurance scheme supported by all citizens with incomes.
The mainstay of any plan of security will be the steadily
employed and their pay envelopes, the only thing that
will make social security secure.
18. The small mills, shops, stores, farms and other
small enterprises, and the professions, each employing less
than ten people, give employment and provide incomes to
more people (believe it or not) than all industry combined.
These middle class employers are largely unorganized and
are ground between the millstones of unorganized industry
and labour. That they survive is due to their own hard
work, enterprise and personal attention to business and is
one strong argument in favour of the small, privately-
owned industry and business. The more we have of them
and the more prosperous they are, the sounder is our whole
economy. It is all very well for organized industry to congratulate themselves on the attainment of higher wages,
shorter hours and better prices, but these can only be sustained if unorganized consumers are able and willing to
pay them. It is so easy and often so advantageous to make
much of big enterprise and big people and to neglect and
forget the little enterprise and little people.
19. Industry is becoming so completely mechanized
and can produce in such quantities and at such low prices,
that even the most optimistic men of affairs hold out
little hopes of full employment under normal peacetime
The argument that because we can do so in war we
can do so in peace is unsound and misleading for two simple
reasons: the men in the armed services are not producers
and a large part that is produced is immediately destroyed.
In other words, only the least able part of our employable
people are producing to supply an unlimited and to a large
extent a non-competitive market. For want of any better
idea to support their contention some go so far as to advocate that we continue the same destructive process;
namely, keep the shipyards going and sink the ships as
soon as they are built if we have no use for them. That
sane people should even suggest such a solution is incred
ible. Others suggest we undertake huge national projects,
undreamed of developments on an ever increasing scale in
number and size. Providing these are or soon will be needed
and worthwhile in our economy this proposal has definite
merit but cannot be a complete solution. Others again
fall back on the defensive and suggest shorter hours, earlier
retirement, unemployment insurance and all the other
security benefits. There is a real national danger in this.
Competitor nations may decide to take the offensive and
by full employment, long hours and the maximum use of
machines bring about our defeat. Also, what kind of
people are we anyway? A sick, debilitated, faint-hearted,
ease-loving race ready for the hospital, sanitarium, old
people's home or the grave? If so then by all means the
Beveridge plan.
Make no mistake about it, victory to the United Nations will not of itself guarantee to us here in Canada the
four freedoms or a worthy destiny. Our whole future will
be determined by the quality of our goods, our services and
our people. It is quality that distinguishes a great people,
that ultimately wins. Quality, and nothing else, won the
battle of Britain.
Our junk heaps, our dilapidated houses and buildings,
our broken-down and obsolete industrial plants, our stores
filled with shoddy goods are no credit to us. Thousands
of our homes are shabby, many not fit for human habitation. We ought to be ashamed of our cities—largely un-
paved, very few boulevards, neglected parks, obsolete and
defective sanitary systems, polluted watercourses. Our
highways are for the most part unimproved dirt roads.
Many of our public buildings are "with order, symmetry or taste unblest." Most of our rural communities are
without the ordinary conveniences. Much of the country
is down at the heels, stuck in the mud. We have spread
ourselves over a vast country, developed power and set
machines to work on a quantity production basis, the maximum number of things with the fewest number of people;
millions of things submerging and frustrating a few people.
It is when we undertake to produce quality goods and
services that skill and time are required. A machine and
one operator can rough out great quantities in little time
but it takes the skilled artisan a long time to put: on the
finish and give the product the quality. To check the
waste of our natural resources we must go hard over to
quality production. There is much less material in a fine
watch than in an alarm clock. There is as much material
but much less work in a six-room $5,000.00 house than
in a six-room $10,000.00 house. The artist uses only a
few brushes, a few ounces of paint and a few square feet
of canvas to produce a masterpiece but it takes months
of artistic effort.
Both time and materials are largely wasted in poor-
quality quantity production. High quality work requires
high quality brains and skill, years of training and practice.
It commands a high price in the market, hence we can
afford to pay the producer a high price for his services.
The national and individual income may therefore be high
for the same time and materials expended and a larger number of our workers become artsians.
High quality products and services have a value that
cannot be measured in dollars. Honest pride in one's work
is a great uplifter. It is quality that inspires and helps
men on the road to high attainments. It is an established
fact that there are almost no skilled artisans in our penal
institutions and mental hospitals. Why not then apply
occupational therapy before people have to go to our in-
JULY, 1944 stitutions when it is generally too late? Why not stop
gorging the machine and starving the workers -bodily,
mentally and spiritually?
Canada will shortly face an export market problem.
To a large extent our exports are raw or only roughly
manufactured products. These can be produced by machines and well-paid labour at world prices only so long as
our immediately available resources and foreign markets
hold out; but if these fail we will be forced to further
increase plants, reduce payrolls and mine out our resources
in the quickest way possible. Already we have gone far along
this road. The export market has been represented as our
only salvation; but to have and to hold it we may be paying
too high a price. At times it would appear that we move
our resources bodily and in the raw state into world markets. With more skilled, better paid and more steadily employed people we should be able to place in those markets
finished, quality products requiring less material, less cargo
space but more skilled labour to produce.
Certainly it is not recommended nor considered advise-
able or possible to dispense with the" machine. The argument is for better machines, better workmen, better pay,
better products, a better, more interesting and satisfying
life for all.
But you say, the export market? They demand our
cheap, raw products. They will just have to do without
them and we would be well advised to buy less of their
cheap manufactured articles. It is what we get in return
for our products which matters to us.
Definite Proposals
There are three things should be done and ways and
means found to do them; namely:
1. Hopes of solving our difficulties by simply producing
more things must be abandoned in favour of
better things, better services and better people.
2. Ways should be found to finance people to provide
the goods and services rather than finance goods
and services which people may not need or cannot
3. As far as it is humanly and economically possible,
place all employable people in steady, worthwhile
jobs, preferably salaried positions.
Ways and Means
It is quite beyond the scope of this address (paper)
to lay down definite ways and means. Attention will,
therefore, be directed to a few practical suggestions only.
How they are to be carried out will be left for the most
part for further consideration and discussion.
Reference will be made to certain governmental councils and boards. The exact nature and duties of these are
not discussed. They already exist or are proposed by Postwar Planning Committees whose work in this regard is
well worth consideration.
a. Not Mare But Better Things
It is urged that we go hard over to better goods and
services, that the emphasis be placed on quality rather than
To succeed it will be necessary to begin with the young
and the very young at that. Parents, teachers will have
to undertake to train and educate them to do their best,
to appreciate the fine things, abhor the crude, shabby and
drab, to foster and encourage everything that is clean and
wholesome, commend and reward progress and condemn
slackness and undisciplined conduct.
As maturity approaches, our youth must be persuaded
of the great truth that training for life's work is an essential prerequisite to a satisfactory way of life. They must
divorce from their minds the thought that they can really
succeed by 'pull' or trickery.
Probation and apprentice systems should be expanded
and made obligatory in all professions, trades and services.
Definite recognized standards of attainment and experience
should be required of those seeking membership in the
learned and skilled arts and for promotion therein. More
and more, distinction and rewards should go exclusively
to an aristocracy of brains and accomplishment.
Our Engineering and Architectural Institutes should
revise and raise their specifications and buildings codes.
All food, building materials, workmanship, shop and living
conditions should be subjected to careful inspection; health
and safety regulations enforced. It is quite true that industrialists are constantly trying to improve production
but if better quality is not demanded they will hesitate to
provide it. Our people have been altogether too slow to
appreciate and demand quality goods and service, perhaps
partly because they are shifted around too much and never
seem to get settled down to living gracefully in permanent
homes. Producers will soon respond to a consumer's market demanding better quality.
Scientific and industrial research (government and private) can be of great service in searching out our better
products, improved methods and more efficient devices.
We should abandon the idea that because a product is new
it is necessarily better. It should be submitted first to a
severe test.
The women of Canada who actually spend a very large
percent of the whole national income (not all on themselves of course) could exert a profound influence in
putting this part of the plan into operation. All they
need do is—refuse to buy shoddy goods, to live in badly
designed houses or to put up with poor services. If they
would demand the best for the purpose intended, our standards would soon go up, especially if they threaten a
buyers' strike—the most salutary and effective strike possible.
b. Finance People Rather Than Goods
How is this to be done? It cannot be done until we
get firmly in our minds that come what may all our employable people must be assured of worthwhile work and
annual incomes commensurate with the services rendered.
Finance and management will have to face the stern
realities. After all they hardly need to be told that they
are on trial. If it is still necessary (and that would seem
not so) their duties will have to be set out in no uncertain
terms.   Perhaps we can leave it at that.
But finance has every right to ask—what are you going
to do with the money? Employers, management and labour
must undertake to direct their efforts and spend that money
only on high-quality, worthwhile, desirable and marketable goods and services at prices that will result in an increase in national wealth and well-being, and will sustain
at  all times a firm confidence in our will and ability to
This brings us face to face with rehabilitation programs. Projects proposed should be carefully reviewed,
criticized, revised and selected by carefully chosen planning
boards critical of every expenditure proposed.   The mere
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE fact that a project will provide employment is not sufficient. The most worthwhile should be given prioity, and
those economically unsound struck off the list.
Given worthwhile projects failure can still result unless the approved plans are placed in the hands of managers
and workmen that know how to get things done well and
economically. Slackness and inefficiency resulting from
any cause must not be permitted. It is quite proper and
to be expected that those providing the funds will refuse
to invest in badly managed, poorly built projects. Thus
it follows that those representing finance should be included in national planning boards, and be fully advised
as to where and how the money is to be spent.
Having determined the number of those needing employment, expenditure budgets should be based upon the
total required to furnish annual incomes for all employable
people in accordance with their will and ability to produce;
in other words, budget for the people rather than for the
job. There is no end to worthwhile projects, why is it
that we stop work because there is no balance in a ledger
account covering a specific project.
There is no doubt that many employers do make a
real effort to keep their men steadily employed but when
faced with a declining market they have to discharge employees to remain solvent. At the same time their customers
may have plenty of work in view requiring goods and
materials produced by those very employers. To meet a
threatened decline of this kind there should be set up a
National Economic Research and Development Board to
which employers can appeal. The Board should have on file
a list of approved projects and possible markets and will
function to bring producers and consumers together. In
a depression, company sales agents get a frigid reception
everywhere simply because everybody has cold feet. The
advantage that such a Board would have over the sales
agent is that the Board would know what projects and
markets can be made available. The idea is to have a na-
ional authority to which industry can appeal in an emergency—an authority having the confidence of finance,
management, labour and the public, all co-operating primarily to keep people employed.
In the depression of the thirties industry was without
markets and at the same time governments, railways and
other corporations had plans for millions of dollar's worth
of work on their drafting boards; but there was no authority to bring the two together. Hence, able men were
put to work raking leaves and cutting brush.
It is contended and rightly so that economy of a project cannot be assessed unless it is known from the beginning what it will cost. The reply is that an estimate of
the cost of the job is very necessary but experience has
been overwhelmingly to the effect that very few projects
are completed for the estimated cost or within the estimated time. Then why are we so fussy about book entries? In the large majority of cases better results would
have been obtained had the work been less subject to
alternate haste and decline due to uncertainties of labour
and finance. A budget that provides for a steady level of
expenditures is a safer and far more satisfactory way to
So long as we finance the job without regard to people,
employment is bound to be uncertain. After all whether
a project is finished sooner or later than expected is often
not so important but it is very important that people have
a sustained source of income and that the country obtains
the  full  benefit  of  their  continuous  service.    Finance   is
only a means to an end (a powerful means if you like)
but only a means, no different to other resources and means
of production and should be made available to produce
maximum benefits.
This all boils down to' one requirement—that finance
definitely undertake its full share of the duty to hold the
national income at a level considered necessary and adequate
by a Board of our ablest and most' responsible men.
c. Steady Employment
This is the factor in the proposal most difficult to accomplish. It predicates assured profitable markets, a low
absenteeism, favourable weather, a high national income,
a willingness on the part of everyone to do his best, and a
sustained confidence in ourselves and each other.
Under any governmental, social or economic order there
is only one remedy for unemployment and that is employment. Let us ponder that. The proposal here made is
simply to apply that remedy and put people to work. If
convinced that the remedy prescribed is the only hope, we
will find ways to administer it no matter how obstinate
the patient may be. Management all over the country,
all employers of labour, governments, farmers; and including that large and important class, the small enterprisers—fully aware of the seriousness of the problem and
of their responsibilities as citizens, must take on as many
employees as they can possibly employ usefully, and consider themselves obligated to keep them employed so long
as they render satisfactory service. Inevitably that will
result in the proportion of salaried employees being very
largely increased—a most desirable effect.
The success of this plan will depend upon the extent
to which all those in intimate contact with and experienced
in industry and finance are willing and able to assume their
undoubted responsibilities. Let us repeat that. It will be
argued that they will not do so unless compelled; that
there must be a supreme overall authority with executive
power to enforce decrees. This is tantamount to saying
that we have to depart from democratic processes, which
would be unfortunate and would be resisted ultimately.
Surely, our people, our governments, industrialists, labour
and particularly our corporations and trade organizations
must be now seized of their responsibilities and duties. It
is unthinkable that men of education, brains, skill and
experience, those with vested rights and interest should
hesitate to risk everything they are and have in an organized
effort to prevent catastrophe.
It will mean that all the best men in the country will
have to get together as they have never done to date. Employers will have to form themselves into voluntary
organizations all over Canada and their representatives
meet in convention. The first and primary thing on the
agenda will not be finance, markets, etc., but employment
and employable people. Every last employer will be asked
to undertake voluntarily the steady employment of the
largest number of people possible without real risk to his
enterprise. As men are chalked up in one industry more
men will be necessary in several others in a position to
supply the potential market thereby improved. A force
of 300 bridge erectors (for example) required by railways and governments will require that 1,200 men be
employed in the mills to supply them with timber, concrete
and steel and so on. The mere fact that they are met
together prepared to assume their responsibilities is sufficient to instil the confidence so necessary in a crisis. As
the lists are carefully revised upwards potential markets
are increased until a safe maximum is reached.   The need
JULY, 1944 not be further elaborated. The idea is to estimate on the
basis of people not goods—establish incomes and the demand is assured.
Similarly trade, professional and labour organizations
will meet. The first thing on the agenda will not be professional status, salary schedules or union rights but employable people. They will compile a register of all employables, grade them into classes on the basis of capacity,
training and skills. As the lists develop the capacity for
service and production will begin to take hold of the
conferees. The mere fact that they are prepared to assume
their responsibilities and duties will build up confidence in
their ability to deliver the goods. Having disposed of primary matters, the less important can receive attention.
These organizations will then make their submissions
to a National Board composed of representatives of the
various interests to be served. The first thing to be discussed will not be past industrial wars, jurisdictional
boundaries, etc., but people and work. Employable people,
including returned men and women, will have to be accepted as they are but means must be adopted to increase
their capacity for effectvie, good quality work. The idea
is to have an authority which will bring together management and labour, co-ordinate and make effective the work
of labour, civil re-establishinen!t, selective service and
other governmental and private organizations; and eliminate as far as practicable the tremendous amount of effort,
expense and worry in getting workers to their jobs. The
real difficulty will be to keep them steadily employed. The
National Economic Research and Development Board will
have to be a permanent authority, constantly watching
over our whole economy. An industry facing declining
markets will have recourse to the Board for advice and
help but the response will be favourable or otherwise
depending upon conditions and more particularly upon
that industry's will and ability to compete in price, quality
and service. We cannot be any system of advice and
control save an industry from the results of its own lack
of enterprise.
But you say, what about the young, the old, sick, incapacitated, the casualties, the useless. There is only one
answer—we will have to take care of them. Except for
the young and old we should be able to reduce their numbers, restore to a large extent their usefulness. After all
haste is not advisable or neceseary. Providing we are
marching towards the dawn, the light of a new day will
strengthen and invigorate the strong and heal and restore
the weak.
It is admitted there are many difficulties to be overcome.
Management and labour will have to make good their
publicly stated promises to co-operate, and learn to give
and take, live and let live. The great need is to get our
people to understand these things. Perhaps the greatest
need is a campaign of education and instruction, especially
among the young—the old are too set in their ways.
No one doubts that our post-war difficulties will be
such as never before experienced. We will have to stand
up to them with all our strength and fortitude. We have
to make good the waste of war, pay our debts every last
one of them, rehabilitate this country and its people and
help as much as we can to rehabilitate other less fortunate
These things cannot possibly be done unless we all
plan and work as we have never done in our whole history,
with all the skill, energy and persistence of which we are
capable. Confusion, futility and mass unemployment cannot and must not be allowed. A thousand reasons could
be given why it is impracticable to guaranteed substantially full employment, but there is one reason why it
should be done; namely, it must be done. If we admit
that we have made a good start.
It is said in a fine old book, "The young men shall
see visions and the old men dream dreams." What do our
young men see and our old men dream? Ask yourself, ask
them. Listen again—"Where there is no vision (no faith)
the people perish." There we have it; are we, are the people
of Canada prepared to make the choice or simply default.
Is there deep down in us a sustained faith in ourselves,
in each other, in our country? The trouble is "not in our
stars but in ourselves." It is not the devil without but the
devil within us and he keeps us fighting with ourselves, prevents us from becoming integrated personalities, integrated
communities and provinces and an integrated nation. Disunity, indecision, discord and futility can easily result
from this inward civil war with devastating consequences.
Let us not be misled. A new and better, more civilized
world cannot emerge of itself from this world conflict. The
very opposite is far more likely. Bathtubs, motor cars,
planes and radios have almost nothing to do with civilization. It is the will and ability to give and take, live and let
live, bear and forbear, practice the golden rule. How then
can this war be expected to advance civilization when it has
reduced itself to 'an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth'
struggle for mastery. Admitting freely that when that
stage was reached there was no alternative, then what of
the aftermath of smouldering hate? And what about our
own industrial strife, class hatred, greed, corruption and
selfishness? How can a better world evolve from no better
people? We can still hope, however, that we have learned
a lesson, surely that is not too much to expect.
There is plenty of justification for a well-founded faith
in our people. The great majority are sane and sound.
They are facing up to the present crisis with fortitude;
but some way it seems the right people are not articulate.
After all the discussion has ceased, those capable of getting
things done should be heard from and drafted to do the job
or we will fail.
So much that we hear and read emanates from well-
meaning but impractical visionaries, intellectuals who
haven't faced up to life and fought their way to competence, authorities on everybody's job but their own.
They can tell us about substitutes for wool but cannot
knit a sock.
The three indispensable qualities in a nation are
strength, balance and stability. Perhaps the most important is stability which requires that we do not let ouselves,
each other and our country down.
It is not surprising that humans vary widely in their
response to life. After all, what is life? Is it a pilgrimage?
If so, many will get lost in the wilderness and long to
return to the flesh-pots of Egypt. Is it a game? Then
only a few get prizes, some that don't deserve them. Is
it a crusade? Then many will falter, lose faith and some
be martyred. Is it a battle? Then there will be many
casualties, unfortunately far too many among the innocents.
To most of us it has been at times all of these things
but none of them is quite satisfactory. Life should be an
enterprise for which we educate and train ourselves; into
which we put our time, our strength and our skill; in
which  we  are  prepared  to  take  definite   risks  but   from
On June 12 the Alumni Executive issued
a circular letter containing facts and suggestions on student residences. The Chronicle
prints herewith excerpts from some of the
many letters received in response to the circular:
I wish to acknowledge your letter of June 12 th
with regard to student residences. Personally I fully
agree with everything that you say about their importance and I will do what I can to see that these are built.
Minister of Pensions and National Health:
Your representations concerning the necessity for
immediate construction of student residences have been
carefully noted, and will have my consideration.
Fraser Valley:
On behalf of Fit./Lieut. Sinclair, who has returned
to active duty with the R.C.A.F., and myself I will be
glad to bring your recommendations regarding housing
before the proper authorities.
C.C.F. Leader in the B. C. House:
We appreciate your writing on this matter and assure you that our organization is most desirous that the
U.B.C. should be developed to the fullest extent and
that all necessary facilities should be provided. You
may be assured that we will do all possible to assist in
the attainment of your objectives.
Member, Board of Governors:
I think every member of the Board of Governors is
convinced of the necessity of such buildings and is prepared to erect the same just as soon as money is supplied
but as you know the money comes largely from the
Government and we must look to this source to secure
the money for student residences. Just as soon as this
is available I can assure you that the Board will construct the same.
which we can be assured of a fair return (perhaps an
abundant reward), not necessarily in dollars and cents but
in those far better things which satisfy and adorn life.
If such is this one life in this world, what is our duty
to our partners in this great enterprise? Just simply to
see that they all get a fair chance and a just reward. There
is the conclusion to the whole matter.
We canot secure for ourselves a worthy destiny without hard work, much sweat and certain risks but it is
wholly possible without drudgery, tears and bankruptcy
provided we proceed on a plan that is sound and just, compatible with nature and her laws and men and their ways
and in step with those great spiritual forces marching on
with ever expanding purpose to order and harmony.
Premier of B. C:
I have for acknowledgment your letter of June 12,
and note what you have to say regarding the establishment of student residences at the University of British
B. C. Minister of Mines:
I am keenly aware of the necessity, am interested in
your objective and will endeavour to further your cause
when opportunity offers.
C.C.F., M.L.A., Vancouver:
As one who began university life in the old Fair-
view buildings, I can well realize the long and difficult
process of getting adequate buildings, both for class
and laboratory work and for living accommodation.
There is a pressing need for residences and I agree that
the most strenuous efforts should be put forward now
to get them built as soon as men and materials can be
made available.
On behalf of our C.C.F. group, I and several others
have urged the need for a large-scale, low-rental housing program under public auspices for our city. At the
next session of the Legislature I hope to renew that
demand and add to it the one for university residences
and a new nurses' residence for the Vancouver General
Hospital. I shall do what I can in the meantime to
arouse public interest and want to assure you that the
more you can do in that line the easier it will be to
secure legislative action when the matter comes up in
the Legislature.
B. C. Minister of Education:
In reply to your letter of the 12 th instant I may
say that I am in full sympathy with the desire of your
Association to have student residences erected on the
University campus but I would point out that it is
quite impossible to proceed with such a project at the
present time. No funds have been voted by the Legislature for the purpose and the Government has consistently refrained from entering upon large new projects during the war. We shall keep your recommendation in mind for the post-war period.
M.L.A., Similkameen:
May I say that I am heartily in accord with the
proposal in your circular letter of the 12 th instant, and
will do what I can to bring it to fruition.
JULY, 1944 Proposed Eight mile Tunnel...
for Strait of Oresund
J Post-war project will require special excavators for economical lb
| construction of world's longest underwater tunnel. |P
Plans are ready for an early start after the war on construction of a tunnel to connect Denmark, near Copenhagen, with the Swedish mainland near Malmo, passing
under the Strait of Oresund. The strait at this point is
very shallow—only 3 5 ft. at deepest point—and the bottom
consists of layers of hard sand and limestone. Thus, it will
be practical to use the open trench method of construction, but the scheme will require the building of very
special excavators for a deep and wide trench under water.
The tunnel will come up to the open on the Island of Salt-
holm, a little more than three miles from the Danish side,
and  more than 4l/2   miles  from  the Swedish  side of the
day. Ten ventilation towers, at an average spacing of
3600 ft. along the tunnel, will make possible a renewal of
air every other minute when the tunnel traffic reaches its
The tunnel is expected to require some 200,000 tons of
cement, and 1,300,000 cu. yd. of sand and gravel. Estimated cost is almost $50,000,000. It is expected that a
part of this cost will be offset by increase in the value of
the Island Saltholm, the 10 sq. miles of which is at present
uninhabited and almost worthless. With rapid access by
the tunnel it will become a suburb of Copenhagen and •will
undoubtedly be popular as a summer resort.
*""r""^ /.6', Ground/ine
34 Ttri- • ■.'![■ -^-H'
"3280'--~—-3280'-~* 4940
'940'- -fc-3280-'--'t -4M0'- A
Typical Cross Section
 »• Fresh tn'r
' Exhausiair
strait. The nearly eight-mile length is said to make this
the longest under-water tunnel in the world.
Plan for construction is to build a graving dock at
each of the four places where the tunnel goes under water.
The tunnel sections, each 165 ft. long, will be built in the
graving docks at the rate of one every three weeks, and will
then be floated out and sunk to position in the open trench.
After the tunnel sections are complete, the full length of
the graving dock becomes the open approaches to the
As will be noted from the cross section of this tunnel,
it is a rectangular box and will have space for one track for
an electric train, and a two-lane highway with a catwalk
on one side. The road will be 22 ft. wide, a little greater
than ordinary American tunnels. Traffic capacity will be
8,000 motor vehicles and  60 trains in each direction per
A toll to be imposed on all trains, vehicles and passengers is expected to cover the maintenance and fixed charges
and yield a small dividend on the investments, which will
most likely be under government control.
The natural affinity and friendship between Denmark
and Sweden has long made the connection under the Strait
of Oresund desirable. Division of the world into spheres
of influence has strengthened the feeling of unity in the
Scandinavian countries and made this tangible link a mutual
Planning of this tunnel has been carried out in minute
detail, in Denmark under the supervision and leadership of
N. J. Manniche and in Sweden by J. N. Dalhoff, Managing
Director of the Asa Engineering Firms. Detail plans have
been prepared largely in Denmark, where current construction and engineering work would benefit the Germans so
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Helsm9or>          \           »~ • »
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well reputed firms have been concentrating solely on postwar planning. Sweden has had more heavy construction
work during the war than in normal times, largely fortifications and other measures in preparing the country for
defense against possible aggression.
Mr. Dalhoff is at present in the United States investigating the possibilities of securing the special equipment
required for the unusual tunnel excavation and other machines necessary for a project of this size. The machine
particularly sought is an excavator to travel on the ocean
floor and dig out the trench, thus avoiding the limitations
of floating equipment. Mr. Dalhoff also has been seeking
information on American practices and suggestions from
American tunnel builders. — From Engineering News-
Record, June 15, 1944.
This Laux-glued
grain bin passed over
load tests for safety
and has been recommended as a permanent type of storage,
replacing iron and
steel bins.
These bins were
constructed of
5/l6th-inch three-
ply ply-wood, 19ft.
in diameter.
Mr. ALLAN S. GENTLES, Western Manager of the
Dominion Bridge Company, was elected a member of the
executive of the Canadian Institute of Steel Construction,
Inc., at the recent annual meeting of the Institute in
The new mine superintendent for the Kelowna Exploration Company is Mr. E. E. MASON.
Mr. W. O. RICHMOND is Vice-Chairman for the current year of the B. C. Chapter of the American Society of
Department  of Public  Work transfers  list  Mr.  S.  A.
CUNLIFFE,   Assistant   District Engineer,   going   from
Smithers   to  Pouce   Coupe.     He is  succeeded  by  W.   R.
WORKMAN of Nelson.
R. E. RENSHAW is taking up civilian work again
and is now with the Pioneer Gold Mines.
After serving with the Department of Railways since
1910, Mr. WM. RAE retired at the end of June. He was
Chief Inspector of Rolling Stock with headquarters in
Mr. G. B. ALEXANDER has been appointed District
Engineer of the C.P.R. for Saskatchewan. He was formerly Division Engineer at Vancouver and is succeeded by
Mr. C. A. Colpitts of Saskatoon.
Mr. FRANK. BUCKLE, formerly with the Granby
Company, has been appointed Superintendent of the Canadian Johns-Ma nville Company at Asbestos, Quebec.
Flying Officer GORDON CROSBY has been spending
a month's leave back in Vancouver after having been
listed as "missing" for four months. His plane was forced
down on enemy territory but he managed to escape to
England. Another airman glad to be home is Flying Officer C. C. CUNNINGHAM, D.F.C. He has been overseas
for the past three years.
Mr. J. D. MOORE has returned from Ontario to take
the position of Assistant Mill Superintendent with the
Cariboo Gold Quartz.
Congratulations to F. G. deWOLF and R. E. WILKINS
on their promotions to Acting Lieutenant-Colonel. Congratulations also to Major R. C. FARROW, Major K. R.
FORD, Acting Major J. S. KENNEDY, Acting Captain
J. W. TARBOX, and Wing Commander V. R. Hill, on
their promotions.
Announcement has been made from Ottawa of the
retirement of Brigadier N. D. LAMBERT from his post as
Deputy Quartermaster-General (Engineering). He will rejoin the Northern Construe ion Co. and J. W. Stewart
Ltd., of Vancouver, of which he was Superintendent before
Mr. D. L. COULTER has succeeded the late Bert F.
Smith as Manager of the Premier Gold Mines.
The newly appointed Vice-President and Managing
Director of Bralorne Mines Limited is Mr. M. M. O'BRIEN,
for many years connected wi h the Consolidated Mining
& Smelting Company of Trail.
JULY, 1944
11 We 6ngineer-Statesman
Director of Education,
International Business Machines Corporation.
Presented at the Annual Meeting, Middle Atlantic Section, S.P.E.E.,
Manhattan College, Dec. 4,  1943.
and the
General Welfare
The arrangement of today's program has conspired to
bring together three different voices and experiences on the
same theme, although no one of us conferred with either
of the others. The message of Brother Victor is more
than a courteous welcome. His words are an assurance
that our theme would be hospitably received by our host
institution. The paper which Commissioner Sheridan has
read not only gives me confidence in my own point of view
but, also, provides me with the support of his statement
which is at once profound and practical.
My theme opens upon a scene set a quarter century ago.
I was seated one noon-hour at my drafting board idly
fingering the pages of an engineering journal when my attention was riveted upon an advertisement for technical
books. Across the top of a two-page spread and set in
bold face type were these challenging words: "What, No
More Worlds to Conquer?" The text of the ad went
on to note that the passing of the geographic frontier had
caused some to think pioneering a thing of the past. However, argued the text, we are at the portal of a great new
frontier—the technical world of the future for which the
geographic frontier was only a prelude. Here was a challenge to pioneer the "wonder-full" opportunities of a new
Now we stand in the fresh, confident, adolescence of
that new world and feel the warm strength of our growing
achievement in the conquest of nature's resources. With
the restlessness of adolescence, we reach out in a vague consciousness that "eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither
hath it entered into the heart of man the things which the
Lord hath in store for him." As it is with youth, so it is
with our technical development, we have yet to achieve
the mature judgment with which we will make technical
power legitimate.
Here, then, is a new frontier. Just as the geographic
frontier provided the resources for our technical exploitation, so the technical frontier provides the power with
which "man may realize the responsible maturity of the
Nowhere have I found this so well illustrated as in the
motion picture, "Edison, The Man," in which Spencer
Tracy played the part of Edison. The scene portrays Edison at the banquet where the great of science and engineering pay tribute to his achievements. When Edison
rises to respond, he speaks these words:
"To be told by the outstanding men and women of
your time that you have contributed a great deal to human
betterment is pleasant, very pleasant. I would hardly be
human if my heart did not fill with such a major compliment. But somehow I have not achieved the success I
want. Earlier this evening I talked with two school children. Tomorrow the world will be theirs. It is a troubled
world—full of doubt and uncertainty. You say we men
of science have been helping it.    Are those children and
their children going to approve of what we have done?
Or are they going to discover too late that science was
trusted too much so that it has turned into a monster whose
final triumph is man's own destruction? Some of us are
beginning to feel that danger, but it can be avoided. I
once had two dynamos. They needed regulating. It was
a problem of balance and adjustment. And I feel that the
confusion in the world today presents much the same problem. The dynamo of man's God-given ingenuity is running away with the dynamo of his equally God-given humanity. I am too old now to do much more than to say,
'Put those dynamos in balance. Make them work in harmony as the great Designer intended they should.' It can
be done. What man's mind can conceive, man's character
can control. Man must learn that, and then we needn't
be afraid of tomorrow, and man will go forward toward
more light."
This, then, is a goal for the technical professions: "Put
those dynamos in balance." Bring the forces of human
engineering into mature control of the power generated by
material engineering. Just as knowledge without love is
barbarism, so ingenuity without humanity is a destructive
force. The travail of the world at war is sufficient testimony to this principle. Ingenuity controlled by humanity
can bring in the brotherhood of man.
Here is a high privilege and a primary goal of the technical professions.
In exploiting this theme, let us note first that the interdependence technology has created in the modern world
favors those whose special interests can be coordinated with
the interest of the general welfare.
Edward C. Lindemann1 has pointed out that each
period of modern history shows certain centripetal ideas
around which the currents and eddies of thought tend to
polarize. The Seventeenth Century was dominated b)
Inquiry and Affirmation, the Eighteenth Century by
Denial and Invention, and the Nineteenth Century by
Acquisition and Competition. The developing trends in
the Twentieth Century indicate that Coordination and
Participaption are central in the complex of modern
thought. To Relate and To Participate are imperative
verbs in our time.
Two world wars have written in blood the lesson that
no nation can live unto itself alone. Now we are learning
that no race can live unto itself alone.
The incredible advance in radio communica'ion has
placed such a premium on intercultural understanding that
men are forced to relate their thought to that of other men.
The ingenious development of aviation has given us a
common carrier that flies with impunity over the traditional barrier of oceans, mountain ranges, ice caps, rivers,
and deserts. These no longer separate nations or provide1
the physical basis for national sovereignty.    Today the air-
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE plane is a carrier of destruction.   It can be a messenger of
peace tomorrow.
Perhaps no instrument of man's creation points up the
interdependence of material and human engineering as does
the airplane. It has given man a new dimension of living.
It has revolutionized military tactics and we are at long
last trying out its strategic power. "But this eagle will
not always be an eagle. It will some day be a dove." The
ingenuity of the engineer has given the world a transport
that, used for the general welfare, can bring the promise
of peace and understanding. It has shrunk the world so
that men rub elbows with a frequency and complexity
hitherto unknown. They will clash in painful friction or
they will link arms in cooperation.
The industrial developments of specialized manufacture
and division of labor have created a fundamental interdependence among raw material holders and finished goods
producers. Reciprocal coordination of trade is as necessary
to healthy economic life as the intake and exhaust of
breathing are to body hygiene.
Just as no race, no nation, no institution, can live unto
itself in isolation, no special interest can live unto itself
alone. Scientific thinking cannot separate itself from the
social effects of its application. Engineering and business
must plan with consideration for the social welfare as well
as for gods, labor, and capital.
Laboratory tests and machine operations may be specialized but the general welfare cannot be. The machine
operation has significance only as it contributes to the
whole product. In like manner, technical operations have
significance only as they relate to the general welfare. The
technical professions must become the socio-technical professions.
In the second place, let us note that there are many
signs of the times which indicate that men are learning to
relate their special interests to general goals. In its masterful monograph on "The Domestic Economy,"2 Fortune
magazine points out that "the many corporate managers
who so solemnly chose 'service' as their motto are not
really trying to fool anybody. They are groping, if only
subconsciously, for a new social principle by which their
power may be made legitimate."
In his life-long purpose to develop "World Peace
Through World Trade," Mr. Thomas J. Watson, President
of International Business Machines Corporation, reaches beyond the limitations of ordinary business self-interest to
assume social responsibility equivalent to business' social
"Management," said Mr. Alfred E. Sloan, Chairman of
the Board of General Motors, "must contemplate the effect
of its policies on the community at large—and plan accordingly." 3
The program of the Committee for Economic Development under the guidance of Paul G. Hoffman and the
leadership Eric Johnston is giving as President of the United
States Chamber of Commerce are leading business to plan
for the conservation of human resources as well as for the
production of material goods. These signs of the times are
encouraging to those whose faith looks to voluntary social
development: to save our economy from dependence upon
state control.
Thirdly: To the engineer, as to all men, the truth applies that much is required of him to,whom much is entrusted. By virtue of his great technical power, the engineer has equally great responsibility to make that power
socially legitimate. A people who have conquered the
earth, the sea, and the air must conquer the spiritual forces
which give meaning and direction to material striving.
In this campaign, technical leadership occupies a strategic position. I may serve to bring poise and balance to
a world that is prone to follow science as the children of
Hamlin followed the Pied Piper.
Much of the gross secularism of our time has its roots
in the ethical relativism which conditions so much of our
private living and public thinking. This fickle lack of
standards which characterizes so much of public appeasement is directly antithecal to the technical precision of
science and engineering. The revolt against the principle
which favors the so-called "realistic mind," which glorifies
"individual self-expression," which approves "expediency"
in public affairs, is ethical anarchy. It is the trend which,
according to Alfred Noyes, has brought our civilization to
"The Edge of the Abyss."
The universality of quantitative measurement, the reliability of physical properties, the habit of proving and
checking calculations—all properties of the technical man
must be interpolated into human engineering. Here is a
challenge which holds the opportunity for engineering
statesmanship. He who fails to meet it will remain the
craftsman-technician. He who rises to the social need will
fulfill the high purpose of statesmanship.
What has this to do with engineering education? It is
obvious that the continued development of our technology
will bring the engineer increasingly into social and administrative responsibility. The lag of human engineering behind
material engineering should propose no moratorium on
technology as some of the imaginative Utopians have suggested. Rather, it demands that those who have achieved
so much in technical advance should give leadership in
bringing the dynamo of humanity into balance with the
dynamo of ingenuity.
Lest we pay too exclusive attention to him who protests that the technical man cannot attend to social considerations without diluting his science and engineering,
shall we note again that the general welfare is not special-
iazed. The technical man must not "draw a circle and
shut him (the social scientist) out" crying "heretic, rebel,
a thing to flout." No, he and love must have "the wit to
win ... draw a circle and take him in." Here is a challenge to leadership. Rather than selling science short, hospitality to social problems consequent of scientific advance
will tend to assure the social stability of technology.
Engineering education is beginning to recognize the
advantages of building a teaching and research department
into a cooperative working synthesis of the scientists,
mathematicians, and engineers. Should we not make the
circle complete and bring the social scientist into the partnership?
An analogy to this proposal is found in the growth of
industrial design. Not long ago, a famous manufacturer
held the policy that he cared nothing for the appearance of
his cars if large masses of people could buy them. Within
twenty years, this policy had shifted so radically that
beauty was central in advertising copy for that manufac-
Please turn to Page 16, Column 1
1 Hazen Conference Lectures, Ansilomar, California, August, 193 6.
2 Supplement to Fortune Magazine, December,  1942.
3 Ibid.
4 "The Edge of the Abyss," Fortune Magazine, October,   1942.
JULY, 1944
SGT. PILOT GEO. B. SANDERSON, R.C.A.F.—Graduated in 1934 in Commerce—starred in English rugby,
golf and running. Was an efficiency expert with the
Gloucester Aircraft Company before joining the R.C.
A.F.—Ph.D. in Economics at the U. of London, England.
W/O DAVID GRAHAM (2nd Class)—On active service
over Germany.
action piloting an R.A.F. bomber overseas.
CAPT. JOHN A. WILSON, Seaforth Highlanders—Killed
in Italy.
LIEUT. JOHN KENNETH HENTIG, Seaforth Highlanders—Killed in action in Italy. B.Com. 193 5—
Prominent in the Junior Board of Trade and Point Grey
Golf Club.
CAPT. JOHN J. CONWAY—Seriously injured in Italy
—B.A. 1935.
LT. ALLEN COE—severely wounded in Italy—Was a
member of the C.O.T.C. at U.B.C. and was staff photographer on the Ubyssey.
LT. TED CRUISE—Wounded in Italy—in the Westminster Regiment.
CAPT. MALCOLM BROWN—Armored Car Regt.—
Seriously wounded.—B.A. 1939.
F/O DON ROBERTSON, R.C.A.F.—Graduated from
Pearce, Alta., from the Air Observer School, as the
youngest member of his class, with second highest honors. Has been overseas as navigator with a night
bomber squadron—was prominent on the campus in
W02 JACK MORRITT, R.C.A.F.—Missing after air operations overseas.
FLT. LT. J. P. "PAT" FLYNN, R.C.A.F.—Missing on
air operations after going over Germany—was a member of the Thunderbird basketball team which won the
Dominion championship in 1941.
WOl DONALD M. ROBSON, R.C.A.F., New Westminster—Missing after air operations as a bomber pilot.
WO R. B. "ROD" McMILLAN, R.C.A.F.—Missing in action overseas—a navigator. Rod was a well-known
soccer player.
F/O DUNCAN MacFAYDEN, R.C.A.F., is listed as missing. F/O McFayden left University in January, 1942,
his graduating year in forestry, to join the R.C.A.F. He
had already obtained his Bachelor of Commerce degree.
He was born in McBride and attended schools in Prince
Albert, Ottawa, Kamloops and New Westminster,
graduating from Lord Byng High School here. While
at U.B.C. he was musical society president.
F/O R. D. TAYLOR, Ap. Sc. *44, has been listed as missing overseas in the invasion operations. F/O Taylor
was affiliated with Delta Upsilon fraternity,
JOHN E. STOREY, Lieut. (E.), R.C.N.V.R., was the
only son of Lt.-Cmdr. (E.) and Mrs. G. T. Storey. He
was born in Victoria, B.C., May 3rd, 1917, but: received
all his education in Vancouver. He attended General Gordon School, Kitsilano Junior High, and was an honour
student at Vancouver Tech. He graduated with the 1941
Class, U.B.C , receiving the degree of B.A.Sc. in Mechanical Engineering,
Joining the R.C.N.V.R. as Prob. Sub-Lt. in February
of that year, he was called to active service immediately
upon completing the University exams and left for King's
College, Halifax, for three months' training.
In September, 1941, he was posted for service with the
Royal Navy and given an appointment as Sub-Lt. (E.) on
the cruiser H.M.S. Glasgow, with instructions to join her
in Singapore. On reporting to Naval Authorities there, he
was ordered to proceed to Ceylon, and from there across
India by train, to Bombay, where he finally joined the ship
just prior to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour.
The following eight months were spent in strenuous
activity around Singapore, East Indies, Coral Sea, and Indian Ocean. Due to damage from enemy action the ship
was sent, via South Africa, to U.S.A. for repairs, and Sub-
Lt. Storey returned home on leave, later receiving an
appointment as Engineer Officer of the Minesweeper H.M.
C.S. Ignonish, engaged in patrol duties on the North Pacific.
In April, 1943, he was appointed to the East Coast,
promoted to Lieutenant, and given charge of machinery of
the Minesweeper H.M.C.S. Red Deer, doing convoy and
patrol duties on the North Atlantic.
In November, 1943, he was sent to an Eastern shipyard
to stand by the building of the Frigate H.M.C.S. Valley-
field, and when the ship went in'o commission was appointed Engineer Officer in charge of machinery.
The H.M.C.S. V alley field proceeded on convoy-escort
duty to and from Great Britain and was torpedoed and
sunk with considerable loss of life at midnight on May 6th,
F/O CAMERON MADDIN, R.C.A.F.—In a temporary
camp near the Rhine River in Germany.
SGT. MICHAEL G. McGEER, R.C.A.F.—In Germany.
EUGENE LOPATECKI—In;erned in Sumatra Camp,
Netherlands East Indies—B.A. 1938, M.A. 1939. A
chemistry graduate—was appointed to a rubber plantation in Malaya in June, 1941.
F/L DANIEL B. QUAYLE, R.C.A.F.—From Ladysmith,
Vancouver Island, B.C.
W/C C. A. WILLIS, R.C.A.F.—Previsously missing, now
prisoner of war.
P/O ALAN BREMNER, R.C.A.F.—At A.G.T.S. at Calgary.
P/O LESLIE S. PARSONS, R.C.A.F.—Now stationed at
Pat Bay as a navigator.
P/O EDWARD McDONNELL, R.C.A.F.—Serving overseas.
SPR. GEORGE J. SMITH—Serving overseas with the
Royal Canadian Engineers.
LT. STANLEY G. PATTERSON—B.A.Sc. with honors
in 1943—serving with the Royal Canadian Ordnance
Corps, Pacific Command.
LT. LAWRENCE PATTERSON—B.A.Sc. with honors in
1943—serving with the Royal Canadian Corps of Signals overseas.
SUB-LT. (E) W. H. GOODWIN, R.C.N.V.R.—Took a
special course at H.M.C.S.  Stadacona—B.A.Sc.   1943.
LS ROBERT MacDONALD, R.C.N.V.R.—Serving overseas since 1943.
LT. E. R. M. FLESHER, Canadian Armored Corps—Serc-
ing overseas—B.A. with honors, 1940.
LT. Jj H. COLL YER, R.C.N.—Is aboard H.M.C.S. Prince
Henry—is on a R.C.N, cruiser and landed soldiers on
the French invasion coast.
P/O ELMER BARNES, R.C.A.F.—Serving overseas as a
W/C D. F. MANDERS, R.C.A.F.—Was made a Member
of the Order of the British Empire in the King's birthday honors list. B.A. 1939—He is one of three Canadian flyers who invented a two-channel ground-to-air
transmitter now used by the R.A.F.
Recently awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross for
courageous action in sinking a Nazi U-boat off the
coast of Iceland. Was well-known at U.B.C. in sporting circles.
Awarded a bar to his Distinguished Service Cross.—
Now stationed at Halifax.
COL. PERCY M. BARR, U.S. Army Air Corps—Intelligence in Italy.—Awarded the LEGION OF MERIT for
extraordinary fidelity and essential service.—B.A.Sc.
S/L HOWIE D. CLEVELAND, R.C.A.F.—Awarded the
D.F.C.—The citation read: "This officer is an extremely efficient flight commander whose example of
courage and determination has proved most inspiring.
He has completed very many sorties."—He was first
reported missing and then was found to be interned in
Sweden.   However, he has since returned to England.
S/L RALPH MANNING, R.C.A.F.—Awarded the D.F.C.
for sinking an Axis tanker in the Mediterranean in
October, 1942, and torpedo bombing of the German
cruiser Prinz Eugen in May of 1942.—He is well into
his second year of operations in the Far East.
COL. A. M. BROWN—Awarded the O.B.E.—Is at present stationed in England. Was a former partner of
Maj.-Gen. Victor Odium, Canadian Ambassador to
SGT. DONALD F. McLEOD, R.C.A.F.—Recent graduate
from Air Observer School at Chatham, N.B.
S/L "HUNK" HENDERSON, R.C.A.F.—A prisoner of
war in Germany since 1941, writes that Canadian internees are enthused over news of Allied developments
whiGh filters into camps. He has recovered from his
leg injury, and now walks six miles a day.
F/O R. G. CROSBY, R.C.A.F.—Missing four months in
enemy territory but returned to England. B.A.Sc,
F/O J. D. PENN McLEOD, R.C.A.F.—He is writing off
economics examinations for the Inter B Commerce degree of London University—has been a prisoner of war
since May, 1943.
F/O ARCHIE PATON, R.C.A.F.—He was forced down
with his crew in the North Sea after a trip over Germany. After three hours, they were rescued.—B.A.
1941.—He is a former editor of the Ubyssey,. He is a
navigator with the Moose Squadron.
LT. C. J. HILL and LT. CMDR. L. S. KYLE, R.C.N.V.R.
—Manned landing craft that ferried the first Allied
troops to the Normandy beachhead. Kyle commanded
a flotilla of Canadian vessels which teamed up with the
United States Navy in beaching troops during the
F.O. CLARENCE D. SIBBETT, R.C.A.F.—Shot down a
German aircraft near La Havre while on patrol over
France—also shot down a Dornier 217 in a raid over
London during March.
P/O GORDON L. BELL, R.C.A.F.—Received his navigator's wing recently at Winnipeg.
LT. PETER J. McTAVISH, R.C.N.V.R.—Was navigator
on the destroyer Gatineau when it, along with other
Canadian escort warships, forced a German submarine
to the surface and destroyed it in a recent North
Atlantic action. He was also on the Skeena when she
destroyed an enemy submarine in the summer of 1942.
He graduated in Commerce in 1941.
S/L LAURENCE MEREDITH, R.A.F.—Has been appointed to Lord Louis Mountbaf.en's staff to serve in
Ceylon at the present.    He graduated in Arts in 1929.
BRIG. GEN. NOEL D. LAMBERT, Deputy Quartermaster-General of the Canadian Army and a U.B.C. engineering grad., has returned to his civilian position of
general manager of Northern Construction Co. and
J. W. Stewart Ltd.
S/L R. E. CLINE, R.C.A.F.—Won the D.F.C. for meritorious service while a member of the crew of a plane
which, in conjunction with naval forces, almost totally
destroyed an enemy convoy.—He has also been awarded
the Africa Star and Service Medal. He will train for
a pilot after two and a half years as an observer.
JULY, 1944
1) LT. THOS. E. LADNER, R.C.N.V.R.—One of nine members of the R.C.N.V.R. to win mention in despatches.
This is the third time he has been mentioned—he was
previously cited for "gallantry in attack on an escort
tanker," and "for bravery in an attack on the enemy
while serving in M.G.B.'s." He received his B.A. in
P/O J. S. BYRN, R.C.A.F.—Following in his father's
footsteps when he received his wings as Macleod, Alta.,
in April.    He left U.B.C.'to enlist.
A.F.—Back in Vancouver after serving overseas. F/O
Hoskins will instruct at Boundary Bay. He received
his B.Com. in 1940.
FLT. LT. ROBERT A. HAYWOOD, former Varsity
Rugby player and a member of the Commerce class,
shot down a Messerschmitt 109 near Evreux, France,
early in June.
PIO DAVID G. CUMMING, R.C.A.F.—Recently promoted to the rank of PIO from Warrant Officer while
serving overseas.
—Graduated recently from a navigation course at an
Eastern Canadian port. Mentioned in despatches "for
displaying skill and devotion to duty in carrying out
hazardous mine recovery operations," he has had 15
months' sea time to his credit serving aboard three
sub-chasing Fairmile M.L.'s. He was on the French
Merchantman Lisieux when she foundered in the North
Atlantic nearly three years ago. The crew was picked
up after 22 hours in open lifeboats.
LT. EDWARD H. MAGUIRE, R.C.N.V.R.—Is commanding officer of the Royal Canadian Navy minesweeper H.M.C.S. Milltotu/n, one of the minesweepers
which cleared the sea during the invasion. He has had
three and a half years' sea time, having served in two
Royal Navy corvettes before being appointed to a
command course in Canada and to his present command.    He got his B.A. in 1937.
Continued from Page 13
turer's car.    The esthetic urge in the people had won out.
Another illustration of the interdependence of technical
and human factors is found in the general practice of
manufacturers who have field men from sales and service
constantly reviewing and criticising mechanical design.
Modern business practice requires a place for the buying
public at the engineering conference table.
Now we enter a new period in which the old slogan,
"The public be damned," is replaced by the slogan, "The
public be served." The general welfare is more than a constitutional phrase. There is a ground swell in the thinking
of men which, taken at the flood, leads on to a better world.
The future is to those who learn to relate their special
interests to the general welfare. Professional education will
stand or fall in the eyes of the public, the support of
patrons, and the attendance of students to the extent that
it learns to Relate its specialties to general ends and to
teach its students to Participate in the general welfare.
—From The Journal of Engineering Education, Feb., 1944.
ROBERT SMITH, all of the R.C.N.V.R., manned torpedo boats on D-Day—these boats defended the invasion armada—they guarded invasion lines open to France
for supplies.
t    QDbtittarwa    t
BERT F. SMITH, B.S., Min.E. (Idaho), Mem. A.I.M.E.,
M.C.I.M., Manager of the Premier Gold Mining Company, died suddenly at Premier on June 13 th. Though
born in England, Mr. Smith's education was received in
the United States and his early mining experience was
gained while in the employ of the American Smelting
and Refining Company. In 1920 he joined the Premier
Company as Assistant Manager and was appointed Manager in 1935. He will be greatly missed by his mining
P. W. W. BELL, R.M.C, died recently at St. Joseph's Hospital, Victoria, at the age of seventy-one. He had been
in ill health for the past eighteen months. Born in
Port Hope, Ontario, his early engineering work was
with eastern railway companies. From 1899-1901
he served in the South African War and later carried out various civilian railway works in South Africa.
He returned to British Columbia in 1912 and joined the
Department of Public Works. In 1916 he went to
China on railway work for the Pacific Construction
Company. Following this he carried on a private practice for a few years but rejoined the Department of
Public Works in 1923. At the time of his retirement
in 1942 he was District Engineer for Victoria.
Travellers, Etc.
summer.—B.A.  1944.
DR. MURIEL E. HIDY, associate professor of Economics
at Wheaton College at Norton, Mass., visiting her parents in Vancouver. She graduated from U.B.C. in 1927
with first-class honors, and was awarded the Antiquarian Fellowship at Clark's University, Worcester,
PHYLLIS BISHOP will go to Toronto, Endecott, N.Y., and
New York City. She was chosen with four other Canadian University co-eds to attend a series of system
service classes to be conducted in the above-mentioned
cities. She is the first B.C. girl to receive the distinction of being chosen. After -her course is finished, she
will return to Vancouver to represent the firm sponsoring her.  She received her B.Com. 1944.
the initial group sent to Florida for specialized training
under an Army Air Corps scheme. She is stationed at
Western Air Command at present, a member of operations department. She was the first U.B.C. student to
join the W.D., R.C.A.F.
Left   to   Right,   Back   Row:    Col.   C.   C.   Lindsay,   J.   B.   deHart,   Dr.   A.   E.
Cameron,   Dean   R.   A.   Spencer,   H.   C.   Anderson.      Front   Row:   M.   J.   Aykroyd,
W.   P.   Dobson,   P.   Burke-Gaffney,   Major   M.   Barry   Watson,   A.   D.   Creer.
Left  to Righl:   P.  Burke-Gaffney,  J.  O.  Martineau,  H.  C.  Anderson.
Dominion Council of
eetmg... yn\m\na\ Engineers
The Annual Meeting of the Dominion Council of Professional Engineers was held at the Chateau Frontenac,
Quebec, on May 24th-26th. Representatives from the various Provinces were:—
W. P. Dobson, Ontario, President.
P. Burke-Gaffney, Manitoba, Vice-President.
Dr. A. E. Cameron, Nova Scotia.
G. G. Murdoch, New Brunswick.
Col. C. C. Lindsay, Quebec.
Dean R. A. Spencer, Saskatchewan.
J. B. deHart, Alberta.
H. C. Anderson, British Columbia.
Major M. Barry Watson, Secretary-Treasurer.
Mr. M. J. Aykroyd, President of the Ontario Association, and Mr. A. D. Creer, Registrar of the British Columbia Association were present as obeservers.
The major topic of discussion was the effect of Order-
in-Council P.C. 1003 on the employed engineer. President
Dobson reported on the ruling of the Wartime Labour Relations Board following a deputation representing not only
the Professional Associations, but the voluntary engineering
and allied societies.    The ruling was as follows:—
"For purposes of the regulations, persons employed in a
professional capacity shall be deemed to be employed in a
confidential capacity, with the Board reserving the right
to review its decision in six months."
The following resolution was passed unanimously:—
Whereas the consensus of opinion of the delegates
here assembled is:—
1. That it would have been preferable if conditions
were such that it would not be necessary for professional engineers to group themselves together for their
own protection and advancement;
2. That conditions being what they are, something
must be done for the welfare of the professional engineers, engineers-in-training and students of engineering
throughout Canada.
3. That professional engineers in the normal practice of their profession occupy a position between labour
and management; therefore, in order to serve the best
interests of both groups, it is imperative that they be
not identified with either labour or management.
JULY, 1944
Be it therefore resolved:
(a) That the existing provincial professional engineering associations and corporation should immediately seek from their membership the necessary authority to act for them in matters affecting the salaries and
welfare of their registered members, engineers-in-training, recorded members, students and juniors.
(b) That whereas these organizations are not now
legally empowered to assume such authority, they
should take the necessary steps to have their charters or
acts amended to that end.
(c) In those cases where direct action is not possible and legislative amendment is not feasible, that a
separate organization sponsored by the provincial associations or corporation should be established for this
Be it Further Resolved:
That pending the granting of such necessary authority to the provincial associations or their duly constituted organizations' that exclusion from the provisions of P.C. 1003 be continued and that a request be
made for a supplementary order-in-council granting
sole rights :o these associations or their duly constituted
organizations to negotiate agreements affecting the salaries and welfare of professional engineers, engineers-in-
training arid engineering students where these are engaged in the work of their profession.
The Council is unanimous in the suggestion that
when submitting this proposal to the membership of
each association that the latter should be informed that
there will be additional financial obligations involved
in this undertaking.
Among other items discussed were the following: Engineering Education; Admission of Foreign Engineers; and
Post War Reconstruction Plans.
In view of the negotiations with the Government as to
the Wartime Labour Relations Act, it was unanimously
agreed that the President, Mr. W. P. Dobson, and the Vice-
President, Mr. P. Burke-Gaffney, should continue in office
for another year. The 1945 meeting will be held in Alberta. cZditoxiaL ^ viz
L£tV$ _
A Vancouver daily has editorialized recently on the advisability of
establishing a School of Chinese Studies on the campus. With well-
reasoned logic the editorial points out that now is the time for Vancouver
to think about truly becoming the Gateway to the Orient. When the
War is over, it would appear that there are tremendous possibilities for
expansion of trade in the Orient and British Columbia is Canada's nearest
area to the Orient. Further, says the editorial, the establishment of such
a faculty would not be overly costly since much of the staff and equipment
is already present in Vancouver.
The Chronicle is not necessarily advocating a School of Chinese
Studies, but the reasoning behind such a proposition is a sound one. The
University of British Columbia is sorely in need of a progressive attitude
towards education in this province. There has been far too much fear of
venturing into new fields and the result has been that our University is
getting away behind more far-seeing institutions.
It is true that monetary considerations have been our major handicap
but there are many instances where the chances of overcoming the financial-barrier are more than good.    A law faculty, for example, would not
be extremely costly since there is present in the province a large legal
body whose support could be enrolled.  Elsewhere in this issue will be found
news of a gift of ten thousand dollars put up by the druggists of this province to help the setting up of
a pharmacy course at the University.    A Physical Education faculty does not present insurmountable monetary barriers.
There are some varied types of educational facilities that could be offered, even if only in a small
way, if the University really set itself out to offer them. What is needed is a desire on the part of the
University governing bodies, and of the Provincial government, to provide these facilities.
Instead of this desire the policy has been one of concentration of a few formalized fields. Even in
these success has by no means been great. Some of our faculties are so badly understaffed or under-equipped
as to make their courses useless. Only in recent years has the University been able to offer more than a
smattering of a Commerce course for those men who might well become the business leaders of tomorrow
and even now the course is by no means complete.
The University must come to realize that it is living in a world of wide educational demands. We
cannot dare concentrate our higher educational facilities on strictly academic subjects. They are all well
and good in their place and in their proper proportion but we must be ready to train our young men and
women in the fields in which they are to earn their livelihood.
This does not mean that we should adopt an unrestrained course of setting up innumerable small
faculties. The results of such would prove useless. Nevertheless there is room—and much room—for
expansion in a far-sighted way and for a realization that the world of tomorrow rs to a large extent a product of what we teach our young people of today.
When a man relinquishes control of his own affairs he naturally and automatically becomes controlled by others. In time he is dominated by others. He has lost his individuality. He becomes only
a part of a machine. He has lost his freedom. The road to freedom is paved with individual initiative;
with individual responsibility.
Today the tendency throughout the world, and, we believe, particularly in Canada, is to take from
men that individual responsibility and place it with some central body of authority. We find men
abrogating their rights to Union Officials. We see small businesses under the thumb (and usually
a very heavy thumb) of a huge octopus. In the realm of big business we have world-wide cartels.
But what appears to be the most dangerous feature of this modern trend is that it has crept into our
body politic.
Under the disguise of efficiency or with the excuse of wartime emergency, the Canadian provinces are slowly but surely handing their rights to the Federal Government at Ottawa. Certain interests are openly advocating more centralized control in the government of this Dominion. Their chief
argument is that there should be more uniformity in the laws of the nine provinces. But uniformity
should not of necessity mean central control. In fact, there is no uniformity of natural conditions in-
this vast country, and the idea of uniformity, therefore, should be tempered with the local conditions
and local needs.   Only the various provinces themselves can successfully cope with these conditions.
We bring these thoughts to our readers because we believe it imperative that the subject be
openly discussed by men who have the country's interests at heart. As engineers we know the absurdity of a top-heavy structure and a weak foundation. The strength of any structure is not controlled at the top. It is the foundation that is important. If the foundation is sound the top is
likely to take care of itself. The foundation of this Canada of ours is you and I. How good are we?
How sound is our thinking? Do we think at all, or are we just parrots relaying somebody else's gibberish, or "believing" in some one else's belief? ,
These are pertinent questions. They are questions that you and I must face fearlessly lest we
wake up one morning and find the central power so infinite that we no longer have the privilege of
expressing our thoughts.
Where control is in the hands of the few, the normal functioning of democratic methods can
be balked and harrassed at every turn. Orders in Council, bureaucracy, Special Committees with powers to act—these all tend to stifle the voice of the people. It is but a short step then to lobbying;
to control by minority, pressure groups with personal axes to grind. ,
We suggest that the extreme view of any subject is seldom, if ever, the correct perspective. A
measure of wise control is naturally necessary, but it is only wise when it is performing the will of
the controlled. Remote control cannot be in touch with that will of the people. Our civic and provincial authorities are necessary, and it is our belief that we should guard zealously our local rights of
government. We are going to see still more forays on our provincial and civic sovereignty, and it is
for us to analyze the situation and make our stand on the question.
The question, then, is: which is the mote democratic—centralized power or decentralized authority? Can we in this Dominion prosper'by relinquishing control of most of our own affairs to a centralized few at Ottawa, or should we insist on our heritage? Can Ottawa really get a true acquaintance
of Western needs, and would Ottawa do better for us than we can do for ourselves?
We all want a united Canada. Union is strength and strength means power—power to obtain
what we want as individuals. In fact it is only insofar as that individuality is respected that the union
becomes a success. The British Commonwealth of Nations is unfolding as a possible blueprint of a
new world order, but if the rights of the respective members of that commonwealth were encroached
upon, the whole structure would fall.
It is equally true in the smaller sphere of the nation itself. The provincial field of taxation
has been taken over almost lock, stock and barrel by the Dominion Government. Ottawa in turn
doles out to the provinces scanty funds for local needs and local development. The moment a man
or community of men become economically dependent on others, that man or community have become
indeed abject slaves. We suggest, therefore, as a basis for our approach to the subject, "Centralization or decentralization," that we stand pat on our economic rights. Only thus can we maintain our
liberty of thought and action.
Vested interests—vested powers are not the friends of the common nan. Whether in the industrial, commercial or political world, we voice the belief that we are travelling too fast along the road
of centralized power. In some business and industrial quarters far-sighted, men at the helm have
realized this fact, and are, as quickly as possible, travelling the other way.
Civic rights, once they are relinquished, are very hard to regain. When the war is over the British
North America Act will come up for discussion.    It may need some revision to bring it up to date, but
%     it will call for constant vigil on the part of every one of us if we are to retain our civic and provincial
rights—fought for and handed down to us by our forefathers.
This question is a challenge to all, but particularly to the scientific minds of technical men, who,
when they build, know how to build well. An engineer is truly a better engineer for being interested
in the vital problems of his day and generation, and for being willing to contribute toward their solution with orderly, scientific thinking.
JULY, 1944 19 I  The Physiology of
High Altitude Flight
Editor's Note: Bill Gibson is one of the University's greatest "boosters." He has travelled extensively in England, Spain, Russia, and the United
States. Currently Fit. Lt. Gibson is campaigning for
the establishment of a Medical Faculty on the campus and also a school of public administration for
professional men. He is associated with the No. 1
Clinical Investigation Unit, R.C.A.F., Toronto. For
the interest of our readers we print herewith part of
one of the lectures on high alti'ude flight that Bill
has been giving across Canada. This material is
published by permission of R.C.A.F. authorities.
The three major physiological problems of high altitude
flight are anoxia (or oxygen starvation), decompression
sickness (or "bends"), and frostbite. They are today the
chief causes of failure in carrying out assigned flying missions at altitudes above 25,000 feet.
One is often asked why it is necessary for aircrew to
fly at altitudes up to 40,000 feet where the physiological
risks involved are reputedly as great as the dangers of
enemy action at lower levels. It should be made clear at
the outset that by persistent and pooled research by physiologists, engineers, and clothing experts, it has been possible
to overcome the hazards of high altitude flight in a very
effective way. High altitude flying can be shown to be
safer than any other type when the equipment so laboriously perfected in laboratories is used by aircrew strictly
according to the rules laid down. The stratosphere exacts
a grim price from those who fail to adhere to the rules.
The values of high-alti'.ude flight may be briefly enumerated as:—
(a) Protection from anti-aircraft fire, which now exceeds 30,000 feet.
(b) Protection from unpredictable weather hazards on
long missions, such as ice forming on the wings.
To take an illustration from the commercial field:
A survey was made in the United States to determine at what altitude so-called "Stratoliners"
would have to operate in order to fly transcontinental schedules daily, regardless of the weather.
It was found that an altitude of 20,000 feet would
permit "overweather" operations 90% of the time.
By going to 30,000 feet, an insignificant advantage was to be gained.
(c) Protection from interceptor craft.
(d) For properly designed aircraft the optimal speed
at 40,000 feet is just twice that at ground level,
due to the decreased density of the atmosphere at
great heights. In other words, long bombing missions can be accomplished more rapidly at high
(e) If a pilot is equipped for high altitude flight he
can select that level at which he has the help of
a favourable wind, thus increasing speed and decreasing fuel consumption.
Finally, reconnaissance planes, capable of flying
above 40,000 feet, can carry on their important
photographic work unmolested. Carrying no armament whatever, they can streak across the sky,
photographing battle lines, bombed areas, or fresh
(Anoxemia, altitude sickness or oxygen starvation)
The problem of anoxia is an old one. It determines the
outcome of battles today just as it did in ancient times.
Marco Polo, travelling across the high plateaux of central
Asia, complained thta there, "fire is not so bright nor so
warm as in other places." The Chinese attributed their
mountain hardships to "pestilential exhalations from the
ground." Thousands perished of anoxia and cold in the
conquest of Peru and of Chile, about the time Jacques
Cartier landed in Canada.
The history of the way in which we gained our present
understanding of anoxia is particularly interesting for
medical men, since the first balloonists were doctors—and
to balloonists we owe a lot for their early attempts to find
out the composition of the atmosphere in which we now
fly so freely.
The first human being to go up in a balloon was the
French surgeon, de Rozier (1783). A Boston physician,
John Jeffries, flew a balloon from Dover across to France
soon afterwards. Edward Jenner startled the quiet folk of
Gloucestershire with a hydrogen balloon for a time. James
Tytler, a Scottish surgeon, was the first man to go up in
a balloon in the British Isles. George Fordyce, the London
physician, sent up hydrogen balloons with a motley crew
composed of a pigeon and a cat, a dog and an Italian!
These ascents all had as their object the gathering of information on meteorology and on the effects of high altitudes
on living creatures. They are to be sharply disitnguished
from the later buffoonery in which showmen took up tigers
and wedding parties in balloons!
In the evening of January 30th, 1804, a Russian otologist, Sacharov, made a very useful balloon ascent from St.
Petersburg, in company with a distinguished French pilot.
Sacharov described the dullness and numbness in the ears
so well known to flyers today from barometric pressure
changes. He accurately measured the reflection of his voice
from the earth, his pulse and respirations, and he filled
evacuated tubes with air at varying altitudes up to 8,000
feet. By 10:30 p.m. he was feeling so well that he wanted
to go on all night. When the pilot refused to concur in
this, Sacharov, with a disregard for January weather found
only in Russians, took off his fur coat and threw it out of
the balloon, in the hope of gaining height. But the pilot,
obviously less affected, promptly brought the balloon down.
Not all pilots have had the sense to come down as this
one did, while still able to make sensible decisions. In 1875
a  balloon  ascent,  in which  two physiologists  died,  shook
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE the French nation as if a bomb had struck. Two well
trained aeronauts had died while ascending to an altitude
of 28,000 feet. A third, Tissandier, landed in a state of
collapse, but soon recovered. The story of what happened
on that tragic ascent, as contained in Tissandier's notebook,
is so typical of what happens even today, wherever aviators are stubbornly skeptical of the value of oxygen, that
I shall dwell for a moment on the relevant details of the
The most striking thing about the whole tragedy is
that two men died from lack of oxygen, and yet when the
balloon landed, the leather oxygen bags contained "the
larger part of the oxygen that had been put into them"
The three balloonists took ofl knowing that they had a
dangerously inadequate oxygen supply. Against the advice
of Paul Bert, the great French physiologist, they took off,
resolved that they would use the oxygen sparingly, and only
when absolutely necessary. Two of them died before this
necessity occurred to them—anoxia's onset was, and still is,
so insidious.
Their oxygen was breathed from a short tube stuck in
the cork of an ordinary laboratory "wash bottle." Oxygen
from the leather storage bags entered the wash bottle by a
tube which bubbled it up through water "flavored with
benzoin"—to take away the odor of the leather bags. With
no mention of the nose being shut off, it is possible that
the balloonists breathed in the surrounding air as well as
their oxygen, even when they did use their apparatus.
Water, even "flavored with benzoin", freezes at about —3°
C, and since the balloonists spent two hours at —8° C. or
colder, it may be that their oxygen bubbler system froze
up—just as some poorly designed oxygen masks do today.
At 14,000 feet the French balloonists took a few token
whiffs of oxygen to reassure themselves that their oxygen
apparatus would work. But a false sense of security was
even then overcoming them, and their fatal mistake, too
often repeated today, was made at 14,000 feet—for there
they set aside their ozygen until they should "really" need
it. At 23,000 feet Tissandier awoke to the fact that his
companions were motionless. He later wrote, "Numbness
had seized me; my hands were cold and icy. I wanted to
put on my fur gloves; but without realizing it, the action
of taking them from my pocket demanded an effort which
I could no longer make."
Though Tissandier managed to write a few more notes,
he had no recollection of his having written them when he
studied his records as ground level. As his handwriting
became less legible, it became repetitive—both classic signs
of anoxia.
Anoxic incidents of this type occurring in military aircraft today have brought near tragic results of which we
know, and probably fatal results of which we shall never
Tissandier summarized the situation in a nut-shell when
he said, "One does not suffer at all; on the contrary. One
experiences inner joy—one becomes indifferent; one no
longer thinks of the perilous situation or the danger; one
rises and is happy to rise." He continues, "Soon I wanted
to seize the oxygen tube, but could not raise my arm."
Soon all three were unconscious.
For a brief moment it seemed as if Fortune were with
them, as the balloon began rapidly to descend. With the
decrease in altitude and the tossing of the balloon, one man
regained consciousness. He threw out ballast in order to
stop the descent, and then in a desperate effort threw over
instruments, and the blankets which were to keep the
three warm. This was the final error, for it was then —8°
C. and the altitude was 21,000 feet. Up went the balloon
again to an unknown height, to return to the ground 1l/?
hours later with two men dead, and one in a faint.
Thanks to the labours of Paul Bert and other physiologists, the reasons for "altitude sickness" have been made
clear to us. He showed that decreasing the barometric
pressure had no effect on a man if he breathed sufficient
oxygen. It was the lack of oxygen in the upper atmosphere which killed men, not the decreased barometric pressure as such. This seems a commonplace to us today, who
laugh at the evil spirits and "pestilential exhalations" once
thought to be the danger. But how many of us stop to
realize that at an altitude of 10,000 feet there is available
only two-thirds the mass of oxygen which we enjoy at sea
level, and at 16,500 feet only half as much? At 33,500
feet there is only one-fifth the sea level oxygen.
Now human beings are so constructed as to require an
oxygen pressure of three pounds per square inch in the
lungs at all times (i.e. one-fifth of the atmospheric pressure
at sea level). The further we rise from sea level the greater
must be the oxygen supplement introduced through a mask.
At approximately 3 5,000 feet, where the total atmospheric
pressure is only about three pounds per square inch, our
respiratory intake must be entirely oxygen. The natural
air at 35,000 feet will not sustain human life for many
seconds. But a properly functioning oxygen system will
make life 100% efficient at an altitude of 35,000 feet for
as long as one wants to remain there. Such a system has
been perfected by R.C.A.F. researchers and is available for
service today wherever required.
For altitudes in the neighborhood of 40,000 feet or
above, where the total barometric pressure falls to approximately two pounds per square inch, methods must be found
to raise this to the three pounds per square inch necessary
to support life, even when breathing 100% oxygen. As
Paul Bert suggested last century, pressurized cabins and
pressure suits would solve the problem, as they have done,
to a large extent, in small, easily-pressurized aircraft. But
the structural problem of pressurizing large bombers is still
considerable. A plane built strongly enough to maintain
sea level conditions inside the cabin, while flying at 50,000
feet, would never leave the ground, so heavy would it be.
The future for pressure suits is not bright, due to their inflexibility and awkwardness. However, the Russians have
stayed 5J4 hours at a simulated altitude of 53,000 feet in
pressure suits, and have flown aircraft in comfort at the
same altitude with them.
A final oxygen problem of high altitude flying is concerned with parachuting from high levels. An aviator
leaving his aircraft at 40,000 feet and not opening his
parachute, would reach the ground in three minutes. If he
opened his parachute on leaving his plane, he would reach
the ground in 24 minutes; he would float for eleven minutes through the cold and oxygen-deficient air above
20,000 feet. He might, therefore, land safely, but be
dead. If, on the other hand, he delayed opening his parachute, he might lose consciousness at a great height and fail
to awaken in time to pull his rip-cord. In which case he,
also, would be dead. Therefore, high altitude flyers are
equipped with a small portable bail-out bottle, that which
contains sufficient oxygen for several minutes' breathing.
With this a flyer can remain conscious during his delayed
jump, and can pull his rip-cord when he has left the cold
and anoxic regions of the sky.
JULY, 1944
21 What is WRONG   }
Editor's Note: This analysis and criticism of our
University government together with some constructive suggestions for improvements has been
prepared by a group of prominent alumni and is
being released with the hope that it will foster much
discussion and call forth further ideas in the interests of the betterment of higher educational facilities in B. C.
Comments and criticism will be equally tvrl-
comed.  We are waiting to hear from you.
*      *      *      *
Outmoded Constitution at U. B. C.
A bi-cameral system of government is an extremely
good device to prevent things being done. The British
Columbia University Act (1936) provides for a bi-cameral
system of government, viz. (a) Board of Governors and
(b) Senate. The other provisions regarding Convocation
and Faculty Council are unimportant and in practice have
no influence on University Government policy. A bicameral system of government has its origin in one of the
flukes of history—away back in the time of Simon de
Montfort (1265) when the king in calling representatives
to his Great Council issued two kinds of writ, one a general
writ to burgesses (whence comes the House of Commons)
and another a personal writ to squires and landowners
(whence comes the House of Lords).
Governmental institutions the world over have followed
the British pattern on the theory that an elected body,
which might reflect the popular emotions, would prevent
hasty action and put a brake on social change.
In Canada the Senate has become an asylum for superannuated politicians; in the United States the constitutional
division of powers is even worse. The early constitution
builders of the American Constitution followed Montesquieu's adulation of the British Constitution and read
into it a division of powers—Executive, Legislative and
Juridical Divisions of authority—at a time when in Great
Britain the Executive and Legislative funcions were being
co-joined in a Cabinet system responsible to the House of
This development escaped Montesquieu and the Americans, following the earlier model, set up a system of checks
..nd balances which is nowadays a constitutional anachronism and leads to continuous obstruction. These facts are
well known.
Centralization of Power
In a University there is no need for a system of government designed to obstruct educational policy and educational development or expansion.
The Board of Governors is supposed to be a finance
committee, and really nothing else, while the Sena'.e is
supposed to be in control of educational policy, but this
division of powers is not only obstructionist but also impossible of attainment.
It is well known that he who controls the purse strings
controls the policy also. In practice, therefore, the Board
of Governors controls the educational policy, the personal
policy, and the public relations policy (if these do exist)
of the University.
•     •     •     L*c.    •     •      •
The University
* # * *
The Senate, which is much more representative, has
become simply either a rubber stamp for changes in
courses proposed by the faculties or a mildly suggestive
body for something new, e.g. Home Economics.
Undemocratic System of Appointments
What makes the matter worse is that the majority of
the Board of Governors are government appointees,' appointed on a 3-year rotal system which gives the government an indirect but regulatory control over the finances
and policies of the institution. It may be objected that the
government does not interfere directly with the institution;
it doesn't need to interfere when it controls the majority
appointments to the Board.
Meager Senate Representation
The Senate representation of three members to the
Board has in practice been of no importance whatever;
they have never asserted an education policy which was
either their own or the declared policy of the senate. In
appointing members to the Board the Government has not
chosen citizens of outstanding educational qualifications or
those representative of educational aspirations.
Raise Appropriations, Not the Fees
They have chosen for the most part successful business men, conserva ive in their thinking. The Board has
never shown'any vision, any constructive thinking, any
forwardness in promoting the University one way or another. They have followed the line of least resistance—
raising fees rather than fighting to raise appropriations.
This is to be expected from Government nominees;
they are not likely to attack the Government which appoints them. As long as they think of their own prestige
as members of a University Board of Governors they sacrifice the prestige of the University.
The result has been that the University has become less
and less democratic both in government and in spirit.
Educational Opportunity Curtailed
Increasing the cost of a University education limits its
services and the opportunities it presents to the public.
Equality of educational opportunity is limited by economic
status, and if the policy of the University Government is
to raise fees rather than appropriations it is providing educational facilities not for all who wish to avail themselves
of these opportunities but for those of the middle class—
the sons arid daughters of the more prosperous citizens. It
becomes a class and not a provincial institution.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE That has been #ie development of the University ever
since the depression slice in the University appropriations.
Nor has the Board of Governors ever made an effort to
fight publicly for a better deal for the institution. Apparently they have been willing to accept prestige without the
responsibility of being members of a University governing
No Personnel Policy
This lack of responsibility, of constructive ac ion, of
forward thinking and even of ordinary awareness permeates
the whole institution. For example, there is no personnel
policy. Increases and promotions are both haphazard and
beyond normal expectancy. Promotions are not made for
length of service, personal research, personal publications,
personal teaching ability, or on any reasonable criterion
which one would normally associate with an institution of
higher learning.
Outstanding members of the staff have gone for years
without increases or promotions while others with no better training or comparative achievement and even with a
shorter period of service to the institution are rewarded in
How can any department function in the best interest
of the University when it is operating on a temporary basis
for a period of years while the head of the department is
on perpetual leave of absence? This arrangement is not
fair to the acting head nor inducive to he best educational
services to the students.
Such a policy does not make for harmony in the institution; some men eventually get soured, feel that there is
no use putting forth a special effort and take their duties
perfunctorily. This lack of a personnel policy has led to
the suggestion that increases and promotions should be decided by lottery—then at least all would have an equal
The fault, of course, lies with the Board of Governors;
their staff committee apparently assents to all changes, to
all increases or promotions presented to them by their administrative officers without enquiring, but, what is more
important, without reference to a set of rules or criteria
winch any sound personnel policy should have.
Senate Only a Channel
Without the tools you cannot build. Without the personnel you have not a universtiy of higher education, but
merely an uninspired school for routine training.
The Senate, which is more represen' ative and democratic than the Board of Governors, has not shown much
initiative either in presenting an educational policy or in
pushing. Of course, the Senate is at a big disadvantage.
All its resolutions are canalised and when presen ed to the
board may take on a new significance in the light: of financial commitments or of financial policy. When so many
of your ideas are stillborn you stop conceiving. So it has
been with the Senate.
The President and University Government.
What is the solution? No matter what manner of a
new President the University may get the governmental
set-up still remains. If he is a man who is so afraid of
making mistakes that he will never do anything the situation will be bad. A President should not be in a position
to play the Senate against the Board, and play educational
policy against financial policy; he should be as representative of the educational aspirations of the institutions as
every member in it and in its government.    He should not
be in a position where he can be blamed for a lack of
initiative or of a constructive policy if he is blocked by a
bifurcated system of government and responsibility; nor
should he be in a position to claim an alibi for himself by
blaming his own shortcomings on the Board or the Senate.
The present system of government places a President in
an ideal position for escaping personal responsibility and
for assuming powers which rightly do not belong to him
at all. An undemocratic system of government makes for
petty dictatorship; an enlightened dictatorship may be tolerable but this does not justify it. An unenlightened dictatorship is a cancer on the institution which is designed
to serve democratic needs.
The President Responsible to a Democratic
Representation cf the People
The President must be made amenable to democratic
institutions, that is, amenable to control and to the broad
policy of education in this Province; he ought to be responsible to a governing body elected on broad democratic
principles, not to a body largely appointed by the hand
that control:; the Provincial appropriations. If he is a
small man in a big job he will be made bigger than he really
is by working with democra ic representatives. If he is a
big man to start with he will not object to working with
those representing the larger purposes of the community.
The institution must be protected against the appointment of a small man by making the University a big responsibility. That in the last analysis can only be done by
making the Government of the University as democratic
as possible, i.e., as representative as can be of professional,
education and group interests of every community, income
bracket, or occupational field in the province.
Change University Act.
The time has come not only to get a new President but
to get a new constitution for he University. We have the
former, now to get the latter. The British Columbia University Act should be changed. One governing body should
be established which would have in its own hands the education policy and the financial policy of the institution.
Enlarge Senate.
The Board of Governors should be abolished and a broad
representative body after the model of the Senate should be
set up in its stead. The Government could still appoint a
few members to the new representative senate if it so desired but these would plainly have to be in the minority.
The finance function of the body could well be undertaken by a committee which would report ways and means
tO the body (or Senate) on every new proposal. In this
way educational policy would be integrated directly with
financial resources.
Faster Public Discussion.
Moreover, if finances should not be available for any
proposed development (e.g. establishment of a law school)
it would be the responsibility of the Senate to present its
case as a body to the Provincial Government, initiate public discussion on the policy and obtain public support.
There has been too much hide-and-seek in the past;
the public has never been fully informed about University
matters—policies, finances or problems—but these should
be brought into the light of public discussion. If the
University policy is sound and constructive the University
has nothing to hide from the public. If it wants to hide
something from the public you may be sure it is wrong.
JULY, 1944 Alumni Action.
The Alumni should press, therefore, for a change in
the University Constitution immediately. The opportunity
is now and it may be related to the post-war educational
programme for higher education and above all for the democratization of higher education.
Recommendations—Decentralization of All
University Facilities.
Immediate objectives should be:—
(a) Change in the University Constitution as indicated
(b) The reduction of fees to a nominal amount to make
equality of education opportunity a reality.
(c) A revision of curricular requirements in line with a
broader educational policy for the institution, such as
inclusion of a department of Human Relations (we
have studied many relations during the recent century
of scientific development but little attention has been
paid to better ways of getting along with your coworker, neighbor or fellow nation—witness the present war's strife between people).
(d) Provision of funds for social and economic research
iether from Foundations or from special appropriations
from the Government for this purpose.
(e) Dominion subsidies for higher education to meet
(i)   technical and occupational forming;
(ii)   to co-ordinate government research and University  research  in  a  wide  range  of  scientific  fields
through the better use of their joint staff and equipment.
For this, due emphasis must be placed on liberal arts
educational facilities, for the province and nation will need
many well rounded and clear thinking men and women as
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leaders in the human cause of democracy to counterbalance
the large number of scientific and technical personnel being
trained at present.
One might add that the function of the University
should be broadened out as far as possible not only into
general education for the masses, but also into the promotion of the Province's resources and industrial development.
Only hesitant and tentative steps have recently been taken
in this direction; they have come not from the initiative
of the University authorities but rather from outside necessities.
The first two (a) and (b) above, are primary requisites for the democratization and the better government of
the University. The others are ancillary but eventually
necessary if the University is to fill its proper place in the
life and opportunities of the Province.
Tuum Est "it is up to you" has come to mean "It is
up to the other fellow—I'll pass the buck. Better our
motto should be "it is up to us" and let us earnestly do
something about our provincial University of B. C.
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monthly Bulletin
University Science Students Regulations
By the end of May, out of approximately 13 50 Engineering and Science graduates of the class of 1944, 1000
had been definitely placed either with the Armed Forces or
in essential civilian undertakings. In this connection, it
should be borne in mind that certain universities had not
held their convocation exercises and quite a number of students were busy with attendance at C.O.T.C. camps. Actually, the placement of the graduating class was well advanced as compared with the previous year and this is no
doubt due to the fact that it was possible to put into effect
the machinery for allocating these students considerably
earlier this year due to experience gained in 1943, which
was the first year in which the Science Regulations were
Reference to the Bureau's permit files indicates that
there is no lack of openings in essential undertakings for
the absorption of this year's graduates. In certain branches
of engineering and science, the graduating class had been
practically completely absorbed by the end of May and
applications were continuing to come in for the balance.
Demand foj Technical Personnel (Armed Force)
It is estimated that there are between 5000 and 6000
technical persons now serving in the Armed Forces as technical officers. In addition to those who have been placed
in technical appointments, there is a considerable number
serving either as officers in non-technical branches or in the
ranks of the three services. It is also known that considerably more than half of the technical persons serving in the
Armed Forces graduated since the war broke out. This is,
of course, to be expected in view of the fact that maximum ages for entry in various capacities in the different
services tend to restrict appointments and enlistments to
men in comparatively low age groups.
So far as technical appoin* ments are concerned, there
has been no difficulty in securing for the technical branches
of all three services such technical persons as are required
from time to time.
Monthly Statistics
During the month, 1800 interviews were granted by
the Bureau staff; 97 questionnaires were added to the files;
and 793 permits to employ technical personnel were issued.
Editor's Note:  Miss Taylor, a prominent graduate
and newspaperwoman, is an Assistant Editor of the
That Col. H. T. Logan, Rhodes scholar and ex-U.B.C.
faculty member, is doing a fine job as principal of the Prince
of Wales Fairbridge Farm School at Duncan is no news to
U.B.C. alumni. But an interview with Col. Logan during
his annual Convocation visit to Vancouver convinced this
representative of the Graduate Chronicle that the secret of
his success lies even beyond his ability and his enthusiasm for
the work being done. The principal of Fairbridge is spurred
on in his achievements by a deep conviction that the training
of future Canadians as provided at the farm school is one of
the greatest contributions that can be made towards the successful future of this country.
To help the underprivileged child in England, at the same
time enriching Canada's population by providing sound, well
trained settlers, is the object of the Kingsley Fairbridge system as outlined by Col. Logan, who points out that this is a
form of immigration that cannot fail in results. "We try to
teach the children what is good and right," said the Prince
of Wales School principal, "and how they can get a start in
Canada along lines that will contribute to Canada's well-
being.   The work is sound in method and sound in results—
and is work that can be multiplied over and over again, in
every province of Canada, if the people want it."
The Fairbridge farms, established in 1909 by the late
Kingsley Fairbridge, to rescue children from damaging conditions and to train them for life and work in the Dominions,
are supported by private subscription in the United Kingdom
as well as by grants from the British government. The British Columbia school has also for the past three years received
a grant from the provincial government, and since the beginning of the war has succeeded in getting several large private
subscriptions in Canada, to ease the sterling situation.
Interesting facts disclosed by Col. Logan included the information that: already the total earnings of Fairbridge graduates more than balance the cost of their education. In 1942
the youngsters, both graduates and those still in training,
earned more than $60,000 in wages, and have invested in
excess of $10,000 in Victory Bonds. Each child has a savings
account, as a saving plan is an important part of Fairbridge
training. Until the age of 21, it is a rule that part of all
wages received goes into the bank. At present Fairbridgians'
savings amount to over $20,000.
"So you see," Col. Logan explained in this connection,
"it is worth it even from an economic standpoint—and still
more from a human one."
The number of children at the Prince of Wales School is
now down to 124—40 girls and 84 boys. There have been
no new arrivals since 1941, and a recently expected group had
their sailing cancelled by the Home Office as a pre-invasion
Of the 125 graduates, 45 boys and 9 girls are in the active
forces, 20 being already overseas. The average age of these
youngsters is 18 l/2.
(Please Turn to Page 36)
We are indeed gratified to learn that organizations in
this Province, other than groups closely associated with
the University, are interesting themselves in the question
of dormitories for the undergraduates.
At the recent Conference of the B. C. Region of the
Canadian Junior Chamber of Commerce held at Penticton,
the following resolution was unanimously adopted:
Whereas the Senate and the Board of Governors of
the University of British Columbia have submitted a
Brief to the Post-War Rehabilitation Council asking for
buildings costing $550,000.00 for dormitories for men
and women;and
Whereas the need for these dormitories has long
been apparent in as much as it has been very difficult
for students from the Interior to find suitable living
quarters; and
Whereas this difficulty has been further aggravated
during the last four years due to the influx of war
workers; and
Whereas this condition has undoubtedly in many
cases been the deciding factor in turning students away
from the University of British Columbia to other universities;
Now therefore be it resolved that the British Columbia
Region of the Junior Chamber of Commerce of Canada
give their strongest support to the request of the Senate
and Board of Governors of the University of British
Columbia and ask the Government that such dormitories be given first consideration in any building programme at the University of British Columbia.
The resolution was submitted by the Rossland Junior
Board of Trade.
We hope that the action of such a representative body
as the Canadian Junior Chamber of Commerce will be
emulated by other organizations throughout the Province,
particularly those located in communities in the Interior.
We have good reason to believe that the success of our
endeavours to persuade the authorities to construct such
obviously necessary facilities will depend to a great extent
upon the demand arising from centres and rural districts
in the Interior from which students requiring such accommodation originate.
It should be the duty of all graduates living anywhere
in this Province to sponsor resolutions such as this within
any organization or group to which they belong. Public
opinion on a broad and substantial basis must be mobilized
in support of dormitories if our programme is to succeed.
IULY, 1944
25 correspondence .
Replies and Views of the Writers on the Subject of
Collective Bargaining for Professional engineers
June 20, 1944.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
93 0 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C,
Dear Sir:
Referring to your circular letter of May 19th on the subject of
Collective Bargaining for Professional Engineers, I have already forwarded to you my answers to the questions set out in the questionnaire which accompanied your letter.
From casual discussion of the subject with other engineers, I
find that I do not see eye to eye with some of my fellow members of
the Association, and as my views. are definitely against exclusion of
Engineers from the provisions of P.C. 1003, it may be proper that I
should record my opinion, so that the Council may know that the
viewpoint in favour of exclusion, which has gained wide publicity, is
not unanimous among the rank and file of our membership.
It seems to me that the Engineering Profession has become unduly
disturbed over the question of Collective Bargaining, and I personally
see no objection to associating myself with my fellow employees for
the purpose of collaborating with our employer in matters of working
conditions and general welfare.
P.C. 1003, entitled "Wartime Labour Relations Regulations," was
passed by the Governor General-in-Council on February 18, 1944, as a
measure in the public interest to facilitate collaboration between employers and e'mployees "for the advancement of the enterprises in which
they are engaged." These regulations are deemed necessary "by reason
of the War, for the security, defense, peace, order and welfare of
Canada and for the effective prosecution of the War."
' According to the preamble of the Order, the regulations are made
for the following purpose:—
"That employers and employees should freely discuss matters
of mutual interest with each other;
"That differences between employers and employees should be
settled by  peaceful means;  and
"That both employers and employees should be free to organize for the conduct of negotiations between them and that a procedure should be established  for such  negotiations."
The  regulations   authorize  Collective  Bargaining,   and   provide   for
the   establishment   of   Wartime   Labour   Relations   Boards,   Conciliation
Officers and Boards, and other machinery for the proper functioning of
the provisions made.
Canada Chain & Forge Co.
The memo prepared by the Ontario Association, a copy of which
was forwarded with your letter, indicates that some engineers wish to
be excluded from participation in Collective Bargaining as outlined in
P.C. 1003, and as an alternative urge the establishment of a Dominion-
wide body composed of engineers only. In other words, it is proposed
to form a National Trades Union of Professional Engineers. This
appears to me a dangerous proposal, to which I am definitely opposed.
There are two statements in the Ontario memo with which I
disagree and shall deal with presently, but first of all I agree that there
are some members of the engineering profession who are not affected
by P.C. 1003, namely, those who are classed as employers. There is
a further group, the consulting engineers in private practice, who can
quite well look after themselves by acting as their own bargaining
agents. It is the great bulk of the members of the profession, those
who are employed by Manufacturers, Contractors, Mining Companies,
Public Utilities, Government Departments, Municipal Governments,
etc., who are mainly affected by this order-in-council, and it is with
this group chiefly that my further comments are concerned.
In the second paragraph of Article 4 of the Ontario memo it is
stated that:—
"It   (P.C.   1003)   places engineers  in  a  group whose interests
are not their own."
I disagree with this statement. Why should engineering employees
stand aloof from their fellow employees, such as accountants, salesmen, clerks, stenographers, etc., and expect treatment under Wartime
Labour Relations Regulations different from that which may be legitimately desired by their fellow employees? And why should engineering employees deny their fellow employees the benefit of helpful cooperation in such  matters?
Engineers as a group should have no self-interest in regard to
Collective Bargaining which could not be shared to advantage with
their fellow employees. Our professional interests are not directly or
primarily concerned with Wartime Labour Relations, and any attempt
on our part to make use of our position as a professional body, restricted by legislative enactment, to obtain preferential treatment under
an exclusive form of Collective Bargaining, would in my opinion not
only lose us the respect of our fellow citizens, but would destroy also
within ourselves the professional spirit that we have consciously striven
to cultivate during the past 25 years.
There may be engineers who do not wish to associate themselves
with any of the large industrial Labour Unions, but, as far as I can
see, it is not required under P.C. 1003 that they must do this. Take
my own case; I have hundreds of fellow employees who belong to one
International Labour Union, and hundreds more who belong to another
such Union. I have joined neither, but belong to a group of non-union
employees who have formed ourselves into an "Employees' Organization" under the provisions of P.C. 1003. Similar action should be
open to any non-unionized group of employees of other companies.
In the sixth paragraph of Article 2 of the Ontario memo, the
opinion is expressed: "that there is no reason why engineers should not
bargain collectively."
As already stated, I believe it to be not only inadvisable, but
indeed quite improper that registered engineers should bargain collectively as an exclusive body in matters governed by P.C. 1003. Such an
arrangement would automatically confer Trades Union Status on a
legalized professional group, and would constantly expose the Profession to a strong temptation to make self-interest its prime aim and
Any yielding to such temptation would conflict with the philosophy of the Engineering Profession, and would be contrary to the
spirit and purpose of the legislative acts which we have been entrusted
to administer.
It may well be that engineers who now occupy the Council seats
would scorn the idea of setting self-interest before public interest, but
once a Trades Union Organization were established, we would soon get
candidates  running  for  office who would  see  an opportunity  for pri-
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Vate gain, and whose ideas of professional outlook  and  public interest
might lead the whole engineering body sadly astray.
It is the old story of the serpent in the Garden of Eden pointing
to the attractive looking fruit. This particular fruit is called Exclusive Bargaining for Engineers. Is it sweet, and is it juicy? And how?
But if we take it and eat thereof, we may well find ourselves faced
with the prospect one fine day of expulsion from the garden of professional people.
In conclusion, just one word about the idea of still another Dominion-wide organization of engineers. We have too many as it is.
After years of discussion, we decided that the Dominion Council is the
logical body to represent all registered engineers nationally. That
Council has made slow and steady progress. It is natural and desirable
that its growth should be evolutionary rather than spectacular. If we
have a surplus of money and energy to put into Dominion-wide organization, let us put such effort into the activities of the Dominion
Council. But because the Government finds it expedient to set up certain Wartime Labour Relations Regulations to take care of problems
between employers and employees is no reason for forming yet another
engineering organization.
Let us be good citizens and make common cause with our fellow
employees  in  this   matter,  just   as   the  Government  intends  us  to  do,
and let us not lay ourselves open to reproach that we made opportunity
out of Wartime difficulties to jockey ourselves into a preferred position.
Yours very truly,
May 25, 1944.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
This  will   acknowledge  receipt  of  your  letter  of  the   19th  inst.,
with two circulars:—
(1) Memorandum  re Collective Bargaining.
(2) Questionnaire on Collective Bargaining.
I have just read the memorandum, and before looking at the questionnaire I would like to express my views on the whole situation. I
feel that I have had better than usual opportunity of dealing with
labour relations, and I would like my fellow members in the Engineering Profession to consider my views on the subject.
(1) I am very definitely opposed to professional people being represented by trades unions. There is practically nothing in any trades
union set-up as it exists in Canada today which makes it imperative
that a man should have any particular qualifications in order to be
in the Union. I think I am safe to say that ability to pay the fee
is the chief criterion for membership.
(2) The above being the case, we find our workers being organized into conflicting groups, each trying to steal an advantage over the
other, and in many cases working under the terrorism of a Union dictatorship.
(3 Under condition (2) the individual worker has very little
incentive to better his performance. In fact, he sometimes becomes a
marked man if he produces more than a less expert fellow worker.
(4) The professions—Engineering, Law, etc.—make demands that
a member shall have certain qualifications and live up to certain ethical
(5) With recognition of statement (4), why should such qualified people be represented by others without qualifications?
(6) In view of the foregoing I trust that all Professional Engineers will insist that they be represented for the purpose of collective
bargaining by  their own profession.
(7) P.C. 1003 provides in Clause 2 (f) (i) that an employee
does not include "a person employed in a confidential capacity or having authority to employ or discharge employees."
(8) In view of (7) it should be quite possible for the Society of
Professional Engineers to become a collective bargaining agency even
though its membership is made up of employers, those in confidential
capacities, and employees not in a confidential capacity.
(9) It seems to me that the Association of Professional Engineers
in this Province could get powers to act as bargaining agents, and that
no segregation of membership is necessary to carry on bargaining.
(10) If you were to seek segregation you would be faced with
the difficulty that a member may be an employer one day and an
employee the next. He might be in a confidential capacity one day
and in another category another time, and so on. The job he is holding for the time being will determine his right to participate in the
bargaining on one side or the other.
Generally: With these ten points before me I think I can answer
your questionnaire.
In expressing the foregoing I want you to understand that I am
definitely of opinion that the profession will not be improved by any
legislation that will deprive its members of initiative or accepting responsibility, and that has been very definitely the trend of Trades
Unionism in this country. However, if it is imperative that a collective bargaining agency must be created then we should seek to establish it in a form that will cause least harm to the dignity and usefulness of the profession, and that is my thought in providing the answers
Yours faithfully,
General Manager, West Coast Shipbuilders Ltd.
May 26th, 1944.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
Re questionnaire on Federal Order-in-Council P.C. 1003. This
Order will automatically lapse at the end of the war, and it is folly to
add more confusion to its consequences by trying to make permanent
adjustments with  a  temporary outburst of  dictatorial  authority.
It would take many years to bring nineteen Professional Organizations and eight Provincial Parliaments into harmony with the Order,
and the action of the Ontario Government. Let us hope the war will
end much sooner.
Professional Associations should keep absolutely clear of Trades
Unions. The Engineers would be permanently swamped by votes of
the inferior classes of employees.
The Trades Unions are going to be told, after the war, by the
returned soldiers, that their behavior in organizing war-time strikes
has been a disgrace.    The general public will agree with that view.
Yours truly,
Association of Professional Engineers of B.
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C
Dear Sir:
I am attaching,
collective  bargaining
June 14th, 1944.
completed   questionnaire  on
like to  make one  comment
as  per  your  request,
I  would, however,
which I feel may be of some use to you.
With regard to Question 3 concerning professional men working
on a fee basis. It is no doubt probable that at some time or another,
the great majority of engineers are acting in the capacity of an
employer with the power to hire and fire employees, either of the
trades class or of the engineering class, and Question 3 having been
answered "no" would, therefore, eliminate a great number of engineers.
I would therefore like to suggest that a rider to this question be
added stating that all professional men working on a fee basis be
excluded  from  the bargaining group and be deprived of their  voting
MArine 0751
JULY, 1944
B. G. ZquipmetU Ca. £td.
Head  Office
551 Howe Street
Vancouver, B.C.
Granville  Island
)06 Industrial St.
1695 West 5th Avenue
Vancouver, B. C.
PAcific 5841
631 Seymour Street Vancouver, B. C.
privileges only when employed in an employer capacity with the firm
being bargained with. I am making this suggestion because I feel that
there are no doubt many engineers working on a fee basis whose advice
would be of considerable value to a bargaining group or agent, either
in an advisory capacity or in an active capacity as a member of the
I trust you will not  consider it impertinent  that I should make
such a suggestion, but respectfully submit this for your consideration.
Respectfully yours,
June 26th,  1944.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
Please find questionnaire enclosed.
The difficulty of the problem is apparent the moment one attempts
to answer the questions. Perhaps in one's own interests they should in
some cases be answered No!, but for the good of juniors in the profession, perhaps Yes. In other words, engineers are all the time working up to positions of responsibility, close to management where wage
policies are determined. If those in industry are to be divided into
two classes, bargaining (inevitably fighting) with each other over wage
schedules, then senior engineers will perforce have to line up with
management and junior engineers with employees. Those in between
with ambitions and getting near to responsible positions will be in difficulties, not knowing whether to line up with management or stay
"with the boys" and will bring on themselves suspicion. In other
words, the great body of engineers in direct charge of work will be
rendered inarticulate insofar as collective bargaining is concerned.
My own personal opinion is—collective bargaining as proposed is
going to fail unless we devise some scheme which does not set one
class against another, professions against trade, and all against management, with the result that the unorganized pay the bill. Power in
the hands of executives remote from the dispute and with large funds
at their disposal to be used at their discretion, is almost certain to be
The position of engineers in affairs has been traditionally that of
arbiters with very substantial influence in dictating policies, settling
disputes and bringing about agreements. There is the danger that collective bargaining will force us to take sides without regard to the
justice of the case, a definite departure from our traditional place in
It is quite understandable that underpaid engineers take the view
that it is a struggle for survival in which the power of an organized
agency should be brought to bear; but is that the long view, the wise
one?    In my opinion it is not.
The Engineering Profession as a whole should be close to management and labour but in a position apart, judicial in the best sense
of that word.
Very truly yours,
Carbon and Alloy
Steel Castings
A \ton
e\ V°°°
HAstings 3040
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
Returned herewith your questionnaire regarding collective bargaining for engineers in Canada. It is late, I received it only today.
However, the points you mention are of as vital importance to those
of us who will return to the profession after the war as to those who
come directly under the provisions of P.C. 1003, which I understand
refers to the war period only; for no doubt many of the wartime
industrial regulations will be carried over, in part, to peacetime.
Please, let us not come back to Trade Unions of Engineers,
let us come back to the National Association of Professional Engineers
for  our  own   material  benefit.
Yours sincerely,
Note: With reference to the above, under the British North America Act the control of the professions is in the hands of the Provincial
Legislatures. A national association could only be formed by agreement
between the Provincial Associations along the lines of the present
Dominion Council of Professional Engineers.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
In connection with your letter of May 19th, together with questionnaire dealing  with  the matter of collective bargaining.
The first reaction, of course, is that professional men should
demand and insist on being left out entirely from the provisions of
P.C. 1003. The only reason why collective bargaining has become an
accomplished fact and is being encouraged by law is because of pressure
exerted on various Government bodies by organized labor. Admittedly,
it has points in its favor. It also serves greatly to increase the power,
already great, of the leaders of organized labor. Whether this is a
good thing or not is open to question, as in all too many cases these
leaders are making the whole labor movement into a private racket
for themselves. The more power given them, the more they become
entrenched in their positions.
If the technical men of Canada, in a body, insisted on being left
out from these collective bargaining rulings and exerted their undoubted power in the manner that labor unions do, I imagine the
Government would soon back down and arrange matters so that there
would be no possibility of a labor union ever demanding that they be
the bargaining agency  for the professional  class.
In connection with question "5" on the questionnaire; I believe
the bargaining group would exert more power and influence if organized on a national basis. On the other hand, members of a bargaining
group, who might be civil engineers, would know very little of the
problems affecting certain other groups of professional men. For this
reason, I think any bargaining should be done by a group representing
the different technical societies involved, but only if the society were
organized on a national basis.
There is no doubt that professional men should be represented by
men from professional ranks and our various societies should leave no
doubt in the Government's mind  that engineers, as a whole, will have
nothing to do towards permitting a trade union to represent them.
Yours truly,
Wallace &Tiernan Limited
Head Office and Factory
Chlorine and Ammonia Control Apparatus
Water Sterilization
Sewage Disinfection
Swimming Pool Protection
Industrial Uses
British Columbia Representative:
Registrar, June 13th, 1944.
Association of Professional Engineers of B. C,
930 Birks Building,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Sir:
1 do not wish to bore you or take too much of your time, but I
am not sure that the answers on the questionnaire adequately express
my opinion on collective bargaining. I have received questionnaires
from both the B. C. Profession and the A.I.E.E. (Canadian Section).
I agree with the author of the A.I.E.E. paper that, first of all,
the word "engineer" must be properly defined. It is an easy matter
to write down ten or more definitions of "engineer," each definition
representative of the opinion of different business groups and not one
being in accord with any other. What is to become of the junior men
(draughtsmen, rodmen, technicians, etc.) that are working to become
engineers if they are not included in the group, but are forced to join
a trade union? Will they find it easy to switch over when they
qualify as engineers? What will be the standing of a university graduate in physics, pure chemistry, pure mathematics, etc., if he chooses
to enter an engineering office or plant?
It is obvious that the word engineer cannot be defined in one
word or sentence. Could an engineer not qualify himself as such
through  a  system of  credits?
For example:   (The following proportion of credits  may be  radically incorrect bue it serves as an illustration.)
Let a man who has completed a bachelor's degree consisting
of a prescribed amount of mathematics and physics or
other scientific studies be given, towards education   15 credits
Let any man who has acquired his mathematics, physics, etc.,
through other sources (private study, correspondence
schools,   advanced    technical   schools,   etc.)    be   given,
towards  education     up  to
Since the person taking an applied science course at a university has more practical work than the pure physicist or
mathematician, let the applied science student be given,
towards  practice
10 credits
4 credits
Let each year of suitably varied experience in engineering offices or plants of the candidate's special field and each
year up to two years in other engineering fields be given,
towards   practice
2 credits
Let each year of experience in engineering fields other than
that   chosen   lor   specialization  over  the   two-year  limit
be given, towards practice      1 credit
For each membership of three years' duration and up to
three such memberships in technical societies (nine
years in one society, three years in each of three societies, etc.) with a reasonable attendance record at meetings, let each  candidate be given, towards education    1 credit
From the time of application of such a scheme, to become a professional engineer, let a man be required to have senior matriculation
and thirty credits, at least eight educational credits and at least ten
practical credits.
Consider the following examples:
Credits     Years
B.A.Sc.         15 4
(practical)           4
experience           8 4
Societies         3
Totals     30 8
Credits     Years
Studies _. 8
General   experience 5
experience     14
Societies  3
A. C ft Yuill
M.E.I.C, MEM. A.I.E.E.
Consulting Engineer
675 West Hastings Street
Vancouver, B. C.
Special Representative
Dominion Engineering Company Limited
Montreal, Canada
JULY, 1944
29 Now some may not be capable of acquiring the necessary educational credits but may nevertheless be valuable men from a technical
standpoint and therefore from a collective bargaining standpoint since
they would be capable of performing a considerable portion of an
engineer's work. Therefore any man with senior matricultion and four
credits towards education and the required practical credits could be
included in the same collective bargaining group and classed by an
exclusive name similar to, but designating a lower category than, "professional engineer." (Let us call this category "Group B" for convenience.)
The professional group should be organized on a national or international basis with present provincial bodies carrying out the actual
enrolment of members. To gain admission to this group, a candidate
could have senior matriculation, indicate his desire to become an engineer to the local provincial association and pay his entrance fees. He
could then be classed as an "Engineer-in-Training." He should have
his course of studies approved by the local professional body and
write such examinations as may be required of him from time to
time as he completes portions of his educational career. He would have
an attendance card for each technical society attended and some senior
member of each society could be appointed to sign the card for each
meeting attended. The minimum attendance being, say, four meetings
per year. There should be a time limit on the completion of the
educational program and penalty exacted for completing the program
outside of this time limit.
Headquarters for
Stocks available at our Vancouver warehouses.
J. Fyfe Smith Co. Ltd.
MArine 2564
1320 Richards St. Vancouver, B. C.
The penalty might be the loss of some credits or a fine.
If such a group were possible, in place of your questionnaire, I
would prefer to express myself as follows:
(a) (i) That the group should not be governed by collective
bargaining laws.
(a) (ii) Such a group could, if desired by a majority, participate in collective bargaining through a member representative of the
profession. In the case of the profession hiring their own lawyers,
legal men might be given educational credits for their university education and practical credits for their years of association with the profession with the allowance that they be designated as lawyers by some
addendum to their engineering title.
(b) The group should not be associated with any trade union.
(c) The group should be divided into branches according to
specialization and into local according to the disposition of the central
(d) The  group  should  be  national  and  international,  if  possible.
(e) The wage scales in any one country should be mutually
agreed upon by other countries, whenever possible, with the laxity
required to prevent oppression of the engineering resources of any
one country.
(g) The wage scales within the country should be allowed to
vary within a specified tolerance of the stated range, exclusive of
expenses, in order to allow for local fluctuation, depressions, etc.
If the tolerance is not satisfactory, a new scale should be investigated
by a national committee and the necessary adjustments made. Consultants should be allowed a free scale to permit sufficiently high income to account for slack periods.
(h) The words "engineer", "(Group B)", and "Engineer-in-
Training" should be legalized by a national Order in Council and the
courts should be authorized to fine persons misusing the names.
Electrical appliance repairmen, automotive mechanics, tinsmiths, blacksmiths, prospectors, and other tradesmen should not be allowed to
misrepresent themselves to the public. Misrepresentation is generally
regarded as a serious offence.    Why not in engineering?
(i) In such a group, nearly all employer engineers would pass
through membership in the group as employee engineers and would
therefore be linked to the group by a fraternal binding even if they
were barred from continued membership by  collective-bargaining  laws.
(j) The professional associations would form the nucleus of the
group. The technical societies could follow exactly the same grades
as the professional group with an extra grade, say 'affiliate" for those
who are non-professionals.
I must excuse myself if I have been too long winded. I am not
pretending to present new ideas but merely an assimilation of old
ideas. Some could not be effected immediately, and to such an extent
they are impractical. I hope I have not wasted your time. The paper
is  now yours to tear up physically or analytically.
Very truly yours,
Don't Get in the Rut
of  Complacency
Continue to  Buy
Bonds and Certificates
1272 Richards Street
Reprt tenting
*7/te JloutfUUtt JdUte
MArine 9826
Vancouver, B. C.
married in Vancouver on June 24th to Valerie Jean
Adams of Wilmette, Illinois. Jack was president of
the graduating class in '39 and later went to McGill to
take his medical degree.
—Both grads of 1944, Miss Ryan in Arts and Mr.
Graham got his Master of Applied Science—took place
June 20, 1944.
Both attended the University of B.C. Date: July 15,
1944.   Lynn was a former Thunderbird star.
An Ottawa wedding of great interest to U.B.C. Alumni
took place in late June. Wren Telegrapher MARY
ELEANOR BOYD, W.R.C.N.S., '43, became the bride
N., Arts '40. Capt. John Pearson, Students' Council
President in 1940, was groomsman, and two more Varsity grads, James Macdonald and Dave Pettapiece, were
T. FARGEY—Mr. Fargey graduated in Chemical Engineering in 1942.    Date: July 15, 1944.
RAM MASSY—Miss Bibbs got her B.A. in 1941. Date:
July 22nd, 1944.
Date: June, 1944.
Date: June 20, 1944.
Mr. Johns is a graduate of Texas A. and M., while Miss
Finlay attended U.B.C. for three years. Date: latter-
ARTHURS, R.C.A.M.C—Miss Macmillan's parents
are now interned in Bangkok, Thailand. The wedding
will take place in the latter part of July.
DUNTON—He is the General Manager of the Wartime Information Board and Editor of the Montreal
Standard, while Miss Bingay has been a member of the
legal division of the Department of External Affairs in
Ottawa.   She graduated from U.B.C. in 193 8.
—Both attended U.B.C.—Date: June 26.
R.C.O.C.—Both attended the U.B.C, the groom graduating in 1940. While at the University, Capt. Pearson was President of the Students' Council in his last
year.    The wedding took place on July 7.
TAIT, R.C.N.V.R.—Miss Moxon attended U.B.C—
The wedding will take place in the late summer.
BARBARA ANN McGIBBON to DARRELL BRAIDWOOD—The bride is a graduate of McMaster University and the groom attended the University of B.C.
and received his B.A. in 1940 and M.A. 1941. He is
the present editor of the Graduate Cljronicle. The
wedding took place on May 27, 1944, in Hamilton,
R.C.N.V.R.—Date: July 15.
—Both   are  graduates   of   U.B.C,   Miss  McKinnon   in
1940 and Mr. Gregory in 1941.   Date: July 8.
R.A.F.—Both attended U.B.C.    Date: June, 1944.
Mr. Mann is a graduate of U.B.C.    Date: July 15.
Northern Construction
J. W. Stewart Limited
Engineers and General
MArine 4535
Offices and Warehouses at 250-260 Industrial Avenue
Telephone MArine 4621 VANCOUVER, B. C.
JULY, 1944
■versus R O U T I N E
Engineers have recently objected to, or at least been
disturbed by, the fact that the Armed Forces appear to
regard the training of young doctors of medicine (and,
incidentally, dentists) as being far more important than
the training of young engineers. Such "discrimination"
appeared in the recent radical contraction of the Army
Specialized Training Program. Engineering courses were
virtually wiped out; medical courses were preserved almost
Nevertheless, the action, to a considerable extent, is
based on valid grounds. A fundamental difference exists in
the character of the work of an engineer and that of a
doctor. An Army unit of 10,000 fighting men must have
a minimum number of physicians and surgeons. The
average is said to be about fifty; but whether it is more
or less is immaterial. Whatever it is, it is relatively fixed.
The reason is that the doctor provides a personal service of
specialized character that requires knowledge and experience. He cannot delegate the work to others who are not
experts themselves. On the other hand, one engineer can
plan and supervise engineering work of a dozen men, that,
with relatively little training, can become competent to
function provided they have expert direction and leadership. The doctor is a performer; the engineer is a supervisor. Observe the difference between building an airport
or demolishing a bridge, on the one hand, and diagnosing
sickness and amputating limbs, on the other..
A somewhat analogous line of thought is suggested by
the comments on so-called technical institutes in the current report of the Committee on Education After the War,
of the Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education.
The technical institute is a school that trains youths for
engineering activities on an "intermediate or subprofessional
level." For example, studies have shown that eight persons
are needed for routine work as surveyors, computers, draftsmen, chemists, testers, inspectors, and laboratory technicians for each one needed for work of a professional character as engineers or industrial superintendents.
The Report says:
The relative numbers of individuals trained for subordinate technical positions in this country, in comparison
with engineering graduates, are in reverse proportion to
the need. The inevitable result of this situation is to cause
industries to seek engineering graduates in large numbers
to fill positions for which briefer, less fundamental, and
more practical types of training programs would provide
more suitable preparation. The result is also to cause many
young men to enter engineering colleges who would profit
better by pursuing educational programs designed to equip
them for more immediate usefulness in the numerous types
of industrial pursuits illustrated by the examples given
above. If this be true, and there is little reason to doubt
that the educators know what they are talking about, the
remedy would seem to be to raise the standards of admission to engineering schools so as to exclude those who because of inaptitude, or lack of capacity, are not likely ever
to achieve the status of professional engineer. If this were
done, enrollment for engineering education on the professional level would decline, at least for a time; but, on the
other hand, the man thus educated would command, deservedly, higher compensation from industry. As a consequence, complaint that employers do not pay young engineers fairly and adequately would become less vociferous
and less prevalent.
The foregoing does not mean that young graduates will
step directly from engineering schools into highly responsible and remunerative positions, nor that practical experience will no longer be necessary. Nor does it mean that
the numerical demand for competent professional engineers
will be diminished. It does mean that the distinction will
be accentuated between men qualified to perform the routine work of engineering enterprise and those qualified to
function in the engineering and technologic world as professional men in the best snese. The opportunity for young
men endowed with the right mental equipment and all-
around capacity is greater in the engineering profession
than ever before. The statement is true with respect to all
fields of engineering, and particularly to "mineral engineering."
—From Mining and Metallurgy, June, 1944.
British Ropes Canadian Factory Ltd*
Index of Quality
Plant Established in 1919.   Serves Leading B. C. Industries
Phane MArine 4454
omen s
Membership in the University Women's Club of Vancouver is an investment that pays dividends in pleasure and
interest to all women graduates of the area. Not only
does it provide opportunities to contact again the classmates with whom one has lost touch throughout the years,
but it brings together graduates of all ages and from many
different universities, and through its interest groups allows
those with similar tastes to gather at small, informal meetings, apart from the general membership.
Climaxing a year of interesting sessions was the annual
meeting held at the Art Gallery in April. Topical films
on China and Russia were presented, and the guest of the
evening was Mrs. Li Chao, wife of the rcently appointed
Chinese consul in Vancouver.
Among the many excellent reports presented by leaders
of Interest Groups, the summary, read by Miss Jessie Cas-
selman, of the findings of the Education Committee, was
outstanding. The report dealt with the subject under three
headings: University Entrance, Secondary School Course,
and Teachers' Certificates. The Chronicle has chosen excerpts from the sub-section dealing with scholarships as
particularly suitable for reprinting in this issue:
This committee has interpreted the term scholarships in its widest
sense, to mean any type of financial aid given to superior students,
such as loans, part-time employment, bursaries, co-operative housing
schemes, as well as prizes for excellence.
Under an ideal system the state would be financially responsible
for the education of every child, whether its parents were rich or poor,
scholarships of the fin financial aid type would then be superfluous; if
scholarships were awarded at all, they would be prizes for excellence,
with  no conditions attached.
According to the survey committee of the C.N.E.A., "gifted children have been entirely neglected in Canada." The efforts of the state
have been concentrated on the average, or below average, children,
while the potential leaders of the community have been allowed to
struggle up as best they might.
We would therefore recommend:
That the club endorse the recommendation of the C.N.E.A. Survey
Committee: that for gifted high school children whose parents arc
unable to provide for them, a system of scholarships should be established, the amount varying with the individual need. We would also
recommend that the recipients of these scholarships should be placed
in special classes and given a greatly enriched curriculum instead of
being allowed to develop habits of second-rate work under a program
designed for the average student.
That a considerable portion of such increased financial assistance
as may be offered by the government to the universities should be
directed toward prospective freshmen.
That the system of matriculation scholarships should be greatly
extended, through the financial assistance of the Provincial or the
Dominion government, or both, in the provinces where the present
scheme is inadequate. The aim should be to ensure that all students
who are in financial need and who are suitable college material should
be able to attend the university.
That, in the accomplishment of this aim, due account should be
taken of the inequalities at present existing between students from the
university towns and those from other parts of the province. The
remedy for this injustice is not, in our opinion, the establishment of
a number of junior colleges which would offer the first two years of
university. To finance these institutions, the university itself would
be starved, and still they could not give the student the advantages of
a large library and staff. The remedy is rather the adjustment of
matriculation scholarships so that out-of-town students may be on the
same footing as those in the University towns.
That these scholarships should be awarded not on the basis of
geographical districts, but solely on the basis of ability and financial
That co-operative housing schemes should be encouraged by the
universities, not only in order to reduce student expenses, but also for
the training in financial and social  matters which they afford.
That no attempt should be made to increase the loan funds at
present existing for undergraduate students, the loan being, in our
opinion, the least profitable method of giving the undergraduate financial aid. We would suggest that persons wishing to give money to
the universities should be urged to use it for the encouragement of
co-operative schemes, which reach a larger number of students more
effffectively than any loan fund is likely to do.
That a system of organized part-time work as a means of financial
aid to students should be encouraged. The scheme should concentrate on upper class students rather than freshmen. The government
has already, in connection with the war effort, set up a Dominion-
Provincial Youth Training scheme under which financial aid is given
to students, chiefly those in technical and scientific fields. We would
suggest that this scheme might well be extended to include more of
the gifted students in the humanities; and that payment to the student
should be in the form of credits with the bursar, not as a lump sum at
the beginning of the college year.
That some consideration should be given in Canada, especially by
the older univenities in the larger cultural centres, to the Harvard
plan of national scholarships for exceptionally gifted students. These
scholarships are competitive, the sole basis of award being "pre-eminence in ability and merit." We feel that such students as these,
trained by the university to use their rich native endowments to the
full and for the good of the community, would be of inestimable value
in the future life of Canada.
Chairman of the scholarship sec; ion of the education
committee was Dr. D. Blakey Smith, with whom were
associated Dr. D. Mawdsley, Miss Janet Greig and Miss
M. Morrison.
The University Women's Club executive, chosen at the
April meeting, is as follows: President, Mrs. D. Orson Ban-
field; vice-presidents, Miss Alice Keenlyside and Mrs. Ralph
Plant; secretary, Mrs. G. B. Atkinson; treasurer, Miss M.
K. Thompson; press, Miss Louise Mary Gilmour.
FAirmont 0327 - 0328
Al Aluminum Foundry, Ltd.
Manufacturers of
JULY, 1944
33 ALumni
Editor's Note: This is No. 4 in a series of "personality
articles" on the Alumni Executive.
Refuting the time-worn adage that ministers' sons always rebel against the "good" life, and wander from the
straight and narrow, Jordan Guy, executive member of
the Alumni Assocaition, says: "I didn't go to the dogs—
and I guess the dogs weren't very interesting at that time
He was referring to the depression years in which he
attended the University of B.C.—he graduated with the
class of '31—and his previous schools were in Regina, Swift
Current, Vernon, and Victoria.
But in spite of his professed "canine shortcomings,"
Jordie has managed to build up a solid foundation for his
present career of conveyance and estate administration law.
He is an associate with the firm of Walsh, Bull, Housser,
Tupper, Ray and Carroll.
An outstanding debater while at college, he was on the
McGoun cup team that travelled to Edmonton, and discussed "Home Rule in India."
He is completely absorbed in what is going on in the
world today, and as a member of the Junior Board of Trade
government affairs committee, he has been extremely active
in fostering intelligent discussion on world conditions.
He studied law at night school, the same way as did his
pal, Pearly Brissenden. Before that, he was employed with
several commercial firms including H .R. MacMillan, Hudson's Bay Co., and Pemberton's.
His high ideals regarding the social and economic problems current in the world extend to his interest in the
Alumni Association, which he sees as a powerful organization to help in such vital matters as safeguarding the intellectual integrity of the faculty members of the university;
making the university meet community needs, and promoting better relations between the university and the
Jordan is extremely active in many spheres involving
public discussion of current problems. He takes much interest in summer discussion camps, many of which he has
helped organize.
"The most significant event in history is the Russian
revolution,"   he   says.     Regarding   Canadian   politics,   he
Executive Member, U.B.C. Alumni Association
thinks the winning of the C.C.F. election is indicative of
a fundamental swing in Canadian opinion.
"Canada is capable of it, and probably is well on the
road towards a more balanced economy, based on a strong
reform policy among Western powers."
Regarding the pertinent question upon which everyone
holds forth these days, "Is woman's place in the home?"
Jordie cannily says: "Woman's place is wherever she wants
Jordie was once a swing fan but now such desires have
waned, and he prefers music in a more classical vein. "I
was  never a jitterbug,  though," he hastens to assure us.
Salads are his favori e food and indeed Jordan has made
a very detailed study of foods.
Jordan was married in 1940 to a Winnipeg girl—Jean
Cotter, and they have a son Jordan Junior.
Like all lawyers Jordie is inclined to complicate things
somewhat. However, his work with his firm has proven
that complications or no he has established a successful
But don't think that Jordie's "complications" have him
confused.    He knows exactly what the score is.
Manufacturers of
Brass, Iron and Steel
Corvettes, Frigates, Minesweepers,
Cargo Vessels
222 Front Street
New Westminster, B. C.
Phone 1026
DR. W. N. SAGE of the University of B.C., recently
elected president of the Canadian Historical Association.
DR. N. A. MacKENZIE, Presiden-elect of U.B.C, elected
vice-president of the National Council of the Y.M.C.A.
at the annual meeting in Toronto, held recently.
LT.-COL. G. J. OKULITCH of Abbotsford, Vancouver
and Moscow, U.S.S.R., has started back to Russia to
resume his duties. He was an agricultural graduate
from U.B.C. in 1933.
DR. LEONARD MITCHELL, now engaged in chemical
research under the sponsorship of the National Research Council. He received his M.A. at U.B.C. in
1942, and his Ph.D. at McGill University in 1944.
DR. ALBERT E. (DAL) GRAUER, secretary of the B.
C. Electric Railway Co., was recently elected vice-
president of the B. C. Power Corporation. He is also
chairman of the Vancouver branch of the Canadian
Institute of International Affairs. He took his B.A. in
1925 and was named Rhodes Scholar for 1926. He
studied law at Oxford, later taking his Ph.D. at the
University of California.
MR. FERGUS MUTRIE is now in Toronto, where he has
taken over the post of C.B.C. assistant supervisor of
Farm Broadcasts. He received his B.S.A. 1926. In
1943 he was elected to the University Senate as alumni
representative. He inaugurated C.B.C's daily Farm
Broadcast for B.C. when he joined the staff of the corporation four years ago.
MISS NANCY BRUCE won a scholarship to the School
of the Theatre. She is well-known for her work in the
University Players' Club, in the Little Theatre, and
in radio, in which field she is now meeting encouraging
MR. ROBERT DUFF WALKER, chemical engineer with
the Shell Chemical plant at Torrance, Calif., was killed
accidentally during chemical experiments. He won the
I.O.D.E. Bursary previous to entering the University of
B.C. and graduated in chemical engineering in 1937,
later completing his education at the University of
Califormnia.  In 1939, he joined the Shell Oil Co.
GIBB G. HENDERSON, B.A., B.A.Sc. '33, is now with
the Georgia Pharmacy in Vancouver.
T. A. "TOM" LEACH, B.S.A., has been appointed chief
of the C.B.C's Farm Broadcast Department for British
Columbia. Tom was president of the Aggie Undergrads
in 1931. Since then he has had a most colorful career,
including a trip to Denmark to study the dairying
DR. REID G. FORDYCE has perfected a new plastic
named "CEREX" which is the first of its type. It
can even be boiled in sulphuric acid without any material change.   The substance has now been placed high
CiPturTV* cltCl   ^C   fugged de-
we a*e *j\ndustry- ^
MArine 5364
Vancouver Construction Company Ltd.
MArine 7027
JULY, 1944
744 W. Hastings Street        -        Vancouver, B. C.
Diamond Drill Contractors
PAcific 5953
B. C. Concrete Co. Ltd.
Manufacturers of
Hume Centrifugal Concrete Pipe
Sewers, Culverts and Water Supply Lines
Size 6" to 68" — Plain or Reinforced
Oak Street and 77th Avenue        Vancouver, B.C.
Phone LA 0230
MArine 9351
FAirmont 1546
McLean & Powell Iron Works
General Foundry Works
398 West Second Ave. Vancouver, B. C.
in the priority list of U.S. war production. After he
left U.B.C. Dr. Fordyce went to McGill, where he took
his Ph.D. in 1939.
CAPT. D. F. "DON" COLQUHOUN "organized and
supervised a system of Bren gun carriers to act as mobile stretchers" when the Seaforths engaged in the Liri
Valley battle on May 23 rd.
has voted ten thousand dollars towards the proposed
school of pharmacy at the University. This gift follows the $25,000 given a few months ago by a prominent Vancouver business man.
(Continued from Page 25)
The remaining ex-Fairbridge pupils are in various occupations, many girls at domestic work, and boys on farms, in the
Merchant Navy and in war industries. One girl is at present
attending King Edward High School, and arrangements will
be made later for her to continue her education at U.B.C.
"One of our greatest difficulties," said Col. Logan, "is to
convince the youngsters that school is not only for the privileged class. However, the work is succeeding in spite of difficulties that are inevitable when dealing with human beings,
but which can be and have been overcome by care and tactful approach."
Asked whether homesickness was one of these difficulties,
the school principal admitted that it was, but went on to
explain that in many cases the children have been rescued
from such deplorable home conditions that they cannot fail
to be impressed by their improved surroundings and opportunities. The war has given many of the graduates an unexpected chance to visit their home land, and their reaction has
been interesting to those who have pondered over this aspect
of the scheme.
"We want all our graduates to feel that Fairbridge is
their home," said Col. Logan. "They nearly all return for
Christmas, and are welcome for visits at any time."
One boy who was admittedly homesick for England is
over there now, and a recent letter to Col. Logan sheds light
on the eventual feeling of these new Canadians for their
adopted country. "I am 6,000 miles away from Canada,"
writes this youth. "And I am 6,000 miles more homesick
that I ever was before."
Alaska Pine Company
Telephone: 2464-7
Telegrams: Alaskapine
Tool and Die Makers
Plumbers' Supplies
Everything in Metal
Private Exchange—MArine 4164-5-6
Construction Co., Ltd.
J. BOYD, President
317 W. Pender Street
Pacific 5932
Vancouver, B. C.
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British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co., Limited
MArine 6451
(1940) LTD.
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In service throughout Canada, this type of crane is used
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In war or in peace, a "National Electrical
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•     ■      •
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^Campbell st Smith Ltd , Effective Printing


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