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The Graduate Chronicle 1944-06

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 JUNE,1944   ,
Minister of Mines, British Columbia SUMNER WOOD GRANULATOR EQUIPMENT
For manufacturing uniform "Pellet" sawdust for domestic
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new and modern tools you will need to give you the strongest possible "bidding hand" in a highly competitive market.
After terrific usage ■ in the war-time Battle of Production
much of your equipment will be worn out—some of it will
not be adaptable to the manufacture of other products.
Fairbanks-Morse offers you a great variety of industrial
tools, shop supplies, refractories, transmission equipment
and materials handling equipment.
Known as the Departmental Store for industry, Fairbanks-
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through its 14 strategically located branch offices and
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The Progressive Engineering Works Limited is a local company, owned and operated by Vancouver citizens.
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(loitBtruttion <£a. ^Bt&.
E. R. TAYLOR, President
•      ■      •
Phone LAngara 0411
Babcock Equipment
is Serving Both Afloat and Ashore
Our over 85 years' experience and facilities unequalled in this country are producing Marine Boilers, Marine Engines,
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minesweepers and cargo boats. Also for
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supplying boilers and other equipment to
generate power for vital war production
industries. BABCOCK design and BABCOCK manufacturing standards ensure
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Branch  Offices
Montreal       Toronto       Winnipeg       Vancouver
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE ...when uou plan for Canada's future
Canada, when this war is ended, will
stand on the threshold of a splendid
and challenging opportunity. The need
will be there, the time will be ripe, for
vast, unprecedented development.Will-
ing hands will be there a-plenty
accumulated wealth will be there,
national resources and the power to
convert them to the general good will
be there. Let us plan courageously when
we figure out Canada's future.
Let us plan for lovelier, more labour-
saving homes . . . plan for spacious- and
beautiful towns. Let us plan for wider,
safer highways, well-graded and well-lit
... for modernized railroads, for greater
electrification . . . for new bridges, new
clover-leafs. Let us plan the spread of
rural electrification until its benefits
reach every farm and every hamlet.
Let us plan with vision for a richer
cultural life. Let us plan new centres of
science and art . . . colleges, laboratories, dramatic-centres, galleries. Let
us plan, for leisure and health, new open
spaces in our cities and towns . . . new
sports bowls, new swimming pools. Let
us plan the modernization of our factories, offices and stores, by re-equipment
and reorganization. Let us plan for
lighter work yet greater productivity
. . . for increased speed yet greater
safety. Let us plan for fuller living,
greater opportunity, economic security.
While there must not be the slightest
relaxation of our all-out efforts to win
the war — we must plan and we must
start planning now. We have had our
lesson in unpreparedness. We must not
gamble with peace as we gambled with
Many governmental municipal and
industrial groups already are planning.
Many individuals are planning. But not
enough. More planning, much more
planning is needed. Whether we are
houseowners, business operators,
farmers, civic leaders — let us at J plan
for Canada's postwar future ... let us
plan with confidence, with courage —
For by planning today, we prepare
ready-made markets for tomorrow,
markets which will absorb our fullest
productive effort and thus create gainful employment for everyone.
JUNE, 1944 Laminated   Dredger
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with great strength has
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30 x 30 across, 320 lbs. of
Laux and 10,345 F.B.M.
of kiln-dried lumber were
used. The spudder is used
on a Columbia River
Your Glue Headquarters"
Granville Island, B. C.
MArine 4136-7
Power Panels
• Switches
E  P
Manufacturers of
Lighting and Power Panels
Junction Boxes—Throughing
Switch Boards
(Open   and   Enclosed)
Externally Operated and Open Knife Switches
Interlocking Switches and SWING-WA Switch Units
1250 Richards Street Vancouver, B. C.
Specializing in Precision
Machine Work
Heat Treating
Small Parts
Parts Made
Industrial Repairs
Rear of
PAcific 2427
Vancouver, B. C.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE The graduate hiisiimhi:
Published by the Alumni Association of
the University of British Columbia
JUNE,  1944
Editor: Darrell T. Braidwood, M.A., Barrister at Law
Associate Editor: A. D. Creer, M.E.I.C, M.Inst.C.E.
Assistant Editors:
Dorothy Taylor, B.A.; Donald A. C. McGill, B.A.
Business Manager: W. E. G. Macdonald
-    7
THE STONE .__.__   20
Editorial Office:
Alumni Assn. Office,
Brock Bldg.,
University of B. C.
Published at Vancouver, British Columbia.
Business Office:
16 - 555  Howe Street
Vancouver, B. C.
• Saves rime — saves effort — saves money.
• It's a real wire rope hoist.
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• Anti-friction   bearings   throughout   make   it
smooth, quiet-, long-lasting.
• Gears are acurately cut of high carbon steel.
• Lightweight — portable — easy to handle.
B. C. Distributors
tor ^-Ju-^jar.
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„ witt asree      sometim"
of normal «* '
3 1     V B A I
Headquarters for
1 • V,:"   jj^ii':
.i.*B   ^^^^^HHMtt'i-ij^—u-•...■■••:'-*- ■;/■ .
' qMv^HHHlilllll
Limi»t^ra0F   Vr^tPftnn Mill lull ^gjjllufj II
Stocks available at our Vancouver warehouses.
r g
J. Fyfe Smith Co. Ltd.
MArine 2564
1320 Richards St. Vancouver, B. C.
We have the most complete and modern gear-cutting
machinery in Western Canada, and the only machine
in Western Canada for cutting Helical continuous tooth
gears, capacity to 54 inch by 10 inch face up to 2 D.P.
Get our prices on Gears of any kind, Cut Sprockets,
any pitch and diameter; cost iron or steel.
Industrial, Marine, Stationary, Gas
and Diesel Engine Work
We carry a full line of piston patterns for all engines
on this coast. Our stock of Quality Piston Rings is
complete to 11" in diameter.
"When in Trouble Call Reliance"
Reliance Motor
& Machine Works
Phone PAcific 3345 395 Alexander Street
Chairman of the Department of Sociology in the
Graduate School of Columbia University.
Editor's Note: This article first appeared in the March 26, 1944, edition of PM, New
York. It is the Chronicle's policy to present as many views as possible on current problems and we feel that this article expresses one of those views. The material herewith is
used by permission of the author. Limitations of space have unfortunately necessitated
some condensation of the original article.
A wide, and I believe disastrous, gap exists between what
the decent people of the democracies are hoping for out of
this war and what the pressure of circumstances and organized power under the surface in democracy may force upon
them. Both here and in England these people hope that something really better will come out of the war, but private
thinking tends to be brow-beaten by the need to get on with
the war.
We Americans lag somewhat behind Britain in our awareness of the extent of impending change. Our mood—and our
American soldiers in Britain share it—is like that of a man
driving along a broad concrete road at 50 miles an hour who
has come to a barrier marked Detour—Road Under Repair; so
he is now, during the war, bumping along at 15 miles an
hour in the field beside the road; but he takes it for granted
that right up ahead behind that clump of trees he'll be back
on the concrete.
In England, on the other hand, as they bump along over
the rough war road, everybody takes it for granted that there
will be extensive new road-building ahead. If our hopes are
for a better "world in general," the people of Britain see their
own national institutions as also involved.
But I felt in England, as I feel here, a basic unprepared-
ness and helplessness of the ordinary folk to implement their
hopes, and the strong likelihood that the pressure of circumstances—specifically, the need for swift, effective action, and
the pressure of organized power groups—will force upon them
concurrence in a world they never intended.
I am reluctantly skeptical of the great plans of liberal intellectuals and of the hopes of liberal citizens for a brave new
world out of this war. I am skeptical because I believe democracy is unready and, especially, unorganized to state its program positively and to see that program through by organized
action. I believe that it is now 11:59 p.m. and events have
an accumulated momentum that probably cannot be stopped
or even seriously deflected in this final minute of feverish
In attempting to appraise the future, I make the following
1. One may not expect new and better things of the postwar world merely because men of good will all over the world
are fed up with war, depression and unemployment, aggressive
nationalism, and fascism.
2. There is every likelihood that the dominant direction
of thrust of economic and political institutions before the war
will primarily determine what we get after the war.
3. How institutions operate depends primarily upon who
has power—not theoretical power but factual power to do
decisive things.
4. In so far as war or any other emergency puts pressure
on this factual structure of power to change conditions, the
tendency of those in control is either to intensify their power
tactics enough to beat down the opposition or to make the
least possible changes necessary to keep the going system
It becomes crucially important, therefore, to ask: Who
really wields controlling power in an industrial nation like
the United States? And what are they after? As democrats
we Americans have believed that political power should be
diffused among all adult citizens. The state has no independent power, but holds its power from the citizens.
Latent within the American attempt to marry political
democracy and private capitalism was a major conflict between majority rule and minority property rights.
The preponderant weight of economic power in the Constitutional Convention, while conceding the outward forms of
political democracy, went on to cripple democratic power at
the source by parcelling up this power by a marvellously dexterous system of barriers to its expression. And political power
was diffused among the people on the unstated, but factually
double-locked, assumption that it was not to be used to diffuse equality in the economic sphere.
Actually, our nation was founded in a backswing of revulsions from centralized power. Such power was viewed as
a thing to be feared, not used. The problem of power was
stated negatively. And our political democracy has, all down
through our national life, been casual to the point of recklessness about the positive development of its own authority.
Formally, the democratic state has held all the aces; but
actually as time has passed, to use Harold Laski's words, "The
disproportion in America between the actual economic control and the formal political power is almost fantastic."
Despite intermittent guerilla skirmishes between state power
and private economic power, American democracy has been
sluggish about recognizing the challenge to its very existence
involved in growing economic power. Several factors have
encouraged this casual attitude within democracy:
1. The issue between democratic power and private economic power has been viewed primarily only as a regional
issue between agrarian and eastern industrial states.
2. Again, the fact that American democracy began
coincidentally with the amazing productive advance we call
JUNE, 1944 the Industrial Revolution and the opportunity to exploit the
vast internal empire of the United States made it easy for the
citizens of democracy to take democracy for granted as essentially completed, whereas we had made only a beginning; and
to turn their backs on democracy's unfinished business and to
plunge into the grand personal  adventure of growing  rich.
3. The American way—loose-jointed, wasteful, evoking
prodigies of energy from men in the raw frontier era of preempt and exploit—has yielded a sumtuous take. And to a
nation manifestly growing rich, the growing insecurities
within such a predatory institutional system have prompted
us to seek security not through re-examining the system and
its contradictions but through the simpler process of reaffirming the perfection and finality of the Constitution.
Such has been the theory of power held by us hopeful and
busy Americans. But what is the fact of power in industrial
society today?
1. First, power is indivisible and economic power is political power. The effort to view political power and economic
power as separate things is, has been, and always will be a
fiction. Democracies have been able to avoid recognizing
this unified nature of power because they have fostered the
illusion that the State represents the common interests of the
In connection with the weak role of the general public,
let me stress the fact that power means effective power, and
effective power in modern society means organized power. A
crucial problem democracy faces today is its lack of effective
organization to carry on its affairs. We have proceeded, all
down through our national life, on the casual assumption that
men are rational, free, and know what is best for them; and
that no positive philosophy of social organization is therefore
needed, because men can be counted on to recognize the need
for organizing themselves wherever that need exists and to go
ahead and organize themselves.
The catch is that that assumption about human behavior
just isn't true. And, as a result, the social organization of the
United States today is a shamples, characterized by grossly
uneven organization, with business and industry increasingly
extensively and effectively organized, with labor rising in
organization to meet organized business, and with organization
behind other interests of the people of democracy lamentably
weak and spotty. This, I submit, is a design for democratic
The power of the meagerly organized or unorganized
people of democracy tends to become chiefly the power to
protect raggedly after the fact, after a fait accompli, like a
man futilely running after the ever-receding rear platform of
a train.
2. A second important aspect of power in industrial
society today is its technological base. Power in earlier eras
was founded on land; later it was based on finance, the control of free capital; but today the basis of power is control
over technology. What I mean is that the business system of
power that controls giant technology controls the core of
power in industrial society.
Look at the way big industry has moved in on the Government in this war and is coercing the Government to run
the war effort as business itself dictates. In England business
has similarly moved into Whitehall; there are 61 officers in
the Ministry of Supply holding senior posts remunerated at
£600 a year or more whose services have been made available
by Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., alone.
3. The central political fact in the world today is the
candid merging of state power with this technologically-based
economic power. The day is past, forever, when a nation
could afford to view what businessmen do as primarily only
the concern of businessmen.
In the United States, operating under private capitalism
and with some fifteen billion dollars of new wartime productive plant—super-efficient and built for mass production
—the structure of our industry has been seriously altered by
the war; and foreign trade in greater volume and variety will
be an absolute essential for even approximate economic stability. And if we are in this box, I need not elaborate how
desperate is Britain's need to crowd the tradeways of the world
with her product.
What this sort of thing means, in nation after nation, is
that business, on the one hand, is less and less willing and able
to tolerate checks on its activities by the State; whereas the
State, on the other hand, having delivered its welfare, and
fundamentally its international power, over into dependence
upon the welfare of its business system, needs increasingly the
utmost efficiency from its business men.
So from here on out, business must be in politics, and the
State must be in business. Neither of them can any longer
tolerate the frictions and inefficiencies of the kind of legalized
guerilla warfare between state apparatus and economic apparatus that has been characteristic of anti-trust actions, NRA,
New Deal labor and other social policies, and wartime coercions and recriminations. And the resulting trend is unmistakably toward the monolithic power structure of the totalitarian state.
Not, mark you, because certain men are wicked or even
necessarily see as yet that they are being forced toward such
totalitarianism; but because the logic of giant technology,
operating within nationalism and capitalistic rules of the
game, no longer allows any other option than centralization
and the merging of state and economic power. We people
who talk of a better postwar world must face, and face unflinchingly, the fact which liberal democracy has never dared
really to face: namely, that industrial capitalism in an era of
giant technology is an intensively coercive form of organization of'society that cumulatively constrains men and all of
their institutions to work the will of the minority who hold
and wield economic power; and that this relentless warping
of men's lives and decisions and all of their forms of association becomes less and less the result of voluntary decisions by
good and bad men and more and more an impersonal web of
coercions dictated by the stark need to keep "the system"
What this means is that Hitlers are not themselves prime
causes, but are a type of role thrust forward by the pressure
of events within industrial society, events demanding solutions—political solutions, bold solutions, solutions that brush
the plans of idealistic men aside like flies off a table. When
these things happen, they are not the work of evil men, but,
rather, the grim moves of hard-pressed players in the gigantic
international game of poker in which every industry and
every nation must play if it is to survive.
Modern war, as a mass human experience, does a variety
of contrasting things to us:
1. Wartime is a time of enormously enhanced pressure,
pressure to get things done—even things that seem impossible
of accomplishment under peacetime institutions—and to get
them done immediately. And since the game is for keeps and
the stakes are survival, there is a tendency to create and foster
a temporary and somewhat phony sense of national unity; and
a tendency to disregard in the intensity of short-run, wartime
preoccupations—the chronic cleavages within American or
English society.
2. At the same time war also does a seemingly contradictory thing. By shattering the lock-step preoccupation with
habitual institutional ways of doing things, it invites some
men to speculate as regards new goals and a better world.
Humble men's imaginations in England have been caught and
aroused by the vision of Russia as a nation in which people
are being allowed to fight this war all-out.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Likewise, some intellectuals turn afresh, under the stimulus
of war, to the development of plans for international co-opera-
tino. Thus war, instead of merely encouraging the glossing
over of social problems, can also jolt and stimulate men of all
classes to reach for new goals and to chart novel courses
towards them.
3. But let's not deceive ourselves. War does still another
thing. Common folk dream their hopes and intellectuals spin
their plans, yet still other men are learning other things from
this war. Big business controllers of industry are perceiving
their terrible jeopardy in the postwar world; and they are
getting a dress rehearsal in organized power tactics free from
the constraints of serious governmental controls.
As big business looks ahead at the probable raw, barefisted battle royal for world trade and economic survival in
the postwar world, it is learning the vast profitableness of a
business world that largely staffs the Government with its
own men.
Big business will emerge from this war enormously better
organized, more sure of the direction it must go, and more
powerful than ever before. That goes for the United States.
And it goes for Britain. And business is not spending time
spinning pretty humanitarian plans for a League of Nations
and an international police force. The sort of plans it is
making may be seen in The National Policy for Industry put
out by 120 British industrialists in November, 1942. Faith
in the power of humanitarian reason to transcend stark interest isn't going to stop such powerhouse tactics.
The   only   remaining   option—and   a   desperate   one   for
democracy in its present poorly organized state—is whether:
—organized economic power will  take over state power
and run the nation primarily for the goals of big business under an American and British version of fascism;
—or  the  democratic  state  will   take  over  the  economy,
socialize it, and run it for the welfare of the mass of
the people.
So there is a war within a war going on inside each nation
living under capitalism.   It is this "war within the war" that
leaves the German people cowering united under our bombs
because we have offered  them  no wholehearted alternative  to
We live in one of the climactic eras of history, as crucial
as the revolutionary era of 150 years ago. And it is characteristic of such a time that it is a time of extreme ideological
confusion. Fascist monopolistic capitalism calls itself national
socialism. Russian socialism still hangs in the balance, apparently a largely socialist-aimed economy within a dictatorship
by the Communist Party.
Whether the Soviet Union will, after this war, renew, with
the new confidence in itself and its institutions won in the
magnificent people's effort of its Stalingrads, the march toward
democracy promised in the New Constitutoin of the mid-
1930's remains to be seen.    I profoundly hope so.
Here in the United States, again a manifestation of this
ideological confusion, organized industry opposes organized
labor in the name of democracy. And characteristic of this
confusion is the fact that we Americans tend to identify
democracy and capitalistic free enterprise as two aspects of
the same thing—a disastrously naive belief! For the world
issue today, the thing Hitlers stand for, is a counter-revolution against democracy. And, again characteristic of the
world-wide ideological confusion, the men who in a country
like the United States coerce democracy in the name of free
enterprise do so not as cynical Machiavellis, but as men who,
for the most part, honestly believe in democracy.
I am afraid that we people of democracy are going to
come out of this war with our democratic ideals badly soiled,
and well on the road to less democracy here at home. I don't
believe that, either in England or the United States, the sol
diers will return prepared to fight positively for democracy.
The mood of soldiers and civilians at war's weary end will be:
"Thank God! Now let's get out the old car and begin to live
again!" Both among soldiers and civilians this relaxed mood
of war's end will present a powerful weapon to the forces of
In England, Winston Churchill's history of World War I
shows clearly that, as a Tory, he grasped the political significance of the mood of popular relaxation that followed November 11, 1918. And it is no accident that today he is
consistently fighting off social reform during the war, thereby
postponing the issue to the time when it will be no unmanageable issue. For, during that period of rejoicing when the
public ceases momentarily to care for anything but the fact
that the fighting has ceased, Tory power will quietly gather
up the reins and commence the drive to hold its power. And
that in a country where there is an organized Labor Party
and where men can call themselves socialists without lowering their voices! So the signals seem set for an exhausted
peace dictated by power.
I have suggested that this present moment in time is 11:59
p.m. The cause of democracy is probably due for defeat in
this round. But the hands of the clock will move on! What
have we learned?    I believe this:
1. That, if the internal war within capitalist nations is
left un-won by democracy, democracy's cause cannot be saved
by creating international laws and Leagues of Nations for
international society.
2. So the test of the good faith of our current thinking
about a better world is whether it includes plans for immediate and fundamental extension of democracy to our internal
economic institutions.
3. Lazy democratic citizenship that comes up for air to
vote only once every four years can never curb an economic
power that is working all the time.
I believe profoundly in the eventual victory of democracy
—over the long future. But the road back will be long, and
American democracy carries no lucky horseshoe in its pocket.
A recent issue of the London Economist says, "Democracy
in the twentieth century needs fire in its belly."
That kind of fire does not happen. Nor will voting out
one President in November and voting in another kindle it.
It can come only as the imagination and energies of all the
millions of our citizens are enlisted in the direct work of
building more democracy—and a lot more. The thing will
have to happen which those in power have been afraid to let
happen here in the United States during this war: a genuine
people's movement, all-out and hell-bent for action.
There is no mystery about what men want, except such
mystery as those opposed to more decracracy choose to invent.
Men want a chance to work at jobs they believe in, and under
conditions in which they can share responsibiltiy and exercise
initiative, rather than merely laboring as "hands"; security of
the sort that enables a man to trust his weight onto life and
to grow ahead; more and better education for themselves and
their children; better housing; better health; an end to arbitrary class bottlenecks in living; no more phony "social problems" created by nothing more substantial than vested property rights; an end to this shabby business of democracy's
fearing to trust the people of democracy; direct movement
together toward concrete kinds of mass welfare, and a cessation of the.policy of regarding public welfare as an incidental
slopover from profitable private business.
To get these things democratic men will have to learn to
stand together, everywhere, at the grass-roots where life's
meanings are big; and together they will have to thrust against
the power that now divides and curbs them—and never stop
of British Columbia
Each month the Graduate Chronicle will include in its editorial material a descriptive
story of the formation and growth of one industry identified with the industrial progress
of the Province.
Britannia Mining & Smelting Co.
Like "Old Faithful," the Britannia Mining & Smelting
Company's copper mine has been a spectacular fixture in British Columbia's mining scene for so many years that it is
almost taken for granted. Yet its story is comparatively little
known, and many facts concerning the property make it even
now, after nearly forty years of operation, one of the Pacific
Northwest's outstanding base metal producers.
The Britannia, located on fiord-like Howe Sound which
lent its name to the parent company controlling the mine's
affairs, was until comparatively recently rated as one of the
biggest copper properties in the British Empire. It is still
large, although shortage of manpower has resulted in sharp
curtailment during the past year or so. Since Britannia has
been contributing metals for the United Nation's war program
detailed figures on recent production are not available. Some
hint of the magnitude of the company's operations is given
in the fact that the property has produced some 720,000,000
pounds of copper from about 3 3,000,000 tons of ore.
Low Grade Ore.
Apart from its size and record of production the Britannia
is notable as probably the only copper mine in the world handling such low grade ore in underground operations. It is still
primarly a tunnel mine, with very little hoisting, and the
whole flow of production is by gravity. This, of course, has
made Britannia an unusually low cost producer, which it has
had to be with recent millheads averaging only .8 to 1.1 per
cent copper.
In spite of its comparatively long life, Britannia probably
still has many good years left. Mine officials believe that the
property has passed its production peak and that'from now on
4500 tons of ore daily will probably represent about the top.
This is considerably higher than the rate attained at present
due to difficulty in getting an adequate number of miners,
and it is far from the all-time record of more than 6,000 tons
a day achieved about five years ago.
But the brakes necessarily applied to production now, although deplored by the management, will of course tend to
lengthen the future life of the mine, and present developments
indicate that there are still some important ore bodies locked
away in the rugged section of the Coast Range batholith dominated by Britannia's group of holdings that extend over
25,000 acres.
The current development of the company's 4100 haulage
level is an indication of the promise that the future may hold
for Britannia. This level, which is the lowest from which ore
can be fed into the mill on a gravity basis, is extended past
the No. 8 mine, cutting three separate ore bodies. The outlook for volume and higher grade in the No. 8 mine is hope-
ful, and the company is now proceeding with the sinking of
a shaft to open up that section and later to handle ore, men
and supplies. The hoist to be installed will be an 8-foot
double drum Canadian Ingersoll-Rand unit with 450-h.p.
Canadian Westinghouse motor.
President of Britannia Mining & Smelting Company is H.
H. Sharp of New York. The company is one of the Howe
Sound Company group which also comprises the Chelan Mine,
a copper-gold-silver property at Holden, Wash., and El Potosi
Mining Company silver-lead-zinc operations at Santa Eulalia,
Directly in charge of the whole operation is C. P. Browning, who joined Britannia as a young mining engineer in 1913,
fresh from the Columbia School of Mines and a brief term of
practical experience with the Miami Copper Co. in Arizona
and the Tennessee Copper Co. in Tennessee. Mr. Browning-
has been on the job since the company's infancy and he has
seen and participated in most of its expansion.
Mine superintendent is G. C. Lipsey, with Britannia for
19 years, and A. C. Munro, another Britannia pioneer whose
association with the company dates back to 1922, is mill superintendent. C. P. Charlton is secretary-treasurer and purchasing agent; E. C. Gillingham, chief accountant; Wm. Hatch,
metallurgist; Paul Everett, assistant mine superintendent; E.
C .Roper, chief mine engineer; W. A. Matheson in charge of
stores; George H. Mead, master mechanic; J. B. Hamilton,
mine electrical supervisor; C. H, Watson, electrical supervisor at the Beach operations.
Discovered in 1888.
The history of the mine, 30 miles north of Vancouver by
boat, goes back to 1888 when Dr. A. A. Forbes made the discovery. The story goes that the doctor shot a buck and in
dragging it down the hillside its horns scraped the moss from
a rock, exposing a green stain. Upon closer investigation Dr.
Forbes noticed float nearby and he was so impressed with what
he saw what he returned two or three summers in an attempt
to prove it up. Nothing came of this, however, and not until
ten years later did a trapper named Oliver Furry, tipped off
by Dr. Forbes and backed by a Vancouver merchant, go to
the trouble of staking five claims. F. Turner of Vancouver
and Boscowitz & Sons, Victoria fur traders, became interested, located other claims and established a camp. When an
adit driven for 150 feet failed to locate ore the project was
discontinued, and not until 1900, when Joseph Adams and H.
C. Walters inspected the prospect, was the Britannia Copper
Syndicate, forerunner of today's organization, formed. The
syndicate purchased a seven-tenths interest from Turner and
Boscowitz and three years later took over the remaining interest.
It was about this time that Grant B. Schley, the New York
banker, became interested and backed the enterprise with his
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE personal fortune. He financed the building of a 200-ton
concentrator and an aerial tramway. The concentrates were
shipped to Crofton on Vancouver Island for smelting and in
1905 the newly organized Britannia Smelting Company, controlled by Howe Sound Company, acquired the smelter. The
Britannia syndicate and Britannia Smelting Co. were merged
in 1908 and the name was changed to Britannia Mining &
Smelting Company, 'which has prevailed ever since. The smelter was closed down in 1913, and since then most of the
concentrates have been shipped to the Tacoma smelter of the
American Smelting & Refining Company.
Most of the ore bodies are lenticular in shape and lie in a
major shear zone that follows the general strike of the formation. The principal copper mineral is chalcopyrite, which
is accompanied by pyrite. The mines are about three miles
from the concentrator which was built on the steep slope of
a hill that drops down to the Beach on which the company's
stores, office buildings and community have been established.
Exploration is done by drifts, crosscuts and raises, the different shafts serving as centres for such work.
Drilling equipment is selected according to the specific
conditions encountered. Machines now in use are furnished
by the Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Canadian Ingersoll-Rand,
Hoyman, Gardner-Denver, and the Sullivan Machinery Co.
Most of the drifting and stoping is done with 3 Yz -inch
The Britannia property is a consolidation of several mines
—including the Jane, No. 8, West Bluff, East Bluff, Fairview,
Empress and Victoria. West Bluff is at present the big producer. The Fairview has accounted for most of the com-
• pany's past production, but it has seen its best days. The
Victoria has been comparatively rich, but it does not rank
with the others in size.
The 4100 haulage tunnel commences at the Victoria shaft
which, as the accompanying diagram shows, is the most distant
from the mill. Ore is drawn through raises to a crusher installed on the 3900 level and the ore therefrom is trammed by
20-car trains, each car having a 19-ton capacity.
Several types of raises are used in the mine. All raises
over 57° are timbered and contain a chute lined with 4-inch
planks, and a manway. These are separated by a row of stulls
on 5 to 7 foot centres. A strong bulkhead covers the man-
way. Just below the bulkhead a chute plan is left out to
facilitate entrance to the face and allow smoke to escape
after blasting, which is generally done at the end of the shift.
In general, the raise is advanced 20 feet above the bulkhead
before the stulls, chute, and bulkhead are raised, and staging
rests on round sprags from 4 to 6 inches in diameter. Raises
under 57° generally are un timbered. Usually, they are driven
from a bulldoze chamber at 50 to 57°, with the broken rock
flowing back to the chamber. Bulkheads covering half the
raise are placed each 50-foot advance. The ladders used in this
work are made from 3 by 4-inch fir with 1-inch pipe rungs
over %-inch rods. In the raise they are held in place by U-
shaped brackets made from old steel.
The different mining methods employed in the mines are
determined by the character of each individual block of ore
to be mined. These include surface glory holes, shrinkage
stoping, shrinkage with powder drifts for primary breaking,
horizontal cut-and-fill, horizontal square-setting, open rills,
and the Britannia method of mining, a large-scale retreating
shrinkage system frequently combined with powder drifts for
primary breaking.
The Britannia mining method was developed to meet the
necessity for low costs and increased safety. After some experimental work a section of the West Bluff mine was laid out
for stoping by this method, and in the early part of 1931,
when it was decided to mine the very hard East Bluff orebody,
the method was modified to fit this work.
Britannia Stoping.
The general scheme of operation is:
1. Establishment and development of a bulldoze-chamber
level or an alternative level for chute drawing.
2. Complete undercutting of a section of the orebody.
The orebody is usually cut from foot to hanging wall but
may be laid out in various ways, depending upon its size and
3. Development of block for use of powder blasts.
4. Control of ore drawing.
In undercutting, the practice is similar to that employed
in the big shrinkage stopes. In the East Bluff large areas can
be excavated safely with but few pillars, in the West Bluff
more frequent support is necessary. However, unless the
ground is very soft there is practically no limit to the size of
the block that may be undercut if adequate pillar support is
provided. The only limitation is that individual pillars must
not be so large that they cannot be conveniently drilled and
blasted out in one operation. The method is thus adapted
to a wide range of ground conditions. Undercuts have been
made up to 200 feet in width.
For the development of the block one or more service raises
are necessary according to the size of the block to be mined,
but within fairly wide limits the positions of these raises do
not affect subsequent mining and may be selected more by
convenience of service.
The number and location of such raises are governed by
the sublevel development that follows and are considered an
individual problem for each stope.
The Britannia method has the following advantages:
1. Flexibility and control. Not only can the system be
freely modified to suit conditions in the original planning of
the stope, but it can also be readily adapted to meet changing
conditions encountered as mining progresses.
2. No permanent pillars are left to be recovered by auxiliary methods.
3. In carrying on the mining work there is a constant
retreat from the worked-out areas into virgin ground.
4. Safety. As all working excavations following undercutting are of minimum size, the risk of injury from falls of
ground is greatly reduced.
Gloryhole mining was first practised in the Bluff orebody
where the deposit itself was large enough to warrant its use.
Later large gloryholes were opened up in the upper Fairview
section, where the closely spaced, parallel veins with some
mineralization between them made large-scale breaking preferable to expensive selective mining.
In both mines glory holing was originally carried out by
a system of benches. Drilling was done by pluggers or tripod
Until the present critical manpower shortage developed,
the Britannia concentrator was handling five or six thousand
tons of ore a day, assaying less than 1 per cent copper.
A departure from the usual process is the removal of
primary slimes by washing and subsequent flotation in a separate machine, which is designed to effect the following:
1. Removal of sticky mud from the ore, thus simplifying
the mechanical problem of getting tonnage through the crushing plant equipment; and
2. The elimination of a large part of the slime from the
flotation machines in the main circuit materially increasing
JUNE, 1944
11 over-all performance. Another feature is the floating of a
bulk concentrate of pyrite and copper, and the subsequent
separation of the two sulphides after dewatering and regrind-
ing of the coarser particles.
Britannia ore consists of a mixture of chalcopyrite and pyrite in a relatively hard schist or quartz gangue. Zinc blende,
gold and silver also occur in small amounts. The minerals
can be released from one another and from the gangue by
moderately fine grinding, but the ore is remarkably hard, as
indicated by high steel consumption for roll crushing and fine
The mine-run ore is crushed to 6 inches before being transported to the mill through a system of underground raises
and haulage ways. Further reduction is effected by three 5 l/z-
foot Symons Cone crushers set to %-inch and thence to 72
inches and 54 inches Traylor Rolls. The rolls are in closed
circuit with ten Hum-mer dry screens delivering a 5/32-
inch undersize product.
An unusual feature of the crushing operation consists
of washing and wet scheening of the ore after it is drawn
from the receiving bins to remove primary slimes, which
otherwise would build up on the rolls and blind the Hum-mer
screens. The physical condition of the ore is such that efficient crushing would be quite impossible without this washing operation.
The undersize product of the wet screens is further classified into a sand and slime, the latter product containing
large amounts of soluble salts, which are very detrimental to
flotation. The primary slimes and their contained soluble salts
are thus segregated from the major portion of the ore and
given special and intensive flotation treatment.
Final reduction of the 5/32-inch product of the crushing
plant is accomplished in Traylor ball mills, using as grinding
media 2-1/16-inch diameter eutetic cast steel balls, manufactured at Britannia Beach. These balls are quick-quenched
for high hardness. The ball mills are lined with 6-inch sections of the quenched runner gates obtained in the casting of
the grinding balls. This type of lining is set on end to the
mill-shell in a 50-50 sand-cement slurry and gives two to
three years useful life.
Two-stage Flotation.
Two flotation concentrates are produced, one containing
the copper mineral and the other pyrite, the latter being sold,
whenever markets are available, to acid manufacturers for
its sulphur content. Concentration is effected in two stages,
in the first of which a bulk concentrate, containing both the
chalcopyrite and pyrite, is floated. This bulk concentrate,
after thickening in Dorr tanks and regrinding in Allis-
Chalmers ball mills, is then subjected to differential flotation,
from which operation is recovered, first, a high grade copper
concentrate and, second, a middling which is retreated, and
finally a pyrite concentrate low in copper. Several advantages
may be claimed for this practice. The most important is due
to the fact that much finer grinding is necessary to free the
copper and iron minerals from one another than to liberate
either from the gangue. Bulk flotation followed by regrinding, therefore, allows a relatively coarse initial grind—50 per
cent minus 200 mesh—without impairing final recovery. The
use of larger amounts of powerful reagents in the roughing
circuit is also permissable, since differential conditions do not
have to be maintained.
The small amount of gold in Britannia ore is practically
all in the free state. Most of this free gold concentrates with
the copper, but a small percentage is retarded. In order to
guard against losses from this source, the tailings from the
roughing and secondary circuits are passed over blankets,
which are washed in place.
Roughing of the primary slimes and of the ground feed
is carried on in 8-foot deep air cells, the slimes in a cell 55
feet long and the ground feed in a 100-foot cell in series with
a 40-foot cell, the latter Deep-cell serving as a scavenger
machine.   A Deep air cell is used as a recleaner.
Concentrates are settled in Dorr thickeners and American
disc fitters are used to dewater the final concentrates for
Hydrated Lime is added at the primary mills in sufficient
quantity to maintain a trace of free alkalinity in the rougher
tailings. This slight alkalinity benefits recovery without depressing the pyrite.
Potassium Ethyl Xanthate and Pine Oil are applied at the
heads and centres of the roughers.
Cyanide is fed at the head of concentrate regrinding to
depress the pyrite while the copper is being floated in the secondary circuit. Very small amounts of Pine Oil and Butyl
Xanthate are required for this operation, after which a relatively large quantity of Ethyl Xanthate is added to reactivate
the pyrite.
Filtered copper and pyrite concentrates are transported by
belt conveyors to covered storage bins of 6,000 and 4,000-ton
capacity, from which clamshell buckets operated from overhead cranes load them onto a conveyor discharging directly
in the hold of the steamer. Sampling is done automatically-
wherever possible.
Community Life.
From the standpoint of the miner Britannia is a model
community. There is a regular boat service daily to and from
Vancouver, and the wharf is within a few hundred yards of
the office buildings, stores, laboratories, dormitories, mess and
recreation halls. For more than 20 years the Britannia stores
have been operated on a co-operative basis, employees participating in a total of $513,000 in rebates since the system was
Apart from safety measures which are constantly being
improved and extended, employees are the beneficiaries of non-
contributory life insurance to a total of $1500 each. House
rentals to employees amount to only one dollar per room per
month. There are schools, churches, gymnasiums, libraries
and other facilities to contribute to the contentment and convenience of Britannia people, and those who have lived there
a considerable time often wonder why anyone should be attracted to jobs nearer the big cities.
After nearly forty years of harmonious labor relations at
Britannia without unionization the company early in September signed a working agreement with Local 663 of the International Union of Mine, Mill and Smelter Workers' Union,
Affiliated with the Congress of Industrial Organizations.
For over a year Britannia has been operating under a contract arranged with the Wartime Metals Corporation, a company wholly owned by the Canadian Government, under the
terms of which all the copper produced is used in the United
Nations' war effort by sale to the Metals Reserve Company,
a U. S. government organization.
—Reprinted by Kind Permission of "The Mining World"
"cJfdp. BudU BidiA CoLmka.".
The Western branch of the Carter-Halls-Aldinger Company has been reorganized as the Commonwealth Construction Company Ltd. Headquarters of the firm will be Winnipeg and Mr. RALPH C. PYBUS has been appointed Western Manager in Vancouver.
Congratulations to Major J. B. HEDLEY, R.C.E.M.E., on
his promotion. Also to Group Captain J. ALLAN JONES,
who has been appointed Director of Construction Engineering
and Maintenance of the Division of Construction Engineering,
R.C.A.F. This Division replaces the old Directorate of Works
and Buildings.
The first person to make an .automobile trip over the new
Skeena River Highway from Smithers to Terrace was Mr. S.
A. CUNLIFFE, Assistant District Engineer for the Department of Public Works.
Major-General J. P. MACKENZIE, D.S.O., Inspector-
General for Western Canada, is retiring from army service.
Members of the 1944 engineering graduating class going
on active service: HUGH ABBOTT, B. W. ANDERSON, O.
Mr. J. A. WALKER has returned to the City from Ottawa and is resuming his work as Town Planning Engineer.
Mr. N. E. NELSON, Consulting Engineer for the Granby
Company for many years, has joined the satff of the Wright
Hargreaves Mine at Kirkland Lake, Ontario. The Chief
Mine Engineer for the same company, Mr. C. H. BREHAUT,
is now with the Beattie Gold Mines at Duparquet, Quebec.
The Assistant General Manager, Mr. W. R. LINDSAY, is
now in Toronto.
Recently transferred to the Vancouver office of the C. M.
& S. Company, is Mr. H. S. FOWLER, previously at Trail.
Mr. C. L. BATES, Chief Engineer for the Pacific Great
Eastern Railway, is retiring after seventeen years with the
Faculty promotions at the University include Major A. H.
FINLAY, now Professor of Civil Enginereing, and Mr. D. W.
THOMSON, Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical
and Electrical Engineering. '
Lieut. J. E. STOREY, 1941 graduate in Mechanical Engineering, is among those listed as missing in the recent sinking of the H.M.C.S. Valley field.
Deepest sympathy is extended to Mr. and Mrs. L. J.
Street in the loss of their son, Louis, who died recently of
wounds received while serving with the Central Mediterranean
Wing Commander "Don" Macdonald, D.F.C, known as
the "ghost raider," has recently left command of the Intruder
Squadron and has been assigned to what is termed a "more
important task."
"She was beautiful, too," adds. Lt. Graham Darling, B.A.
'40, to his description of the Tirpitz bombing in which he
participated. Graham joined the R.C.N, immediately on graduation, and served two years overseas with the Royal Navy
before taking a flying course in Canada. He is now with the
Fleet Air Arm.
Our sincere sympathy also to Mr. J. T. Coutts, whose
wife passed away on June 2nd.
Lenora Millerd, graduate of U.B.C. and Montreal's Royal
Victoria Hospital, was "the recent bride of Major H. C. Slade,
R.C.A.M.C., of Newfoundland.
Katherne ("Kay") Brooke Hewitt was married last month
to Lt. Alfred Smith of the Royal Navy. Kay took her B.A.
in 1940 and her M.A. in 1941 from U.B.C.
Margaret Ecker, former Ubyssey pubster and the Canadian
Press' only woman staff representative overseas, was awarded
the Canadian Women's Press Club Memorial Award for the
"best personality biographical sketch" published in 1941.
Margaret is married to Fl. Lt. Bob Francis and is at present
living in London, England. Our Congrats to a top-drawer
Recently home in Vancouver on short leave - from the
Medical Corps was Dr. F. Wells Brason who just graduated
from the University of Toronto Medical School. Dr. Brason
took his parchment from U.B.C. in 1940.
Phylis Wayles, B.A. '40, was married to Mr. Oliver Mel-
vin Julson early this month.
Off to Washington, D.C., to take up posts with British
Supply Mission are Graduates Elizabeth (Bobby) Boultbee and
Joan Villiers.
To Lt. and Mrs. Rodney Poisson, April 27, 1944, a daughter, Renee. Rod was B.A. '35 and an instructor in English
at U.B.C. from 1940 to 1942, when he joined the Canadian
Navy.    Mrs. Poisson was Helen Ferguson, B.A. '3 3.
Chang-Lu Quo, graduate of National Wu-han University,
and a M.A. from British Columbia, is returning to Chungking
for a post with the Chinese Foreign Office. Mr. Quo came to
Vancouver via Hongkong in 1941.
Vic Freeman, B.A. '40 and a debater of some prominence,
is back in Vancouver on a short holiday from his medical
studies at Toronto Medical School. Also back in the city are
Peter Bell-Irving and W. K. Lindsay.
In town recently was Fl. Lt. W. C. (Bill) Gibson, now
with the No. 1 Clinical Investigation Unit, R.C.A.F., Toronto. Bill arrived at the coast after lecturing at the University
of Alberta on the physiology of high altitude flying. He has
travelled extensively through the U. S., England, Spain and
Russia, and wherever he has gone he has been one of the university's greatest boosters. He's promised to do some articles
for future editions of the Chronicle.
Peter Fowler, B.Ap.Sc. '3 3, has returned to Vancouver
after a long session at Trail with the Consolidated. Pete will
be in charge of explorations in the coast district for his company.
Oscar Orr, Jr., is now in the Persian Gulf area with a
large oil company.
Flight-Lieutenant Campbell Kenmuir was in Vancouver
on leave recently and is now stationed at Pat Bay.
JUNE, 1944
P/O JACK SCRIVENER—Scout Master of Kerrisdale troop.
Joined R.C.A.F. in March, 1942.
SGT. OBSERVER ALASTAIR J. YOUNG, R.C.A.F.—Enlisted in January, 1942.
W/C C. A. WILLIS, R.C.A.F.—WeU-known for attacking
enemy shipping in the face of heavy anti-aircraft opposition.
F/L J. H. "JIMMY" WHALEN, R.C.A.F.—Shot down three
Japanese dive-bombers in 45 minutes over Burma during
1943, following a bag of three Nazi planes in the European theatre—the first wing commander of the Vancouver
Air Cadets, of which he was an original member—also the
first member of the league to graduate under the British
Commonwealth Air Training Plan after joining the
SGT. GORDON PREECE, R.C.A.F.—Listed missing after
his seventh operational flight over enemy territory on
March 31—went overseas in October, 1943.
F/L CHARLES MADDIN, R.C.A.F.—Missing after air operations on April 24—enlisted in 1942.
injury received at Macleod, Alta.
serving on active service on the Atlantic Patrol.
R.C.A.F.—B.A. 1936.
Sent letters in thanks for parcels received in prison camps—
P/O DAVID DALE, R.C.A.F. overseas—Well-known in
golfing circles.
Recently graduated from H.M.C.S. King's College.
F/L MURRAY K. PICKARD, R.C.A.F.—Promoted recently
from F/O—spent 16 months service in Coastal Command,
West Africa.
F/O HAROLD M. McDONALD, R.C.A.F.—Awarded the
W/C D. C. S. MacDONALD, D.F.C—"Ghost raider" of
Vancouver—has left the command of the Intruder Squadron to assume a more "important task."
LT. EARL CUSHING, Canadian Forestry Corps,
Died, Hospital Ship "Lady Nelson," April, 1944.
F/O W. W. COLLEDGE, R.C.A.F.—Killed in action overseas—received the award of D.F.C.—accepted by his
mother, Mrs. W. W. Colledge—awarded due to F/O Col-
ledge's bravery in an action in which he was attacked by
four enemy aircraft. Shot down one and damaged two
F O W. A. T. WHITE, R.C.A.F.—Recently promoted to
F/O from P/O—is at present serving with the Coastal
Command at a northern Scotland base.
CPL. JOHN B. CORNISH, R.C.A.M.C—Returned home
after two and a half years overseas—lost an eye in a bomb
explosion in 1942—has been serving with the Basingstoke
Neurological and Plastic Surgery Hospital in England—
was Edtior-in-Chief of the Ubyssey while at U.B.C.
LAC BILL MUNRO, R.C.A.F.—Overseas in January, 1944.
A.F.—Navigator in England.
P O STANLEY H. JENKINS, R.C.A.F.—Stationed at Sum-
merside, P.E.I.—U.B.C. grad.
P O ALBERT M. BUCKLEY, R.C.A.F.—Serving overseas.
Navy Graduates from King's College—
Air Navigator Graduates—
F/O ROBERT GORDON CROSBY—Reported missing, now
safe in England—B.A.Sc. 1940.
BARBARA DIETHER—Training with the Women's Royal
Canadian Naval Service at Gait, Ont.—Kappa Kappa
Gamma Sorority.
Wrens doing naval library work—B.A. 1931.
writer in Halifax and Ottawa—made naval history by
being the first woman to accompany trial parties on inspection runs aboard new ships for the navy.—B.A. 1936.
MM., (&.M., EJG.3.. 3UUC*.
MAY 27th, 1944
The Chronicle publishes herewith Dr. L. S. Klinck's
address at the funeral service ior the late Chancellor of
the University, held Hay 27, 1944, in Christ Church
Cathedral. To the many graduates unable to be present
at this service, this address will express their admiration
for Dr. McKechnie and their sorrow at his passing.
This afternoon, long-established tradition has been departed from in that a layman has been requested
to speak from this lectern at a memorial service. The explanation for this departure from accepted custom
lies in the character and work of the man whose passing we mourn today.
In our common sorrow, in our sympathy with the bereaved family, and in our common loss, my remarks will be simple, brief and direct.
Your presence here in almost unprecedented numbers is, in itself, the highest tribute which could
be paid to the esteem and affection in which Dr. McKechnie was held.
As one who was privileged to know him long and intimately, it is not possible for me to express, with
any degree of adequacy, the deep sense of my personal loss. My remarks, therefore, will be not so much
in the nature of a personal tribute as to attempt to express the conviction of the thousands of citizens who
knew Dr. McKechnie as a physician and surgeon, as Chancellor of the University of British Columbia, as a
man, and as a friend.
It has been said that no two observers see the same rainbow, nor do any two critics see precisely the
same excellencies in canvas or marble. Nor do'men, in the same degree, see the virtues and abilities of
a great and good man. But what, by common consent, did Dr. McKechnie's fellow citizens see in his life
and in his work? They saw a strength of personality, a nobility of character, a professional proficiency,
an altruistic public spirit. They saw a man whose interests and sympathies were as spontaneous as they
were catholic; a man gentle in disposition, quiet and unassuming in manner, constant in friendship, wise in
counsel, and tireless in his devotion to duty; a man who gave cheerfully and unsparingly of his scanty leisure
time to worthy community causes; one whose friendly smile and kindly eyes revealed his sympathy with all
that is good in life; a man who won their confidence, commanded their respect, and retained their undying
affection. They saw a man of more than purely intellectual culture in whose person were happily blended
a strong will, a sensitive conscience, and a highly developed moral sense In him the ideal of unselfish service was exalted.
Anything that was less inclusive than humanity itself was not sufficiently inclusive for him; anything
less comprehensive in its outreach, anything less restricted in its perspective, made only a secondary appeal
to his generous nature. The quality of his life was such as to make him at home in the best traditions of
the race. The leadership he gave had a distinctive quality and carried something of the impress of the win-
someness of his own personality.
During his long life, many signal, unsought honors came to him, all of which were borne with characteristic modesty. These honors bear testimony to the esteem in which he was held by those whose opinion
he valued most highly—namely, the foremost scientific men in his profession.
Though his voice is stilled, what this gifted and beloved man said, and did, and was, will live long in the
minds and hearts of his fellow-citizens, be they rich or poor, high or low. In his life there was the quality of
immortality—a spiritual insight which inspired confidence and infused new courage and resolution into the
hearts of men.
May we here assembled be imbued with something of a like perspective; be supported by something
of a like poise; be imbued with something of a like spirit, and inspired by something of a like faith! The Placer mining Industry
in British Columbia
Before endeavouring to show the part mining has played
in the development of British Columbia, the present position
of that industry, and some of the problems and prospects
which it faces today, it might be well to establish a few points
of reference by recalling that in 1843 the Hudson's Bay Company's fort was established on the site of Victoria, that after
a period of government by the Company as separate colonies,
the Vancouver Island and Mainland colonies were united under
one government, and a few years later in 1871 entered confederation as the Province of British Columbia. Overland communication with the rest of Canada was provided when service over the Canadian Pacific Railway began in 1886. Railways were being built in the southern part of the Province in
the 90's, the line through Crows Nest Pass was completed in
1898, but it was not until 1912 that communication with
the southern interior became possible entirely over British
Columbia railways.
The first of our mineral resources to be utilized on an
important scale was coal. In 183 5 an Indian is said to have
reported existence of coal on northern Vancouver Island to
the blacksmith at a trading post on Millbanke sound, up the
coast from the northern end of the Island. Outcrop coal
from deposits exposed on the beach was obtained from the
Indians for several years and was used in Hudson's Bay Company steamers and in naval vessels. In 1849 the Hudson's
Bay Company established Fort Rupert on the Island, southerly from where Port Hardy is now situated, and attempts
were made to mine the coal, but the unsatisfactory quality
of the coal, and difficulties in mining it, caused the operation
to be abandoned. The difficulties included opposition from
the Indians, who resented the whites taking from them the
source of revenue which they had enjoyed for several years.
Discovery of the Nanaimo field also followed a report made
by an Indian. In 1850 a party, sent by Governor Douglas to
investigate the report, discovered one coal seam and other
seams were soon found. In 1851 a pit was started, coal was
shipped to Victoria in 1852, and in 1853 to San Francisco
where it is said to have sold for $28.00 per ton. The development of the interior coal fields depended on the building of
railways. The Crows-Nest Pass field, now our greatest producer, began production about 1896, while the railway was
being built.
Coal mining now employs about 2,500 men and produces
approximately 2,000,000 tons of coal per year with average
value of close to $8,000,000.
Indians also contributed to the first gold discoveries. Lode-
gold in a narrow vein on Moresby Island fo the Queen Charlotte group, was reported in 1851; attempts to mine it were
not commercially successful. Discovery of placer gold in the
Thompson River and in bars on the Fraser River near Yale
encouraged miners to search farther in the interior. By 1861
discoveries had been made at Quesnel Forks, Keithley Creek,
Antler Creek, Williams Creek and Lightning Creek; and in
the southern interior at Rock Creek and Fort Steele and north
of Revelstoke on the Columbia River.
Political developments were forced by the rapid growth
of   mining.     The  great   influx  of  gold   seekers   transformed
By Hon. E. C. CARSON
Minister of Mines, British Columbia
Victoria from a quiet trading post into a roaring boom town.
Governor Douglas, who in 1853 had proclaimed regulations
governing digging or mining gold on the Queen Charlotte
Islands, undertook to collect licence fees from the miners on
the mainland and to maintain law and order. His firm handling of the situation probably kept the colony under British
Fascinating tales have been written of life in the very raw
country—of the stupendous efforts such as the building of the
Cariboo Road to serve the placer mining camps of the Cariboo, of enterprising people who drove beef cattle up the
Okanagan Valley and into the heart of the Cariboo country,
and of course of the unfortunate attempts to use camels on
the Cariboo Road.
Placer mining in British Columbia has yielded gold worth
about $92,000,000. The production of the first 25 years,
1858 to 1883, had an estimated value of more than $54,000,-
000. By the end of fhat period the annual output had declined greatly, and from that time until 1936 the annual
value of placer gold rarely reached $1,000,000. The lowest
year was 1929 with production valued at less than $120,000.
The output increased to more than $1,000,000 in 1936 and
even under wartime conditions the output had not again
fallen below $1,000,000 at the end of 1942.
Prospectors interested in lode-deposits had made some discoveries while placer mining was still the principal interest.
The decline of placer mining and the construction of railways in the southern part of the Province tended to increase
prospecting for lode deposits. The 15 years following the
completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1886 saw the
discovery of most of the important lode mining camps in
southern British Columbia: Slocan-Ainsworth, Nelson, Kimberley, Moyie, Rossland, Boundary, Field and Texada Island.
With the development of these camps, British Columbia became an important lode-mining Province, producing gold,
silver, copper and lead. By 1900 the annual value of lode-
mine production had reached $10,000,000, and coal production was valued at more than $4,000,000.
Mining has continued to expand in volume and in value of
material produced, and has also become the basis for a great
chemical industry at Trail.
We now produce a long list of refined metals or high-
grade concentrates, for export. We also produce, largely for
home consumption, coal and building materials, including
cement and clay products, in substantial quantity.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE For the 10 years ending in 1941 the average annual value
of production exceeded $56,000,000, divided between
Metals (refined or in concentrates) nearly  $48,000,000
Fuel (refined or in concentrates) nearly       7,000,000
Non-metallics  more than 800,000
Clay and clay products  300,000
Other structural materials nearly       1,500,000
Gold valued at more than $16,000,000 constituted more than
a third of the metal and considerably more than quarter the
value of all mineral products.
This 10-year period includes the worst years of the depression, including 1932, when the total value of production
was approximately half of the average annual value for the
10-year period. The increase in gold production to an average of nearly $23,000,000 per year for the four years 193 8 to
1941 inclusive, was an extremely important factor in the
total production.
A measure of the importance of the industry is the number employed in it. The average for the 10-year period, computed as full-time employment, was 14,260 according to our
figures. The figures for the average number of employees in
all industries in 1941 is 97,300. For that year the total number employed in the three main branches of the mining industry was 12,350, or rather more than one-eighth of the total
for all industries.    A Dominion Bureau of Statistics figure for
1942 places the average earnings of workers in the mining
industry at 1% above the average for all industries. When
fewer people were employed in highly paid war industries the
average earnings in the mining industry were considerably
higher than the average for all industries.
In the war years the mining industry produced gold in
substantial volume, while gold was desired for foreign exchange. It has produced refined lead and zinc in large volume, at prices from a third to a half of United States prices,
and copper at the United States export price. The production
of these base metals reached maximum figures in 1941 and
1942. The Province has produced important quantities of
tungsten concentrates and of refined mercury which were
urgently required for war purposes. British Columbia is the
only important source of mercury within the Empire. Tungsten and mercury are now coming fom other sources and
British Columbia production has been stopped or drastically
reduced. Tin, still in short supply, and several other metals
are being produced as by-products of base metal mining and
Gold-miners were urged to increase or at least maintain
their production in the earlier years of the war when foreign
exchange was needed. The peak value of gold production was
reached in 1940. Since 1941 production has fallen off and
for 1943 the amount of gold produced was less than 40 per
cent of the quantity produced in 1940. Coal production has
been set at a higher rate than for the pre-war years but 1943
production was materially below that for 1942. Lead and
zinc production have declined in the last two years and the
production of copper has fallen off greatly.
The reductions in output have been caused by war conditions,  principally   labour   shortage,   which  under  National
regulations affects gold mines most seriously. Mines in general have been unable to keep up their development programs,
that is, they have been unable to devote enough effort to
searching for ore and to opening up ore-bodies which have
been discovered. To varying degrees production has been at
the expense of developed ore reserves. This situation holds
serious difficulties for the present and future; unless ore continues to be discovered, reserves shrink rapidly; and frequently
the effort to maintain production results in difficulties in
mining. The gold mines have met the difficulties of declining
reserves or inability to maintain production at a profitable
level by reducing the rate of production, alternating between
production and development, or shutting down completely.
The base metal mines, because of the urgent need of metal
for war purposes, have tried to maintain production at high
If at the end of the war our ore reserves are seriously
depleted and at that time we face low metal ptices, the situation will be grave for the mining industry and this situation
will certainly be reflected by the Provincial economy in general.     It will be  essential  for the good of  the Province  that
new ore be made available. This can only be done by finding
new ore-bodies in established mining areas, and by finding
new areas which contain commercial ore-bodies. To a degree
provision of transportation in under-developed parts of the
Province may contribute to the latter.
To date our ore depostis have been discovered very largely
by prospectors whose hope of gain has depended on finding
mineral deposits which they could sell. Some of them have
been assisted by individuals or groups contributing toward or
meeting the expenses. For some years the number of men
actively prospecting has been inadequate, accordingly in 1943
the Provincial Government began to provide grub-stakes for
prospectors. It is hoped that experienced prospectors will be
encouraged to continue prospecting, that others will be attracted to prospecting, and that training and experience under
this program will benefit both the new recruits and the old-
Geological maps and reports are of great assistance in
searching for ore, and in planning prospecting programs. The
Dominion Geological Survey, and the Provincial Department
of Mines in a real mapping and examination of minerals occurrences have made contributions of great value. However,
to meet present and post-war needs this type of work will
have to be increased.
So far the mining industry has been based principally on
the production of the metals—gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
fuel—and structural materials. Mercury and possibly tungsten, which have been produced during the war years, may
also make a contribution to our future mineral output. Utili
zation of our iron ore deposits, long a topic of interest, is to
the fore again with prospects that production of pig iron and
of steel may be undertaken on a modest scale. With increas
ing industrialization and with some demand for export, it is
probable that production of industrial minerals may becomt
increasingly important.
JUNE, 1944
17 czditoxial ^ i/i
At the present time the University of British Columbia is lacking in
one of the most essential elements in the life of a university—namely,
organized student residences.
No completely rounded university education can be obtained at an
institution that ceases to have contact with the student body in late
afternoon and does not resume that contact until he following morning.
By no means all of the value of a university is to be found in the classrooms.
Contact with one's fellow students and one's instructors are all essential in the development of the undergraduate. Indeed it is a moot point
whether or not far more is learned outside the classroom than in it at an
average university.
Quite apart from the advantages mentioned above, the economic
aspects of student residences are themselves sufficient reason to make
such a housing scheme a "must" on the campus. Our university is provincial in scope and of necessity hundreds of students must annually come
to Vancouver and spend long periods there. Those students must have
room and board, and today they are faced with the well-nigh impossible task of finding that accommodation ijn private homes in Vancouver. This hit-and-miss method is as unsatisfactory as it could possibly be.
No standardization of either quality or costs of accommodation exists. The student is entirely on his own
here and he takes his chance as to whether he will be fortunate or unfortunate in his search for a winter
The solution lies in the establishment of university-operated residences on the campus. Such are in
the proposed plans of the University but to date little has apparently been done about the matter.
Elsewhere in this issue will be found an account of the growth of the student co-operative boarding
houses at the university. These houses are proven successes and they point the way to the establishment
of general residences on the campus.
The Alumni Association has adopted as one of its main current objectives the obtaining of student
residences. But residences will never be obtained unless the people of the province demand them. Now
is the time for Alumni in every part of the province to contact their local members of the legislature and
to make absolutely certain these elected representatives fully understand the problem.
It is clear that pressure must arise from outside the university if the legislature and the university government itself are to 'be forced into action.
There is much talk these days of post-war housing projects. Why should we not have a university housing project at the earliest possible moment?' If we are to have such an undertaking, the time to prepare
for it is now.
This magazine is devoted to the interests of university graduates in the province and, through them, to
the interests of the province as a whole. No such magazine can be successful without the full support of
those for whom it is intended.
The Chronicle welcomes contributions from its readers. If you have something to say, why not write
us an article or at least a letter. Just send the material along to our office in the Brock Building at the
In these days of wartime restrictions, a wide subscription list is needed to ensure continuity of publication. If you know any alumnus who is not subscribing to this magazine, why not suggest that he or she
send along the two dollar subscription right away.
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE THE   ENGINEER'S   VIEWPOINT   .   .   .        what of the future?
Slowly and surely, whether we like it or not, the society in which we live is crystallizing into two
groups. Call them what you will, capital and labor, employer and employee, exploiters and exploited, nothing can be gained by a refusal to recognize this trend. The engineers can become a useful and very desirable buffer group between these two. The danger lies in emotional thinking, and the. engineer is by his
training taught to attack his problems scientifically and without emot on. The real engineer is primarily
interested in doing a good job, and the profit motive has in the majority of cases a secondary place. The
major opposing groups are quite naturally activated, under our system of economy, by self-interest. (We
usually add the adjective "enlightened"—it sounds better.)
For many years, confidence in the scientific reasoning of the engineer has been growing, and it is now
an established custom for him to be the sole arbitrator in engineering contracts, although he is in the pay
of one of the interested parties. His "certificate" of the value and quantity of the work done is usually
the primary condition of payment, and any attempt at pressure by either of the interested parties is liable
to lead to serious consequences.
Is it too. much to hope that before long those in authority will recgnize the immense possibilities of
the application of scientific thinking to our social problems?
/ AM AN ENGINEER. In my profession I take deep pride, but without vainglory; to it I owe solemn obligations that I am eager to fulfill.
As an Engineer, I will participate in none but honest enterprise. To
him that has engaged my services, as employer or client, I will give the
utmost of my performance and fidelity.
When needed, my skill and knowledge shall be given without reservation for the public good. From special capacity springs the obligation
to use it well in the service of humanity; and I accept the challenge that
this implies.
Jealous of the high repute of my calling, I will strive to protect the
interests and the good name of any engineer that I know to be deserving;
but I will not shrink, shoidd duty dictate, from disclosing the truth
regarding anyone that, by unscrupulous act, has shoivn himself unworthy
of the profession.
Since the Age of Stone, human progress has been conditioned by the
genius of my professional forbears. By them have been rendered usable
to mankind Nature's vast resources of 'material and energy. By them
have been vitalized and turned to practical account the principles of
science and the revelations of technology. Except for this heritage of
accumulated experience, my efforts would be feeble. I dedicate myself
to the dissemination of engineering knoxvledge, and, especially, to the
instruction of younger members of my profession in all its arts and
To my fellows I pledge, in the same full measure I ask of them,
integrity and fair dealing, tolerance and respect, and devotion to the
standards and the dignity of our profession; with the consciousness,
always, that our special expertness carries with it the obligation to serve
humanity with complete sincerity.
"'Engineers' Council for Professional Development.
P.C. 1003 recently promulgated under the War Measures Act is a document of extreme interest not
only to professional engineers but to all professional men. Its main object is the prevention of strikes and
lockouts and it recognizes freedom of both employers, and employees to organize. In fact, it is almost compulsory so to do.
The WT.LR.B. on April 12 last, ruled as follows: "For purposes of the regulations, persons employed
in a professional capacity shall be deemed to be employed in a confidential capacity, with the Board reserving its right to review the decision in six months."
Under the regulations, persons employed in a confidential capacity are excluded from the order, so,
until October 15, professional engineers when they are acting in a professional capacity are excluded.
What is "a professional capacity" and what is "a confidential capacity"? We would welcome some
definitions from our readers.
JUNE, 1944
We publish with pleasure the following article which has been forwarded to us by
A. L. Carruthers, M.E.I.C, Chief Engineer, Department of Public Works, Victoria. It
concerns the obvious neglect of the "stone in the road, the wicked stone, the disturbing
stone, the stumbling block." Needless to add, the longer the stone remains, the more
difficult it becomes to get someone to remove it. Mr. Carruthers refers to its author as
the wise old farmer-philosopher. The moral of this philosophic effort may well be
applied to all the important little things that impede the progress of our orderly economic
A man!   A man!   There is a man loose in Canada!
A man of heroic mound, a "throwback" of earlier ages,
Vigorous, public-spirited, not afraid of work!
A doer of deeds, not a dreamer and babbler;
A man, simple, direct, unaffected,
Such a one as Walt Whitman would have gloried in,
And made immortal in rugged man-poetry—
Vast polyphloesboean verses such as erstwhile he bellowed
Through roaring storm winds to the bull-mouthed
And yesterday the man passed among us unnoted!
Did his deed and went his way without boasting,
Leaving his act to speak, himself silent!
And I, beholding the marvel, stood for a space astonished,
Then threw up my hat and chortled,
And whooped in dithyrambic exultation.
Hark to my tale!
On the sixteenth sideroad of the township of Ekfrid,
Just south of the second concession line, some rods
from the corner,
There was a stone, a stone in the road, a stumbling-
A jagged tooth of granite dropped from the jaw of a
In an earlier age when the summers were colder;
A rock that horses tripped on, wheels bumped on, and
sleigh-runners scrunched on,
And no man in all the land had the gumption to dig
it out.
Pathmaster after pathmaster, full of his pride of office.
Rode by with haughty brow, and regarded it not,
Seeing only the weeds in the field of the amateur
And scrawling minatory letters or ordering them cut,
But leaving the stone.
Oft in my hot youth I, riding in a lumber wagon,
By that lurking stone was catapulted skyward,
And picked myself up raging and vowing to dig it
But dug it not.   I didn't have a spade,
Or, if I had a spade, I had a lame back—always an
And the stone stayed. As passed the years—good
years, bad years,
Years that were wet or dry, lean years and fat years,
Roaring election years (mouthing reforms); in short,
all years
That oldest inhabitants keep in stock—there grew a
About the stone. Men, it was said, had tried to move it,
But it was a stubborn boulder, deep sunk in the earth,
And could only be moved by dynamite—at vast cost to
the council;
But every councillor was a watchdog of the treasury,
And the stone stayed.
Since the memory of man runneth the stone was there.
It had stubbed the toe of the Algonquin brave, and
Had tripped the ferocious, marauding Iroquois.
It had jolted the slow, wobbling ox-cart of the pioneer;
Jolted the lumber wagons, democrats, buggies, sulkies;
Jolted the pungs, crotches, stoneboats, bob-sleighs,
Upset loads of bolts, staves, cordwood, loads of logs
and hay;
Jolted threshing machines, traction engines, automobiles,
Milk wagons with cans of whey, envied of querulous
It had shattered the dreams of farmers, figuring on
Of drovers planning sharp deals;
Of peddlers, agents, doctors, preachers;
It had jolted lovers into closer embraces, to their bashful delight;
But mostly it had shaken men into sinful tempers—
A wicked stone, a disturbing stone, a stumbling-
A stone in the middle of the road—
Insolent as a bank, obstructive as a merger!
Year after year the road flowed around it,
Now to the right side, now to the left;
But always on dark nights flowing straight over it,
Jolting the belated traveller into a passion black as
Making his rocking vocabulary slop over
With all the shorter and uglier words.
Boys grew to manhood and men grew to dotage,
And year after year they did statute-labour
By cutting the thistles and golden-rod, milkweeds and
But left the stone untouched.
There is a merry tale that I heard in my childhood,
Standing between my father's knees, before the open
Watching the sparks make soldiers on the blazing
While the shadows danced on the low-beamed ceiling;
A pretty tale, such as children love, and it comes to
me now;
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE Comes with the sharp, crisp smell of wood smoke,
The crackle of flaming cordwood on the dockers,
The dancing  shadows and the hand on  my tousled
A clear memory, a dear memory, and ever the stone
As it lay in my path in the roadway brought back the
The loving voice, and, at the close, the laughter.
"Once upon a time there was a king, a mighty ruler,
Deep in the lore of human hearts, wise as a serpent,
Who placed a stone in the road in the midst of his
On the way to his palace, where all men must pass it.
Straightway the people turned aside, turning to right
and to left of it,
Statesmen, scholars, courtiers, noblemen, merchants,
Beggars, labourers, farmers, soldiers, generals, men of
all classes
Passed the stone, and none tried to move it—
To clear the path of the travelling multitude.
But one day came a man, a kindly poor man,
Who thought it a shame that the stone should be there,
A stumbling-block to the nation.   Bowing his back
He put his shoulder to it, and behold, a marvel!
The stone was but a shell, hollow as a bowl!
A child might have moved it.
And in the hollow was a purse of gold, and with it a
'Let him who hath the public spirit to move the stone
Keep the purse and buy a courtly robe,
And come to the palace to serve the king as prime
So the kindly poor man who had public spirit
Became the chief ruler of all the nation.
When the news was told to them, all men rushed to
the highways
And moved away the stones, but found no purse of
But they cleared the roads of stones, and the 'Good
Roads Movement'
Went through without cost because the king was wise
And well understood our weak human nature."
Ever when passing the stone I remembered this story
And smiled, touched by memories of childhood,
But knew there was no purse under it; there might be
an angle-worm,
But I was not going fishing—and the stone stayed.
Now mark the sequel, the conclusion of the matter!
Yesterday  a   man   went   by—whether   neighbour  or
No man can tell me, though I have questioned widely,
Questioned eagerly, longing to do him honour,
To chant his name in song, or cunningly engrave it
In monumental brass with daedalphantasies—
To make it a landmark, a beacon to all future ages,
This good man, earnest, public-spirited,
Not fearing work, scorning tradition,
Doing his duty as he saw it, not waiting an order,
Dug out the stone and made it a matter of laughter,
For it was no boulder, deep-rooted, needing dynamite,
But just a little stone about the size of a milk-pail,
A child might have moved it, and yet it had bumped us
For three generations because we lacked public spirit.
I blush with shame as I pass the stone now lying
In the roadside ditch where the good man rolled it,
And  left it where all  men may see  it—a symbol, a
Tremble, ye Oppressors!   Quake, ye Financial Pirates!
Your  day   is  at  hand,   for  there   is  a   man   loose   in
A man to break through your illegal labyrinths,
A Theseus to cope with your corporate Minotaurs,
A Hercules to clean out your Augean stables of grafters,
A man who moves stones from the path of his fellows,
And makes smooth the way of the Worker!
And such a man may move you!    Tremble, I say!
HlUllli: WORKS
British Columbia Bridge & Dredging Co., Limited
MArine 6451
JUNE,  1944
21 Post-Discharge Rehabilitation . . .
Assistant Editor of the Chronicle.
fe     The Record So Far !
Editor's Note: Mr. McGill is himself a former
member of the Armed services. He has written for
us an article on one of the most important of our
current problems, the rehabilitation of military personnel to civilian life.
Soldiers returning to Vancouver from overseas service
recently were more than casually concerned about their return to civilian life. To put it mildly, they were deeply worried. "What about rehabilitation?' they asked reporters at
the station. "What are all these rumors about allowances and
grants for education? Has the government done anything
while we've been away?"
A lot of people have been under the impression that men
and women in the services were being kept informed of the
various measures implemented by the federal government for
their post-discharge re-establishment. If this has not been the
case, it does not indicate inaction on the government's part.
Before criticizing Ottawa for lack of foresight and planning,
therefore, it is well to examine what has already been done.
Since December, 1939, the government has had a large
group of the country's best educators, sociologists and medical
men actively at work on discharge problems. In view of the
confusion attending demobilization following the last war, it
was thought preparations for re-establishing men in civilian
life this time could not be undertaken too soon. A General
Advisory Committee, set up in 1940, under the Department
of Pensions and National Health, found six big questions
requiring study and decision.    They were:
1. Re-employment of ex-service men;
2. Resumption of interrupted education;
3. Vocational and technical training;
4. Retraining of special casualties;
5. Land settlement;
6. Preferences in public and private employment.
Sub-committees are still working on each of these items.
Nevertheless, in connection with each, the general problems
have been overcome, principles agreed upon and procedures
adopted. It is needless to point out how far the various
sub-committees have improved upon the appalling conditions
prevailing in 1919. The first three items were given very
scant attention, while of the 25,000 veterans settled on the
land, 13,000 gave up in despair. But the authorities did
valuable work in retraining casualties, and many of the same
methods are being followed today.
As a result of the present government's efforts, a new
kind of civil servant has emerged. He is the Veterans' Welfare Officer. Chosen for his experience with educational techniques, knowledge of employment requirements, and his capacity to understand human problems, he is the key man in
rehabilitation. The atmosphere of his office and the attitude
of his staff is friendly and courteous. Interviews with applicants are long, and devoid of the impersonal brusqueness
commonly associated with the civil service. A Welfare Officer is located in each district Unemployment Insurance Commission Office, and he works closely with voluntary citizens'
committees set up in various centers. To this officer go discharged men and women for advice and assistance on employment, resumption of education, and all problems associated with rehabilitation.
Late in 1941 the government issued P.C. 763 3, now
known as the "Post-Discharge Re-establishment Order."
Amended and put into active operation in April, 1943, the
Order is the basis for the extensive program of education and
vocational training now available to anyone discharged from
any branch of the armed forces of Canada. To personnel discharged from active service, home defense, service with British
forces, the C.W.A.C.'s, the Women's Division of the R.C.A.F.,
the "Wrens," the order entitles free education plus a living
allowance. The latter is called an "out-of-work benefit,"
since it is a type of unemployment insurance payable to a
veteran unable to secure employment, whether he elects to
accept training or not.
With regard to university education, the order is perfectly
clear.    For any veteran who has  (a)  completed high school,
(b) joined  up  before  completing  his  undergraduate  course,
(c) joined up while actually engaged in post-graduate work
or otherwise signified his intention of doing post-graduate
work, the government provides both education and allowances
for a period not exceeding the veteran's length of service in
the forces. Length of service, however, is given liberal interpretation under the order. For example, a veteran with
six months' service to his credit can obtain a full session at
the University, but if his work is outstanding in the government's opinion, benefits will be extended for another session.
The desire of the government is to afford the student-veteran
every opportunity for getting the most out of his education.
The record of rehabilitation after the last war shows too
many cases where promise and ambition were frustrated by
narrow and restrictive technicalities.
The present session of parliament has given consideration
to the allowances paid under the order. In response to the
agitation raised by Fl. Lt. Sinclair, Member for Vancouver
North, it is likely that the $44.20 now paid monthly to single
men will be raised to around $60.00, while the $62.40 now
paid monthly to married men with no dependants will be
raised to about $90.00. Allowances are also paid for children under 16 and for dependent parents. The reasoning
behind Sinclair's agitation is simple and sound. He contends
the government should pay a man as much while training
him for peace as it does while training him for war. And
Sinclair used the same reasoning to persuade the government
to raise clothing grants and discharge gratuities.
Many oldtimers, who are disinclined to look upon veterans
of this war as veterans at all, sniff at this "molly-coddling"
of young Canadians. Not a few of these rugged individualists maintain that 80 per cent of the last war's veterans
re-established themselves without any government "handouts," while the 20 per cent who needed assistance were not
worth the trouble and expense lavished on them. That is to
say, making a most conservative estimate, some 80,000 veterans of the last war were not worthy of help and guidance.
It is fortunate, indeed, that this type of mind is not in charge
of rehabilitation this time. Human resources are too valua-
able to be dissipated in a blind enthusiasm for rankest individualism. Any man or woman is worth all the patience,
help and expense which will ultimately restore him or her to
a useful and happy position in our post-war society.
The education which the Post-Discharge Re-establishment
order makes possible is not handed out indiscriminately. Except in the case of casualties requiring special training, most
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE veterans are being advised to stick as close as possible to their
pre-enlistment environment. A railway section hand, for
example, is advised to resume employment with the railway,
but not necessarily at the same job or at the same rate of
pay. He is encouraged to learn a trade which will both better
his position and keep him in a line of work with which he is
familiar. Unless he has shown an aptitude for some other
type of work since enlistment, he is discouraged from farming
or fruit-growing or employment that is strange to him. After
the last war,- the emphasis on shifting men into totally new
occupations had dire results. In the same way, veterans with
partial standings are advised not to make drastic changes in
their courses.
Rehabilitation is already a mighty industry in Canada.
The flood of men and women returning to civilian life (estimated at 2,000 a month) presents every known angle in
human problems. Here is the case of an air force veteran
who went away a junior clerk and comes back a Flying Officer. He has received training and accepted responsibilities in
the service which have changed his whole frame of mind
towards his former employment. His boss's bargain to keep
his job open for him means little to this officer. Then there
is the C.W.A.C. sergeant who was a housemaid in civilian
life. Her education did not go beyond grade eight in school,
yet she has demonstrated intelligence and leadership in the
army. What to do with cases like these? Rehabilitation
authorities are examining all "the country's educational facili
ties and surveying all employment possibilities in an effort to
fit these young citizens back into society. Surprisingly few
problems are being left unsolved.
The government has not attached extreme importance to
rehabilitation merely to provide more jobs for the civil service. The technological and social revolution many people
commonly associate with post-war Canada has already got
under way, and it is the task of rehabilitation to keep the
thousands of young men and women now in the services
abreast of these changes. The trained people needed by industry and commerce are not only machinists and engineers
and accountants, but also economists, statisticians and personnel specialists. Canada's economic life is becoming much
more specialized, and the rehabilitation authorities are anxious
that veterans be furnished with the opportunity to acquire
more specialized training and education. Also, the fact that
the depression made education a practical impossibility for
many now in uniform has convinced Ottawa that these men
and women must not be held back on that account.
Canada is far ahead of any other nation in the rehabilitation of its veterans. Nearly a year ago, President Roosevelt
broadcast a program for the civil re-establishment of American personnel, but he did not cover half the ground already
covered at that time by the Canadian government. Nor has
Great Britain or Australia been so generous in their preparations for demobilization. It is one more case where Canada
has done something, but refused to be vocal about it.
A British tanker has steamed 20,000 miles with a hole as
large as a medium sized house in her side. She had to be
nursed across two oceans—at any time she might have broken
in two—on a zig-zag course that began in the Dutch East
Indies and ended in Mobile, U.S.A. The story began as the
Japanese embarked on full-scale warfare in the Far East.
With Captain Thomas Gaffney, of Colwyn Bay, on the
bridge, the tanker British Judge sailed from Batavia bound
for Colombo, Ceylon.
In the Sunda Straits, wave after wave of Japanese bombing
aircraft attacked the ship. Bombs fell all round the ship and
for six and a half hours, as the crew manned the guns, the
ship fought her way through a hail of bombs and machine-
gun fire.
She escaped unscathed, but the same night, in squally
weather, a torpedo fired from a submarine struck the ship
below the waterline on the port side. The blast shattered
three bulkheads and the tanks flooded with water. The ship
rocked over to starboard by the impact of the torpedo, then
listed back to port and began to settle by the head.
But no move was made to abandon the ship. As the
engines stopped Captain Gaffney gave orders to flood an after
tank of the ship to bring her back on an even keel. The
engines were re-started and although badly crippled the ship
was brought safely into Colombo harbour sixteen days later.
The British Judge arrived at Colombo in good time to take
her part in beating off the Japanese when they attempted to
destroy Colombo on April 16th. Once again, the crew
manned the gun and helped to drive off the enemy aircraft—
but not before a near mine had damaged the ship still further.
As repairs could not be carried out in Colombo, Captain
Gaffney was ordered to make for another port, which he did
without hesitation. A few days out at sea, the ship ran into
monsoon weather. She shook from stem to stern as giant seas
hammered against her sides and swept clean over her forward
decks. Her nose dipped beneath the seas, her stern lifted out
of the water, and to those on board, listening to the creaking
and groaning from her shattered mid-section, it seemed as if
she must break in two. Thirty feet of plating from the turn
of the bilge were torn away by the force of the seas, so, fearing for the safety of the ship, the Captain turned her round
and ran before the storm to the nearest port—Mombasa.
At Mombasa, port officials did their best with the scanty
labour and materials available, to make her ready for sea.
But it was over nine months before the British Judge, with
her side still open to the sea, could face the next stage of her
passage. She set sail for Capetown and arrived there three
, weeks later after calling at Durban.
It was decided at Capetown that the ship should proceed
to America for repairs. Taking a roundabout course, but one
that would keep the ship in calm seas, Captain Gaffney sailed
for Bahia, Brazil. At every stage of the trip, great care had
to be taken to avoid unnecessary strain on the ship. Each
time a heavy beam sea was encountered, the ship had to be
turned away from it. This meant that hundreds of extra
miles had to be steamed—much in the same way as a windjammer of sixty years ago had to tack.
The British Judge sailed alone—a battered hulk of a ship,
defying U-boats over thousands of miles of open sea. From
Bahia she made for Trinidad, and from Trinidad to Mobile,
Alabama, U.S.A. There she went into drydock where she was
repaired and made ready for sea again, and she is now back
in service.
JUNE, 1944
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British Columbia Representative:
The future of Engineering
Shall It Remain a Profession ?
An Analysis of the Subject
For many mon'hs the subject of Collective Bargaining has
been discussed by state and chapter units of N.S.P.E. The
author of this discussion, President of the New York State
Society, has for some years been in a position to observe some
of the so-called independent unions at work. His observations
and his conclusions have been applied to an analysis of the
proposal to form collective bargaining units for professional
engineers. He supports the position of President Nold and
many other members of N.S.P.E. who believe that an apprenticeship in a large labor organization only strengthens the
young engineer in his pursuit of professional status and ultima'e affiliation with a professional study.
About a year ago, I was asked to answer this question—
"What will I get out of the Society if I join it?" My answer
at that time was—"Not a damn thing more than you put
into it." That is still my answer. Incidentally, I have been
criticized for making that profane and undignified statement,
but I continue to make it because I believe it is a clear and
arresting expression of a profound truth. I know it sums up
my experience, not only in this Society but in all my other
"What will I get out of the Society if I join it?" Frankly,
gentlemen, nothing—if you approach it in that spirit. Elaborating my answer I expressed the conviction that membership
in an organization such as N.S.P.E. is an opportunity for service rather than a place in the bread line. I still think so
and I have been heartened by the continuing evidences that I
am not alone in this conviction. For example, President Harry
E. Nold of the National Society put it this way in an address
before the Minnesota Society last June. He said, "Membership
and work in the Society should be approached in a spirit of
service; service to the public and service to the profession. It
should be recognized that the value of such service cannot be
measured in terms of increased dollars in the pockets of the
engineers rendering such service. We engineers are just as
selfish as other human beings. The instinct of self-preservation
and economic improvement is strong, and rightly so, but we
must recognize that, to a large extent, the work we are doing
today is going to help the next generation of engineers, rather
than ourselves. We must be willing to do much work for our
profession, accepting in payment, the satisfaction of having
done something worthwhile." To these remarks of our National President, I wholeheartedly subscribe.
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE If you were to ask me what I have gotten out of being
a member of the Society, I would say that, in addition to the
fund and the headaches, the good fellowship and the hard
work, I have gained an entirely new and a much broader point
of view of our opportunities and our responsibilities as members of a profession. It is from this point of view that I
shall discuss the problem of unionization and its relation to
engineers, a problem about which much discussion is being
had in our ranks and about which I have been asked to speak
to you.
In any consideration of this problem by our chapters, by
our state societies and by our National Society, it seems to me
to be of paramount importance that our deliberations should
be objective rather than emotional and that we should deal
with facts rather than with fears. The manner in which we
treat this problem may be the supreme test of our abili y as
a professional group wisely to handle problems involving other
than physical phenomena. I may have missed some very constructive discussions of the subject but in those I have heard,
emotion seemed to play too great a part. Nonetheless, I have
faith that engineers, by their training and inheritance, are essentially a group of people more capable than the average
human being of taking a detached objective and long-range
point of view in their approach to problems of this kind. If
we can't do that, we shall have to stop bragging about our
superior objectivity and about placing our cheif reliance on
facts in arriving at our conclusions. Can we successfully
meet this challenge?    I believe that we can and that we musr.
It may perhaps be gratuitous, or even in questionable taste,
for me to comment upon the recently announced plan of another Society of which I have so little background and so
little information at first hand. My only excuse is that so
many seem to be talking about it. I have read the report of
the Committee and the definition of professional engineering
employees prepared by the Commir.ee and I have listened in
on some discussions among members of that Society. From
all of this I have an impression, which may be erroneous, but
which seems to be held by a good many members of that
Society, that the decision was arrived at without benefit of
general open discussion. I have tried to understand that definition of professional engineering employees and perhaps with
further study I shall be able to understand it, but 1 believe
one may question the practical administrative value of a definition which requires such close study. I have been consoled
by the fact that I have as yet found no one else who could
understand it. Moreover, it is difficult for me to follow the
logic involved in a proposal to set up a union for some people
who don't want to join a union.
All of us will watch this experiment with interest and I
hope that we shall watch it with open minds. There is always
a chance that we may learn something.    But if pressed for
an opinion as 1 have been by a number of engineers, at the
present time I am constrained to tell them that I believe the
experiment is foredoomed to fail because it is so unrealistic.
This is a curious commentary to make on the work of engineers who presumably are, by training and inheritance, the
world's hardest-boiled realists. Can it be possible that their
realism is confined to the field of physical phenomena and
that it does not extend into the realms of social and political
action? In spite of current evidence to the contrary, I hope
the answer to this question is in the negative.
What do I mean when I describe the above noted collective bargaining plan as unrealistic? Well, for example, do
you remember the so-called "company unions" and what happened to them? Who provided the real financial support of
the company union and why? You will remember the dues
were very nominal. Who is to provide the real financial support, indirect to be sure, of the local committees under the
plan in question. Again, the dues of the supposed beneficiaries
of the plan are very nominal. I won't ask why but some
government agency is sure to, sooner or later. It is difficult
to make altruistic answers convincing to skeptics, especially
when the people furnishing the money are in part members
of that class which is clearly ineligible for the benefits of collective bargaining. But suppose there is no difficulty on this
point, does anyone really believe that the very nominal fees
proposed plus the indirect support in the form of several agents
for the whole country, can suffice to hold the line against a
union which his its heart set on organizing a given plant?
I do not pretend to be an expert on the existing federal
legislation regarding collective bargaining but I have experi-
fenced it in some of its workings and I have observed it in
others and one thing seems to be reasonably clear and clearly
reasonable. The exact nature of the individual's work in a
particular organization is a principal factor in determining his
eligibility for collective bargaining. Is he working at a trade
or is he working in a responsible professional or supervisory
capacity? Anyone connected directly and perhaps even indirectly wi'h the management of an enterprise is usually not
considered eligible for collective bargaining.
So far as collective bargaining is concerned, professional
status depends not upon the possession of credentials to that
effect but rather upon the nature of the work performed. You
and I know thit many licensed practitioners are working and
always will work in sub-professional or non-professional capacities. When they are so engaged they will undoubtedly continue to be under pressure to affiliate with the particular collective bargaining unit in their work location. It seems to
me this is something about which we should not become unduly excited. Collective bargaining is not necessarily something evil. It is intended to, and does in most cases, perform
a useful and necessary function. As a practical proposition,
why shouldn't everyone eligible for it benefit by it?    It seems
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25 to me utterly futile to hope that a separate organization of
professional men, (assuming that the organization in mind
was restricted to men possessed of professional credentials
which is not so in the instance under discussion) working in
sub-professional or non-professional jobs could hope to get
anywhere by and for themselves through a small, unaffiliated,
collective bargaining unit. Things just don't work that way
in this life. This is one of the cold, hard facts which appears
to have been overlooked. Moreover, it is questionable whether
the government agencies charged with the adjudication of collective bargaining disputes would be inclined to recognize such
independent units. Even if all of these small units were banded together in some form of international union, their members would not be impressive. Are we, who pride ourselves
on being of a practical turn of mind, completely blind to
political realities? It may not be out of place to remind ourselves and our colleagues, who are fearful that they may be
caught up in collective bargaining processes, of the old and
sound political adage, "If you can't lick 'em, join "em."
In this connection, it is my opinion that, in the case of
young engineers starting at the bottom of the ladder, it will
be a very useful part of their training for more responsible
positions to have been a part of a collective bargaining unit
sometime in their career. It will give them an invaluable insight into the problems of the workman from his point of
view and into his processes of rationalization. If our young
engineers profit from this experience they should be able, later
on, very materially to reduce industrial strife, so much of
which seems to have been due to lack of sympathetic understanding of the other fellow's problem and point of view.
In the same address by Professor Nold, from which I
quoted previously, he says that the National Society should
"protect for the engineering profession and all members thereof the right of the individual to contract for his services,"
and that it should "educate engineers to the realization that
the maintenance of professional status is based on the privilege
and right of the individual to exercise independent judgment
in his work." He repeats these same remarks in his message
on the editorial page of the January, 1944 issue of The American Engineer.    I believe they are significant.
The Preamble to the Constitution of our National Society
states, "The National Society of Professional Engineers, recognizing that service to society, to state and to profession is
the premise upon which individual opportunity must be build-
ed, does hereby dedicate itself as an educational institution to
the promotion and protection of the profession of engineering
as a socia land economic influence vital to the affairs of men
and of the United States."
Note that our National Society is an educational institution. Nothing is said or inferred about its being a bargaining
agency or a pressure group. To be sure, education is a slow
process but it is the only sound method in a democracy. Have
we lost faith in the methods of democracy?    I hope not.
It seems to me in discussions of this sort it is good to remind ourselves of the purposes for which we were organized.
This is not to suggest that those purposes may not be amended
as experience indicates to be necessary, but rather that each of
our activities currently entered into should be tested against
our fundamental objectives to guard against the ever-present
danger that we may find ourselves side-tracked without having intended to leave the main line. We claim to be a profession. We aspire to be ranked by the public with the
learned professions. It seems to be axiomatic that our aspiration can be realized only if we demonstrate by our words and
by our actions that as individuals and as a group we are
worthy of professional status.
What is a profession? Webster defines it; first, as an
occupation that properly involves education or its equivalent,
and mental rather than manual labor and cites as examples the
three learned professions; and second, as an occupation or calling involving special mental and other attainments or special
discipline and cites as examples editing, acting, engineering,
and authorship.
Many persons in the several professions have, from time
to time, tried their hand at a more complete definition. Dr.
William E. Wickenden, President of the Case School of Applied Science, in an address delivered before the Engineering
Institute of Canada in 1941, put it this way:
"What marks off the life of an individual as professional?
First, I think we may say that it is a type of activity which
is markedly high in individual responsibility and which deals
with problems on a distinctly intellectual plane. Second, we
may say that it is a motive of service, as distinct from profit.
Third, is the motive of self-expression, which implies a joy
and pride in one's work and a self-imposed standard of workmanship—one's best. And fourth, is a conscious recognition
of social duty to be accomplished, among other means, by
guarding the standards and ideals of one's profession and advancing it in public understanding and esteem, by sharing
advances in professional knowledge, and by rendering gratui-
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THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE tous public service, in addition to that for ordinary compensation, as a return to society for special advantages of education and status.
"Next, what are the attributes of a group of persons which
mark off their corporate life as professional in character? I
think we may place first a body of knowledge (science) and
of art (skill), held as a common possession and to be extended
by united effort. Next we may place an educational process
of distinctive aims and standards, in ordering which the professional group has a recognized responsibility. Third in order
is a standard of qualifications, based on character, training,
and competency, for admission to the professional group. Next
follows a standard of conduct based on courtesy, honor, and
ethics, to guide the practitioner in his relations with clients,
colleagues, and the public. Fifth, I should place a more or
less formal recognition of status by one's colleagues, and less
formal recognition of status by one's colleagues or by the
state, as a basis of good standing. And finally an organization
of the professional group devoted to its common advancement
and social duty rather than the maintenance of an economic
In contrast to a profession, Webster defines a trade as a
skilled or specialized handicraft, and explains that the term
is properly applied to pursuits which are distinguished from
unskilled labor, agricultural employment, commerce, the
learned professions, and fine arts. The same authority defines
a trade union as an organized association of workmen skilled
in any trade or industrial occupation formed for the protection and promotion of their common interests, especially the
increase of wages, better conditions or shorter hours of labor.
Contrast this with our concept of our professional scie.y.
If words are to mean anything in these days of overworked
superlatives in the Flollywood manner, it would seem that we
can render a service to ourselves and to the public by not
abusing them. If the generally accepted definition of a profession fits us, we should use it. If it does not, if we are a
trade and if we propose to adopt the practices and methods
of a trade with respect to such matters as collective bargaining, let us frankly admit that we are a trade. We cannot be
both. Nor can we long straddle the issue. A trade characteristically and perhaps necessarily takes a short-term view of
its economic problems; a profession takes a long-range view
of these problems and places its primary emphasis on service
to society rather than on the immediate economic well-being
of its members.
To quote Wickenden again, "The engineer has been the
pioneer in the professionalizing of industry, and his task is
only begun. Organized labor, it seems, is intent upon gaining
a larger voice in the councils of industry; it wan.s to sit in
when policies are made and to share in planning the schedules
of production. Many labor organizations not only exercise
a direct voice in management, but are also in a position to
accumulate immense surplus funds from fees and dues. These
funds may become one of the major sources of capital for
investments  in  industry,  making  labor an important stock
holder as well. If any such day is ahead, the middleman of
management who can reconcile the stake of the investor, the
worker, the customer, and the public is going to be the key
man on the team. For that responsibility, the finger of destiny
points to the engineer. This makes it all the more urgent that
the engineer, while using every opportunity to gain a discriminating and even a sympathetic knowledge of the labor movement, should avoid being sucked into it by the lure of a quick
gain in income and in bargaining power."
If we are big enough to seize the opportunity which is
before us, we shall not only render a service to society but we
shall, incidentally thereto, attain that degree of public recog-
notion and economic welfare to which such service will entitle
us" ''The American Engineer, April, 1944.
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M.E.I.C,  MEM.  A.I.E.E.
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The Wartime Bureau of Technical Personel
Alonthly Bulletin
APRIL, 1944
University Science Students Regulations
Although the month of April was largely devoted to
preparation for and writing of final examinations, a considerable number of this year's graduating class, other than those
who were selected for technical appointments in the Armed
Forces, have already made substantial progress towards becoming identified with essential civilian activities. By the
end of April, some 300 permits had been issued for such
Reports received from the universities indicate that undergraduate students in science and engineering were having no
difficulty in securing summer employment which would best
aid the war effort and promote the training of the individual.
Supply and Demand  {Technical Personnel)
With the completion of the third complete year of Bureau
operations it has been possible to gather some useful information on such subjects as the factors governing the supply of
technical personnel. It has now been established that additional technical persons are being created by university training at the rate of about 1700 per annum (1350 men and 350
women). This increase in the available supply has been completely offset by the induction of an average of 1200 per
annum in the Armed Forces in technical capacity, and the
death or retirement of some 500 others. This takes no account
of the substantial number who have enlisted in the Armed
Forces for non-technical activities. As the total number of
technical persons availabel for civilian activity therefore tends
. o decrease, and as the engineering and scientific staffs of
essential civilian undertakings can be built up only by diversion from other civilian fields, there is an obvious need for
presenting any avoidable wastage.
It has thus become necessary to scrutinize ever more
closely on the grounds of priority, such inquiries as have been
received for technical presons. It is also necessary to take
full advantage of the machinery set up under the Mobilization
and Labour Exit Permit regulations to prevent a serious drain
due to persons leaving the country to engage in civilian operations elsewhere.
Monthly Statistics
During the month, 1580 interviews were granted by the
Bureau staff, 114 questionnaires were added to the files, and
644 permits to employ technical personnel were issued.
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What is the relationship between the engineer, the architect and the surveyor in town and country planning? This
question was discussed at a conference held at the Institution
of Civil Engineers recently.
In his opening remarks Mr. Manzoni, Chief Engineer of
Birmingham, said that in any consideration of the respective
parts to be played by each of the three individuals it was
essential to have a clear understanding of their basic training.
The engineer was first and foremost a scientist; much of his
work was based on the pure science of mathematics. In consequence his tendency was to be assiduous in the collection
of facts and in applying to them the most recent scientific
knowledge in the solution of the problem at hand.
The architect was an artist, and art was necessarily allied
more to imagination than to logic. The function of the architect was the creation of beauty and its interpretation in the
materials at his disposal to provide a structure which would
be harmonious in an aesthetic sense.
Thirdly, the estate surveyor, in addition to certain technical aspects of his training, was usually skilled in business management and had much to do with the economics of a plan.
Within the ambit of his control was a range of considerations
quite outside the scientific or the aesthetic.
The craftsman of bygone years usually combined all three
duties. Rapid advance in the scientific use of materials, industrial expansion, growing population and the increasing
magnitude of works carried out had led to specialisation and
an unfortunate division of functions.
Today it was impossible for any individual to be fully
competent in both engineering and architecture, and the problem was further intensified if the aspect of economic management was added.
Town and country planning had developed into a very
comprehensive subject. It was no longer a restrictive code.
Rather it was being regarded as a positive programme for
long-term construction, involving all the necessary necessities
of environment in a modern community. These began with
industrial layout, and went through the stages of regional and
local detail, right down to the design of the factory, the
dwelling, and the playground and even their furnishing. In
addition there were the considerations of transport, the utility
services and all amenities.
A task of such magnitude required the specialization of
all three professions, and of many more besides.
Occasionally one person of the trio may be found to have
some of the characteristics of the others, but generally speaking the best architects were not good scientists and engineers
made poor architects. Therefore to get the best of each aspect
of a scheme close co-operation was needed at all stages.
Mr. Manzoni illustrated this point by describing how the
various "partners" co-operated in the planning of a small
estate near Birmingham.
In that case the plan arose from considerations which were
purely sociological. The medical officer of health reported to
the surveyor on the condition of certain existing housing
properties. The surveyor made investigations into the general
extent of property dilapidation in the area and got into touch
with the engineers.
Study of the map showed that the area selected was one
which could easily be isolated, and a survey of existing conditions there was begun. This work was done by the town
planning department, who, after making a complete survey
of conditions above and below ground, drew up an appreciation of the necessities of the area.
Next the engineers of the road department were brought
in to advise on traffic circulation. Simultaneously matters of
zoning for industry and residences together with the provision
of open spaces were considered by the town planning officer.
Then followed a request for detailed consideration by a number of persons on a variety of subjects—drainage, gas, electricity, water, schools, medical services, etc.—the various departments being asked to indicate their own requirements in
accordance with a draft road and zoning layout sent to them.
From this point certain legal formalities had to be undertaken and financial considerations had to be discussed.
The next stage was to hand the plans to the housing architect and he virtually took charge from that juncture, producing what might be described as a three-dimensional scheme.
In this section, all the former work had to be reviewed in
order that the whole could be fitted together, and certain
sociological researches were pursued into matters such as
family analysis, income groups, and—a highly important matter—the expressed wishes of the residents themselves.
The final stige was the detailed design of buildings, roads
and services and landscape gardening, again involving full cooperative action by all the people hitherto consulted.
In town and country planning projects the most controversial aspect had been concerned with prestige; it centred on
the claim of one particular profession to be entrusted with
. the principal role. Mr. Manzer said his own opinion was that
it mattered not whether the chief executive was an engineer,
an architect or a surveyor provided he had sufficient knowledge
of these subjects to keep a proper balance between them.
Whoever did guide such a team should have a specialized local
knowledge, sociological and economic, if he was to make a
real job of the whole conception and of its details.
In existing conditions the best qualifications for leadership
were held by men who had thorough training and practical
experience in one of the three professions and who, in addition,
had opportunities for gaining experience of the others and
of the social and economic backgrounds of communities.
The worst thing that could happen was that members of
the different professions should cry aloud their own claims by
derogating the claims of the others. That would only shake
the confidence of the public in their professional leaders.—
"The Overseas Engineer," November, 1943.
LAngara 0740 water-cooled machinery
JUNE,  1944
PAcific 5841
631 Seymour Street Vancouver, B. C.
Manufacturers of Water Work Supplies
Fire Hydrants
Gate Valves
Air Valves
Check Valves
Sluice Gates
Wood Pipe Specials
Steel Pipe Specials
Cast Iron Pipe Specials
Corporation Cocks
Valve Boxes
Plain Service Boxes
1929 to 1999 Franklin Street
HAstings 0131 Vancouver, B. C.
The . . .
University's Retiring President
This month the University bids farewell to a man who
has guided her destinies for the past twenty-five years. No
other man has so long directed the province's leading educational institution and few, if any in the province, have
equalled his great contributions to the education of our people.
Dr. L. S. Klinck first came to the University in 1914 as
professor of agronomy and Dean of the new Faculty of Agriculture. At that time he was in his thirty-seventh year. Born
in York County, Ontario, in 1877, he spent his time until
early youth in attending the local schools and in working on
the farm owned by his father. From this training he developed a great interest in scientific farming and determined
to go to college to study agriculture. To raise the money to
do so he spent several years as a school teacher in a small
Ontario community.
The young farmer-student next attended Ontario Agricultural College where he received his B.S.A. degree in biology
in 1903. He subsequently took a position on the staff of
Iowa State College as a lecturer, at the same time working
towards his M.S.A. degree which he took in 1905. Shortly
after this he took charge of the cereal husbandry department
at Macdonald College. This department was associated with
McGill University and the young farmer was appointed pro-
^ $P,d£
-tir   ¥
MArine 0751
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE fessor in 1907. In his new position he did much research
work in the agricultural field, among this being pioneer work
in Quebec corn and alfalfa.
In 1914 the board of governors of the infant University
of British Columbia brought him west in an advisory capacity.
Dr. F. F. Wesbrook had been recently appointed as the University's first president and his influence on Professor Klinck
was enormous. To this day Dr. Klinck speaks in the warmest
terms of the first President. Dr. Wesbrook persuaded his
young associate to remain with the University of British
Columbia, advising him to travel extensively in the province.
This advice was taken and has ever since stood the recipient
in good stead.
Following Dr. Wesbrook's death, Dean Klinck, as he then
was, was appointed-acting President in October, 1918, and
was made President in June, 1919. Since that time Dr.
Klinck, having received his D.Sc. in 1920 from Iowa State,
has carried on as administrative head of the University. He
has seen almost all stages of the University's pioneer development. Indeed in those early years he spent three summers
living in a tent in the area that is the present University
He has taken a wide interest in education in Canada. In
1924 the University of Western Ontario conferred an honorary LL.D. on him. In 1928 he received the Order of Agricultural Merit from the Quebec Government. He is a member of the Royal Society of Canada and in 1930 was made an
Officier de l'lnstruction Publique by the French Government.
The President has always been interested in aiding research
on the campus. Indeed he himself has taken a prominent part
in some of it, such as the development of No. 1 Alfalfa. He
has led the University in a full scale cooperation with the
Canadian government in so far as war research is concerned.
Dr. Klinck's work of recent years has been entirely administrative and he has taken no personal part in the teaching of
his students. However, he has at all times followed a policy
of obtaining the best possible instructors for the University.
His men have been carefully chosen to fit into the general
scheme of the University.
The work of a University president is most involved in
nature and perhaps one of the best tributes to the work of
Dr. Klinck lies in the relatively even keel he has kept University life on for these past twenty-five years. Difficulties
there have been in profusion and mistakes too have been made.
Nevertheless the University machinery in general has operated well and efficiently.
On the occasion of his retirement Dr. Klinck has been
given many honours and tesitmonials. One of the most outstanding of these was undoubtedly the dinner given for him
by the Vancouver Board of Trade, at which the Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court of British Columbia paid glowing
tribute to the University and the work of Dr. Klinck. The
leaders of the commercial community of the lower mainland
showed their interest in the University at that time. This
interest by the people of the province is one of the most heartening manifestations seen by Dr. Klinck as he leaves office.
He believes that at long last the people of the Province are
awakening to a realization of how important the University is
and can be to the whole Province if it is used to the full and
given adequate public support.
At the Convocation dinner held in Vancouver in May of
this year Dr. Klinck was made an Honorary Life Member of
the Alumni Association of the University of B. C. On behalf
of the Association Miss Mary Fallis presented the scroll of
membership, the first ever granted by the Association.   /, . t
When he retires to his new home on the West Shore Dr.
Klinck will watch with great interest the progress of the
University, for he it was who has guided her through her
days of infancy and youth. Now that some degree of maturity has been reached, the rewards of that early guidance
are ready to be taken.
LT.-COL. GEORGE B. OKULICH—Has been serving as
Canadian military attache at Moscow for the past year—
was stationed at Kubyshiev—B.S.A. 193 3—M.S.A. 193 5
—now in Ottawa to confer with government officials.
Manufacturers of
mncHincRV and EQUipmon
Founded 1874
70 yeti/14 of- /{/vcrtAStsTUf efjcruf/
1272 Richards Street
"lite. <Mo44*fJita*t Jline
MArine 9826
Vancouver, B. C.
JUNE, 1944
744 W. Hastings Street        -        Vancouver, B. C.
Diamond Drill Contractors
PAcific 5953
B. C. Concrete Co. Ltd.
Manufacturers of
Hume Centrifugal Concrete Pipe
Sewers, Culverts and Water Supply Lines
Size 6" to 68" — Plain or Reinforced
Oak Street and 77th Avenue Vancouver, B.C.
Phone LA 0230
Letson & Burpee Ltd.
Machinery Manufacturers and Founders
172  Alexander St.
Vancouver, B. C.
1285 Homer Street
Vancouver, B. C.
A Success !
Editor's Note: One of the main Alumni Association objectives at the moment is the establishment
of dormitories on the campus. In the course of its
investigations into this matter, the Executive became
acquainted with one of the most successful student
endeavors in campus history—the co-operative housing project. Accordingly we have asked Mr. Tod-
hunter, the Secretary-Treasurer of the movement,
to tell our readers about the "co-op."
The co-operative boarding house movement swept the
campuses of Canadian and American Universities during the
late '30's. These residences have proven so popular that they
are now permanent fixtures on almost every campus on the
Among the largest student co-operative residences are
those at Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College, accommodating 1000; University of California at Berkeley, operating some of the largest apartment houses in the city; the
University of Washington, with ten houses and a central
kitchen; and the University of Idaho, with seven houses.
The university session of '3 8-'39 saw the birth of the
co-op idea in the minds of several U.B.C. students who were
batching in an apartment near 10th and Sasamat.
The following year these students, \vith the help of several campus organizations, put their idea to a practical test
by starting the first co-operative residence at U.B.C. Housework was divided among the thirteen members.
During the '40-'41 term three men's and one girls' houses
were operated, the girls' organization functioning separately.
In the summer of '41 a constitution, subsequently approved
by the Registrar of Companies, was drawn up and the University Students Co-operative Association was chartered under
the Companies Act.
Next year the girls' and men's organizations amalgamated
and decided upon a plan of operation which provided for a
maximum of efficiency of operation and economy. This plan,
modified slightly to meet changing conditions, is still followed.
At the beginning of the Spring and Fall terms members
of each house elect a committee consisting of a house manager,
a purchasing agent and a treasurer.    The manager organizes
Seventeen Varieties of Fruits and Vegetables
for All Types of Recipes and Servings
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE house activities, the purchasing agent compiles a monthly
grocery order, and the treasurer collects the board revenue.
Each house also has a house-mother who prepares the evening
meal and makes day-to-day purchases.
The management of the whole Co-op is in the hands of an
Executive Committee and a Board of Directors. The Executive Committee, consisting of managers from each house and
the secretary-manager, might be called the actual governing
body. The Board of Directors, made up of five student members and three faculty members, is a policy-forming and
advisory group.
The Association rents houses in the neighborhood of the
University which, as nearly as possible, fill the requirements
of a co-op. There are as few rules as possible, and no curfew.
Everyone is assigned approximately 30 minutes' work each
day, ranging from making lunches and washing dishes to
stoking the furnace.
Large-scale buying allows the co-op to keep the costs well
down, and this year the houses were able to offer board and
room for $26 monthly, in spite of the rise in cost of living.
Operating profits or losses are shared equally by the members,
although liability is limited to the amount of shares purchased. Each student, upon joining the Association, is obliged
to buy. ten shares at one dollar per share. These shares form
the working capital of the Association and are used to purchase furniture and equipment.
In order that members of various houses may become
acquainted, two students go twice monthly from each house
as dinner guests to another house. It has become the custom,
too, for the Co-op in the course of the year to have two or
three "bang-up" parties.
For four years the Co-op has operated throughout the
summer months during which the University is closed. It
has catered to out-of-town students and graduates who are
working in Vancouver during the holidays, and to University
Summer Session students.
Continuity of operation has proven to be the Achilles heel
of the U.S.C.A. during war time. The housing shortage in
Vancouver makes it imperative that the Co-op holds houses
during the summer in order to have accommodation in the
fall. Last year there were many more applicants than could
be accommodated—some forty being turned away. This is
an unfortunate condition and defeats the purpose of the
organization, that is, the provision of inexpensive and excellent board to as many varsity students as desire it.
The financing of an expansion program has proven to be
a stumbling block for the co-op. At present, one house is
being purchased on the installment plan. This method of
purchasing would prove highly unsatisfactory on a large
scale. The co-op hopes to build houses or dormitories which
are suited to the particular needs of such an organization. To
finance such a program requires more capital than the students themselves are able to provide. At present a committee
is working on the problem of raising capital for such a venture and hopes in the near future to discover ways and means
of meeting this situation.
The solution of the two preceding difficulties will assure
the co-op a bright future and enable it to do its share in giving
to the students of limited means the opportunity of higher
education. The members are quite confident that they will
be able to surmount these problems and are doing all in their
power to insure the future success of the University Students
Co-op. Association.
'We are at your service"
Dominion Construction Co.
R.C.A.F.  Buildings, Sea Island;
H.M.C.S.  Discovery, Deadman's
150 West First Avenue
■limited ■
Sorg Pulp  Co.  Ltd.,  Port  Mellon;   B.   C.   Pulp   &   Paper   Co.
Ltd.,  Port Alice.
Vancouver, B. C.
C. W. Broekley & Co. Ltd.
Mechanical Handling, Power Transmission and
Contractors' Construction Equipment
B. C. Distributors
Chain Belt Co.
Rex Products
Precision Instrument Co.
are now located in their
New Large and Modern
Premises at
569 Richards St
You are cordially invited
to drop in and see us.
Same Phone Number:
PAcific 6541
Manufacturers of
Brass, Iron and Steel
Corvettes, Frigates, Minesweepers,
Cargo Vessels
222 Front Street
New Westminster, B. C.
Phone 1026
JUNE,  1944
Seven   experienced   Pharmacists   to   dispense   just   what   the
Doctor ordered.  .  .  . Bring  your next prescription to us.
Georgia Pharmacy Limited
MArine 4161
ic   G.   HrndciMi
Oc   1'.   '116
Gil.b   G.   Ilcnjcsu.i,   I].A.,   B.A.Sc
U.B.C.   '3)
Choose a
The WATCH that
can "take it"
Shockproof,  waterproof,  dustproof,  non-magnetic
models priced from $32.50.
L%fQl5s       Merchants
W.   F.  KENT
1695 West 5th Avenue
Vancouver, B. C.
ALumnr —^
Editor's N'l/e:  This is the third in a series of "personality"
articles  on  the  various  members  of  the  Alumni  Executive.
Treasurer of the Alumni Association.
He is treasurer of the Alumni Association, but he insists
he can't  ccunt  money!
"I don't know how I got into this office," he protests,
but regardbss of his counting house talent, Pearley Brissenden
is one of the Alumni Association's hardest working executives.
"I always disliked maths intensely," savs lawyer Pearley,
whose interests are centred around social and economic problems of a working democracy.
To the layman such topics might sound like just another
complicated literary flight of fancy which lawyers are so fond
of affecting, but strangely enough, in Pearley's case, it really
means something.
When he says what he wants to see concerning U.B.C.'s
future is maintenance of the intellectual integrity of the
faculty, ami of the forceful influence of the university in the
community, he isn't just reeling off a stream of idle, high-
sounding phrases.
He real y means it.
What's more, he's doing something about it. He and his
pal, Jordan Guy, also on the alum executive, spend a good
deal of  their  tane  studying  and working  towards  that  goal.
Pearley, son of Mr. and Mrs. L. F. Brissenden, was born
in Flora, II inois, near St.  Louis.
He received his early education there, and stopped after
three years of high school to go to work.
In the years between then and now, he has worked on
everything from a pick and shovel to a pen ... his current
tool of law!
THE GRADUATE CHRONICLE He worked in automobile and tire plants, and as a salesman, an electrical and maintenance man in a machine company, and in various other jobs across the continent from
Detroit to Los Angeles.
When he arrived in Los Angeles, he met Norine Turner,
a former Vancouver girl, who was attending college down
there.    In 1924 they were married.
They came to Vancouver on a visit, and liked it so much
they decided to stay. "Maybe it was the mountains," says
He took his junior matric at Baines, in eight months, and
then went to U.B.C, from which he graduated in 1931 with
a bachelor of arts degree. He majored in economics, English
and history.
"I didn't have much time for any outside activities then,"
says Pearley.    "I was too busy making up for lost time.
He was articled to the firm of Robertson, Douglas and
Symes, of which he is now a partner, and studied law at
Conveyance, corporation, and estate law is his forte.
Pearley is interested in everything, although he has no
special hobbies.
Reading is one of his chief diversions—with novels, and
the occasional mystery providing the leaven for more serious
subjects like social and political reform.
Music in the lighter vein, not the so called "good music,"
is his favorite. Modern paintings too are a special interest.
"Not surrealism, though."
One of Pearley's main ambitions is to travel, especially
to Europe.
"Russia has definitely influenced and is influencing the
lives of all of us," he says, emphasizing the importance of
the Russian revolution in the history of the century.
As an antidote to all this serious cogitation, he gardens.
"Victory gardens?" we asked.
"Oh, no, just roses," says Pearley, who apparently had
enough of the vigorous pick and shovel days before he came
to Vancouver.
In the last few years great numbers of former U.B.C.
people have literally invaded Ottawa, our capital city. The
seat of government seems to have exerted a strange fascination
over many graduates of Canada's most western University and
indeed the number of residents of Ottawa who attended U.
B.C. at one time or another is well up in the hundreds now.
We can by no means make reference to them all in this article
but we have chosen a few at random in order that the great
body of U.B.C. graduates may see how much of Ottawa has
been "taken over."
The U.B.C. Alumni Association recently held a dinner in
honor of President-elect Norman Mackenzie and about 125
alumni turned out. The dinner was under the chairmanship
of Ab Whiteley, now president of the Ottawa Alumni Branch.
In his daytime activities Ab is a statistical advisor to the
Department of Labour. Dr. Alan Peebles, now with the
Unemployment Insurance Commission, acted as cheerleader
at the dinner. Among other speakers was the popular U.B.C.
professor, F. H. Soward, who is doing important government
work in connection with relations between the South American countries and Canada.
Margot Burgess, a recent visitor to Vancouver, is a statistician with the Oil and Fat Administration of the Wartime
Prices and Trade Board. Phyllis Turner, a grad of '27, has the
really important position of Fats Administrator. Hec Munro
can be seen at work in the Timber Controller's department
and Ross Tolmie, a grad of '30, may be found in the legal
department of the Income Tax Branch. Ozzie Durkin is a
recent Ottawa arrival and he celebrated his arrival by being
married in the capital city.
Don Sage, Arts '40, is with the Army in the historical research branch, and John Pearson, Commerce '40, and a former
President of the Students' Council, is an officer at Ordnance
Headquarters. Bob Green, Sc. '3 3, is an Engineering Advisor
to the British Purchasing Commission.
International Agencies & Machinery Co. Ltd.
581 Granville Street PAcific 8630 Vancouver, B. C.
JUNE,  1944
JS. C. £<pufime*U 6a. Jltd.
Head Office
551 Hove Street
Vancouver, B.C.
Granville Island
306 Industrial St.
Canada Chain & Forge Co.
FAirmont 1257
75 W. 3rd Ave.
B. C.
Tool and Die Makers
Plumbers' Supplies
Everything in Metal
Don Pyle, Arts '40, is now Acting Secretary of the War
Labour Board, a position of great importance in our wartime
labour organization. Mr. and Mrs. Henry F. Angus are now
Ottawa residents and Prof. Angus has recently been made
economic advisor to the External Affairs Branch. Dr. Hugh
Keenleyside, Department of External Affairs, in Ottawa, is
back after representing Canada's interests for some time in
Arnold Powell, '32, is with the Sales Tax Division of the
Department of National Revenue. Dr. Norman Robertson is
Under Secretary of External Affairs and is one of the most
prominent of our Ottawa representatives.
From a political point of view the University is more than
adequately represented. In the Prime Minister's office the
position of Second Secretary to the Rt. Hon. Mr. Mackenzie
King is held by James Gibson, former Rhodes' Scholar from
U.B.C. "Jimmie" has gone far in Ottawa after a career
which has been packed full of success. The Hon. Ian Mackenzie, Minister of Pensions and National Health, has recently
acquired a new Associate Secretary in the person of James
Macdonald, Arts '38, a graduate of Osgoode Hall and a former Vancouver lawyer. The Hon. Mr. Coldwell, C.C.F.
leader, has also picked a U.B.C. man as his secretary. Alex
Macdonald, Arts '39, holds this position. Alex was a very
prominent debator at U.B.C. in his day, as indeed was his-
brother Jim mentioned above.
The National Film Board has numerous B. C. people in
its ranks. Among these, two of the more prominent are Dick
Jarvis, former head of the campus Film Society ,and Jim
This article has mentioned only a few of the many U.B.C.
people who live and work in the shadow of the Parliament
Buildings. There are a goodly number more in the Ontario
city and their number is being added to almost daily. If
you're in the East and a bit homesick, just drop up to Ottawa
and walk down Parliament Hill. You'll probably think you're
at Point Grey again.
Northern Construction
J. W. Stewart Limited
Engineers and General
MArine 4535
Custom Designing and Manufacturing
of Special  Equipment and Machinery
for the Basic Industries of Western Canada
("It Lasts Because It's Glass")
No. 60 Molded
Sizes:   Vz" to 12"
•   High Insulating Efficiency.
•   Light Weight.
•   Not Affected by Moisture.
•   Easy to Apply.
Telephone HAstings  5241-2
\What Drex Sells Excels
We Inspect, Test and
analyze all articles of
We design mixes for
Quality Concrete.
. Mill Inspection.
Steel, Cast Iron,
Treated Timber, etc.
Complete mill tests on
Inspecting and  Testing
VANCOUVER The procedure of rock excavation on big
construction work by means of diamond
drilling is somewhat novel. Drilling and
blasting of the rock work on the West
Cut of the Raft-Finlayson Lake Canals
was planned and carried out by Boyles
Bros. Drilling Co., Ltd., using Boyles Bros.
Diamond Drills. This sub-contract brought
out the following distinct advantages for
the Diamond Drilling method:
• Leaves   smooth   surface   on   sidewalls.
• Excess  yardage  is  eliminated   because
of the absence of overbreak.
• Level floor at grade is assured  at primary shot.
• Good powder distribution tends to the
minimum use of explosives.
• Little  secondary   breaking   is  required.
When these factors are taken into consideration, the cost and speed compare
favorably with any other method of rock
This is another instance of the leading
part taken by Boyles Bros. Drilling Co.,
Ltd., in more effective and wider applications of diamond drilling. Whatever your
drilling problems, consult your nearest
Boyles Bros. Office.
Little     secondary      breaking
is    required.
Port  Arthur,  Ont
Vancouver, B.C
Kirkland Lake, Ont.
Melbourne, Australia.
[1 & Smith Ltd., h^fcsnt ?.in/i.


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