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Ethel Johns (2)- Fort William and Teachers College Units (1911-1915) Johns, Ethel 1915

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 Fort William Unit   I was responsible for the nursing service and for all housekeeping activities. There were no internes and in an    emergency I had to do the best I could until a physician arrived. Good relationships had to be maintained with the Ladies Aid, however, and with the public. Unfortunately there was a business manager who had not only the last word when expenditures were under consideration but also acted as secretary to the board of directors and attended meetings from which I was rigidly excluded.On Sundays and holidays the entire office staff calmly went off duty and I had to do the pinch hitting.         One department in which the directors took a personal interest was the general kitchen. In the early days it had been the scene of conflict as one cook after another and one cook after another had departed . Then it was decided to employ a Chinese staff    and Sam Lee entered the picture. He was paid a lump sum hired and fired and engaged his own helpers   and ruled them with a rod of iron. Fortunately Sam Lee and I hit it off and got on rather well together,    This was just as well for I had been given a broad hint that by the president of the board that    if any controversy arose between us their support would be given to Sam Lee rather than to me. The only time that any difference of opinion arose was over the appointment of a dietitian. The Ladies Aid had been persuaded  to furnish a diet kitchen and a promising candidate had been found. When the news was broken to Sam Lee there was a banging of the soup kettles and roasting pans.   The next morning Sam Lee appeared in my office and delivered an ultimatum. Unless he was assured  this interloper would never be allowed to set foot in his kitchen he and his staff would depart immediately. It was so ordered but before long the gentle charm of that dietitian led to thesetting up of a satisfactory if guarded working relationship. But whenever there was need for   consultation, however,  he kept his word and met the dietitian at the threshold of his own domain. For William Unit cont.      As the months went by, I be, an to realize how severe the tension might become as a result of the conflicting demands of administering a nursing service and directing a school of nursing. Again and again I was forced to sacrifice the educational needs of the students o the exigencies of the nursing service. I knew enough of the financial problems with which the directors had to cope to understand why so little money was available to pay for graduate staff. I began to wonder whether there was any solution   In a word:   I was confronted with :   1. As Patterson had been: with the impossibility of stating my own case. Mine worse in   some respects since I had to report through a business manager who did not have   insight into medical and nursing aspects as a medical supt. would have done.   2. Tension created by conflicting demands of nursing service and educational interests of pupils   3. As supt. I was also torn by appreciation of problems which diredctors faced.    4. N.B. Above experience while painful, corrected tendency to fantatic a point of view somwtimes expressed at T.C. TEACHERS COLLEGE UNIT    Early in 1914, I made up my mind to take a year's work at Teachers College, Columbia University. By the time Isabel Stewart was a junior member of the faculty of the department of nursing and health and could be depended upon as guide, philosopher and friend. Much to my      dismay, however, I learned that my irregular early education did not measure up to matriculation requirements although some valuable courses would be open to me if I were willing to forego any academic credits for taking them. Summoning up my courage, I resigned my position, scraped up enough money to keep me going for a year,  and set   off for New York. No sooner had I arrived than  a family crisis arose and my meagre savings had to be used to meet it. If Isabel Stewart had not come to the rescue, I should have had to withdraw but through her I obtained a letter of introduction to Clara D. Noyes, director of the nursing services of Bellevue and Allied   Hospitals.    Tall and stately in her black uniform, Miss Noyes received me very kindly. I was   neither the first nor the last impecunious student to whom this distinguished administrator of nursing service had held out a helping hand. At that time, there were no nursing scholarships nor loan funds in Canada and many of us came up the hard ways. To my   immense relief, Miss Noyes said a part-time job in the central linen room was available   and in return, I might have a room in the nurses residence would be in addittion to whatever   meals I could snatch in between lecture periods at the College. That same evening, I moved bag and baggage in, and from an indoor caught my first glimpse of the beautiful St Gaudens statue of Diana, poised   on tiptoe against the sky above  Madison Square Garden.    During the last sultry days of July, the shadows of approaching war grew deeper and every evening, I watched the bulletins in Herald Square,    against hope, until at last the blow fell, On the day that the College opened     all students were summoned to the noonday service the Chapel and were told by the Dean that the President of the United States of had declared that strict neutrality must be upheld, "even in thought".   The Dean said, that he knew that among us there were students from countries involved in the conflict and but he was sure that we would remember that we were the guests of a neutral nation and would conduct ourselves accordingly. The organist was an <???>. The closing hymn was "Fight the good fight with all thy might". Some of us sang it   undue enthusiasm. In those Arcadian days, the tall elm trees on the campus were given distinctive names by various national groups gathered beneath them. In the shade of the British Empire Tree it was a relief to find Canadians, English,   Irish, Scottish and West Indian folk who found it difficult to be neutral, "even in thought." In the chemistry laboratory, my deskmate was a young German wno because I was an arrant coward about minor explosions, touched off test tubes for me. We talked quite frankly about the conflict and in which he knew that sooner or later he would become involved, One day he failed to put in an appearance. We did not see him again.   In spite of my financial preoccupations, I managed to scrape along quite <???> Careful   study of the menu in the cafeteria made it possible to select a reasonably satisfying lunch   for eighteen cents and quite a good dinner for fifty. Subway fares were rather a problem they cost five cents and so did those glorious Sunday rides on the Elevated from one   end of the line to the other, with the whole pageant of New York spread out below me, the Bellevue linen room was a pleasant place and from its windows I could watch the human flotsam and jetsam drifted under the ancient archway leading into the square courtyard. One afternoon, the circus cane and delighted the eager spectators who crowded every balcony.      The work at the College was profoundly satisfying. It can truly be said that in those days there were giants in the land. Adelaide Nutting, Annie Goodrich, Lavinia Dock, there were names to conjure with. As head of the Department, Miss Nutting was, of course,    there and the natural leader of the campaign for advanced education for nurses. <???> a course in the nursing eduction schools and in on of the bleak T.C. classrooms I saw her for the first time. Teachers College Unit      A tall slight figure, she stood on the low platform and looked us over as though wondering what we seeking. There was something troubling about that cool clear gaze. At first, I was afraid of this woman as well as fascinated by her. Here was a quality of mind far superior to any that I had yet   encountered in the nursing profession. Her penetrating intelligence shed a disconcerting light on problems that nurses had been willing to ignore because we   did not know how to deal with them. She was determined to free the school of nursing from its bondage to the hospital, for the first time, it was borne in upon us that the two were not one and indivisible. She was never    over-emphatic -- indeed she seldom raised her voice, yet in spite of this restraint a certain ruthlessness made itself felt -- a driving force that would not be denied.    Adelaide Nutting had a deep sense of the past as well as an extraordinary insight into the future. She seemed she could grasp the significance   of events while they still lay hidden below the horizon. It was this quality of vision, ranging over both the past and the future, that seemed to set her apart from all the rest. There were two gifts    that she seemed to lack -- understanding and sympathy. When, many years later, I came to know her better, I found that she possessed both but that they were hidden by the mask that those who exercise authority must wear in self-defence. Goodrich      The course in administration of schools of nursing given by Annie Warburton Goodrich    meant a great deal to me because it dealt with practical problems I had actually encountered.    Her lectures were a bit discursive but there was something about the woman, herself that   caught and held attention. Her ready <???>, her sparkling sense of humor enlivened every discussion and she was as quite willing to laugh at herself as at us.   Yet there were times when a sudden change of mood revealed a hidden depth of feeling. One afternoon, she impishly suggested that superintendents of nurses could keep in closer touch with their students if they took their meals in their diningroom and did a little   discreet eavesdropping. "I often tried it myself", she said, and then hesitated for a moment,    but there were days when I could not face up to it." More than one student in that quiet classroom   knew just what she meant. hospital   Her previous career had been varied and somewhat stormy. In less than ten years, she had held three major positions and in each instance had courageously introduced and defended educational policies that were far ahead of the time, As a result, she was accused of exhausting her environment rather too quickly and it is true that by nature she was a rebel. Perhaps, as one observer has justly remarked, it was during those years of storm and stress that she acquired "that toughness of spirit that enabled her to accept defeat without being overwhelmed by a sense of failure," In 1914 she was free from any responsibility for the direction of nursing service and reveled in the freedom afforded by the academic life, She had both the time and opportunity to read widely and she shared her reading   with us -- history, philosophy, comparitive religion, politics -- no wonder so many of caught fire from her unquenchable enthusiasm. Lavinia Dock:   A number of distinguished nurses addressed from time to time but to me Lavinia Dock was the most striking personality of them all, She had been secretary of:the International Council of Nurses since its inception and in spite of the war firmly believed that the Council, would continue to be a spiritual bond between the nurses of the world. She was an ardent pacifist and took no pains to hide it.    With Adelaide Nutting, she as the author of the classic History of Nursing. She had a working knowledge of several languages. The campaign for votes for women was then at its height and together with other outstanding women from all walks of life, she had marched in the famous parade up Fifth Avenue, led by a beautiful young woman mounted on a white horse.      As a young nurse, she even managed to write a textbook, Materia Medica for Nurses a task that most nurses would have regarded as a full-time job while serving as night supervisor at Bellevue hospital.   Later on, she broke through the ridiculous inhibitions that prevented plain talk about venereal diseases and insisted that instruction should be given to student nurses in this subject as in any other.      She was much in demand as a speaker at conventions and since she was completely indifferent to her appearance someone was usually delegated to make sure that she was appropriately dressed. On one occasion, she had been persuaded to choose a becoming afternoon dress but when she    the platform, a heavy pair of bright tan shoes rather spolied the effect.       This book had run through several editions and while I was at the College, Miss Dock was engaged in revising it, he wanted help with the proofreading and I was asked to lend a hand, It was a long rather tedious process but gave me a wonderful opportunity to observe her at close range. There had been no definite arrangement about payment and when the work was done I was given an envelope that evidently contained a cheque. At first glance, I saw the figure 15 and my heart sank for my finds were at as low ebb. I had secretly hoped for a little more, perhaps 25. Then to my utter astonishment , I saw that the sum total was one   hundred and fifty dollars. That evening, I pushed the tray along the cafeteria counter without looking   at the price list and bought a really satisfying dinner. Then I began to wonder whether the service I had rendered had really been worth so large a sum. Could this be the gift of a generous teacher to a student who was coming up the hard way? I have always thought so. Teachers/College Unit (cont.)      A course in psychology was obligatory for all students who attended the College and group of about two hundred, drawn from various departments, assembled from time to time at the bidding of the famous Professor E. L. Thorndike. He was then engaged in the preparation   of a new textbook and, as usual, required a large supply of clinical material.      One drowsy autumn afternoon, his victims were assembled in one of the large amphitheatres and he put us through our paces. The teaching of elementary arithmetic seemed to be uppermost in his mind and we were asked to solve a number of simple problems. Some   of these involved recalled my inability to grapple with seven times eight and I gazed helplessly at the blackboard. In amoment or two, he   asked those who had completed the test to stand and a few smug individuals smug individuals popped up.   After another short pause, any others who had finished were told to rise.    Practically everybody stood up.   He then looked round the room and asked whether there was one student who had not completed the test. Four shamefaced individuals, me amongst them, rose to their feet. Please come to the blackboard said Professor Thorndike, with a gleam in his eye.   Could we, he gently enquired, indicate diagrammatically on the blackboard how the figures "looked to us in our heads." Forthwith, one brave soul seized a piece of chalk and drew a rough circle with the numbers arranged clock-fashion and two of the others said they saw figures that way, too.    My arrangement wasn't like that at all. Instead in a neat row from one to twelve, then a jog from twelve to twenty, then another jog from twenty to thirty and after that   a long line that faded out altogether. Professor Thorndike seemed quite pleased The other students stared at us blankly -- evidently their numbers were unhampered by any sort of pattern and could be summoned at will. We were hampered by what is called a number form and had to take time to go and get them off their hooks.   It seemed that a brochure had been written on the subject and Professor i'horndike wanted to confirm its findings. Incidentally, there appeared to be more hope for the clockfaces than there was for me. It seemed that I could not look forward to ever be sure about seven times eight. Teachers College (con'td.)   (Freud)      The courses in biology were pure joy, especially the laboratory periods. Although I had given elementary instruction to student nurses I had been obliged to manage with with  "specimens" obtained from the butcher's shop. Now I learned not only to dissect a frog but also to spread the living web between his toes   the lens of my microscope and to watch the corpuscles squeezing their way along the winding picked up a much   capillaries, I also picked up a working knowledge of teaching method and was much elated   when a lesson plan came back marked with a large red A.   In the evenings, there were always concerts or lectures at the College that At the College there were always concerts or discussions that were open to the students   Occasionally, one of the professors would give a popular lecture on some more or less abstruse subject quite differently.   Passing the bulletin board one afternoon I noticed that a lecture on Dr Sigmund Freud would be giventhat very evening. The large audience listened with   rapt attention and when the lecture drew to a close a lively discussion followed. Much   of what the speaker had said was beyond my comprehension but plain enough and some of it came as a distinct   shock.    It was as though a cold searching light had suddenly been shed over a landscape that had   been veiled in a rosy mist. I was afraid to look at it. Teachers college (cont.)      I realize how fortunate it was that it took place at that particular time, Among thmmi-Oats my fellow students there were several who later on became leaders in the national and international nursing world. No longer young, they   already held responsible administrative positions. Yet they buckled down to the routine effort of daily study as if they were still in training. Students in other, departments were inclined to be rather a bit condescending, A group of gay young things from the school of physicial education passed the open door of the bacterioligal department laboratory and took a look at us as we fussed with our test tubes. "My dear, who are those old crones?"   said one of them in a harsh whisper. "Department of nursing and health" said her companion "You can always tell them by their stiff upper lips." The child was right -- they had the fortitude put in the foundation after the house had been built.   A few of the professors as well as some of the instructors were inclined to be disdainful. With some notable exceptions, we did not seem to be particularly   alert or enthusiastic students. Yet is was rather unwillingly admitted that there was a certain quality about us that the livelier students sometimes lacked -- we were dependable, we knew what we wanted and we were ready to work for it. Teachers College (cont.)      The spring term drew to a close and it was high time to look for a steady job. The position of superintendent in the Children's Hospital of Winnipeg was vacant. I was told that an application might be accepted and it so happened that it was but provided I could report for duty immediately. Like all students who were not returning to the College for further work i was interviewed by Miss Nutting who made it plain that she did   not consider me equal to the task so rashly undertaken. It was not easy to defend my position and it was a relief when the question of my eligibility was dropped and   she enquired whether I was satisfied with what the College had given me. Unhappy and confused, I tried to explain that I could never be sufficiently grateful. "But what did we give you?", she said. "A point of view", I stammered and let it go at that. For some obscure reason, this artless reply seemd to please and amuse her and she smiled.    If only I had not been so much in awe of her, I could, have told her that I had been shown aspects of nursing that were altogether new to me, and I had been brought into touch with international affairs. Already I had acquired a rooted conviction, based on personal   experience, that it was in the university and in the university alone that nurses could hope to find the broader educational opportunities without which they could never meet the increasing demands being made upon them. Data Re: Dock Roberts      Published Materia Medica in 1889.      Do not mention exactly where Dock was employed at this time, probably Henry St. but not sure.      With MAN : author of History of Nursing; first 2 vols. 1907 two later 1912: almost entire Dock' work   Dock and Wald were both lecturers at TC : "Roster of nurse lecturers ... to teach the history and the social aspects of nursing."   Dock's close association with the International Council of nurses.   "Dock as secretary of ICN had been a power behind the throne from its inception until 1922 when she resigned, "An ardent pacifist, she had boycotted the war,      Dock appealed as an internationalist. Also her interests extended far outside the nursing field. She had marched in hte suffrage parade up Fifth ave., led by beautiful woman  riding on a white She had broken through the inhibitions that prevented plain talk   about venereal diseases. She had a good working know ledge of several languages, She was completely indifferent to dress and had to be carefully inspected before she appeared on   platforms. On one occasion, had passed muster but at last moment changed from a neat pair of   of black shoes to vivid tans: "because they were more comfortable" Goodrich references : Roberts      68: when supt. of nurses say Bellevue and Allied: grasped opportunity of offering p.g. courses to grads of small schools.      76 -77 Delano supt. of Army Nurse Corps. Had been supt. at Bellevue. In 1909 she became associated with RC and in 1912 resigned from ANC to devote full time to RC nursing activities.      (Hand) In 1909 she wass elected president of the American Federation of Nurses    In 1912 NLNE developed from American Society of supts. "Had already two solid achievements:   organization of ANA and of "the dept. of Nursing at Teachers College." Goodrich was President of League at this time." ..."we shall never render our full service to the   community until our place is also found in the university."      81-82 Goodrich elected president of the ICN in 1912 (?) in abeyance during war. Was to meet in 1915 . War intervened.      97-98 Goodrich became president of ANA in 1916 : led to development of federated state nurse associations instead of unwieldy alumnae, This reorganization continued into post-war years.      "G became one of best-known and most popular leaders, "dynamic force and luminous personality."      109: In 1913, Goodrich was inspector of training schools in the State of NY,"      148: In 1917 Contretemps with Delano over nursing situation and Red Cross in France. Evidently strong rift between G. and D.      180 In 1922 report of Rockefeller Goldman Winslow-Goldmark study survey published. Yale School of Nursing. Undergradute group in Univ. devoted to males for more than 200 yrs were scornful. "Needed broad experience, dynamic leadership, flashing personality of G." Link this up with story of exclusion of male students affiliates from new residence at NY. Cornell. By 1950 Yale graduated more than 1000 .      219 : In 1922, Goodrich and Clayton sent by Rockefeller to European nursing centers.    395 : After World War Two : "time had arrived for what G called creative nursing 395: cont'd : G had formerly drawn attention to three periods of of modern nursing: emotional, technical and creative. "Creative period began when when a few nursing schools began tapping the resources of universities (higher education) and started weaving social and health aspects of nursing into the basic curriculum."      613 : G. nterested in development of FNIF WERMINGHAUS       Goodrich took charge at Postgraduate when the school was conducted independently by   "a matron, Vanzandt". In 1897 School became integral part of hospital. "Curriculum   was revised," G. was there for seven years altogether.   TC : in 1910 following endowment by Jenkins, hospital economics dept. expanded into Dept of nursing and health.      1914: background for EJ      Goodrich was president of ICN from 1912 to 1915. In touch with nursing problems abroad   appointment as assistant professor of nursing : devoted full time to teaching, special field was administration of schools of nursing, her curse in this subject becoming one of the most popular at TC."      1915 to 1918 president of ANA      "Growing field of public health nursing hammering at door of TC. NLNE and NOPHN   active in pressing need. In 1916: Lillian Wald invited G. to take over the direction of the Henry St Settlement Nursing Service, in conjunction with her work at the College, G. "took up   matter with Nutting. Wald continued as head of the Henry St Settlement G, in 1917   took over direction of nursing service.      February 1918: Goodrich accepted appointment as chief nurse inspector of the nursing dept. of the US Army, and became dean of the Army school of Nursing. Strife still continued with RC and Delano. Doubt whether school would continue. "It was March 1919 before assurance was reached that the Army School would continue."      In 1919, after leaving Washington, she returned to the Visiting Nurse Service and also resumed duties at PC.   G, convinced of truth of Winslow's words: that public health nurse would make up the nucleus of one of the greatest of future professions "whose entire aim and method of approach is characteristic of modern world tendency to shift the emphasis from legal and restrictive to educational measures." (quote from Winslow)    1922: Seattle: Goodrich read to the delegates the abstract of the Rockefeller report, prepared by winslow "Report of the Committee of for study of Nursing Education." Henderson;      p.1488 AJN : December, 1955   Ability to speak directly to another person not limited by sex or age.      Maid who said "Of course, I knows you b'longs to the world."      EJ : G could have been predicted from her ancestry, (look at H. sketch for details) Born February 6.1866, in New Brusnwick, N.J. "Soon moved to NY in 1880 to London and Tunbridge Wells where they attended English schools, After return to USA break in family fortunes led to a decline. G acted as companion to a friend of her mother's and traveled   in Europe. Nursed maternal grandfather during last illness and wondered whether "Perhaps if I were taught something about nursing I could do better than this."      1890 : G aged 24 entered NYH S of N. Director of nursing: Irene Sutliffe,. head nurse Lillian Wald, "fortunate in selection of a school with a liberal atmosphere. Rebellious at Sloane Maternity. Drew up a chart showing that it would require 17 hours to do Work expected in 11; NYH had two-year course at this time,      I893, : supt. of nurses at New York postgraduate, Stayed there 7 years;      1900 : left PG to fill superintendency at three NY hospitals in turn: St Luke's, New York Hospital and finally Bellevue: G said she learned at each: "St L. highly personalised   type of service . . . convinced her of value of case assignment method." "During 5 years of NYH, developed many of her ideas of education, ...and toughness of spirit that enabled her to accept defeat without being overwhelmed by a sense of failure." "Resigned because   she could not agree to changes in the training school policies demanded by governing board. At Bellevue, she was associated with Dr Winford Smith from whose brilliant administrative methods she profited."      In 1910 : ( note that in 10 yrs, she moved three times: "tendency to exhaust her environment EJ) G. became inspector of nurse training schools under Dept. of Ed. of State of NY, Well fitted: over 50 yrs before it was officially required she had advocated full high school as an entrance requirenent. "At four schools in NY she had developed programs of study that were outstanding, she had even incorporated nursing in the basic training.    In 1913: G. "accepted professorship in dept. of nursing and health at TC."       Until 1916 when she combined these duties with the directorship of the nursing service at Henry St., she reveled in the academic life." Studied history, philosophy and comparative religiion. Until she accepted Wald's challenging offer, she had more leisure than she had or would have for many rears: (EJ : This coincided with EJ's first contact with her)   It was inevitable, however, that she should combine administration of nursing service with teaching. . . . to the end of her life she was troubled because so many persons who appeared   to give her support really did not believe in the thoroughly educated practicer. They believed in college preparation for the nurse who teaches and administers, but not   for the nurse who serves the patient directly.��� (EJ: because of this she feared this concept might prevail and used to say that she had failed in her great objective.) She conceived of the administrater and the teacher as merely serving the most important person, the practicing nurse."      G. in wartime (H soft pedals this part more than Roberts):   Leave of absence from 1918 to 1919: "chief inspector of army hospitals and later dean of the army school of nursing,. . . plan to provide Army medical service with an adequate   quota of fully prepared nurses , rather than with a more limited number of graduate nurses   assisted with volunter aides, which was counterproposal (sic) " In 1919, G "turned   School over to Major Stimson, G returned to her responsibilities at TC and Henry St. but not for long. "In 19n, as,an otcome of the Goldmark study, univ, school of nursing was established at Yale. "She herself spoke of the dream and the dreamer brought together"      In 1934 : G retired from Yale: retirement was mythical. In 1935. G. made an European tour of inspection for the RF (EJ she had earlier gone to China on similar )      Look up closing paragraphs for attitude toward death.

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