Okanagan Historical Society Reports

Forty-fourth annual report of the Okanagan Historical Society Okanagan Historical Society 1980

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 Forty-fourth Report  0KA1VAGA1V HISTOftlC&L SOCIETY  s*"**  %   »■■*'  ^SO^.'  ^*fsl  I'v^'ii?.11*  PENTICTON (RN. Atkinson) MUSEUM  785 MAIN STREET 1  PENTICTON, B.C.   V2A5E3  FORTY-FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT  ISSN-0317-0691  of the  OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL  SOCIETY  Founded Sept. 4,1925  COVER PHOTOS  This year's cover illustrates two of the historic trails over the mountains  from the Fraser Canyon into the Okanagan. The Hope and Hudson Bay  Trails, along with the Whatcom, Dewdney, Blackeye's and others are threatened with obliteration from proposed logging operations in the near future.  Our lead article, "The Proposed Cascade Wilderness," by H. R. Hatfield,  outlines the case for preserving this area for future generations. Both the  Okanagan Historical Society and the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society,  along with many other individuals and organizations, actively support this  proposal.  We are indebted to Mr. Victor Wilson for his beautiful photography of  this region.  © 1980  Lithographed in Canada  WAYSIDE     PRESS     LTD. 2  FORTY-FOURTH REPORT OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  PRODUCTION MANAGER  Victor Wilson  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Ruby Lidstone, Armstrong-Enderby  Beryl Gorman, Vernon  Marie Wastradowski, Kelowna  David MacDonald, Penticton  Dolly Waterman, Oliver-Osoyoos-Oroville  Individuals wishing to subscribe to the Report of the Okanagan Historical Society may have their name added to our mailing list. The Report will be  sent each year and the subscriber invoiced. Back issues of Reports 27, 31, 32,  40, 41, 42, and 43 may be obtained from the Okanagan Historical Society at  $5.00 per copy. Mail orders add $1.00 postage and handling. Reprints of  Reports 1 - 5 are also available. A charge of $1.50 will be made plus 50<? postage and handling. Reprints are also available for: 6, 7T0, 11 and 12 at $5.00  plus $1.00 postage and handling. Please address correspondence regarding  subscriptions or orders to: Treasurer, Okanagan Historical Society, Box 313,  Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3. OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  OF THE PARENT BODY  PRESIDENT  Jack Armstrong, Enderby  VICE-PRESIDENT  Ron Robey, Vernon  SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT  H. Weatherill, Oliver-Osoyoos  PAST PRESIDENT  Hume Powley, Kelowna  SECRETARY  R. F. Marriage  TREASURER >  Lee Christensen  EDITOR  Carol Abernathy  DIRECTORS  Armstrong-Enderby: J. A. Gamble, R. Nitchie;  Vernon: K. Ellison, P. Tassie  Kelowna: D. Buckland, F. Pells  Penticton: M. Orr, M. Broderick  Oliver-Osoyoos: D. Corbishley, H. Weatherill  DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE  H. Hatfield, G. D. Cameron BRANCH OFFICERS, 1980 - 81  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PAST PRESIDENT: Jack Armstrong; PRESIDENT: Bill Whitehead; VICE-PRESIDENT: Jim  Sutherland; SECRETARY-TREASURER: Ruby Lidstone; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT  BODY: Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie; DIRECTORS TO THE LOCAL BODY: Merle Armstrong, Moyreen McKechnie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Ruby Lidstone, Lil Sutherland,  Jessie Ann Gamble, Bob Nitchie.  KELOWNA BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Walter Anderson; VICE-PRESIDENT: Tilman Nahm; DIRECTORS: Anna  Bach, Doug Buckland, Paddy Cameron, Bill Cameron, Eric Chapman, Don Fillmore, Dick Hall,  David Hobson, Bert Johnston, Frank Pells, W. Mackenzie, Len Piddocke, Hume Powley, John  Schinnick, Ursula Surtees, Maurice Williams, Marie Wostradowski, Dorothy Zoellner, Tilman  Nahm, Bob Hayes, Bob Marriage; SECRETARY: Dick Hall; TREASURER: Bob Marriage;  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Marie Wostradowski (Chairperson), Anna Bach, Don Fillmore,  Bert Johnston, Maurice Williams, Dorothy Zoellner; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY:  Doug Buckland, Frank Pells.  VERNON BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Ron Robey; TREASURER: Jock Henniker; SECRETARY: Vacant this date;  DIRECTORS: Beryl Gorman, Dr. H. Campbell-Brown, Peter Tassie, Bert Thorburn, Don  Weatherill, Mike Parson, Edna May Seright, C. D. (Bill) Osburn, Doug Scott, Ollie Goldsmith,  Beryl Wamboldt, Walter Cowan, Ken Ellison; REPRESENTATIVES TO THE PARENT  BODY: Ken Ellison, Peter Tassie; EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Beryl Gorman (Chairperson),  Ray Banner, Frances Leng, Anna Cail, Marguerite Hodgson, Beryl Wamboldt and Margaret  Wills.  PENTICTON BRANCH EXECUTIVE  HONORARY PRESIDENT: Mrs. W. R. Dewdney; PRESIDENT: Victor Wilson; SECRETARY: Jack Riley; TREASURER: Peter Bird; DIRECTORS: Mollie Broderick, Hugh Cleland,  Richard Cooper, Francis Crawford, Jim Crawford, Bob Gibbard, Carl Harris, Joe Harris, Dave  MacDonald, Mary Orr, Don Steele, Angie Waterman, Pete Watson, Grace Whitaker;  EDITORIAL COMMITTEE: Dave MacDonald (Chairperson), Kathleen Dewdney, Lydia  Baumbrough, Helen Reith, Dorothy Whittaker; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: Mary  Orr, Mollie Broderick.  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH EXECUTIVE  PRESIDENT: Carleton MacNaughton; VICE-PRESIDENT: Hank Lewis; SECRETARY: Mrs.  Dorothea Lewis; TREASURER: Mrs. Ermie Iceton; Executive: Mrs. Buddie MacNaughton, Ivan  Hunter, Mrs. Aileen Porteous, Bob and Dorothy Iverson, Edna and Harry Weatherill, Elsie and  Don Corbishley, Mrs. Retta Long, Mrs. Kate Willson, Mrs. Emily McLennan, Mrs. Stanley  Dickson; HISTORIAN: Miss Dolly Waterman; DIRECTORS TO THE PARENT BODY: Don  Corbishley, Harry Weatherill. EDITOR'S FOREWORD  This year's volume of the Okanagan Historical Society's Annual Report includes, once  again, many hitherto unwritten facts and stories of Okanagan History. Our lead article shows,  however, that the Okanagan Historical Society is engaged in more pertinent pursuits than the  mere collection of musty data, or the hoarding of historic trivia. In his article "The Proposed  Cascade Wilderness," Mr. H. R. Hatfield outlines the case for the preservation of our natural and  historic heritage, as embodied in the early trails to the interior, a cause which has this Society's  full and active support.  Several years ago, the Okanagan Historical Society decided, as a matter of editorial policy, to print, as space and time permitted, the histories of some of the smaller communities in our  valley. Many of these communities have almost gone 'the way of all flesh,' while others have  changed almost beyond recognition from the early days, or been swallowed by the larger centres.  This year, we present two such community histories, products of their own citizenry, with a great  deal of pride.  Once again, as editor, I owe a great deal of gratitude to many people who have helped  to make this publication possible. I will mention just a few; To the indomitable Victor Wilson, a  Production Manager par excellence; to Ruby Lidstone, Beryl Gorman, Marie Wostradowski,  David MacDonald and Dolly Waterman, together with their editorial committees, who work so  hard to gather and polish manuscripts from their respective locales; to Mrs. A. Cail and Linda  Shpikula who so willingly undertook proof-reading duties; to the President of the Okanagan  Historical Society, Mr. Jack Armstrong and his Executive, for their whole-hearted support and  encouragement of me in my editorial duties and to many, many more — thank you very much.  ERRATA  The Okanagan Historical Society Report #23 (1959), pg. 72, article "One Hundred Years in  Similkameen" by-line should read: "Written by Gint Cawston, assisted by Sam Manery."  The Okanagan Historical Society Report No. 43, article, The Honourable W. A. C. Bennett, p.  55 contains the following errors:  1 The Honourable W. A. C. Bennett was given the Freedom of the City of Kelowna in 1952, not  1979. This was soon after his becoming Premier.  2 Mr. Bennett bought the Leckie Hardware from David Leckie in 1930.  CONTENTS  HISTORICAL PAPERS AND DOCUMENTS  THE PROPOSED CASCADE WILDERNESS (H. R. Hatfield)    9  DONALD GRAHAM: PIONEER, POLITICIAN AND  CO-OPERATOR (Jim Wardrop)       19  CHIEF TRADER PAUL FRASER:  HIS PARENTAGE AND GRAVE (H. R. Hatfield)       23  KELOWNA MEDICAL HISTORY (Donald M. Black, M.D.)       26  LETTER FROM CULLEN BASH (1933)  EX-DEPUTY CUSTOMS COLLECTOR       34  MORE EARLY FRUIT AWARDS (Mary Gartrell Orr)       38  ESSAYS  HOWARD HOUSE (Steven Hesketh)          41  VERNON'S HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURE (Doug Carrie)           46  BIOGRAPHIES AND REMINISCENCES  BILL MINER (Deputy Commissioner Cecil Clark:  R.C.M.P. Retired)  52  A GAME OF POOL (H. R. Hatfield)  58  LOGGING AND SAWMILLS IN PEACHLAND (Hamish C. MacNeill  60  THE COTTAGE: STORY OF THE OLD JACQUES HOME  (Beryl Gorman)     66  THE SAGA OF ROBERT WOOD (W.J. Whitehead)  70  ADELPHI HOTEL (Jean Touminen)     74  THE STORY OF THE FALKLAND STAMPEDE (Una Haller)     76  CHIEF ROBERT NEWTON CLERKE AND ELIZABETH JOHNSTON CLERKE  "THE CHIEF" (Dr. A. S. Clerke)  79  HISTORY OF GRAND VIEW FLAT, NEAR ARMSTRONG  (Richard Mellish)  87  MR. FOSTER WHITAKER (Interviewed August 18, 1978)  91  KATHLEEN DEWDNEY RECEPTION     96  GROWING UP IN GLENMORE: 1911 - 1926 (Arthur Ward)  99  STORIES OF EARLY DAYS - TOLD TO W. R. CARRUTHERS  (E. M. (Ted) Carruthers, J.P.)     104  DOES ANYONE REMEMBER? REMINISCENCES OF EARLY  PRINCETON (Margaret Mitchel (nee Hunter)     110  KENNETH WILLIAM KINNARD - 1887 - 1978 (Norma Kinnard Ross)  119  THE HISTORY OF KALEDEN (H. W. Corbitt)  123  BOOK REVIEWS        182  OBITUARIES      184  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE OF ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1981     193  MINUTES OF THE 55th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF O.H.S. 1980  194  PRESIDENT'S REPORT 1979-1980 (Jack Armstrong)  197  SECRETARY'S REPORT 1979-1980 (R. F. Marriage)  198  EDITOR'S REPORT 1979-1980 (Carol Abernathy)     198 OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH (Carlton MacNaughton)  199  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE (H. R. Hatfield)  199  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE - VERNON BRANCH  (Peter Tassie)   201  REPORT OF THE PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE 1979-80  (G. D.Cameron)  201  PANDOSY MISSION COMMITTEE O.H.S.  FINANCIAL STATEMENT 1979  202  TREASURER'S REPORT (Lee Christensen)   203  KELOWNA BRANCH (W. F. Anderson)  204  PENTICTON BRANCH (Victor Wilson)  205  ARMSTRONG-ENDERBY BRANCH  (Ruby Lidstone for Bill Whitehead)  206  VERNON BRANCH (Ron Robey)  207  MEMBERSHIP LIST     208 HISTORICAL PAPERS  AND DOCUMENTS  THE PROPOSED CASCADE WILDERNESS  By H. R. Hatfield  In December of 1972 the Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society presented a brief to the Minister of Recreation and Conservation of the Province  of British Columbia asking for an extension to Manning Provincial Park.  Later the Society modified its request to the extent that they felt a wilderness  area without roads would be acceptable.  To date the reply has been that the area would remain under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service as a multiple use area with some co-operation  with the Parks Branch in delineating and preserving historic trails, where  practical.  Follow a layman's description of the country involved and the proposed  boundaries, the various values of the area and the reasons why it is felt that  this piece of territory should be preserved as it is for the benefit of future generations of people and of wildlife.  STREAMS AND MOUNTAINS  The Tulameen River — To be any good the extension or wilderness  preserve would have to extend at least to the mouth of Squakin Creek. This  would leave say 8.5 miles of the River in the protected zone, from its source in  the Punch Bowl. The next 6 miles downstream is in pretty rough country and  might stay clean anyway for a long time.  The Punch Bowl — on the westerly side of Snass Mountain is some  5,500 feet above the sea. The mouth of the Squakin is about 4,100 feet. There  are many tributaries from both sides, the Podunk being of course the largest.  Not all those from the east could be fully included because of the well established cattle range on that side. Certainly the east side of the river itself, the  high country around Snass Mt., the Punch Bowl and Paradise Valley would  have to be included. Paradise Valley is a low, broad, gently sloping marshy  valley where doubtless the Indians of Blackeye's day dug roots and the bears  still do. The river has lots of little trout.  Sowaqua Creek — (Colvile's Sa'anqua River) (Pierre River of some old  maps). This beautiful stream is some 16 miles long. It empties into the  Coquihalla a mile or more below Jessica. One of its sources is Ghostpass Lake,  another on the slopes of Mt. Dewdney and another south of Jacobson Lake  not far from Podunk Creek. Main tributaries on the westerly side are Colvile,  Bushby, O'Reilly, Matthew and Ghostpass and on the easterly Montigny  Creek. The lower part is already flanked by logging roads. These no doubt  will eventually go up as far as Montigny Creek regardless of whether the  wilderness preserve is set up or not.  The upper part, say 9 miles, remains as nature made it. The fall from  the source of the north branch to Montigny Creek is about 2,500 feet. It is full 10  of excellent small fish, trout and/or steelhead.  The valley is very impressive with high mountains and cascading streams  from the snowfields. In places there is a wide interval between the actual  Creek bank and the mountain base; in other places narrow canyons. The  Creek is easily waded in low water but even above Matthew it is crossed at  some risk when in flood.  Podunk Creek — It is clean, clear and unpolluted. To date there is no  logging, grazing, mining or road building throughout its length. In the lower  part at least, trout is plentiful. The flow at the junction with the Tulameen is  about equal to that of the River and in high water crossing can be difficult.  To the fur traders the Podunk was a branch of the Similkameen and later the  "Headwaters of the Tulameen."  Named for Podunk Davis, woodsman of the Similkameen and famous for  his rescue of Nurse Warburton, the Creek is some 8 miles long and would be  wholly in any worthwhile extension or wilderness area. It flows into the Tulameen River about 8 miles from the River's source in the Punch Bowl, and say  about a third of a mile above the Horse Guard camp on the Old Brigade  Trail. It starts as an almost vertical cascade on the east slope of Mt. Davis but  the main valley falls quite gently and has a wide bottom and not very high  mountains to the sides. Grand Pond and Jacobson Lake drain into it and  lower down Cunningham Creek and Chisholm Creek are tributaries on the  northern side.  Other Streams — In addition to the three main streams above are some  miles of the Skaist River which could and should be included, Snass Creek,  and numberless small, largely unnamed, streams and mountain lakes. Some 4  miles of the Skaist are fortunately already in Manning Park.  MOUNTAINS  The Park extension or wilderness proposed includes several grand mountains. Snass has an elevation of 7,581 feet and Outram must be somewhat  higher. Dewdney is over 7,300, Ford almost 7,000 and Mt. Davis almost  6,600.  The maps showing the features of the area are Chilliwack Lake, Map 92  H/SW, Third Status Edition and Princeton, Sheet 92 H/SE, Third Status  Edition.  TRAILS  The Dewdney Trail — The original pathfinder for the Dewdney Trail  was Alexander Caufield Anderson of the Hudson's Bay Company. It became  obvious that the Americans were going to get the country around the lower  Columbia. In 1846 Anderson suggested that he try to find a route from the  Interior to the Coast north of the 49th parallel and the suggestion was approved. From Thompson's River (Kamloops) he went to Fort Langley by  horse and canoe via the Lillooet Harrison Lake route. On the return he  canoed to the mouth of the Coquihalla and then went on foot via the Nico-  lum, Sumallo, Skagit, Snass, and Tulameen to Campement des Femmes  (Tulameen). This was the crossing of the mountains south of the Fraser in  what, in that year, became British territory.  It was an epic trip, though for various reasons its results were not harvested for some fourteen years. It is worth noting here that Highway 3 follows 11  his track from Hope to where it crosses the Snass at the top of the rhododendron flat. And from 1860 to 1949 when the Highway was completed all the  various trails between the Similkameen and Hope did the same. In discussing  the Brigade Trail we will see how, if not why, it took a different way.  In the meantime let us join Anderson in his crossing. Third of June  1846:  "Set out at 3-1/4 A.M. and breakfasted at 6 among the rhododendrons.  Set fire to the fallen timber to make a landmark and to improve horse pasture  for possible future use. Set out again at 8:20 and reached summit at noon. "  This was at the Punch Bowl where he estimated the snow as still ten feet  deep:  "Our Indian assistants turn back here — We have no one who knows anything  of the country beyond this point. The water must guide us. "  Anderson's 1846 route was somehow never rechecked by the Hudson's  Bay Company. In 1859 Lieut. Palmer while travelling the Brigade Trail  noted the valley of the Nicolum-Sumallo but it seems to have been 1860  before the route was explored by the Royal Engineers. In August of that year  Edgar Dewdney, and Walter Moberly of C.P.R. location fame, were given a  contract to build a trail to Vermillion Forks (Princeton). It was built to the  head of Snass Creek that year and on to Princeton the next. Several years later  Dewdney completed it to Wild Horse Creek; the first trans-provincial highway.  Here is a description of the Trail's users, from an article in the Twenty-  second Report of the Okanagan Historical Society by Kathleen Stuart  Dewdney.  "It saw pack trains for horses and mules carrying in a great variety of provisions and supplies and carrying out valuable furs and gold. It was traversed by  the placer-gold miners in the sixties and seventies, and by the lode miners in  the late eighties and the nineties. Thousands of range cattle from the ranches  of the early settlers ambled over it to western and eastern British Columbia  markets, and droves of horses were driven to and fro. Distinguished personages, magistrates, lawyers, legislators and other government officials, missionaries, doctors, mail carriers and others mounted on horseback, either  alone or by pack train, wended their way along the trail. Pioneers in quest of  homesteads travelled over it, and today many descendants of these pioneers  are worthy citizens of our province. "  Dewdney was born in Devonshire in 1835. He came to what is now British  Columbia in May 1859 and for the next ten years did engineering surveying  and construction. After 1869 he held various important posts in the B.C. and  Dominion Governments, retiring in 1897 as Lieutenant Governor of British  Columbia. He died in Victoria in 1916.  The "Stop of Interest" sign by Highway 3 at the Snass Creek crossing at  the top of the rhododendron flat might lead one to believe that some substantial part of this section of the Trail is now in Manning Park. But this is not so.  A look at the map shows that here the Park is only a narrow strip along the  Highway. The proposed extension would include some ten miles of this historic trail.  The H.B.C. Trail — With the exception of the Kequeloos or Cold- 12  water-Spuzzum Trail of 1848, which was used for three Brigade trips only,  this Trail was the first "highway" between Coast and Interior in the British  territory. From 1849 to at least 1860 over it passed all supplies for the vast territory from Fort St. James to Fort Colvile and the furs collected there.  Resulting from A. C. Anderson's exploration in 1846 and information  given him by the Indian Blackeye, the Trail was actually located by Henry  Peers in 1848-49. Peers built Fort Hope and worked mostly from that end.  Helping with the location from the Campement des Femmes (Tulameen) end  was Edouard Montigny, the son of Ovide de Montigny who came to the  mouth of the Columbia in the Tonquin with the Astorians in 1811.  In 1849 the combined Brigades of New Caledonia, Thompson's River  and Fort Colvile returned from the coast this way, the first Brigade over the  Trail. Later the same year Eden Colvile of The Honourable Company travelled it from Thompson's River (Kamloops) to Fort Hope in seven days, his  men walking as there were not sufficient horses available at the moment to  mount them.  In 1855 Chief Trader Paul Fraser, then in charge at Thompson's River,  was killed by a falling tree at Campement du Chevreuil near the summit of  the Cascades and buried there. In 1859, as the busy life of the Trail was getting near its end, a most interesting group crossed by it. Chief Trader Angus  McDonald with a Hudson's Bay Company party was bound for Fort Colvile.  In company was Lieut. H. S. Palmer, R.E., making an official reconnaissance of the Trail and also as far as Campement des Femmes, Judge Begbie  and his staff of O'Reilly and Bushby. It was the Judge's first trip to Kamloops.  Leaving Fort Hope the Trail crossed the Coquihalla then went past  Kawkawa Lake to the mouth of Peers Creek. It then recrossed the Coquihalla  and went up Peers Creek. The first camp out of Hope, Manson Camp, was  near the end of the Peers Creek box canyon. It has been wiped out by logging  but just beyond it is the start of the ten chain protective corridor now granted  for the Trail and here the extension of wilderness area should start.  The Trail then climbs over Manson Ridge, goes through Fools Pass and  on up the south westerly side of the Sowaqua Valley. It crosses Colvile,  Bushby, O'Reilly and Matthew Creeks then crosses the Sowaqua and climbs to  Campement du Chevreuil. This is the second camp out of Hope and the first  one with grass for horses.  Over the six thousand foot Cascade summit it passes the beautiful  Palmer Pond then down a long green valley to the headwaters of the Podunk.  Following along the left side of this valley it reaches and crosses the Tulameen  at the Horse Guard by the mouth of Packer Creek, the third camp out of Fort  Hope. From here it climbs through a deep defile to emerge on the Tulameen  plateau. At the lower end of the defile near the forks of Squakin Creek it enters the cattle range and here the suggested protected area would end; the  Trail beyond this to be given corridor protection. The next camp was at  Lodestone Lake and the next at Campement des Femmes.  After the Dewdney was built and the Brigades thankfully gave up crossing Manson Ridge there is no doubt that parts of the old Trail continued to be  used by prospectors, trappers, hunters and other travellers. No doubt too  Brigades and others bound for Tulameen or points beyond cut across by the  Whatcom or other trails from the Dewdney to the Brigade Trail.  In Peers Creek due to logging most of the Trail is wiped out. It is also true that some miles of it in the Sowaqua may never be positively identified  due to forest fires but the route is followed with reasonable ease by the use of  old maps and Lieut. Palmer's description. A Parks Branch crew is this summer (1977) marking and clearing the Trail.  Both Palmer and Bushby kept journals in 1859 and here are some short  quotations. Palmer mentions that Manson Ridge is dangerous before the first  of June or after the first of October due to its steepness and the heavy snowfall  and then goes on;  "Mr. McLean of the Hudson's Bay Company, who crossed in 1857 or 1858, on  the 16th of October had a very disastrous trip, and lost 60 or 70 horses in the  snow. Traces of their deaths are still visible, and in riding over the mountain,  and more particularly on its eastern slope, my horse frequently shied at the  whitened bones of some of the poor animals, who had broken down in the  sharp struggle with fatigue and hunger, and been left to perish where he lay. "  At Campement du Chevreuil the Lieutenant remarked on Paul Fraser's  grave, "It is here that Mr. Fraser met his death by a tree falling on him when  asleep, and within a few yards of the spot where he had pitched our tent; a  neat pile of rough hewn logs marks his lonely grave. "  Bushby's personal journal is less formal. Begbie's party were on foot.  This is part of his entry for 18 September 1859 when they went from Manson  Camp to Campement du Chevreuil.  "I am not a very likely subject to give in but halfway I was fairly stopped for  want of something to eat breakfasted at six o'clock it was now 1 o'clock and we  had had a frightful days work thanks to a cup of brandy some flour cake and 14  some raw salmon an Indian gave us we made a good meal and jogged on to  the top where we had a splendid camp, the tents opposite sides of a log fire ten  feet in length. We all had a fine cold spring bath, then such a dinner. Some  Indian had killed 8 or 10 birds so we had a hyyou dinner such a meal — and  what with a nip — some hot grog and a pipe we turned in pretty comfortable  — eh"  The Hope Trail — The term "Hope Trail" came to be used to denote  any of the various trails which spread out through the Interior settlements and  by one way or another arrived at Hope, the point of arrival or departure for  them all on the Coast side. However here we will use it more specifically to  mean that diversion of the Dewdney which went by the Hope Pass and down  the Skaist River to rejoin the Dewdney Trail at the Snass where the Highway  sign now is.  This diversion located by Captain J. M. Grant, R.E., in 1861 was open  for a longer season than the "Canyon Trail" section of the Dewdney by the  Snass and eventually became the usual route of the Hope Trail. The writer  rode over it in 1924 and it was still the common route for pedestrian or equestrian travel.  The Park now takes in about four miles of this Trail. The proposed addition would enclose an additional say four to seven miles depending on the  final boundary decided on.  The Whatcom Trail — Like many things connected with the Goldrush  this Trail may have taken on a somewhat exaggerated importance in history  compared with others. However its story is different and of considerable interest.  The B.C. Historical Quarterly of October 1937 carried a letter by C. C.  Gardiner written in November 1858. He found Whatcom, then about four  weeks old, considering incorporation.  "Some thousands of men were waiting there at that time in the greatest  dilemma, not knowing which way to proceed to the new mines. "  The Fraser was running too high.  "Nevertheless, many would form in companies, buy a canoe, lay in from three  to six months provision, and start, working their way as far as possible, until  the river fell. Others would assert they would wait for the trail, which was  then in operation of being cut through the country, across the Cascade Mountains to Thompson River, at the expense of some Land and Town Lot Speculators, who were determined to have the great depot and centre of trade, effected by the new mines on American soil."  Thus the Whatcom Trail came about. It came up the Skagit and the  Snass, went by the Punch Bowl and probably went by Wells Lake following  the ancient Indian road, Blackeye's Trail. As Lieut. Palmer noted in 1859 it  joined the Brigade Trail, a few miles south of Lodestone Lake. Perhaps two  miles of the route is in the present Park following the line of the Highway.  The extension could take in as much as another ten miles. There apparently  was an earlier Whatcom Trail which reached the Fraser about thirty miles  below Hope but it proved unsatisfactory.  The Ghost Pass Trail — Just how much use this Trail had the writer  cannot say. Certainly it would seem doubtful if many travelled its full length.  That some sections had a fair amount of use seems most likely. In parts at  least,like so many of the trails, it was probably first an Indian track. 15  It was located much later than the others by C. E. Devereux, C.E. in  1929 and in some places any actual construction was probably sketchy. It  went up Eighteen Mile Creek from the Hope Trail and by Ghostpass Lake between Mt. Outram and Mt. Dewdney and then down the Sowaqua. For a  short distance at least it followed the Brigade Trail in the Colvile Creek vicinity then back to follow the Sowaqua again and to cut across to reach the  Coquihalla near Jessica. It joined the Pipestem Trail beyond the Coquihalla  and was planned to eventually come out on the Fraser. It was to be constructed as a "horse trail."  Some thousand feet or so is in the present Park corridor. Not counting  that part which follows the Brigade Trail some seven miles would be in the extension.  Other Trails — The most ancient of all the trails with which we are here  concerned was of course the Indian hunting trail which became known as  Blackeye's Trail. Whether it was in use before the Indians of the district had  horses some 200 years ago no one knows but it may well have been.  One end was at Campement des Femmes. The Brigade Trail used it from  there to some miles southwest of Lodestone Lake, perhaps from the Horse  Guard. Its other end, or fading point, was no doubt in the general vicinity of  the Punch Bowl, Paradise Valley and Snass Mountain. It was in this area that  the Indians dug roots and hunted the hoary marmots, the siffleur of the fur  traders.  A trail down the Tulameen connects the Dewdney and the Brigade. How  or when it came into being seems unknown; it is of course a natural. Perhaps  it was part of a diversion of Blackeye's Trail.  Later than the Brigade or Dewdney Trails a trail was blazed, probably  by prospectors, up Vuich Creek and by Jacobson Lake crossing the Podunk  and the Brigade Trail and by the low pass to and down the northerly source of  the Sowaqua.  FLORA  The area embraces a very large number of different species of trees,  shrubs and flowers reaching as it does from Coast forest and alpine to Interior  alpine and semi alpine. Elevations go from 2,500 feet to 7,500 feet above the  sea.  Wild flower displays in several areas are truly magnificent and on most of  the trails flowers are never out of sight.  WILDLIFE  Around the Cascade summits there are wonderful specimens of deer. Up  to now only the few hunters who will go on foot or horseback get in there.  There are some elk and moose, coyotes and possibly wolves.  Bear are quite plentiful and go about their business of digging roots or  picking huckleberries practically undisturbed by the odd group of human going by. The area is reputed to be the home of a few grizzlies. It must be their  last refuge in south western B.C.  The hoary marmots, whose numbers seem to be diminishing in B.C. and  would certainly do so here if roads go in, now live among the Cascade ridge  and on the higher mountains as they did in Blackeye's day. When trapping  was more popular and profitable trappers worked in the valleys of the area 16  catching beaver, marten, lynx, etc. All these of course still here and the interesting but shy pika and mountain beaver.  The usual three kinds of grouse plus ptarmigan are present and black  swifts and many small birds, and golden eagles, hawks and owls. Wild pigeons  must at least pass through as they are seen as far east as Tulameen.  GRAZING  There is no grass west of the Sowaqua and no great quantity elsewhere in  the area. As has been noted, cattle ranges have been long established to the  eastward of the Tulameen. It is suggested that the easterly boundary of the  protected area should be adjusted between Squakin Creek and Skaist River so  that very little, if any, of the well established range would be interfered with.  If in the last several years cattle have been driven into the Paradise Valley, as is rumoured, there may be some source of conflict at this point.  TIMBER  The writer does not have a Forest Service report on the amount of  mature timber in the area under consideration. However a few things are very  obvious. The Sowaqua Valley, barring accidents, will a hundred years from  now have a large crop of timber. As of now that portion of the valley covered  by mature timber is a small percentage. Included is a strip of very ancient  forest between the base of Manson Ridge and the huge burn which covers  much of the valley. Also there are some rather small patches around the headwaters. The country, aside from the Sowaqua, has some stands of timber but  nothing of great extent which is in any way exceptional. Much of it is lodge-  pole pine and much of little value.  MINERALS  In times past a good deal of prospecting was done in and around this  piece of country. Some claims have been staked in the area from time to time.  Much of it has been gone over again in recent years. No producing mine is or,  to the best of the writer's knowledge, has been worked. Geological maps do  not seem to show anything very encouraging actually in the proposed area.  BOUNDARIES  There are differences in the boundaries shown on the different sketch  maps made from time to time since the original brief to Government by the  O.S.P.S. in December 1972. The explanation is that there is a difference in a  number of places between what would be desirable to give a well rounded  Park extension or wilderness area and what is essential if the wilderness is to  be preserved at all.  The present Manning Park we believe is about 260 square miles. Again  very roughly, the original request would take in some 100 square miles.  The N.W. corner would have to be such that the Brigade Trail where it  leaves the logged area in Peers Creek was included. To the southeast from  there the line would run between Highway 3 and the height of land between  Seventeen and Eighteen Mile Creeks. To the eastward the boundary would  have to stay clear of the Brigade Trail, say a thousand feet. Then cross the  Sowaqua below or at Montigny Creek and go eastward by Tulameen Mt. or  by Montigny Creek. It should follow the height of land to the north of the 17  Podunk hitting the Tulameen downstream of or at Squakin Creek.  The N.E. corner would have to be where the Brigade Trail hits Squakin  Creek. The boundary would then go south along the edge of the established  cattle range east of the Tulameen. It would have to be east of Paradise Valley  and Snass Mt. taking in as much as possible of the Dewdney and Hope Trails  without seriously infringing on the well established cattle range, and meeting  the present Park line east of where the present line crosses Skaist River.  PRESENT OFFICIAL PLANS FOR THE AREA  To our knowledge the only land use plan so far started for the area is that  for the Sowaqua Valley, its heartland. This plan calls for the logging of what  timber there is in the whole valley, except for a corridor along part, or hopefully, all of the Brigade Trail. Roads would be built to the sources of the  stream, the kiss of death to the wilderness. And it is obvious that roads once  built can neither be removed nor for any length of time successfully blocked.  The now clear Sowaqua would surely have some silt and other pollution.  No matter how the roads are built or clearcut logging done this is inevitable;  look over the present roads in Peers Creek and the lower Sowaqua.  The Brigade, the Ghostpass and the Jacobson Lake cross trail, where  they survive, will lose the pioneer spirit and be mere tracks along a mass of  roads, better than nothing it is true but without the real impact of the wilderness or history.  As elsewhere where roads cover the bush the wildlife would be reduced to  a furtive remnant of man fleeing creatures. The roads running to the heart of  the area would put practically every part within a day's hunt from a vehicle.  Most of it would be available to the sort of hunter who drives the roads with  gun at the ready to kill any living thing.  The plant life would be changed, no longer could the botanist or the ordinary visitor see the various zone of growth just as they have existed for hundreds of years. The earth would be torn apart and left scattered with wreckage; an inevitable part of clearcut logging. The unique and wonderful strip of  primeval forest would be spoiled.  WHY WE BELIEVE THIS AREA SHOULD BE LEFT AS IT IS  Some things are so obvious to our common sense that it it not necessary to  have an array of statistics to prove them. On every hand are warnings that we  must wake up and sacrifice some of our material wealth to save "our world,"  as we assume it to be. There is no better way than to leave a bit of it alone as  nature made it. Particularly when that bit is adjacent to our heaviest concentration of people and another growing concentration of people and is the only  really natural bit left in a wide expanse and is available at no cost or trifling  cost.  It might be suggested too that perhaps the world is not "ours" alone. It  may be that our kindred of the wild have the right to some small part where  they can live naturally without the harassment of roaring and whining  machinery and vehicle encased gunners, or the degradation of being made into roadside bums. Perhaps also some contact with them in a truly natural environment benefits ourselves.  Or looking at wildlife and fish as only something for our own use and  amusement such a natural reservoir, without the pollution and pressures that 18  follow roads as surely as the night the day, is of tremendous value. Without  statistics or sometimes in spite of them any of us over fifty know in our hearts  that most wildlife is steadily diminishing. This area can stand some limited  hunting by foot or horseback. It should not devastate the wildlife and would  give the ordinary hunter, as it does now, a chance to enjoy a sport otherwise  reserved for those wealthy enough to fly to far places.  However of more importance is the preservation of this area, easily and  cheaply accessible to so many, where the true spiritual balm of the wilderness  can be received. In our times young and old can benefit greatly from it. In the  future its benefits will doubtless be greater, its acquirement more and more  difficult. As a bonus one can here step back into the days of the Fur Brigades  when nearly all the country was a wilderness or travel with the later argonauts  of the goldrush.  It is a particularly fine location for the training of youth. Here they can  learn that life can be interesting without roads and gasoline and get that independence and freedom of spirit that comes with travelling on your own feet  and carrying all the necessities of life on your own back. Here they can relive  history and most important live as part of nature rather than apart from her.  The area left alone, except for some trail clearning and marking and  some regulation of human use, could be a reference area for all sorts of scientific study. It is becoming more and more difficult to find anything in air,  water or land where it has not been altered by man's activities. Here is an easy  way to get the gradual, often imperceptible, change in things, to once again  see natural clean water, green growth, giant trees and unawed wild animals.  The only real objection to the preservation of the area seems to be the  desire to harvest its timber. If it is true that forest harvesting in B.C. is on a  sustained yield basis there would be no need to reach into the last far corners  to get the last few trees from them. If it is not true, it would seem the part of  wisdom to keep a bit in reserve somewhere. In a hundred, perhaps seventy-  five or eighty, years from now when the second growth in the burn is mature  the Sowaqua Valley will have many times the amount of timber now in it. To  the citizens of that day should be left the decision to cut or leave.  All around the world are places where man is suffering because he used  all of the material resources in sight, particularly timber and grass. Can anyone point out a place where he is really suffering because of setting aside land  to remain as nature made it? 19  Editor's Note: The following is the text of an address given by Mr.  Jim Wardrop, Assistant Curator at the Provincial Museum, to the  1980 Annual General Meeting of the Okanagan Historical Society  on May 4, in Armstrong, B.C.  DONALD GRAHAM:  PIONEER, POLITICIAN AND CO-OPERATOR  By Jim Wardrop  When I decided to prepare a talk on Donald Graham, I was aware of his  descendants still residing in the community so I hoped my research wouldn't  uncover anything that might be embarassing. But, to the contrary I discovered an incredibly honourable man who earned my respect.  Graham, from eastern Canada, came to B.C. in the early 1870's to try his  hand at finding gold in the Cariboo but soon headed for the Spallumcheen  Valley where he pre-empted 320 acres in Pleasant Valley. There he had the  first taste of co-operation for a neighbour, Martin Fursteneau, helped him  build a log cabin with a pole roof covered with straw and 6 inches of dirt. Furthermore, Fursteneau arranged to use Graham's horses for harrowing on both  their properties in return for his oxen to do the ploughing. Another neighbour, Herman Wichers always visited new settlers to see what kind of help he  could provide.  Although Graham and the other early settlers had an enormous advantage when they pre-empted the most fertile tracts of land, there were great  difficulties ahead. Because there was such a problem marketing their produce, they had little money to buy goods and services. From his  Reminiscences, we read of Graham making wagon wheels from pine trees of  2-3 foot diameter, making sleigh runners from "a suitable crook in the woods"  and whipsawing timber to make chairs, tables and bedsteads.  The situation looked up for Graham and the other settlers when, in  1877, the Lambly brothers built a warehouse at Enderby to store grain prior  to sternwheeler shipment to Kamloops. But that was just a glimmer of hope  for demand for flour wasn't that high. Graham reminisced about eating flour  in dozens of variations — even making wheat coffee!  It was not until 1880 and construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway  that valley settlers found a market for their produce. A new grist mill was  built by James Mcintosh in Kamloops, paying $20-30 per ton. Furthermore  hogs were driven to the various sites of railway construction where the farmers  were paid 5<? live weight which was a very good price. Fortunes were turning  around.  Now that Graham and his neighbours had found a market, their consumption patterns changed markedly. About 1880, a new centre, Lansdowne  - just to the north of us, rose. Robert Wood opened a general store, George  Wallace began his blacksmith shop and the rudiments of law and order were  formed with the appointment of Wallace, Graham and Alexander Fortune as  Justices of the Peace. This appointment pointed to the high esteem in which  Graham was held.  To get more produce to market, the road to Enderby and its sternwheeler landing was improved. The route was re-directed across the land divide,  again just north of Armstrong, to avoid the boggy meadows. Seven area set- 20  tiers built this corduroy road which reduced the distance to Enderby by 6  miles.  Increasing sales meant that Graham and others by 1884 were modernizing their farming equipment. The home-made appliances like the afore-mentioned wagon wheels gave way to reapers, threshers, mowers and even a new  self-reaper and binder — mostly equipment made by Massey-Harris and sold  by E. G. Prior of Victoria and Kamloops.  Reflective of the growing importance of agriculture, the Postill Brothers,  situated at Deep Creek - again just to the north of us - added a grist mill to the  sawmill, partly because one of the partners, Patton, was a miller. But of even  more importance was the construction of a new roller flour mill in Enderby in  1887. This was a very new technology, just only introduced in the 1870's, so it  was expensive and sophisticated. It was too much for the owners, for one year  later, they were broke and sold out to R. P. Rithet who would pay creditors  50<? or less on the dollar and only pay $20.00 per ton for wheat. We need competition cried the farmers.  With Rithet's arrival, the happy future of grain farming was threatened.  Low prices offered meant farmers could barely cover the cost of production,  especially if they lived as far away as Graham. Thoughts began to be directed  towards a co-operative flour mill. Farmers complained that grain sellers elsewhere on the continent were getting $27 - $37 per ton so someone, either  Rithet or the railway, was making the profit.  It was in the late 1880's that Donald Graham began to take a leading role  in improving conditions for Valley farmers via the political and commercial  route. First I'll briefly discuss the political route; briefly because I believe the  other directions taken by Graham more accurately reflect the man.  We know Graham, or "Squire" as he became known as, was so respected  so as to be appointed J.P. for the district. So it was he who headed a group  who petitioned the government in 1886 for an improved road to the CPR at  Sicamous — most likely to find an alternate route to the grain market. And,  he helped form an agricultural society in 1888. It included members from as  far south as Mission who elected Graham Vice-President. Furthermore, to  help the farmers gain more control of their community, and their destiny, he  and others unsuccessfully petitioned the Government to incorporate the  Spallumcheen Valley into a municipality (1889). In 1890, he even considered  running for the Provincial Parliament but bowed out before the campaign  began.  Through the early nineties, Graham and others agitated for improvements. Their pressure resulted in municipal incorporation in 1892 and  Graham was elected Reeve. And, re-elected by acclamation in 1893 and for  the duration was involved in improving roads, building a town hall and hiring  a constable at $40 per year. The latter was necessitated by hell-raising drunken cowboys upsetting the townfolk.  The next year proved to be an exciting year for Graham. In January  1894, he was re-elected Reeve, beating out Josiah McDonald but this political  arena was too small for Graham. He began to campaign in May to become a  Member of the Provincial Parliament. One of his biggest complaints was the  expensive new legislative buildings when the country really needed roads.  And, he fought for the common settler against a government which he claimed was too closely aligned with monopoly and favouritism. 21  Late in the campaign, Graham had developed such a reputation for  honesty that one elector complained that "he was too d—d straight, [and] he  would not go around a corner to meet anyone"! That, and an apparent scandal concerning his opponent Forbes Vernon's supposed misdemeanours regarding the S & O R.R. helped Graham win the election.  I won't go too far with Graham's political role, but I should briefly mention that much of his activity in Victoria was mainly directed at helping his  fellow settlers. For example, he succeeded in having the Cattle Act amended  so the S & O R.R. was deemed liable for cattle killed by the train as a result of  poor railway fencing. He amended the Branding Act and the Drainage, Dyking and Irrigation Act. All legislation that is unspectacular but helped the settler.  Before ending this brief discussion of his political career, I'd like to recount an interesting development of Graham's second and last campaign in  1898. His opponent was the popular Price Ellison, a long time resident and  associate with Graham in agricultural societies. During the campaigning it  became very clear that the Vernon News was promoting Ellison and, just  prior to the election, published a facsimilie of a ballot, with the X opposite  Ellison's name. The newspaper claimed it was unbiased but its reporting suggests otherwise. And, if my memory serves me correctly, Ellison owned the  Vernon News!  Although Graham's political career was short, he certainly had a great  impact in his effort to promote co-operation. This creed, co-operation, was  gaining wide spread acceptance in many countries and in Canada, mainly in  Ontario. The message, "strength in union" or "fight the trusts by joining a  union of producers" was quickly adopted by a few leading farmers in B.C. Although co-operators like Graham would preach the benefits of co-operation,  there were enough individualists - or cynics - to make this success dependent  upon government action. The Dept. of Agriculture sponsored lectures by  dominion experts and professors from Ontario Agriculture College. They all  preached co-operation and Graham was a willing listener.  The first effort by Graham, and another very important motivator for  co-operation, Alfred Postill (originally from Deep Creek) fought to organize a  co-op effort to capture the Kootenay markets for their mixed vegetables.  Even grander was the scheme which Graham spearheaded — formation  of the Okanagan Flour Mills Co. Ltd. - the first co-operative flour mill in  B.C. in 1895. Although Graham spent much of 1894-95 in Victoria as an  M.P., his influence was felt. Over 90% of the settlers of the Okanagan Valley  bought shares in the co-op. And, the municipal council prepared a by-law  which would provide up to $20,000 for mill support. A lot of money in those  days. The voters passed the by-law overwhelmingly; 85-5! And, Graham  claimed that only two settlers in the valley refused to buy shares in the co-op.  By late 1895, the foundation was built and one warehouse completed.  And in May 1896, the first flour was processed. Of course, the locals pronounced it "first class"! So successful were they that the co-op mill had to increase its staff to ten and bad-guy Rithet in Enderby — by the way - he also  purchased another rival mill in Vernon - had to import wheat from Moose  Jaw! The co-op was paying the farmers more for their wheat than Rithet; paying a bonus of up to $3.50 per ton at year's end; paying 8% dividend on 22  shares and offering Bank of Montreal loans at lower rates to members. Clearly  a success.  The co-op mill's success continued into the 20th Century, always apparently successful. The flour won awards at fairs and was popular with the  customers. But the mill was doomed.  The increasing number of adverts in the Okanagan newspapers claiming  the superior qualities of prairie wheat reflected the impact the large roller  mills of the prairies had on the B.C. market.  Mid-way through 1906, signs were becoming ominous. A few key employees were reported by the newspaper as taking new jobs. Then, the large  co-op mill ads disappeared. It was reported that a special auditor from Vancouver had looked at the bookkeeping. And, finally, F. C. Wolfenden - the  Secretary and Manager resigned and went on holidays.  Just before Christmas 1906, the company's shareholders were told that  there were too many uncollectable debts for the co-op to remain solvent. The  five directors, one of whom was Graham, were held responsible for the debts.  And, the mill, so very modern - next time you go by Buckerfield's and see  the two black tanks, recognize them as examples of the incredible adventur-  ousness and progressiveness of these early co-operators. They were built in  1899, had pneumatic feed systems to get the grain from the tanks to the mill.  And, only two other flour mills in Canada were so advanced! One of the two  was the CPR grain elevator at Port Arthur. Clearly, Graham and the other  shareholders were "nothing but progressive" as the Vernon News put it.  Other activities of Donald Graham in a similar vein included assisting  formation of a co-op creamery at Davis Creek. Formed in a spirit of unselfish  feelings, the creamery began in 1902 but by 1905 was already suffering. What  happened was: the farmers tended to withhold cream in the cooler months of  the year when they could make their own butter and then dump all their supplies on the creamery in the warm summer months.  And when the Farmer's Institutes were given the go-ahead by provincial  legislation in 1897, Armstrong was quick to form a local. With Graham or his  friend Donald Mathieson representing the local, the Institute presented  recommendations to the government on ways to lower farming costs like  cheaper stump powder and transportation costs. They also pressed the government to pass legislation beneficial to the farmers such as one allowing the  formation of a Mutual Fire Insurance Company.  In closing, I would like to emphasize what I think to be Donald Graham's  commitment to the ideals of co-operation for he and his fellow settlers. His  Reminiscences reveal that the failure of the co-op mill cost him many thousands of dollars. Yet, he showed not a trace of bitterness. I think it fitting that  someone here in this group spend a lot more time that I have done in carrying  out extensive research into the activities of the pioneers like Donald Graham,  Donald Mathieson, Alfred Postill and others who built the foundation for this  successful agricultural area. 23  CHIEF TRADER PAUL FRASER  HIS PARENTAGE AND GRAVE  By H. R. Hatfield  Chief Trader Paul Fraser was killed and buried on the Hudson's Bay  Brigade Trail between Fort Hope and Campement des Femmes (Tulameen)  on the 28th and 29th of July, 1855, He was at that time the officer in charge of  Thompson's River (Fort Kamloops). When returning from Hope with his  brigade, in company with Chief Trader Donald Manson and his New Caledonia brigade, Paul was killed by a tree being felled at their campsite and  which by accident fell on his tent.  Year after year in this connection in various articles and stories appear  two inaccurate statements. One of them says he was the son of the famous  Simon Fraser who first explored the river of that name. This is simply untrue.  The other says he was buried on Manson Ridge. This also is untrue in regard  to the Manson Ridge so named on present day maps.  In the belief that we who dabble in history and occasionally even serious  historians can make enough new mistakes without perpetuating old ones, this  attempt is made to set these two matters right.  Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, who finished his public career as Dominion Archivist and Librarian of the National Library of Canada and who has written and  edited a number of outstanding historical works before and since then, edited  the book, "The Letters and Journals of Simon Fraser, 1806 - 1808." In his Introduction there is a great deal of detail about Simon and about his family.  Simon's children are listed by name, five sons and three daughters. The tragic  story of John who did come to B.C. and died in Barkerville is told. There is no  mention of any Paul.  From the Hudson's Bay Record Society, Volume Ten, we learn that Paul  Fraser was born about 1797 and was the brother of Colonel the Hon. Alexander Fraser of Fraserfield, Glengarry, Upper Canada, and from the same  source that he entered the service of the North West Company in 1819 and  carried on with the Hudson's Bay Company on the amalgamation of 1821.  From Dr. Lamb's "Simon Fraser," we learn that Simon was appointed to the  North West Company in 1792 at the age of sixteen and spent the next quarter  century in the northwest as a clerk and wintering partner, and that he retired  in, or about, 1817 to Cornwall, Ontario, the family home, and was married in  1820 to Catherine Macdonell.  By 1820, the date of Simon's marriage, Paul was in the service of the  North West Company. According to the Macmillan Dictionary of Canadian  Biography, his brother, Alexander, was born in Scotland about 1785 and  came to Canada early in the 19th century. It is possible that Paul came with  him. His father may have been one of the many Simon Frasers, but certainly  not the Simon of Fraser River.  Having established this, let us turn to the location of his grave. On his  death, word would immediately be dispatched to James Douglas in Victoria.  Manson did this in a letter dated 29th July, 1855 from Campement du Chevreuil. The letter stated that Paul died about 6 P.M. on the 28th. This letter is  in the H.B. Archives and is partially quoted in Appendix B in "Simpson's  1828 Journey to the Columbia," E. E. Rich Ed.. At this time of year, the brigades would be inward bound from Hope. Paul's body would certainly not be 24  packed on a horse from one place to another, but simply buried where he was  killed at Campement du Chevreuil. There was and is no place between Man-  son Camp on Peers Creek, west of Manson Ridge and Campement du Chevreuil, where a brigade could camp.  Lieut. H. Spencer Palmer, R.E. travelling with a Hudson's Bay party  under Chief Trader Angus McDonald saw the grave at Campement du Chevreuil four years later. He describes it thusly, "It is here that Mr. Fraser met his  death by a tree falling on him when asleep, and within a few yards of the spot  where we had pitched our tent, a neat pile of rough hewn logs mark his lonely  grave." Campement du Chevreuil is not on the ridge marked on present official maps as the Manson Ridge. It is across the Sowaqua valley some six hundred feet below the Cascade divide, at the foot of Mt. Davis. Appendix B  noted above, on whose authority we do not know, states, "A grave was made  on Manson Mtn. (south of Pierre River and east of Hope, B.C.)." This was  not a quote from Manson's letter.  All this leads to an interesting example of how history can become confused. There never really was a stream called Pierre River. At one stage a map  maker became confused and put down one stream in place of two, Peers  Creek and the Sowaqua, and for some unknown reason called it Pierre River.  James Douglas in a letter to John Tod, 30 October, 1848 describes the new  route as laid out by Peers as following the Coquihalla, Peers and Sowaqua  Rivers and, "from thence the crossing of the dividing ridge into the Similkameen . . .", all as on our modern maps. Palmer in 1859 mentions crossing  the Manson Range in the early morning and later climbing toward the  Cascade summit to Campement du Chevreuil where they camped for the  night.  In 1978 a small party of us, while resting on the side of Mt. Outram at  the southern end of Manson Ridge, were looking across the Sowaqua valley to  the site of Campement du Chevreuil. Mr. Dan Rice, born in Tulameen and  whose father had a mineral claim and cabin on Mt. Outram, said, "We used  to call that Manson Ridge." So the grave is on what old timers circa 1900  knew as Manson Ridge. In brigade days, 1849-61, men of the fur trade would  refer to the trip to Fort Hope as, "crossing Manson Ridge." Doubtless this was  because Manson Ridge was the dangerous one which gave them all the trouble. The higher ridge of the Cascades was comparatively easy travelling and  taken in their stride. The almost mythical name "Pierre River," never the official name for anything, did some queer things in the period 1890's to early  1900's. Often used for the Sowaqua, for Peers Creek sometimes; at times for  one stream which on some maps replaced them both.  The U.S. Boundary Commission around 1860 produced some good maps  of the country on both sides of the Boundary, but one may have further confounded the confusion. It showed the ridge of the Cascade divide as Manson  Ridge and omitted the actual Manson Ridge. The name given to the dividing  ridge, by Lieut. Palmer, on Angus McDonald's suggestion, probably did not  help either. "Stuchd-a-choire," being unpronounceable by anyone but a  Gael, never stuck so the dividing ridge remained nameless. Where the Brigade Trail crosses is now Mt. Davis. Angus, of course, felt that any educated  person should speak the Gaelic.  If all this is not now clear to the reader, I would suggest he follow the  Hudson's Bay Brigade Trail from Tulameen, over Lodestone, up the Podunk, 25  over the Cascades by Palmer Pond, down past Campement du Chevreuil,  across the Sowaqua, along the Sowaqua valley, over Manson Ridge, down  Peers Creek to the Coquihalla and so to Hope. It only takes a week, an unforgettable trip through unforgettable country, perhaps soon to be sheared to  desolation.  Note: For maps see O.H.S. 40th Report pp. 128-129.  Mailbox  Today,  Waiting to see  in the near distance  the familiar uniform  blue canvas bag  draped over slumped shoulders  advancing steadily  zigzagging across the road  until finally  the sound of footsteps  outside my door  the banging of the metal lid  after the mailbox is closed  the sound of footsteps  fading away  trying not to seem too eager  lifting the metal lid  peeking inside  reaching in  fingers wrapped round  a sleek white envelope  hopefully . . .  reading the words  wanting to see my name  but then  seeing someone else's  just another letterless day.  Tomorrow,  waiting to see  in the near distance  the familiar uniform . . .  KIM LeCLAIR 26  KELOWNA MEDICAL HISTORY  By Donald M. Black, M.D.  Kelowna has always enjoyed excellent medical service, thanks to the distinguished doctors, pharmacists, nurses, dentists and other medical workers  who have provided them. I thought it might be worthwhile to prepare brief  accounts of their lives and contributions. Fortunately, more complete biographical details on many of them have been published in the Okanagan  Historical Reports. These reports have been my chief source of information  and I have listed them in a bibliography at the close of my paper. I have  limited my accounts to medical workers who had begun their careers in  Kelowna before 1945. My list of workers is incomplete. There were many,  especially physicians who served as assistants to the established doctors, who  made very real contributions to the life of Kelowna and I regret that it has not  been possible to at least mention them all.  Dr. Benjamin deFurlong Boyce  Dr. B. F. Boyce was Kelowna's first doctor. Born in Ontario in 1866, he  graduated from McGill University in 1892. He came west in 1893 to serve in  the mining camps of Fairview, west of Osoyoos, and in 1894 moved to  Kelowna when it had a population of about 200. Dr. Boyce was a very friendly  man and a competent physician who served the people of Kelowna well and  also rendered medical services to the Indians of the district. He built a large  bungalow, with beautiful interior oak panelling, on the south side of Bernard  Avenue, about halfway between Ellis and Richter Streets, and he also had a  farm just south of the KLO Road. He had extensive business interests in  Kelowna and district. In 1915, he joined the Canadian Army and served as  medical officer to the training camp at Vernon and to the large number of  enemy aliens who were interned there. He was the only physician in Vernon  during the influenza epidemic of 1918 when he was on the go day and night.  He semi-retired in 1939 and died in 1945. He donated 196 acres on Knox  Mountain to the city of Kelowna for park purposes and donated half the land  for the Boyce-Gyro Park to the Gyro Club. Mrs. Boyce was a gentle, friendly  woman who often took patients into her home before Kelowna had a hospital.  Dr. William John Knox  Dr. "Billy" Knox was a very exceptional man who would have been outstanding in any community and any occupation. Kelowna was very fortunate  to have him as one of her early doctors and throughout his long life. He put  himself through Queen's University by teaching school and selling books. He  graduated in Medicine in 1903 and came to British Columbia that fall. He  did a six month locum tenens for Dr. Boyce and then joined him as a partner.  He left the partnership in 1908 to establish his own practice, but the two men  remained the best of friends. He made every effort to keep abreast of advances in medicine and is reported to have made at least fourteen trips away  for study. He had one of the first X-Ray machines in the interior of British  Columbia. Unfortunately the risks to the operator were not fully recognized  and he suffered severe X-Ray burns to his hands which caused him a great  deal of trouble in subsequent years with intractable dermatitis and recurrent  malignancies. Dr. Knox had a wonderful memory for his patients and their 27  relatives. His patients and the practice of medicine were always first with him,  but he had many other interests. He was President of the British Columbia  Medical Association in 1932 when it held its annual meeting in Kelowna. He  was a very strong Liberal and was President of the British Columbia Liberal  Association from 1941 to 1947. He continued in practice until he was in his  eighties. His service and many accomplishments did not go without recognition. He gained his Fellowship in the American College of Surgeons (FACS) in  1915. In 1948, he was granted the Order of the British Empire (O.B.E.) and,  in 1951, Queen's University conferred an Honorary LL.D. on him. He was  made a Freeman of the City of Kelowna in 1961, and in 1963 the City of  Kelowna and a large group of friends tendered him a testimonial dinner to  mark the completion of sixty years of practice in the city. He died in Kelowna  on December 28th, 1967, less than six months short of his ninetieth birthday.  Dr. Keller  Dr. Keller started a practice in Kelowna in 1900 and carried on for a  number of years but his practice seems to have been of limited scope. He died  in 1917. His son, Major-General Rodney Keller, settled in Kelowna after the  Second World War and served as an alderman.  Dr. A. J. Huycke  Dr. Huycke joined Dr. Boyce as a partner in 1908, when Dr. Knox left to  set up his own practice, and continued with him until 1912. He was a highly  respected practitioner.  Dr. Gordon Campbell  Dr. "Curley" Campbell was an outstanding athlete who captained the  Queen's University hockey team to the Allen Cup in 1910. He graduated from  Queen's that year and joined Dr. Knox in Kelowna in 1913. He served in the  Canadian Army from 1916 to 1919 thus leaving Dr. Knox to cope with the influenza epidemic of 1918 single-handed. He, like Dr. Knox, was a very outgoing personality and it is said that some of their discussions, often conducted at  full volume in the hospital corridor, were full of wit and interest. Dr. Campbell was a very popular physician. He never owned a car but made his rounds  by bicycle. His career came to a sudden end in 1931, when he suffered a fatal  heart attack at the early age of 44.  Dr. A. G. Ootmar  Dr. Ootmar was a native of Holland who originally came to Kelowna to  care for his brother, who had suffered a broken femur. In 1926 he was asked  to set up a laboratory in the Kelowna Hospital and in 1928 he was appointed  Director of the Central Okanagan Health Unit, which was the first health unit  to be set up in British Columbia, outside the centres of Vancouver and Victoria. In this capacity he became Medical Health Officer for the City of  Kelowna and Health Officer for the schools of the Central Okanagan. However, Dr. Knox had been appointed School Medical Officer for the schools of  Kelowna in 1909 and he continued to supervise the health of the Kelowna  children for many years, while Dr. Ootmar and the subsequent Health Unit  Directors took responsibility for the rural schools. Dr. Ootmar was given  credit for clearing up the high incidence of typhoid fever in Kelowna. He also  took a keen interest in the fruit farm in Okanagan Mission which his brother  had started and which is still carried on by the family of Dr. Ootmar's son-in-  law. Mr. Kuipers. 28  Dr. Ambrose Stanley Under hill  Dr. Stan Underhill went overseas in the First War with the Canadian  forces but transferred to the Royal Flying Corps. He graduated in medicine  from the University of Manitoba in 1926 and joined Dr. B. F. Boyce in  Kelowna in 1927. He opened his own practice in 1934 and was joined by Dr.  W. F. Anderson in 1938. He served as a medical officer in the R.C.A.F. from  1941 to 1944 when he returned to his practice in Kelowna. Dr. Underhill had  a rather gruff manner and frequently made his ward rounds with a cigar in  his mouth but his gruff manner covered up a very kind and sympathetic  heart. He gave his patients the very best of care. He was active in the community, especially in the Gyro Club, the Golf and Country Club and St.  George's Lodge, A.F. & A.M. He, with Dr. Anderson, started the Underhill  Clinic. He suffered poor health in his final years and died in Kelowna in  December, 1976.  Dr. John Stanley Henderson  Dr. Stan Henderson graduated from McGill University in 1926 and spent  several years in residences in hospitals in Montreal, Baltimore and New York.  He joined Dr. Knox as a partner in 1933. He was a very conscientious practitioner and a skilled surgeon. He continued in the partnership until he suffered a severe stroke in 1961. Confined to a wheel chair and able to speak only  a few words he was cared for in a private hospital for many years. During this  time he derived much pleasure from his Hi-Fi and from visits from friends  even if he could not converse freely with them. He died in 1972.  Dr. Reba E. Willits (Schoenfeld)  Dr. Willits was born in Kelowna. Her father was P. B. Willits, the first  druggist, and her mother was Ellen Bailey, a daughter of E. R. Bailey,  Kelowna's first postmaster. Her contacts with Dr. and Mrs. Boyce were very  close and Dr. Boyce was always Uncle Ben to her. After graduating in medicine from the University of Toronto she joined Dr. Boyce in practice in  Kelowna in 1934 and continued with him until 1938 when she took postgraduate study in Public Health and was appointed School Medical Officer  by the Vancouver School Board. She had an outstanding career in this post  and retired in 1965 to return to Kelowna where she built a house in Poplar  Point. She continued to be very active in community affairs in Kelowna, being a Director of the United Way and setting up a Visiting Society, whose  members undertook to establish close relationships on a one-to-one basis with  shut-in invalids. She married Henry Schoenfeld, a chemist, but he unfortunately developed a brain tumor and they did not have long together. She  died suddenly in 1978.  Dr. Leonard A. C. Panton  Dr. Len Panton was an ear, nose and throat specialist who moved from  Prince Albert to Kelowna in 1936. He had seen strenuous medical service in  No. 5 Canadian Hospital in Salonika in the Dardanelles Campaign. Failing  health caused him to retire from practice in 1950 and a recrudescence of an  early tuberculous infection confined him to a sanatorium in Vancouver for his  final years. He died in 1966. 29  Dr. Walter Frederick Anderson  Dr. Walter Anderson was born in Pictou, N.S. where both his father and  grandfather were doctors. He graduated from McGill University in 1935 and  interned in the Montreal General and Vancouver General Hospitals. After a  year in Cranbrook, in association with the pioneer doctor, F. W. Green, he  joined Dr. Underhill in Kelowna in 1938. He specialized in women's diseases  and earned a Fellowship in the American College of Obstetricians and  Gynecologists. He is noted for the sympathetic, careful attention he gives to  all his patients. He has been active in many community organizations, including the Gyro Club, the Kelowna Aquatic Club and the Okanagan Historical Society. He was Honorary Commodore of the Kelowna Regatta in  1976 and is currently serving as President of the Kelowna Branch of the Historical Society. He has always been a leader in local medical affairs and represented the district on the Executive of the British Columbia Medical Association for seven years and was elected President of the BCMA in 1970.  With Dr. Underhill, he organized the Underhill Clinic and built the Park  Medical Building. Dr. Anderson is the senior medical practitioner in  Kelowna, but says he plans to retire this year (1980) after forty-two years of  faithful service to the community.  Dr. Donald Mcintosh Black  I was born in Vancouver in 1896, saw service in France with the Canadian Field Artillery in the First War and graduated from the University of  Manitoba in 1924. I spent fifteen years in medical missionary service in  Taiwan and Korea. During an extended furlough and sick leave, in 1931-32,  I spent nine months in Kelowna and got to know Dr. Boyce, Dr. Knox, Dr.  Campbell and Dr. Ootmar. When I returned to Canada, in 1940, I came to  Kelowna and established a practice. The other practitioners were very receptive and helpful to me. In 1943, I suffered recrudesence of a tuberculous infection in which I had picked up in Korea and spent fifteen months in Tran-  quille Sanatorium. Dr. Urquhart bought my practice and then joined in a  partnership with Dr. Wilson. When I was released from the sanatorium, they  invited me to join them and I continued in the partnership until 1952. I then  accepted an appointment as Acting Director of the South Okanagan Health  Unit while Dr. Clarke went for post-graduate training. I found Public Health  to be interesting work and went to Toronto to study during 1953-54 gaining  my D.P.H. exactly thirty years after my M.D. I served in Public Health in  Kamloops for seven years and for three years in North and West Vancouver. I  retired in 1964 and returned to Kelowna to live. I was quite active in church  and community affairs during the first years of my retirement, until slowed  up by increasing deafness and lameness. While in practice in Kelowna, I  served on the Executive of the British Columbia Medical Association in  1949-50.  Dr. James Alfred Urquhart  Dr. Fred Urquhart grew up in Revelstoke, where he taught himself telegraphy. Earnings as a substitute telegrapher enabled him to study medicine at  McGill. He spent some years working in a hospital in Hong Kong and then  went to the Arctic as a medical officer under the Federal government. He 30  served in several centres, but chiefly in Fort Smith where he also acted as  district magistrate. He bought the practice of Dr. Black in Kelowna in 1943  and in 1944 joined Dr. Wilson in a partnership. He left the partnership in  1949 and subsequently engaged in a little solo practice. He died in 1958.  Dr. Gordon McLaren Wilson  Dr. Wilson graduated from the University of Toronto in 1940. He served  in the Army for a couple of years and, after his discharge on medical grounds,  came to Kelowna in 1944 and joined Dr. Urquhart in a partnership. He  bought a building and remodelled it into medical offices. He was active in the  Kinsmen Club and was one of the founders of the Kelowna Yacht Club, where  he served as Commodore for at least one year. He retired from practice in  1975 and died suddenly while on a trip to California in 1978.  Health Unit Directors  The Health Unit as set up under Dr. Ootmar in 1928 included only the  territory from Oyama to Peachland, but was progressively enlarge to include  Summerland and Penticton, then Oliver and Osoyoos and finally Keremeos  and Princeton. The Health Unit Directors were always regarded as full members of the Kelowna Hospital, as they were in the other hospitals in their territory and they made considerable contributions to medical policies. The  Health Unit Directors, with their approximate dates, have been:  Dr.  G. A. Ootmar  1926  1939  Dr.  J. M. Hershey  1939  1943  Dr.  D. B. Avison  1943  1947  Dr.  Adam Beattie  1947  1949  Dr.  Helen Zeman  1949  1951  Mr  David A. Clarke  1951  present  Dr.  D. M. Black  1952  1953 (Acting)  Early Pharmacists of Kelowna  Mr. P. B. Willits was Kelowna's first pharmacist. He had qualified  through apprenticeship in Ontario, but his first job in Kelowna was as a clerk  in LeQuime's General Store. When Dr. Boyce found that he was a pharmacist, he arranged for him to open i drug store in partnership with Mrs. Boyce  under the name of Boyce & Willits in 1904. The name was soon changed to P.  B. Willits & Co. and in 1907 Mr. G. A. McKay bought out Mrs. Boyce's  share. Mr. Willits was a very community-minded man and served on both the  School Board and the City Council as well as on many voluntary organizations. He taught Materia Medica to the nurses in the Training School. Because of failing health, he sold his share in the business to Mr. Edward A.  Abbott in 1935 and died in 1938.  Mr. G. A. ("Alec") McKay came to Kelowna in 1904 and joined Mr.  Willits in 1907. He continued in partnership with Mr. Abbott when he  bought into the business. Though Mr. McKay was a trained pharmacist, he  never registered in British Columbia. He took care of the books, while his  partners did the dispensing. He took a large part in the early development of  Kelowna, serving on the City Council for fifteen years, including being mayor  from 1940 to 1944. He died in 1964. 31  The other early drug store was operated by Mr. W. R. Trench. I do not  have exact dates, but he served Kelowna for many years before selling his  business in 1935. Like the other two pharmacists mentioned above, he served  on the City Council and was mayor in 1934-35.  Kelowna's first lady pharmacist was Miss Lilly Patterson, who took a  position in Trench's Drug Store in the 1920's and continued until her retirement in the 1960's.  James Donald Whitham came to Kelowna as a boy with his parents. He  graduated in pharmacy in 1912, and, after some years in Vancouver, served  as a dispenser in Willit's Drug Store from 1927 to 1935. He then, with Mr. G.  A. Elliott as a partner, bought out the Trench store. He sold out in 1964, but  continued to do dispensing in various stores in Kelowna and other towns in  the interior of British Columbia, until shortly before his death in 1972. Don  Whitham was an expert photographer, but his greatest interest was in historical affairs and he served as President of the Okanagan Historical Society from  1935 to 1938.  Mr. Reginald H. Brown graduated as a pharmacist in 1910 and came to  Kelowna in 1917 to serve as a dispenser in P. B. Willits & Co. He left the profession of pharmacy for some years to engage in poultry farming but in 1937  he opened his own drug store in Kelowna. From that time on, he continued as  an active pharmacist, either in his own store, or in one of the others in  Kelowna until he was 89 years old — almost to the day of his death in 1966.  Early Kelowna Nurses  Nurse Lou Edgell was a British trained nurse, who gave a great deal of  assistance to Drs. Boyce and Knox in the early years. She operated a cottage  hospital for a short time, before the Kelowna General was first opened.  Mrs. M. E. Wilmot was not the first head nurse at the Kelowna General  but she came to Kelowna in 1920 and was appointed Matron. She had served  overseas in the First War. In 1921, she started the Nurses' Training School  which she carried on until 1936 and which graduated 49 registered nurses.  After taking the first two years of the course in Kelowna, most of them went to  one of the larger hospitals in Vancouver for their final year. After the closing  of the Training School, Mrs. Wilmot continued in her post as Matron until  1944, a period of 24V£ years. She died in Kelowna at the age of 91 years in  1966.  Miss Wealthy Grigg came to the hospital in 1924, and served in many  capacities, among which might be noted Instructor in the Training School,  Obstetrical Supervisor, X-Ray Technician and Operating Room Supervisor.  When Mrs. Wilmot resigned in 1944 the Hospital Board invited Miss Grigg to  become Superintendent of Nurses, but she declined the honour and continued as Operating Room Supervisor until her retirement in 1964. She gave  forty years of service to the Hospital and was always most efficient and obliging.  Miss Edith Stocker was appointed Hospital Superintendent in 1945 and  her title was changed to Director of Nursing in 1949. She retired in 1957.  Early Dentists of Kelowna  Dr. J. W. N. Shepherd arrived in Kelowna in 1905, but not finding his  time fully occupied, made trips through the valley from Enderby to Oliver to 32  offer dental services in various communities, before concentrating his work in  his Kelowna office about 1908. He continued in practice until 1950. His hobby was wood carving and his home was furnished with beautiful carved furniture which he had done himself.  Dr. Matheson opened his practice about 1908. It is my impression that  he was considerably older than Dr. Shepherd and he continued his practice  until he was quite elderly and retired in 1951.  Dr. Cecil Newby came to Kelowna in 1933 and retired in 1961. He took  great pride in his hobby farm and in his riding horses.  The Hospital Board  Any summary of health services in Kelowna would be incomplete without  mention of the men and women who have given such faithful, and unpaid,  service on the Hospital Board and those who served in the capacity of Secretary-Treasurer in the early days and as Executive Director in more recent  years. The Hospital Society was organized in 1905 and the first unit of the  hospital, with a capacity of nineteen beds was opened in 1908.  Patterns of Practice in Kelowna in 1940  When I opened my practice in Kelowna in August, 1940, conditions were  very different from what they are today. Dr. Boyce, at the age of 76, had just  retired but he continued to see a few patients. Drs. Knox and Henderson and  Drs. Underhill and Anderson were working in their partnerships. Dr. Panton  had his E.N.T. practice and Dr. J. M. Hershey was Director of the Health  Unit. So I was the eighth doctor in Kelowna. Except for Dr. Panton, there  were no specialists. We all looked after our own surgical and obstetrical patients, calling on one of the other doctors to assist or give the anaesthetic. Occasionally an outside surgeon might be brought in to do a special operation,  such as a thyroidectomy or a prostatectomy. All anaesthetics were started with  a mixture of chloroform and ether and carried on with ether. There was no  gas machine until after 1945, though spinal anaesthesia was used in suitable  cases.  The first reinforced concrete building facing Pandosy Street (then called  Pendozi Street), had just been opened and some of the wards in the old building, henceforth called the Annex, had been retained so we had no shortage of  beds and we had up-to-date operating rooms and obstetrical case rooms.  There was an X-Ray machine which was quite adequate for the work it was  called upon to do but we had no radiologist and no pathologist. The laboratory service was largely confined to urinalyses, blood counts and simple cultures. We had a variety of sulpha drugs but penicillin did not become available for civilian use until after the end of the war. The Red Cross blood bank  did not become available until 1947.  The medical staff of eight worked very harmoniously and all were ready  to help out any one who needed assistance. The medical staff held its monthly  meetings in the board room, when the dietitian put on quite a fancy spread  for us. We all enjoyed those dinners with their good fellowship.  Doctors in those days got practically all their income through direct billing of patients. The MSA plan was just getting started and Workmen's Compensation was in force but comparatively few of our patients had prepaid  coverage. Of course, there were many patients to whom it was not worth while 33  sending a bill, but no one was ever denied medical service because they were  unable to pay. There was a local hospital insurance scheme, in which the  great majority of the population participated, and which was continued in  force until the provincial scheme came into action in 1949. The fact that most  of our patients did not have to pay ward fees made it easier for the doctors to  collect.  After the end of the war, in 1945, there was a rapid influx of additional  doctors, conditions changed and Kelowna began to build up as a medical centre; the hospital facilities were expanded to include many additional services.  Acknowledgements  Most of the information in this paper has been gleaned from articles  which have appeared in the Okanagan Historical Reports, bolstered by personal knowledge. It is largely a summation of information which has already  appeared. I would like to thank Dr. W. F. Anderson and Dr. M. J. R. Leitch  for very considerable assistance and also a large number of others who have  helped by supplying dates and other information.  REFERENCES  All my references are to past issues of the Okanagan Historical Reports:  Report No. 28 (1964) Upton: "A Testimonial." (to Dr. W. J. Knox)  Fleming: "Dr. W. J. Knox - A Toast."  McLean: "Alec McKay."  Report No. 30 (1966) Grigg: "Pioneer Canadian Nurse." (Mrs. M. E. Wilmot)  Report No. 31 (1967) Willits: "P. B. Willits, 1874 - 1938."  Report No. 33 (1969) Geen: "Dr. William John Knox, 1878 - 1967.  Beloved Doctor of the Okanagan."  Report No. 34 (1970) Gale: "The Story of the WMS Auxiliary to the Kelowna Hospital."  Report No. 36 (1972) Zoellner: "James Donald Whitham - 1899 - 1972."  Report No. 37 (1973) Schoenfeld: "Dr. B. F. Boyce."  Report No. 39 (1975) Reid: "Dr. & Mrs. Donald M. Black."  Report No. 40 (1976) Black: "Kelowna General Hospital - 1905 - 1975." 34  LETTER FROM CULLEN BASH (1933)  Ex-Deputy Customs Collector  Mr. C. L. Thompson  Deputy Collector of Customs  Oroville, Wash.  My dear Mr. Thompson:  My brother, A. W. Bash, was appointed collector of Customs of Puget  Sound District by President Garfield, and he took over his office about July  10, 1881. The District at that time extended from the Pacific Ocean to Idaho,.  including Fort Colville and also Bonners Ferry, Idaho, I think. I was appointed Deputy Collector at Osoyoos Lake, by my brother, which office at  that time carried a salary of $2500.00 per year, reduced to $1800.00 after my  first year.  I arrived at Osoyoos Lake August 7, 1881, and found Jacob Stitzel in  charge. Stitzel had then been in office seven or eight years, with headquarters  at Fort Colville, (then a military post) until about two years previous to my arrival when he was ordered to move his headquarters to Osoyoos Lake, but his  jurisdiction extended from the Cascade Mountains through Spokane Falls to  Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The cabin occupied by Stitzel was built by John Lutz  (possibly Utz) who married a squaw by the name of Tenas Catherine (that is,  little Catherine). After Lutz' death Catherine moved to Kettle River about fifteen miles from the boundary line, where she took up a ranch and raised hay  for the cattle which her husband left her. Although she abandoned the  Osoyoos ranch for the one on Kettle River she claimed the cabin and Stitzel  paid her a small sum for rent. On the arrival of a Special Agent for the  Treasury, and my brother, the Collector, I was ordered to take over the abandoned building and expend $500.00 in repairs and furnishing it with a  good cook stove to replace a dilapidated one that Stitzel had packed in and  put up with.  This building was located on a bench just above a beautiful spring of  cold water that bubbled out of the hill-side of the canyon of Nine Mile Creek  which flowed within thirty yards of the cabin. According to old timers resident on the American side, and Judge J. C. Haynes the Canadian Collector,  Lutz had fenced about twelve or fifteen acres of land between the mouth of  the canyon of Nine Mile Creek and the trail going north but he claimed the  land down to the Lake, when Hiram F. Smith came over from Rock Creek  where he had been placer mining and had kept a little store. He built a house  on the opposite side of the trail running north into British Columbia but between Lutz and the Lake, on the land claimed by Lutz. Smith also was married to a squaw and as both of these men were on the Colville Indian Reservation he claimed he had as good a right to the land as Lutz. Consequently  this caused a feud between them that led to quarrels which lasted up until  Lutz' death. After Lutz' death Smith bought from Catherine, or appropriated, the rails around Lutz' field and fenced in the part between the trail  running north and the Lake. Smith planted a few apple trees and many peach  trees which he grew from seed and that with a patch of irrigated land constituted what was called Okanogan Smith's ranch.  As part of my commission I was obliged to have a horse to ride and al- 35  though Osoyoos Lake was headquarters any place along the trail from the  Cascade Mountains through Spokane Falls to Bonners Ferry, Idaho, was my  official station, so far as the Customs were concerned. While collections were  generally small, one year I collected over $5000.00 on Judge Haynes beef cattle which were sold to Willis Clark of Yakima Valley. In the year I was in office great herds of range horses were brought down from British Columbia to  be driven over the then Colville Reservation through or near Spokane Falls to  Alberta, passing out of the United States at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. They were  driven down Okanogan River to near Omak Lake thence to the Columbia  River. I would send a convoy with each herd who was to receive $4.00 per day  and his living expenses going and returning from Bonners Ferry. There were  some breeding cattle also entered during my term which were on the Free  List.  I bought my supplies at Spokane Falls and had them hauled to Kettle  Falls on the Columbia River (later Marcus) by an Indian, Joseph Semo by  name, hauling Spokane Falls to Kettle Falls and packing to Osoyoos Lake for  three cents per pound, divided as one cent from Spokane Falls to Kettle Falls  and two cents thence to Osoyoos Lake. The last two years in office my supplies  were hauled by white men in wagons across the Big Bend of the Columbia and  up the Okanogan River. One of those freighters charged four cents per pound  for bringing goods. His name was Ward and he took up a ranch at the mouth  of Johnson Creek. One of the privileges granted me by the Government, the  station being on the Colville Indian Reservation, was to fence five acres for a  horse pasture which privilege I never exercised. There were about four wild  plum trees growing across a small garden in the gulch above the Custom  House, that although the fence was broken down I paid Tenas Catherine for  as she came over from her home forty miles away to gather the fruit. I repaired the fence and grew my potatoes in this garden and my cabbages in a  small lot below the mouth of the canyon through which the creek ran.  One of the notable incidents during my term was the passing along the  boundary trail of General Tecumseh Sherman on his way to the coast. He  camped near the Custom House one night so as to get the water from my  spring and and the next day, as he had permission from the Canadian Government to travel with his escort, a troop of calvary, through British Columbia, where he took a boat to Vancouver, I piloted him across the line to the  Canadian Custom House which was occupied by Judge J. C. Haynes to whom  I introduced the General and his chief companions, and thence over the  bridge across the narrows between the twin Lakes to Theodore Kruger's store  and his residence. In Sherman's party were General Miles and Judge White of  the Supreme Court of the United States. The commander of the troop of  calvary, as escort, was Major Jackson. Lieut. Mallory, afterwards General  Mallory, was the executive officer of the party and paid the bills when it was  necessary to pay out money. At Kruger's store I introduced the officers, and  General Sherman was invited in to Kruger's residence where I remember he  took one of Kruger's children on his lap, August, I think. The bridge over  which I crossed was a privately owned toll bridge built by Kruger and his  prices for crossing were $1.25 per man with a saddle horse and seventy-five  cents each for pack animals or loose animals. Just below the bridge there was  a ford which I knew and I offered to guide the party over it but although  Kruger had notices up that he would not be responsible for accidents, on my 36  assurance that the narrow bridge without railings was strong and if troopers  would dismount and lead their mounts there was little danger, Sherman said,  we must not try to save money by dodging the first thing we encounter in the  foreign land, so he gave orders to take the bridge.  As there were nearly 100 horsemen and I think as many or more pack  animals Kruger received a large sum for the privilege of crossing the bridge  besides a lot of supplies which he sold them. On leaving the American Customs house horses were not mounted until after being led down the hill on  which the Customs House stood. At the foot of the hill as General Sherman's  horse was somewhat restive he was having a little difficulty in mounting so an  orderly came forward to help him up but he refused his services, and at the  same time said, "I realize, however, that there is no such fool as an old fool."  Previous to Sherman's starting on his trip Lieutenant Goethals, after  ward General Goethals of Panama Canal fame, travelled along the trail over  which the General was to take, locating camp sites and mapping the country.  It happened to be my fortune to be at Kettle Falls when Goethals was on his  first trip in, so he was glad to have me travel with him as I was familiar with  the camp sites between Kettle Falls and my post. He located camp sites as  nearly as it was convenient, twenty miles apart, that is, if good water and  grass could be had for horses. On coming down the mountain along a creek  which flowed into Curlew Creek near its mouth and which was not named on  the Government Map which Goethals carried, I told Goethals I would go out  and get a deer for fresh meat for him and his escort if he would let me have his  Indian packer to help me pull it down the mountain. We got a beautiful barren doe, and, as the creek was not named on his map, and as he was remapping the trail, he called the Creek Mowitch Creek, which is the Chinook  word for deer, after the incident. It is still so designated on government maps  and it became known afterwards by the settlers in Curlew Valley as "Deer  Creek."  One of my experiences while I was in the service was this: I was allowed to  go to the coast for the winter at one time, so, about Christmas time, I rode  over to Colville to get the stage for Spokane. On going down Kettle River below what became afterwards Grand Forks and just above Kettle River falls,  which later was developed for power, I came to a ford that was choked with  anchor ice which backed the water up so that it appeared to me to be in a  swimming condition and altogether too dangerous to attempt crossing. So I  examined a wide pool in the river just above the ford to see if I could cross on  the ice. There was snow on the ice and it appeared to be sufficiently solid to  bear my horse which was a large gray, weighing about 1000 pounds. I first  took the saddle off him and carried it across the river then tying my picket  rope around his neck and holding that with the bridle reins in my hand  started to lead him over the ice. In the middle of the river the ice gave way  under him but left a margin of about one foot above the break on which for  me to stand. The ice gave way for perhaps 20 feet towards the ford. As the  water was swimming I had no other alternative except to try to pull the horse  out. I would let him float to the lower end of the open water and then bring  him up as fast as I could make headway with him. I could always get his body  upon the ice but each time he would have one leg down under it would catch  and allow him to slip back into the water. After about twenty minutes of pulling out and sliding back, I drew the horse to one side of the pool and after 37  stroking him about the head gradually turned him over on his back and then,  with as swift motion as my strength would permit I dragged him up on the ice  with his feet out of the water. The horse being a gentle one seemed to understand that I was trying to help him so did not struggle or I should have been  obliged to leave him to eventually drown. This occurred about fifteen miles  below O'Connell's ranch where I spent the previous night and there was no  house in the other direction for about 25 miles. The degree of cold must have  been at least 20 degrees, or more, below zero.  Judge Haynes named his next baby, Sherman, after the General. The  last I knew of Sherman, nicknamed Sherry, he was working at the Mother  Lode Smelter at Greenwood. Valentine Haynes, one of the Judge's sons, I  heard took up a ranch or occupied some of his father's land between Osoyoos  Lake and Penticton, and another one of his sons which in youth we called  Manny was located in Hedley mining camp the last time I heard of him. The  Judge had two daughers, one Esther, married — (I can't recall the name just  now) who became the Collector of Customs and a Magistrate at the Government Buildings just back of the Kruger holdings on the west side of the Lake  near the Narrows. There was a younger daughter, Irene by name, who married a man from somewhere along the boundary, I have forgotten his name  also. If you meet any of the Haynes family you will do me a favor by telling  them that their old friend Bash remembers them with the greatest pleasure.  Now, I have written a lot of stuff that may be irrelevant for the purpose  for which you want it, so you will please me if you will cut out what you require and throw the remainder in the waste basket.  Please note that I was succeeded by Dave Stuart (not Stewart) and that  my predecessor's name was Jacob Stitzel. I was superseded in August or  September 1885, just four years after I assumed the duties of the office,  Cleveland having been elected President.  You will please me very much if you will forward a copy of anything you  write about the early days of the service. I would also like one of the photographs of the old log Customs House.  Thank you very much for the photos of your present establishment. I  could not have predicted such importance and elegance for the dry spot  where the boundary line crosses from the Lake to the hills, to the Westward.  With best wishes I am  Yours sincerely,  (Cullen B. Bash)  Ex-Deputy Collector  Salmon, Idaho  April 14, 1933 38  MORE EARLY FRUIT AWARDS  By Mary Gartrell Orr  The forty-third Report of the Okanagan Historical Society contains a list  of awards won by exhibitors of British Columbia fruit in the Dominion, Great  Britain and other countries.  The above-mentioned, submitted by Mr. John Manning of Summerland,  has prompted me to provide additional material from an earlier era and some  details on the years covered by the article.  Other Reports1 tell of James and Mary Gartrell coming with their family  of five from Stratford, Ontario, in 1885 to the Ellis Ranch which later became  Penticton. In 1887 they settled eight miles further north at the foot of the  sandhill at Gartrell Point, now known as Trout Creek Point. After clearing  some of the heavily timbered land my grandfather imported young apple  trees from the Stone Wellington Nurseries, Ontario and from the State of  Washington. Peach trees were raised from peach stones, obtained at  Okanagan Falls. Other fruits were started later. Water for irrigation was from  the north fork of Trout Creek - a story in itself.  By 1897 he was competing in apple shows at Spokane, Washington. In  the possession of the Gartrell family at Summerland are five beautifully inscribed framed diplomas, proof of awards on October 16 of that year, at the  Spokane Fruit Fair. The wording is as follows:  1. Awarded to J. Gartrell  For Best Plate King of Tompkins County Apples  2. Awarded to J. Gartrell  For Best Plate of Baldwin Apples  3. Awarded to J. Gartrell  For Second Best Plate of Twenty-oz. Pippins  4. Awarded to J. Gartrell  For Second Best Plate Wealthy Apples  5. Awarded to J. Gartrell  For Individual exhibitor taking the greatest number of first prizes on  plates of apples.  All are signed by J. A. Finch, President and H. Bolster, Secretary.  By 1904 the Gartrell orchard was fully bearing and fruit was being sold  commercially over a wide area, including the mining towns of Fairview and  Camp McKinney.  From 1905-1910, their apples were winning medals at the Royal Horticultural Society Shows, London, England. A yellowed newspaper clipping in  my possession, presumably from the Vernon News, states: "James Gartrell of  Summerland was a visitor in town. He shipped 285 boxes of apples to the  Royal British Horticultural Show and hoped to win another medal. He reported that fruit crops in Summerland were very good in 1906." Having won a  gold medal in 1905 he was probably disappointed to get only a silver in 1906.  In the year 1910 the first Canadian National Apple Show was held in  Vancouver, B.C. from October 31 to November 5. On that occasion the  Gartrell fruit won first, second and third prize ribbons which we still have.  The following is an account of that particular year as recorded by the 39  late Herb Simpson of Summerland and provided through the kindness of his  brother, Arthur of Summerland who also remembers the story as told by their  father, Billie Simpson who had come to Summerland in 1903. I quote, "In  1910 Dad and Bill Ross packed the crop from the James Gartrell orchard. It  was shown in Spokane, Vancouver and London, England winning many  awards. Dad had taken a carload to the Vancouver Exhibition and while on  the train returning with the fruit he received a telegram to proceed to  England with the shipment. Leaving the carload at Sicamous he came home,  packed some extra clothes and returned to Sicamous where the freight car was  picked up again. He travelled across Canada to Halifax in the caboose. At  every stop he had to check the charcoal burners in his car as it was late fall,  the temperature was dropping and there was danger of the apples freezing. At  seaboard Dad supervised the loading of his cargo onto the ship and went overseas where the exhibit won top awards. Following the show the apples were  sold in Covent Gardens and some were sent to Buckingham Palace as a gift."  unquote.  One has to assume that this fruit was all or part of the award winning  Provincial Exhibit or that of the Okanagan District as the name J. Gartrell as  an individual does not appear on page 21 of the forty-third Report.  Nearly a century later the land is still producing high quality fruit. On  the original homestead reside members of the third, fourth and fifth generation descendants of James and Mary Gartrell, pioneers of Trout Creek  (Gartrell) Point.  FOOTNOTES  1    Okanagan Historical Society Thirty-first Report, p. 61  <£&  , •, -•':»  R. V. Agur admiring fruit tree of James Gartrell in 1904. 40  Fruit picking - James Gartrell orchard about 1908. On ladder at left: unknown. On ladder at  right: Magnus Tait. Bottom left to right: Fred Gartrell, Mrs. Alfred Wade (the former Miss  Melsom) and Mrs. James Gartrell.  l///Y//f///'/'/f  SPOKANE   FRUIT  FfliR,  SPOKANE,  WASHINGTON.  \,     ,    0  fr,.,,-/.,   />  r  //  <:   Fruit picking - James Gartrell orchard about 1908. On ladder at left - unknown; on ladder at  right - Magnus Tait; bottom left to right - Fred Gartrell, Mrs. Alfred Wade (the former Miss  Melsom) and Mrs. James Gartrell. 41  Editor's Note: After careful consideration by various members of the Editorial Committees and myself, this year's prize will be  divided equally between the following two young writers. This was,  we feel, the most fair solution to the difficult problem of deciding  which essay was the better.  ESSAYS  HOWARD HOUSE  By Steven Hesketh  One of Vernon's greatest success stories is Howard House and Howard  Industries. This is a special story, for its success is due to the tremendous community support given throughout the existence of the project. It reflects the  citizens' concerns and cares for Vernon's needy transients and it displays the  community spirit and pride which made Howard House and its Industries a  reality.  A John Howard Society social worker, W. F. Hesketh, was the first to  propose the answer, which would solve Vernon's growing need for a hostel.  Area officials recognized this need and decided the bulk of the responsibility  would go to the most appropriate and best prepared group, in this case, the  John Howard Society. Numerous organizations and individuals pledged their  support and participation in the project. It would be this support that would  decide the future of the hostel and so the decisions rested within the community. Many clergymen, ranchers, businessmen, loggers, policemen, social  workers, bankers, and individual club representatives of Vernon gathered to  decide when and where the home for destitute men would open. It was decided that, after a six-month trial period, the board of directors (a group of  Vernon people chosen from various organizations to direct the hostel) would  evaluate the project. Vernon presented their case to the provincial government and they replied by promising financial support. The word was go.  The official opening took place on January 1st, 1968, but Howard House  actually opened prior to the Christmas of 1967. Donations began to flow into  the house, and eventually volunteers were needed to control the aid, revealing  the overwhelming support of the Vernon community. Rooms were furnished  and decorated, appliances were given, food was donated, helpers gave their  time, and the list goes on. The "house on the hill" became Howard House,  3505 - 34th Ave., a haven for indigent transients and a focus of municipal  pride.  During the six month trial, Howard House would see some 346 men go  through its doors.1 Fifty of those men found permanent or temporary employment in Vernon and others were able to help in other community projects.1  By the end of June, 1968, it was clear that Howard House was quickly becoming something of a necessity. The improvement in taking needy people off the  streets and thereby creating less nuisance to the community was immediately  noticed, particularly by the R.C.M.P. There was less need for petty theft to  secure the means for food and lodging. The Board of Directors, along with  the City Council, gave Howard House the green light. 42  However, this residence for destitute men began to experience financial  problems that would continually hinder progress. A large scale appeal was  made in search of new sources of income. Despite all of the hostel's success,  the City Council, a major financial source, questioned their support and  threatened a withdrawal of aid. Howard House floundered but made a comeback with more aid and a counter-proposal to the City Council. The time was  crucial for the operators of the men's residence, since their project was young  and now faced fatal situations. It was their persistence and the community's  whole-hearted concern that pulled Howard House through the conflict.  Since the establishment of the hostel, the number of transients had steadily grown to over 1,000 men.2 Along with this number and the increasing  number of men per day, Howard House Manager William Hesketh, Supervisor Nick Relkov, and John Howard Society's North Okanagan President,  George Forscutt, began to search for a new and larger residence. Burying old  hatchets, the Vernon City Council and the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Board  awarded Howard House with the much sought-after army nurse's residence,  (from World War II), but under the condition that they would remove it from  its original site east of the Jubilee Hospital. Despite neighbourhood resistance,  the John Howard Society received a land grant near the present day sewage  plant to accommodate the new building.  Plans were made to employ as many transients and Vernon men as possible in the re-location of the old nurse's residence. The move involved a series  of developments which attracted district-wide attention. But what really  made the operation speed up was the tragic fire at the old Howard House,  claiming one life and virtually destroying the home. Upon completion, the  community once again flooded the new Howard House with donations. This  helped relieve the staff who were facing the problem of relocating the inhabitants.  A common occurrence at Howard House was the decorating and furnishing of a room by various Vernon groups such as the Salvation Army and  Trinity United Church Women. Within days, the transients were able to live  within the renovated home and a lot of the credit goes to the concerned organizations within the community. The difference in size between the two  houses was to become a great advantage in the near future. The average number of men accommodated daily in early 1970 was six to eight men, while in  1979, Howard House accommodated one hundred and three men in one  night!3  The expansion of the transient program was not limited to the hostel, for  progress was to be made in employment opportunities such as a logging camp  near Revelstoke and one near Lumby. The agricultural aspect of the expansion was very important, for it not only served as a source of capital and employment but also food (some 48,000 meals were provided in the year 1977).4  In 1975, Mr. and Mrs. Tom Thorlakson deeded three acres of land to the  John Howard Society and the Board of Directors for the purpose of opening a  farm.5 The success of these programs was invaluable, but it was eventually  discovered that they would never pay for themselves. Provincial Welfare,  which had by now assumed most of the financial aid through grants, pledged  their conditional and limited support. By saying conditional and limited, the  author means the government, quite justly, wasn't and still isn't prepared to  blindly send money of any amount continuously. 43  Howard House began to tackle more community-centered problems, like  alcohol and drug abuse. Numerous rehabilitation sessions were held within  the residence, and qualified volunteers instructed these courses. The John  Howard Society opened the old recycling depot and for a couple of years solely ran the project as another source of income and employment.  Today, Howard House faces the same problems as it did only yesterday.  The Federal, Provincial, and Municipal governments have been cooperative,  but to meet the needs of hostel projects requires a never-ending commitment  of financial aid. What the community has to decide is whether or not their  support is needed or worthwhile.  Up to this point the author has elaborated on the various programs of the  John Howard Society. But what have these programs done for the thousands  of men who have stayed at Howard House? To analyze this more closely, let's  look at the purpose of these projects as described by Howard House Manager,  William Hesketh: "To give them (the indigent transients) another chance to  change their life-style. It is difficult for some of us (as settled Vernonites) to  realize how hard it is for them to change their lives. Many of them are unable  to relate with things that we, as a community, take for granted."  Keeping this in mind, would a resident receive this chance through the  program offered? Of course the answers would vary. Certainly, a transient  would benefit from the projects if he cared to take advantage of them. The  choice is his. No one can force anyone to change his life-style. For those who  do take the chance provided, the values they would learn in maintaining a job  and accepting responsibility for their life would have a positive effect on their  future. A man could easily gain valuable working experience(s) through  Howard Industries, possibly giving him new goals in life. The thought that  people still care for them will stay with many residents.  As to the future of Howard House, the author remains optimistic. Financial aid will remain a continual problem, but the purpose of the John Howard  Society will never be defeated. Expansion may be limited if economic conditions get any worse, but the number of needy males will no doubt grow. Let's  hope the community never stops its overwhelming support of their project.  Man's humanity towards man is perhaps a good measure of any community.  FOOTNOTES  1 Supervisor's Report, June 1968 (made at the end of the six-month trial).  2 Vernon Daily News, Summer, 1968.  3 Received from the Manager of Howard House, W. F. Hesketh.  4 Penticton Herald, July 1976  Vernon Daily News  Victoria Gazette (all three papers printed stories on the progress of Howard Industries'  farm operation).  s    Vernon Daily News, Summer-Fall, 1977. 44  Main entrance, Howard  House, (facing west) where  the official opening took  place with the Honourable  Premier Dave Barrett presiding.  Yard and back of the residence, (facing south). Within the fenced-off area, lie  automotive and carpentry  shops as well as a cedar produce/firewood area.  A view of the farm, (looking  south) which was donated by  Mr. and Mrs. Tom Thorlakson. Located off the Commonage Rd., beyond the  Army Camp and weather  station. The mainstay of this farm is  pigs. The farmers tend over  300 pigs.  45  10  ";     .'Ģ    > >  tWAKl* INDU^Iktrj lAk'M MtOGKMI  Donations to the farm have  mostly come in the form of  animals and land. Cows,  horses, chickens, geese, pigs,  etc. have been well received. 46  VERNON'S HISTORICAL ARCHITECTURE  By Doug Carrie  There is much to be learned about a city through its oldest buildings and  the people who live and work in them. The key to a city's history is in these  buildings, for if one were to compile a history of each of the old buildings in a  city and combine them in one volume, the resulting book would contain a  most thorough history of the city itself.  Vernon's history can be illustrated through a study of its old buildings.  Vernon has many fine examples of architecture of which its citizens can be  proud, but these buildings have been disappearing at an alarming rate.  When one of our pioneer buildings is demolished, in effect, a bit of our heritage is being destroyed.  Within the past few years, many of Vernon's most historically valuable  buildings have been torn down. The old Hudson's Bay store on the corner of  Barnard Avenue and Highway 97 was one to succumb to progress. This building had been one of the city's most impressive structures for a great many  years until it was demolished. In its place today stands the plain square of the  new Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.  The original Vernon Lodge was destroyed five years ago. This building  had originally been a private home and an outstanding one at that. It was  later converted into apartments. Another of Vernon's oldest homes was torn  down just last year to make room for the Jacques home next to the Safeway  Store on Barnard, the 32nd street extension.  The Kalamalka Hotel downtown lost its two top floors this year to "progress." The hotel has now been deprived of its original beauty and has become  just another of the plain square buildings which comprise most of the downtown area. Speaking of progress, when the Kalamalka Hotel was built in  1892, it cost $16,000. Today it is worth many times that amount.  Not all of Vernon's pioneer buildings are being destroyed, and many of  the oldest ones are still in use today and should be for quite some years to  come. To illustrate this, as well as my previous points about finding a city's  history in its architecture, I am going to take one specific building, the Nolan  Drug's building, and give a detailed history.  The building, which now houses Nolan Drugs Ltd. located on the corner  of Barnard Avenue and Whetham Street (31st Street today), is one of the oldest buildings in downtown Vernon. The building was built around 1905 to  hold Frank Reynold's machine shop. The machine shop stayed in the building  for approximately nine years until 1914, when it relocated where the Vernon  Advertiser offices are today.  At that time the building was sold to Mr. R. E. Berry. He was a pharmacist and turned the premises into the R. E. Berry Drug and Book Co. The  location of the dispensary in today's store was made into a small store and  rented by a Mr. Spencer who operated a Real Estate office. R. E. Berry's store  sold many books and they comprised most of his business.  In the year 1923, the firm of Higgs and Wilson bought out R. E. Berry's  business but not the building. Within a few years Humphrey Higgs also  bought out Wilson to become the sole owner of the business. Under Higgs and  Wilson, the drug store was divided into two separate shops. The drug store remained in the larger area and Kearney's Clothing opened in the other. 47  Kearney's Clothing was a men's wear shop. It was also around this time that  Mr. Spencer's real estate office closed and Edgar's Electric Shop opened up in  the premises. Edgar's Electric was an electrical appliance repair shop.  The building has three floors and a basement. The main floor has always  held a business of some sort, with the basement and attic being used for storage. At one time though, the attic was used as a golf school. People would  practice their driving by standing at one end of the room and hitting golf balls  at the cushioned far wall. The second floor was also used mainly for storage  up until the late 1920's when it was rented out to the Vernon City Club. Before this, the club had been meeting in a building across the street from where  the Elk's Club is today. The club has remained on the second floor right up to  the present time. It was founded in 1913.  It was 1928 when Hazel and Chester Nolan, both graduates of the Western School of Pharmacy, purchased the business from Humphrey Higgs.  Higgs moved to Cardston, Alberta, where he opened a new store. The business is still there today. Hazel and Chester changed the store's name from the  Berry Drug and Book Co. to the Nolan Drug and Book Co. In 1928, there  were approximately 3500 people residing in Vernon. The land directly behind Nolan Drug's was nothing more than a large field. The Nolans once had  the opportunity to purchase the entire field for five hundred dollars.  In 1945, Nolan Holdings bought the entire building from R. E. Berry  who still owned it. The store expanded into the areas previously occupied by  Kearney's Men's Clothing and Edgar's Electric. Edgar's Electric moved into  the building where the Chiropractors office and Cliffs Saddle Shop is located  at 2903 - 31st St. The store remained the same until 1959, when it was completely modernized with the trend towards customer self-service. The staff increased from the original five in 1928 to seventeen in 1975.  In 1975, Nolan Drug's Ltd. was sold to four partners, Hazel Nolan's son  Don, Monte Morden, Larry Fischer and Jim Carrie. The store was completely  remodeled again at this time and has remained the same until the present  day.  Among the other historical buildings in Vernon that are still in use today  is the original Bank of Commerce building. After so many years as a bank, it  would have been a simple matter to tear the aging structure down and to replace it with a modern business building when the bank moved. Luckily this  was not the case, and the building has been completely restored to its original  appearance. In my opinion, it is now one of the most striking buildings in the  city today.  The Powerhouse Theatre building is probably the one building in Vernon with the most varied history and an excellent example of how buildings  can be preserved and adapted to^new uses rather than being destroyed. It was  Vernon's power station for many years but was a derelict building scheduled  for demoltion when Drew Allen and Doug Huggins had the idea to transform  it into a theatre. Today the theatre is an integral and central part of our community.  The pioneer buildings of any city are important and distinguishing parts  of that city. Every effort should be made on the part of the citizens of a city to  preserve the buildings which are their heritage.  The information regarding Nolan Drugs Ltd. was derived from an interview with Hazel  Nolan in late February, 1980. 48  Kalamalka Hotel  The old Hudson's Bay Company building 49  Nolan's Drugs decorated for the first Vernon Days. 50  Nolan's 1950. Note the first fluorescent lights in Vernon and the tin roof. 51  The old Bank of Commerce Building  The Powerhouse Theatre 52  BIOGRAPHIES AND  REMINISCENCES  BILL MINER  By Deputy Commissioner Cecil Clark  R.C.M.P. (Retired)  It was 11:15 on the night of May 8, 1906, and the Canadian Pacific's  westbound Imperial Limited was a little ahead of time. Engineer Joe Callin  had just checked his watch, and as he hunched in the cab, his gloved hand on  the throttle, he glanced occasionally out the window at the velvet blackness  which cloaked the range land between Ducks and Furrer Creek, a dozen miles  from Kamloops, British Columbia.  The steady rhythmic drumming in the stack throbbed and echoed across  the sage brush, as the swaying steel monster with its string of heavy coaches  bored through the moonless night.  Ahead the twin lines of polished steel threw back the reflection of the  headlight's stabbing beam.  But for some minutes now, Joe Callin had a feeling of uneasiness, a feeling that he was being watched.  He shot a glance at his fireman Jack Ratcliffe. But the latter's eyes were  on his gauges. Suddenly, Callin gave a start. Something had tapped him on  the shoulder. The something was a man's hand!  Whirling with a smothered exclamation, the engineer found himself  looking into the steady unflinching eyes of a short, lightly built man, the bottom half of his face masked with a dirty handkerchief. In his right hand he  gripped a .45 automatic, the muzzle level with Callin's stomach. Beside him  stood a masked companion holding a gun on the fireman's back.  In a lightning flash of deduction, Callin tried to figure how the pair got  into the cab. They must have come across the roof of the mail car and dropped down on the tender, he swiftly reasoned.  "What is this!" he exploded, recovering from his surprise.  "It's a hold-up," said the man with the .45 and the penetrating stare.  Even though his voice came from behind the folds of a handkerchief, it carried an air of quiet finality.  The two masked men quickly slipped their hands over Callin and  Ratcliffe to see if they had any weapons.  "What do you want us to do?" asked Callin grimly.  "I'll tell you in a minute what to do," was the quiet reply.  A mile or two flew by. Then Callin felt the touch on his shoulder. "Start  braking here," came the command.  The engineer obeyed, and as the brake shoes started to bite and squeal,  the train's momentum slackened. Another minute went by. Then the man  with the automatic spoke again. "Pull up beside the big rock." The "big rock"  was a prominent landmark beside the track, and the train was within a hundred yards of it. "He's sure got this planned," thought Callin.  Now by this time of course Joe Callin figured that he was taking a star 53  part in the dramatic story of the second train robbery in Canadian railroad  history, but he didn't know that the man who stood beside him had engineered the first.  When the train came to a hissing halt beside the big rock, a third masked  and armed man appeared like a shadow from the darkness and stood by the  cab steps.  With quick, unhurried commands the holdup men herded the engineer  and the fireman to the ground and forced them to uncouple the mail car from  the train. A brakeman and a conductor dropped off the train, lanterns glimmering, to see what caused the unscheduled stop. The gunmen quickly ordered them back on the train. Then Callin and Ratcliffe were escorted back  to the engine and ordered to take the mail car up the track, where another  halt was made. Again they were forced out of the cab and told to order the  mail clerks to open the mail car door. When clerks McQuarrie and Willis  obeyed, two of the masked men clambered in.  "Where's the express?" demanded one of the bandits. The nervous clerks  explained the car only held mail. Quickly the gunmen pocketed a few registered packages, then swung to the ground.  "That's all we want from you fellows," said the short man with the automatic. And then, as the engineer and fireman climbed back in the cab, he  gave them a half-friendly wave and added "Good night - take care of yourselves!"  The locomotive quickly picked up speed and as it blurred in the darkness  the armed trio made for their horses tethered nearby, and, in a few minutes,  their drumming hoofbeats were swallowed in the darkness.  The rest of the episode is briefly told. The locomotive joined the train  and the Limited made its way into Kamloops. The excited passengers had a  topic of conversation for weeks to come, press wires hummed with front page  stories, and the police were alerted throughout Western Canada.  Fanning out from Kamloops in all likely directions rode posses of B.C.  Provincial Police, cowhands, Indian trackers and volunteers of all sorts.  One Provincial Constable, Bill Fernie, playing a lone hand, tracked the  bandits for six days until he spotted their hideout in the wilds of the Douglas  Lake Country. Then he contacted a squad of six Royal North West Mounted  Policemen patrolling nearby under Sgt. Wilson. The troopers rode in and  surrounded the three gunmen as they sat round their campfire. As they were  being questioned, one of the trio rolled swiftly into a gully, at the same time  drawing his gun. A rapid exchange of shots followed, and the man who  showed fight got shot in the leg. The other two made no resistance.  When they were disarmed and jailed, it was found they had only netted  $15 out of the robbery.  The man who resisted was identified as Thomas (Shorty) Dunn, a thick-set  beetle-browed cowhand with a criminal record, who had been punching cattle in the Merrit district.  The second man was a delicate studious-looking youth called Lewis Col-  quhoun, an ex-school teacher from Ontario, who had been drifting around  Central B.C., out of work, when he met Dunn. He had never been in trouble  before.  Oldest of the three was 63-year old George Edwards, the leader of the  group and the man who held the automatic on engineer Callin. Well known 54  around the Aspen Grove district of Merritt, Edwards looked a typical old time  western rancher or prospector. Grizzled and grey with a ragged moustache,  he had the plainsman's pucker around his eyes of ice-blue, that stared into  your soul. Short and lightly built, he weighed under 140 pounds; he had a  peculiar quiet reserve about him. He spoke quietly with just a hint of a southern accent. He denied all knowledge of the train robbery, and many of his  friends just couldn't believe that old George Edwards would be mixed up in  such a thing.  "There must be some mistake!" vehemently contended one old lady.  "Why Mr. Edwards was out at our place two weeks ago. I remember it was a  Sunday, and when the preacher didn't turn up, Mr. Edwards preached the  sermon — and a good one, too!"  There were others who told how kind George Edwards was to the young  folk. He was never happier than when he had a bunch of youngsters around  him, telling them tales of the old west.  To this day there are old timers in B.C.'s interior who knew old George  Edwards well, and they swear by his integrity.  However the train robbers duly appeared in court, and after listening to  all the evidence, a jury agreed on their guilt. Mr. Justice Irving sentenced  Edwards and Dunn to life imprisonment and Colquhoun got twenty-five  years.  And then just before the robbers were escorted to the federal penitentiary at New Westminster, the cattle country got the shock of it's life! Warden  Kelly of California's San Quentin prison happened to be in Kamloops and  recognized old George Edwards as "Bill Miner," one of the most daring stage  and train robbers of his generation, a man whose exploits ranked with those  of the Youngers, the Daltons and Jesse James.  The identification was clinched when Kelly told the police at Kamloops  to turn back Edwards' shirt cuff and look for the tattoo of a dancing girl. It  was there all right.  After serving twenty years, train robber Shorty Dunn was parolled, and  subsequently met his death by drowning in a lonely northern B.C. river.  What happened to Colquhoun is anybody's guess; perhaps his first brush with  the law was his last.  But their leader, Bill Miner, had such an amazing career that to get the  full story we have to go back to 1843, and Bowling Green, Kentucky, where he  was born, the son of a prosperous and law-abiding farmer. He attended  school until he was 16, and then when stories of gold and excitement in the  west filtered back to Kentucky, young Miner caught the fever and headed  west.  Through Missouri and across the Nations country until he landed in  Texas, where the cattlemen were just beginning to crowd the buffalo off the  rich unfenced range. The pony express rider was filling his brief hour before  the coming of the telegraph, and six-horse stages trailed clouds of desert dust  as they shuttled across the southwest with passengers and light freight. The  chime whistle of the locomotive had yet to be heard west of Omaha.  And in this atmosphere young Miner found himself - without money. But  he had heard glamorous tales of California, and hitching himself to an immigrant train he arrived on the Pacific slopes. Broke and in California, he  turned his mind to robbery. 55  At seventeen, he pulled off a $75,000.00 stage robbery. He made up his  mind that this was the life - and he never turned back.  He held up stage after stage, and the Wells Fargo people bent every effort to catch him. Posses of armed men scoured the mazanita-clad hills of  California for the lone bandit who struck with forethought and suddenness  -and always got away.  Miner's successes were due to skillful planning. He studied the country,  used the best horses, and always made sure of his escape route. But the lone  wolfs luck couldn't last forever. Caught when his horse went lame, he got a  long term of imprisonment. For the next 16 years he was in and out of California jails, always for the same crime — stage robbery.  He was never violent, never drank or smoked, and always had that air of  calm reserve. But underneath the reserve was a steel will.  It's now 1879, and at the age of 36 he's describing himself as A. E. Miner  or W. A. Morgan, or sometimes as George Edwards. Just finished a term at  San Quentin, he appeared in Denver, where he teamed up with Bill Leroy, a  desperate character credited with many successful stage robberies in the  Rocky Mountain region. In 1880, the pair robbed the Del Norte stage and got  $3,600. A sheriff posse took after them and the bandits separated. Leroy  made the mistake of riding into a box canyon and was caught and lynched.  Miner's luck held, he escaped.  With his share of the proceeds, Miner went east and lived for a few  months in Onondago, Michigan, posing as a wealthy California mining man.  He even got himself engaged to the belle of the town. But life in Onondago  had a dull flavour compared to the west, where you had to ride like hell ahead  of the sheriffs bullets. He left town one day without warning. A few months  later he was back in Denver.  Now he chose a partner; Stanton Jones, a reckless gun fighter and cutthroat. But the partnership didn't last long. They held up the Del Norte stage  again, were chased and brought to a stand. Two of the sheriffs deputies were  wounded before the posse was driven off. The partners split up. Jones was  caught and given five years. Little Bill Miner, still lucky, was free.  On November 7, 1881 he's back in California and with three helpers robbed the Sonora stage of $3,700.00 This time he wasn't so lucky for he and his  lieutenant, Jim Crum, were caught and the gates of San Quentin slammed behind them for 22 years of a 25-year sentence.  Miner came out of San Quentin in 1903 at the age of 60, shook hands  with Warden Kelly and faced a brand new world. The old west was dying fast,  and in all but a few isolated regions the railroad had superceded the stage  coach; new states had entered the union, the telephone was commonplace,  and the airplane was only twelve months in the future. Now some people  think 60 is a good age to retire — but Bill Miner didn't think so. Those fast  trains that criss-crossed the west — they had express cars didn't they? The little ex-convict studied the situation more closely.  It was only a few months later that he held up the Oregon & Washington  train at Corbett, Wash. The haul was huge, how big no one was prepared to  estimate. But the railroads and express companies posted rewards totalling  $12,000.00  But Miner noticed that in this swifter twentieth century when the take  was bigger so were the rewards and the consequent police activity. Miner was 56  hotter than a sheriffs pistol. He slipped across the International Boundary into British Columbia, and, under the name of George Edwards, took up land.  The polite and somewhat reserved little man was accepted at face value  among the scattered ranchers. He kept to himself and ran a small herd of beef  cattle. On one occasion (1904) he drove a small herd through the Hope  Mountains and sold them in the little Fraser Valley farming community of  Chilliwack.  It's through this vast fertile valley that the Fraser River winds its way.  The main line of the transcontinental C.P.R. line follows the north bank of  the river.  On his trip to Chilliwack with his cattle, old Bill Miner must have taken  all this in, for he dropped out of sight for a few weeks. And during that time,  a C.P.R. train was held up at Silverdale, not far west of Chilliwack, but on  the opposite side of the river. It was the first Canadian train robbery and it  netted three masked men $7,000.00.  An intensive man hunt failed to reveal their trace, but one of the searchers - a veteran huntsman - gave the opinion after a week of tracking that the  bandits got out of the Fraser Valley east over the Hope pass. It was a rough  route, but Bill Miner brought his cattle over it.  Back at Aspen Grove, Miner puttered around his log cabin. He was  cheerful, his neighbours said that he'd made a little money on his cattle and  was astonished to hear of the train robbery.  Then in November, 1905, he was absent for a week or two; prospecting  in the hills, he told a neighbour. During his absence a Great Northern train  was held up just across the B.C./Washington border. Again there were three  men on the job and they got $30,000.00. Some had their doubts that Miner  was one of the trio. But the question is, if he got his cut of the loot why did he  have to hold up the C.P.R. train near Kamloops the next year?  Whatever the reason, when he held up the westbound Imperial Limited  it netted him $15.00 and life imprisonment.  He escaped after a year's imprisonment and went back to the States. He  robbed another train, was caught and jailed. He escaped again and was never  caught. To this day no one knows the ultimate fate of the little grizzled Ken-  tuckian whose cold nerve and icy resolve made him the Dean of road agents in  the passing of the old west.  Here is the tale as pieced together from newspaper clippings:  George Edwards lived with a friend Jack Budd, on a ranch on Bald  Mountain. Princeton people thought he was a wonderful gentleman. He went  to all the dances and parties. He always wore gloves when he was dancing so  that he wouldn't soil the ladies clothes. At one affair, in Hedley, someone  stole all the rubbers and umbrellas. He was most annoyed and wanted the  culprit found and jailed. He always had money, but then people understood  that he had mines around the country which he often visited and from which  he got his money.  It was a terrible shock to the residents to learn that the train had been  robbed at "Ducks" a spot on the railway between Spences Bridge and  Kamloops.  Apparently Bill Miner left his horses hobbled in a field while he stopped  the train. A farmer or rider came along, and seeing no one near the horses, let 57  them go. Bill Miner had to walk toward the spot where he had planned to  meet Jack Budd with fresh horses. When he got to the spot, no one was there.  Some of the horses had bolted on Jack Budd and after a long wait in which  George Edwards (Bill Miner) did not come, he went home to Princeton.  Another explanation is this. Jack Budd was a wonderful man with horses.  No one had such a way with them. He seemed to be able to think like a horse  He hobbled the horses for the night and turned in. In those days there were  bands of men who would take horses and cattle and hide them (not steal  them) and then come up to the owners when they were looking for them and  offer to help look for the animals . . . for pay of course! They would search all  day and then go to where they knew the animals were and "find" them. They  would get paid for their work and ride off. Some people believe this is what  happened to Jack Budd while he was waiting for Bill Miner.  Being on foot, George Edwards couldn't get out of the country and so  was caught.  idF~"  Kelowna circa 1912. 58  A GAME OF POOL  By H. R. Hatfield  Harry Barnes had drifted into the Hedley camp, with his prospecting  partner, along with the twentieth century. A gentlemen in every good sense of  the word, he never found a big mine and certainly would never stoop to selling a prospect by subterfuge of any kind. He eventually went to work for the  company running the Nickel Plate gold mine, became the storekeeper and  through good times and bad, changes of ownership, shut downs and expansions, had in his keeping all the multitude of parts and pieces, machines and  supplies, needed on hand by that considerable operation. He was meticulous  in his person and his work. The Stores department ran so smoothly and quietly that it was taken for granted, like the passage of the sun, day by day.  As Harry aged with the job, he did not become cranky, but maintained  his constant obliging courtesy to all. It seems, though, that some trait in all of  us does become more pronounced, as we travel on our pilgrimage. Harry became even more well organized, more meticulous as the years slid by.  Finally the gold ran out and Harry, a bachelor to the last, retired to his  immaculate little home and pleasant garden to spend his evenings with the  latest in radio equipment, the long summer days in his well-ordered garden  and the winter ones in reading and writing a few, alas too few, very thoroughly researched historical notes on the Nickel Plate and Boundary Country.1  His home was on a gentle slope with a pleasant view over the creek and  village and to the warmly coloured cliffs above it and across the valley. No  flood could reach it to tear and disorder the spotless grounds. The cliffs behind were far enough back so that no rockfall was likely to send a boulder  crashing through to break the neat and well painted fence. His neighbours  were old friends, fond of Harry for his own great worth and respectful of his  neat and tidy ways. With no wife to call for periodic re-arranging of the furniture, no children to move things from where they belonged to where they  didn't, one would have thought things were perfect, perhaps almost to the  point of boredom. However, as I discovered, even here there was a reptile in  the garden.  It was a lovely spring evening, warm, fresh and peaceful, as I strolled up  the hill to pay a call on Harry. The creek, not yet in flood, sang its proper  song between its established banks. The setting sun, as it should, brought out  the cheerful colours of the banded cliffs. Harry was working in his garden at a  job which he explained could not be postponed, but I could help him if I  wished as we talked. He was setting out plants. The variety of flower escapes  me now but there were several boxes each labelled as to specie and colour. To  one side was a pile of small fir boughs all of the same size. The boughs were to  keep the direct sun off the plants for the next few days while they were getting  established.  As Harry carefully dug a hole and tucked in each plant precisely in the  spot previously marked out for it I stuck a fir bough in the ground to shelter  it. There was a little difficulty until he got me trained to place the bough correctly as to distances and angles but after a bit my work seemed to be satisfactory. We planted and sheltered and talked of mutual friends and old times  until the sun went down and the gloaming came and the cool evening breeze  came gently from the canyon. 59  Through Harry's garden ran a little spring fed streamlet. He had made a  picturesque but ordered channel for it so that it took its proper place in the  garden layout. In the course of this channel he had built two small dish-  shaped concrete lined pools. One or both I think had lilies or other water  plants and they were charming little pools. As we were planting away with only a few plants left to do there came from one of these pools a few tentative  chirps and then the full-throated song of a bullfrog. Harry straightened up as  though a cannon had gone off. He dropped his trowel and strode to the pool  exclaiming, "There's that damn frog in the wrong pool again!" He scooped up  the offender and placed him gently on the edge of the other pool.  In a few minutes as we put in the last plant and bough a couple of blurps  from the proper pool seemed to indicate that everything was in its proper  place. However, after bidding Harry goodnight at his door, I stopped for a  minute on the path between the two pools to look at the dark skyline of the  hills against the still light westward sky. Something rustled in the grass, and  when I looked down, there was the frog headed back for the forbidden pool.  His gold and black eyes reflected the light from the window of the house and,  as I looked, one amphibious lid slowly slid over the one nearest me and I imagined that there was a slight movement, as of an incipient smile, at the corner of the big mouth.  FOOTNOTES  1    Articles in Okanagan Historical Reports by Harry Barnes - 12th - Early History of  Hedley Camp; 13th - Reminiscences of the Okanagan; 15th - The Nickel Mine.  Also see An Appreciation of Harry D. Barnes by Frank H. French, 16th Report. 60  LOGGING AND SAWMILLS IN PEACHLAND  By Hamish C. MacNeill  The late Dr. Gordon Whyte liked to tell of his arrival in Peachland as a  small boy. His father was to be the first minister of the new community which  had been established by J. M. Robinson three years earlier in 1898; a fine  Presbyterian Church (for many years now used as the Municipal Building -  hall, office and library) had just been completed and J. M. Robinson had reserved one of his best orchard lots on the upper bench overlooking the town-  site for the Rev. W. Whyte from Winnipeg, for his home. This lot was 2V£  miles by road from the wharf, and as the Rev. Whyte and his family drove  their democrat along the rough wagon trail to it the second son, Gordon, then  a boy of ten, was all eyes; what impressed him most, as it did nearly all the  newcomers, were the magnificent trees which they passed by and under along  their route. Although small compared with the coastal Douglas fir, these  yellow pines loomed like giants to prairie people and indeed the pines growing  in the rich spring fed benches, and slopes of Peachland in 1901, were as fine  as any of their species to be found anywhere.  The new settlers immediately saw that here at hand was a ready made industry requiring only a combination of men's muscles, horse power and steam  power, to produce the raw materials necessary, first of all to build homes for  themselves and then for the fast growing cities of the treeless prairies which  they had just left. The pot of gold at the end of the rainbow which had attracted the settlers of 1898 was fruit production, so husky young men like Billy  Miller, Slim Churchill and Ed Mclntyre who were the owners of teams of  heavy horses were kept more than busy clearing land for the new orchards.  However, in the following year Hugh McDougall (called "Sawdust" Mc-  Dougall to distinguish him from the "Post Office" McDougalds) arrived from  Moose Jaw and started to build the first sawmill on the lakeshore at the foot of 61  Lily Street in front of his own and his son-in-law, P. N. Dorland's property. So  logging and lumber became Peachland's first stable industry and have so continued until today, when the successor to "Sawdust" McDougall's small floating mill was the modern, model enterprise of Trautman-Garraway Ltd., one  of the most efficient mills in the interior and employing 65 men from the districts of Peachland and Westbank. Its logging operations extended out of the  Okanagan watershed across the divide into the Nicola Valley which drains into the Fraser, and this is territory which in 1899 would seem almost half a  world away.  The history of Peachland's logging and sawmills since 1899 is a fascinating story; first of all there were the men engaged in it; many of them were  great characters, all of them contributed much to the wealth of our Valley  and of Canada, but most of them reaped small financial reward for their  years of dangerous and back-breaking toil. Mention must first be made of  Dave Lloyd-Jones who had established his sawmill in Kelowna earlier in the  nineties; he frequently travelled, mostly on foot, to Trout Creek Point to  court one of the Gartrell girls; the Gartrells were a pioneer family of the Okanagan and lived in isolated splendor at Trout Creek; he also had pre-empted  land at what is now West Summerland and still called Jones Flat; so he frequently passed through what is now Peachland, stopping off to visit Harry  Hardy, at that time almost the sole resident of the area. He must have noticed  the fine stands of timber, their proximity to the lake and the consistently steep  downhill grade to water, and water was always the ideal form of log transportation. By 1900 he had Arthur Day, who had also married a Gartrell  daughter and thus became the founders of one of the Okanagan's best known  families, his right hand man, organize the cutting of logs at Peachland. The  district soon became and continued for many years to be the chief source of  supply of logs for the Kelowna Sawmill. Indeed, hardly a year has passed since  1900 when a boom of logs was not waiting in one of the Peachland or Trepan- 62  ier bays ready for rafting and towing to Kelowna. Many stories could be told  about the log booms on the lake, but one of the most interesting concerns an  early Kelowna Regatta. The paddle steamer Okanagan, with the fabled Captain Weeks in command, had been chartered by the people of Naramata,  Summerland and Peachland to take them to the big event; on the same day a  large raft of logs was being towed from Peachland to Kelowna; it was a hot  and thirsty evening and very slow progress being made, the crew of the tug  decided they were missing a lot and that the bar of the old Lakeview Hotel  would be a good place to be. They cast off their boom and hastened to  Kelowna; they had probably done this in the past for no lake traffic was expected after dark. It was a black night and the Okanagan hit the logs at full  speed. There was no rending crash but considerable apprehension was felt by  the passengers; the Okanagan was designed to nuzzle into shallow beaches  and she simply rode up on top of the logs. Although there are people still living in Peachland who were on this memorable pleasure cruise, there is no  clear recollection of how Captain Weeks got his craft off the logs; the best  memory has it that the Okanagan merely continued her noisy way, undamaged, across the entire boom.  Billy Miller was the most famous of the Peachland loggers. He was a big  redheaded and red-moustached man, who strode through the woods like a  sort of Paul Bunyan and he became a legend in his own time. He had a special  talent for handling men, and his loggers would do anything for him. Under  his supervision vast quantities of logs moved steadily to the lake. One of his  favourite tools was the loe chute of which he built several; the first one near  Hardy's Lake, with its head roughly at the site of the gravel crushing pit on  top of Drought's hill; when placed in it the logs shot straight to the lake without further handling. Art Dobbin (F.A.), founder of the well-known contracting firm, was Billy Miller's partner when this chute was used in 1912. It  was this particular chute which carried the heavy Glen Rosa stand to the lake.  The logs were hauled by horse-drawn wagons in the summer and by sleighs in  the winter to the head of the chute. Billy Miller's longest and most spectacular 63  chute was south of the Deep Creek, close to the Greata Ranch pre-emption,  was over a mile in length and was well designed and constructed. A blue trail  of smoke from the heat generated by the logs as they hurtled down it was visible from Peachland; sand was used to slow up the logs on the fast places and  tallow to speed their journey on the slow. This chute crossed the road at the  Antlers beach and deposited the logs in Deep Creek bay; an earlier chute  about a mile further south ended on a high bank above the road and the logs  travelled with such momentum that they shot high in the air across the old  lakeshore road (predecessor of Highway No. 97) to end with a mighty splash  in the lake.  Most of the young men of Peachland worked in the woods at one time or  another, learning from such old and experienced hands as Jim Silver (his  name survives in Silver Lake) and Buckskin Bill Burrows, an old time eastern  logger, probably from the Ottawa. Many became highly skilled at their individual jobs.  Emmet and Walter Shaw of Trepanier were kings of the cross-cuts and  were regarded as the best sawyers in the country (Emmet did not return from  the First World War). Great teamsters on the wagons and sleighs like Ossie  Needham and Bob Laidlaw also did not return from Flanders Fields, as did  others from the bush, like young Billy Dryden. There was a host of teamsters  who followed their plodding horses up the long, steep skid trails of Peachland  to come roaring back down them at break-neck speed, men like Ronald  Reekie, Tony Chapman, Jack Thorne, the Topham brothers, George, Ted  and Art., Jimmy McLaren and Gus Sundstrum, to mention only a few who  seemed almost born to hold horse lines. Then at a later date there was Ray  Harrington who, in his heyday, was a superb axeman. Nicknames of some of  the loggers like Wild Goose Bill and Slack Line Smith, are still remembered  and their real names forgotten.  The loggers came riding to town every Saturday night. Two young  Englishmen had just arrived in Peachland in 1912 to open a real estate and  insurance business. To a rough logger, a greenhorn Englishman was an object  of great sport, especially on a summer Saturday night. The loggers began to  demonstrate their ability to do tricks on horseback and dared the newcomers  to do the same, but Ward was equal to the challenge. Being fresh from an  English Public School gymnasium, he could make acrobatic circles around  the heavily muscled loggers, and it was the quickest way of gaining their respect and friendship. Batchelor and Ward returned to England at the outbreak of the war and their names live only in the painted gold letters of their  safe which is owned by one of the Peachland businesses of today. But two  products of the exclusive English public school system, Jack Thorne and Jack  Wilson did remain. Jack Thorne, already referred to, was a big man, 6'2",  240 lbs., and all muscle. He was as rough and rugged a man as ever followed a  logging team. He went off to the first war and returned a Major, and to the  second and came back a Brigadier General. Jack Wilson was just as tough,  rough and ready. Before going overseas for the duration of the First War he  had ranged the Trepanage Plateau (the name given on the maps for the high  country behind Peachland and Westbank) as a trapper, and had acquired  great knowledge of its wildlife and its trees. It was he, principally, who kept  logging alive in Peachland during the depression years when the price of logs  dropped to such unprofitable levels that even the great old time loggers gave up and moved into other fields. He did it on a shoe string and he was the main  supplier of logs to the then struggling but later flourishing S. M. Simpson  Mill. It was for him that Jack Garraway, a genius of the woods, first went to  work, although he was raised in the atmosphere; his father, Cecil, having  been one of Billy Miller's partners. Jack Seaton's is one of the success stories of  Okanagan logging. In 1903 his father died suddenly and he found himself the  family breadwinner and his life in the logging camps began in the Trepanier  Creek bush at the early age of fifteen. He went overseas in the First World  War and later moved to Winfield where he retired in comfortable circumstances in that community.  Serious accidents were always part of the life of logging and mills. In  1903 Lou Hitchiners' load rolled on him at Robinson's spring, just above  Peachland. He was carried to John Kerr's nearby barn and to all appearance  had expired, but a fast rider was sent to Kelowna to bring back the new,  young Dr. Billy Knox.  At the recent celebration honouring Dr. Knox's sixty years in practice, a  letter was read from Lou Hitchiner, still going strong, giving details of the accident and ascribing his miraculous survival to Dr. Knox's wonderful medical  skill.  The long Trepanier Creek valley and its benches was a great reservoir of  logs, and a small mill was set up there as early as 1905. Walter Morsh who had  owned an orange grove in Hollywood, California, before coming to Peach- 65  land in that year, was terribly mauled by a runaway saw at this mill. His family were forced to move with him to Kelowna so as to be close to Dr. Knox,  there being no hospital then, and it was over a year before he was well enough  to be moved back to Peachland.  In order to meet the expected demand for boxes to contain the Valley's  expanding fruit crop, 'Sawdust' McDougall moved his operation to about a  mile south of Peachland to what is now called the old mill. Not a trace of this  mill now remains, but Hugh Dorland, grandson of Sawdust, has in his possession a fine photograph of a thriving and extensive plant and one of which  its builder must have been proud. It was in this box factory that Charlie Pope  got a job tending one of the modern machines. Its blades revolved so fast as to  be invisible, and Charlie was soon minus his right index finger. On recovering  he was demonstrating to his friends on the same machine how his accident  happened, when slice went his left index. That was the end of Charlie's mill  career and because of this shortage of trigger fingers he was unacceptable for  military service. He later carved out a successful life for himself in the Water  Rights Branch.  A lot of the romance of logging went out with the passing of the horses.  Because of the rough nature of much of the terrain the horse lasted longer in  the Okanagan that in most other horse logging areas, but their days were  numbered and in 1954 when Bill Hewlett retired after a life in the bush, he  took the last of the teams with him.  In the hills behind Peachland and Glen Rosa there may still be seen the  remains of Billy Miller's camps, crumbling log cabins with their attached  hourse stables, and only imagination can bring back the intense activity that  once went on around them. The singing of the cross cuts, the ringing of the  axes, the pawing of the horses' hooves and the clanging of tongs, the noise of  cant hook and peavy, and the shouting of directions to the horses. These first  days in a new land and the men that lived in them were exciting and should  be recorded, for they have gone forever.  Vernon circa 1915. 66  THE COTTAGE  Story of the Old Jacques' Home  By Beryl E. Gorman  In this year 1980 more and more people are searching for their roots in  an attempt to understand what part the past has played in their lives and how  it has shaped their present existence. Our first home always takes precedence  in our thoughts and certainly this is true of mine. My childhood home, 'The  Cottage' was a very special spot which was never spoken of as anything else in  our family — not a home, not a residence — just 'The Cottage,' along with  'The Rock' behind it and 'The Creek' beside it. In later years it was spoken of  as "The Old Jacques Home."  To be more factual, it was a brick cottage, modest in appearance and  Okanagan colonial in style. It was a sample of architecture common to this  area, built squarely like a log cabin with a teepee roof that defied the winter  snows. It was situated at the junction of the Old Kamloops Road and Barnard  Avenue in the present 3500 Block.  Historically, it had little significance other than the fact that it was constructed on a portion of the first pre-empted land of the present city of  Vernon. This land was owned by Vernon's first postmaster and agriculturist,  Luc Girouard. He also introduced the first irrigation system into the south  Vernon district by utilizing the water from the adjoining Swan Lake Creek.  This flume passed behind the cottage, circled the rock and proceeded southwest serving a considerable acreage in what is now called West Vernon. It was  called the Girouard Irrigation District.  To be more explicit: The location of the cottage was unique and much of  its charm was due to this particular setting. It was set back from the road in a  grove of poplar trees. The rock behind it is of volcanic origin and was called a  "bubble" by some people. It is a characteristic landmark to this day and formed a picturesque backdrop. The creek beside the cottage completed the picture of rural serenity and charm.  The house was constructed in 1891 long before the present cement  bridge crossed the creek at this point. Here, the historic marker indicates the  spot where the early Indians and Missionaries crossed over en route to  O'Keefes and Kamloops. Access came from 31st Avenue to the rear and  building materials were brought in over a small bridge which survived the  passage of time until the high water of 1920. This caused it to collapse and  created the one and only flooding of the basement to my knowledge.  Gideon Milligan purchased the property from Luc Girouard and contracted Richard Oschner for the construction of the cottage. Mr. Milligan was  co-lessee of the Okanagan Hotel (of Hotel Fire fame in 1909) and was later the  owner of the Victoria Hotel on Mission Street, now 34th Street. Mr. Oschner  was the founder of the Spring Brewery in 1891 and co-owner of Vernon's  Brick Yard, which existed near the present Pottery Road on Highway 6.  Bricks from this source were used and were called slop-bricks. They were wet  and soft in composition. Despite the fact that they crumbled easily, they withstood deterioration for eighty-two years. The foundation was constructed of  large boulders of stone cut from a quarry at the base of the rock behind. This  quarry provided stone for several pioneer homes in Vernon including All  Saints' Rectory on 27th Street. The stone was set in mortar and through the 67  years I never recall any settling of unevenness of floors or door jambs. A covered verandah extended across the front of the house and along the creek-  side. It was decorated by white posts with modified "gingerbread" trim.  There was a certain natural beauty about this unpretentious brick home and  a permanence which made one feel that it had always been there.  A succession of tenants followed during the years from the mid-1890's  until it was purchased by F. B. Jacques, pioneer jeweler, from Gideon  Milligan in 1911. The following year his daughter, Edna Jacques, married  William T. Gebbie and the young couple moved into the cottage. Here, I was  born as well as my brother, Frederick William. In 1915 my mother died and  my father remained in the cottage until 1920. At this time my grandparents,  with whom I lived, decided to move into smaller quarters. So, in that year,  along with their son George, and daughter Hazel, we moved back to my original home. As it happened it was to be my home for forty-odd years.  A gradual transformation took place in the ensuing years. My grandparents were avid gardeners and it soon became a veritable beauty spot. The  first transformation came through the chance passing of a professional  English gardener by the name of Mr. Naggington. He stood on the cement  bridge observing my grandfather's attempt at building a rock wall along the  edge of the creek. Finally, he couldn't resist offering some friendly advice as it  was not progressing too well. My grandfather's response was to the effect that  'if you know so much, you better come and do it yourself.' He did and was to  spend weeks laying out cobblestone walls, terraces, walks and formalized  flower beds. Then thousands of spring bulbs were planted, grass sodded and  vines planted to soften the outline of the porch. There was a profusion of  bloom the next spring and thereafter until the spring of 1956 one year after  my grandmother's death. A particularly heavy frost the previous November  took its toll and in the spring we waited in vain for the first bulbs to appear. It  would have been heart-breaking for her had she still been with us. They had  appeared regularly for over thirty years. A picket fence enclosed the front  yard. This was replaced by a rustic one in 1929 and a rustic foot bridge crossed the creek by the corner of the house. All these touches further enhanced  the natural beauty of the cottage.  Below the garden area to the west was the old orchard left pretty much in  its original state. Its significance was the fact that it had been planted by the  aforementioned Luc Girouard and was the earliest known domestic orchard  in this area. Along with four mulberry trees from France, the fruit trees were  planted in the 1880's. They continued to bear fruit until they were removed  by the present owners in 1973 or 1974.  After my grandfather's death in 1938, my grandmother continued to live  in the cottage until her demise on May 12, 1955. Johnnie Peters, a gardener  for the City of Vernon, became her gardener after hours. Johnnie not only  maintained her garden but enhanced the natural beauty of Poison Park with  landscaping and the laying-out of lovely flower beds. He had the misfortune  to lose one arm, but what he could accomplish with the remaining limb and  one green thumb was utterly amazing. My grandmother spent many hours  planning her garden with him and so it remained a source of pleasure for her.  At the time of her passing, the property consisted of approximately four  acres including the present Safeway property, the rock bluff behind and the  orchard adjoining. The cottage had been close to my heart, and my husband 68  and I were able to acquire it along with a portion of the property from the  Jacques Estate. Here we lived for another 20 years until 1975.  In the interval Vernon expanded beyond belief and the business district  slowly infringed upon what had been a quiet residential area. Traffic increased, the present Safeway store was built on the opposite bank of the creek  and peace and serenity became a thing of the past.  Finally, in 1971, the Jacques Estate agreed to the sale of all of the remaining property and reluctantly we agreed to include our portion. It was acquired by the City of Vernon and in 1978 the cottage was demolished, the  rock partially blasted away and part of the creek piped-in to make way for a  road link between 31st and 30th Avenues.  Thus another landmark of the early days of Vernon became no more.  And with it went a way of life that was leisurely, quiet and very pleasant. It is  now a busy, noisy intersection in downtown Vernon. The rippling waters of  the creek can scarcely be heard above the din. What was once a bird sanctuary and a stream where children played, fished and whiled-away the summer afternoons is just a memory. Although nostalgic and regretful at times, I  did prefer to see our 'Cottage' demolished rather than to have it pass into a  state of slow decay. So ended an era.  NOTES  Gideon Milligan first mentioned in Vernon News June 1, 1891  Leased Okanagan Hotel in 1892, Vernon News  Contracted Richard Oschner to build cottage  Construction commenced July 2, 1891 - Vernon News Microfilm  Vernon Archives  Richard Oschner - arrived in 1891  Founded Spring Brewery July 30, 1891  Also co-owner of Vernon Brick yard  Vernon News microfilm  Other dates mentioned from family files.  70  The Wood & Rabbit store at Lansdowne, 1!  THE SAGA OF ROBERT WOOD  By W. J. Whitehead  As we contemplate the scene of our historical heritage, recognizing the  exploits and antics of our colourful forefathers, we sometimes overlook the  more obvious.  Our subject is one who contributed much to the establishment and development of two important areas of British Columbia, but of whom little has  been written.  Robert Wood was born on March 11, 1841. His parents were Rev. and  Mrs. Wm. Wood of Port Rowan, Ontario. His grandfather was Rev. John  Wood of Swanich Hall, North Derbyshire, England, one of the finest county  seats in the Midlands.  Robert Wood received his early education at Norfolk County Grammar  School. His ambition was to learn engineering. That desire not meeting with  his parents' wishes, he remained at home for three years, assisting with the  work of the farm.  Coming of age in the early 1860's, a time when the call of the west was  becoming most distinct, Wood set his course in that direction. He landed in  Victoria on March 16, 1862. That same year he joined the rush to the gold-  fields of the Cariboo, but like so many others, he gained much in experience  but had little success.  His next venture was farming just over the border a few miles in the  Washington Territory. There he continued for three years but the lonely vigilante type of living was not to his taste. He then removed to one of the, at that  time, disputed islands of the straits. There he continued in farming and stock  raising for several years. He had discovered the market for food supplies so  necessary to the gold seekers. It was more renumerative than his original goal  as a miner.  In 1872 Mr. Wood settled on the North Arm of the Fraser River. He re- 71  mained there for ten years, during which time he engaged in an intensive and  high quality type of farming. Due to ill health, he sold his holdings in 1882,  and seeking a better climate, he secured land and settled in the Spallumcheen  district, of the North Okanagan.  In 1883, he combined interests with Mr. D. Rabbit, who was a recent arrival from Nova Scotia. Together, they started a trading store. This was the  first store in this area. It was built about seventy-five yards west of the old Mc-  Quarrie farm house on Lansdowne Road. Previous to the establishment of  this store, settlers would have to travel to O'Keefes, at the head of the Lake, or  on to Kamloops to do their trading.  There were living quarters in the upstairs portion of the building. These  were rented by Mr. and Mrs. T. N. Hayes, recent arrivals from Yale. Mr.  Hayes was engaged in construction work for the Canadian Pacific railway.  Mrs. Hayes kept boarders, among others her two brothers, Mark and Roland  Hill.  A son, Newman, was born to the Hayes on December 23, 1884. On the  morning of January 1, 1885, with the temperature standing at thirty degrees  below zero, the building and contents were destroyed by fire. Mrs. Hayes, carrying her baby son in her arms, escaped through the snowdrifts to the home of  Mrs. Wallace near what was later to be Lansdowne. There she was attended  by Dr. Offerhaus, a recent arrival and the first doctor in the district. Her condition was such, that it was necessary for her to return to her home in Montreal for treatment, before she was considered well enough to return west.  Mr. Wood and Mr. Rabbit suffered much financial loss from the fire.  Their enterprising spirit was not dampened. A third partner, Mr. E. C.  Cargill was taken into the partnership and the name of the firm was changed  to E. C. Cargill and Company. The store was rebuilt, not in the same location, but a few hundred yards to the south east, where the hamlet of Lansdowne was soon to develop. More settlers were coming into the district and  the business quickly grew into a very profitable venture.  Mr. Wood did not confine his interests only to the mercantile trade. The  buying and selling of land was a main speculation of the times. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway across Canada and the impending entry  of the Shuswap and Okanagan rail line into the North Okanagan caused  much activity in this venture. Mr. Wood and his associates secured a tract of  land south-west of Lansdowne. It was wet and swampy, with a sandy ridge in  the centre, known locally as the "Island." It had nothing in its favour, other  than location. While other land owners were attempting to drive a hard bargain with the railway company, Mr. Wood came to a satisfactory agreement  with them. Subsequently, the townsite was surveyed by R. S. Pelly, P.L.S.  Every alternate lot was deeded to Riley, Patterson and Company, the builders  of the railway. Thus settlement commenced.  Mr. Wood and Mr. Rabbit favoured the name of Aberdeen for the new  town. Mr. Rabbit had been appointed the new Postmaster. The railway people wished to honour one of their financial supporters, hence the name of  Armstrong was decided on. Mr. George Patchett is credited with building the  first residence. This was followed by the construction of the Armstrong Hotel  by Mr. T. W. Fletcher for Mr. Hugh Keyes. This hotel is still in operation.  With the establishment of the new town, there quickly followed a migration of residents and businesses, including the little Anglican Church, to the 72  hitherto despised little upstart in the swamps. Lansdowne quickly became a  ghost village. Only two or three families continued in their present homes.  The need for more organized local government was soon apparent. The  Municipality of Spallumcheen came into being in September, 1892, with  Robert Wood as an elected member of the first council. His popularity may  be noted by the fact that he topped the poll with 69 votes.  The next three years was a very active period for Mr. Wood. He was concerned with the development and sale of his town property, also with the operation of the Wood and Cargill general store. He purchased more land holdings, including the Herman Witcher farm at Lansdowne, and there were  other commercial ventures that claimed some of his attention. His name appears in connection with the proposed flour mill for Armstrong. This report  was shown later to be only rumour, but there was involvement in planning a  similar mill in Vernon. Because of failure to come to terms with the other  principals in the venture, a Mr. Megaw in particular, an amiable contract  was not completed.  His position on the Spallumcheen Council required much of his attention. News items in the weekly press indicate that not everything was clear  sailing. Mr. Burnette appears to have caused Council much concern with his  closing of public roads with gates. Sources of information do not indicate Mr.  Wood's ability to handle such matters in a diplomatic manner. Perhaps he  was impervious to municipal abuse. This particular problem seems to have  been one of many that came under his committee.  He was quite often referred to in the "Social News." In November, 1893  there is an item telling of his return to the district after visiting his mining interests in the South Okanagan.  Earlier in the year, he had suffered a stroke, leaving some paralysis on  the left side of his face. This caused some concern and resulted in various trips  to Kamloops, Victoria and Vancouver. Eventually, he travelled to England,  and, upon his return from there, there seems to have been an improvement in  his health.  In May of 1894, he is listed as a supporter of Donald Graham, candidate  for M.L. A. In June of that year, he was re-elected as treasurer of his lodge. In  October, he was selected for the grand jury of the Fall Assizes.  In January of 1895, Mr. Wood had a letter published in the Vernon  News. In this letter, he stated the facts and his arguments concerning the  much-disputed flour mill project. This may have been the 'finale' to his activities in the Okanagan. Early in 1895, his interests suddenly changed to the  Boundary Creek area, in the southern part of the province.  With the fabulous mineral discoveries in the Rossland district, and similar claims all along the International border, mining was once again to hold  public interest. This time, it was hard rock or quartz mining, rather than the  placer type, that had first captured attention in the Rock Creek district thirty  years previously.  It will be remembered that mention has already been made of Mr.  Wood's interest in mining. No doubt this was the forerunner of his shift of activities from the Okanagan to the Boundary country. Subsequently he purchased two sections of land on Boundary Creek. There he built a log store and  named the site Greenwood.  Following his usual pattern of operation, he began looking about for fi- 73  nancial participation. A company was quickly formed with partners George  Arthur Rendell, Ralph S. Smails and C. Scott Gallaway. Their first efforts included the clearing of a townsite and the straightening of the course of Boundary Creek.  Recognizing the advantage of being available as a supply centre to the  miners, Mr. Wood and company quickly improved roads to the mines. Attention was given to Phoenix, Deadwood, Mother Lode, Copper Camp,  Summit and Jewel camps.  In 1898, the B.C. Copper Company was formed and a smelter planned.  The Columbia Western Railway, branch of the C.P.R., was extended from  Nelson to Midway. Greenwood was incorporated as a city in 1897. Mr. Robert  Wood was elected as the first mayor.  Improvements soon followed incorporation. Streets were graded, miles of  sidewalks laid and water works installed. Telephone and electricity followed  in quick succession. Greenwood became a modern city almost over night.  Among other notable achievements, was the building of the Court House and  the establishment of the first Supreme Court in B.C. This was the beginning  of a most profitable and exciting era for the community. Greenwood was to  continue at a frenzied pace for the next decade. Very quickly, large and imposing hotels and other commercial buildings were constructed. New homes  popped up like mushrooms after a summer rain. The usual social and business life of a new and progressive city was the norm for the metropolis of  Greenwood.  During the relatively short period of twelve years, Mr. Wood had been  deeply involved in the establishment and development of Lansdowne, Armstrong and finally Greenwood. He continued in this latter city for the remainder of his active years.  There is a short note in the Boundary Creek Times of July 10, 1903, telling of his visit to Ottawa and to his old home at Port Rowan, Ontario. From  then on, information concerning Mr. Wood becomes very scarce. Present day  residents of Greenwood think he may have retired to Victoria during World  War I. Mr. Summersgill, a former postmaster, knew Mr. Wood casually, but  says he left the district before 1919. Mrs. K. Dewdney, another old time resident of the Boundary area, remembers Mr. Wood and thought he had gone  to Penticton upon his retirement.  During the early days of western development, Mr. Wood had made and  left his mark in many places. He would now be in his late seventies. Perhaps it  was his wish to quietly fade into oblivion.  REFERENCES  Biographical Dictionary of well known British Columbians, J. B. Kerr.  History of Armstrong, J. Sera.  Early files of the Vernon News ,  Boundary Creek Times  Boundary Historical Reports.  Okanagan Historical Society Reports. 74  The old Adelphi Hotel at Westwold, formerly known as Grande Prairie, offered a pleasant haven  85 years ago on the long journey to Kamloops from Vernon.  ADELPHI HOTEL  By Jean Touminen  The journey to Kamloops from Vernon can be long, dusty and tiring.  The traveller would be well-advised to break his journey by staying the night  at the Adelphi Hotel in Grande Prairie.  Well, of course, that applied if you were travelling in 1895. Since then  there have been a few changes. The road from Vernon to Kamloops is paved  and designated as Highway 97. Grande Prairie is now Westwold, and the  Adelphi no longer accepts paying customers. It sits by the roadside, a large,  weathered relic of another era, windowless, doorless, but an effective reminder of life in the early part of this century.  In 1895, Walter Homfray, owner of a 640-acre ranch, built the Adelphi  Hotel on his land in Grande Prairie and it became a major stop-over for  travellers. At that time, there was a porch running around the bottom half of  the building. Homfray added a store at one end and this was later run by  Thomas Knight and his partner, E. W. Hoole. Mr. Hoole eventually built a  store and post office on another piece of land down the road.  KEEN HORSEMAN  Homfray, who was a keen horseman, owned a dandy little race horse  named Fancy Free. He built a race track behind the hotel, where he lived on  the second floor. The track had a judge's stand, a grandstand and was the  scene of very successful race meets, attended by people from many miles  away. The Indians from the Douglas Lake area often came down and  camped in the timber, joining in the meet, pitting their horses against ranch  and breed stock.  In 1911, Homfray sold the ranch and the Adelphi to an Englishman, 75  Colonel G. C. Whitaker. The new manager, A. P. Foster, lived in Kamloops  but travelled out in his car, one of the earliest in the area, to check on the  ranch. Whitaker came from England on the occasional visit, staying in  Kamloops while he was here. In 1913, he built a new hotel and named it the  Pylewell, after his home in England. By that time, Percy Cotton and his wife  had been managing the Adelphi for two years and they moved over to the  Pylewell, staying there until about 1916. For the next twenty years, the  Adelphi was used only sporadically as a residence.  RAILWAY BUILT  By 1924, when the CNR was built through the area, it became necessary  to settle on a name for the town, which would not conflict with any other  place. Grande Prairie was duly changed to Westwold.  Evander McLeod brought his wife and family down from the Robin  Range in 1933 to lease the Whitaker Ranch for $400 a year and they moved  into the old Adelphi. The McLeod family is an established part of the Kamloops area but relatively new to Westwold. Evander's son, Laverne, and his  wife, Peggy, have since taken over the ranch and live next door to the old  hotel. Their son, Scott, intends to carry on the ranching tradition. Laverne  vividly recalls living in the Adelphi, more for the cold than anything else.  "When it was thirty below outside, it was twenty-five below inside." Originally  built without plumbing or insulation, it left something to be desired when trying to make a cozy home. A major task each year was the cutting of enough  wood to last the winter in the three stoves downstairs and one up. Water left  in a pan overnight would be frozen the next morning. Linoleum covered the  old floor boards which would freeze and crack. Yet, in spite of it all, Laverne's  mother managed to keep the Adelphi a warm and hospitable place.  BORROWED MONEY  Eventually a neighbour got wind of the possibility of buying the ranch  and put a deposit on it. Not wanting to lose the land, Evander went to  Kamloops and borrowed $5,000 for a down payment. The McLeods now own  620 acres, the other 20 having been divided into roadside lots, accounting for  many of the smaller homes along the highway. Evander and his wife lived in  the Adelphi until 1953 when they moved to the Gordon place, built by one of  the managers of the ranch during Whitaker's time.  Laverne recalls the years when cowboys from the Douglas Lake Ranch  would drive their cattle down to Westwold for wintering. They bought hay  from around the countryside and fed maybe 800 cattle from Christmas on.  Usually the men stayed in the Pylewell Hotel and spent some time with the  McLeods. About 1939, the army went through with horses and stopped over  by Pylewell, using it for probably the last time. There were horses tied to every  post and fence in the area.  April, 1943, saw the end of the Pylewell Hotel, as fire demolished it. The  wind was blowing so hard at the time that shingles from the building sailed  hundreds of yards down the road.  Just a couple of years ago, the old store was torn off the Adelphi and now  the hotel stands next to the barns, a grey, haunting presence linking the ribbon of asphalt carrying its steel and chrome vehicles, to the day of buggies,  wagons and a horse called Fancy Free. 76  THE STORY OF THE FALKLAND STAMPEDE  By Una Haller  The Falkland Stampede is the success story of what one small community  can do with total community involvement.  The population of Falkland is five hundred plus. By the second day of  the Stampede, which is always on the Victoria Day holiday, it has jumped to  ten thousand or more.  How did it all start?  About the end of the First World War the pioneer families celebrated  Victoria Day with a community picnic. They came by wagon, buggy and saddle horse. They came to visit and picnic, for a ball game, tug of war, and  children's races.  One year a work horse, unbroken to saddle, was ridden by young Eddie  King on a bet. The following year they built a small corral. Two of the homesteaders, Henry Currie of the Falkland Ranch, and Tom Smith, brought  some horses to town. After the picnic lunch, a jackpot purse was collected.  There was no fenced area, and no pick-up men. The cowboy must ride his  horse to a standstill. Sometimes the horse would run, and horse and rider  would disappear into the trees at the edge of the clearing, or the cowboy  would grab a branch and swing off.  The Falkland Stampede was off and running.  The early Stampedes were a great event in the lives of the people who  made their own entertainment. The settlers came from miles around, to visit  with neighbours they seldom saw. More riders came each year to try their  luck. There were cowgirls too, who could hold their own with the men at steer  riding. Sometimes there were horse races - about a third of a mile straight up  the road!  By 1939 it had moved to the present grounds. Each year more chutes,  corrals and other facilities, including a covered grandstand, were added.  In 1931, a Mrs. Beddoes taught Maypole Dancing to the Falkland school  children. For the next thirty years the Maypole Dance was an integral part of  the May Day celebration. It took place in front of the grandstand before the  stampede. In later years, the schools of Falkland, Westwold and Monte Lake  competed for a Rose Bowl. Each school set up their own Maypole. The little  girls' dresses matched the streamers while the boys were handsome in white  shirts and dark pants. The dancers performed intricate patterns, first unwinding, then rewinding the coloured streamers around the Maypole. The  ceremony was presided over by a May Queen and two princesses, elected by  their fellow students. The first May Day Queen was Adeline Fergason.  By the early 1960's, stampede events were filling the whole day. The  children's races and Maypole Dancing had to be held on a different day. Sad  to say, the Maypole did not survive for long.  Shortly after the professional rodeo circuit was established, the Falkland  Stampede turned professional. Nineteen-sixty four was the year the community decided they needed a Rodeo Queen, to lead the parade and represent Falkland at other celebrations. Kathy Inskip was crowned as Rodeo  Queen.  The attendance continued to increase. So did the list of competitors,  which now included such famous names as Mel Hyland, Jim Gladstone, Dale 77  Trottier, Joe Alexander, John Dodds and Brian Claypool. Now too, there  were Brahama bulls and professional clowns on the program.  Nineteen-seventy saw the stampede become a two-day rodeo. The  Falkland Stampede had come a long way from the old community picnic.  Credit for the smooth running professional rodeo must go to a few dedicated, hardworking people, who, over the years, have become very good at  their job. But total community involvement on a volunteer basis is the secret  of the stampede. The people of the community take pride in their own  Falkland Stampede. Profits are used to pay the expenses of running the village, which is unincorporated.  Preparations are now complete in the "biggest little rodeo town in the  world," for this week's Falkland Stampede.  Under the direction of Falkland Community Association president, Cam  Wilson, an army of 150 volunteers has mended the last fence, ordered the hot  dogs, circulated posters and done the countless tasks involved in staging  North America's largest and most successful two-day rodeo.  Work begins as much as six months in advance for the show, which last  year drew 18,000 spectators over two days to the tiny community of 450. This  year is expected to be bigger still with 235 of the best rodeo competitors in the  world competing for more than $13,000.00 in prize money.  COMMUNITY EFFORT  How does an unincorporated village, that is overlooked on most maps,  stage one of the featured events of the professional rodeo circuit?  The answer lies with the people of the area. The money that the  Stampede brings in after all the bills have been paid goes directly back into  the community to provide little extras that very few places of similar size offer.  Last year, more than $10,000.00 in rodeo proceeds went to fund such community services as maintenance for the skating rink, ball diamond, community hall and youth centre, as well as to keep street lights burning at night and  to run the local garbage dump.  These people know that no one else is going to give them these services  and they are not above putting in hours of work to see them maintained.  Rodeo Manager Mervin Churchill says it is the fact that virtually 100 per  cent of the labour that goes into the Stampede is voluntary. That ensures its  growth and success every year.  "Other rodeos farm out moneymakers like the beer gardens to service  clubs and have businesses sponsor the various events and then wonder why  they don't make any money."  It just has never occurred to the people of Falkland that they need professional help in putting on the show and they want to keep it in the family.  The logistics involved in accommodating the huge crowds in such a small  area would present tremendous headaches to organizations that don't have  the community resources that Falkland has. Where, for example, do you cook  the 700 pounds of roast beef that will be consumed by hungry spectators during the rodeo?  "There will be roasts in the oven at 30 different households over the two  days to supply the meat for beef on a bun," says Wilson. 78  PARKING LOTS  Residents are also allowing their fields to be used as parking lots and do  their best to ignore the boisterous revelry of the celebrants.  Area businesses are also gearing up for the weekend. Campgrounds and  motels have been booked solid for two months. Stores have their stockrooms  full to overflowing in order to meet the extra demand the influx will bring.  "I've ordered over $1,000 worth of cigarettes and $800 worth of pop as  well as stocked up on canned goods and just about everything else," said Mel  Gorgichuk, owner of the Kam Ver Lando Motel. "I just hope it's enough."  At the Cedar Inn Cafe, manager Dot King has been planning for the  weekend for two weeks. In addition to ordering four times as much food as she  normally would, she is hiring six extra staff members and extending her hours  of operation from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. But despite all this she knows she can't  possibly keep up to the demand in her 50-seat restaurant.  BUSINESS BOOMS  "We have to keep the doors locked most of the time and only let in cus-  tomes as others leave," she said. "Most of the time they're lined up right  around the block waiting for a place."  As might be expected, the local pub does a booming business as hot,  tired spectators seek out its cool recesses for a refreshing brew or two.  Bar Manager Ruth Wilson says she has ordered about three times as  much beer as usual, to accommodate the crowd, but stresses that the patrons  are there to have a good time and not cause trouble.  "We've never had any big hassle. It's just two days of a rollicking good  time, you might say."  SECURITY GUARDS  Just to be sure that the "rollicking good time" remains just that, the two-  man R.C.M.P. detachment will be bolstered by eight other members, from  detachments throughout the area. There will also be several auxiliary members on duty and eight security guards from a private agency have been hired  to keep an eye on things at events where the potential for trouble exists.  Constable Andy Peebles, of the Falkland R.C.M.P. said he doesn't expect any real problems.  "The extra men are just for crowd control. We have no specific plans. It's  just going to be business as usual," he said.  He also warned that revellers that do get carried away can't expect any  kind of break from the police just because it's Stampede time. It will be enforcement as usual. "We'll be particularly looking for violations of the Liquor  Act and Motor Vehicle Act," he said. 79  CHIEF ROBERT NEWTON CLERKE  AND ELIZABETH JOHNSTON CLERKE  "THE CHIEF"  By Dr. A. S. Clerke  Robert Newton Clerke was born  on March 3, 1880 at Birch Hill  House, Blarney, County Cork,  Southern Ireland. He was the grandson of Richard Hungerford Clerke,  Bealad House, Clonakilty and the  4th son of James Clerke and Mary  Jane Shaw. He was also a descendant  of Captain Charles Clerke, second-  in-command of Captain James  Cook's third voyage of discovery to  the Pacific. (Captain Charles Clerke  assumed command of the expedition  on the death of Captain Cook at  Hawaii in 1779.)  Robert N. Clerke was educated  at Carmichael School in Cork, and  while a young, man managed his  father's large farm after his father  had passed away. In his early twenties, he joined the famous Irish Constabulary and remained with them  until the spring of 1906, when he left  the Emerald Isle to come to Canada.  His boat docked in New York  Where    he   made   his   way   north   to Chief Robert Newton (R. N.) Clerke.  Montreal and heard the cry, "Go west, young man, go west." He then travelled by train to Winnipeg, then to Regina, and finally to Calgary, where he  worked for the Pat Burns Company. After a short stay with this meat company, he went to the state of Washington to visit his brother, Reginald, and  from there to south-eastern British Columbia to work for the Crow's Nest Pass  Coal Company at Coal Creek Colliery from July 1, 1906, to some time in  1907, when he joined the police force in Fernie as jailer. He was promoted to  Chief Constable in 1909, a position he held until he resigned on May 13,  1911, to take a similar position in Vernon.  It is interesting to note that Fernie, during the first decade and the early  part of the second decade of this country, was an open, wild west type of town  similar to Barkerville in the Yukon gold rush days.  Mines in the Boundary and Kootenay Country were running to capacity,  and within two miles of the city there were three great sawmills and numerous  logging camps.  In that city alone, there were eleven hotels and saloons, each with an  open bar which never closed day or night. Those were the days when blackjack, tin horn gamblers, and professional poker players abounded. Pianists  banged out tunes without a moment's silence throughout twenty-four hours, 80  while Sunday saw greater activity than any other day of the week.1  Another and even more sinister side of Fernie at that time was the infamous Italian Black Hand or "Manu Nero." This gang, comprised of Ex-  Sicilian Italians and organized from New York, practised extortion among its  fellow countrymen and was feared next to death itself.  The arrest of twelve ringleaders of the Black Hand was planned and carried out by Chief Constable Cook, with the assistance of his young Constable,  R. N. Clerke.  During the preliminary hearing of the men five of them broke jail,  throwing the entire Italian population of that area into a panic. The trial had  been going on for weeks, and every witness was given permission to carry a  gun.1  In the middle of the night, some two weeks later, while patrolling a lonely section of the railway not far from the Montana border, Constable Clerke  surprised the five men, captured three single-handedly, and held the other  two at bay until help arrived. For this action he was especially commended by  W. J. Bowser, then the Attorney-General of the Province.  On the afternoon of August 1, 1908, a nearby bush fire spread out of  control and razed the entire city of Fernie. As a result of this fire, the twenty-  five prisoners in jail were released except for the twelve members of the Black  Hand, who were handcuffed together and placed in a railway box car under  the care of Constable Richard Bowen. Looting and crimes of all description  were rampant in the city, and it was through the efforts of Constable Clerke  and Constable Bowen, plus a greatly augmented police force, that some  semblance of order was restored to the burnt-out city. (Constable Bowen later  moved to Vernon with the Provincial Police Force and raised his family  there.) For his heroic efforts in saving animals and people from the fire, Constable Clerke was presented with a gold watch by the city of Fernie. Inside the  back of this watch is inscribed "twenty year guarantee." It is now in the possession of the Chiefs younger son Paddy, and seventy-one years later (1980)  still keeps perfect time.  Early in the year 1911, Chief Clerke received an unmarked letter. Upon  opening this letter, the Chief found only a clipping from the Vancouver Daily  Province advertising the position of Chief Constable in the City of Vernon. He  answered this advertisement, was successful in his application, and commenced duties in the City of Vernon on June 15, 1911. Chief Clerke never did  find out who had mailed him that clipping.  Chief Clerke's wife to be, Elizabeth Johnston, was born on October 10,  1889, in Recarson, Omagh, County Tyrone, Ireland. After completing her  eduction in Ireland, she left home and went to London, England, where she  worked as secretary for the manager of an export-import company. It was  while here that she paraded with the suffragettes for what she believed in and  what is so often taken for granted by women of today. In 1911 she left the Old  Country to come to Vernon. Her uncle, James Lyons, had lived in Vernon  prior to this, and on his return to Ireland gave such glowing reports of the  Okanagan that his niece could not resist the temptation to come to Canada to  visit her younger brother Andrew, who had arrived in Vernon some time  before. James Lyons had considerable land holdings in the Vernon area, not  the least of which was the area where Poison Park is now situated. James  Lyons was on the first City Council when the city of Vernon was incorporated 81  in 1893. Elizabeth Johnston's first job in Vernon was as secretary with  Megaw's Store, then situated where the present Bagnall Block is now located.  Robert Clerke and Elizabeth Johnston were married on Tuesday, July 15,  1913, at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church in Vernon. Best man was Dolph  Browne, well known business man in Vernon who also was educated at Carmichael School in Cork, Ireland. Mary Postill of the Postill Ranch in Kelowna  was bridesmaid. It is of interest to note that Dolph Browne proposed the toast  to the bride at the Clerke's youngest daughter's (Nora) wedding thirty-two  years later.  For his wife and future family Chief Clerke built a large house, which is  still standing today at 1501 - 35th Avenue, Vernon.  During the next twelve years, Chief and Mrs. Clerke had five children,  two sons and three daughters.  It is difficult to ascertain who was on the police force in Vernon at the  time of Chief Clerke's arrival from Fernie. It is known that Constable Edwards  was Acting Chief and resigned when Chief Clerke arrived. Others on staff at  that time were Constable Clark and Constable Moffat, while Thomas French  was added in May, 1912.  The military training camp at Vernon during World War I demanded  strenuous efforts from the Vernon City Police Force. The task of policing the  several thousand soldiers at the Vernon Military Camp, within the confines of  the city, fell to Chief Clerke and his constables. At one time during the war,  his efforts saved one of the military policemen from a lynching, by a crowd of  one thousand angered soldiers.  After the war, Chief Clerke's interest in ranching was renewed. Little by  little over the next twelve to fourteen years he acquired land, chickens and  cattle. His fierce spirit of competition led him to the philosophy of "second  best not good enough." He started breeding and showing Rhode Island Red  Chickens with great success. He showed birds from Chicago to San Francisco  and north into this province, winning numerous awards and trophies. He sold  fertilized eggs from Record of Performance hens and cockerels all over North  America.  With his family growing in age and number, the Chief bought a milch  cow. Soon one cow led to two, and within a few years a sizeable dairy and beef  herd was located around the house and newly constructed barns at what was  then called North Street East.  He gradually eased out of poultry, and in 1932 purchased his first purebred Herefords at a dispersal sale in Alberta. His uncanny ability to pick out  top animals quickly resulted in his coming away from sales with some of the  best animals in the country. One particular cow, registered as Panama Lady  6th, was undefeated at the Toronto Royal, Canada's largest Agricultural  Show. In fact, this cow was never beaten in the ring. She was supposed to be  past her breeding age when the Chief purchased her, but he managed to baby  her along and she produced four more calves.  The registered herd finally increased until he had two herds on the show  circuit and, together with his ever-increasing commercial herd, he possessed  about seven hundred head. By this time, land purchased and leased  amounted to about 15,000 acres.  As there was never enough hay to feed these cattle, most of them had to  be driven to Falkland, Westwold, Enderby and Armstrong to winter. 82  Part of the Hereford herd.  The Chief and Mrs. Clerke named their enterprise the N. C. Ranch and  there were many highlights during their years of raising, showing, and selling  registered Herefords. In March, 1938, their second daughter, Mary Isabelle  "Molly" Clerke, showed and sold her Grand Champion steer at the Kamloops  Fat Stock and Bull Sale. The purchaser, Safeway Stores, bought the animal  for the all-time record price of 3K per lb., giving Molly $252.00, less sale expenses.  In 1939, the N. C. Ranch, with two groups of show stock on two separate  circuits, won eighty-nine ribbons at Armstrong, Kamloops, Vancouver,  (P.N.E.), and Victoria. Included amongst these ribbons were four grand  champions, three champions, two senior champions, one reserve champion,  one junior champion, one reserve grand champion, five reserve champions,  twenty-eight firsts, twenty-six seconds, thirteen thirds and five fourths.  Among these were both the male and female B.C. bred Supreme Grand  Champions of British Columbia. Quite a record for the Chief and Mrs. Clerke  who had only been in the registered Hereford business for seven years.  Undoubtedly the culmination of the years of dedication, hard work, and  singleness of purpose occurred for the Clerkes in March, 1940, when a thirty-  month old Hereford bull, Panama Fairfield, sold at the Annual Kamloops  February 8, 1931. The milk cows in the foreground and the range in the background. Horse barn  in background with cattle shed on three sides. Notice pigeons on the cow barn. 83  Bull Sale for $1,050.00. This beautiful animal was purchased by the Douglas  Lake Cattle Company and commanded the highest price ever paid for a  Hereford bull at this prestigious sale.  Chief Clerke was very active in the B.C. Hereford Association and served  as its president in 1937-38. In 1973, this Association started an honour roll  plaque, honouring the pioneer B.C. Hereford breeders who had contributed  significantly to the provincial cattle business. In 1974, Chief Clerke's name  was added posthumously to this plaque.  During the many years of ranching, Mrs. Clerke worked alongside the  Chief doing much of the paper work in connection with the registration of  animals. The preparation of entries for shows, and the exacting work of transferring registration papers when animals were sold was left to her. During the  haying season there were seldom less than fifteen hired men to cook for, plus  her own family of seven. She was an extremely well-organized woman, and  always kept her kitchen clock twenty minutes fast so she would be ahead of the  constant rush and work. It was seldom during these busy years that there  weren't several pots or pails on the large kitchen stove cooking up some special  concoction of the Chiefs order, as he gave preferential feed to special animals, ensuring that they be second to none. So, not only did she have her own  family and hired men to feed, but also some of the animals found fare from  her kitchen stove.  Because of ill health, Chief Clerke was forced to retire from the Vernon  City Police Force on May 31, 1936, at the age of fifty-six. At that time his  term of office was believed to constitute a record in Canadian Police Annals.  The policing of the City of Vernon was taken over by Provincial Police, and  the three young constables in the persons of Mew, Garven and Quinn, who  were trained by Chief Clerke, were added to the Provincial Police Force.  Beside the Chiefs great ability to judge chickens and cattle, he had a  great love for nature. He knew the names of most of the birds and wild flowers  indigenous to the Okanagan Valley. During the last two years of his life when  he was mostly bed-ridden because of heart and respiratory problems, he never  tired of hearing about wild life or what was going on in the outside world.  The Chief was a great sportsman and keen hunter. He was a longtime  member of the Vernon Fish and Game Club and was on the committee that  introduced pheasants to the Okanagan. Once a year he organized a huge  hunting party that started at 5:00 a.m. with a large breakfast at his house,  cooked by his wife. Then, either by car or horse, depending on roads, they  went to the hunting grounds where one and all were told what do to and when  to do it! These were the days when pheasants were plentiful and there were  many good shots and good dogs. It was a delight to watch these hunters and  splendid dogs working. Few shots were missed and all birds dropped were retrieved. Everyone would gather at lunch time to eat a hearty lunch, again  prepared by the Chiefs wife. At the end of the day, all would again gather in  the Chiefs house to partake of a gourmet dinner prepared by Mrs. Clerke,  with the Clerke's two elder daughters Kathleen and Molly, serving table.  Beautiful days in this beautiful valley.  One of the men in this hunt was Tommy Hyland, Manager of the Over-  waitea, and a good Irishman. Tommy's keen sense of competition made it  hard for others to get the game he did, and he always had an excellent dog. 84  Jim Edwards, the City Clerk, was another ardent hunter. Hugh Heggie, City  Magistrate, did not like walking too much, so he hunted the flat country. Two  of the best duck shots were W. S. Harris, owner and publisher of the Vernon  News, and Dr. J. E. Harvey, a local physician. As Dr. Harvey had a bad leg,  he preferred duck shooting and seldom did he or Mr. Harris miss their birds  when a flock came into view.  Chief R. N. Clerke with trophy.  Chief Clerke had a reputation for being hard but fair, and on finding a  juvenile in trouble his question always seemed to be "what would your parents  think if they knew about this?" His philosophy seemed to work well, for there  was very little juvenile delinquency or vandalism in Vernon. Of course youngsters in those days had lots to do, as most people had a milch cow and some  chickens, or a wood and coal furnace, all of which in themselves required constant effort.  The Clerkes were probably one of the first couples to have a summer  "home" on the lake. This home, consisting of a large tent, was located on the  north arm of Okanagan Lake on Indian Reserve property and was of the most  rustic nature. Cooking facilities were primitive, water had to be hauled from  the lake. There were no hot water facilities nor bath tubs, and of course, no  refrigeration. These were difficult days for Mrs. Clerke and it is doubtful if  she really enjoyed the "luxury" of a summer home.  Each Sunday at camp the family trekked off the eight or ten miles to  church on horseback and buck-board. All of the Clerke children had  numerous pins and yearly bars to signify so many years of going to Sunday  School without ever missing a Sunday. Indeed, their youngest daughter,  Nora, went for fifteen consecutive years without ever missing a Sunday.  Chief Clerke was a staunch member of the Methodist Church and his  wife of the Presbyterian Church, and when the union of these two churches  took place in 1925, they were strong supporters of the United Church of  Canada. 85  Chief Clerke was also a member of the Masonic Order and was active in  Miriam Lodge No. 20 in Vernon.  After retirement, the Chiefs health continued to deteriorate. In 1939, he  was forced to bed and had to contend with running his large and valuable  herd of cattle from the confines of his bedroom. For a man so dedicated and  active, this was a most frustrating position. His second daughter, "Molly,"  had full charge of the show circuit that year and the training by the Chief  paid off, for the championships and ribbons still poured in. Fortunately, the  Chiefs health rallied a bit and he was able to be in attendance at the Kamloops show when his very special bull sold for the record price in 1940. Little  did he know at that time, when the bidding reached $1,000.00 and he had to  go over to the corner of the ring, lean on the railings, remove his hat and wipe  his brow, that he had only sixteen months to live, and that the "empire" he  had so carefully and painstakingly accumulated in his lifetime would collapse  around his family.  Chief Robert Newton Clerke died on July 16, 1941, at the age of sixty-  one.  The crushing responsibility of the management of the entire N. C.  Ranch fell heavily and suddenly on the shoulders of his wife, an onerous job in  normal times but an almost impossible job in wartime when labour of any  kind was so difficult to get. She prevailed upon Mr. W. A. McMorran of the  famous Harper Ranch in Kamloops to allow his elder son, Melvin, to come to  Vernon and act as herdsman until a dispersal sale could be effected.  With the exception of the Chiefs favourite horse "Duke" and one milch  cow, the entire cattle herd was sold at auction on June 9, 1942. This was the  end of an era and a sad day in the annals of the Hereford industry in British  Columbia.  Elizabeth Clerke managed the affairs of the N. C. Ranch with great vigor  until the dispersal sale of the cattle. She then had to face the task of selling the  many parcels of land. About one-third of the range land, commonly called  the N. C. Range, was expropriated by the Federal Department of National  Defence in 1942. The last piece of land did not sell until shortly before her  death on December 31, 1975. The large old house on 35th Avenue was sold in  1969 when she moved to the less rigorous confines of an apartment in town.  It is interesting to note that the last parcel of land, comprising some two  hundred acres, has recently been resold to the British Columbia Government,  and in May of 1979 it was dedicated by the Provincial Government as the site  of the new Okanagan College Campus in Vernon. Included in the curriculum  at this College is to be a faculty of Agriculture. Such an establishment will be  an everlasting memento to the agricultural enterprise of the Chief and Mrs.  Clerke.  The Chief was a stern taskmaster to all of his family, and his old creed of  "second best is not good enough" he tried to pass on to his children. Chief  Clerke and his wife Elizabeth created a small empire in this valley in difficult  times during the depression, when so many families had little to eat. Although times were difficult and luxuries few, the family always had good food  on the table and suitable clothes to wear. It must be remembered too, that the  Chiefs starting salary on the Vernon City Police Force was only $125.00 per  month.  Two strong-willed and dedicated people,  both focused on the same 86  enterprise and each with a strong belief in God and their fellow man, were  convinced in their minds that anything was not only possible but also very  probable. They carved their own niche in this valley and their legacy was the  love, affection, respect and admiration of those whom their lives touched.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  The Vernon News, July 4, 1936.  The family scrap books were also used to great advantage. However, most of the clippings  do not acknowledge the paper from whence they came or the date printed.  OK Mission School, 1936. 87  Editor's Note: The following article was written by Richard  Mellish in 1965. The bracket notations were added by his daughter,  Marjorie Glaicar. It is now known as Grandview Flats.  HISTORY OF GRAND VIEW FLAT, NEAR ARMSTRONG  By Richard Mellish  I am Richard Mellish; I was born in Prince Edward Island in 1890.  When I was 6 years old, my folks moved to Kelowna, British Columbia. Two  years later, we all moved to what is now called Grand View Flat.  My father, Thomas Mellish, first rented a half section of land from a  man named Mr. Wilson, and took up farming there. There was a log barn  and a log house on the premises at the time. We lived there for quite a  number of years, in fact I grew up there. (These buildings were on the Page  Road, on the left side, just on the brow of the hill.) As Grand View Flat grew  and prospered and became quite an important place, I too grew up with it. I  have watched the changes year after year right up to the present day.  I'll explain how Grand View Flat got its name. One day when Mr. Wilson  was at our place, he took me for a walk up on the hill back of our house. We  climbed up on a high knoll and stood there looking across the country at the  view. He stood there and stared for some time and then he said, "Such a  wonderful view — such a grand view." He just couldn't get over it; this Mr.  Wilson was from Victoria and said he'd never seen anything like it in all his  travels. On returning to the house he told my father he was going to call this  Grand View Flat. My father thought it a good idea — so all their correspondence was addressed, Grand View Flat, Armstrong. My father spoke to  the postmaster, Mr. Jim Wright, about it and from then on that's what this  area was called. At that time I felt very honoured to be beside that "great"  man when he named a district.  Grand View Flat starts about six and one-half miles south-west of Armstrong. On the east we have the Otter Lake district, on the south we have the  Indian Reservation and Okanagan Lake, on the west is the highway between  Kamloops and Vernon, and on the north is Grand View Mountain. It is an  upland plateau of about 3,000 acres with fertile, black sandy soil, rolling and  hilly, but not steep describes the "flat." In the early days it was always open,  covered with bunch grass and sun flowers. There were poplar groves here and  there in the low areas. On the east fringe there was a stand of timber (fir and  pine); in fact some of these trees are still standing today.  When we first moved here in 1898, there were just five families, besides  ourselves; Mr. George Page, Mr. Frank Eden, Mr. Albert Evans, Mr. Montgomery and Mr. Shiell. At that time there was a lot of land broken up and put  into crop and farmed on a large scale. They raised grain, early potatoes, cattle and horses. In those days there were no cars, trucks, tractors, telephone, or  radio; and television wasn't even heard of. Everything you had to do was done  with horses. Working the land, hauling crops to town, any place you wanted  to go or anything you wanted to do, depended solely on the horse. So you see  it was very important to raise horses, and they had to be broken to the harness  or to ride. Therefore all the farmers and farmers' sons were good horsemen  and teamsters. In those days we worked a full ten hours in the fields, following 88  a team and walking plough or other machinery. In the evening there were  always chores to be done for a couple of hours. In the morning we rose at five  o'clock as we had to look after the horses. There was no such thing as a coffee  break in those days; three good meals a day and that was it.  The wages for farm hands was $25 to $30 per month. In harvest time the  going wage was $1.50 and board for a ten hour day. Generally, on a Saturday  afternoon, the farmer hitched up a team to a wagon, with boards across the  wagon box for seats, and took the whole family to town to get supplies for a  week or two. All the kids liked to go to town for the change. The grocer always  put a bag of candy in extra for the kids. My, how times have changed, no free  candy today.  There was no piped water on the flat at that time, no electricity and no  inside plumbing. The farmers all had wells on their property, and when these  went dry they had to haul water from the small creek on the Indian Reserve  (possibly Irish creek). Lying to the north-west of the Flat was Round Lake and  Round Lake range, a wide open bunch grass country for miles and miles.  Government land and Indian Reserves hadn't any fences, just free open  range, open to anyone. The farmers for miles around turned the cattle and  horses they weren't using out to pasture in the spring and rounded them up in  the fall. There were bunches of wild horses and Indian ponies roaming in  these areas.  Sometimes a bunch of us young fellows would ride out there and corral a  bunch of wild horses to practise riding and roping them. We usually did it on  a Sunday, much to the dislike of our parents. On one Sunday when we were  going home from an exciting time at the old corral, we dared each other to go  to Round Lake for a swim. After we finished, one of the lads decided to take  his horse for a swim. He mounted and got out a fair distance from shore but  got into difficulty. The horse reared over backwards and both were drowned.  (This man's name was Teddy Austin and he was Don Austin's brother.) It was  a very sad, sad day for us and we surely got lectured for breaking the Sabbath  and there were no more Sunday rides for us for a long time.  As a rule we went every two weeks to church in the Otter Lake School  House. (This was one of the rural schools and was situated at the junction of  the Corkscrew road and the Otter Lake road, but was about 300 or 400 yards  into the lower field.) This school was central for many children; the Grand  View, Larkin and O'Keefe children all went here. Most of them walked to  school, except the O'Keefe children who drove to school with a horse and  buggy or a sleigh. The teacher generally boarded at the O'Keefe Ranch. A  student minister held church services twice a month in the school and there  always was a good turnout. One thing about those old timers, they were all  honest and their word was law. A promise and a hand shake bound many a  deal as good as on paper. For example, you could tack a $10 bill on your gate  post in full view of anyone passing by, and no one would take it because it  wasn't his. How long would it last on your post today, I wonder?  There was a flour mill in Armstrong in the early days, so the farmers took  their grain in there to sell and also to have it ground for their flour and porridge. The flour sacks were of white cotton, thus very useful for making garments and underwear.  The nearest doctor was in Vernon, twelve miles away from our place.  One night my mother took very sick and we needed a doctor. My Dad saddled 89  up a horse, his fastest, and went for Doctor Morris in Vernon. The doctor  came in a horse and buggy, and as it was late, Dad told him to pick up a  neighbour lady, Mrs. Jim Shiell Sr., to guide him to our place. The night was  so dark the doctor could not see his way going up the Corkscrew road (it was  very narrow in those days), so Mrs. Shiell tied her white apron on her back  and walked ahead of the horse. In this way they arrived safely at our place.  The only lights we had were coal-oil lamps and lanterns. Many things  had to be thought out. One cold winter night an old batchelor, Frank Eden,  came home well after dark. He lit his fire and shut the oven door, stoking up  well as it was cold. Next morning he opened the oven door to put in his biscuits, and found he had roasted his two cats. He was quite deaf so did not her  them — hard on the cats.  The harvest was slow hard work, all done by horses. The grain was cut  with three horses in a binder, then stooked. The threshing was very costly as  the steam engine had to be pulled from place to place with horses; it also  needed wood and water. The separator had to be moved in the same way.  There were six stook teams, one tank team, and many of the workers came on  horseback — making well over twenty horses to feed and water. Now for the  men: there were six teamsters, one tank man, one engine man, one separator  man, four field pitchers, two band cutters, two men to feed the separator,  three men to attend the grain when it was threshed, and two to fork the straw  away — making twenty-two in all. All these men had to be fed by the farmer.  The farmers' wives cooked and prepared for days ahead and served two heavy  meals plus tea in the afternoon every day.  When the harvest was all in and the potatoes all dug and the fall plowing  done, the farmers could relax a little more during the winter months. Of  course they had to cut their wood and tend the stock. To make an extra  dollar, some farmers cut ice on Otter Lake to supply the town of Armstrong.  (The ice was cut in blocks and loaded onto sleighs and hauled by horses to  town, in very cold weather.) Other farmers (not many on the Flat) had timber  on their places so they cut logs and hauled them to Armstrong. Logs cut and  delivered to town were worth $7 or $8 per thousand feet. Other farmers cut  cord wood "to keep the wolf from the door." However there seemed to be  more leisure time, as we did a lot of visiting from house to house. The families  gathered for cards and dances, and surprise parties were quite common with  the guests always bringing along their own fiddler. It was all old time dances,  the Quadrille, Waltz, two-step, schottische, minuet, three-step, four-step,  highland fling, and many others. We would go to town or to Salmon River by  the sleigh load. Often when a few couples met at a home they would spend the  evening around the organ singing hymns and songs of the times. One thing I  can say there was no drinking at those parties. I am speaking about times of  1912 — times have changed.  As there was no water on the flat yet, in 1906 a few farmers decided to  pipe it from Coyote Creek, on the west side, a distance of about four miles. It  was a lot of expense and hard work, but from that time on things began to improve a lot. In 1908 people started to come in and buy land. Mr. William  Brown (Bill Brown's father) was about the first to buy a piece of land - others  followed. My Dad bought a half section from Mr. William Montgomery Sr. in  1908. The Wilson property my Dad was living on was cut up into smaller  places. In 1910 Dan Reiswig, Chris Reiswig and Mr. Rottacher purchased it. 90  (That would be the Old Gill Picul Poirier places.) In 1910 and 1911 more  Reiswigs and their grown families came, also about this time Mr. Sticle,  William McLeod and Dan Hirschkorn. The Evans place was sold then too, as  many people flocked in. They were mostly Seventh Day Adventist people, so  they built the church in 1910 and a school in 1914; these buildings are still in  use today.  The new-comers mostly went into potato growing. Hundreds of acres  were put in and thousands of tons were harvested and hauled into Armstrong  to be shipped out. I have seen as many as fifteen teams and wagons lined up,  waiting to be unloaded in Armstrong. A little later quite a number planted  orchards. For a while most of the entire Flat was in fruit trees - quite a sight to  see at blossom time. For a while I think they did fairly well by their orchards  and then the prices fell. Severe winters followed, killing a lot of trees, resulting in the orchards being pulled, so the new-comers went back to growing  more potatoes than ever. The prices were from $20 to $40 per ton (that was  for early ones), and the late ones were $10 to $12 per ton.  After the First World War there were a number of Return Men settled on  the Flat; Mr. Halliday, Mr. Raines, Mr. Millard, Mr. Shute, Mr. Bradford,  Mr. Moore, Mr. Hamilton. (They all settled on the south road on Soldier Settlement Land; later they got an unfair deal and lost the land.)  The C.N. Railroad was put in across the flat in 1919 and 1920 from  Kamloops to Vernon (really to Armstrong). From that time on the Flat really  was settled. They also grew large acres of watermelons and cantaloupe. People did fairly well on Grand View Flat on the average; later years they grew  alfalfa hay and asparagus. All these products were grown with no irrigation at  all.  When we first moved to the Flat in 1898 there were six families, now in  1965 there are over 50 nice homes all with lovely gardens and flowers. They  are wonderful people and friends on Grand View Flat, truly a beautiful place  to live.  Anything added in brackets are notations by Marjorie Glaicar, Mr. Mellish's daughter.  OK Mission Store, 1936. 91  Editor's Note: The following article was transcribed from a tape  made by Foster Whitaker in August, 1978.  MR. FOSTER WHITAKER  Interviewed August 18, 1978  Hello everyone, on August 8, 1978. My name is Foster Whitaker born  April, 1908. I am really not a very old-timer as Dad and Mother came out to  Vernon in July, 1910 from England when I was two years old. I have one  brother, John, who is semi-retired and works part-time for the Parks and  Recreation Board of Lac Lejeune out from Kamloops. All my grandparents  lived in England. On my Mother's side, her brothers and sisters were school  teachers and her father, who was raised on the border of Scotland, was a  School Inspector. My Dad's side of the family were all farmers, although some  brothers went into business when they left home. Dad was one of a family of  14 and mother was one of 7.  Dad, when 23, settled in North Dakota, U.S.A. In 1895, his brother and  friend died so Dad returned to England. Then with two other brothers he  went through the South African War of 1900 for three years.  In July, Dad and Mother and I came to Vernon because they had friends  there who wrote telling them about the district. We all came to Armstrong in  the late fall of 1910, where I later passed twelve grades of school. Dad cleared  the land with the use of powder and horses, then he farmed till 1948. He  retired here until 1964 when he died at the age of 92. The road adjoining his  place was named after him. Mr. T. Aldworth was my elementary principal  and Messrs. J. M. McLeod and Hurst were the high school principals while I  was there. Some of those who attended school with me were Ken North, Alan  Brown, Harold Naylor, Melvin Binkley, Ken McKechnie, Albert Horrex, Ken  Nash, Ralph Pelly, Douglas Murray, Harold Chambers, Alan Sheardown. In  the late fall of 1910 Dad bought 34 acres of land east of Armstrong which was  a part of Chambers property. His house which still stands was built by Fred  Heathcough in 1895. Dad's 34 acres were all virgin timberland except 4 acres  of clear land.  I was interested in sports and won the mile race at the Okanagan Valley  Track Meet for Armstrong in 1926 and 1927. The latter was in record time.  Being very fortunate I drew a ticket from a hat, in 1921, which permitted me  to buy a Jersey heifer which later became an official world record producer  for butter fat. I enjoyed Chamber of Commerce work and served a term as  president, at the age of 28. I was elected to become a member of the Municipal Council. After serving eight years on the Council which were not consecutive, I served ten years as Reeve for the Municipality of Spallumcheen.  During this time, which I believed was the most important advance, was the  drilling of the well beside Crozier Road, which later became known as Larkin  Well. The capacity was tested at 400 gallons of domestic water per minute.  Another well was drilled on Gus Schubert's property about 2 miles from Otter  Lake with a capacity of 800 gallons per minute. Both wells had been put to  good use serving water districts within the Municipality. Crown Zellerbach  Plywood and Sawmill were established on land which resumed as the Industrial Park by the municipal council just south of Crozier Road.  The Timber Preserves Limited established a metal culvert plant joining 92  Crozier Road which was the fourth one in Canada at that time. A road paving  plant was established by Spallumcheen Council which concluded the highlights of Council during my term of service as Reeve.  I recall when about one hundred ninety-nine feet south of the present  fire hall there was a very large building. I should say that was on the west side  of Okanagan Street, there was a very large building about forty by one hundred feet with a standard square pitch gable roof. In it lived possibly over one  hundred Chinese. There were other Chinese buildings right to the corner  north of there and one around the corner to the west. Opposite the corner to  the east was a large house known as the Trussler house which was also occupied by Chinese. When the peak of Chinese population was reached there  were more Chinese over 21 years of age than there were whites in the same age  in Armstrong. They produced practically all the vegetables grown for market  and Armstrong was famous for celery and was known as the "Celery Town."  Nearly all the bottom land around town was planted by the Chinese in the absolutely straight rows of celery, cabbage, onions, lettuce and other vegetables  were a perfect sight to behold, nothing like it today. One reason why the  Chinese stopped growing vegetables was that when the Canadian-born  Chinese went to school here and grew up they began to realize how they were  being treated. When they were paid 15<? for one dozen select heads of lettuce,  well, the same lettuce sold over the counter for 20<? per head at Kamloops. I  personally experienced this price difference as I grew lettuce myself. One of  my best friends was Lui Moon, a Chinaman who immigrated here as a young  man. I knew him when I was eight years old. He worked and lived alone  around our neighbourhood until about 1950, then he retired to China for two  years and died. In 1915 Mr. and Mrs. H. Comber bought about 5 acres of  land at the corner between Becker Street and Patterson Ave. In 1916 they  built a large Greenhouse where Willowdale stands today. He used to  specialize in high quality flowers. On the property west of Wood Avenue just  north of the Exhibition Grounds was Fairfield ranch owned by Mr. W. A.  Cuthbert. This land was rented to the Chinamen. He owned one of the packing houses in Armstrong where Buckerfields is located and used to supply the  CP. Hotel at Sicamous. I believe it was about 1908 when he settled here.  Hundreds of tons of ice from Otter Lake were hauled by team each winter on sleighs to be stored in straw and sawdust ready for packing fresh vegetables such as lettuce.  There were four large packing houses in town in 1925 and later a Chinese  shipper was established near the stockyard and the name was Wong Chong  and Co. A disastrous fire in 1921 virtually destroyed most of Chinatown as it  was known in those days. The Canadian National came in about 1924 and we  had good rail service in those days. The CNR at one time put on a passenger  car which was self-propelled and we called it "The Galloping Goose" and it  sure was. The Chinamen used to line up to see it, by the hundreds, they would  travel to Vernon just for the novelty. When asked about this car they said "no  pushy, no pulley, go like helly."  The exhibition grounds were much smaller about 1916. Meighan Creek  used to run around the grounds on the southwest side. Well today it runs  through a culvert underground right across the exhibition grounds. There  were small buildings to house the stock. The grandstand was at the west side  facing east. At one end of it stood a round bandstand with open front side. It 93  had a round globe shaped top. Wires were strung across it to keep it together  because it swayed during the winds.  In 1954 a very large expansion program for stock buildings and grandstand and grounds took place for the Interior Provincial Exhibition. This exhibition was promoted chiefly by Mat Hassen Sr. On the north side of Patterson Ave. just behind the Okanagan garage stood the Methodist Church. The  use of it, as a church, discontinued in 1925 when the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches united. In 1928 another Presbyterian church was built on the  east side of Wright Avenue opposite the A and S Hospital which was built and  opened in 1921. Before this hospital was in use, the old house which stands today directly east of the Presbyterian Church was used as a hospital. The staff  there consisted of Miss Peggy Davis, Matron; her sister Connie was the nurse  and another sister, Fannie was the cook.  On the west side of Okanagan Street about one hundred feet from its intersection with Wood Avenue, Mr. Crow operated his barber shop. Next to  him was Mr. Charlie Christian and his harness shop and he used to sew up our  school footballs for us about 1920. About two or three blocks further east on  the south side of Wood Avenue, Mr. Frank Becker operated his Sash and  Door factory for many years prior to 1930. Behind each church was a shed so  people could tie up their horses during church services. A little to the west behind the Co-op Store, close to Wood Avenue, was a long double hitching rail  which was very well used. If all available tie-up places were used then people  would tie their horses to power poles. The old Okanagan Hotel, which was of  noted architecture, stood on the north side of Railway Avenue, about where  the post office now stands.  It burned in 1933 and several stores to the east of it were destroyed also.  The Armstrong sawmill which was owned and operated by T. K. Smith  and his brother Bill Smith stood where Clayton's machine shop is today. It  was the largest industry in town. Charlie Hoover established an alfalfa mill to  grind alfalfa where the Pea Growers now stands, on the north side of Railway  Avenue opposite the station. He also owned and operated the flour mill which  still is the central part of Buckerfields previous to this. About 1916 Charlie  Hoover had a sawmill out Hullcar way and in the fall we would send out his  two steam-powered threshing machines. Floyd Hunter operated one.  Newman Hayes farmed Larkin and operated his sawmill there. His father, T.  M. Hayes owned a large farm and before 1900 used to haul freight from  Kamloops to Vernon by four-horse team. The Schubert family was well  known as they were on the Overlander Expedition and the Schubert Memorial  stands today. Across the alley behind the Armstrong Advertiser on the north  side of Patterson Avenue stood Harry Hope's Blacksmith Shop. He owned and  operated it from 1910 until 1971. His brother Bill worked with him for about  10 years starting in the early 20's. This square-front building was a truly outstanding model of the old art of Blacksmithing. Opposite stood the livery  stable which housed about 10 or 12 draft horses. They did the work for the  Chinamen and the custom hauling in and out of town. Hope Brothers used to  shoe all these horses besides very many others.  The S. & O. or Sicamous and Okanagan Railway was completed in late  1892 or in early 1893. Lansdowne was then the town and the district moved to  established Armstrong in 1892. The people in Lansdowne wanted too much  for the right of way so it went where it is today. Part of the present Anglican 94  Church was moved from Lansdowne to Armstrong and is there today. The  station was near the main crossing and was moved farther east. On the present site of the Junior High School stood the elementary two-storey school.  The lower storey was brick with a basement for wood furnace and storage.  Then a second storey of wood frame and shingled outside walls with three  rooms was added. It was in use long before 1914 when I started school. In  front of the swimming pool in the park stood the High School which was built  in 1909. The government marker was a brass plate at the northeast corner of  the lawn near the sidewalk showing altitude was there then and remains there  to this day.  In 1922, the solid brick construction of the Consolidated School was  completed. It became the Elementary school while the old elementary school  in town became the High School. For a time the Baptist Church close to the  Roman Catholic Church was used as a school about 1915. I attended one  term there.  Nearly opposite the newly termed high school where the Railroad crossed  Meighan Creek was the Railroad wooden trestle about 38 feet high and 150  feet long with water barrels on it. About 1924 the railroad hauled fill material  by rail and dumped it to make the present fill. I well remember the old  steamer stopping just east of the station to refill with water from the water  tower. This was a large vertical black pipe with a right angle bend about 15  feet above ground so it swung out over the steamer and another fitting at the  end, shot the water down over the end into the engine boiler. The wooden  sidewalk along Rosedale Avenue which runs eastwards towards Highway 97A,  was completed with volunteer labour about 1916. On the west side of Okanagan Street about 100 feet north of Patterson Avenue stood the Avalon theatre  which burned about 1917. Then the Warehouse storage building which remains today on the north side of Railway Avenue just northwest of the station  was converted to become the Coliseum theatre. The movie projector had to be  cranked by hand the faster the crank was turned the faster the silent movie  went. The pianist was paid to play during the show. When the operator  changed or mended the tape a slide would come on the screen which read  "just a moment please." (laugh)  On the north side of Railway Avenue east of the Okanagan Hotel stood a  Dry Goods Store, Jewellery Store, Candy Shop, Safeway Store, Hardware  Store and then the Co-op Store. In 1928 an Overwaitea Store stood on the  south side of Railway Avenue across from the station a little west. The two,  large, black steel tanks presently being used by Buckerfields were built by the  evaporator in 1915. They were used as a part of the plant which evaporated  vegetables, chiefly potatoes and onions. This product was more economical to  handle during the 1914-1918 war. Hundreds of cars of wood were used to  generate heat for this evaporator plant. On the east side of Okanagan Street,  just south of the Brick Block, the Morgan Brothers operated their Grocery  Store. Next to this was a Dry Goods, then a Barber Shop and then a Shoemakers Store.  Land clearing before 1916 was very necessary and quite a job. Just east of  town, I recall seeing large piles of old stumps which had been pulled out intact by a donkey engine. In many cases, horses were hitched to one end of a  large pole while the other was attached to a winch mechanism. The horses  were driven round and round and the cable slowly tightened to pull out a 95  stump. For those who could afford it, there was stumping powder in fifty  pound boxes to blow out the stumps. It was available through the Farmers Institute. Often four or even six horse teams were used to pull heavy breaking  plows. Towards Enderby, steam power was used in some cases.  Although we have, according to modern society, advanced, I still believe  we have lost the sincere friendship and trust of old days. Now the almighty  dollar, with little respect for anything or anyone prevails. I am very sorry to  see that the natural beautiful forests have practically gone in the Valley. It is  my sincere hope that I may have given you a brief picture of times past. In  closing, I wish all future generations of this wonderful land peace and happiness.  Peachland circa 1918. 96  KATHLEEN DEWDNEY DAY  August 26, 1979  By David MacDonald  On Sunday afternoon, August 26th, 1979, over 350 guests gathered in  the Penticton Peach Bowl to honour a long time resident of Penticton and a  devoted member of the Okanagan Historical Society, Mrs. Kathleen Stuart  Dewdney. President of the Penticton Branch, O.H.S. Victor Wilson, acted as  Master of Ceremonies for the reception sponsored jointly by the City of Penticton and the Okanagan Historical Society.  Mrs. Dewdney (nee Ferguson), a gracious lady of 88, was born in  Calgary, Alberta. She spent her school days in Trail, Midway, Grand Forks  and Vancouver. She graduated as a teacher from the Provincial Normal  School in Vancouver, and taught in a well-built, comfortable log school house  - grades 1 to 8 inclusive - on Ingram Mountain near Midway. She considers  this a happy and rewarding experience in her life.  In 1913 Kathleen married Walter Robert Dewdney, Government Agent  and Gold Commissioner in the City of Greenwood. At that time this was a  large and rich mining district and ore - copper, gold and silver - worth many  millions of dollars was taken from the mines.  Mrs. Dewdney then settled down in the Dewdney home in Greenwood  and began a completely new life, which included the birth of her four children, Kathleen Rose, Edgar, Walter and Harold.  "Her life in the Boundary Country is still a source of interest and of loyalty from all who knew her as a girl growing up in Midway, as the teacher on the  mountains, or as the wife of the Government Agent in Greenwood," said Mr.  Wilson.  In 1922 the growing City of Penticton became the centre of government  administration and Mr. Dewdney was transferred here as a Government  Agent. So began the part of Kathleen's life in which she became keenly interested in the Okanagan and its history.  She became active in several community groups. During her children's  school years, she worked in the Parent-Teachers' Association. As a member of  St. Saviour's Anglican Church she became a leader in the Junior Auxiliary  working with a group of young girls. She served in the Women's Institute and  the Red Cross. She joined the Diamond Jubilee Chapter I.O.D.E. in early  years and now holds an honorary membership.  She participated in a series of Adult Education lectures on "Okanagan  Heritage." She was president of the Penticton Writers' Group in the late fifties  and has been a member of the Penticton Canadian Club for some years.  In June 1977, she was the honoured guest who cut the ribbon at the  opening of the Kettle River Museum at Midway. She holds a 1967 Canadian  Pioneer medal and a British Columbia Centennial 1971 Pioneer medal.  In October, 1977, in the Penticton Toastmistress Club, a presentation of  honorary membership was made to Kathleen Stuart Dewdney. The certificate  commended her "for her distinguished service to the Penticton Toastmistress  Club and the Community at Large." She was a charter member of the club  and held several offices including that of president. She considers her association with Toastmistress as part of her continuing education. Always a learner, 97  Kathleen has studied at night school and at the Okanagan Summer School of  the Arts.  Recently, she has served on the Advisory Committee of Okanagan College in Penticton.  Kathleen's husband, Walter, lived in Vernon when he was a boy. One of  his old friends was Leonard Norris, the founder of the Okanagan Historical  Society in 1925, so the Dewdneys, then living in Penticton, joined the Society  after it was formed.  Kathleen became actively committed to the preservation of Okanagan-  Similkameen history as a director in 1958, and as a secretary in 1960, of the  Penticton Branch. For three years she served as President of the Penticton  Branch, and for two years from 1968 to 1970 she presided as President of the  Okanagan Historical Society (Parent Body). She has served continuously on  the Editorial Committee and sponsored the essay competition in Okanagan  schools. She has researched many articles for the O.H.S. Reports.  The ultimate award in the Okanagan Historical Society is a Life Membership and this award was bestowed upon Kathleen by the Parent Body in  1964. She was also awarded a Life Membership in the Penticton Branch in  1971.  Kathleen's popularity was indicated by the early arrival of eager guests  from afar. Friends poured in from the Boundary Country, as well as from all  the areas of the Okanagan and Similkameen, the Kootenays, Mainland, and  from as far as California.  At the reception in the Peach Bowl on August 26th, 1979, the invocation  was given by Rev. Peter O'Flynn, and the address of welcome by Mayor Alan  Kenyon. A musical interlude during the proceedings was played by Jean  Burdett on the piano.  At the head table were twenty-five members of the Dewdney family,  some from as far away as Pasadena, California and included her two sons,  Edgar and Harold. Members of the family were introduced by Edgar  Dewdney.  In his address of welcome, Mayor Alan Kenyon cited Mrs. Dewdney as "a  very fine example of a good citizen of Penticton." Mayor Kenyon, who himself  is a long-time resident of Penticton, told a few brief and humourous anecdotes about her sons, Edgar and Harold. He told of Edgar and his games of  tennis and how he got a tennis court built in Skaha Lake Park. Al Kenyon and  Harold were members of the Boys' basketball team that won the B.C. Provincial Championship in 1937. Much controversy still raged, he said, over the  importance of who had set up the plays versus who had gone in for the final  kill.  Mayor Kenyon asked for some ideas about heritage-related problems,  such as the future of the Sicamous, the Incola Hotel, the designation of certain homes as heritage sites and how to celebrate Heritage Day.  Boundary Similkameen M.L.A. Jim Hewitt presented Mrs. Dewdney  with a copy of the new publication "British Columbia Recipes" at the conclusion of his address. Mr. Hewitt spoke of the value of heritage and what his  government's approach to it is. He pointed out that it is important for our  young people to have some idea of the "way it was." He praised the work of  the Okanagan Historical Society, mentioning the Annual Reports, the Pandosy Mission, and the Keremeos Grist Mill. 98  One of Mrs. Dewdney's special interests has been the editorial committee  and it was this aspect of her work which was commented upon by Dr.  Margaret Ormsby of Vernon, an active member of the O.H.S. since 1935 and  now B.C.'s senior historian. Dr. Ormsby edited eight O.H.S. Annual Reports.  She gave a powerful and complete appraisal of the quality of Mrs. Dewdney's  work. She congratulated her not only on the authenticity of each article, but  in particular on the structure and realistic feeling of each.  She paid special tribute to Mrs. Dewdney's 1958 article on the Dewdney  Trail. The trail was built across southern British Columbia from Fort Hope  on the Fraser River to Fort Steele in the Rocky Mountains through an unmapped wilderness during periods in 1860-1861 and in 1865. It was built by the  uncle of Mrs. Dewdney's husband.  Dr. Ormsby praised the article as "a piece of local history fitted into the  larger picture of B.C. history and Canadian history. The trail was part of the  first east-west network consolidating Confederation.  Dr. Ormsby said, "I would like to pay tribute today to Kathleen Stuart  Dewdney as a Historian. Her qualities I think are best exemplified in an article which she did in our first Centennial Year, 1958. This article on the  Dewdney Trail stands out as surely one of the most important articles in any  or all of the Okanagan Historical Reports."  In proposing a toast to Mrs. Dewdney, Harley Hatfield of Penticton, a  director-at-large and life member of the O.H.S. noted, "It is impossible for  me to remember a time in the Okanagan Historical Society when she has not  held a position of authority and responsibility or at least one involving a lot of  hard work. The duties of these jobs have always been carried out responsibly,  meticulously and with a kindness and courtesy which has been an inspiration  to all of us." He, too, mentioned her work on the editorial committee and  over fifteen top quality articles for the O.H.S. Reports.  Mr. Jack Armstrong, president of the Okanagan Historical Society  brought greetings from the Parent Body. He praised her for seeing the things  that needed doing and for doing them without fanfare, without thought of  reward and with a high degree of expedition and finesse.  Mrs. Mollie Broderick, assisted by her grand-daughter, Candace Broderick, presented Mrs. Dewdney with two pen and ink drawings sketched by local  artist Randy Manuel. The drawings were taken from photographs of the  Boundary country and depict Mrs. Dewdney's early life in that area.  Mrs. Broderick noted that "before 1967 very few of us had any concern  for our heritage. That year, Canada's Centennial Year, many Canadians  discovered their heritage. Hey, we've got something to be proud of."  She went on to explain that she travelled with Mrs. Dewdney to Princeton for a celebration and soon found herself secretary of the Penticton Branch  while Mrs. Dewdney was president. "She taught me to be as gracious as I  could be."  A highlight of the afternoon was the introduction of four gentlemen who  had been former pupils of Kathleen Stuart Ferguson (Dewdney) at the  Ingram Mountain School at Midway in 1912.  Master of Ceremonies, Victor Wilson, introduced several members of the  O.H.S. whose contribution to the Society has been notable. These were Grace  Whitaker of Summerland, Bert Rorke, Eric Sismey, Claude Holden of Penticton and Major Hugh Porteous of Oliver. 99  A musical interlude with familiar melodies from the past was provided  by Jean Burdett. Tea was served by members of the Penticton and Naramata  Girl Guides assisting the refreshment committee headed by June Cuming. Adding interest to the occasion were many historical items provided by Bud and  Kitty Gawne of Naramata.  In a gracious speech of thanks, Mrs. Dewdney said, "I would like to  thank the Penticton Branch of the Okanagan Historical Society and the City  of Penticton for the honours they have conferred upon me. The selection of  me I humbly accept, knowing I am only one of many who have contributed to  the work that has been carried on by the Historical Society. It is indeed heartwarming to have so many of my family with me here today and a special  thanks to all the friends of the Dewdneys who have gathered here this afternoon. Once again, my sincere thanks are extended to you all for the lovely  gifts, the tributes of praise, and for making this a memorable day. A special  thanks to our President, Victor Wilson. I assure you I am looking forward to a  few more years in helping to record the history of the Valley.  THE DEWDNEY FAMILY GROUP at a reception to honour Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney at the  Peach Bowl in Penticton, August 26, 1979. Front row from left: Valerie Davis, Michelle Davis,  Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney, Heather Davis, Megan Dewdney, Adrienne Dewdney; Second row: Mrs.  Audrey Davis, Harold Davis, Peter Dewdney Jr., Mrs. Elaine Dewdney; Third row: Edward  Davis, Dianne Mathieson, James Davis, Mrs. Violet Davis, Mrs. Marilyn Dewdney, Mrs. Deedee  McBride, Seigh McBride; Top row: James Dewdney, Lisa Dewdney, Kathy Dewdney, Edgar  Dewdney, Peter Dewdney Sr., Mrs. Maxine Dewdney, Harold Dewdney, Bruce Dewdney. 100  Reception for Kathleen S. Dewdney, Penticton Peach Bowl, August 26, 1979. Seated (left to  right), Edgar Dewdney, Mrs. Kathleen Dewdney. Standing (left to right), George Weed of Penticton, Harry Bjorn of Ta Ta Creek, Fred Lander of Okanagan Falls, Wesley Weed of Grand  Forks, all students of Mrs. Dewdney's at Ingram Mountain School about 1910.  "1\ m  Victor Wilson presents award to Dr. Margaret Ormsby at the Dewdney Reception. 101  GROWING UP IN GLENMORE  1911 - 1926  By Arthur Ward  It is the middle of March 1911. The winter has not been cold, so George  Ward has made good progress on a house. It looks rather like a match-box on  end, but is the most practical housing, two stories. A part basement would  come later. The kitchen and dining room are framed, but still lack a roof.  The Okanagan was advertised as the "banana belt" in Montreal; still, these  rooms are too airy. Domestic water and power - promised for next year - were  still twenty years away.  The family has arrived from Montreal. It consists of my Mother, Grandmother and Harry (4), Arthur (3), Phyllis (1), and also Uncle Frank (about 16  years old). My first memories are the magpies in the thorn thicket near the  house.  The property bought from Central Okanagan Land Company was five  and one-half acres. It cost $1,000 an acre, but was cleared and planted. Glenmore Elementary School is on the property now. The soil around the house  was a loam and made a good lawn and garden. The gumbo (clay) on the flat  could have grown good pears with enough water. There was never enough  water to go around, although it had been claimed that there was supposedly  enough to make an easy living. Varieties of fruit grown were Winesaps, Stay-  man-Winesaps, Spys, Jonathan and a couple of lines of Macs. The Winesaps  would not size; Spys got bitter pit and the Staymans and Johnnies would not  keep. There was also an amazing assortment of fruit varieties: quince, almonds, seven kinds of pears, prunes, plums, and a Russian apple called  Petroski. It bore lots of green apples which were hardly edible. They may  have been a forerunner of the Antonovka.  Winter of 1916. This was the middle of World War I. Things were not  going too well in France, nor were they very good at home. Prices of food were  high, but there was no work nor money available. Wages were twenty-five  cents per hour, but sugar was twenty-five cents per pound and shoes were ten  dollars. The winter was bitterly cold. The lake froze over, and the solid planting of Rutland Orchards froze out, leaving only Macs and Crabs. The Macs  lasted until 1950. My brother and I did not miss any school, but sometimes  the north wind and drifted roads made the mile-and-a-half walk very difficult  for short legs.  The evaporator was running on onions that winter, and my Mother  worked there in February. She had to leave home in the dark to walk the two  miles for the ten hour shift. My brother and I went with her on Saturdays.  The onion fumes hurt one's eyes for a while. The girls working there sang a  lot: Down by the Old Mill Stream, Keep the Home Fires Burning, and other  songs that I have forgotten.  The Motor Age. Soon after the war, things picked up, and my Father  had steady work on various buildings around town. We came home from  school one day and there was a brass-bound Ford car in the yard. It was about  a 1915 model, second-hand. How it got in the yard, I do not know. My Father  could not drive. The problem of learning to drive was soon solved by taking  lessons from one of the few experts in town — a Mr. Brunette. So, with my 102  brother and I in the back seat, the lesson was under way. My Father took over  the wheel on Harvey Avenue, which in those days ended at Pridham's Orchard, and turned onto the Vernon Road. My Dad only made half the turn at  the end, and went right through a board fence, cleaning off the lamps, half  the windshield and the top, in short order.  This introduction to the Motor Age was no discouragement, however.  Soon came a Model T truck with solid tires. It was all right on the roads, but  was stuck everywhere else, especially if it had rained. Soon Father had a  Brockville Atlas car, which would seldom start, and a Maxwell truck. At  twleve years old, I could drive all of them, and would work my heart out at  any job if I could drive a truck. I was told to haul bricks on school holidays. I  got my driver's license at the age of sixteen, but in the meanwhile, the one  policeman in the district did not seem to care. Car accidents were rare and  not serious at 20 m.p.h.  Glenmore Sport. At school we played the perennial games of Cops and  Robbers, Run Sheep Run, Prisoner's Base and Duck on the Rock, with  bullrush fights in season. There was skating in the winter on the Golf Links  pond and sleigh riding on the sidehills of the valley and Tuckey's hill close by.  Donald Whitham had a long rope on his sleigh. He claimed it was for more  leverage, but we could see more room for kids to pull it up the hill. Our  hockey games, a bit like "shinny" were mostly on Sunday afternoons if the ice  was still there. Three Lewis brothers, the Ward boys, Cliff Renfrew and  others battled around for three or four hours.  Glenmore had a very good ball team before we were big enough to make  the team. I remember Ernie Lequesne, Roddy Watt, Morton Paige, Andy  Ritchie, Jim Vint, Bob Seath and Don Whitham. The playing field was in a  field by McKay's Slough (north-east end of the Valley), an alkali lake which  seemed to breed a large and vicious variety of mosquito. They would get in  the catcher's mask. One season, a dead cow, that had passed away a week or  so previously, was an added attraction to this unique baseball diamond.  Stewart Brothers Nursery - 1924. Harry and I worked a great deal for  Dick Stewart in the summer holidays when we were about fourteen years old.  When men were paid $.40 per hour, he paid us $.30. Two budding seasons  were put in at the South Kelowna property, where he grew his nursery stock.  We stayed and "bach'd" with Dick in the Irrigation District cabins by Bon-  Jean Spring. Our meals did not vary much — back bacon, fried tomatoes,  sometimes corn and potatoes from the Saucier farm. We cleaned the dirt  away from the seedlings and tied the buds in place with raffia, while Dick did  the budding. We were not allowed to go on one knee, but the backache was  gone on the third day. As usual, the days were ten hours and there was the  chores after supper to get raffia and bud sticks ready for the next day. The  days were hot, but unlike Glenmore, the nights cooled quickly with the wind  from the mountain canyons. The water in the spring was very clear and cold.  My brother was given a turn at budding. This experience was a great help  later on at Apex Orchards. Mr. Stewart was a hard taskmaster, but with his  Irish blarney kept us going when we might have been thinking about the heat  or getting tired. When school time came, we had money to buy books, and  maybe the dream of new skates or a lacrosse stick would become a reality.  Radio came to the Ward house about 1924. My Father was building the  McDonald Garage at that time,  and Mr. McDonald sold radio sets. The 103  DeForest Crosly was powered by three batteries - A, B, and C. They did not  last very long. The machine was not very good, and the performance was dismal. A neighbour said he almost got Japan last night! We couldn't match performance like that, obtaining mostly a lot of howls on the dial.  Glenmore was settled for the most part by second generation Canadians  from Montreal, Eastern Townships and Ontario. The advertising for the land  development was done in the East. The orchards, when I was young, had to  rely on cover crops for nitrogen - vetch was in favour, maybe because it could  be "disced down" in the summer to save water. In thinning season, it clung to  your legs and harboured a million mosquitoes. They did not follow all the way  up the latter anyway.  The roads were in the clay belt, and in March were a problem to get  through. If you walked, you lost your rubbers, and when I had a bicycle, the  mud would jam between the fenders and wheels. Then, one day, the south  wind would blow, and soon the fields would be a mass of buttercups. Another  winter gone, the magpies and meadowlarks would be back, and the  yellowbells be poking through. They grew big and double on the clay soil.  My Father acquired the five and one-half acres next door, so now the  farm was eleven acres. Prices were good for a few years after the war, but took  a slump about 1921. There was a lot of price comparison among the neighbours. Some varieties showed a fifteen cents per box deficit called "red ink."  Lack of water for irrigation was a perennial problem as the trees grew older.  Other districts had the same problems too. But when the irrigation was  off, domestic water had to come from somewhere. Brants Creek was no help.  It was no more than a muddy trickle draining several "tule" sloughs. It must  have been dry most of the year before irrigation came. There was a tiny spring  on the Silver property in a gulley from Dilworth Mountain, and there were  some good wells at the base of Knox Mountain. Cisterns were used a lot plus  rain barrels, melted snow and the five gallon cream can filled in Kelowna.  Will Rankin did not find water at one hundred feet nor any change in the clay  formation.  Our small holding had one horse, but most farmers had a team, not  large animals, so they could be used for the buggy or cutter for transportation. A horse that had pulled a spring tooth all week could have a treat and  trot to town on Saturday. A cow, a couple of pigs and some chickens were  usual. Lewis Marshall grew tomatoes on his south slope, but in general, the  orchards were clean-cultivated with a spring tooth harrow. The little prun-  ings had to be picked up.  With the equipment available, it was fortunate that only one spray every  third year was needed. This was a dormant spray of lime sulfur, one to nine  strength presumably for blister mite. The tips of young trees were dipped by  hand in a solution of nicotine sulphate and whale oil soap. This evil smelling  mixture would make a non-smoker ill on a hot day.  Varieties grown were usually Macs and Jonathans with Wagner or crab  fillers, always thirty feet by fifteen feet spacing. There were some Delicious on  the McLay lot, and the Lewis Orchard had some Romes. They were new  varieties then. J. N. Thompson had forty acres of Macs with crab fillers — a  formidable job of harvesting. Stop-drop sprays would not come until the  1940's.  While alkali was a problem in some parts of Glenmore, drought spot and 104  corky core did not affect trees in Glenmore, compared to the troubles of East  and South Kelowna. Codling Moth hit Glenmore first about 1922, and soon  was the big trouble. Spray machines were thankfully improved as necessity  demanded. The bamboo rods gave way to the spray gun and pressures improved from the usual 175 pounds. Time and soil have sorted out Glenmore  orchards. The sidehills, considered at one time the least desirable, have survived very well. The south end, of more sandy soil, takes in the golf course and  much housing.  School. The school in Glenmore must have been planned in Ontario. It  is the same as J. K. Galbraith describes in his memoirs. The girls had no playing field, just room for hop-scotch and skipping. The boys' side had room for  games, but the Trustees had been raised in a hard era. There was no budget  for sports equipment or library either. Mr. Lewis sent down a football anyway.  The sanitary facilities were two four-holers by the tule swamp. The little  boys wet all over the seats and everywhere, so were warned by the big ones to  stay on their own side or have their ears cut off. A time would come when one  was older and could kick the little kids around.  Our Readers came from Ontario. The advantage of a one-room school  with eight grades was that next year's work was on the blackboards. If the  teacher had an idea of cutting down on grades, a kid could skip one. The disadvantage was the hazing against small kids by bigger ones. This was a usual  occurrence.  It was lonely at home when my brother started school, and I would often  walk up the road to meet him. He would tell me about the Rankin boys, Percy  and Archie, and also about Henry McKinley. When I started school next  year, Archie was the biggest boy there. He would tell us that his Uncle Ab had  been in the Mounties, and was the fastest apple picker in the world, and that  Percy was the best deer hunter. Percy in later times was an expert rifle shot  and gunsmith, boat builder and mechanic.  We kids would stand around with our mouths and ears open when Ab  Rankin talked of the things he could do. He cussed very well and chewed  tobacco. We learned a few new words when Ed Hartwick came to mow the  hay. In spite of his rudeness to them, Mr. Hartwick kept a good team - well  fed and curried and brushed every day. Ab invented a contrivance for marking out new orchard planting. It was a simple gear, one thousand feet of telephone wire on a spool with solder marks every fifteen feet. His modified picking bag took all the weight on the shoulders instead of wringing your neck!  When my brother and I moved to South Kelowna, we changed all the bags  over to this idea.  I must not forget our neighbour, Charlie Tuckey, one of the 1911 land  owners. He came from Nova Scotia and could do anything — fall a tree on a  mark, build a house, everything you could think of. He always had the best,  even the Baby Grand Chevrolet truck with a cone clutch. It would take off  like a jack-rabbit in a shower of gravel.  Doris and Connie arrived on the scene soon after 1911, a year apart. Elsie  and Edith would come later. My brother and I were through Junior Matric at  the age of fifteen, ready to start the usual ten-hour work days.  A new subdivision of land was opened up in 1923 by Black Mountain Irrigation. My Father and Uncle Frank bought twenty acres there, and my 105  brother worked there a lot, staying with Mr. Baldock or with Uncle Frank.  The Yamoaka family worked half share, growing tomatoes and onions. This  property was sold to my uncle when my brother, father and I took over the  South Kelowna Land and Orchard Company in 1926.  It may seem that there is scant reference to my father and sisters in this  review of Glenmore days. My Father's history would have to be another  chronicle, and my sisters were younger and helped raise their younger sisters.  My Mother was not in good health a lot of the time so my sister, Phyllis, left  school at High School Entrance to help out in the family. My brother and I  had already stepped into a man's world. Phyllis helped me thin and pick the  fruit crop when she was fifteen. My other sisters were still at school when the  family moved to South Kelowna in 1927.  The winter of 1916 and the flu epidemic of 1918 do not bring back any  fond memories, but otherwise no particular hardships were suffered. No one  else in the valley had a warm house or running water either. We had plenty of  good books, a gramaphone and an open fire to sit beside on winter evenings.  Our Jersey cow gave rich milk, the hens laid a few eggs and we always had a  good garden, a pig or two, and apples in the cellar.  George Ward's house.  A. Ward and Father George Ward, 1911. 106  STORIES OF EARLY DAYS - TOLD TO W. R. CARRUTHERS  By E. M. (Ted) Carruthers J.P.  My Father was born in 1873, the  youngest son of Walter and Mary  Carruthers of Gordonville, Inverness.  His Father was the owner of the Inverness Courier, after which the Kelowna Courier was named by George  C. Rose, also of Inverness.  At age sixteen years, he immigrated, with George C. Rose, to Vancouver, and from there to the Okanagan Mission, via the CPR to Sicamous, and then by boat on the "Red  Star" to Enderby through Mara Lake  and up the Shuswap River. From  Enderby he took the Horsedrawn  Stage Coach to Vernon, where he  stayed overnight. Next day the coach  took him to the Hotel operated by  Mrs. Lequime near the Pandosy Mission. While in Vernon he talked to  G. Stevenson and Dan Gallagher.  Dan was the man after whom the  canyon in Mission Creek is named.  He lived there for many years and  was a splendid horseman. He made his living working for the cattle ranchers  in the area, as he could not tolerate being a pick and shovel worker.  The Okanagan Mission was the area around the Lequime Ranch and the  Father Pandosy Chapel and School, which is now an Historical Site. It is fortunate that it has been preserved in memory of a wonderful man and Priest.  Except for the stage coach, three times a week, there was no other regular  transportation into what is now the Kelowna area. Captain Shorts ran an occasional boat service on the lake but only as the "Spirit" moved him. On one  occasion my Father wanted to go to Vernon and asked the Captain when he  would be leaving. "When I am good and ready," was his reply! This he did  two days later! En route he pulled into a bay, part of the way north, landed all  hands including the passengers, and insisted that everyone cut enough wood  for the trip north and the return south. The passengers, in spite of their efforts with axe and bucksaw, still paid their full fare! In the event their performance wasn't up to the captain's liking they heard about it in no uncertain  terms.  The Lequime family was one of the earliest settlers in the Kelowna area.  Their ranch eventually covered some 10,000 acres and grazed about 1500  head of cattle. In addition to the ranch there was an Hotel, Saloon, Store and  Post Office. These were managed by Mrs. Lequime who left the ranch management to her husband. The Lequimes came from France through the  U.S.A. to California and then via Rock Creek to Okanagan Mission. Their  eldest son,  then a babe in his mother's arms, was Bernard after whom 107  Kelowna's main street is named. After Mr. Lequime Sr. was seriously injured,  his wife ran the whole outfit efficiently for there wasn't a job on the ranch that  she couldn't do. My Dad recalled completing a job early and on his way to the  bunk house she spotted him and asked what he was doing. He told her he was  through so she ordered him to round up a steer and butcher it. He had never  done this but as it was a "Royal Command," off he went. With the help of  another ranch hand the steer was duly caught and butchered. Such an order  was typical of Mrs. Lequime who maintained if you've never done a certain  thing you would never learn younger.  She was a wonderful woman, short and muscular with a rough and ready  exterior but no one ever went hungry if she could help it. Among her saloon  customers was an old Frenchman who constantly complained about the brandy she served, saying, "This is not like the brown brandy I used to have in  'LaBelle, France'!" One day she told him that she had ordered some of the  brandy he loved and when it arrived it would be for him only. The brandy arrived but it was "tres" expensive at $6.00 per bottle. However he smacked his  lips and was delighted. Later she confided to my Dad that it was her usual  brandy with a little burnt brown sugar added. "Ah well," she said, "the old  man is happy with the brandy; I am happy with the price, so all is well!"  Mrs. Lequime had an old cow's horn which she used to call the pigs in for  their feed. Some of her neighbours complained their pigs followed hers and so  thereafter carried the Lequime mark which was a slice off the left ear.  The Fall he arrived, one of my Father's first jobs was helping to cut the  wild hay growing where there is now the City Centre. The hay was stacked on  what later became Burne Avenue which was the highest spot. All around was  thick bush into which the cattle were put during the winter and fed from the  hay stacks above mentioned. It was during one winter that Dad drove a bobsled with a load of hay across the frozen lake to Shingle Creek to the Brent  Ranch, south-west of Summerland.  Later on he was working for another old-time rancher whose wife was  very "close" about the fare given the hired help. Often all they got was fried  sow belly, apple sauce and green tea. She was a very religious woman and entertained the travelling Protestant Preacher when he was in the district. On  these occasions she "spread herself with the meal including butter, never  seen usually, as it was all sold. The visiting Preacher was asked to give the  blessing, and he replied, "Perhaps one of the boys would like to do so." At  once, a Cockney looked up and was asked to give the blessing. His grace was  as follows:  Oh Lord when hunger presses sore,  Wilt Thou stand us in stead  And from Thy bounteous store above  Send us butter for our bread.  Needless to say all the boys could barely keep from laughing and the lady of  the house could have murdered the author there and then.  Fence building was an ever-present job, and on one ranch rolls of barbed  wire were delivered on the beach from a scow. These had to be manhandled  to the top of a steep bank then loaded on wagons. The rancher refused to use  a horse to drag the rolls of wire up the bank insisting it was easier and cheaper  to have the men do the job. After a few rolls had been dragged up, one of 108  them said, "To hell with this," and allowed the roll of wire to careen back  down the hill and into the lake. On its way down, it narrowly missed the  rancher. The roll of wire disappeared into the depths of the lake and  thereafter a horse was used. Wire was very expensive!  As my Dad said, in those days they worked hard and played hard. They  were anything but "plaster saints" but in all their pranks nothing resulted in  real damage. Sure, outhouses were upset, buggy wheels reversed so that the  driver, who usually had celebrated unwisely, slid off the seat onto the road  while his very wise horse stood until he had sorted things out and headed for  home. Nothing done was malicious, and when sober the victim, unless he was  a pompous ass, enjoyed the joke as much as the perpetrators. The pace in  those days was much more leisurely and the working days were longer, but  time for fun and recreation was also free from pressure.  Among the various ranchers for whom he worked, Dad was employed by  the priests at the Oblate Fathers' Mission, now the Father Pandosy Historical  Site. One of the Fathers was a Belgian who had a fine vocabulary of French  and English swear words. The priests used to run a herd of pigs in the bush  along Mission Creek. Before the winter set in the Belgian Priest and Dad were  sent to round them up. It was hot and the pigs kept breaking back into the  swampy bush where flies, etc. were prolific, as was the Father's salty language!  The job was finally completed and Dad congratulated the priest on his flow of  language. "Alas my son," he replied, "many hours must I now spend in repentance for this wonderful day of sinful enjoyment."  Perhaps this is the place to mention some of the old-timers who were in  the Kelowna area around the period before and shortly after 1900.  First of all one must mention the Oblate Fathers led by Father Pandosy.  Others of whom my Father spoke were: the Lequines, Casorsos, Brents,  Sauciers, Conroys, Christians, old A. B. Knox, Munsons, Simpsons of Ellison,  Ellisons, Carneys, Hardies, Andersons, Swordys, Pridhams, the Rose  Brothers, Raymers, Creightons, Days, Conlins, Spalls, Gerards, Spears,  Gillards, Byrnes, MacQueens, Berards, Burtchs, Hardys, Fitz-Maurices,  Stirlings, Taylors, Reids, Pooleys, Thompsons, Lloyd-Jones, Stillingfleets,  Dilworths, Barlees, Fluffy Woolaston, (for years, manager of the Coldstream  Ranch), and many others too numerous to mention. All these left an imprint  on the life of the District, whether in sport, such as polo (once popular in the  interior), or in various social or other forms of development, such as agriculture, land development, irrigation or businesses of different kinds.  During his ranch days as a hired hand, Dad met and went into partnership with Fred Ellis. The building of "A" fences on contract was their specialty. Together they pre-empted property next to John Casorso's ranch, and  while busy building a fence between the two properties noted John Casorso  watching. On being discovered, he said "That's right boys, build a good  fence, you make a good neighbour." They made a lot of money on their contracts and eventually went into growing wheat on their pre-emption while still  going into debt to Mrs. Lequime's store for $400.00. Their wheat crop was  hailed out. They were broke and still owed the $400.00. Both decided to join  up for the South African War. Fred was accepted but my Dad was not, due to  the fact of missing the two middle fingers of his right hand. The loss of his  fingers happened on a Highland farm when he was a young lad. This ended  their partnership. Fred Ellis had a silver Half Hunter watch wound with a 109  key, the watch being at one end of a waistcoat chain and the key at the other  end. He died as a result of wounds on the ship bringing members of the Canadian Force back to Canada. On board a game was in progress when one of the  players, having lost heavily finally threw a watch on the table as his last bet.  Another player picked it up, recognized it as belonging to Fred Ellis, accused  the better of having stolen it from Ellis' body, and pocketed it, saying "I know  the man who should have this watch and he is going to get it." In due course  my Father received it and wore it almost until his death.  During this period my Dad went to work at Revelstoke on cribbing the  Columbia, and during the winter he trapped above the canyon with a trapper  by the name of Tommy Boyd. He trapped for two winters and at the end of  the third summer, when work on the cribbing ended, he left for the Boundary  Country to work as "Cookie" in one of the silver mines. Incidentally, Tommy  Boyd would never "chute" the Canyon until after Dad left him, when challenged by another man, who always did so and as a result was drowned in the  canyon.  Life in the silver camps was wild and wide open as was life in the small  towns serving the mines. The town in which the men from the mine where  Dad was working, consisted of one street, with chiefly saloons and "Houses of  easy virtue." Two of the most popular were situated at the ends of the street.  Every Sunday morning it was the custom for the men to pick one of the girls  each and race them down from the "House" to the saloon at the other end of  the street in little or no clothing. The man first to seat his girl on the saloon  bar was the winner and got free drinks for them both from the rest of the  gang. As I mentioned before, things were "wide open" in those days!  While in Revelstoke and the Boundary Country my Dad accumulated  enough money to pay both his and Fred Ellis' debt to Mrs. Lequime and  received a final receipt on which was written "Blessed are they who expect  nothing for they shall receive all!" He then returned to Kelowna where he  worked as a ranch hand wherever work was available. At this time his brother  who was practising medicine in Revelstoke decided to move to New Zealand  and sent my Dad the fare to Vancouver for a farewell gathering. While there  he ran across George Kirby who owned a lot of property on what is now the  Upper KLO Bench. My Dad inquired if he wished to sell and eventually purchased the land for $200.00. This money he borrowed "on his face" from the  Bank of Montreal, managed by G. A. Henderson. He had to ride to Vernon  to complete this deal. He then arranged with Sam Long, a surveyor, to help  him survey an irrigation ditch from Canyon Creek to the Upper Bench. He  acted as Sam Long's chainman. He was proved correct in his assumption that  water could be put on the Upper Bench. While working on the ditch line he  planned to go to town for a weekend. His horse failed to show up for his evening feed of oats. During the night Dad heard a noise outside and going out of  the tent with a pail of oats and a rope, was met by a large bear which  immediately stood up on his hind legs. At the same moment, Dad went up onto the ridge pole of the tent! In the morning the horse turned up and all was  well.  As a result of proof that water could be put on the Upper Bench, he was  able to resell the land at a good profit which enabled him to go into the Real  Estate business with his partner, Bob (W. R.) Pooley, in the partnership of  Carruthers & Pooley in 1902. Although the business was eventually sold my 110  Father always retained a "sleeping interest" so that he again re-entered the  Real Estate business with H. G. M. (Scotty) Wilson under the name of  Carruthers & Wilson Ltd. In due course the writer joined him and the firm  was known as E. M. Carruthers & Son. In 1935 the writer had to go to  England to take over the managership of a family heavy chemical firm in  Manchester, England, and his place was taken by Dad's son-in-law, Maurice  Meikle. When Maurice became manager the name was changed to Carruthers & Meikle Ltd. and has remained as such to the present day. It is  Kelowna's oldest business still in operation.  Another story of the early days, even though it may be out of place follows: The Reverend Thomas Green arrived from Penticton to hold an Anglican service. Archie McDonald, the manager of the Lake View Hotel closed his  bar and put the room at the disposal of Reverend Green. The service was held  and many of the boys attended. The padre announced there would be no collection. However, at its conclusion the Cockney lad, whose grace has been  mentioned, took off his cap and insisted going to everyone present for a donation. As a result of this service the first church in Kelowna was built by voluntary labour and donations for the necessary lumber. It was named St. Michael  and All Angels and was situated on what is now Queensway. In 1911 the present church on Sutherland Avenue and Richter Street was built. Reverend  Thomas Green was the first Rector and eventually was appointed Archdeacon. He was beloved by all denominations and known to all as "Daddy  Green."  My Dad and Bob Pooley negotiated the sale of all the Lequime Estate  from Mill Creek south to Mission Creek, including the lower KLO Bench to  the Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. Ltd., hence the KLO road. Small lots were  subdivided near Mill Creek and a big bend was straightened out near the  mouth between Water Street and Abbott Street, Lake Avenue and Harvey  Avenue. This is the area on each side of Maple Street. The area west of Pandosy Street to about Cedar Avenue was subdivided into lots of 5 acres which  ran right down to the lake. As everyone in those days was dependent on horses  for transport, and most had their own cow, so many of the purchases were of  more than just one 5-acre lot. On one such lot my Dad built his first house  before his marriage to my Mother. The house still stands on Christleton  Avenue. It is in perfect condition and has been lived in ever since 1904.  As time went on many of the "wild" youngsters of the cattle ranching  days became respectable citizens with businesses in the infant city. Like my  Father, they were responsible, together with later arrivals, for the development of the Kelowna area and the formation of such companies as the  Kelowna Land & Orchard Co. mentioned above, the South Kelowna Land  Co., the Bankhead Orchards Co., and the Central Okanagan Co. which  developed Glenmore (once known as "Starvation Valley" and then as "Dry  Valley"). These were followed by the Belgo-Canadian, which sold out to the  Land and Agriculture Co. of Canada, as well as many privately-owned orchards and other developments all over the Kelowna area.  According to certain people today the word "Developer" is a dirty word!  But if it had not been for men like my Father, and many others in every walk  of life, this would still be a cattle country with NO, and I repeat, NO irrigation systems, probably no domestic water, gas installations, decent roads,  electric power or sewage systems. Before such installations can be financed Ill  there must be people and the ability of the people living in any area to earn  the money to enable the area to provide the required services. No Government has any money other than that which it can extract from the pockets of  its citizens by TAXATION, or borrow on the assumption that those same citizens will provide the money to repay the loan and service the interest during  the loan's existence. There is no doubt that all persons living in Kelowna and  District owe a great debt of gratitude to those early, far-sighted pioneers, few  of whom made fortunes, for all they did in developing this lovely valley.  Oliver, 1947. 112  DOES ANYONE REMEMBER?  Reminiscences of Early Princeton  By Margaret Mitchel (nee Hunter)  Does anyone remember the old four-room school house with the cold,  bare basement to play in at recess, where each teacher taught three or four  classes, numbering at times about forty, keeping perfect discipline and maintaining our respect, even affection? Teachers held a distinct place in our  society, models of recitude and morality beyond reproach, and they instilled  in us many qualities sadly lacking today.  Yes, the strap was used to maintain discipline with the most flagrant  cases, but, amusingly, those same miscreants will today boast of the strappings, and how their fathers administered another when they came home.  None of them, to my knowledge, ever became criminals as a result. I remember the scared hush that settled over the class when someone was sent to the  cloakroom, then the awful sound of the slap! slap! soon followed by the return  of a flushed and grim-faced teacher and a tearful pupil, or more usually, one  wearing a jaunty false air of bravado to impress his snickering peers. Some of  the hard working and dedicated teachers should have had medals for their efforts in our education. To name a few: Sybil Hardwick, still living (1980) who  taught Entrance and two to three classes of High School, Mrs. Overton, Pearl  Murray, Ruby Sidney, and Helen De Cew. All were dedicated fine teachers.  In later years also Mr. C. Cornish and George Dyson — his wife teaching  French to me before I graduated as the first survivor of High School. This fact  amazed my three children many years later when I returned to Princeton and  enrolled them in the school, the Principal remarking he had been reading up  on the past history of the High School.  Who, I wonder, remembers about P. Y. Point on the old Hedley road?  Now blasted away, it was a dangerous yellow bluff on a very narrow dirt road,  with a precipitous drop to the river below. One Sunday, Ged Lyle, the Druggist, and P. Y. Smith, another young bachelor who owned one of the first cars  — a Ford, I guess — took some of the local belles for a drive. At the bluff the  car went over the bank and was there for some time. Luckily no one was badly  injured, but it was the conversation piece for many a day, and the spot was  thus named P. Y. Point.  Who remembers Bill Garrison's livery stable down near the wooden  bridge across the Tulameen, and the blacksmith shop near it — once manned  by the late Bob Taylor who, in later years, became famous for his prize cattle?  And the beautiful pair of chestnut horses that drew the fring-topped vehicle  which met the train each day, driven by Joe Wigmore, preceded by Bill's lovely big golden collie, his plume of a tail held high as he pranced proudly along.  Who remembers the lovely customs of the Masquerade Ball, held each  New Year's when no one, absolutely no one, was allowed on the floor without  a costume? People sent to Vancouver, renting costumes, or made the most  original ones, competing for lovely prizes. Bert Irwin — in later years to  become famous "Pop" and grandfather of the now famous young David  Irwin, the skier, Ted Lyle, and several other bachelors were always the "cut-  ups" at these dances, causing great hilarity. Whatever became of the dance  "Paul Jones" that mixed everyone up and gave the shy bachelors a chance at  the girl of their choice? 113  Remember Mrs. Joe Brown, the Editor's wife, who had once been an  opera singer, was very beautiful, and had a lovely voice — always asked to  sing for any big event. Also Mrs. Wilson who sang duets with her, she a contralto, and how we always hoped Mrs. Brown would wear the lovely shimmering beaded dress she had worn when she danced with THE PRINCE OF  WALES!! That was the ambition of every fluttering feminine heart at that  time (1919).  Remember Chautauqua? The cultural event of each summer, held in a  huge yellow tent, with entertainers and speakers from all over the world. Emily Pankhurst, the famous suffragette, was once a speaker. Women didn't have  the vote then. I wonder what great arguments took place in households after  her speech!  Remember when the first plane landed in the school yard? Of course the  whole town turned out for that. Remember the concerts that were held  upstairs in the hall over what was later Whites Furniture Store (still standing)?  My father bought the first Victrola, and it was produced at one of the concerts. As a small girl I remember being with him on the stage, handing him  the records — Caruso, John McCormack, Galli Curci (the famous soprano of  the day), Clara Butt, a deep contralto, and, of course, the dazzling Nellie  Melba. Also band music. It sounds very quaint now, but this was long, long  before radio or T.V., and people hungered for lovely music which so many  had known in their home lands.  Remember the gangs of men with cross-cut saws cutting blocks of ice on  the river down near the railway bridge? These were then bought and put in  "ice-houses," packed in layers of sawdust for use in summer in "ice-boxes" —  the forerunner of the modern refrigerator! Oh the joys of emptying an overflowing drip pan each day, and mopping up, plus the need for a strong back  to carry the fifty pound blocks and lower them into the top section. In the  winter the joys of coasting down the long hill into town by Ewart's store, and  how often we shot through under the feet of the big work horses drawing their  freight sleighs.  I remember the Church that was built for East Princeton — the town  that never was — planned as an adjunct to the cement plant that failed. It  stood at the top of a slight rise, now gone. My Mother played the organ and  the congregation was bathed in a ghastly green light from the stained glass  windows. She later remarked she felt sea-sick seeing all the green faces.  Then the terrible Flu epidemic after the first war! So many familiar faces  gone! The one I can remember was the tragic death of Clarence Garrison,  Bill's eldest son, I think about fourteen at the time, and so well liked. No  radio, no T.V. to broadcast the war news, but each night my Father would  call up "Central," as it was called, and the one operator would relay the latest  horrors or victories of the day. If the news was either very bad or good, my  Dad would put on his coat and hat, grab his cane or umbrella, no matter  what the weather, and walk to the nearest neighbour in East Princeton to relay the news. When Armistice Day came, I remember hurrying with my  Mother to tell the news to the neighbours who had a son in the services. The  mine whistle was blowing and the fire hall bell ringing like mad as everyone  rejoiced that peace was declared.  Princeton Collieries was the main-stay of the town then. In reference to  our phone, we had the distinction of owning the first — number one. It was 114  still the same number later in the forties. I often wonder what became of that  old wall crank phone. No one would ever believe me when I gave them my  phone number!  Memories of the old F. P. Cook Estate store, with old Perley Russell to  look after your needs. His white hair, one glass eye, his friendly concern, and  his slow movements around the store. Time meant nothing! After all, no one  was in a hurry. What a Museum that store would be today! The one in  Barkerville reminded me of it so much, but the old familiar smells were missing. Freshly ground coffee from the big "mill" with the large hand-turned  wheel. Leather, pickles in barrels, over-ripe fruit, cookies (delicious) in large  square tins open to our gaze. Rice in woven grass sacks, pots and pans hanging from the ceiling. Even corsets and harness! When the building was partially torn down, a small office was discovered back of a partition, filled with  a big roll-topped desk and many things which would be of great interest now.  Among them were salvaged a pile of mining brochures, some of which my  husband managed to save from going to the dump. They proved very interesting, printed in 1904, they describe all the big mines of the day and maps:  Greenwood, Phoenix, Rossland, etc., with pictures of the latest mining equipment. Also advertisements of the luxurious hotel rooms in Victoria — the  latest and best in comfort — hot and cold running water — bathrooms too!  Mentioning stores, remember the big department uporium of A. E.  Howse (formerly of Nicola in the 1800's)? There were no cash registers, but  overhead wires running up to a small office alcove, far above the customers.  The clerk took your money and the slip for the purchase, tucked it into a  small barrel-like tin, put on the lid, attached it to the wire, and away it went  to the cashier. She took it off, read the slip, made the right change, and back  it came. People were not in a hurry then, and besides it gave the customer a  chance to gossip with the clerk.  Remember the great search for Nurse Warburton, lost on the Old Hope  Trail? A woman who seemed determined to travel alone in strange and wild  places. Podunk Davis, a prospector, found her, then was honoured by the  Premier, John Oliver, in a public ceremony. The tragic ending to this story is  that the same lady took off at a later date, and was never found. And Singing  Jimmie! Who could forget the little man who was a ventriloquist and when  slightly "under the influence," bewildered and confounded strangers with replies from the telephone poles.  Then there was the Christmas Tree and Concert. All the community  contributed in some way to make sure each child received a present. The  whole town turned out to the Odd Fellows' Hall, and Mr. Waterman made  such a wonderful Santa Claus! The starched and becurled little girls recited  their poems as did the scrubbed little boys with their squeaky shoes. One  memorable night two rows of little boys took their places on stage, each to  sing a verse and then join in the chorus. For one small boy it was a disaster —  trying to cope with a large chunk of toffee, his jaws firmly glued, he tried in  vain to sing his verse. Prodded on each side, and from behind with loud whispers of his lines, he manfully struggled, to no avail, until rescued by the  teacher, ordering the next boy to continue. The audience, convulsed with  laughter, enjoyed that item more than any other.  A play was then presented — not the Nativity Scene so popular today,  but invariably "Mrs.  Wiggs in the Cabbage Patch," based on the "Old 115  Woman Who Lived in a Shoe." Then a semi-humorous talk by the minister,  perhaps a song by a lady — often Mrs. Waterman who had a very nice  soprano voice. Soon, amid gasps of expectation, a telegram would be read,  saying Santa Claus was now at Hedley, and would arrive very soon. The concert would continue, children manfully struggling through their songs and  "pieces." Another telegram — Santa would be there any minute! Finally in an  excited hush, the jingle of bells, and Santa would appear with a loud "Ho,  Ho!" greeting children by name and saying how hard the trip had been from  the North Pole. Over in a corner stood the huge tree, all decorated and shiny,  but most important was the large pile of presents underneath. Dolly Waterman remembers being greeted loudly by Santa, who, of course, was her  father, disguising his voice so well. Everyone went home happy and with a  present. Perhaps the only one they got, times being hard, and money scarce  for many.  I heard of the terrible mine disaster at Blakeburn, coming down on the  boat from Port Alice, so far away from the daily news. The Mines Inspector,  who knew my father, was on board and told me of the many deaths and family tragedies which he was ordered to investigate.  I remember when the spur-line of the C.P.R. was built to Copper Mountain, employing a large number of Doukhabors from the Kootenays. Men and  women working at the same back-breaking work with pick and shovel. The  townfolk curious at the odd custumes, the long skirts of the women and their  colourful "babushkas" on their heads.  No reminiscences of Princeton would be complete without mentioning its  fame as "The Hockey Town." Any young man seeking work was guaranteed a  job if he could play hockey either at Allemby (site of the crusher plant) or  Copper Mountain. The open air rink where the Overwaitea now stands, the  crowds on the sidewalk watching the rough and wild games with teams from  the Okanagan, Nelson, Rossland, etc. No holds barred!  Then came the new United Church Minister, Herb Ashford. Young,  newly married, he shocked to the core the old conservative members of the  congregation by refereeing the hockey games and laying down strict rules of  conduct. They finally came to respect him. He filled the church to the doors  each Sunday, and when he left to serve ten years in India as a Missionary,  there were many a tearful farewell. His first son, born in Princeton, was  named after my father with whom he carried on a running battle of  arguments, wit and theology. Ten years later he walked in the door and  started where they had left off. My father could never win. Herb simply  roared with laughter and they parted with mutual respect. The year before  his very tragic death in a car accident, he came to Williams Lake where I  lived and "filled in" for a few weeks. The first service was attended by some  eighteen people, eight in the choir. When he left, just before Christmas, the  church was packed; extra chairs being put up by the choir to accommodate  the crowd. At dinner that day he told a story of his days as a referee in  Princeton. One of the best players was "Bones" Plecash, a tall, well built  young man who always argued the penalties as he was a rough player. One  game he committed a flagrant offence, and was ordered off the ice. He refused, argued heatedly, and angry words were exchanged, including a threat  to beat up the minister. Herb was not one to back down and they went off the  ice to settle matters, man to man. In future, penalties were sat out, but 116  "Bones" refused to ever attend church again while Ashford was minister.  Came the time when Herb and Evelyn were to leave for India, to be gone  seven years. The train was to leave very early in the morning. They were all  packed, the taxi ordered (Ed Burrs' of course), when about 2 o'clock there was  a loud knocking at the door. On opening it, there stood "Bones" and his girl  friend Maggie White (Mrs. Harry Allison's sister). "Can we come in, Reverend? Will you please marry us? We want you to do it, and no one else, before  you go." So Herb got out his Bible, and with Evelyn as witness, he performed  the marriage ceremony. They shook hands and wished each other the very  best in a tearful farewell and then the couple left. The taxi came, the Ash-  fords left on their long journey to India. In a recent edition of Readers'  Digest, December, 1979, there was a long story of his career as an outstanding  minister all across Canada.  A nostalgic memory — Nathan's ice cream parlor, with its spindly wire-  backed chairs and wee flat spoons that were "derigeu" for eating the delicacy.  Also the tiny "wafers" that accompanied the treat served in the metal dishes.  With so many stories and a movie to be made of the famous Bill Miner,  or George Edwards which was his real name, it is fitting to give a description  of a charming, courteous "Southern Gentleman" as he was known and described by many from Nicola to Princeton. He was well known as a delightful  guest, a good dancer and card player, the ladies finding him charming. They  only knew him as Edwards during his quiet times between the train or stage  hold-ups with his "gang." However he was finally captured and sent to the  Penitentiary exposing his double life. One story my mother used to tell, concerned a stage hold-up, where two or three women were passengers. Everyone  was ordered out of the coach into the rain, and while his henchmen relieved  the men of their wallets and valuables, Bill Miner very solicitiously held an  umbrella over the ladies to keep their hats dry.  One other item about Bill Miner, which may not be authentic but which  is interesting. My father owned seven acres of choice land about three miles  from town, the Hunter Estate as it was called, now owned by Jerry Harper. At  the east and outside our fence there is a small Indian Grave yard, with white  picket fence, the only one I know of in the area of Princeton. The last funeral  held there was in 1914 when the Chief Johnny —? was buried. As a little girl I  stood on our side watching while the Indians came from all around, bringing  sacks of clothing, all kinds of food which they left. In the centre was a tall  pole, topped by a larger carved and brightly painted wooden rooster weather  vane. It was said that either Bill Miner or one of his henchmen, while in the  Penitentiary helped to pass his time by carving these birds. In later years it  disappeared, some "collector" craved it and ignored the sacred territory of the  Indians.  In mentioning that area I can't forget the big church picnics held on one-  mile creek, across the bridge, where there was a big flat — now occupied by  houses. If our mothers allowed us we took off our stockings and went wading  in the shallows. We participated in the sack races, three-legged races, tug-o-  wars etc. Everyone in the town came, by buggy, car, or in the fringe-topped  three-seater which met the train each day.  The food was overwhelming, no junk food in those days and no "nutritionists" to tell us it was bad for us. Considering the fact that so many of that  generation have lived to be eighty or one hundred, it would seem that our diet 117  was not all bad. All the women vied with each other to produce the most  delectable salads, cakes with delicious icings, pies oozing fruit juices and  sandwiches of every kind, including those made with delicious boiled ham  which is only now available in high-priced specialty shops. Then the greatest  moment of all — the fathers came carrying the big wooden ice-buckets with  their precious loads of ice cream made with real cream and eggs. The young  volunteers who had turned the handles until their arms ached in order to  achieve the perfect result were well rewarded by being allowed to "lick the  dasher" and eat many cones. When everyone was full and satisfied and the  sun setting, the children were gathered up to go home tired and happy after a  wonderful outing.  Again, about food, remember the "pot-luck" suppers of those days, held  in the Odd Fellows' Hall. How hard the women worked to load the tables with  every kind of cake, pie, salad, pork and beans, roasts, hams, home-made  bread and buns, all eagerly devoured by the young men, mostly miners or  drivers in the freight wagons or perhaps the train crews, and we must not  forget the poorly paid, but socially accepted bank clerks, bachelors all, and  enjoying the food to the utmost. When all had eaten, came the "Auction,"  eagerly awaited — someone, perhaps Mr. Waterman or my father, would be  auctioneer. The pies and cakes not cut would be auctioned off to the highest  bidder, responding to many a witty description of the item and the charming  lady who made it. I think many a romance started at these affairs as also at  the box-lunch socials where the prettiest girl got the highest bids, no matter  the contents of her box.  Remember the Sunday services when the Orange Lodge or the Odd  Fellows would parade in all their regalia up the street to attend a special service?  On a romantic note, I remember the night Bert Irwin and his bride,  Mary, a nurse were married. All his bachelor friends took over the traces on  the sleigh, pulling them all through the town to everyone's delight and laughter. Years later he was to become the well-known "Pop" Irwin who worked for  many years to establish "Amber Ski Hill" named after the pipe tobacco he  smoked and whose tins repaired many a ski. "Mom" Irwin must be remembered by many in far parts of the world for her love and kindness, producing  bandages, mittens, sandwiches and hot drinks for the young struggling  skiiers.  I remember when the first Japanese family came to live in the small community of East Princeton where there were several empty houses after the cement plant fiasco. It was after the first war when so many of our staunch  Japanese allies had volunteered and gone overseas too for their new country.  Money and jobs were scarce, so this young couple named Honda were to brave  the cold and poverty and seek work. She was pregnant so the neighbours  helped with food and clothing until he got working. The baby arrived and my  mother took me to see it — so tiny and sweet, a wee black-haired doll —  whom they named Toki. Later on they had a cafe and finally moved back to  Vancouver. When the second war broke out, these second and third generation Japanese were cruelly herded into concentration camps in the interior,  their businesses and homes arbitrarily confiscated and sold. The propaganda  stirred up by the politicians was based on the large fishing community on the  coast, which was said to be a threat to national security. The blanket seizure 118  and confinement was extended to every Japanese family, leaving the heritage  of bitterness for many.  During the first years of Princeton the church services were held in  homes, conducted by ministers travelling through the area. One minister,  Rev. A. H. Camerson lived in Keremeos and came often, staying at our home  overnight. A much loved and respected man. Part of my writing experience  was sending him letters, and on his visits he would think up outrageous words  for me to spell and pronounce. In reference to these services, it was my  mother who played the organ and personally helped to raise the funds for the  first church again. Services after 1900 were held in the Court Room of the  large Government building, now gone and replaced by the modern building  on the same site.  My father, Hugh Hunter, was the first Government Agent, Gold Commissioner, mining recorder, registrar of births, deaths and marriages until he  retired in 1927. He came out from England in the late 1800's to Lower Nicola  where there was somewhat of a minor gold rush. My mother, Jessie Beaton  Olding was from Nova Scotia and a school teacher in the little log school,  teaching, among the many who went on later to become prominent citizens of  B.C., the formerly mentioned "Pop" or Bertie Irwin and his two sons Bill and  Bertie were to become Olympic Skiiers and later served in the Second World  War as pilot and infantryman (coming home safely). My parents met and  were married in 1891, leaving then for Granite Creek which had experienced  quite a large gold rush. My mother's wedding and engagement rings were  made from gold panned in the Nicola River.  Her wedding present from my father was a small pump organ which I  treasure today. It came over the old Hope Trail, carried in blankets slung on  poles by six Chinese, taking two weeks to arrive in Granite Creek. Being the  only musical instrument and my mother having a lovely contralto voice,  church services, when possible, and many a sing-song were held in their log  cabin. So many of the prospectors at that time were from the British Isles and  some were excellent singers, enjoying the chance to sing the old songs so  familiar to them. My mother, a tee-totaller all her life and deeply religious  must at times have been disturbed at living on the street with nineteen saloons  and houses catering to "other needs."  The peak of the gold rush was over but hundreds of Chinese had claims  along the creek-beds, having drifted there after the C.P.R. was finished. Having brought out thousands of "coolies" to do the exhausting and hazardous  work where hundreds lost their lives and lived in abject poverty, the Government of the day cast them aside as worthless, refusing to pay their way home.  They drifted around the country, becoming gardeners, miners, house-boys  and many starting the famous Chinese laundries and also restaurants.  In those days they wore their hair braided in a long queue which was  much esteemed and considered a disgrace if cut. Two very unlikely partners  had a good claim, one six feet (unusual for a Chinese) the other very small,  and as my mother used to tell the story, one day she was walking down the  street towards the large well where she heard the most terrible shrieks and ki-  yi-ing of some Chinese. Now my mother was a tall, stately woman much respected by everyone and felt she had better look into the matter. When she  came to the well, there was the large man, holding fast to the queue of his  small partner, now submerged in the water. Hauling him up and shaking the 119  poor little fellow like a rat, he shouted, "I ducky you once - you no die! I ducky  you more, why you no die - you steal-um-gold, now - you die!!" My mother intervened very sternly, ordering him to desist, take his partner home to recover  and let my father settle the argument, as he was the Gold Commissioner and  also represented law and order in the small community. The outcome apparently brought peace thereafter.  In 1900 my parents were transferred to Princeton where a fine new  Government building was erected which housed his large office and the one of  the only policeman, whose living quarters were upstairs. The large courtroom  was used for many purposes, including church services until the church and  manse were built in the twenties. At that time, due to over-crowding of the  school it was turned into a classroom for the high school students. I wrote my  "finals" in that room and to my parents' amazement I passed, not gloriously,  but I made it and can claim to be the first graduate of Princeton High. No big  "Grad" celebrations as now, the exam was written, I walked home the long,  hot dusty road and was put to work picking raspberries, a job I hated. I had to  wait at least six weeks for the results, published in the Vancouver papers. In  tiny print those prized words: "Margaret Hunter - passed." I was "educated,"  and the future awaited me with all its shocks and joys, the terrible Depression,  children and being a business woman on my own.  I must not forget to mention the famous "Blue-Bird" club of our church.  Young girls working to raise money for a bell for the church. Finally the  proud moment when the rope was pulled and the bell pealed loudly to summon the congregation. Thereafter my father always rang the bell as one of his  duties, including taking up the collection and tending the stove set up near  the front. My mother, no matter the weather was the organist and choir  leader for many years until her age became a problem and her duties were  taken over by Mrs. George Allen (Oriole Meausette) serving many years with  great success and also lending her talents for numerous weddings and  funerals.  I remember the terrible grasshopper plagues we had every five years. In  twenty-four hours a whole field could be eaten bare, and driving in a car was  almost impossible, the windshield covered with their bodies. One help to the  gardeners was a mixture of bran, molasses and Paris Green laid around the  plants. It saved such things as cabbage.  I remember as a child, I watched with delight the huge cattle drives from  Keremeos area, the Tom Daley Ranch with the cowboys and Mrs. Daley in  her leather split skirt riding herd on the bellowing hundreds. Flocks of sheep  were also brought through to graze on the bunch grass up the rivers. One or  two would die on the way, having eaten the very poisonous Larkspur, a  beautiful plant but dangerous.  One should mention how certain lakes became named. On the Merritt  road, McCaffery Lake, after our beloved old Doctor who had his small fishing  cabin, still there but almost hidden by the new road. McKenzie Lake, named  after a tall, raw-boned Scotchman, who was dubbed "The Laird of  McKenzie" by the Bank Manager, Mr. Mansfield. He had a cabin where now  stands a modern home. A pet bear and other wild animals he had tamed.  Well educated, with a strong Scottish accent, his finances a mystery, he always welcomed visitors with great delight. His housekeeping left a great deal  to be desired and the ladies would delicately decline his offer of tea in cups 120  unwashed for weeks.  To end these reminiscences, it must be recalled when the long awaited  opening of the Hope-Princeton road took place. Planned and talked about  for decades, it meant so many things, especially a short trip from Vancouver  instead of the long, arduous access by way of the Fraser Canyon and around  by Merritt. The Coquihalla railroad was the only other route, so a motor access was greeted with great joy and helped Princeton financially with tourists  passing through.  Summerland circa 1918. 121  KENNETH WILLIAM KINNARD — 1887 - 1978  By Norma Kinnard Ross  Editor's Note: The following tribute to Mr. Kinnard is contributed  by his daughter, Norma Kinnard Ross. As she mentions, his knowledge of the fruit industry was recognized 'far beyond the valley.' A  short resume of his involvement follows: He joined the Vernon Fruit  Union as Secretary-Treasurer in> 1914 holding the same position  with the Associated Growers of B.C. in 1923 and held that position  until his retirement in 1966. In addition Mr. Kinnard served on the  directorate of the Okanagan Federated Shippers' Association from  1943 until 1965, being Vice-President from 1947 to 1953 and president from 1953 until 1965. He was awarded a life membership in  the B.C. Fruit Growers Association in 1962.  My father, Kenneth William Kinnard, passed away on July 21, 1978  after a long life in which he contributed much to Vernon and to the Okanagan Valley.  He was born in 1887 at Burnaby, Ontario, a community that was little  more than the general store and post office owned and operated by his father.  Here, in the Welland-Port Colborne area about Lake Erie, he and his two  brothers grew up. What childhood they had must have been brief, as we were  told no tales of boyhood fun, but we do know that as a little boy, he was required to help in the store. His particular task was to transport the mail to  and from the Wainfleet station. It seemed a long way to the boy who went by  horse and wagon. My grandfather later sold this store, moved his family to  Wainfleet, and opened a farm equipment business. My father said that he  operated it himself while still in his teens. We do not know when he made the  move, but he finally left home to live with an aunt in St. Catherines. Here he  took a business course which enabled him to leave the family enterprises.  In the early part of this century he moved to the Okanagan in the hope  that the reportedly dry climate would benefit his wife who was in poor health.  Unfortunately, she died shortly after his arrival but he decided to stay. Somehow he sensed that in this developing valley with its still readily accessible  lakes and woods, he would find the life he wished for and the recreation he  must have longed for as a boy.  His first employment was as timekeeper for the Summerland Supply  Company, a firm constructing a portion of the Kettle Valley Railway. With  the job completed, the company moved on and he decided not to accompany  them. Rather, he commenced work for the fruit industry, first in Summer-  land and later in Vernon.  He married Miss Alice Richmond on February 28, 1918 and they were to  celebrate their 60th wedding anniversary in 1978. They made their home in  Vernon and raised five daughters here.  His knowledge of the fruit industry was recognized far beyond the valley.  He served a time on the Horticultural Council of Canada, and when the  government considered alterations in the laws governing 'taxation of cooperatives,' he presented a brief for the fruit industry of the Okanagan.  He was active in community affairs and was a member of the BPOE 122  (Elks) from 1920 to 1940 and was exalted ruler in 1922, 1923, 1927 and 1929.  The Elks Carnival and Elks Flag Day were annual events during these years.  My father made the arrangements for the rental of games of chance and was  completely involved in the effort and outcome of Carnival Nights when the  Scout Hall was transformed into a "Gay-way" thronged with people out for a  night of fun. The Elks Flag Day was completely devoted to the enjoyment of  the children of Vernon and involved sport events (racing, etc.) with prizes and  free treats to all. A parade to Poison Park featured the waving of flags by the  school children on their way to participate. It might be added that all received a flag — patriotism and citizenship being highly lauded.  There were many families who enjoyed a better Christmas in those depression years because proceeds from these events provided hampers for the  needy.  Shortly after the construction of Vernon's Arena in 1937, he became  Chairman of the Arena Commission (1938 - 1939). He planned its functions,  one of which was an exhibition hockey game with the Bralorne team as visiting stars. One of the firstlce Shows was planned and it was arranged that  skaters with recognized ability would come to augment the fledgling members  of Vernon's First Figure Skating Club. Later there was a fancy dress skating  party with what seemed a multitude of prizes. When the ice went out what  better way to start the summer season than to lay a floor and promote a  lacross game between the Indians and Salmonbellies from the Vancouver  league.  He served on the Vernon Board of School Trustees (1930 - 1936) and  pressured for money required for the badly needed Secondary School which  was finally built in Poison Park. As another Board was in office at the time of  construction, he seemed to feel he had had little part in it.  He was a member of the Vernon Jubilee Hospital Association for eight  years and served as President from 1945 to 1952. His was the responsibility of  day-to-day decision making during the initial part of construction of the present building. When he retired from civic duties, it seemed that he had finally  provided something much needed and lasting for his city.  He was always active in civic affairs. I do not think he realized how much  his efforts enriched the life of his fellow citizens, but his ability to organize  provided much in entertainment. Through all these years his participation in  sports increased, and to this he brought the same dedication and ability he  had for everything he did. To him there was no greater thrill than to watch  the culmination of a perfect play, be it his or another's. It did not matter  what, if it were sports or athletics, he enjoyed the match. He considered attendance at the British Empire Games in Vancouver as one of the highlights of  his life. One had only to see the many framed life membership certificates he  had in his study to realize how broad his interests were. Yet finally, with advancing years, he withdrew even from his curling and bowling.  And what of his family? With them this busy man shared what I think  was his greatest pleasure — the out-of-doors. Together we fished the streams  and lakes, picnicked on the shores, hiked through the woods and climbed the  hills. We learned to watch for wildlife and to thrill at the sight of a bird soaring or the eerie call of the loon across a still lake. I shall always remember the  autumn day all seven of us climbed up the back of Blue Nose Mountain, to sit  at the top for lunch, surveying the lovely valley that was home. What the little 123  boy in Ontario had lacked, he gave to his family in abundance.  A little late to be considered a pioneer, he was a man of his time. That  time when life's pace was slower and there was much for men to do. His contribution was great. Surely he would rank high on a list of All Time Good  Citizens. He left with "Life's Work Well Done."  \  /&\ 124  I Can't Mooe a Mountain  While you're so many months away  the miles loom between us  like a mountain  This barrier that keeps us apart  keeps us from touching  yet you touch me still.  Here the still water flows slowly  down two lonely faces  in search of each other.  This distance, like a stopwatch  times our patience  ticks away our memories  and sets the mood  for the moment of our love.  I can't move a mountain  I haven't the strength,  but I can endure the months  of crumbling and breaking  that it takes  for the mountain to become  but a mere pebble  that needs only to be kicked aside.  KIM LeCLAIRE 125  THE HISTORY  OF KALEDEN  by  H. W. CORBITT  With the assistance of Ron King and the helpful co-operation of a number of pioneers and  residents of the district.  Special thanks to Verne Simpson, of Oliver, for  material supplied in starting these records.  Also acknowledgement to the Okanagan Historical Society Reports for data. 7a/V/Vc /o a/  No.  1 Penticton  Indian Reserve  1. Gillespie House  2. Barn  3. House  4. Community Hall  5. Cemetery  6. Robertson Point  7. Packing Plant  8. Barn  Blacksmith Shop  Cook House  9. Hotel  10. Store  11. Post Office  12. Arnott Barn  13. Worgan Cabin  14. Sickle Point  15. Banbury Point  ^kaha  ///«-*/'«. frfo*M     [_ a £e  S/Jklie. La.Ke.  OkiKr>ia-Cc*.A/ £■<*//<, 127  ^J\aleden    r\oad  "There is a road by Skaha Lake  The cautious driver will not take,  So narrow, steep and high in air  And dangerous as an open stair,  He turns aside to easier grades  Through stands of pine in crimson glades.  But you who would behold the face  Of beauty in her dwelling place,  And know that she is often found  Within the peril guarded ground,  Loving the fearless who have shown  A spirit steadfast as her own.  Take the Kaleden road and dare  The danger for the glory there,  Beauty will meet you as you fly  Enraptured between earth and sky,  And her own ecstasy impart  As guerdon to your faithful heart.  The spell of her enchanted ways  Shall be about you all your days,  With the old thrill, as you recall  The loveliness that held you thrall,  And bless the stars that bade you take  Kaleden road by Skaha Lake."  -Bliss Carmen. 128  JAMES  RITCHIE  Founder of Kaleden 129  C^arlu    esDuuA  In beginning these records a brief reference should be made to  the Indian, who before the coming of the white man, was lord of  all he surveyed, a seemingly happy and carefree mortal living  contentedly on the plentious bounty of nature.  There have been indications of Indians using the lake frontage of Kaleden as a camping ground in the early days. Mr. Corbitt  can remember a picnic party from Penticton finding some thirty  arrow heads at the base of an old pine stump on the point now the  property of Mr. John Pearson, also some have been found at different places on the townsite.  Old Chief Edwards of the Penticton Band once told Mr. Corbitt  that Skaha Lake had no bottom and that it was bad water due to  many evil spirits. Probably this belief started from the many rumblings on winter nights when the lake was frozen over and was one of  the reasons why the Indians never used it as a means of transportation. No doubt the expansion and contraction caused by warm  days and cold nights was responsible. Old timers remember one  winter in particular that the rumblings were so bad that they were  unable to sleep nights.  This little lake has had several names—"Lac du Chien," "Dog,"  "Lower Okanagan," and "Skaha," the last one is the most attractive, and no doubt permanent.  Let us hope so.  For a number of years up to 1917 a band of Nez Perce Indians  from the Colville Resrvation in Washington made their yearly trips,  sometimes through Kaleden, on the way up to the Coldstream Ranch  for hop picking. It gave a new comer a decided thrill to see seventy-  five to one hundred of this band with their families pass through  the village. The males wore long hair generally in two braids  hanging over each shoulder. They were distinguished by their  narrow faces, high cheek bones, hooked noses, and piercing eyes.  The Indians here as in other places wanted what the white  man had to trade and the white man wanted the Indians' furs—so  came the Fur Traders.  A long time ago in the year 1811 a small body of Americans  travelled through the  Okanagan Valley to  the Thompson  River 130  The History oi Kaleden  country.   They were the first white men to use the land route connecting the Fraser and Columbia watersheds.  After 1826 the overland trail through the Okanagan Valley  was regularly and constantly used for a period of twenty years.  The Brigade Trail from Fort. Okanogan where the town of Brewster, Washington, now stands followed the east side of the Valley  to the head of Osoyoos Lake where it crossed to the west side,  climbing the hill to where the mining camp of Fairview later existed,  then passed on via Myers Flats and White Lake, either swinging  west via Twin Lakes or north via the Junction Ranch. No doubt this  meadow was a favourite camping ground. Both trails reached  Marron Valley continuing on to cross Sheep Creek at its junction with Shingle Creek and then followed up this creek crossing  Trout Creek to Okanagan Lake near Peachland and on up the west  side of the lake then swung in a north-westerly direction via Grande  Prairie and Monte Creek to Fort Kamloops.  The Okanagan being more or less open country the Brigades  did not stick to only one trail—horse feed no doubt had an influence  on this.  Campsites were from fifteen to twenty miles apart where grass  and water were available for horses.  A pack train of those days would consist of from two hundred  to three hundred animals, seventy-five or more of which would be  laden at a time with furs on the outgoing trip and on the return  journey with supplies and merchandise for barter with the Indians.  Each horse carried two packs or "pieces" weighing from 80 to 90  pounds each.  Where the Fur Traders went eventually settlement followed and  as far back as 1875 the cattle of Tom Ellis of Penticton roamed the  hills of Kaleden.  In the 1880's according to some old timers, a man named Shoemaker lived on what is now known as the Junction Ranch. Whether  he was a squatter or pre-emptor there is no record, however, that  he was the first white settler is the consensus of opinion.  The records show that Richard Hynds, an Irishman, pre-empted  these 320 acres in 1891 and received the Crown Grant in 1899.  Soon after acquriing this  property he built a two  storey  frame 131  Early Days  house and a large log barn (which is still standing and in good  repair) near the forks of the roads going south to White Lake and  Okanagan Falls. For a number of years this was a stopping-off  place for freighters going to and from Penticton and the mining  camps to the south and east.  In 1898 Mrs. Hynds died, so the following year he decided to  take two of his children back to Ireland, the eldest girl going back  to New Zealand, where the family lived before coming to the Okanagan. He sold his holding to a Basel Lawrence who had previously  come from England to learn ranching with George Barkley (the  cattle king of Summerland). Later Lawrence pre-empted 320 acres  east of this property.  Dugald Gillespie, a native of Thamesville, Ontario, came out  to the Fraser Valley in 1891 via the Ozarks in Missouri, stopping  a short time in Oregon and Washington. After the flood in 1894, he  moved his family up to Okanagan Falls and in the spring of 1895  he pre-empted the home property together with other parcels  of land. He found an old fellow who had built a small log cabin but  was pulling out for the States, and wanted $10.00 for the work he  had done and the few articles he was leaving behind. Today these  properties are known as Gillespie Ranch and Gillespie Flats. He  built a two storey house which is still standing near the highway between Kaleden and Okanagan Falls, also several small sheds and a  short distance to the west planted a small orchard of mixed fruits.  His son writes that "the nearest post office was at Penticton,  however, the Snodgrass stage between Penticton and Greenwood  passed our place twice a week, so by hanging a flour sack out near  the road with our outgoing mail, the driver would pick it up and  return the sack with our mail the next day.  "My three sisters and I went to school at Okanagan Falls. In  order to get the Government Grant, the school had to maintain an  average attendance of seven pupils, so my youngest sister, age  two, was enrolled and taken to school every day."  At that time there was only one other white woman between  Penticton and Fairview. Indians visited them on several occasions  and told them that they were living on Indian land and should go.  However, he made many friends among the natives, and lived  very peacefully with them all. 132  The History of Kaleden  He operated a number of four and six horse freight wagons to  Fairview, Camp McKinney, and Greenwood. However, most of  his freighting was done to the Nickel Plate mine following its discovery, hauling most of the mining machinery as well as that for  the stamp mill of the "Daly Reduction" at Hedley, also return loads  of copper ore concentrates to Penticton for shipment to Tacoma.  He sold his holdings to James Ritchie in 1909, and moved to Moose  Jaw, Sask.  In 1900 the first irrigation system in the district was developed  by Gillespie, a five foot earth dam was built at the foot of Marron  Lake, which received the spring run off from Aeneas Lake, together  with a continuous flow from Marron Creek. The stored water was  then available for at least one good irrigation during the early  summer. The water followed the old creek bed via the Junction  Ranch to a point some five hundred feet south of the Gillespie house  where it went underground coming to the surface again on the  Waterman property, now owned by Mr. Jack Petley of Penticton.  The holdings of Mr. Douglcs Dewar known as "Banbury" were  part of a pre-emption taken out in 1895 by R. J. Cheeseman, and for  many years the point was called after him.  About the same time a retired India Army officer by the name  of Worgan pre-empted between 300 and 400 acres south along the  lake, and as far as can be found out built the log cabin that was  still standing and used during the earlv days of Kaleden history.  Worgan did not like work, so spent a good deal of his time in a flat  bottomed boat out on the lake reading, sleeping, and cooling off  during the heat of the summer. One day he overslept, and was  rudely awakened half way over the Falls. His cries attracted some  men nearby, who rescued him. Mrs. Worgan managed the Snodgrass Hotel until they moved to the mining camp of Greenwood.  In 1900 John Arnott arrived from England to learn ranching  with Lawrence, a distant relation, who now owned the Junction  Ranch. After a time he decided to get land of his own. So in 1902  pre-empted the balance of the 1,078 acres south of the Worgan property. After living here for three years and using the Worgan cabin,  he abandoned it and moved to New Jersey, U.S.A. His brother,  Warwick, having recently arrived from the Old Country, relocated  the land, living in Worgan's cabin. Later he added a barn just  south of the cabin. 133  Early Days  In 1906 he went back to England and while there he had  considerable correspondence with James Ritchie, who wanted  his property offering first $400.00, then $700.00, and eventually  $1,000.00 before the purchase was finalized. Having left home in  a hurry, he nailed a notice on the cabin door—"Will be back in ten  minutes"—on his return three months later, the notice was still intact.  With the purchase money he bought out D. M. McDougall's  half interest in the stage line of McDougall and Hine, who had the  mail contract. He also bought an interest in the then partly finished  Alexandra Hotel at the Falls. Later he drove the stage between  Penticton, Fairview, and Oroville, Washington. He is now living in  Penticton. 134  The History ol Kaleden  1910-The first Cadillac car in the Okanagan.   Front seat- Jim P.itrh,C  driver, J. Goupel.   Rear seat:   Jim McGraw  Ken Hogg *'  1910-Three old timers:  Dave Lapsley  merchant; Jack Stevens, carpenter;  Seaman Hatfield, post master. 135  ^Jhe (J->irth of ^J\alecLt  en  So it was that the early settlers had come to think of the  bench lands above Skaha Lake as a camping spot for weary men  and horses, or as a range for cattle or even as offering possibilities  for dry farming, but it remained for Jim Ritchie to look across the  parched hills and visualize the orchards that could materialize if  water were supplied.  Mr. Ritchie had come to the valley from Pilot Mound, Manitoba  in 1903 and had purchased and subdivided 320 acres into what is  now known as West Summerland townsite. By 1905 he was looking around for further development opportunities and he found the  spot here on the western shores of Skaha.  Over the next year he managed to purchase in the names of  his brothers, Tom and Will, of his wife, Margaret, his father-in-law,  J. C. Finday, his secretary, Alex H. Stevens, and friend, John Burny-  eat, the lands pre-empted by Cheeseman, Worgan and Arnott.  The holdings of Gillespie and Lawrence, he purchased himself.  Altogether he acquired some 3,000 acres, and by 1908 plans for  subdividing and for construction of an irrigation system were well  advanced.  Up to this time Ritchie's new development had been given no  name but in the spring of 1909 a contest was held and on April  24th the winning name "Kaleden" was chosen. It had been suggested by Rev. Walter Russel of Toronto who combined the Greek  word "Kalps" meaning beautiful, with the name of the Biblical  orchard.   The prize—a lot in the new townsite.  Of today's residents, Mr. H. W. Corbitt was the first to set foot  in Kaleden. He recalls his first visit in May of 1909—"a party of  us drove down from Summerland—the Hatfield and Anguin families, the Hayes girls, George Christie, Jim Harrison and myself,  coming south by way of the Gartrell ranch, then up on the bench  where the Experimental Farm now stands. From there we more  or less followed what is now the K.V.R. right-of-way and continued  south, fording Shingle Creek near where the little Indian church  now stands, and along Skaha Lake to Kaleden, camping at the  north end of the townsite near the old log cabin. The three days  that we were there we enjoyed splendid fishing,  catching Kara- 136  The History oi Kaleden  loops trout up to seven pounds—a grand holiday. F. H. Latimer,  the surveyor, and his two helpers, Bob Hilton and A. S. Miller, were  the only people on the townsite, living in tents where the hotel  now stands."  During the summer and fall of that year, Jim Ritchie accepted  from prospective buyers a deposit of $50.00 for each five acres  desired. The man making the first deposit was guaranteed first  choice when the survey was completed and the land put up for sale.  Each successive person making a deposit, was given a corresponding numbered choice and by the time the lots were put on sale in  November 1909, a total of thirty-five of these "choices" had been  purchased and on the appointed day some thirty or more future  orchardists could be seen ranging over the Kaleden bench lands,  shovels in hand, testing the depth and texture of the soil on various  lots. It was a day of excitement, suspense and ofen of disappointment as those well down the priority list had to stand by while the  fortunate ones with earlier choices made their decisions.  From that point on the lots were sold in a more conventional  manner with the price being $240.00 an acre except for a few lake-  shore lots. Added to this was the cost of water shares at $80.00 an  acre bringing the price of a five acre lot to $1,600.00.  IRRIGATION CONSTRUCTION  The matter of guaranteeing water for thirsty land was of course  the crux of the whole project. Mr. Ritchie had promoted the Kaleden  Developemnt Company, with the capital obtained chiefly in London, England, and the largest task confronting the company was  the construction of an irrigation system capable of meeting the  needs of the area. Water rights were obtained on Shatford or  Sheep Creek and the first stage of our present irrigation system was  started in 1908. The water was taken from Shatford Creek by means  of a diversion dam and crossed the valley at Allen Grove through  cm inverted syphon of wood stave pipe. From that point it was conducted by ditch and wooden flume to a point on Marron Creek, one  and a half miles west of the junction of Highways No. 3 and No. 97  where a concrete intake was built. Below the intake ditches and  flumes could not be used because of the hilly nature of Kaleden,  and the only alternative was a system of pipes for distribution.  While much more expensive, it gave Kaleden a year around water 137  The Birth oi Kaleden  supply whereas most of the neighbouring communities had to store  their winter's supply in cisterns.  The pipe used was made of Douglas Fir staves, wound with  heavy tempered steel wire and covered with pitch and two thicknesses of burlap. It was built to withstand 300 pounds pressure  and varied in diameter from two to eighteen inches. Some of the  original pipes lasted for over thirty years before being replaced.  Tom McAlpine was brought in by Ritchie in the spring of 1909  and placed in charge of all construction. He spent most of his time  overseeing the work from Shatford Creek to the intake and placed  Harry Corbitt in charge of some twenty men digging ditches in  Kaleden in preparation for the actual pipe laying the following  spring. Most of the workers were recruited from the Penticton Indian  Band and this was an instance where Indians worked hard for long  hours and apparently liked it. The pay was $2.50 for a ten hour  day and attracted men from Penticton and Okanagan Falls to supplement the Indians. There was also a sprinkling of hobos—who  would stop off for a week or ten days' work on their way to winter  in Spokane's famous "Jungle."  Among the latter group was an old veteran called "Pegleg."  He had lost his leg above the knee and had a typical "Captain  Silver" wooden stump with a ring at the bottom. The story was told  that a number of years before he had been out with some of his  buddies and having consumed more liquid refreshment than was  good for him, was on his way home to his shack in the early hours  of the morning, singing at the top of his voice, when his peg leg  slipped through a knot hole in the wooden sidewalk. At daylight  he was found striding around in circles, still singing and his leg  still stuck in the knot hole.  Another of these Knights of the Road who worked digging  ditches at this time was "Three Fingered Scotty." Although not  noted for his integrity, he had somehow managed to borrow ten  dollars from Mr. Corbitt under whom he was working. The day he  quit he approached Harry, pack on back and said genially, "Goodbye, boss. I am not going to embarrass you by offering to pay back  the money you lent me," and he was well on his way to Spokane  before his astonished foreman had recovered his aplomb.  The work was pushed ahead so that planting could be done  the following spring.   One of the pieces of construction completed 138  The History oi Kaleden  that fall of 1909 was a concrete-lined ditch at the north end of Marron Valley designed to prevent the soil washing down a steep slope.  This was one of the first pieces of concrete irrigation ditch built in  the Okanagan and with minor repairs each year, it is still giving  satisfactory service.  The first system installed served about the same area as that  which comprises the present Irrigation District but it was intended  that a larger area would be served later. Consequently in 1911 a  branch line was started which would supply water to Gillespie  Flats. With this in mind a cumbersome and antiquated ditch digger  was purchased from the Coldstream Ranch to replace hand labour.  However, it proved to be useless for the job and this together with  a lack of funds and the uncertainty as to an adequate supply of  water brought the extension to a halt, with the branch line reaching  only as far as the Junction Ranch. As a result the Gillespie subdivision—some 618 acres—was abandoned.  There were many changes and additions to the water system  over the years. The old Gillespie earth dam at Marron Lake was  re-inforced and a new dam with a cement core was erected at  Aeneas Lake in 1912.  Later still when the Kaleden Development Company ran into  financial difficulties, Kaleden was constituted an improvement district under the provisions of the Water Act. The first trustees of the  Irrigation District were Col. Ewart, Frank Harrison, Secretary, F. W.  King, R. D. Mutch and H. W. Corbitt.  In 1922 Robertson and partners were given the contract to  replace the old earth dam at Marron Lake with one having a concrete core, increasing the height from five to 25 feet.  By 1931 the orchards were in full bearing and it became evident that Shatford Creek could not be counted on for an adequate  supply of water. Consequently the system was extended by diverting water from Shingle Creek and erecting two dams to form upper  and lower Brent Lake. Interior Contracting Company was given  the contract for this work completing it in 1932, providing an increase  of one thousand acre feet.  The most radical change in the system since that date has  been in the orchards themselves, where since 1946 the sprinkler  has replaced the older furrow method. As Kaleden has always had  a pressure water system, the change was easily made and at pre- 139  I  a  o  ct.  s.  c  a  1  i  J£ fe.  £  -  1  c  • E  01 T3  e 5  St-  .'c  0.2Q  i.  EQ  u  01  ?  Eh  C  1  B  c  e  2  ; ~  c  S  si  T  c  g  .a,  s  w  as  £  2  n X  EC  o  £  En  u  — —  <  u  a  £  c  ~  & =  Cf!  &-  u  TM  =  2  s  s  |  S^  B  0  §  <  55  £0  a. <u  *o  s  £§  £  0)  g  O  a  ^  «sS  -  ~  P£  2  offi  . o  ,£  ■r  f-  en  Cj  •  C  u  £  IS  en c  X  s  %  <  o, :=  c  'Z.  5  B  uJ-  x  C  if  5  Oi  B  *  sz  c/iO cb Ql,  -   .M  0  z  Pi  <;  5 oi  35  Q  "fifl  9  0)  3Q "C  C  -  r  X  y  0  B  .u  ^£  a  S  2  '£.  «B  <  S  %^  ^  EC  c  ft.  -.* "^  _•  C  c  c  •  >>3  .  3  c  £  01  s  — m  O  3  -  di?  Oi  c  J c  c  c  s  c  a  c  >  0) o  >  0) TM  H  r  be   -  5  tsc  1-3  *  <  E  B  c  «  ^  a;  c  —  <  Oi  c  c-  s  ■a  *-  Z,  c.  s  <  ~  s  QJ  ft,  0  h  >-5  J  c  en  J  7  01  c"  d  oi  o  £  c  •J  w  z  2  'CD  Oh  X  —  s  u  CO  id  >>  01  0)  -  ft,  z  d  CO  J  c  01  0  5  -  J  >  ^:  ft,  <  1  Qh  ►^5  3  as  fc.  c  _o  >  3  El  ^  'J  c  C  3  s  ■0  o  ft,  £  01  c  -  H  cr.  kf-<  I*  ft,  £  < 140  E-*.2  CO ^  o  CC tag  to C  3 be  3-B  u c  c o  Oi  >  £ oi oi  r   O   ^  £ B  5 °  CO  01  JO.  il  CO'* 141  The Birth oi Kaleden  sent over ninety per cent of the orchards have adopted this method  which has resulted in a saving in water used and has given a more  even distribution of moisture.  Jim Harrison and Hartley Simpson were the first water foremen for the upper system while N. K. Simpson served in that capacity in Kaleden, followed by Tosh Rawkins and Jack Swales who  served for over twenty years. Since the coming of cars and better  roads, one man can now cover both the upper system and the  Kaleden area.  PLANTINGS  In December 1909 when winter put a halt to the construction  of the water system, Jim Harrison and Harry Corbitt took a nine  week course in Horticulture at Washington State College in Pullman. With this training they returned to Kaleden in the spring of  1910, going into partnership with A. S. Hatfield and taking on the  responsibility of planting and caring for some two hundred acres.  The land had to be cleared, plowed and fenced for this was  still country. Then came the job of planting the 27,000 trees  and nursing them through the first summer, irrigating by pail for  months until flumes were built.  The first year's planting was chiefly for private owners but in  1911 the Kaleden Development Company decided to plant up the  acreage as yet unsold and Ritchie sent in H. H. Whitaker as foreman to supervise the planting and care for this land. Over a  period of three years many thousands of trees were planted with  the orchards extending as far north as Banbury Point.  For the first five years all the trees planted commercially came  from the Washington Nursery Company. Their agent was Walpole  Thomas Jones who was universally known as "Nigger" Jones because of his very pronounced southern accent. A very familiar  figure throughout the Okanagan, he was responsible for bringing  into the valley some of the finest nursery stock ever handled.  On a certain winter night in 1914 "Nigger" Jones was on his  way down the lake to Summerland where he lived at the time.  The Steamer "Okanagan" usually docked at the head of the wharf  but on this particular night there was a gale of wind blowing so  she pulled in on the lee side. 142  The History oi Kaleden  Having met some friends that afternoon, Nigger's eyesight was  not too good. In the past he remembered one walked off the boat  and straight up the dock to the hotel. This time, instead of turning  to the left, he kept straight on across the dock and plunged into the  icy water of Okanagan Lake.  The mate rescued him by catching hold of his coon skin coat  with a long pike pole that had a hook at the end. In spite of being  submerged and half drowned, he still kept a firm hold on his little  brown leather satchel and refused to let go of it. All the way up  to the hotel he kept yelling, "Leave me alone. Stop pushing me  around," although no one was touching him. No doubt after his  watery experience, he derived comfort and warmth from the contents of the little brown bag after arriving at the hotel.  After the Gillespie Flats were abandoned as an irrigation project, Jones brought in an expert from the Washington Nursery Company and they cleared and fenced ten acres at the north end of the  flats. Water was piped over the hill past the property now owned  by R. B. Stocks and for four or five years high grade nursery stock  was grown there with additional stock being raised between the  trees on the Camsell property now owned by John Hohn.  The depression starting in 1913 and the outbreak of war put  an end to the plantings not only in Kaleden but throughout the  valley and this marked the end of the nursery business.  THE TOWNSITE  In the meantime, James Ritchie's plans for Kaleden were not  limited to the establishment of an agricultural community. He visualized it as a commercial center serving the mining areas to the  south. In line with these dreams, work on the Kaleden townsite  paralleled the sale and planting of orchard lands. As the pictures  show, the business district consisted chiefly of tents although there  were a few buildings. The first of these were a log cabin and barn  that had been built by the early pre-emptors. Later a frame structure was erected that served as a store, while the second floor  was used as the first school room and for a short time as a church  on Sundays. This building which has the distinction of being the  oldest in Kaleden still standing as this is written, now serves as  Jim Goodwin's garage.  Other buildings were the post office, the blacksmith shop and  the Tomlin,  Harrison and  Hatfield homes,  but aside from these, 143  The Birth oi Kaleden  1910—Left to Right:   Lapsley Store, Post Office and A. S. Hatfield & Co.  office, Arnott barn, Land office.   Tomlin home on hill.  1910—Left to Right:  Blacksmith shop, cook house, tent home of Corbitt and  Tait, Jack Stevens' tent, surveyors' tents on hotel site, store, Post Office,  barn.   Wanless tents on top of hill. 144  The History oi Kaleden  tents were the order of the day winter and summer. As one of the  pioneers recalls, "The fall of 1909 was cold and windy and most of  us lived in tents pulled over wooden frames. We were kept warm  by small camp stoves that would heat the tents up quickly, but as  soon as they went out, the outside temperatures would take over.  Ritchie used the old log cabin as a kitchen and attached to it was  a 12 by 24 foot tent stretched over a wooden frame that was used as  a dining room."  "The first cook was Yeoman Charles Kitely who came to B.C.  with the C.P.R. construction crews following a period in which he  ran a tailoring business in Calgary. One of his legs was withered  so he had to propel himself around with a heavy cane but in spite  of this handicap, he was remarkably active. During the summer  and early fall, Ritchie would arrive at almost any time of the day  with prospective buyers, so "Kite" always kept from three to four  dozen pastry plates baked ahead. Then by spreading jam on them  he could have pies ready in short order. These pie crusts were  always kept stacked in one corner of the kitchen and once a bush  rat built a nest back of one lot imparting a highly distinctive flavour  to those pies.  When the work became too heavy, Kite went back to his preemption on the White Lake road, and a Chinaman was hired. He  was poor—the food was not properly cooked and usually served  cold. It became so bad that some of the boarders decided to exterminate him. However, he saw them coming and disappeared  over the hill. When the crew came back in from work that night a  new cook was on the job. Seaman Hatfield had been fortunate in  getting Ike Beach who years before in Nova Scotia had cooked on  Capt. Hatfield's vessels, generally on the South American run. The  food was on the table that night boiling hot—so much so that some  of the men burned their mouths. With fire in their eyes they headed  for the kitchen but returned at once rather subdued, being driven  out by the cook armed with a large cleaver. From then on there  was no trouble; the food was good and the men appreciated it. As  a result, Ike stayed on until construction was over for that winter."  The next spring a fine frame building was put up north of  Tomlin's barn to serve as a cookhouse and it was used for that  purpose until 1912. Both the cookhouse and the old barn still  stand and are the property of the Irrigation District, the barn being  used for storage of irrigation supplies while the cookhouse was remodelled to serve as Water Bailiff's home when so needed. 145  The Birth oi Kaleden 146  The History oi Kaleden  The little frame store, which was one of the earliest buildings  constructed, served a relatively large area and saw considerable  use for other purposes as well, with school and church services  being held in the upper storey for a time. However, if it could  reminisce, its fondest memories would probably be of the Great  Sale of 1909. That summer Jim Ritchie and A. S. Hatfield bought  the complete stock of the Okanagan Falls Store from W. J. Snodgrass. A good portion of this stock had been on hand for some  considerable time and included such articles as fur and silk hats  in which bush rats had built nests of evaporated apples. There  were also old wraps called "Dolmans" with slits in the sides for  arms, and tassels around the bottom like the trimming of an old-  fashioned sofa and shoes with the square-cut toes so popular at  the turn of the century.  A crew was taken to the Falls and the goods were wheeled  from the store down to the lake and loaded on a scow for shipment to Kaleden. During the day a bottle of highly potent Portuguese liquor was discovered among the other more mundane merchandise and Mr. Ritchie, an ardent prohibitionist, broke it on the  front gatepost—an act that brought no joy to the hearts of his crew  who considered such waste unforgiveable.  Arriving back in Kaleden, the goods were put on display on  the second floor of the store and a special sale was advertised.  Buyers, most of them Indians, came from far and near and the hats,  the Dolmans, the square-cut shoes and all the other merchandise  was sold in short order—the price—seventy-five cents for any garment or pair of shoes.  When first opened, the store at Kaleden had done a flourishing  business in extracts. One Indian woman, when asked why she  should want- a half pint bottle of lemon extract, replied, " I make  big, big cake." It was discovered that there was a heavy fine for  supplying Indians with extracts so there was no more "cake making" on the Reserve, at least as far as Kaleden was concerned.  In the plans drawn up for the townsite the little frame store  was only a temporary expedient. Land was set aside for a large  store, a hotel and other public buildings. The Bank of Montreal  went so far as to purchase land on which to build a bank and another lot for the manager's home.  The first major construction in this ambitious program came  in the fall of 1911, and the hotel was chosen as the first project. 147  The Birth of Kaleden  ,' ■  J; :;|'  1912—Left to Right:   Tomlin home, Post Office, old store, new store,  just  finished; hotel and Lapsley barn at head of wharf.   Simpson's cabins and  tents in foreground.  1912—Showing corner of Hotel dining room.   To the left double doors opened  out on lawn. 148  The History oi Kaleden  This was a large concrete structure of twenty-six rooms on the  main street overlooking the lake. In those days sleeping porches  were fashionable and each room had its own sleeping porch as  well as bath. There were two dining rooms; one for the working  men and a very attractive one for the guests. The hotel also had  its own electric light plant run by water power but due to the water  shortage during the winter it was not entirely satisfactory.  The construction crew was brought down from Summerland  with Harry Tomlin as foreman and they built not only the hotel but  also the Lapsley store just across the street and the J. C. Findlay  home near the top of the hill. D. J. Morgan of Penticton was given  the plumbing contract. Others who came in the construction crew  were Harry Coles, Tom Whitfield and F. W. King who stayed on  after the building was finished and became a fruit grower.  The cement for the footings of the hotel was mixed by hand  but later a cement mixer was brought in. However, the job of getting the cement up to the forms remained one for strong backs and  aching muscles as each yard was wheeled in barrows up ramps  which wound round the walls higher and higher as the building  progressed.  When finished, the Hotel Kaleden was splendidly furnished  and under the management of Mr. and Mrs. William McDonald,  was a most attractive place to stay. It was operated for about two  and one half years with Mrs. Anguin managing it for one summer  and Mrs. Janet Locke for one winter.  When the war broke out the hotel was closed temporarily,  never to reopen. Later the furnishings were sold at a good price  and finally, after many rumours that it was to become a sanatorium  or an old people's home, it was completely stripped and left as it  stands today. The four bare concrete walls are a depressing sight  to the old timers who enjoyed its hospitality during the few years it  was open.  Across the road, the new store fared but little better. D. D.  Lapsley had purchased the original store from Ritchie and Hatfield  in 1910 and late in 1912 he moved into the new premises with its  spacious living quarters above. The war years doomed this venture  as well and in 1916 he was forced to close. Later, in 1923, Mr. Bonner and his .family moved to Kaleden and operated the store for  some two years but since that time the main floor has served only 149  The Birth of Kaleden  as a warehouse. It too stands as a reminder of other more leisurely  days when the early settlers would drive in from the little homesteads out in the hills for a month's groceries, and a shopping trip  took a full day.  Leisure time during the winter months was generally spent  near the fire with a good book so it was a real boon when in 1912  through the Farmers' Institute, Kaleden was able to have a lending library. H. H. Whitaker was the librarian and the books were  sent in from Victoria in large boxes every four months. The choice  was excellent and they were greatly appreciated, helping to pass  the long winter evenings.  In the 1930's, a lending library was started again with S. A.  Robinson as librarian and this served the district for several years.  At present Kaleden is included in the Penticton library district,  having a branch at the home of Mrs. Smith.  POST OFFICE  In the winter of 1909-10 we had to go down to Okanagan Falls  three times a week for our mail.  The lake being frozen over, we could skate down most of the  time. There were always plenty of volunteers. Some thought that  the post office being in the hotel had some influence on this.  Things looked up in the summer of 1910. A. S. Hatfield was  appointed Post Master and had his office in a small white painted  frame building about twenty-five yards north of the store building  now occupied by Mr. and Mrs. James Goodwin.  The mail came from Penticton by stage three times weekly but  did not come down the hill. Generally, one of O. E. Tomlin's sons  rode up on horse back to the junction of the Kaleden road and  the Penticton-Fairview road, and would receive a single bag of mail  from the driver, generally Warwick Arnott.  In 1911 the mail was delivered to the Kaleden post office daily  by the Arnott & Hine Stage. And from 1912 to 1914 Campbell and  Hatfield under contract with Arnott & Hine, carried mail from Penticton to Okanagan Falls daily by boat, unless the lake was frozen  over when it would be taken over by the stage.  From 1914 to 1922 A. S. Hatfield had the mail contract from  Penticton to Osoyoos, stopping at Kaleden, Okanagan Falls and 150  The History of Kaleden  Fairview, his mode of transportation now being a Model T car.  While Post Master at Kaleden, his assistants were Miss Eda Wilson, Mrs. George Purvis, Miss Ida McAloney and Mrs. Block.  From 1919 to 1921 Frank Taylor and Tom Harrison carried the  mail through an arrangement with Hatfield, and from 1921 to 1922  Jack Harrison handled it.  In 1919 Hartley Simpson and Warwick Arnott drove the stage  for Hatfield between Penticton and Oroville, Washington. The  following year they bought him out and until 1924 were very busy  during the Oliver development. Simpson sold out to Arnott who  carried on with the mail and stage line until he sold to the Greyhound Company in 1931.  In 1916 the Hatfield family moved in to Penticton for the winter  coming back to Kaleden for a short time and then moving in there  permanently in 1917. He was Post Master until 1917. From then on  the position was held in succession by Mrs. Tomlin, Mrs. James  King and John Ure. Fifty-three homes were served by the post  office in 1948 when the present Post Master, Fred King, was appointed.  Today this figure stands at 107.  TRANSPORTATION  The construction of the irrigation system and the building of  the hotel store and the various homes that were erected in those  early years called for large shipments of cement, pipes and building materials of all kinds, most of it coming from Vancouver. With  roads and railroads such we have today, such freight offers no  problems, but in the early years of the century, the Okanagan was  dependent on water transportation from the railhead at Okanagan  Landing.  Long before Kaleden was established this form of transportation on Okanagan and Skaha Lakes was playing a vital part in the  development of the country.  During the early 1890's W. J. Snodgrass of La Grande, Oregon,  was persuaded to come to the Okanagan by Tom Ellis. Snodgrass,  the grandfather of Mrs. Lyle Badgley, settled at Okanagan Falls  where he built a sawmill, a hotel and a store as well as establishing a stage line and venturing into the freight business on Skaha.  We learn something of the history of the early boats from "The  Okanagan Mining Review" which was published for a short time 151  The Birth of Kaleden  in Okanagan Falls by Dr. R. Mathison. Mathison, a dentist, later  settled in Kelowna and practised his profession as far south as the  "Falls" at one time setting up shop for a few days in the Kaleden  Hotel. The October 19, 1893 issue of the "Review" reports that  Snodgrass was expecting early delivery of a new boat, the "Jessie,"  named for his daughter. This boat was burned at the Falls in 1898.  Another issue of the Review reports Louis Holman as owner and  captain of the steamer "Miramache" as well as manager of the  Okanagan Hotel on Main Street. This boat was built in Peterborough, Ontario and shipped out complete.  In 1894 the C.P.R. built the little wood-burning starn wheeler  "Fairview" to run from Penticton to Okanagan Falls, then known as  "Dogtown." The Fairview was 55 feet long with 15 foot beam and  a weight of 43 tons. After operating on Skaha she was moved up  to the Okanagan where she burned in 1897.  The "Greenwood" which was launched in 1897 at Okanagan  Landing, was 89 feet long with a 17 foot beam and she burned at  the Falls around 1903. For years her paddle wheel could be seen  lying partly in the river just north of the present bridge and her  shaft was used by Jim Christie to construct a water wheel on his  ranch.  The owners were Greenwood, Shields, and Brownlee, and the  captains during her lifetime were Cumming Brownlee and Eden.  George Maynard was the engineer.  In 1899 Snodgrass purchased another boat, naming it the  "Maude Moore" after his youngest daughter. The hull was shipped  from Peterborough to Okanagan Landing and Capt. J. B. Weeks,  the last master of the steamer "Sicamous" recalls helping to build  the top structure for the Maude Moore. The engine and boiler from  the Jessie were shipped up to the Landing for installation in the new  boat. She served on Skaha until 1905 when she was sold to J. M.  Robinson, the "father" of Summerland and Naramata, to be used  as a ferry between these two towns and Penticton.  The sternwheeler "Kaleden" of wood construction was built by  the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in its shipyard at Okanagan Landing in 1910. Its gross tonnage 180, registered tonnage  113, length 94 feet, beam 18 feet, depth of hold 4.6 feet, draught 15  inches. This steamer was of very light construction and was intended  for  service  between   Penticton  and   Okanagan  Falls  via 152  The History of Kaleden  Okanagan River and Skaha Lake. She made one trip with Captain  Gore, Superintendent of Canadian Pacific Inland Steamers, and  Captain McMorris in charge. The trip was not very successful since  the steamer was too wide and too long to negotiate the sharp turns  in the river. For this reason it was put into service on Okanagan  Lake and served a useful purpose during the construction days of  the Kettle Valley Railway when it transported powder and dynamite from Okanagan Landing to Mission and Naramata. Because  of its light construction, however, it was not too well suited for  freight service on Okanagan Lake. It also lacked adequate deck  space and Captain Weeks remembers seeing it come into the  wharf at Okanagan Landing with all available deck space taken  up with different kinds of cargo and a shipment of dry hides crem-  med into the life boats.  The "Kaleden" was dismantled in 1920 and sold to Captain J.  North of Okanagan Landing for $15.00, who wanted only the hull  to use as a breakwater. Captain Weeks bought the housework  to build a garage—which is still standing.  These were the boats which served the old pre-emptors whose  holdings included the land where Kaleden now stands. Their main  business was hauling supplies from Penticton to Okanagan Falls  where the freighters with their four and six-horse teams took over,  hauling the supplies in to the mining camps at Greenwood, Fair  view and McKinney.  In 1909 the first boat which was put into service especially for the  benefit of the new development at Kaleden was a motor launch,  originally owned by C. N. Higgins of Summerland and named the  "Mallard," James Ritchie bought her and re-named her "Kaleden."  A. S. Hatfield brought her down the river to carry freight and passengers from the head of the lake to the new development. She was  narrow and deep and ballasted with concrete while the river was  wide and shallow, so progress was slow and it was only because  Charlie Shuttleworth happened along with his saddle horse and  helped pull her through the shallow spots that she eventually arrived at Kaleden. A. S. Hatfield's father, Captain Hatfield, ran the  boat for two years towing the scows loaded with the pipes, cement,  building materials and general merchandise required by the community. Dick Weeks freighted from one lake to the other during this  period.   As there were no wharves during this period the scows 153  The Birth of Kaleden  were run up on the beach to be loaded and unloaded while the  small supplies were carried out to the boat.  In 1911 James Fraser Campbell and A. S. Hatfield bought the  "Kaleden" from Ritchie and formed the South Okanagan Transportation Company. The following year they built wharves and small  freight sheds at the head of the lake, Kaleden and Okanagan Falls,  at the same time buying a new forty foot launch, the "Cygnet."  They sold the "Kaleden" to a Mr. McCallum at Summerland who  bought her for the engine. When he found the engine so securely  embedded in concrete that removal was impossible he resold the  boat to Matt Wilson of Paradise Ranch, who used it until she sank  off the C.N.R. wharf at Summerland. There the little boat which  played so large a part in Kaleden's early history, still lies.  In 1914 another "Mallard" was put into commission. This one  was a 32 foot tunnel stern boat designed to operate from Okanagan  Lake down the river and thus avoid the need to use wagons out  to the north end of Skaha Lake. Although the river had been  dredged in spots and piling had been driven on some sharp turns  for bank protection, it was difficult to run the river with a craft of  its size. Consequently, she would spin like a top in rapid water  clearing the piling by inches. On at least one trip the skipper was  not quick enough at the wheel driving the boat's nose into the  piling and his own through the wheelhouse window.  Some of the early residents recall a trip on the Mallard in the  summer of 1914. About twenty went to Penticton one evening to  see a road show at the old Empress Theatre. They had arranged  to board the Mallard at the C.P.R. dock after the show and come  home by way of the river, counting on a full moon to provide the  illumination. Unfortunately, the moon was pretty well obscured  by clouds and the trip promised to be rather a hazardous venture so  they waited around until about one o'clock when Seaman Hatfield  decided to take a chance. Today few of the passengers could give  any details regarding the show they saw that night but none of  them are likely to forget the way Hatfield navigated the seven  miles of winding, swift flowing river, unable to see more than  twenty feet ahead most of the time.  Seaman Hatfield tells of making a special trip down the river  in the Mallard with Mr. J. J. Warren, president of the Kettle Valley  Railway and Mr. David McNichgl, vice-president of the Canadian 154  The History oi Kaleden  1910—C. P. R. Steamer "Kaleden" landing at Kaleden on her first and only  trip on Skaha Lake.   From Left to Right:   J. C. Tomlin in barefeet, A. E.  Walker, A. S. Hatfield, Jim Ritchie shaking hands with Captain Gore.  C. P. R. Steamer "York" with car barge at Kaleden wharf.   Her last trip  on this small but beautiful lake.   Otto Estabrook of Penticton was captain. 155  The Birth of Kaleden  Pacific Railway and recalls how they enjoyed the buttermilk he procured from Mrs. Sam Hawthorne when they arrived at the Falls.  The last of the freight boats on Skaha was the "York." In 1920  the C.P.R. built a spur to the head of the lake with rails laid from  Okanagan Falls to Oliver. Because of the heavy rock work involved the portion along Skaha was skipped for the time and the  "York" was brought down from the Okanagan to serve as a tug  pushing the car barges from the slip at the head of the lake to the  one at Okanagan Falls, or pulling into Kaleden where she had to  wait while the car or cars were loaded with fruit. In 1930 the missing section of rail was completed and the day of freighting on Skaha  was finished. Only a few piles remain of the wharf to remind us of  the important part this mode of transportation once played in the  development of the community.  The old tug was beached by the car slip at the head of the lake  and everything of value was salvaged and the hull left to decay.  Even in the earliest days, the disadvantages of water transportation were evident and it was used to such a large extent  mainly because of the two extremely bad hills. One of these was  where the road left the lakeshore about three miles south of the  Kruger ranch to climb up to the bench lands where the highway is  today, and the second hill occurred where it dropped back to the  lakeshore at Waterman's Hill just north of Okanagan Falls.  In 1910 the government built a new highway starting at what  is now the Dewar property, Banbury, coming through Kaleden and  joining the old highway near the Falls. This served the double purpose of doing away with most of Waterman's Hill and providing  roads for the new development at Kaleden.  The work was divided into three sections with Tom McAlpine  in charge of the piece north of Kaleden, W. P. Simpson responsible  for the section from the townsite to the cemetery, and Big Neil McLean looking after the portion south of the cemetery. This was by  far the heaviest part of the construction and is still called the Lower  Kaleden Road. A European immigrant,Nickala Krajacie, worked  on this section and left a sturdy monument to his memory in the  beautifully built dry rock walls which are in excellent condition  after forty-eight years.  During his Western tour, Canada's leading poet, Bliss Carmen,  was driven over this road and was so impressed that he wrote the  poem "Kaleden Road" which appears in these records. 156  The History of Kaleden  Later of course, the highway returned to roughly its original  route, with Waterman's Hill being improved and the Kruger Hill  road being built in 1930 when the railway took over the old road  grade which had followed the lakeshore.  COYOTE ROCK  To reach this oddity of nature you follow the Green Mountain  Road as far as Allen Grove where you turn south on a narrow  road following the Kaleden water system for some two miles. Then  turn uphill on a narrow trail. Coyote Rock stands at the mouth of a  small draw at the end of this trail.  The rock is a twenty to twenty-five foot pillar with a large rock  balanced on the top. The column, some eight feet in diameter, is a  conglomeration of rocks, clay and gravel. The rock, that is balanced on top, must weight at least fifteen tons.  The name is not of recent origin. It is connected with Indian  legends handed down over the centuries.  Over the years the old timers of Kaleden have probably viewed  the rock more than most people. Our ditch riders pass it several  times a day during the summer months and in the early days our  work parties would try to have their lunches at or within sight of the  Coyote Rock. 157  ^Disaster SJIt  reatend  The early years in Kaleden had been ones of hard work and  at times of hardship, but by 1912 it must have seemed that Jim  Ritchie's dream had materialized. Orchards were thriving where  only sage brush and bunch grass had grown, and the irrigation  system guaranteed them an adequate supply of water. A veritable  highway had replaced the pack trail and along it houses, stores  and a modern hotel had been erected in three short years. And yet  just when Ritchie and the Kaleden Development Co. seemed about  to see their dreams and plans fulfilled, disaster struck.  There was no one particular reason for the difficulties which  threatened to wipe out the infant community, it was rather a combination of events and circumstances. That the threat of disaster  was a very real one can best be understood by visiting the community of Walhachin near Cache Creek. Its history had paralleled  Kaleden's to a remarkable degree; developed by English capital,  orchards were planted and and irrigation system built, homes,  public buildings and a swimming pool constructed. Then came the  war years and Walhachin died. Today the casual tourist passes by  without seeing any evidence of the early development, but those  who know its history can spot a few hardy apple trees clinging to  a precarious existence, and may find evidence of rotted-out flumes  and sand-filled ditches that once carried the irrigation water.  This was almost the history of Kaleden, and to understand the  difficulties let us go back to the beginning for a moment. Ritchie's  holdings here had comprised about 3,000 acres and to develop this  required capital. He had gone to London, England, to raise the  needed money and there the Kaleden Development Co. had been  formed with several English investors interested. The most important of these was Lord de Vesci, who had invested some $150,000  up to 1912. But by this time the Company had over-extended itself  financially. As we are all too well aware today, our irrigation system is an expensive one and a great deal more than the anticipated  amount of money had been poured into its construction. As well  as the actual system constructed there was an abortive attempt to  extend the irrigation to the Gillespie Flats. An expensive ditch digging machine was purchased for this purpose, and it proved to be  utterly useless for this type of a job. As a result, thousands of dollars were spent before this project was abandoned. 158  The History of Kaleden  These financial reverses forced the Company to take out a  $75,000 loan at an interest rate of 10 per cent, which while it provided temporary relief, actually intensified the financial problems.  When 1913 ushered in a world wide depression another loan, this  time for 65,000 pounds was required. The beginning of a world war  in 1914 was the final blow. Its effects were felt as residents and  workers joined the armed forces leaving a critical manpower shortage. Ritchie tried to counteract this by bringing in Oriental labour,  hiring first some twenty-five Japanese, who lived in tents where  the Kaleden Orchards' buildings are today. They stayed only one  year and then were replaced by Chinese who remained in the  district till after the war. In spite of the fact that the Japanese were  here for much shorter time, the road has since been known as Jap  Camp Lane.  The war soon made itself felt in another way. With Britain  fighting for her very existence, all her dollar reserves were needed  for munitions and food—certainly none could be spared to care for  orchards which had not yet come into production, and so any further financial help from the English investors was effectively cut  off. This was the final blow and the heart-breaking decision had to  be made to abandon the orchards owned by the Development  Co. The orchards owned by private individuals were brought  through the war years without any losses but the entire 250 acres  planted and still owned by the company died out. In 1919 the  creditors foreclosed and the Kaleden Development Company which  had played so large a part in our history, passed from the picture.  About one hundred acres had been purchased outright by individuals and these had secured title to their land, and a further hundred  acres were in the process of being bought. These people were given  an opportunity to complete their purchases and to obtain title, so  that by 1921 some two hundred acres were under private ownership. The remainder of the 3,000 acres, together with a proportionate  share of the irrigation system, was taken over eventually by a  group of English business men under the name of Kaleden Estates.  This group was headed by Sir William Hutcheson Poe and included  Lord de Vesci, one of the original investors. They put up a further  $31,500 to help rebuild and extend the irrigation system and later,  in May, 1928, they sent Mr. E. N. M. Vernon to manage their holdings here. Starting the following year he began re-planting the  abandoned orchards and much of the land north of the post office  was planted under his direction.   He remained as manager and as 159  Disaster Threatens  an active community worker until the time of his death in November,  1943, at which time Emery Lockhart became manager.  It might be interesting to record how the 3,000 acres which  made up Ritchie's holdings have been disposed of. Several hundred  acres were taken up by roads, cemetery, or turned over to the  provincial government. Of the remainder 203 acres of orchard  land were sold prior to 1921 as has been mentioned. A further 262  acres were deeded by Kaleden Estates to the Kaleden Irrigation  District as a settlement for taxes in 1930 and most of this land has  been sold by the district and is now in production. At the same  time another 55 acres were abandoned as being unsuitable for  fruit production, but today even some of this land has a home and  fruit trees clinging to its slopes. Between the years 1921 and 1954  the Kaleden Estates sold 245 acres of orchard land in five and ten  acre blocks and also sold 1,759 acres of ranch land including the  Junction and Gillespie Ranches. This left them with 161 acres of  orchard land together with some townsite lots, and in 1956 the  orchards were sold to a Mr. Harder of Victoria. Shortly after he  re-sold to Kaleden Orchards, with John Pearson as manager. Thus  the Kaleden Estates along with the Kaleden Development Company  has played its part in our history and faded into the background. 160  ^rrult J roductl  ucuon  By 1913 the trees planted in 1910 were beginning to give some  authenticity to the name "Kaleden," and in that year the first  commercial crop was picked. Sixty-seven boxes of Montgamet  apricots constituted the entire crop and these were packed in Lap-  sley's shed at the head of the Kaleden wharf. Because of the large  size, the cots were packed in peach boxes and shipped on consignment to the Scott Fruit Company in Winnipeg. It was a proud moment and possibly a prophetic one for the fruit returns did not cover  the shipping and packing costs.  The first apples were shipped by H. Corbitt in 1914. He hauled  the box shook out from Penticton in a lumber wagon and made up  the boxes in the Sandy Cameron building. A Penticton Fruit Union  man, Happy Potter, was brought in to pack the 129 boxes of Jonathan apples which were shipped to Penticton on the Mallard.  The apricots were the first fruit to become commercially important and in 1915 and 1916, Western Canners took most of the Kaleden crop. George Robertson and Jud. Findlay hauled the fruit  to Penticton in wagons fitted with bolster springs. By 1918 Kaleden  had become the largest producer of apricots in the valley.  There was keen competition between the packing houses for  the fruit tonnage. In the early years the Penticton Fruit Union handled most of the crop that was not sold to the cannery, hauling it  loose to Penticton for packing in 1915 and sending a Miss Warren  down to Kaleden to supervise the packing the following year. By  1917 the name had been changed to the Penticton Co-operative  Growers and they sent Nelson Menzies to take charge of the packing in Kaleden. At first Lapsley's shed was used but later as the  weather grew colder, the basement of the hotel was pressed into  service.  In the meantime, Muir Steuart had entered the field. In 1916 he  obtained a small portion of the local tonnage which was hauled to  Summerland for packing and in 1917 he built the first packing  house where the Community Hall stands at present. Fred Graham  was the manager, remaining until Steuart sold out.  In 1918 the Penticton Co-Op, in an effort to meet this competition,  moved their packing  operations  up the hill.    Menzies set up  his 161  Fruit Production  The Penticton Fruit Union's first packing crew in the basement of the  Kaleden Hotel, 1917. Left to Right: Mrs. Russell (nee Ella Turner), Mrs.  Swales (nee Vera King), Mrs. Tait (nee Kathleen Harrison), Mrs. Boone  (nee Elsie King), Mrs. Cook (nee Olive Roadhouse), Judson Findlay, Alec  Trough, Nelson Menzies,  manager.  Chuck Menzies,  Les Roadhouse,  Clem  Battye.  packing house in two large tents on the Battye property, just about  where the pickers' cabin stands on Frank Ireland's orchard. The  apple crop that year was about 4,200 packed boxes as compared  with Kaleden's record crop of 158,185 packed boxes in 1950.  By the following year Steuart had cornered most of the tonnage  and they handled the bulk of the crop until they sold the Kaleden  packing house and equipment to the Penticton Co-Op in 1922.  Just a year later the Kaleden growers broke away from the  Penticton Co-op and formed the Kaleden Co-Operative Growers.  The first board of directors was made up—F. W. King, president;  R. D. Mutch, vicepresident; H. W. Corbitt, Reg. Hody and H. H.  Whitaker. George E. Brown, now with B.C. Tree Fruits, was the  first manager with Harry Brown the foreman.  The packed fruit was trucked to the new wharf and loaded  directly into refrigerator cars on the barge which the "York" pro- 162  The History of Kaleden  Steuart Packing House where Community Hall now stands.   Left to Right-  Fred Graham, manager, Will King, Clem Battye, Jack Coltman, Mrs  J  G  Swales (nee King), Mrs. Coltman, Mrs. Harvey Boone (need King), Mrs.  Foreman (need Roadhouse).  The present packing and cold storage plant. 163  Fruit Production  >    £ ©•  +3 0)       C    ..  S-, g C o-H  V     k^j co oi  .© w « & gg  s s i-  III |  CLi a> jh C  I  tyo <u cu  S o -a £  CS  0)  w  <D 164  The History oi Kaleden  pelled between the railway slips at either end of the lake. This was  the major means of transportation until the missing rail link was  finished.  By 1932 the fruit tonnage had reached the point where the old  packing house was inadequate. As a result a new building with  a modern cold storage plant was built. The site chosen was on the  lakeshore adjacent to the railway to simplify the shipping problem.  Clem Battye, now of Penticton, was the manager at the time the  new house was built.  With the coming of the cold storage plant, it became practical  for the "West Kootenay" to supply electricity to the district and the  residents were able to discard the Coleman and Aladdin lamps  and the Delco, Fairbanks-Morse, and Lister 32-volt light plants  which had been part of the rural way of life.  As the heavy plantings at Okanagan Falls and up the east  side of the lake came into bearing they produced an important part  of the tonnage handled locally. This together with increased production in Kaleden has made necessary several additions so that  today we have a modern plant capable of handling the fruit from  both districts—a far cry from the methods and equipment used such  a few years ago.  Over the years Kaleden has produced many outstanding apple  packers but it remained to Mrs. Beth Garlinge to win high honours.  In 1951 she was the Canadian champion at the B.C.F.G.A. competition held in Penticton and also came second in the International  competition held in Kelowna that year.  The contrast between past and present techniques is just as  striking in the orchards as it is in the packing house. The evolution  of the sprayer is an outstanding example. The earliest type used  was the knapsack sprayer which provided protection of a sort while  the trees were small. The next step was a horse drawn sprayer  purchased by Mr. Corbitt in 1914. This had several unique features, the least pleasing of which was the fact that the pressure  was supplied by manpower. One man could, by pumping diligently on the handle, maintain a pressure of 125 pounds for his  more fortunate partner who did the actual spraying. It was firmly  believed that the spray material achieved a better coverage if  sprayed down on to the fruit rather than directed up at it from the  ground. To accomplish this, the guns used were 12 or 16 foot bamboo, poles with metal tubing up the centre and a nozzle on the end  directed down at an angle of 45 degrees. 165  Fruit Production  When F. W. King purchased a Bean sprayer in 1916 it marked  a big step forward. It was still horse drawn and still used long  bamboo guns but it was powered by a one cylinder gas engine  and could produce higher pressure. This was the pattern followed  until the 1940's. There were minor changes such as tractors replacing horses, better designed pumps with higher pressures, and in  some cases, stationary spray outfits with pipes throughout the  orchards, but basically there was little change in spray methods  over the thirty years.  Today, of course, the turbine and fan type machines using  highly concentrated mixtures have made spraying faster, easier  and, aside from the materials, much cheaper.  Theories concerning cultivation and irrigation have changed  radically too. For years the orchards were kept clean cultivated  with the idea that moisture was being conserved in that way. Furrows were plowed and used for one irrigation then as soon as the  water was turned into another lot, the first was harrowed. When  the trees showed the need of water again furrows were plowed and  a new cycle started. Today the aluminum sprinkler pipes have  taken over from the flumes and furrows and the orchardist carefully nurses along any kind of cover crop—tolerating even couch  grass—to supply the humus so badly needed.  The first thinning was done with grape shears, a method that  was both laborious and inefficient. It was not until 1925 that Bill  Hunter of the Summerland Experimental Farm brought an expert  from the State of Washington to demonstrate how the thinning could  be done by hand much quicker than by shears. The demonstration  was to be held in Kaleden on the Parker Whitman lot and quite a  group of orchardists gathered to observe the new technique.  Not only were the growers south of the border using a new  method, but also they were thinning much more heavily than had  been the practice here. So when the expert started in on the first  branch it seemed to the horrified Mr. Whitman that he was leaving  no fruit on the tree at all. He endured it in silence for a time but  when the man said, "Now we'll take this limb over here," Parker  stepped in front of him and said, "Not on my tree, you won't, friend."  The demonstration continued on another orchard. Today the grower not only uses this technique of pinching the apple off its stem,  but if he is a gambler at all, he does a good deal of his thinning in  blossom time by chemical means. 166  The History oi Kaleden  KALEDEN COT  In 1910 Frank Harrison purchased fruit trees for his acre lot  from Stone & Wellington, of Ontario. Among them were ten Elixis  apricots. When these came into bearing, it was found they were  not true to name, but the tree ripened fruit was of good quality  and the appearance quite remarkable—a golden yellow with red  cheek.  Layritz Nurseries of Victoria were so impressed that they  propagated them commercially, consequently many thousands were  sold in the South Okanagan under the name of "Kaleden Cot."  WILD HORSE MOUNTAIN  This range of hills lies between Kaleden and Marron Valley.  For many years there were some ten or twelve mares headed by a  light bay stallion with a black tail and mane, a very beautiful animal. Some of the most experienced riders in the district time and  time again tried to catch this horse, but without success, whether  he was in the corral they built or by roping, he always got away.  One rider told about roping him and said he was concentrated  dynamite, that he was glad to let him go. Early in the twenties the  mares were caught and the stallion shot near Aeneas Lake. Thus  ended the life of a grand horse, who ruled his harem and defied  man for many years.  Up to 1915 this mountain afforded wonderful blue grouse shooting, flocks of from twenty-five to fifty birds could be seen. 167  v^ommunitu cJLife  No history would be complete without reference to the spirit of  the community, an intangible quality that can perhaps best be seen  in the efforts made over the years to provide facilities for education,  for worship, and for recreation.  In January, 1910, the first school was opened in the upstairs  part of Lapsley's store, with Miss Olga Watson of Summerland in  charge. There were few pupils at first—two Tomlins, one Lapsley  girl, Marie, two Gibbony girls and Marjorie Simpson, daughter of  Rev. and Mrs. N. K. Simpson. There were a few others whose names  are not remembered.  As the weather became warmer, school was held in a tent up  the road to the west among the pine trees. This would be about  where the telephone exchange now stands. School was held here  in May and June and September to almost the end of October when  it was moved to the store building of W. Camerons, later the residence of E. N. M. Vernon.  By this time there were more pupils than at the beginning as  many of the settlers had families of school age. There may have  been about twenty or so. In 1912 Robert H. Melville was given  a contract for the new two-room school on the benches. This was  west of the orchard lots owned by H. W. Corbitt and R. S. Conklin,  a low basin into which the melting snows ran and flooded the  grounds making it very difficult at times to approach the building.  The first trustees of the new School District were: A. S. Hatfield (secretary); H. W. Corbitt and T. C. Preston.  This new school was a very well built frame structure with high  ceilings and lots of windows and heated by a warm air furnace of  the wood burning type.  The architect's intentions may have been honest, but he evidently did not know much about the re-heating of circulating air  as is done nowadays, for the warm air register was in one corner of  a large classroom and the cold air intake was outside the room in  the large lobby. As is was a hopeless task to try to heat cold air  all the time, and no one knew sufficiently about heating to solve the 168  The History oi Kaleden  problem, the furnace was abandoned and a wood stove placed  in the classroom.  The pupils could get warm at recess and noon at least.  The next teacher after Miss Watson was Miss Anna Purdy, a  graduate of the University of New Brunwick, who taught for two  years. The next teacher was Miss Maude McLaughlin of Summer-  land. Then followed Mr. Hunter of Armstrong and after him, Mr.  Tupper of Penticton—a brother of the late Charles Tupper who for  some years was a member of the Provincial Legislature. These  teachers taught in the period 1910-1915.  By 1935 many new families had moved into the district and  the old school had outgrown its usefulness, so the present one was  built on the bench.  In 1933 the teacher, Miss Nelda Palmer, tried to teach grades  7, 8, 9 and 10 besides her elementary classes but found it too much  for one person, so the following year Mr. Frank Laird taught Junior  High and Miss Lois Clugston the elementary. In 1935 Miss Helen  Manery replaced Miss Clugston and Mr. Laird continued with  Junior High. In January, 1936, these two teachers moved over to  the new school.  In 1946 Kaleden became part of the consolidated school district No. 15 along with Penticton and Naramata. Both rooms are  now used for elementary pupils, the higher grades go in to Penticton  by bus.  ^ The concern shown by the early residents that their children  have the benefit of a good education was accompanied by a similar desire that the boys and girls should have adequate religious  training. Consequently members of various denominations joined  together in an interdenominational Sunday School. This rather  unique organization where Anglican and Pentecostal, Baptist and  Brethren worked together has been carried on without a break, up  to the present time.  Beside the Sunday School, various Church groups have been  active, holding services in Kaleden—Anglican, Baptist, Pentecostal  and others.  In 1891 the Ellis family were involved in a very serious accident when their team of horses took fright while on a journey to 169  Community Life  Kamloops. As a thanksgiving to God that all were spared from  death, Mr. Ellis erected on the homestead property, the first Protestant Church in the Okanagan which was suitably called St.  Saviour's. It was built on a site that is now known as the Anglican  Cemetery. The first service in this church was held in 1892. Services were subsequently held there by any Protestant pastor who  happened along.  During the early years of Kaleden, Rev. John Clelland of St.  Saviour's in Penticton drove out and held services in the home of  Mr. and Mrs. Frank Harrison. Although the church members appreciated this, most of them preferred to attend the services held in  the little old ranch church in Penticton with its exquisitely coloured  windows and historical background. The present Anglican Church  was built in 1930 and the small original Ranch Church was moved  bodily to be connected with the new building. It was given a  veneer of stone masonry to match the new church. This delightful  little sanctuary was dedicated September 23rd, 1934 as the Ellis  Memorial Chapel, to the memory of Thomas Ellis and his wife,  Wilhelmina, and her brother Alfred Wade.  On February 27th, 1910 after a service held in Mr. James  Ritchie's home, which was conducted by Rev. H. G. Eastabrook,  Superintendent of Baptist Missions, and Rev. F. W. Auvache of  Penticton Baptist Church, the Kaleden Baptists remained for the  purpose of organizing a church. The charter members were Mr.  and Mrs. T. C. Preston and three daughters, Mrs. Herbert Baker and  the Misses Florence and Archina Preston, and their daughter-in-  law, Mrs. Leonard Preston; also Mr. and Mrs. O. E. Tomlin and  Mrs. A. S. Hatfield. The officers then appointed were: Mr. T. C.  Preston and Mr. O. E. Tomlin, deacons; Mrs. A. S. Hatfield, treasurer, and Miss Florence Preston, clerk. A call was extended to Rev.  Auvache and for the next two years he conducted afternoon services  with Mrs. Herbert Baker as organist. These services, during 1911,  were held first in a large tent which housed the school on weekdays, or outside under the pines when the weather permitted; then  in the Cameron building, and later in the new school building.  In the fall of 1912 a committee was appointed by the congregation to look into the matter of building a church. Two lots were procured on the corner of Mrs. E. J. King's orchard and with $717.00  pledged, building proceeded with volunteer labour under the direction of Mr. F. W. King.  The new church was opened April 6th, 1913  47 170  The History oi Kaleden  when Rev. F. W. Pattison of West Summerland preached the dedication sermon. Dr. Sawyer and Rev. H. G. Estabrook assisted in  this service.  The Baptists are still the only organized religious body in this  district and the members of the congregation deserve great credit  for the way they have supported their church over the years.  In 1938 the Pentecostal members in Kaleden gave a great deal  of their time and money to the building of the original Bethel Tabernacle in Penticton. Before this they held services in private homes  or the Baptist Church.  Other denominations attended their respective churches in Penticton.  There was very little in the way of organized sport until the  1920's but as the community grew, badminton became very popular and some outstanding players were developed. The first badminton court was set up in an idle classroom in the first permanent  school built in Kaleden. The local club adapted its play to suit the  low ceiling but visiting players were at a distinct disadvantage.  However, when Dodwell and Solly of Summerland, or Cadiz and  Holden of Penticton (four of the valley's best players) challenged  the locals an exciting battle resulted.  Among others, players in this era included Mr. and Mrs. George  Robertson, Mr. and Mrs. R. D. Mutch, Mr. and Mrs. George Brown,  Mr. F. W. King, Mr. J. V. Findlay, Mr. H. W. Corbitt and Vera  Simpson (It is interesting to note that "Billy" King is still a member  and an active player in the badminton club of this centennial year).  Although Kaleden always boasted a strong club, whether playing in the school, the bunkhouse or the new hall, it remained up to  Danny Fretz, Roland Schwarz, Bobby Karrer and Gordie Garlinge,  between the years 1948 and 1953, to win many titles Junior and  Senior, Single and Double, in the South Okanagan and the Okanagan, also top honours in many other tournaments.  In the 1930's many Doukhobours were employed in the orchards. Mostly younger fellows, they joined with the local boys in  forming a four team Softball league—"South Benchers," "North  Benchers," "Centrals," and "Okanagan Falls." Prior to this, Kaleden 171  Community Life  had entered a team in the league in Penticton where they played  regularly, spurred on to many triumphs by the faithful contingent  of fans who accompanied them. Team members included Alf and  Ray Findlay, Jim Robertson, Dave Goodwin, Harry Coell, Ron King,  Duncan and Donald Winsor, Bill Dalrymple and Tom Moody.  The police allowed Mr. Corbitt to collect a $5.00 poll tax from  all transient workers and the $100.00 or so which was raised in this  manner helped to maintain the equipment and the school grounds  where games were played.  When the Ski Hill at Twin Lakes was operating (1939-1950) nine  Kaleden members of the Penticton Club became keen skiers. lane  Corbitt competed in Canadian championships at Banff in 1950, and  with her sister, Charlotte, won many trophies throughout the Okanagan and at Princeton.  During its lifetime, Kaleden has seen an active tennis club  (playing on a court near the present Flynn home), as well as rifle,  bowling and lacrosse clubs. Of course, water sports have always  drawn many participants, whether for an energetic dive and a  swim, or just a cooling dip, with the old wharf serving for many  years as the unofficial centre of activity. While living in Kaleden,  Reg Tait won the long distance swimming race between Westbank  and Kelowna at the regatta, and repeated it again the next year  after he had moved to Summerland.  During the early years of Kaleden a good deal of interest was  taken in canoeing and Skaha Lake and the river offered many  opportunities for pleasure in this type of craft. So in 1911 Seaman  Hatfield and Harry Corbitt brought nine Chestnut canvas covered  canoes out from Fredericton, New Brunswick. They were very soon  disposed of and gave a great deal of satisfaction to the owners.  During the summer of 1909 a local resident, thinking the Okanagan River between the lakes was less than a mile long, instead  of seven—made the trip at night, paddling a loaded canoe and  towing an empty one; needless to state it was an experience he  will never forget.  Canoe trips worthy of mention. On two different occasions Hatfield and Corbitt with friends paddled down the river to Osoyoos  Lake which took some two days—the poling back taking five. Very  few have taken this trip without several portages. 172  The History of Kaleden  1911—Left to Right:   Harley Hatfield, Mrs. A.  S. Hatfield, W. R. Rourke,  A. S. Hatfield, Blair Kerr, Pitman, Marie Lapsley, Dave Lapsley, Mrs. Laps-  ley, Kathleen Tait, George Purvis.  For many years annual trips were made to Vasseau Lake for  duck shooting. For this work these canoes were ideal and it seems  a great pity that this sport has been given up for the speed and  noise of the outboard motor.  Today, under the leadership of Harry Sampson, Ken Sproul,  Albert Goertz and Mrs. Joan Wall the recreation commission is  providing the youth of the community with an outlet for their abundant energies with regular activities in the hall and improved facilities at the beach,  One of the best evidences of community spirit was in the building of our hall. An ambitious project for such a small village it  was inspired by E. N. M. Vernon. Following his death in 1944 it  was found that he had left a five acre orchard to Kaleden and his  will stipulated that the proceeds were to be used to build and maintain a community hall. 173  Community Lile  Plans for the building were drawn up by John Robertson and  work started on it in 1949. It was built almost entirely by volunteer  labour, the only exception being the construction foreman, Harry  Fortin. F. W. King gave his services almost full time for several  months and the rest of the labour was provided as needed by other  volunteers. This kept the cost of the building down practically to  the cost of materials and these expenses were met in a combination  of three ways: from the profits shown on the orchard operation,  from donations by Kaleden residents and by Penticton firms and  from the sale of debentures.  The building is not completed but it has been a real asset to  the community in providing our young people a place for recreation.  Kaleden achieved distinction for community effort in at least  one other field. During World War II a committee of local residents  took on the job of selling War Bonds in the Kaleden area, donating  their commissions to the Red Cross. Starting off with a quota of  $6,000 in the first loan drive Kaleden kept improving its record  until on the 9th canvass we raised $43,000. During the 7th loan  campaign Kaleden more than doubled its quota leading all of Canada on a percentage basis. 174  (/^ioaraphical ^ketcked  *arap  A. S. Hatfield and family from Nova Scotia reached Summer-  land the fall of 1907 and moved to Kaleden in June, 1909. He acted  as Ritchie's timekeeper for the new development, carried on an  insurance and real esate business and was also a Notary Public.  The first winter the family lived in a small shed that in the  future was to be a chicken house. The following spring a large  double house with sleeping porches was built for Capt. and Mrs.  Hatfield and themselves.  During the First World War he started a trucking business  which eventually built up into the Interior Contracting Company  to be carried on by his sons, Harley and Philip.  He went over to South Africa with a St. John, N.B., unit in -the  First Canadian Contingent and is one of the few Boer War veterans  living in the province today.  Mr. and Mrs. Hatfield played a very important part in the  early history of Kaleden.  Mr. and Mrs. Frank Harrison came out from Nictaux Falls, N.S.,  to join their son Jim who was living in Summerland. Together with  their daughter Kathleen they stopped at the hotel until their attractive bungalow and a barn were completed at Kaleden in the fall  of 1909.  The following spring he planted his acre house lot to fruit trees  and Mrs. Harrison developed a fine flower garden.  He was a keen fisherman and could be seen out on the lake  .in his boat from early spring until late fall, when not in the hills  with his little reddish brown dog "Gruff,", after ducks and grouse.  He was a Justice of the Peace and took a very keen interest in the  affairs of the community. He planted and developed two fruit lots—  now the property of Colin Coss and George Busch. The home is  owned by Walter Lane.  Reg Tait from Montreal spent a year in Summerland before  coming to Kaleden in the fall of 1909. He bached with Harry Corbitt for some two years, first down by the lake in a tent and then 175  Biographical Sketches  1910—Left to Right:  Looking north from Robertson's point showing Harrison  bungalow and barn, tent village and town.  in a shack on the beach. After his marriage to Miss Kathleen  Harrison they moved to Summerland, having the management of  Sir Thomas Shaughnessy's orchard. When he came back from  overseas he moved to the new development at Oliver, where he  and his family still reside.  Mr. and Mrs. J. R. Standen with their son and daughter from  Osage, Sask., settled here several years after their two lots were  planted. A number of years ago they sold out and moved to Victoria. Mr. and Mrs. Palm have subdivided one lot into building  sites.   Orchard Holdings Limited purchased the other.  T. C. Preston and family from Pilot Mound, Manitoba, arrived  in the fall of 1909 and built a substantial home and large barn on  his five acre lot. He lived many years here and eventually moved  to the coast. 176  The History oi Kaleden  Herbert Baker and family, also from Pilot Mound, Manitoba,  built a small home on their property in 1909. After living here a  few years they moved into Penticton where Herb took up his old  trade as a barber, which he followed with his son Clair until his  death. For several years Mr. and Mrs. W. J. Coltman lived here.  The Schwarz family own this property now.  R. S. Conklin and his son-in-law, E. J. Chambers, both of Winnipeg purchased fruit lots in the fall of 1909. Although their homes  were in Penticton they were keenly interested in our community  life.  Mr. Conklin was reeve of Penticton for three years and ran  as Liberal candidate in the 1916 election against L. W. Shatford,  M.L.A.  Mr. Chambers was also reeve of the municipality for three  years besides being on the council. He then stepped into politics  running as Liberal candidate in a federal election against O. L.  Jones. He took a very prominent part in the fruit industry, first as  the representative of the South Okanagan on the Central Board and  then for many years as the president and general manager of  the Associated Growers. During World War II he was at Ottawa  with the War Time Prices and Trade Board. For his services he  was decorated by his Sovereign. Later these properties were purchased by Mr. Walter Lane.  Mr. Chambers has one son living in Penticton, manager of the  Penticton branch of the Greyhound Lines.  Mr. and Mrs. W. P. Simpson and their three sons and two  daughters arrived from Gagetown, N.B., in the spring of 1910. Like  his brother "W.P." made friends wherever he went. He started working on road construction and soon became foreman, a position he  held for many years. He had been in Summerland and Penticton  in 1905. Of the family, Perley is retired from the Canadian Customs at Osoyoos, Vern has an orchard at Oliver and Velma is now  Mrs. Stowell of Oliver. Iva, who is Mrs. Judson Findlay, and Hartley, who is running his cousins orchard, have remained in Kaleden.  Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Findlay and family from Manitou, Manitoba,  had fifteen acres planted in 1910, but did not move into their new 177  Biographical Sketches  home until 1912. Mr. Findlay was a very clever wheelwright and  took a great deal of pleasure in helping his neighbours out. His  son Judson is still living here and has been connected with the fruit  industry for over forty years.  H. W. Corbitt from Annapolis Royal, N.S., after spending  eighteen months in Summerland moved to Kaleden in August, 1909.  He was a director of the Penticton Co-operative Growers for two  years; a director of the Kaleden Co-operative Growers; a trustee on  the Water District Board for a number of years and secretary of the  Kaleden School Board for seven years, also Justice of the Peace.  He is still living on the orchard he planted in 1910.  F. W. King came from Chew Magna, England, to Summerland  in 1910—coming to Kaleden in 1911 as a carpenter on the hotel,  D. D. Lapsley's store, J. C. Findlay's house, the Baptist Church, and  a number of small private homes.  During the First World War (together with his brother-in-law  George Robertson), he was responsible for looking after some  hundred and fifty acres of young orchards and bringing them  through those lean years to the entire satisfaction of the owners.  He has been on the board of directors of the Kaleden Co-operative  Growers since it was incorporated in 1924, serving most of that  time as president, and on the Board of Trustees of the Kaleden Irrigation District for almost as long and has always been prominent  in fruit matters giving more of his time and energy than any other  resident in the district. For many years he represented Kaleden on  the central executive.  James McGraw from Glasgow, Scotland, stopped in Summer-  land a short time before moving to Kaleden in the spring of 1910.  Later on that year he was followed by Mrs. McGraw, five daughters and one son. fames was skilled at heavy rock work and was  very much in demand for road construction. Before coming out to  this country he had worked in the same mine with the famous  Harry Lauder. In 1916 the family moved to Penticton where he  worked for the K.V.R. until his retirement.  His son John at one time was president of the Vancouver Stock  Brokers' Association, and during World War II was head of the  Personnel Department at Boeing's Vancouver. 178  The History oi Kaleden  George Robertson also of Glasgow came to this country "with  his brother-in-law, James McGraw. He drove a team for H. W.  Corbitt for eighteen months and then started in for himself, operating with horses. Many thousands of boxes of fruit he yarded out  of the orchards and hauled to the packing house. Later he went into  the trucking business and is still operating with his son Jim as  George Robertson & Son.  R. H. Melville from St. John built a small home in 1910. He was  a skilled finishing carpenter, and built the first Kaleden school. Bob  Miller owns this property at present.  Harry H. Whitaker from Barnsley, Yorkshire, England, came  down from Summerland in 1911 to take charge of the Ritchie development as foreman.  He was a professional gardener, his home being one of the  show places in the Okanagan. He took a great interest in the  Water District and the Co-operative Growers, serving on both  boards.  In 1912 James King and his daughter Vera arrived from Chew  Magna, England, to join his son, F. W. King and in the following  year they were joined by Mrs. King and daughters Kathleen and  Elsie. Their home was where the house of Norman Ashe now  stands. Part of their property was set aside for the Baptist Church.  All the family is married. Will, Kathleen (Mrs. George Robertson),  Vera (Mrs. lack Swales), living in Kaleden, and Elsie (Mrs. Harvey  Boone), living in Oliver.  W. E. Camsell and family did not reach here until 1919, although he had owned five acres of orchard since 1911. Soon after  he arrived he purchased the T. C. Preston orchard and home.  During the many years the family resided in Kaleden they were  a great acquisition to the community. One daughter, Ethel, is a  nurse living in Penticton.  These properties now belong to Gordon Lines and John Hohn. 179  Biographical Sketches  The first marriage was that of Mr. Louis Block of Naramata  and Miss Carlotta Hatfield, daughter of Captain and Mrs. Chas.  Hatfield from Port Greville, N.S., who arrived in Summerland in  1908 and followed their son to Kaleden the next year. The greater  part of the captain's life was spent in wooden ships sailing out of  Nova Scotia ports to many parts of the world.  O. E. Tomlin and family from Wetaskiwin, Alberta, built the  first house and barn in Kaleden. Their son Gordon was the first  baby born here, qualifying him for a reward of a town lot offered  by Mr. Ritchie for the first arrival. "O.E.," as he was called, ran a  livery barn and had two teams that did general hauling and orchard work. He eventually sold out to Henry Mitchell who returned  to Summerland during the war years. Findlay McWilliams, a  lawyer living in Kelowna, drove a team for Mitchell one summer.  The Tomlin house now belongs to the Ponto family.  The Harrison-Tait five acres were planted in 1910.   After passing through several hands they are now the property of Mrs. J. Ure.  J. D. Harrison planted a small acreage in 1910.   It is now the  property of C. L. Badgley.  Miss Catherine Findlay's orchard was planted in 1910—for a  number of years she was in Kaleden only on her holidays. Eventually she built a bungalow on this property and lived here permanently. Being a registered nurse she was available to most of the  families in the district and never spared herself day or night to give  professional help and advice to those who needed it. Her passing  was a shock to all and she is greatly missed.  Alex H. Stevens of Summerland was Ritchie's secretary for  many years and had a great deal to do with the Kaleden development. His brother Jack was the first carpenter in Kaleden, working  on all the early buildings Together they purchased and planted  five acres.   They are now the property of George Busch. 180  The History of Kaleden  A. K. McAllister, from Winnipeg, planted five acres in 191C  and moved out here with his family in 1918. Before this he man  aged the Kettle Valley Farm in Penticton.  Mr. and Mrs. Harry Elsey, Pilot Mount, Manitoba, planted ten  acres in 1910. They settled in Summerland. Eventually selling at  Kaleden, since then there have been several owners. Now the property of Cecil Hayter.  Rev. and Mrs. N. K. Simpson and daughter from Gagetown  N.B., came to Kaleden from Kansas, U.S.A., in 1910, having livea  previously in Peachland and Summerland. He planted five acres  which are still owned and operated by his daughter Marjory. He  was a man of enormous energy and a most likeable personality.  His sudden passing, as a result of an accident, came as a shock  to all his friends in the South Okanagan.  Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Battye and two sons came here from Vernon. Mr. Battye and his sister-in-law, Miss Mary Brooks, planted  fifteen acres—that are now owned by Philip Locke, Don Sutherland and Frank Ireland. For many years he tuned pianos throughout the Okanagan. One son Clem worked in the Kaleden Packing House, eventually becoming manager. He is now in business  in Penticton and has just completed an attractive summer home on  the lake shore in Kaleden.  T. R. Preston and family from Pilot Mound, Manitoba, arrived  here in 1911. He operated a mill at the top of the Junction Ranch  hill and eventually went in to farming in the White Lake district.  Mrs. J. H. King, wife of Senator King of Cranbrook, purchased  and planted five acres, but she never lived here. This property now  belongs to Mr. E. Karrer.  Christopher Kay from Bolton, Lancashire, England, arrived in  Kaleden in 1911, spent the next few years working in the orchards.  He went overseas in 1915 and was taken prisoner in 1916. On returning to Kaleden after the war he planted and developed a five acre  fruit lot which he sold to James Goodwin in 1925 and moved into  Penticton with his family.  His son Fred is head of the firm of Hunt Motors Ltd. of that city.  George Busch is now the owner of the orchard. 181  L^-ould ^rre ^J\nowC  Indian trails wandered along,  Cattle roamed the land;  Beautiful birds sang their song,  Barren hills on either hand.  Here where crystal waters stand,  And clear blue is the sky;  Some men had pre-empted land,  Others passed it by.  In nineteen six Ritchie saw  The future of this place;  Trees of green on hilll and draw,  Home on barren waste.  Land to buy, roads to build,  Pipe and flume to lay;  Trees to plant, soil to till,  Working night and day.  Did this man of vision see  Kaleden all so clear;  Lots of folk, like you and me,  Holding it so dear?  —W. H. Sampson. 182  \Jldtimer5 In  ^J\aleden  oDidtrlct  John Prather  White Lake  Dave Burns  White Lake  Hiram Ingles  White Lake  William Crook  Marron Valley  Charles deBlois Green  Twin Lakes  Gilbert Taylor  Twin Lakes  George McKay  Yellow Lake  Angus Smith  Marron Valley  Laurence Lush  Yellow Lake  Harry Lush  Yellow Lake  Henry Burson  Marron Lake  Smythe Parker  Marron Valley  Berkley Noad  Twin Lakes  Vincent Wilson  Lush's Lakes  Richard Travis  Myers Flats  Jim Grant  Yellow Lake  Russell Grant  Yellow Lake  Thomas Roadhouse  Marron Valley 183  ^rirdt  World War  Duncan Perley Simpson,  Frederick Ford  Lieutenant, M.M.  lohn M. Beddall  Hartley William Simpson,  Russell Grant  C.S.M.,  M.M.  Frank Taylor  lames  Dyson  Harrison,  Gilbert Taylor, Jr.,  Sergeant  Died in Canada  Henry Wellington Corbitt  William Ethelbert Taylor,  Reginald Gordon Tait,  Killed in Action  Lieutenant  Roscoe Clarence Roadhouse  Harry Hume Whitaker  Died in Canada  Calvin Standen  Vincent DeBlois Green  John Charles Tomlin  Christopher Kay  Killed in Action  Second   World   War  James Esmond Clark  Lome John Findlay  Lieutenant, Killed in Action        James Eli Carley  David Webster Goodwin,  James E. Atkinson  F/O, Killed in Action  Bernard Margrove Preston  Frederick Jensen,  Dale E. Dunn  B.E.M., Killed in Action  James Patrick Robertson  Charles Walter Marshall,  Lieutenant  John Frederick Robertson  Gordon William McKenzie  David Hugh Marshall  Francis Havens  Thomas Lloyd Flynn  Gerald Percy Underdown,  Frederick John King  Killed in Action  Mike Kostiuk,  George Harry John Underdown,  Killed m Army alter War                n.   , .    ^        ,  Died in Canada  Raymond William Findlay  Ernest Harold Underdown  Francis Le Francois  Joseph Edward Clayton  Richard Allen Ashe  Edmond Wyatt,  Norman Chester Ashe  Killed in Action  Harold N. Cairns  Robin Allen  Gordon Latrace  Alexander King Robertson,  KOREAN WAR  Lieutenant-Colonel  Ken Bolen 184  BOOK REVIEWS  A Review by Carol Abernathy  Grassroots of Lumby — 1877-1927. Edited by Rosemary Deuling. Published  by The Lumby Historians, 1979.  During the past year, the residents of the Okanagan have had the benefit  of the first fruit of a rather unique writers' group. Calling themselves "The  Lumby Historians," and armed with a New Horizons Grant from the Federal  Government, a small group of local residents cum writers and researchers  have published their first volume of Lumby's history.  Beginning with the year 1877, and continuing to 1927, they have produced a detailed chronology of Lumby's early settlers, when they came, where  they lived and what they did. Some of the collected stories have been written  by The Historians, while others, especially the family histories, have been  written by the participants themselves. The book includes a liberal portion of  photographs of the early pioneers and scenes of Lumby. In addition, there is a  map and a partial list of original pre-emptions for the Lumby area or "White  Valley" as it was once known.  Although the Grassroots of Lumby has adopted a 'family history' approach, it is neither a dry recitation nor is it handicapped by a limited appeal.  Woven into the stories of the various pioneer families, there are enough facts,  anecdotes, and perhaps, occasionally, "tall tales" of the early settlers' life in  the interior of British Columbia to make the book worth reading, even for  those who know none of the family names listed in the Table of Contents.  If the book has a fault, it most likely lies in the fact that the format may  seem disjointed, perhaps leaving the stranger to Lumby with a somewhat confused picture of its history. Yet the very fact that is has sprung, like Lumby's  native wild strawberries, from the "grassroots" of its citizens makes it a volume  worthy of note and an extremely valuable source for future historians.  We will await the next offering of The Lumby Historians with some impatience.  A Review by J. A. Mellows  The Man for a New Country — Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie, by David R.  Williams. Gray's Publishing Ltd., 1977.  Perhaps only books pertaining specifically to the Okanagan should receive reviews in this journal, but the exceptional quality and interest of David  Williams' first book should serve to allow at least a brief notice. The theme of  the book is captured in Byron's opening lines to 'Don Juan,'  "I want a hero; an uncommon want,  When every year and month sends forth a new one,  Till, after cloying the gazettes with cant,  The age discovers he is not the true one." 185  Begbie was buried with great ceremony in 1894, universally recognized,  along with perhaps only Douglas himself, as one of the great heroes of the  province's early years. Subsequently, as the splendid naivety and exuberance  of the Victorian era passed away, his image was first modified and then transformed, so that he became to recent generations of school children, the legendary "hanging judge," severe, autocratic, and entirely unsympathetic. Perhaps David Williams recognizes that all societies need unsullied heroes, and  he has set out with great skill and scholarship to ressurrect Begbie's original  reputation. In order to achieve his objective he has concentrated on material  found in the judge's bench books and other legal records, while making the  most of the scanty materials available on Begbie's personal and private affairs. Mr. Williams is himself an experienced lawyer, and he brings to his task  an expert knowledge of his subject. The reader should not be deterred by  these circumstances; only one chapter can be described as being at all  esoteric, and the author succeeds in bringing back to life a series of unusual  and dramatic court cases. In the process we learn of many fascinating details  and gain insight into the political and social fabric of a century ago. More importantly, we discover Begbie as a true hero who would gain respect and  honour in any age, except, perhaps, our own.  BOOKS RELATING  TO THE OKANAGAN  FATHER PAT — HERO OF THE FAR WEST  by J. Mercier    $2.50  Mail orders add 50 cents postage and handling.  Address: Treasurer, O.H.S., Box 313, Vernon, B.C. V1T 6M3.  ILLUSTRATED HISTORY OF VERNON    $3.00  Vernon Museum Board, 3009 - 32nd Ave., Vernon, B.C. V1T 2L8.  OGOPOGO'S VIGIL  by F. M. Buckland    $6.95  (SMALL PRINT)  An authentic 140 page history of Kelowna and the Okanagan from  1811 to 1905, which includes many pictures and sketches of the early days.  Mailing charges extra - 65 cents each.  Okanagan Historical Society  Kelowna Branch, P.O. Box 83, Okanagan Mission, B.C., Canada V0H ISO. 186  OBITUARIES  ALLEN, GEORGE  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Died in Summerland on January 13, 1980 at the age of 72.  Resident of Summerland since 1925, an orchardist until his retirement in 1973. Survived by his  wife Marjorie, son Bill, daughters Mrs. Joe (Sheila) Spangler and Mrs. Shirley Bige.  ALSTEAD, ROBERT  Residence - New Westminster, B.C. Died November 26, 1979 in New Westminster at the age  of 82. Former resident of Summerland and Penticton. Former chairman of the Summerland  Hospital Society. Predeceased by his wife, Madeline. Survived by two daughters.  ARMSTRONG, TIM  Residence - Burnaby, B.C. Born in Penticton and died in Burnaby on November 14, 1979 at  the age of 68. Helped to re-establish the Summerland Review in 1946 after a 20-year lapse in  publication. Founded Country Life magazine and was its editor until his retirement. Survived by  his wife, Madge.  BAKER, ELDEN MARK  Residence - Naramata, B.C. Died November 7, 1979 aged 66. Came to Naramata in 1923  and worked in the fruit industry. Was Past Exalted Ruler of Penticton Elks Lodge. Survived by  his wife, Doris Evelyn, two sons, Ray and Don, one daughter, Mrs. Bert (Jean Margaret) Mellish.  BEGGS, AUBREY  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Summerland. Died accidentally June 18, 1979 at age  63 while working in his orchard. A well-known fruit stand operator, he was active in promoting  community sports. Survived by his wife, Rae, two sons, Danny in Edmonton and Randy in  Summerland.  BERRYMAN, JANET  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Scotland. Died in Penticton on January 13, 1980, in her  95th year. A resident of Penticton since 1917 and beloved wife of Greville for 65 years. Survived  by her husband, one son Colin (Rusty) and one daughter, Mary. Member O.H.S.  BERTELSEN, CHARLES  Long-time resident of Vernon, Charles Bertelsen died on December 25th, 1979 in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital. He was born in Spencer, Iowa, September 14th, 1901 and came to Vernon  in 1926. He operated the Bertelsen Plumbing & Heating firm in 1934, selling out to the Valair  Brothers. He was a member of the Oddfellows' Lodge for 50 years. He is survived by his wife,  Dolly, a daughter, Alana Kreie of Anchorage, Alaska and three sisters.  BLEWETT, DOROTHY  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Summerland, Mrs. Blewett passed away January  26th, 1980 at the age of 69. Survived by her husband Ralph, two sons, Richard of Bella Coola  and Victor of Kelowna, one daughter, Mrs. John (Suzanne) Wolfe of Peers, Alta., two sisters,  Mrs. Rita Thornthwaite of Summerland and Mrs. George (May) Dewar of West Vancouver.  BOULDING, EDGAR  Long-time resident of Penticton. Passed away in Edmonton on December 11th, 1979. Survived by one daughter and five sons.  BOWSHER, HESSY ALEXANDRA SMYTH (NEE ALLISON)  Residence - Oyama. Emigrated to Oyama from Britain in 1908 with her husband Harry,  where they operated a fruit farm for 40 years. Was Secretary Treasurer of Kal Women's Institute  and founding member and Secretary of Oyama Boy Scouts Association. She sat on the first jury in  Vernon on which women were members. Died January 18, 1980. She was predeceased by her husband in 1942 and a son in 1954. Survived by a son and a daughter, 2 grandchildren and 5 greatgrandchildren. 187  CARTER, GEORGE BYRNE  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Outlook, Sask., and moved to Vernon in 1917. Died in  Penticton on May 22, 1980 at the age of 69. He worked for the Okanagan Telephone Company  for 38 years, retiring in 1976 as customer service manager in Penticton. Served overseas with the  R.C.A.F. for five years. Past president of Branch 40 Royal Canadian Legion and former Zone  Commander. He was an active community worker. Survived by his wife, Nora, two sons, Allen  and Michael.  CHADWICK, INA ESTHER  Residence - Enderby, B.C. Born in Finland 1907, lived in Sicamous, Solsqua and Enderby  all her life - living in Enderby since 1962. Predeceased by her husband Roy and survived by her  daughter Mrs. Velma Aho of Revelstoke, two grandchildren and sister Mrs. Peltomaa of  Sicamous.  CHAPMAN, REX  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in London, England. Died in Summerland December  5, 1979 at the age of 80. Mr. Chapman came to Peachland in 1913 and farmed in the Mazama  and Hautheume Lake area until his retirement in 1951. Survived by his wife, Mary, four stepsons. See The Mazama Story, O.H.S. Report No. 38, pp. 101-104.  CLARK, HERBERT GERALD  Residence - Keremeos, B.C. Born in Penticton. Died in Keremeos October 13, 1979 at the  age of 65. Survived by his wife, Dorothy, and daughter, Tammi, two step-daughters and three  step-sons.  DONALD, HAROLD  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died in Enderby, B.C. on April 20, 1980. Was associated with  Pacific Pipe and Flume in Penticton for many years. Survived by his wife, Ruth, one son, Ken  and one daughter Elaine.  DUNSDON, HANNAH  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born September 16, 1885 in England, Hannah Osborne  Harvey came to Canada in 1902. Married Jim Dunsdon in Summerland on December 5, 1906.  Long time residents of the Garnett Valley area, they had three sons and one daughter. Predeceased by her husband in 1955, Mrs. Dunsdon died June 8, 1979. See O.H.S. Report No. 28, p.  120.  DUNSDON, JAMES HARVEY  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Summerland and resided there all his life until his  death on July 17, 1979 at the age of 71. Son of Jim and Hannan Dunsdon, pioneers of Summer-  land, he was an active community worker, a valued member of the Oddfellows Lodge. Survived  by his wife, Lillian, three sons and a daughter, eleven grandchildren, two brothers and one sister.  See O.H.S. Report No. 43, p. 119-120.  ELLIOTT, RHODES  Residence - North Vanouver, B.C. Born in Summerland, died in Minneapolis, U.S.A. in  December 1979 at the age of 70. Member of a pioneer Summerland family, Mr. Elliott was city  solicitor for the City of Vancouver until his retirement in 1975. Survived by his wife, Barbara, two  sons, Dennis and Michael and one sister, Kathleen Rive.  ERAUT, FRANK  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Souris, Manitoba, he came to Penticton in 1905. Died  in Penticton, B.C. on July 22, 1979 at the age of 87 years. Resided in Oliver and Kelowna as well  as Penticton. He was manager of Canadian Canners in Penticton for many years. Past member of  the Penticton City Council and School Board. Survived by his wife, Vandala, two sons, Claire  and Eris, one daughter, Jean.  ETTER, MRS. PRUDENCE (NEE BECKER)  Residence - Armstrong, B.C. Died on December 14, 1979 at the age of 84 years. She had  been a resident of Armstrong almost all her life and was always very active in the Anglican  Church there. For many years she was a bookkeeper with the Armstrong Sawmill. She is survived 188  by a son in Scotland and three grandchildren. For some time prior to her death she was a resident  of Parkview Place in Enderby.  GENIER, JOHN C.E.  Residence - Vernon and Lumby, B.C. A long time resident of Vernon and Lumby. Died on  July 9, 1979 at the age of 74 years. He is survived by his wife Helen, daughter Fay Browning, son  Peter, three grandchildren, one brother Earl, sisters Florence Neilson and Melvina Tyldsley.  GOULD, AMY  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born July 22, 1906 in Cockermouth, England. Died in  Summerland September 10, 1979. Came to Summerland in 1919. Survived by 3 sons. Predeceased by her husband, John Leslie Gould.  HANKEY, MARY MANLEY ALERS  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Died in Vernon on June 29, 1979 at the age of 101 years. She was  predeceased by her husband Gerald Alers Cramer Alers Hankey in 1943. One son Geoffrey  Norman died in 1976. She is survived by her daughter Mrs. Carl Ostenson (Muriel) and sons  Algernon, Roland and Conrad, four grandchildren and five great-grandchildren.  HAWES, CHARLES  Residence - Quesnel, B.C. Died March 14, 1980 in Quesnel, B.C. Mr. Hawes resided in  Kelowna for 70 years. He was a veteran of the First World War and received the Military Medal  for his service at Amiens. He was also a charter member of the Kelowna Lion's Club and a member of the Canadian Legion. He is survived by his wife Beatrice.  HAYES, HARRY  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Born at Larkin north of Vernon November 21, 1901 and had lived  there all his life, died in September, 1979 at the age of 78 years. Besides his wife Donnie he is survived by three sisters. He was "in Agriculture" all his life and was well known at rodeo circuits, at  horse shows and at the Interior Provincial Exhibition. He was a breeder of Black Angus cattle.  HEGGIE, W. G.  Residence - Seattle, Washington. Son of the late George Heggie, died in Seattle, February  23, 1980 at the age of 77. Mr. Heggie was born in Enderby and spent his early years in Vernon.  Survived by his wife, three daughters, two brothers, Leslie in California, Bob in Burnaby and a  sister, Mrs. L. Viel of Vernon.  HOLMES, NORMAN  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Haliburton, Ontario. Died in Summerland October  11, 1979 at the age of 73. Resident since 1939, Mr. Holmes was an active community worker.  Member of municipal council for 6 years as reeve and 7 years as councillor. Past president of  Okanagan Municipal Association, director of U.B.C.M., 12 year member of Hospital Board,  helped organize the curling club and the yacht club, served the Summerland Elks Lodge, plus  many other activities. He was a hardware merchant in Summerland for 21 years. Survived by his  wife, Florence, one daughter Donna (Mrs. Larry Young) of Summerland and two sons, Barry of  Golden and Douglas of Kimberley.  HOWARD, PHILIP  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died in Penticton on April 30, 1979 at the age of 71. Survived  by his wife, Lulu, one son Dick, and three daughters, Fran, Anne and Mary Lou. Member of  Penticton Branch O.H.S.  HOWRIE, DOROTHY  Passed away in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital in March of 1980. She was predeceased by her  husband, David Howrie and is survived by two sons, Donald Campbell of Vernon and William  Ronald Campbell of Parksville, daughters Jean Sloan of Richmond, Lilian Mordy of Pasadena,  California and Phyllis Cochrane of Parksville, three sisters and three brothers, 12 grandchildren  and 12 great-grandchildren. 189  HUSBAND, MAY  Residence - Armstrong-Enderby, B.C. A long time resident of Armstrong-Enderby areas,  who lived to the ripe old age of 101 years died in Vernon Jubilee Hospital on May 19, 1980. She is  survived by a daughter and four sons, 15 grandchildren, 31 great-grandchildren and 4 great-  great-grandchildren. In 1934 Mrs. Husband moved to Armstrong. From 1934 to 1974 she entered the Armstrong Fair and in that last year she had 22 entries of her handiwork. Out of those  she received 16 prizes. That year she also entered the Salmon Arm Fair and out of 13 entries she  won 13 prizes.  JACKSON, MARIE  Residence - Lumby, B.C. Former resident of Lumby, died on June 29, 1979 in Vancouver,  B.C. She was born on February 2, 1876 in Norway. She was predeceased by her husband, Walter  Jackson, proprietor of the Lumby Hotel in 1930. She was active in the Red Cross during World  War I and was the last surviving charter member of the Lumby Women's Institute. She is survived by one son and three daughters, six grandchildren and seven great-grandchildren.  JONES, ART  Residence - Rush, Dublin County, Ireland. Mr. Jones came to Canada in 1904 and to  Kelowna in 1907. During his 69 years in Kelowna he became well known for his participation in  community activities, particularly the Kelowna Regatta. He was instrumental in getting the unlimited hydro-plane events as part of several Regattas in the early seventies. He is survived by his  wife Mae. He was born June, 1881 at Hastings, England.  KITA, MATSUI  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Japan September 16, 1887, died in Summerland July  9, 1979. Predeceased by her husband, M. K. (Kew) Kita in January, 1974. Mr. Kita came to  Summerland in 1907. Mrs. Kita is survived by four of their seven children, 6 sons and one  daughter.  KUBAKOWA, TOMA  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Japan, died in Summerland September 19, 1979 at  the age of 95. Came to B.C. in 1907 and to Summerland in 1918 where he farmed. Predeceased  by his wife, survived by two daughters, Tomi Aoki and Matsu Shikano.  LABAN, VIOLET  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Vernon's Good Citizen of 1965, Mrs. Violet Laban passed away in  Vernon on December 23, 1979 at the age of 83 years. She was a long-time member of All Saints'  Choir in Vernon and the W.A. For many years she worked for the Unitarian Service Committee.  She is survived by her sons, Jack of Edmonton and Victor of Toronto; two daughters, Nancy  Dexter of Winfield and Joan Kersley of Vernon; many grandchildren and great-grandchildren.  She was predeceased by her husband, Victor in 1954.  LATIMER, GERALD BRISTOL  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Vancouver, B.C. son of Frank Latimer, pioneer surveyor. Died in Penticton April 28, 1980. He was a graduate of Royal Military College and served  overseas in World War I. Survived by his wife, Mary, one son Norman, one daughter, Moira.  LIDSTONE, VIOLET A.  Residence - Salmon Arm, B.C. Died February 19, 1980 in Armstrong Hospital - a resident of  North Okanagan since 1911. Farmed with her husband, James, on a homestead on Grandview  Bench until their retirement to Salmon Arm in 1947. Community minded and a long time member of the Old Time Dance Club. Survived by two daughters, Mrs. Pearl Stenquist, Vernon and  Mrs. June Shirley, Salmon Arm. Predeceased by her husband and two sons Allan and Harold.  LUNDMAN, SVEN (ART)  Residence - Enderby, B.C. Passed away in Enderby, February 17, 1980. A resident of this  city since 1945 - active in civic affairs - twice serving as an alderman. A charter member of the  Lions Club. Involved in community work - operated a hardware and building supply store for 32  years. Survived by his wife, a daughter, two sons and six grandchildren. 190  McCALL, HENRY DONALD  Died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital on January 31, 1980 at the age of 68 years. He is survived by his wife, Evelyn, one son Donald of Penticton; one sister, Mrs. Lloyd (Alice) Christensen  of Vernon; his brother Art of Vancouver and three grandchildren.  McINTYRE, LEILA  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Renfrew, Ontario and died in Penticton, October 8,  1979 at the age of 95. Miss Mclntyre has been a resident of Penticton since 1908. She is survived  by her niece, Jeanne Putnam of Edmonton and a nephew, W. H. Whimster of Penticton.  MacKAY, DAVID STANLEY  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Former City Engineer of Vernon, passed away at his home on May  1, 1980 after a lengthy illness. He is survived by his wife, Phyllis; one son Donald of Vernon; two  daughters, Bonnie Houston and Susan Cunningham of Vernon; two sisters, Joan Counsell of  Vancouver and Helen Dinsmore of Calgary; also five grandchildren. He was predeceased by his  son, David and brother, Bruce.  McKAY, VERA G. (SPARKY)  Residence - Strathcona Extended Care Unit (Kelowna). Born in 1884, died January 12, 1980  in Kelowna. Mrs. McKay came to Kelowna in 1908 with her husband Alec, a druggist in partnership with P. B. Willits. She was a member of the original Presbyterian Church in Kelowna and  the Ladies Hospital Aid. She also shared civic duties with her husband during his term as mayor  from 1940 to 1944.  McLEAN, ROBERT DONALD  Residence - Okanagan Falls, B.C. Died Feburary 10, 1980 at the age of 48 years. A member  of a pioneer Okanagan family, he had lived in Okanagan Falls all his life. Survived by three  brothers, Roderick and Kenny of Okanagan Falls, Malcolm of Sicamous, four sisters, Florence  Niddery, Waneta Spence, Irma McLean and Verna Schriber all of Okanagan Falls.  McPHERSON, PERLEY  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died in Penticton on November 1, 1979 at the age of 90 years.  Mr. McPherson worked as a conductor on the Kettle Valley Railway from 1914 until his retirement in 1954. He was an alderman of the City of Penticton for nine years. Surviving are his loving  wife Afton, one son John of Penticton, five grandchildren and two sisters.  MANERY, SAMUEL  Residence - Cawston, B.C. Died on April 11, 1980 at the age of 92. Mr. Manery was born in  the Similkameen and was a rancher and fruit grower in the Cawston area all his life. Predeceased  by his wife, Mabel in 1958, Mr. Manery is survived by two sons, Gordon of Lethbridge and  Ronald of Ottawa, four daughters, Mrs. Ross (Jean) Innis of Keremeos, Mrs. Ron (Helen) King of  Prince George, Mrs. Ken (Marjorie) Harker of Cawston and Mrs. Milton (Kathleen) Cook of  Okanagan Falls, B.C. Mr. Manery was named as a life member of the O.H.S. in 1965.  MASON, JANE  One of Armstrong's oldtimers died April 2, in her 100th year. She and her husband, Edward  Mason, came to Armstrong in 1907. She is survived by one son and one daughter, numerous  grandchildren and great-grandchildren. An active woman, whose garden was always a show-  place, she was also one of the most faithful members of St. James Anglican Church. She made it a  regular ritual to see that the church was cleaned and polished every Saturday, ready for the Sunday Services.  MELDRUM, MARY  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died May 7, 1980 in Penticton at the age of 94. A resident of  Penticton since 1908, she was a member of the United Church, Ladies Auxiliary to the  Brotherhood of Railway Trainmen, and a charter and life member of the Edina Chapter No. 33  of the Order of Eastern Star. She is survived by a daughter, Mrs. Elsie Mattock and two sons,  David and Robert of Vancouver.  MILLER, MARIE  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Willow, Oklahoma and died in Summerland March 191  22, 1980 at the age of 77 years. Mrs. Miller came to Summerland in 1921. Survived by her husband, Lloyd, three sons, Charles, Bob and Dave of Summerland, four daughters. Vera, Jean,  Estelle and Adele.  MOFFETT, ESTHER  Passed away Easter Sunday, April 6, in Seattle, Washington. She spent much of her childhood and adolescence in Enderby where her father, Mr. Frank V. Moffett was the last manager  of the Columbia Flouring Mills, then the primary industry of Enderby. Miss Moffett was 86 years  at the time of her death. Over the years she continued to return to the home of her youth where  she renewed her many friendships. She is survived by her sister, Mrs. Mabel Moffett Cheevers of  Seattle, an aunt and several nieces and nephews.  MORROW, JUDGE CHARLES W.  Vernon's highly esteemed citizen and Freeman of the City, Judge Charles W. Morrow died at  his home in Vernon on March 16, 1980 at the age of 82 years. He had a long and varied career in  the legal profession having been called to the Bar in 1920 and retiring in 1972. He was associated  with many community organizations, which he served unstintingly. He is survived by his wife,  Gladys, one daughter, Heather and two grandchildren.  MURPHY, MIKE  Residence - Kamloops, B.C. Died in Kamloops, March 30, 1980. Was Summerland's first  full time fire chief.  MURRAY, JOCK  Residence, Lakeshore Road, Kelowna, B.C. Born in 1910 in Scotland. Died May 25, 1980.  He came to Canada at a very early age. He operated a New & Used Shop in Kelowna for many  years.  NEIL, ROBERT RICHARD  Residence - Vernon, B.C. A native son of Vernon and Mayor of the City at the time of his  death, died on May 9, 1979. He was the grandson of one of Vernon's earliest pioneers, Dick Neil.  He served his community well for many years. He is survived by his wife, Linda; his daughter  Barbara and son-in-law Doug Fuhr; all of Vernon. His sister and brother-in-law Sue and Don  Nolan; two grandchildren, one Uncle, Bob Leatherdale; three aunts, Mrs. Dena Garven, Mrs.  Sonny Wales and Mrs. Hazel McCreary.  NOLAN, RENA ANNE (NEE DILL)  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Daughter of pioneer residents Mr. and Mrs. Ed Dill of Enderby.  Passed away in Vernon in September 1979 at the age of 72 years. Received all her schooling in  Enderby where she resided until her marriage in 1931 - then moved to Vernon where she lived until her death. Very active in musical and sport circles. Survived by her husband Hazel, two sons  Blake and Don and three grandchildren.  O'CONNELL, LILLIAN PEARL  Residence - Matsqui, B.C. Born in Winnipeg, Man., and died in Matsqui at the age of 81.  Came to Penticton in 1920. Survived by two daughters, Mrs. J. (Margaret) Fairholm of Matsqui,  Mrs. A. (Kathleen) Cornelson of Burnaby, four sons, Frank of Vancouver, Chuck of Penticton,  Patrick of Kamloops and Bud of Bradner.  PATTEN, EFFIE MYRTLE  Residence - Armstrong, B.C. Died May 27, in the Armstrong-Spallumcheen Hospital at the  age of 85 years. Resided in Armstrong since 1913. She took an active part in the Baptist Church  all her life. She was predeceased by her husband in 1969 and is survived by two daughters, a son,  six grandchildren and a sister Anne May Collicutt of Summerland.  POOLE, EDWARD (TED)  Died October 27, 1979 at the age of 88 years. Former manager of the Interior Vegetable  Marketing Agency and one-time mayor of Armstrong. He moved to Kelowna but upon retirement in 1956 he and his wife moved to Coldstream. He was a life member of the Vernon Legion  and a member of the Spallumcheen Masonic Lodge. Survived by one son, four grandchildren  and five great-grandchildren. 192  PRICE, FRANK  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Mr. Frank Price died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital on April 16,  1980 at the age of 85 years. He was born in Warminster, Wiltshire, England in 1884 and came to  Vernon in 1913. He joined the Vernon City staff in 1920 and retired in 1950. He is survived by his  wife, Harriett; two sons, Arther of Vancouver and Ted of Vernon; three daughters, Kay Waugh  of Sorrento; Dorothy Lockerby of Vernon; Joan Burwash of Surrey; 12 grandchildren and 12  great-grandchildren.  RAYMER, ALBERT  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Born in Shoal Lake, Man. Died July 9, 1979 at Kelowna. Captain Raymer came to Kelowna in 1907 and learned his seamanship as a youth from Capt. L. A.  Hayman in 1910. He served overseas in the First World War and returned to Kelowna to operate  his own ferry business, which included boats and barges. He gave up his business in 1927 to go to  work as a mate for the provincial department of public works on the 90-foot, 100 ton Kelowna-  Westbank ferry, which was one of the first government ferries operating in B.C. Three years later  he was promoted to skipper. He piloted lake ferries for 40 years and retired in 1958. The last ferry  he piloted was the Lloyd Jones. He went on to operate the lift span on Okanagan Lake bridge. He  is survived by his wife Alice.  RENNIE, HARRY  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Died in Summerland January 8, 1980 at the age of 90. Came  to Summerland in 1911 from Aberdeenshire, Scotland and worked many years as a logger. Survived by one son, Charlie, of Summerland.  ROSS, MARY HELEN  Residence - White Rock, B.C. Born in England in 1885 and died in White Rock on October  20, 1979. "Nellie B" as she was affectionately called came to Summerland in 1906 where she married George Ross, who had come there in 1908 as the first agent in the C.P.R. office. Survived by  her daughter, Mrs Jack (Helen) Sarles of White Rock.  SHANNON, MARY LOUISE  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Suffield, Quebec on August 10, 1887, died in  Summerland April 22,1980. The Shannons were residents of Garnet Valley in Summerland since  1914 until retiring from their farm. Survived by her husband, Robert, 3 sons, Lloyd, Howard and  Leonard of Summerland.  SHARP, CHARLES L.  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Born in Yorkshire, England. Died in Penticton on May 17, 1980  at the age of 99 years. He came to Penticton in 1918 and started the Star automobile agency,  called Sharp's Garage, on Front Street. Predeceased by his wife, Edna, and daughter Edith  Lambert Sharp, author of the children's book Nkwala. Survived by three sons, David of Vancouver, Richard of Kelowna, and Paul of Penticton.  SHAW, JEAN  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Died in Kelowna on March 6, 1980 at the age of 70. Came to  Summerland in 1912 and completed her schooling there. Survived by three sisters, Mrs. A.  (Marylou) Topham of Peachland, B.C., Mrs. Fred (Shirley) Milligan of Kelowna, and Mrs. Betty  Maiers of Quesnel, and one brother, John Caldwell of Summerland.  SHAYLER, CHARLES  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Born in New Zealand. Died April 8, 1980 in Kelowna. He was a  charter member of the Gyro Club and helped establish radio station CKOV. He was a Canadian  Pacific Railway employee for 49 years. He is survived by his wife Agnes.  SIMARD, HENRY SAMUEL  Residence - Kingfisher and Mabel Lake. Died at Dellview Hospital, Vernon, B.C. on June 1,  1980. He resided in the Kingfisher and Mabel Lake area since 1908. Was an experienced lumberman and riverman, attuned to nature. He was 84 years of age at his passing and is survived by his  wife, the former Martha Antilla, three sons, one daughter, 13 grandchildren, 2 great-grandchildren and two brothers, Wilfred and Adelard of Enderby. 193  SINCLAIR, BEATRICE MARY (MOLLY)  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died on May 31, 1979 at the age of 65 years. Mrs. Sinclair had  lived in Okanagan Falls, B.C. since 1930 and had served as postmistress for 28 years. She is survived by one son, Stuart, one daughter, Valerie, two brothers, Tom Worth and Bill Fraser, one  sister, Nancy MacDonald.  SMITH, JUDGE FRANK  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Judge Frank Smith died on August 14, 1979 in the Vernon Jubilee  Hospital. He came to Vernon with his parents, Franklin and Sarah Smith in 1907 and lived here  since that time. He was appointed City Magistrate in 1938 and was later appointed a provincial  court Judge retiring in 1975. He was noted for his high regard for justice and his devotion to duty.  Besides his wife, Edith, he is survived by his brother, Mervyn, of Haney; a sister, Muriel of  Vernon and other relatives.  SPENCER, THOMAS ALBERT  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Born in Kelowna, B.C. Died in Kelowna, B.C. He was one of the  oldest cowboys in the Valley and a Kelowna native. He was the grandson of the pioneer McKinley  family, after whom McKinley Landing is named.  TEECE, IDA  Residence - Enderby, B.C. Born in England, 1896, died in Enderby, January 15, 1980 at the  age of 84 years. Came to Enderby in 1904 at 12 years of age and except for a brief period at  Surrey after her marriage, had lived in the city ever since. Very active in St. Andrews United  Church both womens' and missionary circles. Survived by her husband Arthur.  THOMPSON, JOHN CRAIG  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Born 1904 at Balamina, Ireland, died in Kelowna January 11,  1980. Known as "Gran'pappy Jackson" and "The Voice of the Okanagan," he started his radio  career in Winnipeg, Man. on CJRC in 1930. He was master of ceremonies of radio network  "Western Broadcasting Bureau" and worked with such people as Lome Greene and Monty Hall.  He joined the Royal Canadian Army Service Corps in 1940 and was captain. He joined Kelowna's  CKOV in 1948. He left CKOV in 1964 to work at Okanagan Stationers where he spent time preparing the Regatta program. He was a member of the Kelowna & District Credit Union from  1968 to 1975, a member of the Royal Canadian Legion Branch 26 and the B.C. Dragoons. He is  survived by his wife Lorraine.  THOMSON, J. S. (JOCK)  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Born November 11, 1890 in Edinburgh, England. Died in 1979  in Kelowna. He came to Benvoulin with his family in 1892. His father pre-empted land in  Okanagan Mission in 1894. The family home was built and it later became the Bellvue Hotel. He  served overseas in the First World War with the Second Canadian Mounted Rifles.  THORLAKSON, JEMIMA DICK  Residence - Lavington and Coldstream, B.C. Died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital on July  10, 1979 at the age of 67 years. She was a long-time resident of the Lavington and Coldstream  districts. She is survived by her husband, Harold; 3 sons, Doug, John and Al of Lavington; 9  grandchildren; brothers: Jack Ewart of Prince Rupert; Alex Ewart and Jim Lonnie of Vancouver;  Derry Ewart of Lavington; her sister Greta Martin of Victoria; a nephew and nieces.  TINGLEY, JANE E. (JENNY)  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in Florenceville, New Brunswick, died in Summerland  December 17, 1979 at the age of 81. A resident of Summerland since 1918, she was a teacher at  MacDonald School for over 30 years. Survived by her husband, Bedford, one daughter Valerie,  three grandsons, one great-granddaughter.  TUCKER, RAYMOND TYRTON  Residence - Kelowna, B.C. Date and place of birth unknown. Died in Kelowna May 27,  1980. He lived in Kelowna for approximately 60 years. He is survived by his wife Elizabeth. 194  TULLOCK, FREDERICK CLARENCE  Residence - Vernon, B.C. A resident of Vernon since 1938, Fred Tullock passed away on  July 12, 1979, at the age of 85 years. He was born in Stirling, Ontario. He enlisted in the First  World War in the 144th Battalion at Winnipeg, and served in the 2nd Canadian Motor Machine  Gun Brigade in France. Following his discharge in 1919, he gradually worked his way across  Canada, and, in the process, became a skilled woodsman, hunter, trapper, and canoeist. In the  20's he was engaged in the large lumber operations of B.C., Spruce Mills at Lumberton, near  Cranbrook. He came to Vernon in 1938, and was involved in the construction of the Vernon  Military Camp in World War II. For several years he served as Secretary-Treasurer of the Local  of the Carpenters' Union. He gave many hours of volunteer labour in the building of First Baptist  Church, both at the former downtown location and at the present site on 32nd Avenue. Always a  lover of books and music, he was a familiar figure in the Library and at Community and  Chamber Music Concerts, and performances of the Symphony Society. He is survived by his wife,  Priscilla, (Nee Matheson), living in Vernon, and by nieces and nephews.  TUTT, MARY ELLEN (NELLIE)  Residence - Glenmore, B.C. Born October 23, 1897 at Ellison, B.C. Died in Kelowna, B.C.  in 1979. Mrs. Tutt was secretary of O.H.S. for many years. She was a Charter Member of Immaculate Conception C.W.L. and Past President of same. She was also a Charter Member of the  Pious X Parish Council. She was predeceased by her husband in 1978.  VALAIR, FRANK  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital on June 3, 1980 at the age of  96 years. Mr. Valair came to Canada in 1903 and worked on the Coldstream Ranch. He entered  the Fuel Supply business in 1923 and has lived in the Vernon area ever since. He and Mrs. Valair  celebrated their 68th wedding anniversary in 1978. He is predeceased by her and survived by five  sons; Franklin, Lionell, Bedfor, Randolph and Lynwood and their families.  WALKER, WILLIAM EDGAR  Residence - Penticton, B.C. Died on May 6, 1980 in Penticton at the age of 73. Born in  Summerland and had lived all his life in the Okanagan. Survived by his loving wife, Florence, two  sons, John of Penticton and Harvie of Vancouver, two daughters, Mrs. Willard (Shelagh) Loewen  of Penticton and Mrs. Jim (Charlotte) McFarland of Victoria.  WARNER, ALICE ISOBEL  Residence - Vernon, B.C. Died in the Vernon Jubilee Hospital on June 18, 1979 at the age of  87 years. She taught school in Vernon for 36 years, was active in the Trinity United Church and  in the Red Cross. She is survived by one sister, Jean Fraser in Ontario, the Mutrie family and  many nieces, nephews, cousins and friends.  WASHINGTON, B. T. (TOM)  Residence - Summerland, B.C. Born in London, England, died in Summerland August 9,  1979 at the age of 77. Came to Summerland in 1907, where he was educated, attending Sum-  merland's first school in Trout Creek. Was in the garage and machine shop business for many  years and was a Government Fruit Inspector. Active in Oddfellows' and Rebeka Lodges. Predeceased by his wife, Nellie, survived by two daughters, Mrs. J. C. McMynn of Midway and Mrs.  R. W. G. Axworthy of Penticton, 8 grandchildren, one sister, Mrs. J. H. Riha, one brother  George of Summerland. 195  BUSINESS AND ACTIVITIES  OF THE OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY  NOTICE  of  ANNUAL MEETING  of the  Okanagan Historical Society  1981  Notice is hereby given that the Annual Meeting  of the Okanagan Historical Society  will be held  11:00 A.M.  SUNDAY, MAY 3, 1981  IN  OLIVER, B.C.  Location to be announced at a later date.  -BUSINESS-  *  Presentation of Reports  * Election of Officers 196  MINUTES OF THE 55th ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF THE  OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY HELD IN THE  OLD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AT ARMSTRONG, B.C.  Sunday, May 4, 1980  President Jack Armstrong called the meeting to order at 11:00 a.m. welcoming all 124 delegates and guests who would enjoy the lunch at 1:00 p.m.  and 60 to participate in the full business session.  A minute of silence was observed in memory of those who had died since  the last Annual Meeting.  1. NOTICE OF CALL was read by the secretary.  The agenda was accepted as circulated.  2. MINUTES OF THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING OF MAY  6, 1979.  Moved by V. Wilson and seconded by R. Robey that the Minutes of the  last A.G.M. be adopted as printed in the Forty-third Report. CARRIED.  3. BUSINESS ARISING FROM THE MINUTES: Nil.  4. CORRESPONDENCE.  A letter was read from the president of the Boundary Historical Society  inviting the members to their annual picnic at the Entwined Trees Park  at Midway, June 15th this year.  5. REPORTS OF OFFICERS.  These will be printed in the Forty-fourth Report.  President   Jack Armstrong  Secretary   Bob Marriage  Treasurer Lee Christensen  Editor   Carol Abernathy  6. REPORTS OF BRANCHES AND SPECIAL COMMITTEES.  These will be printed in the Forty-fourth Report.  Armstrong-Enderby   Bill Whitehead  Vernon  Ron Robey  Kelowna    Walter Anderson  Penticton  Victor Wilson  Oliver-Osoyoos Carlton MacNaughton  Trails Committee Harley Hatfield  Peter Tassie  (read by Ron Robey, Mr. Tassie being unable to attend this meeting)  Pandosy Mission Committee  Paddy Cameron  (read by Hume Powley, Mr. Cameron being unable to attend  this meeting)  Father Pat Books  Victor Wilson will report to the next  Executive meeting on this matter  MOVED by K. Ellison and seconded by H. Weatherill that these reports  be accepted as presented. CARRIED.  Before the lunch break the President acknowledged the hospitality of  the school administration in inviting everyone to inspect this building of  some historical interest. 197  LUNCH INTERMISSION  The buffet lunch catered by the Armstrong Hotel was enjoyed by all  present. At 2:00 p.m. the Society was officially welcomed to the City of  Armstrong by Alderman Bill Whitehead who is also president of the  Armstrong-Enderby branch of the Okanagan Historical Society. The  presentation of a cheque for $150.00 to Dolores Weber of Enderby was  made by President Jack Armstrong. Miss Weber's essay was the prizewinner in this years' contest for school students writing historical articles  and it appeared in the Forty-third Report. Her subject was the Ukrainian settlement at Grindrod. She was unable to be present and the  cheque was accepted on her behalf by her mother Mrs. Irene Weber.  Past President Hume Powley announced the award of life membership  in the Okanagan Historical Society to Mrs. Ruby Lidstone of Enderby,  Mr. Jim Jamieson of Armstrong and Mrs. T. H. Lewis of Osoyoos.  Mrs. Ruth Bosomworth introduced the guest speaker Jim Wardrop of  the Provincial Museum and Archives. His subject was "Donald  Graham," the first reeve of Spallumcheen. The speaker was thanked by  Walter Anderson of Kelowna. When lunch was concluded Bill Whitehead and Jessie Ann Gamble presented Armstrong cheese boards to the  speaker and various other guests. Sixty members remained for the business session.  UNFINISHED BUSINESS.  Mr. Bob Broadland of the Provincial Heritage Conservation Branch explained the operation of the "British Columbia Heritage Trust" and  answered questions regarding historic site designation.  H. Hatfield called attention to the publication "Whisky Jack."  V. Wilson called attention to the self-supporting nature of the Society  and the desirability of maintaining our work without government  grants.  R. Robey called attention to the work of Ian MacLean who is preparing  a history of music in the Okanagan. He can be contacted at C-Kal  Radio 545-9222. His home address is 3707 - 24th Ave., Vernon, B.C.,  phone 542-1623.  NEW BUSINESS.  V. Wilson urged every member to join the Okanagan-Similkameen  Parks Society in support of their effort to preserve the Cascade Wilderness and to attend the Annual Meeting of the B.C.Historical Association  at Princeton on May 30th and 31st. The President suggested all branches make application for membership in O.S.P.S. Mrs. Orr expressed the  hope as many members as possible will attend the Annual Field Day in  Summerland on Sunday, June 8th at 12 Noon.  ELECTION OF OFFICERS OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL.  The following slate was drawn up by the nominating chairman Hume  Powley:  Past President  H. Powley  President  J. Armstrong  First Vice-President  XR. Robey 198  Second Vice-President H. Weatherill  Secretary  R. Marriage  Treasurer L. Christensen  Directors at large: G. D. Cameron, H. Hatfield  Branch Directors to the Parent Body:  Armstrong-Enderby: J. A. Gamble, R. Nitchie  Vernon: K. Ellison, P. Tassie  Kelowna: D. Buckland, F. Pells  Penticton: M. Orr, B. Broderick  Oliver-Osoyoos: D. Corbishley, H. Weatherill  Editor: Carol Abernathy - to be appointed by the Executive Council  MOVED by W. Whitehead and seconded by R. Robey that the slate of  officers be elected by acclamation. CARRIED.  10. PARENT BODY EDITORIAL COMMITTEE  Elected as chairmen of Branch editorial committees:  D. Waterman, D. MacDonald, M. Wostradowski, B. Gorman, and R.  Lidstone.  11. ELECTION OF AUDITOR.  MOVED by K. Ellison and seconded by S. Land that Mr. Fred McKenzie of Lett, Trickey and Co. be appointed auditor. CARRIED.  12. COMPLIMENTARY RESOLUTIONS.  MOVED by L. Christensen and seconded by V. Wilson that a letter of  appreciation be sent to Mr. Fred McKenzie. CARRIED.  MOVED by C. MacNaughton and seconded by M. Broderick that the  Armstrong-Enderby Branch be thanked for hosting the A.G.M. CARRIED.  MOVED by M. Orr and seconded by H. Powley that letters of application be sent to the media. CARRIED.  13. SETTING DATE AND PLACE OF NEXT ANNUAL GENERAL  MEETING.  MOVED by H. Powley and seconded by D. Buckland that the invitation  from the Oliver-Osoyoos Branch to host the next A.G.M. in Oliver be  accepted. CARRIED.  14. ADJOURNMENT  MOVED by J. Sutherland at 4:15 p.m.  R. F. Marriage  Secretary 199  PRESIDENT'S REPORT TO THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  MAY 4, 1980 - ARMSTRONG, B.C.  I am happy to report another successful year for the Okanagan Historical  Society as will be indicated by the various reports to follow. It has been a very  interesting year for me for my first in the chair, and it was not without its anxious moments. For starters, our Secretary of many years' faithful service, Mrs.  Dorothy Zoellner, had a change in her vocation and found it too difficult to  carry on. I would like to express the appreciation of the Society for her work  and I personally thank her for the assistance she gave me. Fortunately, Mr.  Bob Marriage came forward and volunteered to take on the job of Secretary  for the Okanagan Historical Society. One does not take over as Secretary overnight and Bob has coped very nicely. I do appreciate his assistance too. Our  Treasurer, Mr. Lee Christensen, who was elected on a pro-tem basis, kindly  agreed to take the job as full time Treasurer for me. His assistance has been  invaluable and I have no concern about leaving the financial matters of the  Society in his capable hands. Our Editor, Miss Carol Abernathy, has successfully launched her first Report, as you will already have noted.  I would also like to express my appreciation to Mr. Victor Wilson for his  guidance and assistance, whenever I had a problem, and particularly as Production Manager for our publishing business.  The last Annual Meeting was held on May 6th and hosted in Vernon by  the Vernon Branch. Executive Meetings were held in Kelowna on July 29,  1979, November 18, 1979 and March 16, 1980. As the business of the Society  is getting larger, I felt it necessary to hold an extra meeting of the Executive  Council, and it proved worthwhile. Increasing sales of Reports continually  raise the question of reprints, and the last report of our Treasurer indicates  that we have only nine issues of the Reports on which our stock exceeds one  hundred copies and only five issues where stock exceeds five hundred copies  each, two of these being reprints of No. 11 and No. 12. Stocks of the Last  Report #43, are only seven hundred and sixty-five of a total print of two thousand, five hundred copies. So you see our Reports ar being widely and eagerly  taken up.  I attended meetings of the Vernon, Penticton and Armstrong-Enderby  Branches but, unfortunately, pressures of other activities prevented me from  attending Kelowna and Oliver-Osoyoos. I attended the Field Day at Nahun,  sponsored by the Penticton Branch, which was a most interesting and well attended event.  Last year and again this spring we have printed information circulars  with detailed maps of the Cascade Wilderness Trails for tourist distribution to  aid our Trails Committee.  You will see from the comprehensive reports of the Branches and Special  Committees that your Society is widely active and showing continued growth.  In closing, I would like to point out that this is your Society, it is not in  any way a one man show, and its growth and future success depends on the  contribution, in our own way, of each and every one of us.  Respectfully submitted,  Jack Armstrong 200  REPORT OF THE SECRETARY TO THE OKANAGAN  HISTORICAL SOCIETY ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  MAY 4, 1980 - ARMSTRONG, B.C.  When I assumed the duties of secretary in July of 1979 all routine business had been completed. The Minutes of the 1979 Annual Meeting and the  reports of Officers, Committees and Branches had been submitted to the  Editor and you will find these items commencing at page 178 of the Forty-  third Report. For this work I must thank my predecessor Dorothy Zoellner.  Since the 29th of July last year Minutes of three Executive Meetings have  been circulated. A news release is sent to all the media in the Valley after each  of these meetings. Routine correspondence has been conducted.  My new acquaintance with various officers and members has been most  enjoyable and I look forward to further association with them and others in  the Society.  Respectfully submitted,  R. F. Marriage  EDITOR'S REPORT TO THE ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING  OF THE OKANAGAN HISTORICAL SOCIETY  MAY 4, 1980,- ARMSTRONG, B.C.  It is my pleasant duty to report to you that the Forty-third Report of the  Okanagan Historical Society is now a reality and has been since November  last. With the exception of a few minor errors of which I am constantly being  reminded, I think that we can consider this report quite a success. Once again  we have been favoured with more than our share of well-written, informative  articles to add to the annals of Okanagan history. A long-time Okanagan resident and photographer, Mr. Hugo Redivo kindly supplied us with the attractive photograph which graces the cover of the Report.  For the first time this year's printing was two thousand, five hundred  volumes and sales have never been better, including copies to the Ministry of  Education. I think that we can, collectively, give ourselves a pat on the back.  But time marches on and the deadline for submissions to the Forty-fourth  Report fast approaches. I am often asked by people who have just heard of  forty-three reports — what on earth is there left to write about? I trust that I  needn't instruct the people in this building on that count. You would be  amazed at how many of our members know just the story which we need to  make our Reports immortal. You would be even more surprised at their  modesty when asked to write that same story. It's still not too late. There is a  moral here.  Respectfully submitted,  Carol Abernathy 201  OLIVER-OSOYOOS BRANCH  President's Report, 1979-80  Another year has gone by and our branch continues in business with our  largest membership on record — sixty-one.  Report sales were good; executive and general meetings were well attended. Robert Iverson, on early day logging, was our guest speaker at our  annual meeting.  Our joint outing with the Boundary Historical Society was most interesting and we will be repeating the event this year on June 15th. Our own annual picnic will again be held at Tamarack on June 22nd. We expect to have  a morning service at 11:00 a.m. and an interesting afternoon program. It  seems a popular event and place and everyone is invited to attend.  Fairview Days turned into a real success and with changes, will be repeated this year. We are delighted that Oliver has now its own Heritage  group. They have been awarded the old Provincial Police quarters and Court  House at Oliver for a museum building and are a very active group. They are  bringing the old Fairview jail down from Fairview townsite and putting it beside the new building. We will be working closely with this new group.  All our enlarged old time pictures have been presented to the Heritage  group on an indefinite loan basis and we have given them $246.00 as a gift.  The Branch executive are all willing workers but special mention must go to  our hard-working secretary Mrs. H. Lewis and our capable treasurer Mrs. W.  Iceton. They are worthy of honourable mention.  My thanks to Don Corbishley for filling in for me at last year's annual  meeting. My thanks also to Dolly Waterman, our editorial representative.  Ivan Hunter continues to tape our old timers and guest speakers. We are  indebted to Mrs. Alice Evans of Midway for a splendid program last fall.  The Oliver-Osoyoos Branch now officially invites the Okanagan Historical Society to come to Oliver for the Annual Meeting in 1981. Time and place  to be arranged. My thanks to everyone in the Branch for a reasonably good  year.  Respectfully submitted,  Carlton MacNaughton  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE  May 4, 1980  Herewith a short list of some of the happenings in connection with the  Okanagan Brigade Trail and the historic trails in the Cascade Wilderness adjoining Manning Park to the northwest. In between and continuously from  1967 to date many people from many organizations of both Interior and  Coast have explored, marked and cleared on the trails, have made numerous  maps, have spoken to meetngs up and down the Okanagan and Fraser Valley  and elsewhere, have written articles for papers and magazines and sent in  many lettes to Ministers of the Provincial Government supporting the efforts 202  to preerve the historic trails. Mr. Peter Tassie who for several years has  headed the work in the north part of the Okanagan and toward Kamloops  will I hope have something to add on that.  We have met with neither complete success nor complete defeat. There is  still hope that continued effort may succeed.  1972 - Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society put in first brief re Manning Park Extension (Cascade Wilderness). Parks Branch made Report to  Hon. Sam Bawlf (not published).  1974 - Forest Branch agreed to corridor protection for Brigade Trail,  over Manson Ridge and into the Sowaqua.  1976 - O.S.P.S. present a second brief to the government, as the first.  1977 - Outdoor Recreation Council of B.C. recommend it to be made  Class A Park. O.S.P.S. put out "Old Pack Trails" booklet. Parks Branch  almost complete clearing Brigade Trail. Guide, Pat Wright, takes horses  through, first in many years. Victor Wilson talks to Sierra Club in Vancouver.  Vancouver Natural History Club camp in Paradise Valley. Brigade goes  through and joins Brigade Days in Hope.  1978 -Junior Forest Wardens go over Brigade Trail. B.C. Dragoons go  over Brigade Trail. H. W. (Bill) Johnston takes on O.S.P.S. Trails and  Wilderness Committee.  1978-80 - Program of signing trails and trail heads, Parks Branch, Dept.  of Highways, O.S.P.S.  1979 - O.S.P.S. has program of trail clearing and marking with Young  Canada Works corridor protection for Blackeye's-Brigade-Whatcom Trail  near Tulameen requested by O.S.P.S. Logging rights applied for covering  Snass basin and Paradise Valley. Delegation from Federation of Naturalists of  B.C., Okanagan Similkameen Parks Society and Okanagan Historical Society  meet with the Environment and Land Use Committee, ask for complete review and Report by the ELUC. Secretariat, some Report has been made but  not released, some answers promised but not received.  1979-80 - Tourist information sheet on trails put out by Okanagan Historical Society and distributed to information centres in Okanagan.  1980 - Victor and I spoke to Nicola Valley Archives Association and are  to speak to B.C. Historical Association. O.S.P.S. is mounting an enlarged  and widespread publicity campaign with the financial support of several  Okanagan Historical Society branches.  1979 - On the Okanagan Brigade Trail the Dept. of Highways went to a  lot of trouble to save the Mauvais Rocher section at Nahun.  1980 - The Central Okanagan Regional District expressed interest in the  Okanagan Brigade to John Gibson and Okanagan Historical Society has asked them to get Trail declared a Heritage Site as suggested by Peter Tassie.  Respectfully submitted,  H. R. Hatfield 203  REPORT OF THE TRAILS COMMITTEE - VERNON BRANCH  May 4, 1980  The committee has not carried out any additional exploration in 1980 as  they consider that all the significant portions of the trail from Kelowna north  have been located. We hope that the Society will continue to press for preservation of those sections of the trail mentioned in the 1979 report of this  committee.  During the past year some members have expressd interest in a field day  to go over those parts of the trail that are visible from north of the old Ferry  landing opposite Kelowna. I would be pleased to work with the Society on this  outing, and suggest that members should be prepared for some walking as the  trail is not always close to the road. The logical conclusion of this outing  would be at the old cabin near Westwold marked by a cairn and plaque.  Mr. Ken Favrholdt, the Assistant Archivist of the Kamloops Museum  and Archives, wrote to me about a week ago regarding extending our acti  vities toward Kamloops from Westwold. We will be pleased to meet with him  and supply any information that would assist in locating the trail.  Respectfully submitted,  Peter Tassie  REPORT OF THE PANDOSY M