Kinesis

Kinesis Feb 1, 1983

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 VMJiDg  1 Five people face a series  of charges in connection  with the firebombing of  three Red Hot Video  outlets and the destruction  of a B.C. Hydro station.  What are their chances for  a fair trial?  5 Mary Woo Simms talks  with an officer of the B.C.  Human , Rights Branch  about how to file a human  rights complaint.  6 Sociobiologists are using questionable theories  to undermine a feminist  analysis of rape. Anne  Vezina attended a controversial lecture at SFU  where two sociobiologists  put forward their position.  7 Thousands of women  converged on Greenham  Common in England last  month to continue the all-  woman protest against the  installation of U.S. cruise  missiles in the upcoming  year. Karen Lacombe and  Rosemarie Rupps give us  the story.  9 Beverly Yaworski has  been struggling for more  than two years against  Army and Navy's discriminatory pay scale. Her complaint is still sitting on the  Minister's desk.  12 Women in sports are  organizing nation-wide to  promote opportunities for  women in athletics and to  encourage feminists to  recognize sports as an  issue. Emma Kivisild looks  at their aims in the first of  a series of articles on  women and sports.  13 Maureen Moore provides a feminist analysis  of the latest box office  block buster — Tootsie.  COVER: The number of women getting abnormal pap test  results is steadily increasing. This month Robin Barnett  and Rebecca Fox explain the basics of a pap smear,  causes leading to an abnormal result, and some alternative treatments in a special supplement for Kinesis.  SUBSCRIBE TO KIMESiS  Published 10 times a year  by Vancouver Status of Women  400A West 5th Ave., Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8  □ VSW membership - includes Kinesis subscription -  $20 (or what you can afford)  □ Kinesis subscription only - $13  □ Institutions - $40  □ Sustainers - $75  Name_  Address_  Phone   .Amount Enclosed.  Please remember that VSW operates on inadequate  funding — we need member support!  February '83    a rcuiuaiy    o<a  KINESIS  news about women that's not in the dailies  Anti-nuclear Women in Britain  all woman action  at Greenham Common  Nuclear Site  i  Filing a Complaint  With the Human  Rights Branch  an interview with  Gillian "MacGregor  Spiderwoman  outrageous  feminist  theatre from  New York  Cuf* uU\tf  A Feminist Approach "f"  to Understanding Abnormal Pap Tests , KMEJIJ   33 ' '^ S Anti-pornography organizing  VRCfiTS as boosted by police raids  OFF  U0hBH'5  si  by Emma Kivisild  Anti-pornography organizing  was given a boost to start off  the new year when twelve video  outlets across the province  (nine of them operated by Red  Hot Video) were raided by the  police January 7. Hundreds of  tapes were seized in the raid,  however only one outlet has  been formally charged.  Police also raided the home of  Peter Struk and confiscated  his entire stock of 5,000 recorded and blank videotapes.  They did not remove the electronic video equipment, although they photographed  Struk's 21 recorder machines.  Both raids followed Mark  Robert's voluntary action in  early December. The owner of  Pacific Video Ltd. in Richmond,  turned over his entire collection of 60 pornographic video  tapes to representatives of  the B.C. Federation of Women.  The struggle against Red Hot  Video, which began early last  a   summer, intensified after a  o group calling itself the  t Wimmin's Fire Brigade claimed  | responsibility for firebombing  £  three Red Hot Video outlets in  | late November. This action,  o. combined with mounting public  pressure against the video  porn industry, has sparked unprecedented public debate in  the community at large.  Women organizing against pornography managed to keep up a  steady and visible pressure on  ' both the authorities and the  operators of video porn outlets  throughout December. Early that  month representatives from the  B.C. Federation of Women (BCFW)  held a press conference where  they screened several contentious porn tapes from Red Hot's  inventory for members of the  local media. This was followed  by a highly successful mass  picket of all eleven Red Hot  Video outlets in B.C. More  than 700 people picketed in the  lower mainland alone. A Vancouver group calling themselves  People Against Pornography began circulating a petition  against Red Hot Video, which  they intend to send to Attorney  General Allan Williams, requesting he take immediate  action against B.C.'s video  porn industry.  Equally important is the work  women have been doing to combat the backlash and misinformation communicated in the  commercial media.. Several  women have appeared on local  Is it a trial by the media?  Five lower mainland residents were charged  mid-January with the recent firebombings of  three Red Hot Video outlets "and last June's  dynamiting of the Cheekeye-Dunsmuir hydro  substation. Will they get a fair trial?  A dramatic arrest, inflammatory news coverage and questionable regard for due process  indicate the chances are slim. Legally,  Juliet Belmas, Gerald Hannah, Ann Hansen,  Doug Stewart and Brent Taylor are innocent.  Although it is a fundamental tenet of Canadian law that anyone charged is innocent  until proven guilty, the commercial media  appears to have rendered its verdict "guilty"  before a single shred of evidence has even  been laid before the courts.  If we take the media's description of the  events thus far we are led to believe the  police have apprehended a "terrorist",  "extremist" "anarchist cell" with possible  national and international connections.  In fact, the arrested five are individuals  from the Vancouver community who have been  active in respectable pro-peace and anti-  nuclear organizing efforts in this city.  It is this fact that brought about 150 so-  called "friends and supporters" of the  accused to the initial court appearance on  January 26. While several of the people in  attendance were clearly connected to the  five through familial and friendship ties,  a majority were there because of the political implications generated by the impending  trial as well as concern that the five  prisoners be treated fairly by the police,  the media and the courts.  The degree to which the media has invaded  the privacy of the accused and the sensationalist style of reporting generally, has  appalled, most observers from Vancouver's  alternative community. Over-zealous reporters have not only dug through the personal  belongings (even the garbage) of the prisoners, they have also stooped to reading Juliet Belmas' personal poetry on television.  Everything, it seems, is to be considered  evidence by members of the local media.  However, at press time no evidence had been  given to defense counsel linking the five  accused to the impressive arsenal of explosives and firearms that have figured so  prominently in the press. It is this fact  that has particularly enraged the defense  lawyers who fear it may be impossible to  find an impartial jury.  At press time, the defense counsel had no  information from the crown on what exactly  the case for the prosecution will be, and in  fact Stan Guenther, defense for Hansen and  Taylor, says that he has had no real opportunity to sit down and discuss the case with  his clients.  On the way out of the courtroom on Jan. 26 a  radio reporter gave Judy Gedye, defense for  Juliet Belmas, a three-page press release  that contained the most information she said  she-had received to date on the prosecutor's  case.  The actions of the media and the prosecution  are not the only problems to have surfaced  in the investigation thus far. Problems of  police harrassment in the interrogation  cells of the city jail prompted defense  counsel to request that the court remand  the two women to Lakeside and the three men  to.Oakalla where they could not be subjected  to interrogation by the local or Toronto  police.    _.   ,        "  contxnued on page 3  talk shows to present the  anti-pornography arguments to  the general public.  At the same time Red Hot Video  stepped up its own defense by  changing the names of three of  its outlets in Burnaby, Richmond and Langley. In December  they also published a pamphlet  denouncing the actions of anti-  porn organizers and putting  forward their 'free speech'  argument.  Port Coquitlam and Prince  George outlets have both bowed  to public pressure, closing  down their operations completely and Vancouver's west end  outlet had its lease cancelled  for January 31.  Certainly women view these  incidents as victories, but  they are by no means complete.  It is dispapointing that only  one store has been formally  charged (the trial is set for  February 3) and B.C. Ombudsman  Karl Friedmann has refused to  investigate further complaints  against the Attorney General,  launched by a coalition of 45  women's groups in the province.  It is obvious as well that the  pornography issue is a more  complicated and overwhelming  problem than police raids on  twelve stores and one distributor can solve. The irony of  the situation was evident in  the classic Vancouver Sun  photo of two policemen posing  with the raided tapes, a  calendar pin-up on the wall  behind them.  Abnormal Paps?  If you are not one of the  women who have recently received an abnormal pap test  result;  no doubt you know  someone who has.  The number  of women getting abnormal pap  test results is steadily  increasing.  This month KINESIS has included a twelve-page special  supplement on the issue.  Written and researched by  Robin Barnett and Rebecca  Fox,  the supplement contains  information on the medical  specifics related'to pap  tests,   the controversy regarding the causes for such  a high number of abnormal  results, and the options  available for treatment.  We urge you to read the  information provided here and  to follow it up yourself  wherever possible.  Too many  women are facing the fear of  cervical cancer,  and possible-  surgery without "knowing the  full range of options open  to them. MOVEMENT MATTERS  International  Women's Day  The first organized women's day took  place in the United States on February  27, 1909. Women held meetings across the  country and 3,000 women met in New York  City under the yellow flag of U.S. feminism. The issue was women's suffrage.  The following year the theme for the  Second International Congress of Socialist Women in Copenhagen, Denmark was "the  vote for women will unite our strength in  the struggle for socialism." A proposal  was made at the Congress to declare March  8 International Women|s Day in order to  help win suffrage for women.  March 8 was chosen because it was on that  day that women in the New York city  garment industry had come out on strike  in 1908, demanding an end to dangerous  and discriminatory sweatshop conditions.  It soon became apparent that the right to  vote wasn't the only major concern for  women. In 1913 women in Czarist Russia  celebrated the date even though it was  forbidden to hold meetings. Four years  later, on February 23, women textile •  workers poured into the streets demanding  bread. They went on strike against the  advice of all organized political groups,  including the Bolsheviks, who expected the  police and troops to be called out, and  feared bloodshed. By the end of the day  there were 90,000 men and women demonstrating against the shortage of food and  against high prices. Since then, an underlying theme of International Women's  Day has always been "Bread and Roses".  The overriding theme of this year's IWD  in Vancouver is something most people  KINESIS  KINESIS is published ten times a  year by Vancouver Status of Women.  Its objectives are to enhance  understanding about the changing  position of women in society and  work actively towards achieving  social change.  VIEWS EXPRESSED IN KINESIS are  those of the writer and do not  necessarily reflect VSW policy. All  unsigned material is the responsibility of the Kinesis editorial group.  CORRESPONDENCE: Kinesis, Vancouver Status of Women, 400A West  5th Avenue, Vancouver, B.C. V5Y 1J8.  MEMBERSHIP in Vancouver Status  of Women is $20/year (or what you  can afford). This includes a subscription to Kinesis. Individual subscriptions to Kirfe'sis are $13/year.  SUBMISSIONS are welcome. We  reserve the right to edit, and submission does not guarantee publication..  WORKERS THIS ISSUE: Jean Bennett, Janet  Berry, Jan de Grass. Janet Duckworth, Cole  Dudley, Patty Gibson, Kim Hicks, Nicky  Hood, Emma Kivisild, Barbara Kuhne, Debra  Lewis, Claudia McDonald, Janet Morgan.  Rachel Rocco, Rosemarie Rupps, Michele  Wollstonecroft, and thanks to Robin,  Dorothy and Marge at Makara.  DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: February 15  for March 1 publication. All copy must be  typewritten and double spaced.  can relate to—"hard times", more  importantly,   the fact  that we won't let  hard times stop us. Women account for  over 60% of  the unemployed and the axe  of the 6 and 5 restraint program has  - fallen on the public  sector where the  majority of workers are women.  We have a specific concern and a need  to make our voices public.  Violence  against women and children is not on the  decline as  the public has often been  led to believe. We must channel our  frustrations and anger into positive and  visible action this International Women's  Day in order to display the unified  strength of the women's movement.  As well as voicing a political statement,  this year's  IWD will be a celebratory  occasion.  On March 5 a march will begin  at Victory Square with balloons.buttons,  many placards and a multitude of smiling  faces.  Ending at Robson Square,  there  will be a rally with speakers  from such  organizations  as  SORWUC,   the First  United Church,  North Shore Women's Centre  and a Guatamalan group,  plus lots of  exciting music.  The rally promises to be  more of a show this year with short  speaks on pertinent issues.  Don't make  other plans for the evening because there  is going to be a dance for both women  and men.  An information day will be held on  Sunday March 6 with workshops on violence,  sexuality,   imperialism,  health and  economics.  There will also be many cultural events including films,   skits,  a play,  music,   clowns and an opportunity  for people to participate in the creation  of a mural drawing.  On Tuesday March 8  there will be a Women  only dance  to  celebrate  the actual  calendar day of  IWD.  Last year about  800 people marched  through the streets of Vancouver on IWD.  The issues are still the same, but we're  getting stronger.  For more information  on IWD watch for the posters around  town.   The next B.C.  meeting of the Canadian  Association for the Advancement of Women  and Sport   (CAAW&S)   is on February  15,  7 p.m.  at the Britannia Centre.  For more information about CAAW&S,  call  the office,  687-3333 local 266   ,  or drop  by,   3rd floor,  Sport B.C., 1200 Hornby St.  Vancouver V6Z  2E2.  ^/sga*  Makara  calls for support  For seven years Makara has operated as a  feminist collective, working to provide  graphic services at a reasonable cost.  Our operations were oriented towards the  progressive community and our ideals towards feminism and the co-operative move-  . ment.  But now the Makara beast is in trouble.  The economic crisis has cut publicity  budgets right and left, in straight business as well as the progressive community.  We are feeling the repercussions severely  and, after a long period of searching for  alternatives, must close our doors.  Faced with this conclusion we are asking  for help. First: don't stop bringing us  work. We may move to less expensive premises but still will try to maintain some  of our services. We have some'large and  expensive equipment and, until it is sold,  we hope to use it for additional income.  Next, the equipment: we will be selling  our line camera, a Clydesdale,, and our  typesetter, a Compugraphic 7400 with  fonts. Both of these major items must be  sold to cover our debts. If we could sell  them to someone in the progressive  community, we would be very pleased.  We are also selling a lot of smaller  equipment at a graphics garage sale this  month, Friday, February 18th from 11 am  to 7 pm. Also, Saturday, February 19th  from, 10 am to 4 pm. We will be selling  everything from drafting tables to technical pens and funky old desks.  Lastly, we are looking for advice and  support. We need-to find ways of raising  money. We are thinking of holding a  benefit and would welcome any suggestions  or assistance that you might be able to  give us.  Makara has always had a lot of support  from the community and we hope that this  support will continue as we wind down.  The Makara 'Collective  LEGAL RESEARCHER:  full-time, permanent  job. Vancouver Status of Women needs a  worker to do research and analysis of  .legislation, to co-ordinate VSW's feminist  lawyer referral service and to do organizing, educational and media work on legal  issues.  PROGRAM WORKER: (temporary, half-time  job until Sept. 1, 1983) Vancouver Status  of Women also needs a worker to job-share  with the current program worker. The work  will include organizing feminist discussion series, a speaker's bureau and other  programs for women.  Both jobs include participation in VSW  collective activities. Application deadline is February 15. February '83 ' Kinesis   3*  ACROSS B.C.  B.C. Disabled  contests federal  human rights bill  The B.C. Coalition of Disabled has joined  40 other provincial organizations in protesting an amendment to the Canadian Human-  Rights Act which would allow employers to  refuse to hire anyone "likely to behave  in an unduly disruptive l  The contentious amendment is part of a  federal bill intended to increase protection for the disabled in the federal  Human Rights Act. The B.C. coalition is  demanding the amendment be withdrawn because of the ambiguous nature of the  wording. The bill containing the amendment has already received second reading  from the House of Commons.  The coalition believes "unduly disruptive  behaviour" is a term that will allow  employers to discriminate against the disabled on a purely subjective basis.  (The Province)  Woman wins  suit against boss  A B.C. woman said she had won a victory  for all women who work aboard fishboats  when the B.C. Supreme Court awarded her -  $8,000 for damages sustained in a beating  by her vessel's captain.  Laura Tremblay was struck six times on the  head when she refused an order from Paul  Moscher to go to bed so that she could get  up in the morning and cook breakfast. The  violence was in part sparked by Tremblay's  questioning of one of the captain's  decisions earlier in the day. Moscher has  refused to pay the damages, saying he  would rather go to jail.  Tremblay is pleased with the court's decision. "It feels good," she said. "It's a  thing that happens all the time and that's  been happening for a number of years. It's  a rare thing for a woman to defend herself  like this." (Vancouver Sun)  Midwifery Conference  The Midwives Association of British Columbia  is holding a conference on midwifery  February 18 to February 20, 1983.  Midwifery 1983: 2nd Labour of Love Conferenc  has invited several guest speakers, including Doris Haire (author of Cultural Warping  of Childbirth) and Elizabeth Davis• (author  of Heart and Hands: A Guide to Midwifery.  The conference will be held at the Hotel  Vancouver at a cost of $150 per delegate.  More information can he obtained by contacting the Association at 1053 Douglas Cres.,  Vancouver, or calling 261-9471.  Education report  reveals layoffs  In December, the B.C. Teachers Federation,  who have been battling all fall with  Education Minister Bill VanderZalm, found  more bad news in a recently uncovered  internal education ministry report.  VanderZalm's restraint program has  already met criticism because of the consequent freeze on salaries for teachers,  reduction in special education services,  and probable changes in curriculum. The  internal report, dated November 9, says  that hundreds of teachers and school  employees (many of whom are women) will  be la'id off next year—even if there are  no salary increases, no reductions in  school districts' budgets, and no inflation.  Figures also reveal that a modest 3.5%  increase over this year's budget to allow  for inflation and a salary increase next  year would result in 3197 layoffs by  September.  VanderZalm refused to accept the report's  conclusions, counting on "co-operation"  of school boards, teachers and the  provincial government, including forgoing  wage increases, amalgamating school  districts, and evaluating programs in  light of current economic conditions.  Victory won  in Castlegar  Students, parents and teachers in the  Kootenays achieved a great victory late  last year when the Castlegar school board  rescinded all termination and layoff  notices proposed as a result of Bill  VanderZalm's education cutbacks.  The Castlegar school board originally  preferred to lose staff and programs  rather than equipment, travel allowances  for board members, the car for its'  secretary-treasurer and maintenance  allowances.  The Castlegar District Teacher's Association went through a consciousness-raising  experience in uniting for a long overdue  arrests  continued from page 1  Some people fear that the high profile investigation surrounding this arrest will  intimidate either the anti-nuclear or anti-  pornography organizing efforts being carried  out in B.C. At a time when American cruise  missiles are being deployed thoughout the  Western world and pornography has made an  inroad into regular television programming,  this remains to be seen.  No autonomous support committee has been  formed in the community in order that the  legal defense not be jeopardized. Bail, if  any, will be set at a court hearing February  21, 2 pm, at 222 Main Street.  satisfactory contract settlement. They  proceeded to vote unanimously to support  colleagues who had received termination  notices. They were able to work from this  point of strength to inform the public  of the issues and to encourage the board  to reconsider their decision. And they  won.   (Images)  Nelson women  face relocation  Sixty-five women in Nelson, B.C. face relocation or the prospect of losing their  jobs as a result of the B.C. Telephone  Company's elimination of operators in a  conversion to "Orplus dialing." The loss of  jobs is both a blow to the local economy  and to a major source of employment for  women in the area. Nelson was the centre  for all long-distance dialing in the West  Kootenays.  In February of last year, the Telecommunications Workers Union (TWU) negotiated an  agreement specifically addressing the  Nelson office closure. B.C. Tel agreed that  laid off operators with two years service  would get the first crack at any local  vacancies.  Since March 1982, however, all job postings  have been frozen, so the agreement carries  little weight. Any remaining operator jobs  will be moving to Kelowna, Kamloops and  Cranbrook.  While the TWU copes with the layoffs,  another problem has arisen. When B.C.  Tel lost its monopoly on phone equipment,  it split the sales and marketing division  from B.C. Tel, to form a new division. The  fate of business account representatives in  the Nelson office is now in question.  Labour studies  program threatened  The only college program that provides  education for workers in B.C. will be  eliminated this month unless immediate  widespread support is forthcoming.  The Capilano College Labour Studies Programme (LSP) was advised in early January  by the College that funding cutbacks necessitate the elimination of credit  courses offered by the program. This  means an end to inexpensive evening and  weekend courses aimed at workers in areas  like Labour Economics, Labour History and  Unemployment Insurance Procedures. A  unique aspect of the program is a women  only course that empowers women in unions  by teaching them specific leadership  skills.  All courses can be used for university credit, regardless of previous  educational background.  The LSP has been enormously successful,  serving 7,000 students to date, yet it  bears the brunt of the Capilano College  cuts.  In the final analysis, the college  administration is suggesting that labour  education is expendable, while other arts  programs, science programs, and even business programs are not.  Immediate support is imperative. Write a  letter declaring your opposition to the  cutbacks to:  Mrs. Hilda Rizun, Chairperson of the Board  Dr. Paul Gallagher, Principal  Capilano College  2055 Purcell Way  North Vancouver, B.C. V7J 3H5  Send a copy to Marlene Hill, Chair of the  Advisory Committee to the LSP at the same  address.  Public interest in the March programs will  also help.  Call 986-1911 local 430, and  >  ask for the LSP brochure. Kinesis   February '83  ACROSS CANADA  NFB's Studio D  threatened by  Applebaum report  by Karen McKinnon  Studio D, of the National Film Board, is  the only publicly-funded, women-run  centre for women filmmakers in Canada.  It has produced such highly acclaimed  films as "Not a Love Story", "I'll Find  a Way" and "Patricia's Moving Pictures".  It provides technical support to independent women filmmakers, and has employed  free lancers for productions like "Lady  From Grey County" and "If You Love This  Planet". It plays an essential role in  portraying women in film from a non-  derogative, non-sexist feminist perspective, and provides a place where a woman  can try out her art.  Now, less than a decade since its inception, Studio D may well become Studio D  as in demise.  Enter the Federal Cultural Policy Review  Committee. More familiarly known as the  Applebaum/Hebert or Applebert Committee  (after its chairman, Louis Applebaum, and  co-chairman, Jacques Hebert, it was established in August 1980 with a mandate "to  review Canadian cultural institutions and  cultural policy."  Taking blank slate to road, the committee  amassed over 1,300 briefs and listened to  hundreds of hours of public hearings,-  each presentation somehow relating to an  amorphous infrastructure of the arts.  Inevitable (some two years later) a 406  page distillation concerned with two basic  issues, American cultural hegemony, and  federal government parsimony, was published. The report, complete of course  with 101 recommendations, was submitted to  Francis Fox in November 1982 and is presently under review by another political  commission for ultimate implementation or  rejection by parliament.  In its beginning pages the"report does  acknowledge women, "We should like to draw  special attention to the'fact that the  present inequitable access of women to all  levels of responsibility and activity in  the cultural sector deprives Canadian  society as a whole of a vital dimension  of human and artistic experience."  It does not go on to recommend that this  situation be changed. Instead, it recommends that the National Film Board, Studio  D's base, be reduced to a training and  research centre. And, that its present  responsibilities to the film and video  market be met by independet filmmakers.  Does this mean that non-profit films such  as "Love, Honoured and Bruised", "Working  Mothers", and "P4W" (Kingston Prison for  Women) will continue to be produced and  that such films will continue to be made  available to non-influential audiences?  At a time when women filmmakers are treading in a morass of hard-core pornography  videotapes, at a time when our. one women's  film facility deserves greater funding to  meet the information needs of women today,  the same decision-makers who, with the  stroke of a pen, may obliterate Studio D,  may also be welcoming pay-TV's First  Choice "Playboy" station to our homes.  Kathleen Shannon, executive producer of  Studio D comments, "It is not easy being  a feminist group in a patriarchal industry."  Studio D needs your support. Let the  government know we need Studio D. Write  to: Honourable Francis Fox, Dept. ot  Communications, Journal Tower, North Bldg.  300 Slater St., Ottawa, K1A 0C8.  It would help to send copies to: Right  Honourable Pierre Trudeau, Prime Ministers  Office, Ottawa KlA 0A2 and The Honourable  Judy Erola, Minister Responsible for the  Status of Women, Confederation Bldg.,  House of Commons, Ottawa KlA 0A6, and to  your member of parliament.  Also, and very important, send a copy to  Studio D. If for lack of time or funds,  you can't make copies, send your letter to  Studio D, who will gladly do them for  you: Studio D, P-43, P.O. Box 6100,  Montreal, Quebec. H3C 3H5.  Moncton reopens  choice on abortion  A six month moratorium on abortions will  end in 1983 at the Moncton Hospital in  Moncton, New Brunswick. The announcement  came from Dr. R. Caddick, a spokesman for  the gynecologists at the hospital in a  December news conference.  The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Moncton,  Donat Chiasson, said the hospital's doctors used results from a poll which he believed had been taken before the issue  "peaked" in Moncton. He partly attributed  the anti-abortionist defeat to the "inconspicuous" placement of an advertisement,  containing names of opponents to abortion,  in five daily newspapers in New Brunswick.  This advertisement claimed to have gathered 33,000 names. It has been noted, however, that most of the doctors' names  listed on the front page of the ad ( a  newspaper supplement) are from the largely  French Catholic north-east-sector of New  Brunswick. Most of New Brunswick's population is concentrated in the southern  part of the province, and only about one-  quarter of the names were from that area.  Gloria Nielsen, speaking for the Moncton  Committee for the Retention of Abortion  Rights, and Rosella Melanson, a spokesperson for the New Brunswick Advisory  Council on the Status of Women, were  pleased with the Moncton Hospital stand.  According to an article in Fredericton's  Daily Gleaner (Dec. 29, 1982) there were  fewer abortions in New Brunswick in 1981  than in the previous year. Six New  Brunswick hospitals have the therapeutic  boards necessary to perform legal abortions, but the rate of abortions in the  province remains among the lowest in  Canada.  Whose choice is  'First Choice'?  Just when it seemed something was being  done to get pornography out of our living  rooms,,here it comes back in—this time  as First Choice's 'Playboy Weekend', a  two and one half hour program on Friday  alnd Saturday nights devoted to soft-core  pornography.  Vancouver women's groups concern about  Pay TV was first evidenced when Mediawatch  presented a brief to the CRTC, centred  around the necessity for self-regulation  guidelines in the context of sex-role  stereotyping. Specifically, there was  concern that the CRTC actually implement  the recommendation of their Task Force on  Sex-Role Stereotyping when screening  applicants for Pay TV licenses.  But no sooner did the recommendations go  to Ottawa, than First Choice announced  its Playboy programming.  Women in Ottawa immediately organized  demostrations for January 18. They were  joined by women in similar actions across  the country, in Montreal, Toronto and  Winnipeg where protests were held outside  CRTC offices. In Edmonton, Regina, Saskatoon and Victoria they were held at Eatons  which owns 80% of the company responsible  for Playboy's Canadian productions. In  Vancouver MediaWatch  sent a delegation to  meet with Premier Cablesystem's George  Fierheller, whose station will be carrying  First Choice locally. Fierheller refused  to take responsibility for what will be  shown on his channel saying, "If people  don't like the material we offer they have  the option not to take it.  In the meantime, Marilyn Chambers and  Christie Hefner (Hugh's daughter) were  promoting Playboy Weekend in the local  media. The Ad Hoc Committee Against Pornography tried to prevent the Vancouver  promotion by and of Chambers, who stars in  many of the films, and succeeded at least  in having an alternative viewpoint presented, although none of the interviews  were cancelled.  First Choice is scheduled to begin programming Feb. 1st. The current situation in  Ottawa is that Communications Minister  Francis Fox says he has no power over the  CRTC, and the CRTC is not known for taking  definitive action, despite its autonomy.  Because of the CRTC task force, the issue  is being tackled on the basis that Playboy's television content reinforces sexual  stereotyping.  Prostitution by-law  not constitutional  The Supreme Court of Canada ruled a Calgary anti-prostitution bylaw unconstitutional on January 25 in a decision that  . could affect similar by-laws across the  country.  The Supreme Court's decision rested on  the premise that the Calgary bylaw invaded  the exclusive federal power to pass  criminal law, by attempting to create a  new criminal offence.  The Calgary bylaw, which prohibited approaching a person on the street or  remaining on the street for purposes of  prostitution, and defined "offering",  "prostitution" and "sexual services" was  ruled valid by the Alberta Court of Appeal  in February of 1982, on the grounds that  it was directed at public nuisance, and  hence fell under municipal jurisdiction.  The Supreme Court decision has given rise  to debate about whether Vancouver's controversial prostitution bylaw should be  obeyed or ignored. Work by feminists  around decriminalization of soliciting in  Vancouver has hitherto been centred on the  Criminal Code. It was generally agreed  that if complete decriminalization of  soliciting and bawdy house laws were to be  effected at the federal level, some municipal control of nuisance might be acceptable.  The Vancouver Coalition for a Non-Sexist  Criminal Code's brief on the issue says  of the problems of street prostitution  that, "They are properly dealt with by  legal remedies other than criminal sanctions aimed specifically and exclusively  at prostitutes." It goes on to recommend  suitable "nuisance" controls.  The focus on bylaws raised by the recent  federal decision may serve to direct the  efforts of women organizing around prostitution towards a re-examination of their  actions on a local level. February '83   Kinesis   5  HUMAN RIGHTS  Filing a claim with the  Human Rights Branch  by Mary Woo Sims  When people believe they have been discriminated against and they call the Human  Rights Branch' (ERB) to file a complaint,  the first    person they speak to officially  about the complaint is usually the Intake  Officer.   Gillian MacGregor has been the  Intake Officer at the Branch for more than  six years.  I talked to Gillian about her  role at the Branch and how one goes about  filing a complaint of discrimination.  MWS:    Could you tell me what you do as the  Intake Officer?  GM: Basically, it is to hear the concerns  of the people who call and to discover  whether those concerns come under the jurisdiction of the Human Rights Code (HRC).  If the person's concern seems to come  under the jurisdiction of the HRC, then  my job is to gather as much information  as possible from the one who makes the  complaint. I then submit the complaint to  the Director of the Branch. If the Director agrees that this matter is a violation  of the Code, then the Director will appoint a Human Rights Officer to conduct a  more in depth investigation of the  complaint.  MWS:    What type of complaints currently  come under the jurisdiction of the HRC?  GM: We are dealing with discrimination in  several areas. That of services normally  available to the public. Accomodation,  both the purchase of property and rental  of property. Matters related to employment which includes equal pay and trade  union membership. We deal with discrimination on the basis of race, colour, sex,  marital status, place of origin, religious  beliefs, political beliefs and some circumstances such as physical disability or  medical conditions that do not interfere  with the person's ability to do the job.  Not all sections of the Code apply to  every protected group. If a person has a  concern, and they feel it should be discussed, they should call us rather than  make a decision on their own whether this  may or may not be covered. It may be  covered and it certainly doesn't hurt to  ask.  MWS: Is this where the "without reasonable cause" provision can apply?  GM: Right. Under section 3 of the HRC  which deals with public services and  sections 8 and 9, which relate to employment and trade union membership, it is  illegal to discriminate "without reasonable cause". Group characteristics other  than sex, race, colour, marital status,  religious beliefs, etc. (which are covered specifically in the Code) may be  covered under the clause "without reasonable cause." For example, a person who  is disabled but capable of doing the job  function and who has been denied that job  because of the disability may have grounds  for a complaint. We had a case where a  man was told at 33, he was too old for a  job. It was taken to a Board of Inquiry  which ruled that this was unreasonable  and therefore discriminatory and a contravention of the HRC. This example shows  that even a person who is not in the protected age group (45-65), may have grounds  for a complaint.  MWS: Does the "reasonable cause" provision cover sexual orientation as well?  GM: We believe it may well do so. There  has never been a Board of Inquiry under  the employment section that has addressed  this issue, although the Branch does  accept complaints from those who have been  denied services and who have been denied  employment because of their sexual  orientation.  MWS:    For the sake of demonstration,  I  phone you up because I feel that I have  been discriminated against.   What do I  need to provide you with so that my  complaint will be accepted and expedited?  GM: As much information as possible. One -  of the things that we would dearly love  complainants to do, is when they first  start to notice discriminatory treatment  occuring, e.g. a woman being sexually  harassed on the job site, we recommend  strongly that she start keeping notes.  Dates, time and as much detail about the.  incident as she can recall. The names and  ful if a person can say it happened on  June 16, at 11:45 p.m. instead of, it  happened sometime in June.  MWS:    Is there a limit on how long a person can wait before filing a complaint?  GM: There is a six month Statute of  Limitations. The person must have made us  aware of their concern and hopefully have  filed a formal complaint within six months  of the alleged incident.  MWS:    Are there any exceptions waiving  the six month limitation? For example, I  call you on the second of January.  I inform you that I have been discriminated  against.  However because the company has  also breached the seniority provision of  the collective agreement,  I wish to go  through' my union's grievance procedure  before proceeding with the formal human  rights complaint.  The grievance procedure  takes over six months and there is still  no resolution. I decide to go ahead with  a formal complaint in July.  How would the  Branch deal with my complaint? Would the  Statute of Limitations still apply because  I did not file a formal complaint initially?  GM: First of all, there is no authority  for the Branch to waive that six month  addresses of witnesses if possible and of  the perpetrator of the discriminatory act.  In that manner, she has all the facts of  the matter at her finger tips. It helps  greatly in the investigative process. We  can put our finger on the specific dates,  times and make much easier contact with  potential witnessess. That's quite important, I feel, if it's possible. Of  course, it is sometimes impossible in a  one shot incident.  Even then, when a person feels that an  incident may have been discriminatory, if  they write notes to themselves on what  occurred, it's a lot easier to prevent  confusion later, when people's memory  about the incident starts to fade. If  possible, the person should know who the  person is who is the perpetrator of the  discriminatory act. If the name isn't  available, then a description would be  useful or how the person represented themselves. If they were a manager, owner,  shopkeeper, or a store clerk. Also, the  exact address where it happened.  The notes should reflect, step by step,  how the incident happened, when it  happened, and what occurred. Why this  happened? A person may believe that they  were perceived to be the wrong colour. Do  they believe that this was the only reason  or had other things occurred such as a  dispute with the bouncer or bartender?  Those are important facts to consider.  It is important for us not only to have  the date of when the incident happened,  but the time it happened. It,is most use-  statute of limitation. So it is very important that the person make their complaint within those six moa?^.  In so far as your example is concerned  regarding the limitation date applying  even though you first notifjBpa us of a  complaint as soon as it happened and then  you filing an official complaint after  the six month period - there has been  no testing of that before the courts at  this time. We would like to be able to  assume that once a person has made contact with us and has made us aware of  their concerns that they are no longer  subject to the six month statute of  limitations. However, it would be a  heart-break to lose a good case because  the limitation date had expired.  I feel that it would be very important  for any person who decides to go through  the union route or any other alternate  route to register, formally, their complaint with us. We can hold that complaint  in abeyance until such time as the person  contacts us with the results of the grievance or tells us to drop the complaint  because they were successful in seeking a  remedy through an alternate route. If they  wish for us to go ahead with the compia$nt  at a later date, we have the signed complaint form and can proceed without further delay.  However, I must emphasize that it is not  worth losing a good case over the six  month limitation period just because one  continued on page 10 Kinesis   February '83  RABBI  Sociobiology and rape  by Anne Vezina  After years of proclaiming men's and  women's cerebral equality, feminists are  facing a counterattack coming from the  ranks of sociobiology. This emerging  science focuses on the influences of biological processes on social behaviour and  is usually restricted to animal societies.  Among the latest additions to the sociobiologists' bestiary are cuckolded bluebirds, infanticidal langur monkeys, raping  mallards, and homosexual gulls.  As long as animals are the only target of  this new breed of scientist, the lay person need not be concerned by the use of  anthropomorphic jargon. But when certain  sociobiologists invade the realm of "human  nature", their theories are often viewed  as ideological tools that can be used to  justify current social arrangements.  Sociobiologists realize that the task of  sorting out the forces involved in shaping  our individual and collective behavour is,  for all practical purposes, impossible.  They simplify the problem by isolating  natural selection as the major force.  However to continuously rely on this process as an explanation, albeit partial,  for the behaviour of human beings makes  for good conversation but controversial  science.  One example of the application of sociobiology to our behaviour is the interpretation of male-female differences. The  current explanation regarding sexual inequalities has its roots in our different  reproductive systems. Men can produce  sperm continually and their strategy, in  order to maximize their reproductive success, is to inseminate as many females as  possible.  However the female produces only one egg  intermittently and she has to make sure  that her investment will not be wasted on  a male of "low quality". As a result,  females are choosy of mates and males compete for females. From that statement it  is easy to imagine the behavioural traits  males and females have developed in order  to fulfill their respective biological  roles.  continued from page 7        'W* «.*"-.  The women have made their statement loudly  and clearly; the fact that they wanted to  do this free from the distraction of their  children need not be interpreted as  feminist provocation to fuel the sex war  in the name of peace.  The women did not wish to exclude men  entirely. On the contrary, they sought  active support from them in the important  work of caring for the children at the  camp. Obviously some men found it difficult to give this responsibility the  recognition it deserves and to leave the  women free to independently influence the  course of political events.  Traditionally women have been excluded  from military service. However, it is  precisely the exclusion of women from  warmongering that lends importance to  their peace initiative. The women's  action is a dramatic contrast to military  action and consequently it adds a dimension to the peace movement that men cannot. Their motive was not one of division  but a legitimate expression of the multi-  faceted nature of the peace campaign.  Certainly women throughout the world can  be encouraged by the bold and courageous  actions of their British and European  sisters at Greenham Common. Their initiative has been truly amazing.  Those ideas served as a starting point for  a new theory on the evolution of human  rape. The view that rape is an evolved  facultative reproductive strategy for men  who do not have access to women, was  presented by Randy and Nancy Thornhill, a  biologist and an anthropologist from the  University of New Mexico, during a visit  to Simon Frasher University last fall.  Some women, enraged by the Thornhill's  discourse, voiced their anger during the  lecture. The Thornhills dismissed any  hints of ideological biases in the interpretation of the data by taking cover under scientific objectivity, but even if  they were thoroughly scientific, we could  still ponder upon the relevance of their  research in understanding the rape phenomenon .  by Janet Morgan  In recent years, the observation of forced  copulation in certain animal species and  advancements in sociobiological theory  have initiated a revision of the explanations regarding rape. Sociobiologists hypothesise that rape, in animals and humans, is an adaptive behaviour under certain conditions.  In evolutionary theory, a behavioral trait  is adaptive when the benefits to the reproduction of the individual are greater  than the costs. The benefits are measured  in the number of offspring produced and a  trait that enhances an individual's reproductive success has more chance of being  perpetuated in a population since the offspring and the parents share similar genes.  The Thornhills do not produce figures on  the benefits and costs associated with  rape and hence their assumption that  rape is adaptive is not tested. Even if a  complete cost-benefit analysis of rape in  our present day society concluded that  the costs to the reproduction of the  rapist outweighs the benefits (costs are  loss of reproductive opportunities if the  rapist is imprisoned or injured), it is  still possible, according to the authors,  that rape may be a "maladaptive expression  of adaptation in the past."  That is, rape may be committed nowadays  for reasons other than a need to procreate,  but it is still possible that at some  point in the past rape did increase the  reproductive success of the males who  adopted this strategy. Rape may be adaptive today, which is hard to prove, or  it may be a legacy from our evolutionary  past, which is impossible to prove.  An imaginative mind can come up with a  multitude of hypotheses explaining the  evolution of rape. This is speculation,  not science. Since the Thornhills cannot  test whether rape is adaptive, their only  avenue of investigation is to formulate  testable predictions as to who rapes and  under what circumstances.  The Thornhills predict that young men of  low socio-economic status are the most  likely candidates to rape. They reason  that competition for females is most  intense when men reach the age prior to  first marraige. At this point males have  to consider all the reproductive alternatives open to them. If their low social  status jeopardizes their ability to  attract women, they may resort to rape.  The Thornhills never directly address the  possibility of successful fertilization  following a rape. Everyone will agree that  it is very low, but they argue that man  will adopt rape when the likelihood of  reproducing via other alternatives is  lower than the remote benefit associated  with a single forced copulation. Naturally  all these cost benefit calculations are  part of an unconscious process favoured  by natural selection.  GOB&£!  acm  iMlh  To support their prediction that young  men of low socio-economic status commit  most of the rapes, the authors analyse  data collected by the FBI in the Uniform  Crime Reports.  They find that young poor men are over  represented in rape arrestee data. The  Thornhills are well: aware of the shortcomings of those data but until evidence  is provided that the available information  is not representative of the real situation, they have to work with it.  Some of the problems associated with those  data are related to the fact that a good  percentage of the rapes are never reported  and among those which are reported the  police will often investigate only the  cases which will likely go to trial.  A poor man will be more credible as a  candidate for the use of physical violence  than a man of higher status. Other factors  such as the social status of the victim  and the place of the rape may influence  the decision to pursue the investigation.  A more appropriate alternative would be to  try to understand why our social system  has produced so many "losers" rather than  look for "losers" in the race for repro--  duction.  The Thornhills have extended their methodology to other aspects of race such as  predicting who are the victims of rape  (young women at their reproductive peak),  the psychological consequences of rape on  the victim and on her relation with her  husband or lover, and the laws and taboos  pertaining to rape. It always comes down  to the same reductionist argument that  those behavioral traits were favoured by  natural selection in human evolutionary  history.  Even though sociobiologists are quick to  point out that seeking explanations in  evolutionary theory does not imply genetic  determinism, it is hard to resist the  temptation to interpret the Thornhills'  research as removing responsibility from  the rapist who is only obeying his "selfish genes". Rape is a social problem and  as such can only be eliminated through  social reforms. February '83   Kinesis   7  INTERNATIONAL  Britain's  all-woman  peace protest  gathers momentum  by Karen Lacombe and Rosemarie Rupps  Forty-four women were arrested on New  Year's Day and charged with causing a  breach of the peace after they climbed  over a barbed wire fence into an American  nuclear missile base at Greenham Common,  . Berkshire, England. Drawn to the base  following a mass protest on December 12,  the women danced on top of.a missile  silo and chanted anti-nuclear songs.  Together, these recent actions have drawn  world-wide attention to the original  women's peace camp established at Greenham  Common in September of 1981. The twenty  women who began the camp have lived in  tents pitched on the mud-soaked entrance  to the base ever since.  The Greenham women's initiative culminated  in the biggest all-women peace protest  of its kind December 12. On that day,  international attention was focussed on  more than 30,000 women who poured into  Greenham from all over Europe, enduring  the freezing winter conditions to join  hands and "embrace" the 14 kilometer base  perimeter. The women decorated the fence  with photographs, toys, clothes, balloons,  recipes, slogans, doves, and other objects  symbolizing their emotional and personal  relationship to peace activities.  Prior to- December 12, the following  announcement appeared in peace campaign  newsletters throughout Europe: "The  Women's Peace Campaign is inviting women  from all over Britain, Europe, and the  world to go to Greenham Common to take  part in a mass action to show strength  and their intention not to allow cruise  missiles to be sited there. Sixteen  thousand women are needed to surround the  base and to decorate the perimeter fence  with personal symbols of their anger and  joy, and as many as possible to blockade  the base with non-violent direct action.  Men are welcome at the children's gate  to help with food and childcare, they can  also help with publicity and donations."  The response was overwhelming as almost  twice the number of women necessary to  surround the base came to Greenham Common  to show their opposition to 96 cruise  missiles due to be installed there in  December of 1983.   Consequently, these  women have become the vanguard of the  growing anti-nuclear movement in Britain.  There are eight peace camps in Britain  but Greenham Common is the only all^woman  camp, and for this reason it continues to  capture the headlines throughout Europe.  The massive public protest held December  12 and 13 at Greenham Common mark the  third anniversary of the announcement that  cruise missiles would be situated in  Britain. Following the December 12 demonstration, more than 2,000 protestors spent  the night at Greenham Common, staging a  12-hour sit-in blockade at the gates. ~  The women slept across the 16 entrances  to the base. The women at Gate 4 awoke the  following morning at 6:30 a.m. to find  sixty police officers prepared to remove  them bodily from the entrance in order to  allow three buses to leave the base. When  the women refused to move they were carried or dragged out by the police. Some  of the women were carried as many as  fourteen times; they were determined to  block off the base. Although the police  claimed all was peaceful, the protesting  women complained of police strong arm  tactics.  Rebecca Johnson, a permanent peace camp  woman, told a London reporter "they  (police) have been brutal at times, considering we have been completely nonviolent. Women have been dragged along  tarmac roads and thrown into ditches."  zMMmhefm 1   S  30,000 women surround the  base to oppose 96 U.S. cruise  missiles due to be installed  there by the year's end.  outside military bases in Molesworth,  Cambridgeshire and Faslane, Strathclyde,  and Greenham Common. These protests are  made more visible by way of a representative peace camp set up in Jubilee Gardens,  within sight of the Houses' of Parliament.  About thirty campaigners are camped in a  teepee and several smaller tents where  they have remained despite an attack from  30 youths who tore down tents and injured  several occupants after a meeting of the  National Front.  On January 17, a group of 250 women, some  from Greenham Common, took their protests  to Parliament. The women were removed from  the galleries and the lobby after chanting  slogans. Seventy were detained and released without charges after a Labour MP  protested police treatment.  Police defended their action saying, "it  is a job to move them against their will  and some degree of force is inevitable."  Police were instructed not to arrest the  protesting women, although three arrests  were made for breach of peace. No mass  arrests were made until New Years Day.  Twenty women from Greenham Common held a  candel light vigil outside the court for  two days until the 44 arrested women were  freed on bail.  Actions continued elsewhere in Britain  with current demonstrations being held  The women involved in the Greenham Common  Peace Camp are a determined group. They  have remained through court injunctions,  police harassment, and trying living conditions. Some of them have even won the  right to vote in local and national elections on the area's voters' list. The  women are planning on running an anti-  nuclear candidate in the upcoming elections.  The Greenham Common women have gained the |  support of many sympathizers, several of  whom have come to the base with food and  money. Support comes from as far away as  Greece, and ironically, from as near as  inside the base ifcself. U.S. military  personnel are reported to have offered  moeny; the local contractor who is building the silos has pledged $2000 to buy  sleeping bags for the women. But of course  not all the public response has been  positive.  Here of course, the events have been virtually ignored. In Britain, the commercial  press has carried the concern that the  protests serve the interests of Soviet  propaganda. The issue has been raised  several times in Parliament and a group  of Conservative businessmen rented a plane  to fly the message "Kremlin sends Kongrat-  ulations" over the Greenham protesters.  British Armed Forces Minister Peter Blaker  has publically criticized the women for  harming Britain's ability to negotiate  with the Soviet Union on multilateral  disarmament. He claims the development of  nulcear-free zones within Britain gives  the Soviet Union false signals about western determination to guard against aggression and furthermore that the women's  action undermines NATO.  In the feminist and alternative press,  the protest has generated a debate about  women-only actions, and the value of nonviolent, passive actions.  Several men who sent letters to the London Guardian newspaper, all supporters of  nuclear disarmament, called the Greenham  Common protest a deliberately divisive  move by feminists to make the point that  "for too long men have expected women to  work at the children's gate or serve  teas." They said the protest, by excluding  men, was setting women against men in  the name of peace and threatened the  equality that men and women have enjoyed  in the nuclear disarmament movement. The  writers accused the women of being sexist  by excluding men on the basis, historically, of their male warlike and aggressive behaviour.  Several women and men have responded by  defending the exclusion policy. They argue  that the fear of male belligerence is too  simplistic an issue to explain the women's  action and manages to overlook the real  significance of the event. Greenham Common  should remain a women's concern, they  said, because it demonstrates that women  can conceive, inspire, and execute effective anti-nuclear action. LABOUR  This issue, KINESIS begins publishing a monthly  list of those ongoing strikes, and boycotts we  should all be aware of.  The International Women 's Day Committee this year  is encouraging guest picketing of current Vancouver  strikes,  especially those where women are on the  line.  OTEU  at the Fraser Valley Credit Union. These  workers, mainly women, have been on strike since  early December for a contract. They need support.  BCGEU at BCIT:  Despite a long period of negotiations, the BCIT Board of Governors have refused  to put a wage offer on the table. Other issues in  dispute include contract clauses on sexual harassment, maternity leave, VDT's, and other benefits.  RETAIL WHOLESALE UNION at PUROLATOR COURIERS: This  strike has been a long one. The issues in dispute  are union recognition, wages and benefits.  GRAPHIC ARTS INTERNATIONAL UNION at TYTEX GRAPHICS  Ltd.: This strike has been on since February, 1979,  and the major issue is union security.  B. C.   PROJECTIONISTS UNION at GOLDEN HARVEST  THEATRE.:  This is another long one, since September  1979. The major issue in dispute is the COLA  clause.  BOYCOTTS  EATONS:  The Timothy Eaton Co. Ltd. owns 80% of a  holding company that ultimately controls Baton  Broadcasting, Inc. of Toronto. A wholly^owned subsidiary of Baton will produce the largest share of  Playboy's sex movies for Pay TV. Women are being  urged to cut up their Eatons credit cards (if they  have one) and send them back to the store with an  explanation.  McDONALDS:  Consumers are being asked to boycott  McDonalds Restaurants. This company's decision to  purchase hamburger buns from the U.S. has resulted  in the layoff of at least 50 people in the bakery  industry in B.C.  PROCTOR AND GAMBLE-SOAP^PRODUCTS: The United Steel-  workers of America have been trying for well over  a year to obtain a fair and equitable contract at  the Proctor and Gamble plant in Kansas City, Kansas. Do not buy: Ivory, Joy and Dawn liquid soaps,  Zest, Camay and Ivory Bar soaps, Tide, Cheer, Oxy-  dol and Bold detergents.  MICHELIN TIRES:  The Michelin Tire Co. in Nova  Scotia is a union-busting company. As workers were  beginning to organize there in 1980, the company  convinced the government to pass legislation which  made union organizing at Michelin impossible.  BOYCOTT LETTUCE:  with the brand names: Red Coach,  Donny, Big Fred, SAS, Big A, Bobby and Andrews.  This is a support action for the Farmworkers  Union in the U.S., South Africa and Chile.  SOUTH AFRICAN AND CHILEAN PRODUCTS:  Products to  watch out for include Rothmans, Jordan Wines and  Carling O'Keefe brewed products.  C00RS BEER: Coors is known to be an anti-union  company. It also donates funds to the New Right  in the U.S.A. This boycott has been endorsed by  the Saskatchewan Federation of Labour.  NESTLE:  Keep boycotting Nestle? The answer is yes-  more  emphatically than ever. In October, 1982, the  Nestle Company appeared to be bowing finally to  pressure from the International Nestle Boycott  Committee (INBC) and UNICEF. The company released  a new set of instructions to its marketing personnel, and Helmut Maucher, General Manager, committed  the company to comply fully with the World Health  Organization (WHO) Code. Ha .'-simultaneous with the  Nestle announcements, the INBC was releasing new  examples of Nestle violations of the WHO code.  Nestle is still distributing free samples of their  baby formula to medical personnel and mothers,  continuing to pressure medical staff to use the  product, and apparently managed to postpone Sri  Lanka's adoption of a code to prohibit formula  promotion.  BCFL convention not militant  by Marion Pollack  The number of bald heads amongst  delegates to the 1982 B.C. Federation of Labour Convention ^as  one indication that this week-  long meeting was going to be  very male dominated. Another  indication occurred on the opening day where, of fifty delegates speaking, only three were  women.  Delegates understood the current  economic crisis but were neither  beaten nor bowed by it. However,  this fightback mood was not  translated into a program of  action. The majority of the  federation's leadership believed  the proper fightback strategy is  through the ballot box; not  through education campaigns,  demonstrations, rallies and  strikes.  Many of the Federation's committees documented the effects of  the current crisis but they  failed to present fightback  strategies. The report of the  Women's Committee is a good example. It discussed social  service cutbacks, wage controls,  and the effects of microchip  technology, but iti did not suggest a way out.  Individual resolutions provided  some elements of a fightback.  The resolution on equal pay for  work of equal value posed an  alternative by calling on the  BCFL to: set up a resource bank  on the subject; integrate the  issue into educational programs;  support any union negotiating  for equal pay; and develop a  program discussing the effects of  wage controls and concessions  (givebacks and take aways) on  equal pay.  If labour doesn 't  organize the unemployed,  the bosses will.  This resolution effectively  demonstrated that groups outside  the Federation can have an effect  on policy. The majority of resolutions on this subject were prepared by EPIC. The existence of  this group pushed the Federation  to adopt the aforementioned  policy.  Other resolutions spoke to the  effect of the women's movement on  trade unions. One of the liveliest debates centred on abortion.  The BCFL was being asked to reaffirm its policy on the right to  choose. Despite a few delegates  speaking against it, the resolution was easily passed. Childcare  was a hotly debated subject but  delegates finally reaffirmed the  policy of free 24 hour childcare.  Pornography was also discussed  with delegates being urged to  show Not a Love Story  in their  The major problem with these  resolutions is that the federation officers don't implement  them. The BCFL has had policy  on childcare for 10 years but  has not acted on it.  The question of trade union  unity is vital. As bosses and  governments become more united  in their attacks, workers too  must join together regardless of  affiliation. The delegates  passed a resolution calling for  unity with the Building Trades.  The issue came to ahead over the  Hospital Employees Union (HEU).  They were initially given fraternal delegate status which  allowed them to display their  banner and have limited access  to the Convention floor. CUPE  leadership objected to this,  feeling that the HEU should  affiliate to their Union. As a  result, HEU was stripped of  their status. Many delegates  were critical of this move.  The women 9s movement  affects resolutions . . .  but federation officers  don 9t implement them  The Federation also adopted a  resolution condemning wage controls, endorsing an unspecified  fightback campaign, and supporting any affiliate resisting  controls. Given the fact that  cutbacks are becoming a rule of  thumb, the Federation is now  obligated to work with the B.C.  Teachers Federation in mobilizing against education cutbacks.  Not surprisingly, unemployment  dominated the Convention. Speaker after speaker pointed out  that if labour doesn't work to  organize the unemployed, the  bosses will. The following program was adopted: support for  and organization of the unemployed through Labour Councils  and full support for "Unemployed  Action Centres".  On the international scene, the  issue of Palestine was discussed  and a resolution calling for a  U.N. negotiated settlement ensuring a home for the Palestinians, and condemning Israel's  invasion into Lebanon was passed.  In an action designed to lose  rank and file support, the Fed  officers presented a resolution  calling for massive pay increases for the President and  Secretary-Treasurer. It passed.  One of the most significant  aspects of the Convention was  the formation of a broad left  caucus. It was organized on a  program of fighting back against  the economic and social crisis  and was responsible for much of  the debate on the floor. The  caucus will be ongoing, and will  direct its activities to the  local labour council level. It  was the first time that such a  broad cross-section of trade  unionists had worked together  at a Convention.  The Convention was not the most  militant on record. Nor did it  provide a fightback program.  But it left me with the feeling  that B.C. workers will not remain quiet much longer. February *83   Kinesis   9  LABOUR  Yaworski still fighting for equal pay  by Hilarie McMurray  When Beverley Yaworski's unemployment insurance claim ran out in the fall of 1980,  she was gfcven a job referral by the Ministry of Human Resources (MHR). Working as  a sales clerk in the Army and Navy sporting goods department didn't please her,  but her preference wasn't a consideration.  Beverley was instructed to tell the personnel manager she had been sent by MHR  and although Army and Navy wasn't advertising jobs (it was the Christmas rush),  she was hired immediately. The pay was  very low, $3.65 an hour, but it was better  than welfare.  Generally, Army and Navy employees didn't  discuss salaries. However, Beverley and a  male co-worker talked about their jobs one  morning while they were stuck on the bus  in a traffic jam. He was making $4.00 an  hour doing exactly the same work.  Beverley was outraged and somewhat incredulous at such blatant discrimination. This  young man had less Army and Navy seniority,  less work experience and less education  than Beverley. Also, Beverley had been  commended for her excellent rapport with  customers. So much for the merit argument.  Beverley's anger became fury when her coworker went on to say that his mother,  who had worked at Army and Navy for over  ten years, received a salary only slightly  higher than his. Beverley's sense of injustice increased when she considered that  the government, through the Ministry of  Human Resources! "Provincial Rehabilitation and Employment Program" job referrals,  indirectly condoned Army and Navy's employment practices.  Beverley confronted her direct supervisor  who-directed her up through the ranks of  the Army and Navy management. Everyone she  complained to was male. Their reaction  ranged from "really surprised women's  groups and unions haven't picketed" to  "you might be misinformed".  Finally she was directed to speak to Mr.  Cohen, the general manager. However, he  was on vacation. Eventually, Beverley got  the message she wasn't going to see Mr.  Cohen. It appeared that Army and Navy  wasn't about to voluntarily begin paying  equal wages to women.  Shortly after leaving for a new job,  Beverley laid an equal pay complaint  against Army and Navy under the B.C.  Human Rights Code. She alleged discrimination against women employees. On February  18, 1981 the complaint was official and  the Human Rights Branch appointed an  officer to investigate Beverley's allegation.  From the outset, Beverley;,was continuously  frustrated by the inaction of both the  Human Rights Branch and Army and Navy.  On March 15, 1982, Army and Navy made a  settlement offer, two days after the  Service, Office and Retail Workers' Union  (SORWUC) leafletted outside the Army and  Navy store on East Hastings. This unsatisfactory settlement offer did not address  the issue of back wages for all women  employees.  More than two years after Beverley approached the Human Rights Branch, the  complaint remains unsettled. In December  1982, the Minister of Labour received an  "unsettled complaint" report from the  Director of the Human Rights Branch.  Beverley's complaint is sitting on the  Minister's desk. It is completely discretionary whether or not he appoints a Board  of Inquiry to deal with human rights  complaints. The Human Rights Code only  states that he "may refer the allegation  to a Board of Inquiry".  Beverley Yaworski began her claim for equal pay. for equal work more than two years ago.  This complaint is important because it  alleges that Army and Navy discriminates  against "women employees", not just one  individual, whether or not one woman can  succeed with a complaint on behalf of  "all women" has not been decided at the  board level.  Equal pay is a fundamental right. You can  assist in convincing the Minister to appoint a Board of Inquiry by sending letters to Bob McLelland, Minister of Labour  indicating your support for Beverley  Yaworski's claim for equal pay for equal  work for all women employees of Army and  Navy and asking that a Board of Inquiry  be appointed to hear the complaint. Letters should be addressed to:  The Honourable Bob McLelland,  Minister of Labour,  Parliament Buildings, Victoria V8V 1X4  and copies sent to:  Rosemary Brown, MLA and Karen Sanford, MLA  NDP Caucus, Parliament Bldgs.  Victoria, B.C. V8V 1X4  Feds recognize  sexual harassment  The federal government unveiled a new  policy in late December to protect its  "215,000 public servants from sexual harassment, and expressed the hope that the  action will be emulated by private companies .  Sexual harassment is defined in the policy  as "offensive sexual comments, gestures  or physical contact that may be deemed  objectionable or offensive either on a  one-time basis or in a continuous series  of incidents, however minor."  The policy also sets up an elaborate  complaint procedure. Harassed employees  are required to complain first to offenders and then to their supervisors, and  are advised to keep a written report of  offenses and names of witnesses.  Penalties under the new ruling -include  reprimands, suspensions, and, for serious  or repeated infractions, dismissal.  Management rulings can be appealed through  the public service or human rights commissions .  Complaints of other forms of personal  harassment, including the abuse of authority, can also be registered under this  policy.  (Vancouver Sun)  Nurses confront  45 layoffs  The B.C. Nurses Union has served notice  on the Richmond School Board to begin  collective bargaining with Richmond public  health nurses. The 45 nurses are opening  up bargaining for a new contract, after a  Ministry of Education ruling stated that  schools boards no longer carry nurses on  the payroll. The board advised the nurses  last November that their jobs would be  terminated March 31 as a consequence.  A series of meetings between municipal  and provincial health ministry staff has  not produced a decision as to who will  take over the service. (Vancouver Province)  Feds cutback  family allowance  increase  The federal government hit women with six  and five restraints again this month when  it concluded it was legal to bring family  allowances under the federal program without waiting for Parliamentary legislation.  Parliamentary debate raged in opposition  to the change of both the old age pension  programs and the family allowance program  from their previous consumer price indexing.  In mid-January Justice Department lawyers  concluded that it was fully legal to  adjust the family allowance cheques to  the more stringent 6% guidelines, though  old age pension cheques will continue to  be fully indexed for the time being.  The decision on family allowance cheques  means an increase from the 1982 level of  $26.91 per child to $28.51 per child in  1983, instead of $29.92 per child if it  had followed the consumer price index.  Approximately 3.6 million mothers are  affected. The extra-Parliamentary ruling  may be contested in court by opposition  parties. (Vancouver Province) 10   Kinesis   February '83  RAPE LEGISLATION  would have allowed for "sexual misconduct"  where the accused was less than three  years older than the complainant. This  section was among those relating to the  sexual exploitation of young persons which  were left for further discussion by the  House of Commons Committee on Justice and  Legal Affairs.  The arguments for amendments which would  permit sexual relations between young  persons of a similar age took place, of  course, within the context of voluntary  relations. That the government included  such a provision under the sexual assault  sections illustrates its own confusion  with respect to sexual violence and consensual sexuality. Despite the statements  by proponents of Bill C-127, who argued  that the bill makes clear the distinction  between sex and sexual violence, this  provision clearly shows the lack of understanding of sexual violence on the part of  those who are responsible for this legislation.  Allowing the defence of consent on the  part of a victim under the age of fourteen  where her assailant is less than three .  years older creates an inconsistency within the Criminal Code itself.  For example, were a fifteen year old boy  to have sexual intercourse with a thirteen  year old girl, to which she agreed, he  could be convicted under section 146. The  fact that she consented would not be a  defence. However, if three fifteen year  old boys were to sexually assault her using  a coke bottle instead of a penis, they  would be charged.under section 246.2, and  the onus would be on the prosecution to  prove that she did not consent. She would  be subjected to cross-examination, the  usual painful questions and humiliating  slurs.  The unofficial explanation for this contradiction is that it is a drafting error.  That such an error was not only made but  allowed to remain, even after it was  pointed out to the Parliamentary Secretary  to the Minister of Justice, in August 1982,  is an indication of the low priority given  to the "details" of sexual violence.  The phrase "unless the accused is less than  three years older than the complainant"  must be deleted from subsection 246.1.(2)  immediately. Work on the law relating  both to the sexual exploitation of young  persons and the issue of sexual relations  between young persons should be continued.  It is clear, however, from the residues of  rape mythology which permeate this legislation, that the honourable members have  a considerable amount of work to do toward an understanding of sexual violence.  New rape bill weakens  statutory rape provisions  by Megan Ellis  The new legislation to amend the provisions  of the Criminal Code relating to sexual  assaults came into effect January 4, 1983.  With little, and in many cases inaccurate  media coverage the crime of rape was abolished and replaced by three tiers of  sexual assault. (See Kinesis  issues Oct.  through Dec.)  Despite strong criticism of the bill from  various women's organizations, the federal  government has claimed the new legislation  is a victory for women. This is the fourth  in a series of articles which examine the  amendments.  Bill C-53 was originally introduced into  the House of Commons in January, 1981.  The Bill was entitled An act to amend the  Criminal Code in relation to sexual offences and the protection of young persons.  In the summer of 1982, it was decided to  separate out the provisions dealing with  sexual assaults in order to avoid an unnecessary delay by the complicated debates  regarding the sexual exploitation of  children.  Bill C-127, the bill containing only the  sexual assault provisions, was introduced  into the House of Commons, and passed, on  August 4th, 1982. The provisions relating  to children were put on hold, ostensibly  until the autumn, but work on these provisions has not yet continued.  When women's groups were finally able to  get copies of the bill, complete with  eleventh hour amendments, we discovered  the sexual assault provisions contained a  new paragraph relating to children under  the age of fourteen years. The paragraph,  246.1(2) provides that where an accused is  charged under any of the three sexual  assault sections in respect of a person  under the age of fourteen years, "it is  not a defence that the complainant consented to the activity that forms the subject  matter of the charge unless the accused is  less than three years older than the  complainant."  The so-called "statutory rape" provisions  of the Criminal Code remain unchanged.  "Statutory rape" refers to section 146,  which provides that where a male person has  sexual intercourse with any female under  the age of fourteen years, or a female  under the age of sixteen years who is of  previously chaste character (and who is   less at fault than the male), he is liable  to life imprisonment, in the case of under  fourteen, and five years imprisonment, in  the case of under sixteen.  These maximum penalties bear no relation  to the usual sentences which commonly  range between probation and five years.  Under this section, whether or not the  young woman consented is considered irrelevant. All that the prosecution must prove  is that the accused had sexual intercourse  with the young woman, arid that she was  under the age of fourteen. In a case where  she is between fourteen and sixteen, they  must also prove she was "of previously  chaste character" and not more "to blame"  than the accused.  Because consent is considered irrelevant  under section 146, prosecutors frequently  use this avenue to deal with cases of  rape of young women, in order to avoid  their being subjected to the rigours of  defence cross-examination. While this  slanted the statistics, in that numbers of  rapes were not recorded as such, it  provided greater protection to young  women. Victims of indecent assault, who  were under the age of fourteen, were protected by section 140, which excluded  consent as a defence.  That the new subsection 246.1(2) will  extend this protection to victims of all  sexual assaults who are under the age of  fourteen is commendable. That it will  except from this protection victims whose  assailants are less than three years older  is absurd.  The rationale for the "statutory rape"  provision is the presumption that girls  under age fourteen, and in some cases up  to sixteen, cannot make an informed decision as to consent to sexual relations.  Age is assumed to be a coercive element.  Recognizing that most young victims of  sexual interference and sexual violence  are female, and that most of the perpetrators are male, the main impact of retaining these provisions is the protection  of children and young women from sexual  coercion by older men.  Some people (e.g. the National Association  of Women and the Law) have suggested that  an amendment should be made which would  allow for consensual sexual relationships  between young persons of a similar age.  Bill*C-53 included a provision which  continued from page 5  chooses an alternate route to seek a  remedy. I strongly suggest that if you  have a complaint, register a formal  complaint, sign it and we will hold it  in abeyance until we are further notified  by you to do otherwise.  MWS:    Is there any type of priority process that you put complaints through?  GM: Not in any formal manner. Although,  in reality, if there is a chance that  the apartment is still available or the  job is still available for the person who  wants it, we may attempt to tackle the  matter quickly. Usually we try to work on  a first come first serve basis because to  each individual, their concern is important to them and each individual is entitled to justice in their situation.  MWS: How long does a complaint take from  the initial contact to the resolution of  a complaint?  GM:  It's very hard to tell. Between the  time you phone me and getting to see me,  usually less than three days would pass.  By the end of a week normally, I would  have your complaint allegation on its way  to the Director of the Branch.  It would  then be somewhere between four to six  weeks before you receive the complaint  form that is sent to you for your signature. That complaint form is the legal  document authorizing an Officer of the  HRB to investigate your complaint.  Then comes the unknown quantity. How long  the complaint will actually take to investigate. This is subject to so many factors  that are beyond our control; failure of  a respondent to co-operate and not allowing  an officer on to the premises to investigate, could delay the process. A complicated complaint with many witnesses to  question could also take a long time to  investigate.  MWS:    Must everyone who calls you regarding a complaint meet with you in person  before you proceed with the complaint?  GM: Not necessarily. I feel that it would  have to do with the complexity of the case.  If the person has been refused a job over  the telephone without any opportunity to  state their qualification, they've never  been seen by the employer, I see no reason  why they should come all the way to Burnaby  when I can get that information over the  telephone. However, I would still recommend that the person who has a very basic  complaint still make notes, because they're  , going to be questioned about what took  place two or three times over the next few  months and if you can be as precise as  possible it would sure make our job easier.  If we're dealing with a complicated situation, a complaint where there are many  players and a vast scenario, then I would  feel that it is better for both the complainant and the Branch that we do have an  initial meeting to get all the facts.  For example, a person alleges that they  have been denied a promotion because of  their sex or race, and there have been  many supervisory people over the years and  the person has changed jobs over the years,  I would like to get as much information as  possible. We need to know almost as much  about the complaint as the complainant in  order to properly investigate the complaint.  MWS:    How does someone get in touch with  you? iiilii  GM: Telephone the Branch at 291-7236.  I, or one of my co-workers, will be  available to answer your questions. A Feminist  Approach to  Pap Tests  by Robin Barnett and Rebecca Fox  In view of how common Pap tests are for  women, we are concerned about the lack of  good information and the abundance of  surgical procedures surrounding the existence of abnormal Pap tests. We have been  faced with abnormal test results ourselves  and see our work to heal our cervices as  part of our ongoing struggle to stay  healthy in general.  Our aim is to pass on the information we  have collected (through library research,  discussion with health care personnel and  healers, listening to and reading about  other women's experiences) and also to  express some of the opinions we have  formed during this process.  Learning that you have an abnormal Pap  test and of its possible connection with  cervical cancer can result in a myriad of .  emotions and thoughts. Disbelief, fear, a  sense of vulnerability, exhaustion, anger  and many more emotions can emerge. Certainly everyone feels the impact in some  stressful way: the stress of dealing with  ou: fears around cancer and infertility,  and the stress of the medical/surgical  maze of procedures and treatments that may  lie ahead of us.  We are hoping that the information we are  presenting here will help to relieve some  of these stresses by providing explanations that will aid understanding, by  supportively connecting women's common  experiences"7"and by arming women with information to make thoroughly informed decisions. When we truly understand a situation, we can proceed in a more powerful  and purposeful manner, overcoming some of  our fears and voicing our deepest concerns  In this society, we undergo a good deal of  conditioning in many areas of our lives.  We are taught, however subtly, to view  certain things as fixed, unchanging, not  open to question. Cervical cancer is one  of the few cancers with a good "cure"  rate - at least that is what we are told.  Because there are treatments and women  generally survive after the discovery of  abnormal cells, many of us have taken a  more casual attitude toward abnormal Pap  tests and their solutions. We perhaps are  more likely to "leave it in their hands."  Slowly, as women have been becoming more  receptive to looking at many options for  treatments, some of this conditioning  toward standard treatments, lack of information and lack of a decision-making  process is fading.  Cancer needs to be seen as preventable.  Vast amounts of money are spent on researching viral causes and drug/radiation  treatments, many of them with bad side  effects and poor results. Yet many people  believe that 80% of our cancers are related to our environment and workplaces.  Why then are not vast amounts of money  spent on cleaning up the workplace, fields  rivers and air? Large economic interests  are obviously at stake. The clean-up  would require standards set according to  the needs of people and the planet, not  profit, which is exactly the opposite of  the present set-up.  Historically, improved health has not so  much resulted from the great discoveries  of medical science and technology, but  more so from the social and economic  patterns which create a healthful environment.  The decline in mortality from TB during  the later half of the 19th century occurred before microbiology and transmission  of the infection were understood. TB found  a very fertile environment in the social  and economic conditions in the industrial  city of the early 19th century. Long hours  of exhausting work in damp, badly ventilated and unheated offices and factories  were common. Living conditions were  equally bleak with overcrowding of tenements and dormitories, inadequate nourishment, and deplorable sanitary conditions.  In addition to physical hardship, the  social fabric of people's lives was ripped  apart by their uprooting from Europe and  their relocation in the unhealthy environment of crowded city ghettos. Similar  February 83 Kinesis supplement 1  disease patterns still appear in "developing" nations as they go through the comparable stages of industrialization despite  medical advances of the last hundred years.  It is also evident in our own province;  native people both on the reserves and in  the cities have the highest rate of tuberculosis infections. The lack of jobs and  housing for aboriginal peoples, the destruction of their way of life and the  imposition of European culture results in  higher proportions of their death from  this treatable disease.  In this article both conventional medical  procedures and treatments and "alternative"  actions will be presented. While it is  true that many alternative practices have  not been scientifically proven via large  and expensive studies, there are many  disputed medical and surgical practices  and controversial issues surrounding cervical cancer. We are hoping that,- better  informed of all the options, women will  proceed in a course best for them. 2 Kinesis supplement February 83  A Larger  Perspective  True prevention consists of eliminating or  reducing factors that are harmful to us in  order to allow our natural body defences to  work.  It is not safe to assume that because you go for a Pap test, you will not  get cervical cancer. Pap tests may aid  in the discovery, possible reversal or surgical elimination of a more serious process  continuing. But Pap tests detect an abnormal process already begun. This distinction is subtle, but overall it is a major  issue.  True preventive actions in our lives necessitate accurate health information, direction and personal effort. Healthful lifestyles are easier for some of us to obtain  depending on our finances, care of our  children, emotional support, etc. Some of  us have learned bad health habits at an  early age and have practiced them for a  long time.  Some of us have had more negative experiences with the health care system and distrust that system. Practicing  preventive health is related to our efforts  to change our lives and work toward a more  positive self-image.  Cervical cancer is the second most commonly occurring cancer in women (breast cancer is the most common) and the Pap test,  developed by Dr. George Papanicalaou over  50 years ago, has greatly contributed to  detecting early signs of the disease. As  well as testing for cervical cancer in its  early stages, the Pap smear can also provide useful indications of the health of  the cervix (the base of the uterus that  extends into the vagina).  Cancerous changes are thought more likely  to happen under certain conditions such  as when cells are dividing rapidly. The *  cells that line the vagina are squamous  cells; those that line the endocervical  canal are columnar cells.  In an area of different types of cells  meeting such as in the squamo-columnar  junction on the cervix, there is a zone  of transforming one kind of cell to another. In this transformation zone cancer  cells are thought to sometimes arise.  A scraping of the cells in this area is  taken and smeared on a slide. Technicians  at the Cytology (cell) Lab examine the  slide and report on any signs of inflammation, abnormal cell growth or cancerous  changes in the cells.  Pap Statistics  In the province of B.C. there has been-a  Pap screening program to detect cervical  cancer since 1949, but it wasn't until  1960 that large numbers of Pap tests were  done. Over the years, the particular women  on whom Pap tests were done and the pur  pose of the program greatly changed.  For the first ten years, Pap tests were  done on women to confirm"the diagnosis of  cervical cancer, as well as on women who  attended VD clinics and women in prisons.  In the early 60's, with the help of advertisements by the Canadian Cancer Society,  women without symptoms were encouraged to  get Pap tests through their private physicians. Thus the Cytology Laboratory  (where Pap tests are examined) began to  provide a "well woman" service. At the  same time, many women began using birth  control pills and IUDs and these women  were encouraged to and also requested  annual Pap tests. In addition, the" population of B.C. was growing rapidly.  Unfortunately, more specific information  about who is getting abnormal Pap tests  (such as birth control history, geography,  occupation)has not been gathered. It is  disturbing that after years of a screening  program, 40 to 50 women will die of cervical cancer this year in B.C. Some of  these women are older immigrants. Some are  older women who do not get regular Pap  tests. Some of these women probably live  in rural areas. A small percentage of  these deaths also occur in both older and  very young women who may have had regular  Pap tests but who nevertheless get fast-  growing disease that does not respond well  to standard treatments.  Cancer screening  The purpose of mass screening programs is  to identify people with undetected disease  or who are at high risk for a particular  condition in order to decrease illness and  deaths. Yet the merits of screening programs are often weighed against the costs  of the program and whether statistics justify it.  Unfortunately, no provision was made years  ago for a rigorous test of the efficacy of  the Pap smear through a random clinical  trial (i.e., one group of women would get  Paps and be followed; the other group of  women would just be followed). Now, because of the Pap test's widespread acceptance as a diagnostic tool, it is no longer possible to do.  In fact, the similarity between the trend  in mortality from cervical cancer in B.C.  where mass screening has reached large  numbers of women, and the corresponding  trend in Ontario (1950-1971) where such  a program was not conducted, has led many  to question the effect of cytological  screening on mortality.  Not only did a Pap screening program relatively not influence the number of women  who died from cancer of the cervix, but a  decline in cervical cancer deaths was  noted before Pap screening programs were  introduced in North America. There are a  number of explanations offered for the  decline in cervical cancer death rates,  ranging from the high rate of hysterectomies already performed (therefore no  cervix present) to hygiene standards that  improved as more people gained access to  indoor plumbing. Fifteen to twenty years  from now how many women will there be who  cannot go on to get cervical cancer simply  because they have no or only part of their  cervix intact?  Practical ideas around how the cervical  cancer death rate could decline immediately include requiring women immigrating  to Canada to get Pap tests as part of  their physical assessment (chest x-ray  radiation is required).  Visiting well-women clinics in rural  areas such as one established in northern  Vancouver Island also make Pap tests more  accessible to women who do not seek out  the one doctor in town for gynecological  Cervical self-examination  Learning to do cervical self-exams with  a speculum is an important part of the  process of women beginning to take control  of and responsibility for our own bodies.  Just looking at your cervix regularly with  a plastic speculum, mirror and flashlight  is useful even from a conventional medical  point of view: you will learn to spot  changes, early signs of infection, pregnancy and cellular changes which might indicate problems. Seeing your cervix can  also be helpful in doing healing visualizations.  Self-examis also for many women an important emotional experience. Having a good  look at our external and internal genitals  is a very good way to face up to and start  to change the fear and hatred of our female bodies which this male-dominated culture has taught us. For us to say that our  health (and not just our illness) is our  business above all, that our bodies are  our own to use as we please, and that our  interest in all parts of ourselves is legitimate, is a feminist statement.  Taking the  Pap Smear  Anyone can learn to take good Pap tests:  a concern for thoroughness seems to be  the best quality to look for in' a practitioner. Of course, proper labelling of the  slide and/or container and lab slips is  important.  The best time to take a Pap smear is just  before or at ovulation when the estrogen  (hormone) level is high. The cells are  flatter and therefore easier for the lab  technician to read. This is not a reason  to restrict having Pap tests done at  other times, but it seems worthwhile to  try to arrange the timing if a repeat or  follow-up smear is especially required.  Extra mucus or vaginal discharge should  be gently swabbed away before a smear is  taken and the Pap should be taken before  the bimanual is performed. (This exam is tc  feel the cervix, uterus and ovaries. One  hand is on top on the abdomen; the other  inside the vagina).  The two techniques which yield the most  accurate results from a Pap test are:  getting the whole cervix in view through  the speculum, and taking a full 360 degree  circular sweep of the cervix without  folding over the cells by repeating the  already-scraped area.  Because so few cells are gathered, it  seems a good idea to make two slides if  possible. A nurse practitioner we know  not only makes two slides from the spatu- February 83 Kinesis supplement 3  la scraping, but also makes a slide containing swabbed cells from the os and  vaginal pool on every woman.  Disturbing the cells  The outermost layer of cells on the cervix is what is scraped and put on a slide  for detection of abnormalities. The age  of the cells is one characteristic the  lab technician looks for: cancerous cells,  for example, grow faster and look "younger". So it is important not to disturb the  layer of cells for atleast 24 hours before a Pap test is done.  Douching will disturb the cells. Swimming,  bathing, and intercourse are O.K., as far  as we know. The use of medications, herbal  remedies, and spermicides may or may not  muck up the slide and interfere with the  technician's visibility. Since the lubricants usually used in routine pelvic  exams are not used when a Pap test is  taken, this seems to indicate that the  less chemical and other ingredients immediately in the area, the better the slide.  Two cervical conditions, erosion and ever-  sion, are often confused and debated.  The women's health movement has learned a-  lot about these two conditions and has  clarified what they are.  Eversion occurs  when the position of the columnar and squamous cells are changed..  The red columnar  cells which are normally inside the os are  pushed to the outside. Usually we see only  squamous cells which are pink like the vaginal walls.  The difference is as striking  as that between the lip and facial skin.  The function of the types of cells is quite  definite and eversions have a ring shape  to them.  Erosion is quite different from eversion.  It means that possible trauma has occurred  to damage the cervix. An erosion, as the  word implies, means that your cervix has  actually lost some cells and the raw sur-  face^ %s  exposed. The lesion is clearly  visible as a pink red spot on the cervix.  There will not be a definite border of the  redness; it will be just like a graze  appears on the outside of the skin.  An erosion may cause a runny, white discharge (leukorrhea). Women who use a speculum regularly will easily be able to see  both eversions and erosions.  There is considerable controversy about the  causes of both erosions and eversions.  Possible causes of eversions are the pill  or any synthetic estrogen. IUDs, or more  particularly the IUD string, intercourse  and the use of tampons are possible causes  of erosion. Some people say that any penetration of the vagina by a hard object  (such as a penis or tampon) will cause  enough trauma to cause an erosion in some  cases, but this is disputed by others.  Erosions used to be referred to as cervicitis, particularly when the woman complained of a discharge. Cervicitis (inflammation of the cervix) used to be regularly  treated with sulpha drugs and cauterization. Advanced lab techniques have determined that many instances of cervicitis  have actually been treatable infections  (sulpha drugs not being the drug or remedy  of choice).  Another sign of erosion is frequently a  "friable" (easy to bleed) cervix. This is  particularly evident after a wooden spatula is used to take a Pap test. Painful  intercourse followed by a friable cervix  on exam or spotting after intercourse is  reason to get cultures and a Pap test  done.  It may also occur in a particular position  of intercourse or during a time when the  cervix is more forward in the vagina and  in these cases could be prevented by refraining from that position or by paying  attention to the menstrual cycle.  Indeed  some erosions and eversions may occur  only at certain times in the cycle. We  have even heard that redness on the cer-  i ass  }  1  I                J  f*  1  ^*a*^  Uy  I ~*  i  f  CO  1  5  V)  my>  m  o  1  Z  Pap smear: Cells being  taken  Pap  smear: Cells being  taken  Pap  smear: Cells being taken  <  E  from the face of the cervix  from the vagina  from the  opening of the cervix  vix is thought to be more common in the  summer.  Eversions do not necessitate treatment.  It is possible that the woman has an eversion which is a normal condition for her.  Some doctors think that the more exposed  columnar cells might be more prone to infections or abnormal cell changes.  .It is becoming more common practice that  if the Pap test and cultures are negative,  then the erosion can be left to see if it  resolves itself. Cauterization and cryosurgery are possible treatments for  erosion. The elimination of pills, IUDs  and tampons might heal erosion. Some  women's centres suggest using herbal  poultices, increasing the potassium in  the diet (good for healing mucus membranes) , and inserting vitamin E capsules  for healing erosions.  The relationship between erosion and eversion and cervical cancer is not known.  It seems that the condition is not related,  but the same causes for erosions and  eversions may also cause abnormal cell  changes. It used to be a.more popular  idea that chronic irritation or inflammation like cervicitis could lead to  cancerous cell changes.  in any case, it is important to note that  such cervical abnormalities are most commonly not signs of cervical cancer, and  that cervical cancer cells can appear  with a perfectly healthy looking cervix  to the naked eye.  Infection  Cervical cells that rest in an environment  of chronic inflammation from infection or  overgrowth of organisms in the vagina can  look abnormal and even cancerous-like.  Cultures testing and slides for organisms  (yeast, hemophilus - now called Gardner-  ella g  gonorrhea and trichomonas) should  be taken at the same time as a Pap smear.  Unfortunately, when the Pap comes back  abnormal, the culture results are not  always noted. The culture results can return from the lab weeks before the Pap  results return. The doctor or clinic may  not associate the results of an abnormal  culture with the abnormal Pap.  Another problem is that overgrowth of  yeast and Gardnerella is frequently not  treated unless the woman has symptoms  (itching or smelly copious vaginal discharge) and thus the lab report is considered "normal". Venereal warts may be  treated or overlooked without associating  their presence with an abnormal Pap test.  There are alternatives to the usual antibiotics and other medications used to  clear up vaginal infections. Some infections (like Haemophilus) can be very difficult to eradicate. It is,however, important to at least try some alternative  treatments before using Flagyl, the drug  commonly prescribed to treat haemophilus.  Some people consider Flagyl carcinogenic  and if you already have an abnormality, a  potential carcinogen might make your cond  ition worse.  You might also have warts on your cervix.  If you have a history of genital warts,  this is possible. Or, if you have an abnormal Pap and external warts, get rid of  the warts and then repeat the Pap smear.  Sometimes cervical changes will go away.  If you have a small wart on your cervix,  it could be eradicated by a biopsy (cut)  on your cervix or cryosurgery (freezing  method of cauterization). You could also  try having your doctor painting the wart  area with Podophyllin. This method is not  feasible for large wart areas because the  cervix would absorb too much of the Podophyllin which is toxic.  Do not leave warts alone and if your par-.  tner has them, have that person get rid of  them too.  Infections involving the cervix which are  more difficult to culture and require  special collection material are not yet  available in most doctor's offices and  clinics (such as for herpes simplex virus  and chlamydia) and may also influence the  result of a particular Pap test.  According to studies from Sweden, the most  consistent finding on physical examination  that suggests a chlamydial infection involving the cervix is a swab that, after  being put into the os and twirled around,  yields a yellowish discharge (pus). Women  usually have recurrences of herpes sores  on the labia, but during or for a while  after a woman's first (primary) herpes  infection, a culture from the cervix may  be positive for the herpes virus.  Sometimes it may be positive because- there  is actually a herpetic sore on the cervix,  but probably more frequently the woman is  just "shedding virus". Although many  people with herpes do not remember or do  not experience the classical severe  primary, there is a high presence of virus  in the genital area at this time that may  last for a few weeks or months.  Although there is no data on the correlation between first herpes infections and  abnormal Pap tests, it seems wise to delay  the Pap until the virus is no longer  present on the cervix. There does not  seem to be any reason to avoid getting a  Pap test during a recurrent herpes infection.  Another virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV) has  been discovered in the picture of cervical  cancer. Women do not seem to manifest  signs of infection in the pelvic area from  CMV, but little is known about this virus  so far.  We recommend that all infections which  may influence the way cervical cells  appear at the time of a Pap test be  treated and/or resolved before an additional Pap test or colposcopy be undertaken.   Many times abnormal Pap tests will  return to normal once the cervix returns to  a more hospitable environment and organisms  that cause inflammation and discharge are  continued on page 5 4 Kinesis supplement February 83  What test results mean  When reports are returned to the doctor or  clinic that submitted them, they will include the following information:  • a class number between I and IV  • written cytological interpretation  (interpretation of the cells) labelled  mild, moderate or marked (severe)  • it may include a possible diagnosis  • it may contain a recommendation for  further investigation for example, repeat  Pap in 4 months or colposcopy (microscope  examination of the cervix).  In understanding the results, the written  interpretation of the cells is more important and accurate than the class number.  The meanings of the reports are as follows:  Class X. Sufficient cells not seen. This  means either there were not enough cells  on the cervix or the practitioner did not  take an adequate smear.  Class I.     No abnormal cells seen.  Class II.    Abnormal cells are present.  Inflammation may be seen (from infection,  for example) or abnormal cell changes  (dysplasia). There may also be a comment  on the state of maturation (stage of cell,  growth). Some of the cells that are normally deeper in the surface layers of the  cervix may be seen on the outside layer.  These (dyskariotic cells) are growing at  an abnormal rate because the usual growth  pattern is to develop in the inner layer  and move outwards.  Class III.     This category shows very abnormal growth with evidence of severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (cancer contained in a localized surface area).  Class. IV.     This smear contains cells that  may be similar to Class III, but with  evidence the lab considers shows that the  cancer has spread beyond the local area.  B.C. Statistics  Of the 1.2 million women in B.C. today,  500,000 cervical smears will be examined  and processed this year by the Lab in  Vancouver. Twenty thousand (4%) of all the  Pap tests done will show abnormal cells.  Two thousand of these abnormal tests (10%  of the abnormals) will show carcinoma in  situ; three to four thousand will show  dysplasia; and the remaining 15,000 (75%)  will be abnormal (Class II) due to inflammation and other cell changes not cancerous.  Fifteen years ago, the peak age for carcinoma in situ was 35. Today the peak age  for this condition is 28, with the average,  age of onset of dysplasia being a few  years younger. Between 1960 and 1967, the  incidence of carcinoma in situ doubled.  An advantage of the centralized laboratory  system is that striking trends like  these can be recognized.  Unlike other organs within our bodies, the  cervix can be easily observed via the  speculum. Doctors have described various  types of abnormal cell growth on the cervix, but these descriptions do not result  from what can be seen by the naked eye.  Diagnosis depends upon microscopic examinations of Pap smears and biopsies (tissue  samples).  A Pap smear can contain as few as a half a  dozen cells. The lab technician or pathologist makes decisions based upon their  own experience and techniques. These are  not always scientific. They can depend on  the quality of the sample; what area the  cells came from; how well the slide was  prepared both at the time it was taken and  later in the lab. Sometimes it is difficult  to determine which category abnormal cells  fit into. "One man's dysplasia is another  man's carcinoma in situ." Nevertheless,  lab reports become the decisive judgments  on women's experiences.  Is There a  "Natural"  Development  of Cervical  Cancer?  "One man's dysplasia  is another man's  carcinoma in situ"  The medical profession cannot explain why  or how these abnormal changes occur. That  knowledge could give them a cure for cancer. So far there are only theories and  observations. Pap smears are part of a  detection system that is based on the  expectation that dysplasia will become  carcinoma in situ which will become invasive cancer. This is called the natural  progression of cervical cancer.  Because of these beliefs, in the United  £ States dysplasia and carcinoma in situ  have been lumped together under one common  term, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia  (new abnormal cell growth). CIN is a broad  term used to encompass the spectrum of  lesions that other labs and clinicians  prefer to designate more specifically  (mild, moderate and severe dysplasia and  carcinoma in situ). These different categories are defined through degree of microscopic abnormality within categories CIN  grades 1, 2 and 3. In fact, CIN grade 3  combines severe dysplasia with carcinoma  in situ. This means that women with dysplasia could be treated the same as  women with carcinoma in situ. CIN terminology has hot reached widespread  acceptance in Canada.  However, its implications surface in British Columbia with its large centralized  screening program. Women with moderate to  severe dysplasia may be treated in the  same manner as those with carcinoma in  situ.  There are medical disagreements about this  inevitable progression toward cancer. Statistics show that many women with invasive  cancer have progressed from dysplasia and  carcinoma in situ. But only a small percentage of women with dysplasia or carcinoma in situ will ever develop invasive  cancer. Not all women follow that progression. There is no way to determine which  women will develop invasive cancer and  which will not. In fact, there is disagreement about whether carcinoma in situ is  really a cancer or just an abnormality  which may precede cancer. So medical treatment has been developed as a mass practice  for all of us who have abnormal Pap smears  because of what happens to a smaller percentage of women.  Of course there are risks involved in try- •  . ing to decide whether a particular woman  will develop invasive cancer. We are presenting many facts which we consider of  importance for individual women trying to  decide upon treatment for their abnormal  smear results. Using this information  we can make better judgements of how to  treat ourselves or what treatment to  accept, rather than just accepting the  current BrC. mass program.  Generally the medical literature states  that it takes from ten to twenty years to  develop invasive cancer. The average age  of women with carcinoma in situ is usually  thought to be at least ten years younger  than women with invasive cancer. However,  there are exceptions to this and so the  estimates range from one to twenty years.  The estimates of those developing invasive  cancer from carcinoma in situ range from  10% to 20%, although cautious medical  opinions would see it as much higher.  In B.C. "the exact proportion that progresses is uncertain, but it is probably  between 26% and 53% for carcinoma in situ  .and between 19% and 38% for dysplasia and  carcinoma in situ."  The -figure suggests that many cases regress  (return to normal) - between 50% and 70%.  Dysplasia seems to play little part in a  progressive natural history; regression .  being the rule rather than the exception.  Regression rates for carcinoma in situ  have been estimated at 25% to 30%.  Besides progression to invasive cancer  and regression back to normal cells, some  abnormalities will remain the same for  years. Unfortunately some cases of invasive cancer develop directly from dysplasia \  without ever being classified as carcinoma  in situ; while other evidence shows that  invasive cancer can develop quickly in  women over 40 without going through any of  the early stages. Overall, women with a  history of abnormal Pap smear results run  a higher risk of developing cervical cancer than the general population. One study  states the risk is six times greater.  Some doctors conclude that one third of  treatments (usually cone biopsy) are unnecessary because the abnormality would  have gone away without treatment. Many  British doctors criticize doctors in  North America for over use of surgery  in this manner. Our search for answers  about cervical abnormalities shows us  there is still alot to be learned as  well as conflicting views to be resolved.  Yet many doctors proceed as though they  have a scientific base for their treatments. We are often unaware of which  tendency each physician adheres to. February 83 Kinesis supplement 5  Influences on Abnormal Pap Results  As they do with other types of cancer,  medical researchers often search for an  individual organism and, often, a single  cause to explain cervical cancer. Opinions  emphasizing the importance of individual  lifestyles as a cause of disease are prominent. Many of us have read about the  sexual "promiscuity" or "multiple partners"  of women with cervical abnormalities.  Individual differences in personal habits  do affect health in all societies. However, lifestyle arguments obscure important sources of illness and put the burden  of good health solely on the individual.  They also do not acknowledge thee limitations of modern medicine.  Many carcinogens are present in workplaces,  environments, food and in genetically  inherited characteristics. Rather than  blaming women for cervical cancer, we  have tried to gather data on the numerous  theories accounting for cervical cancer  and cervical abnormalities. And we have  tried to fit these theories with the observations we have made about womens own  experiences and the biases of the medical  establishment.  Cervical abnormalities and pre-cancers  seem to be many things. We cannot say to  the reader that any one factor is the  cause. There seem to be many. Also there  many be a number of factors affecting a  woman at a given time and it is the way  that they interact with each other which  many influence her susceptibility to a  carcinogen. Some of these facts are regarded as "initiators" (influences that  can trigger cancer); others are "promoters"  (influences that make an environment more  conducive to the development of cancer).  It is up to each of us to study the material and figure out which items are relevant to our particular lives. Cervical  abnormalities seem to be different occur-  ances in different women.  The effects of sex hormones  The most famous cause of abnormalities on  the cervix is DES. DES is diethylstilbe-  strol, often simply called stilbestrol.  It was the first hormone product to be  named a human carcinogen. Some young women  exposed in the womb to DES in the 1940's  and 1950's developed cancer in the 1960's  and 1970's. The kind of cancer they developed is called adenocarcinoma and  occurs in glandular tissue.  In normal women, the vaginal lining has no  such tissue, but the vaginas of most  daughters of women who took DES while  pregnant have many tiny glands. This  affects not only the cervix but the vaginal wall and requires major surgery,  although there is debate as to how extensive the surgery should be. The large  majority of DES daughters may never get  cancer at all. However the chances of DES  daughters developing an abnormal Pap are  ten times higher than normal. One in 25  DES daughters may have carcinoma in situ  by age 30. Many more will have dysplasia  and other changes that should be attended  to. It is possible that up to half of DES  daughters may need minor surgery before  they leave their twenties.  DES and menopause estrogens, first marketed about 1940, were not finally proved  carcinogenic in humans until the 1970's -  a thirty year interval. The pill (oral  contraceptive) was not marketed until  1958 (for medical conditions) and 1960 (as  a contraceptive). The Seamans, authors of  Women and the Crisis in Sex Hormones,  think it will be remarkable if the pill,  alone among estrogen products, fails to  cause cancer in the same sites in humans  as in animals.  There has been much controversy about the  effect of birth control pills on cervical  cells. Pro-pill studies range from those  saying that the pill has no influence  (like the 1982 Walton report on Cervical  Cancer Screening Programs  in Canada) to•  those few recent, controversial studies  that say the pill "protects" women from  cancers.  A study of 86,000 Quebecoise found a significant excess of cervical dysplasia of  oral contraceptive users compared to the  general population. According to the  Seamans, "One in five pill users develop  a suspicious Pap after three or four  years." Another study says that the risk  is highest among women who have used them  for ten years or longer.  There has been some controversy also about  what the abnormal cells portend. Some  doctors construe this as a very early  stage cancer and they advocate surgery.  Others think that it is benign - just a  typical abnormality of the pill. Epithelium of the cervix is a known target for  hormones and is considerably altered by  estrogen and progesterones. This is because the structure and function of the  cervical mucosa is responsive to hormonal  changes in the body.  As women stay on the pill, .the uterine  lining grows progressively thinner and  the uterine glands look abnormal. The  Seamans say that the "abnormal cells  found in the Pap smears of many pill users  much resemble those observed in patients  with folate deficiency anemia." In other  words, this could be a folic acid deficiency. There is also a case of 2 women over  60 who were diagnosed with cervical malignancy. They simultaneously were found to  have long-standing pernicious anemia (low  iron in the blood because the body cannot  absorb B12). They were treated with vitamin B12 and had normal cell growth in subsequent biopsies.  Several studies say that the pill may be  a promoter rather than an initiator of  cancer. They say that women who already  have dysplasia and then take the pill have  an increased risk of cancer.  Infections  In the last few years cancer research has  focused on isolating a single virus as a  major factor in the development of cancer.  It is no surprise therefore that the  herpes virus is receiving much publicity  for its assumed role in cervical cancer.  This theory is based on assumptions that  cervical cancer behaves like a venereal  disease; that is, cervical cancer is more  frequent among women who have had many  sexual partners. Cervical cancer is  virtually absent in adult women who have  never had intercourse. One of the earliest  references to this point was made over a  century ago by Rigoni-Stern who reported  a low incidence of uterine cancer among  Catholic sisters in Verona, Italy. A  1950's study reported that no cases of  cervical carcinoma had been found in a  population of 13,000 nuns during a period  of twenty years.  Older studies associated trichomonas,  gonorrhea and syphilis with cervical cancer. However, while the incidence of  trichomonas and syphilis has diminished,  the number of cases of cervical dysplasia  has increased. One researcher says that  the trends of high incidence of sexually  transmitted infections for younger women  correlated with later trends of mortality  from cervical cancer when those women are  older. These theories often rely heavily  on the sexist image of the "promiscuous"  female.  continued on page 6  from Through the Looking Glass  continued from page 3  Paps after menopause  As we get older, the squamo-columnar junction and the zone of transformation move  further up into the endocervical canal.  It then becomes very important when Pap  tests are taken that this area is sampled  accurately. If adequate sampling of the  cells is not obtained, (the Lab will detect this and request a smear from the  endocervical canal) a swab can be inserted into the os and twirled to obtain  cells.  Post-procedure  Vt?<$  Cells collected for a Pap smear are dead  surface cells. Growing cells from underlying layers of the cervix move up as they  grow older. Probably cells regenerate to  the surface of the cervix about once a  month. One opinion we heard was that it  takes three months for this process to  occur. Three months is also the shortest  interval at which the provincial Cytology  Laboratory requests a repeat smear and  which is considered immediate follow-up.  After any procedure which disturbs the  cells on the cervix, it is unwise to  repeat the Pap before the new layer of  cells has reached the surface. Otherwise  a false finding might be the result of  the test (all the remaining abnormal cells  which may still be developing may not have  reached the surface).  Wait a minimum of one to three months  before repeating the test.  IUDs tend to cause cells mimicking abnormal cancerous cells (probably the result ■  of their strings hanging through the  cervical os into the vagina). Pap tests  should only be done more than a month  after the IUD is removed.  Menstruation  Blood interferes with the reading of the  cells also, and so Pap tests are not worth  doing during menstruation. Immediately  following menstruation there can be too  many endometrial cells present (cells  from the lining of the uterus that are  different from the cervical cells. The  endometrial cells get washed down through  the cervix because of menstruation).  Therefore, during menses and for the few  days after, Pap tests are not advised to  be taken.  Post Hysterectomy  If the cervix has remained intact, a Pap  test should be done as usual. If the cervix has been removed and a cuff is at the  back of the vagina, a scraping of the  cells that line the vaginal vault and  walls should be taken. 6 Kinesis supplement February 83  Lesbians  There have been no studies including lesbians in the cervical cancer picture. While  we know lesbians who have had abnormal Pap  tests, these women had all been with a man  or men even many years previously in their  lives.  Viruses  It cannot be certain that herpes simplex  virus type 2 (the type of herpes virus  most isolated from genital herpes) is  either necessary or sufficient to cause  cancer of the cervix. But the evidence  associating herpes with cervical cancer is  that a large number of women with cervical  abnormalities have an antibddy against  herpes. This shows that they have been  exposed to the virus or have had an active  infection at some time. Researchers have  also found the herpes virus in tissue  biopsy cells from women with both abnormal  and cancerous cervical cells.  The virus also seems to be a significant  risk factor in the transformation of normal cells into defective ones. The risk of  cervical cancer for women with genital  herpes is six times greater.  Another related theory sees the Papillomavirus (PV) as the key culprit. Papillomavirus is the virus that produces venereal warts. The first to describe cells  from these warts was Papanicolaou in only  1960. Researchers find evidence of PV in  as high as 70% of women reported with mild  dysplasia. There is also some connection  between genital warts and cancer of the  penis. As many as 33% of men with penile  cancer may have evidence of warts.  Since 1976 some pathologists have described  a manifestation of the virus other than  the usual raised wart (condylomata). This  one has flat and inverted cells and may  possibly be a forerunner of the raised  warts. When a Pap test returns reporting  "koilocytotic" cells (spoon-shaped or hollow cells), this is evidence of the wart  virus.  A woman may have been treated for external  warts in the past or may have had no knowledge of them and may still carry the  virus in her body. Actual raised warts on  the cervix are unusual. Some say that the  PV can be latent in the body for years  and reappear when the body is at a low  point. And it can reappear anywhere, not  necessarily on the cervix. The only absolute test for PV at this point is through  an electron microscope.  A Quebec pathologist, Alexander Meisels,  is conducting research about PV and cervical cancer. He and his coworkers report  that samples of abnormal cervical cells  with evidence of PV were open to errors  of interpretation. The atypical cells  produced by PV are difficult to diagnose  because they mimic dysplasia or carcinoma  in situ or even invasive cancer. This is  both on smears and colposcopy (a microscopic examination of the cervix). So it  would seem that some abnormal Pap smears  are really a result of PV.  These researchers suggest that the very  high incidence of dysplasia and carcinoma  in situ among young women can be accounted  for by the presence of PV. Reid reports  that the virus was seven times more prevalent in these women. No one knows whether  PV is responsible for or contributes to  cervical cancer. The majority of PV infections regress spontaneously within a  year. Meisels wants to see the flat wart  condition added as a stage in the progression of cervical cancer before dysplasia.  Male role  Other prominent theories focus on the  presence of carcinogens in the male ejaculate. These theories tend to take the  blame off the woman and look at the "high  risk" male. One theory is based on the  fact that sperm contains an enzyme (protein which breaks down large molecules  into small ones) that can eat away at cell  wall tissue. When a new population of cells  are regenerating and the new cell walls  are thin, the sperm enzyme can more easily  get inside those cells. This causes some  to start dividing, resulting in abnormal  cell growth, and if all other necessary  influences are present, possible future  cancer. The trouble is, the sperm can't  distinguish between cells that are eggs  and the cells of the cervix. Researchers  in the States also see the activity of  this enzyme as a possible cause of prostate (male gland near the bladder) cancer in men.  Concurrently with the development of these  sperm theories is an increase of testicular cancer in men. An article in Mother  Jones  magazine blames carcinogens in the  environment for the increase in cancer  and sterility, but never mentions the  possible effects of this on women. We  know of several women who had abnormal  Pap results when their partners had testicular cancer.  A 1955 study in England suggested the  high mortality rate from cervical cancer  of women in seaboard towns might be related to cancer of the scrotum in fishermen. A four year study by McMaster University's Occupational Health Program  recently discovered a higher rate of  prostate cancer among smelter workers. Not  only must we pay attention to carcinogens  in our environment and our own workplaces,  but also to the workplace hazards of male  sexual partners.  The times when a woman's cervical cells  are most vulnerable to abnormal changes  are at puberty, first pregnancy, a few  weeks following the birth of a child and  possibly while on oral contraceptives.  Regeneration of new populations of cervical cells is a response to hormonal  fluctuation. Some would also question  Other studies look at barrier methods of  birth control. The most striking is a two  year study of women with biopsy-proven  dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. Less than  half the women were not treated surgically,  but were advised to use condoms. One  hundred and thirty six of 139 women showed  complete regression of the disease within  five months and had Class I Pap results.  Other studies show diaphragm users had a  significantly less risk in comparison with  other contraceptive users.  The study surmises that women who use  diaphragms begin so at a later age than  other methods. This may or may not mean  that age of first intercourse is later  also.  "Poor and working  most likely to die of  class women are  cervical cancer."  whether cervical cells go through this  regeneration during each monthly cycle in  response to hormonal fluctuations every  month.  The reason for the vulnerability has to  do with the position of the squamo-  columnar junction in relation to the vagina and uterus. At these vulnerable times  the squamo-columnar junction is pushed  further out into the vagina. Later it  retreats up into the uterus via the Os.  The columnar cells are more exposed and  not as "tough" as the squamous cells.  They therefore may be more susceptible  to carcinogens.  It is also possible that tears on the cervix from childbirth may not repair properly  and the resulting scar tissue may be more  susceptible to changes.  There are many studies whiah list early  j  age of first intercourse as one of the  factors of cervical cancer. Yet many of  these studies also list multiple partners  as important as early age of first intercourse, and often point to facts about  prostitutes having higher rates of cervical cancer. Our evidence suggests that a  woman may develop dysplasia or cervical  cancer even if she had only one male  partner in her lifetime.  In a study about women who work as prostitutes in Taiwan the multiple partner  theory is contradicted. Those women did  not have a higher percentage of cervical  cancer than other women. Because of cultural customs, women in Taiwan do not have  intercourse in their teens.  Inuit women in northern Ontario were  screened for the first time in the 1960's.  Researchers expected to find dysplasia  and carcinoma in situ not only because of  no previous screening, but also because of  cultural acceptance of early sexual intercourse and multiple partners. No instances  were found.  One fascinating study says that the risk  of developing cervical cancer is increased  among partners of men who at some other  time were with other women who developed  cervical cancer. There is an English  study of fourteen "marital clusters" in  which two or three wives of the same men  may have at least carcinoma in situ.  There are also many general articles about  the role of sperm. Some say that women  who are partners of men with vascectomies  have less cervical cancer than women in  the population as a whole. The risk of  cervical cancer is about four times  greater if the partner is not sterilized.  Some studies have looked at barrier methods (diaphragms,and foam and condoms) together and find the risk decreased with  increasing years of use, especially among  women developing severe dysplasia. In a  study denying that oral contraceptives  contributed a risk to cervical abnormality, statistics for B.C.. showed that a  higher percentage of women using barrier  methods were free of cervical abnormalities . Whether it is the absence of the  pill or the decreased exposure of the  cervix to ejaculate while using a barrier  method or both that lowers women's risk  for, cervical abnormalities is not yet  sorted out.  Environmental  In addition to these theories are many of  environmental and psychological natures.  What cancer study would be complete without a section about smoking? In a study  in rural Nova Scotia over a ten year period researchers found that the most important risk factor in developing cervical  cancer was having a husband who smoked.  In.that study the woman's own smoking  patterns had no significant effect on Pap  smear results.  However, there is other evidence linking  a woman's smoking with her risk of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. A 1980 study  found that women smoking 20 or more cigarettes a day had three to four times the  risk for abnormal cervical cells than  non-smokers.  A 1982 study hypothesizes that "since the  products of tobacco smoke are excreted in  breast fluids of non-lactating women 15  minutes after smoking a cigarette, it is  possible that a carcinogen can be absorbed  from cigarette smoke, transported through  the circulatory system, and secreted by  the cervical surface cells where it may  act as a promoter or co-carcinogen on  cells already affected by a carcinogen."  There are also articles trying to evaluate  whether smoking associations are influenced by Vitamin A (or beta carotene)  intake. Recent research has shown a protective effect of this dietary factor for  several tumours of squamous cell types.  Columnar and squamous cells are also found  in the esophagus and lungs. Studies in the  States suspect a beta-carotene deficiency  in lung, esophagus and larynx cancer.  Beta-carotene is a component of Vitamin A.  Carotenes are found in green, yellow and  red vegetables. They are used in the  digestive system, and sent as Vitamin A  directly into the blood. Of several carotenes, beta-carotene has the largest vitamin value and is usually present in the  greatest amounts.  Connections between beta-carotene deficiency and cervical cancer exist. Wynder  looks at the possible relationship between  nutritional deficiency, in particular  Vitamin A, and cervical cancer. Various  nutritional deficiencies may accompany low  socio-economic status. In countries where  the intake of Vitamin A is relatively low  (such as in Latin America) cancer of the  cervix is particularly common. He discusses  how Vitamin A plays a protective role  against carcinogens in mucus-producing  epithelium. In rats, one of the first  clinical manifestations of Vitamin A deficiency are changes to the cervix epithelium. A study from the Albert Einstein  College of Medicine looks at the importance  of beta-carotene to epithelial tissue of  the cervix. But they unexpectedly found  Vitamin C deficiency and intake of refined  foods to be risk factors for severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. A Vitamin C  intake below 30 mg. a day represents a  tenfold increase in risk of cervical dysplasia over women whose intake is above  30 mg.  Other carcinogens which have been suggested to us by a number of women are coal-  tar douches and tampons. Feminists suspect  that tampons have contained carcinogens  such as asbestos and talc fibres. Talc  has been proven to' cause ovarian cancer.  Class  Medical literature occasionally mentions  the relationship of economic status to  disease. Higher incomes and education can  mean better basic health education and  safety in the workplace as well as more  regular health care and early disease  detection. This would mean better diets  and better environments. There is agreement in most cervical cancer studies that  poor and working class women are more susceptible to die of cervical cancer than  middle and upper class women.  In their reports about the role of sperm  enzymes in cervical abnormalities, Reid,  Singer and Coppleson make connections  between the ratio of the proteins in sperm  with class standing. The lower the social  class, the greater the proportion of one  of the proteins (histone) which seems  linked with cervical changes.  Other British studies show the class difference clearly. One shows that the wives  of professional men experience mortality  rates only 35% as high as the rates for  all married women. Wives of unskilled  labourers experience rates 181% those of  all married women. An analysis of the cytology records of almost 300,000 women in  Manchester shows that the rates of abnormal findings are highly correlated with  the rates of mortality from cancer of the  cervix when both are distributed according  to the occupation of the husband. Wives of  men who work underground (miners and  quarrymen), fishermen, armed servicemen,  and gas and chemical workers are most  likely to die of cervical cancer.  These facts are echoed in other studies  including one which looks at the patient's  father's occupation. It concludes that  the highest economic status women had a  lower prevalence of CIN than women whose  father had low-paying jobs. This same  study also mentions education as a factor.  The more education a woman has, the less  chance of. cervical cancer. In the United  States, according to figures from the  1960's, black women had a twice higher  rate of cervical cancer than white women.  There are those studies which emphasize  cultural differences rather than class  differences. Usually these studies focus  on marriage patterns, but we do not think  February 83 Kinesis supplement 7  that you can just look at cultural habits  without looking at the underlying social  and economic situations. It has been  common to say that Jewish women get less  cervical cancer than other women. This  has sometimes been related to circumcision  and other times related to monogamous  marriage traditions. While Jewish women  may have experienced less cervical cancer  years ago, cultural and sexual traditions  among Jews have been changing with the  times. Jewish women do get cervical abnormalities. A study in Israel shows that  Oriental Israelis (from Africa and  southern Europe) who are generally poor,  less educated and of a different cultural  background than European Israelis, have a  higher rate of cervical cancer than European Israelis.  Stress  The last of these socio-economic factors  has to do with the relationship of stress  to an individual woman's life. Many studies include references to difficult social  situations of women with cervical cancer  and abnormal Paps. Some of these studies  compare women with cancer of the cervix  with women who have cancer in other parts  of the body like breast cancer. The range  of assessments these articles make as  characteristics of stress in women with  Cervical cancer include recent loss of  family members, unhappy relationships, not  liking the sexual relationship with the  man they are involved with, tendency to  reject the feminine role (one study even  mentions evidence of homosexual conflict ),  The sexism and heterosexism of these  articles makes it difficult to decide  whether there is any validity to the allegations (usually observations by male  researchers).  Much of current cancer mythology serves to  blame the patient for being a "cancer  personality". Susan Sontag is one who has  sought to challenge this conception in  her book Illness as Metaphor.  Psychological and social factors may be of importance for certain women - or they may be  a small part of a more complex situation  for others. "In some as yet unexplained  manner this influence (attitudes, experiences) may include a tendency toward  sensitizing or rendering more susceptible  certain areas of the body to physical  illness in times of stress or trauma. One  end result of such chronic sensitization  could be the appearance of cancer pathology, dependent in addition on the  necessary combinations of 'physiological'  and 'biochemical' factors present."  We have observed many women receiving  abnormal Pap results at times of heavy  stress in their lives, including job  related problems as well as those mentioned above. What we are able to extract  from all those psychological articles and  our experiences is that some women feel  "hopeless" in their situations. "Such a  feeling was portrayed by a complete sense  of frustration for which the individual  woman felt there was no solution. In  addition, the individual woman blamed herself for the frustration having occurred  in the first place."  For some women this manifests itself as  a sense of ambivalence and indecisiveness.  They cannot make decisions about what to  do with their lives. And for whatever  reasons - self image, guilt, societal  expectations of women and the events in  their lives - they may think that things  will never get better. These are difficult  concepts to put into perspective, especially when a woman is faced with the  stress and anxiety of an abnormal Pap  smear result and pressure from doctors. We  want to reiterate that these ideas are  only one of a number of factors we have  discussed. Each woman has to decide what  is important for her. And there are many  ways to work on all the factors we have  discussed. 8 Kinesis supplement February 83  Abnormal Pap?  What you  can do  When you receive notice of an abnormal  Pap smear there can be many explanations  for the result. Here are some suggestions  about what to do when you hear the news.  1. Make sure that your doctor will help  you take the cautious route. If s/he  pushes you too much, maybe you should seek  one who will help you approach this situation conservatively.  2. Ask for a copy of the Pap report so  that you know exactly what it says. Sometimes the number classification is not as  important as what the descriptions says.  3. Even if your smear report does not  mention infection, check the culture. If  there was none done, then do it now. Also  remember that if you have had an outbreak  of herpes, warts or any other genital/vaginal disease at the time of the smear, you  should clear that-up and then repeat the  smear at mid-cycle.  4. Once you are sure that you do not have  any infection Or virus then you can consider the next step. If you receive a  result of Class III or IV, or possibly a  moderate to severe dysplasia, your doctor  will then recommend that you have a colposcopy.  A colposcope is a specially designed  microscope with a very powerful lens. It  looks like binoculars on a floor stand.  The doctor will insert a speculum into  your vagina and then look through your  vagina at your cervix. The colposcope may  be wired to a video circuit so that you  will be able to see your magnified cervix  on a large TV screen within view of the  examining table. You will not see the cervix as clearly as the doctor can through  the colposcope.  Their use can go beyond screening abnormal cells on the cervix. They are useful  in assessing red spots on the cervix,  cervicitis, eversion or erosion. In Boston  a gynecologist uses one in his office to  check the cervices of all women he fits  with cervical caps to determine whether  the cap has any effect on the cervix over  time.  It seems unlikely that a gynecologist in  B.C. could purchase one for their office  and get paid for their services. There is  an agreement between the B.C. Medical  Association and the Cancer Control Agency  of B.C. that colposcopy is centralized in  hospitals and there is no way for individual specialists to bill the Medical  Services Plan for colposcopy.  Because hospitals and large clinic settings are very intimidating and stressful,  it is useful to do some planning before  your appointment. Talk with your doctor  about whether you want a friend to be with  you when you have the colposcopy appointment. S/he could help allay your fears or  have a list of prepared questions or take  notes for you and make the visit less imposing. Have your doctor arrange with the  clinic or specialist for someone to be  present with you. It is sometimes impossible to arrange this on the spot when you  show up for your appointment.  The current provincial public relations  surrounding the colposcopy imply that it  is "just like" a Pap smear and that it  doesn't hurt at all. It is actually different from the Pap smear. Women who go  in for colposcopy are usually afraid. They  are possibly going to be told that they  have a pre-cancerous or cancerous condition that will require further medical or  surgical treatment. So women are under  considerable stress when they appear for  colposcopy.  The doctor inserts a speculum into your  vagina. Once the speculum is centred on  your cervix, the doctor will then focus  the colposcope on your cervix1 Your cervix will then be swabbed with an acetic  acid (vinegar) solution which washes off  the mucous and shows up any abnormal  areas more clearly.  Frequently there can be white areas of  mucous or discharge on the cervix. It is  only when these white areas (leukoplakia)  cannot be wiped away with a swab that they  are suspicious. Normal cells will absord  acetic solution and the abnormal ones  (including inflamed cells) will not. These  abnormal cells show up as white as opposed  to a normal, pink cervix. Sometimes these  white areas may also be seen by just  looking at the cervix.  If there are white patches and you have  access to the video screen, the doctor  will point out the white patches for you.  If you have never seen your cervix before  or have not done regular cervical self- '  exams, this can be a scary moment.  You should ask the doctor to point out the  zone of transformation. Because the speculum puts pressure on the sides of the  cervix, the inner columnar cells are  pushed forward and can be seen better.  The specialist will be looking at the  white areas in a more detailed way than  s/he will point out for you. They will  be looking at the demarcation lines of the  white and normal areas, the texture of  the areas and whether there are any irregular patterns of blood vessels, for  example. Remember that your cervix is magnified. The white area may look huge to  you. Try to put it into perspective of  how small the cervix is.  Colposcopy is a useful tool to pinpoint  and assess abnormal areas on the cervix.  However, in some instances an infection  or virus can mask pre-cancerous situations. Papillomavirus can be difficult to  distinguish from dysplasia or carcinoma  in situ. So the colposcopy is no more diagnostic than the Pap smear in these situations and is a useless visit until the  infection or virus is gone. This can include women with Class III as well as  Class II from our experience.  Near the end of the visit, the specialist  takes biopsies from the white areas. A  biopsy is a small piece about the size of  a match head which is snipped from the  cervix. This biopsy will contain several  layers of the epithelium (skin) so that  the pattern and depth of changes beneath  the surface can be observed. Different  doctors take different numbers of biopsies. Some take only one from the worst  area. Others take two to five from all  around the cervix to get a good picture of  the development of the abnormality. If  the lesion (abnormal area) is small, the  biopsy may cut all or most of it out.  You may feel a pinch on your cervix as the  doctor takes.the punch biopsies. A tampon  is inserted against your cervix to check  the small amount of bleeding that occurs.  A few women feel mild to moderate cramping later on in the day.  Especially if there is no video screen,  try t;o get the gynecologist to make a  diagram of your cervix for you. This  would show where s/he sees abnormal areas.  This will be useful to you as you decide  what treatment to follow.  The sampling of tissue from the biopsy  (punch or cone) is sent to the pathology  (study of disease) lab. Through a more  elaborate process than that of Pap cytology, slides are prepared and examined  under a microscope again.  Not all the pathologists analyze biopsies  in the same manner. The best report for  you is one which contains a micro report  as well as a diagnosis. That is, as well  as saying the extent of abnormalities of  cells, the lab report will give an idea of  how deep the abnormal cell penetration is,  possibly what formation it takes, is it  wart-like, etc.  So be sure to ask the gynecologist performing the biopsy to request that a micro  report be included in your lab report.  This may also be important because some  pathologists include the information from  your Pap smear when evaluating the specimen.  We think that it is important to see each  piece of information separately. It may  be that the Pap smear and biopsy differ  and this may be important in a woman's  assessment of what to do. Her perspective  may be different from that of the  pathologist.  It takes anywhere from a few days to a few  weeks to get the report back from the lab.  The gynecologist will see this report and  make a recommendation as to treatment.  This recommendation goes with the lab  report to your doctor who then contacts  you.  Biopsy Report  The biopsy report can include the following diagnoses:  benign - no abnormality  dysplasia  carcinoma in situ  micro-invasive carcinoma  invasive carcinoma  If cancer cells (malignancy) extend below  the epithelial surface cells, it is categorized as micro-invasive or invasive  cancer depending on the depth (l-5mm).  Different gynecologists and pathologists  use different measurements within this  range to separate micro-invasive from  invasive cancer.  Once you have seen the biopsy report and  the gynecologist's recommendations, it is  time to evaluate what course of action to  take. Even if your condition is diagnosed  as mild to moderate dysplasia and a  repeat Pap smear in three to six months  is recommended, consideration of the  reasons for your abnormality might be  useful in trying to get back to a Class I.  We cannot stress enough that you can give  yourself time to figure out what is best  for you, no matter how much pressure you  may get from specialists and doctors.  Many regressions occur without a woman  doing anything different. Many of these  occur within a year. Some treatments we.  will mention seem to work in about two to  four months. It would seem that a woman's  age is related to her possibility of reversing her smear result. Usually she is  under 40 years old. We do know of a woman  over 40 who changed her Class IV result to  Class I in six months. The amount of time  you allow yourself will reflect how nervous you may be about waiting.  You might also want to set up a regular  schedule for repeating Pap smears, say once  every three months.  The time we urge you to take is also time  to think. You may want to analyze what has  been happening in your life; what is the  best treatment or what you are really capable of doing. This is a stressful situation. It is easy to feel overwhelmed as it  is happening to you. In a month or two you  may be feeling better and willing to try  different things.  Pregnant women  with abnormal paps  It is possible to care for most pregnant  women without resorting to cryosurgery or  cone biopsy. Women with severe dysplasia  and carcinoma in situ can be seen monthly  until delivery and Pap tests, colposcopy  and bite biopsy can be done at any point  to monitor cervical changes. If invasive  cancer is suspected and a cone biopsy performed, bleeding complications are the most  common and fetal loss can occur in 5-10%. February 83 Kinesis supplement 9  Alternative  Treatments  1. If you are heterosexual, sexually  active and using an IUD or the pill or no  birth control, you might want to switch to  condoms (and foam) or a diaphragm (and  spermicide) for three to twelve months.'  In the condom study we referred to, most  women reversed to normal in three to six  months, though there were a couple of  women for whom it took close to a year.  You might also want to consider some of  the lifestyle suggestions mentioned later.  2. If you use use oral contraceptives,  then you should consider stopping. Folic  acid deficiency is one of many side effects of the pill. If you want to use the  pill or have just come off it recently,  then you might want to consider folic acid  therapy. In a study completed in January  of 1982, 10 mg. of folic acid daily for  three months helped some oral contraceptive users with dysplasia return to Class  I and seemed to stop any progression to  carcinoma in situ for those who did not  regress.  3. Other vitamin therapy includes C and  A. Vitamin C as cancer therapy is now  accepted in some medical circles. Linus  Pauling's books are helpful places to begin if you are interested.  Vitamin C (like vitamin E and selenium)  acts as an anti-oxidant or de-toxifying  agent in the blood stream. This means that  in collaboration with molecular oxygen  and certain enzymes in the body, vitamin  C converts toxic substances into non-toxic  derivatives that then are eliminated in  the urine. Vitamin C also aids in the regeneration of epithelial tissue. Two  Soviet researchers found that the ascorbic  acid levels in abnormal cervical cells  were depleted compared to normal cervical  tissue.  Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin and  there are no serious side effects if you  use too much. Most of the side effects are  gastro-intestinal discomforts and can be  remedied by decreasing the intake of the  vitamin. Different doctors may recommend  different amounts daily of vitamin C.  The study at the Albert Einstein College  of Medicine found about 100 milligrams  daily important in terms of prevention.  Some doctors say that standard cancer  therapy is at least 10 gm daily. If you  have extended care medical benefits, check  to see whether they will reimburse you for  vitamin C for cancer therapy if you use it  by prescription from a doctor.  4. Do you smoke? Try to stop.  5. If you cannot stop smoking, but can  cut down on your intake, consider vitamin  therapy. It has been suggested that vitamin C may lessen the carcinogenic effect  of cigarette smoking as a risk factor in  lung cancer.  Then there is the beta-carotene influence  we mentioned earlier. Vitamin A is a fat  soluble vitamin and stores up in your  body if you take too much. There are some  severe problems with overdosing. We suggest that you work with a holistic  practitioner and do some reading to decide  how much to take. There are blood tests  which you can have to determine whether  you are taking too much vitamin A.  6. In June, 1982 the American Academy of  Sciences released a report advising that  lower intake of fats would significantly  reduce cancer in the U.S. The report also  suggests moderation in two other areas -  salt-cured or smoked food, and alcoholic  beverages.  Heavy use of alcohol, particularly combined with heavy cigarette smoking, is  associated with cancers of the mouth,  throat and esophagus (squamous cell areas).  There have also been studies linking coffee  and refined foods with increased risk of  cancer.  7. Vitamin C is only one substance which  is essential for efficient working of a-  person's immune system. Our bodies have  certain natural defences against disease,  including cancer.  You might want to work on upgrading your  whole immune system. Vitamins, diet, herbal cleaners, avoiding food you may be  allergic to, may be useful. Get rid of  anything which may clog this sytem and  block maximum utilization of nourishment.  Also any chronic medications which are  used to suppress your immune system such  as cortisone (steroids) could be adversely  affecting your ability to be well.  There are some sensible changes to a wo—.  man's diet which might help her ability to  regain a healthy cervix. Get rid of addictions as much as possible: cut down on  coffee, sugar, alcohol and cigarettes.  Cut down on fats: red meats, smoked meats,  fatty cheeses, butter, fatty fish like  salmon and shrimp. Cut down on refined  foods. This means eating lots of whole  grains, fresh fruits and vegetables, nuts  and seeds.  This kind of diet can be worked out with  the help of a health practitioner such as  a holistic doctor, naturopath, herbalist,  homeopathic doctor, etc. These people may  also have more variations of vitamin therapy than we have mentioned and may use  internal or topical treatments such as  herbs, douches, fasts, etc. Acupuncture  does not seem helpful for cervical cancer.  Also, there is always lots to read, many  other women to talk to about their healing  experiences and lots in the Health Collective files.  8. Last and most difficult to pinpoint is  stress. Many of us lead lives that include  lots of daily stress. There are times  when this is worse"than others. Some of  us who have had abnormal pap results have  been exhausted at the time and working  past our capacities.  Some women's stories about healing themselves involve changing major elements of  their lives like jobs or relationships.  These are not necessarily easy decisions  to make, but certainly seem relevant to  a woman's positive outlook on her future  and ability to heal herself.  Women we know have used the following  techniques to help with stress: autogenic  training, visualizations, meditation,  body and foot massage, yoga, body and  psychological therapy. Different women  use different ones. You may use one for a  while and use another later.  Healing may require hard work. It certainly requires motivation. But a woman learns  a lot about herself in the process and can -  feel better about herself as she works on  herself. These alternative treatments  differ from western medical solutions.  Western medicine has standard treatments  for every woman. Alternatives vary with  each woman. As we have shown, not every  woman develops abnormal cervical cells in  . the same way nor do these abnormalities  always mean the same thing. It is the individual woman who must, in the final analysis, make the decisions about what to  do.  Western medicine puts that decision in  the hands of doctors. Ideally there should  be resource people to help a woman make  her decision. But it doesn't always work  out that way. Whatever methods you choose,  take time to look at them all and decide  what is best for you. It may be that some of  the easier methods do not work for you and  others seem overwhelming. You may fear pro  gression or not have the time to work on  yourself; then cryosurgery or cone biopsy  may be the answer for you.  i%  A  XT *J  ^O  Q  Oq  Throw away the Pill  Use barrier methods  i Addictions  Eat Well and Reduce Stress sis supplement February 83  Medical  Treatments  Cautery  Electrical cautery is now seldom used in  B.C. Electricity produces a current at the  tip of a small instrument which, when  touched to an area of abnormal growth,  destroys the cells. The procedure only  lasts a few minutes, but can cause mild to  moderate pain.  Cryosurgery  With cryosurgery, compressed gas (usually  nitrous oxide), released from a tank into  a gun-shaped instrument expands rapidly  to produce intense cold, freezing the  tissue it touches. This procedure produces  a more uniform area of tissue destruction  than electrical cautery, and deep tissue  beyond the cauterized area is left undamaged. There is also minimal scarring.  Each freezing takes three to four minutes.  Depending upon the size or location of the  lesion, different sized or shaped tips may  be used and several applications of freezing may occur. This procedure may produce  a sensation of coldness in the vaginal area  and cramping.  Normal after effects for both cautery and  cryosurgery include a profuse watery  discharge lasting 1-2 weeks and possible  spotting or bleeding. The watery discharge  sometimes has an odor. In two weeks the  discharge becomes mucus-like and by five  weeks it is essentially gone.  This discharge contains potassium. Any  damage to tissue causes potassium to leave  cells. Potassium is necessary for nerves  to conduct impulses and muscles to contract. Foods high in potassium are bananas,  dates, canteloupa, green leafy  vegetables and citrus fruits.  Patients are advised not to have intercourse or wear tampons during the first  two to three weeks because of the delicate  nature of the cervix. Appointments can  be scheduled immediately following periods so that a woman will not menstruate  for approximately three weeks following  the cryosurgery.  Complications are rare with either procedure though women are asked to lie quietly  for a few minutes after cryosurgery as  some women have a slight flushing sensation following the freezing. Mild cramps  are also possible.  Cryosurgery minimizes surgical risk since  no anaesthetic is necessary and no incisions performed. It also eliminates the  inconvenience of hospitalization since it  is done on an out-patient basis, and  therefore costs a fraction of the fee  charged for cervical conization. Using  this procedure is becoming popular in the  U.S. where the charge for cryosurgery is  about $50 compared to possibly $1000 for  a cone biopsy.  There are now gynecologists urging extensive use of cryosurgery as treatment for  dysplasia and carcinoma in situ instead of  cone biopsy. They require that an endocervical curettage (scraping) be carried  out at the time of the preliminary colposcopy.  An endocervical curettage is a tiny spoon-  shaped instrument which is inserted a  short way up the os and can remove cells  from the lining of the canal. This way a  specialist can tell whether the lesion  extends up the os which it does in a  minority of women.However, a small asymptomatic adenocarcinoma (glandular cancer)  may be revealed by the curettage.  In Britain and some areas of North America  acceptance of conservative treatment with  cryasurgery has been slow, even though the  potential benefits of avoiding cone biopsy  and hysterectomy have been recognized.  Most patients are considered for cryosurgery unless there has been incomplete visualization of the squamo-columnar junction  or any suspicion of invasive cancer.  In one-British study involving cases of  dysplasia and carcinoma in situ in which  the lesion extended up the os, cryosurgery  was done and was successful treatment in  75%. Cryosurgery was successful treatment  in 89% of women whose lesion was completely  seen. Only 30% of all the women went on  to surgery.  There was a marked increase in failure of  cryosurgery in patients with three or more  previous pregnancies. The cervix in such  women often has some irregularity and  scarring which may interfere with uniform  application of the cryotips to the epithelial surface, producing an uneven freezing  with inadequate penetration of the cervix.  Of the women going on to surgery there was  also a higher percentage of lesions extending up the os and larger lesions. There  were some women with these characteristics  who were Class I in follow-up Pap smears  and colposcopy after cryosurgery.  In Vancouver, the prevailing practice is  different. Cryosurgery is usually recommended only if the entire lesion is seen  at colposcopy; the Pap smear and the  biopsy report match; the lesion does not  extend into tlrfl os; and not many cervical  irregularities are present.  Healing takes a while after cryosurgery.  In B.C. you would return for a follow-up  visit in 12 weeks and have a Pap smear.  Some specialists do not see women for more  than 3 months after therapy in order to  give the cervix enough time to heal.  It  does not seem that fertility, labour and  delivery have been adversely affected by  freezing techniques.  The cervix shows some interesting colpos-  copic changes after cryosurgery. The epithelium is thickened. The regrowth of  cells occurs at such a fast pace that they  can look like dysplasia. Also, because of  the cauterizing process the squamo-  columnar junction is usually higher up in  the cervical canal and may not be seen by  the naked eye. It is not a good idea to  get a Pap smear until you are sure that  the healing is finished.  If abnormal cells remain, these usually  show up in the first year after cryosurgery. Once the lesion is eradicated by any  method, the patient appears to be at  no higher risk of development of subsequent cervical lesions than any other  "high-risk" patient.  Some gynecologists stress that this kind  of conservative treatment also requires  good follow-up procedures of colposcopy  and Pap smears. Some women could be considered unsuitable for this use of cryosurgery because they are too "transient"  or irresponsible. This is another instance  of the sexism and class bias of the  system which is deciding which women are  suitable for the least drastic surgery.  For those gynecologists it is easier to  "cut it out" than to stress education and  preservation of women's cervices.  Treatment with laser beams is new and experimental.  It was used in B.C. in the late  70's and discontinued.  Cone Biopsy  Cervical conization is being used with increasing frequency both as a diagnostic  and therapeutic (treatment) procedure for  women with severe dysplasia and carcinoma  in situ. Thus, increasing numbers of women  are being subjected to a procedure which  alters the cervical environment and could  affect fertility, pregnancy outcome,  labour and delivery. In general, the  availability of cone biopsies has decreased the number of hysterectomies  performed.  Standard reasons for having cone biopsy  include: evaluating abnormalities in women with a transformation zone that is not  completely visible colposcopically;  severe Pap smear reports which are not  explained by colposcopy examination,  including a biopsy.  When the entire squamo-columnar junction  is not visible on speculum and colposco-  pic exam, it may be difficult to assess  for the individual woman whether she  wants to proceed with the more drastic  cone biopsy.  The advantage of this procedure in this  situation is that from the cone biopsy  would be deep tissue evidence of cancerous  or normal looking cells. Finding cancerous  looking cells would mean that the procedure was indeed the right one to choose.  Evidence of normal looking cells would  mean that perhaps the procedure was unnecessary and just cryosurgery would have  been sufficient.  Getting some cells from an endocervical  curette is not nearly as effective as the  deep cone cut and will not give you information about the cells underneath the  surface epithelium. The difficulty in  this decision is that the woman may have  cryosurgery and there may be a cancerous  process going on in the endocervical canal  which will go untreated.  Invasive cancer may appear at any time  later in this case. It is this not knowing  that causes doctors and women to frequently agree on the more drastic cone biopsy.  A cone biopsy is a surgical procedure. A  cone shaped piece of the cervix is removed  by instruments inserted vaginally. The  cone is centered on the area defined by  colposcopy. Any gynecologist can perform  a cone biopsy without first performing a  colposcopy. They can be guided by previous  colposcopy instructions from another gynecologist and by iodine staining. February 83 Kinesis supplement 11  The first step is to cut a cone shaped  core around the mouth of the cervix with  a scalpel. Then the core is removed with  an instrument called a tenaculum, which  looks like a long pair of tweezers. Different shapes and depths of cones depend  on different sizes and locations of  lesions.  In B.C. this procedure is often done as  day surgery so that women only need spend  a few hours in a surgical clinic. More  than 250 cone biopsies will be performed  in B.C. this year to treat carcinoma in  situ. (One hundred and thirty were performed in 1970).  Anaesthetic is .used and when it is over  women are awakened while- quite groggy and  then they recuperate at home. In other  areas a woman can spend a couple of days  in the hospital for this surgery. This, of  course, brings up the cost.  At the same time as the cone, the gynecologist will want to perform a D&C (dilation of the cervix and curettage of the  uterus) for diagnostic purposes. Cancerous cells not only arise in squamous  and columnar cells, but also in endometrial cells that line the uterus. These  are different types of cancer.  The D&C is done by scraping the uterine  lining for a sample of cells to determine  whether there is endometrial cancer. A  D&C is a traumatic procedure with risk of  infection and a less dangerous vacuum  aspiration can be done for the same purpose - to examine the contents of the  uterus.  Vacuum aspiration is the removal, by suction, of the contents of the uterus. It  is done by dilating the cervical os and  inserting a tube which is attached to a  suctioning device, usually a hand pump or  vacuum aspirator machine. (Both of these  are also abortion procedures). We mentioned previously that it is only in a small  percentage of women that abnormalities are  found in the uterus.  About 20% of women experience some form  of complication from the cone biopsy  ranging from mild to severe infection and  hemorrhaging.  It is not uncommon that  bleeding can continue for one week. Rest  is suggested, particularly after about a  week to ten days when hemorrhaging is  most likely to occur.  Intercourse and  strenuous activities are prohibited for  several weeks following the operation.  Women who have bleeding complications  should contact their doctor.  Since one fourth to one half of the face  of the cervix is removed, this operation  can have significant effects on both the'  appearance and function of the cervix.  Scar tissue can make the opening of the  cervix much less elastic and the cervical  canal weaker. Dysmenorrhea (menstrual  pain) and bleeding complications are high..  The procedure causes a certain hardening  in the cervical canal making menstruation  outflow more difficult. This can also  contribute to problems in achieving conception, maintaining a pregnancy and  delivering vaginally.  A standard cone biopsy removes certain  cervical glands that produce mucus necessary to conduct the sperm up through the  cervix. The cervix and mucus also have the  function of production against microorganisms entering the uterus or keeping  noxious substances away from the tissue.  Also removed is cervical tissue needed to  hold a baby. Women who are worried about  this can have their cervix stitched with  a particular kind of suture. The sutures  are removed just prior to delivery.  It is possible that the weaker cervix may  dilate too soon causing miscarriage. There  is a slightly higher rate of miscarriage  after conization. Another problem may be  of a pinpoint cervical os which needs  manual dilation (though the delivery could  be uncomplicated).or the cervix may not  dilate enough to accomodate the passage of  the baby's head.  Premature labour and/or delivery may also  be more of a risk. In 1980 in Vancouver a  doctor at VGH reported that women who  gave birth following cone biopsy had more  premature labours (almost twice that of  all birthing women during the same period).  One of the least mentioned disadvantages  of cone biopsies is the possible inaccuracy of the pathology report. Both the quality of the prepared slide and the opinion  of the pathologist varies. Even this description cannot tell whether the abnormality would progress to cancer. Rate of error in the pathology report is about 3-4%.  Success rates for cone biopsy range between 85% and 90% at best, though some  say that cryosurgery is higher (90%). In  fact, in those women who show abnormal  Pap results after conization, another  cone or cryosurgery may be performed. The  second cone would take a larger section  from the cervix and still leave some remnant of the cervix intact.  In other cancers in other parts of the  body, surgeons take care not to cut  through tumours because it has been  thought that this could spread the cancerous growth. Not only do they try to  remove all the cancerous cells in a cone  biopsy, but they also try to remove a  section in which the cancerous cells are  surrounded by a considerable margin of  normal cells. This is so there is little  chance of the cancer arising again in  that site.  Recently when cone biopsy sections from  many doctors in B.C. were looked at by a  panel of pathologists, 25% of the biopsies  were seen to have the cancerous cells  extending to the edge of the section.  Preventing the recurrence of cancerous  cells after a cone biopsy directly depends  on the skill of the surgeon.  Hysterectomy  This alternative is rarely indicated in the  presence of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ  unless there is some other reason for hysterectomy. With invasive cancer, this operation is more frequently advised. The term  covers a number of surgical procedures in  which the uterus is removed. Physicians often associate the uterus with reproduction  alone, instead of acknowledging its value  as a vital organ and the complications that  can occur from this major abdominal surgery.  It is beyond the scope of this work to discuss the treatments of pre-clinical and  invasive cancer. We would encourage women  to seek out all their options before coming  to a decision about hysterectomy, radiation  and chemotherapy.  Late symptoms  Cervical cancer is usually asymptomatic  (without symptoms).  1. Bleeding: after intercourse, in-  between periods, after menopause or menstrual periods which are unusually heavy  and long. The bleeding may also be very  slight.  2. Discharge: marked increase in usual  amount or change in nature, especially  with an unpleasant odour. This is more  commonly a symptom of vaginal infection.  3. Pain: cramp-like or steady pain in  the lower back and/or lower portion of  the abdomen similar to menstrual cramps  that may be worse at night and not relieved by lying down. Low back pain is  also symptomatic of other things.  When doctors train in medical school and  do their internship it is these women with  late symptoms of cervical cancer whom they  see. It is particularly these women who  end up in hospitals. The images of these  women with gross tumours, disfiguring  their bodies or dying stay with these  physicians throughout their years of practice. For some it is the fear of women  proceeding to this late stage of cancer  that motivates them to urge their patients  to undergo surgical treatments now.  The how-often controversy  Pap tests have become a yearly.ritual for  many North American women who seek regular  health care. During this time of soaring  health care costs the reasoning and justification for annual testing, an admittedly  arbitrary interval, has been questioned.  It is interesting to note that the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, a group who directly profit from  annual fees for exams, reaffirmed their  support of the annual test. At the same  time, we need to be wary of government  agencies, concerned about medical cutbacks, reassuring us that less often is  equally safe.  We suggest that women get yearly Pap smears  beginning the first year they have sexual  contact. Some women should have them more  frequently (every six months to a year)  depending on their herstory and the factors  we have mentioned previously.  iflb  §1111     '    x\\.  10-18   First step of a conization  r~^  V     TMi3»9       1  x  0  i^MjUy^- -  i  r^-^B^B   V  5  jfy\ji % ffw     \  «  ntM*  "5  '•■-./'-/   H^  >  •  z  <:  E  10-19   Second step of a conization  4 yetrin H,c lift '/ *»/  "TM*---  3.   b/opsj rec*/»/»eWeVj  f  0  until vyhd  Znk Col}>ts ccj>y  CfssZvift  <xrvicaHn1ra*l>itir,etia. /  ■J Zn.'fi) 12 Kinesis supplement February 83  My Experiences Healing Myself  [  by Robin  August,  1981  After months of feeling exhausted, I went  on holiday and became ill with flu. After  the holiday I went to my doctor for a  check-up which included a Pap smear. I had  not had one for 14 months because I had  heard that it was ok to have them less frequently if you were over 35, had a herstory  of Class 1 and did not have high risk characteristics such as early age first intercourse and many partners. I am also Jewish  and had heard that Jewish women rarely  got cervical cancer.  My life the past year had included the  death of my father, change in sexual relationship , overwork in feminist groups  and an exhausting and stressful job.  September,   1981  My Pap smear result was Class III.  I stopped drinking coffee. I already did  not eat sugar. My doctor tried to reassure  me, saying that it might turn out to be  warts. I was scheduled for a colposcopy in  two weeks.  I began taking four grams of vitamin C  daily.  October,   1981  I went for the colposcopy. Everyone said  that it would be like a Pap test. I did not  know what to look for. The specialist  pointed out a lot of white patches around  by Os. I was told this was abnormal and he  thought it was pre-cancerous. He took a  biopsy to send to the lab for verification  and pushed a tampon up against the cut on  the cervix. I felt the cut and later had  cramping which no one had warned me about.  He said that he would have to wait for  the pathology report to make a definite  diagnosis. When I asked what the treatment  was, he said, that, in view of my age (36)  a hysterectomy would be in order. I was  shocked.  I left the clinic in tears. I have a history of cancer in my family. I went to my  doctor's office. Again she was reassuring.  She said that cryosurgery and cone biopsy  were performed way before a hysterectomy.  She made an appointment for me with a  gynecologist.  Immediately after seeing my doctor I went  to the Women's Health Collective. I got  personal support frtfm a woman I knew. She  recommended several books about cancer,  vitamins and diets.  I began to increase my intake of vitamin  C by a gram a day according to Linus Pauling's method.  The pathology report returns and says that  I have carcinoma in situ.  I go on a short fast. I then see an herbalist who uses iridology (study of the eyes)  for diagnosis. She suggests a diet without  fats, dairy or many grains. She suggests  various herbs and vitamins and a wheat  grass and aloe vera douche. I freak out  after seeing her and cry alot.  I begin regular reflexology and massage  treatments.  I cut down on my social and political life.  November,   1981  My ex-lover is diagnosed as having testicular cancer. He goes in almost immediately  for surgery. All the medical people look  amazed when we ask whether there could be  a connection between his cancer and my  abnormal pap result. They said that there  is no connection. I do not believe them.  I do a few visualizations with a friend.  We work on my negative feelings towards  premenstrual syndrome and painful periods.  I see the woman gynecologist. She tells me  that I will have a D&C besides the cone  biopsy. That way they can see if the cancer is elsewhere. I freak again. I have  had friends with PID in the hospital and  fear that I could get PID.  December,   1981  I leave my receptionist/clerical job where  I am overworked in a continually stressful  situation with poor working conditions.  I see a woman naturopath in Seattle. She  helps me to refine my diet and suggests  more to do including a herbal cervical  pack. I have by this time lost lots of  weight. I feel and look better.  My doctor sends me a note suggesting that  I get a cone.  January,   1982  I go to the Bay Area. I make an appointment at the Berkeley Women's Health Collective Clinic. The woman I see cautions me  about the dangers of trying to heal myself.  I get a Pap smear result in four days which  is a Class II. I am told that I have haem-  ophilus. I return to Vancouver and tell my  doctor. She tells me that labs in the  States are inferior. She does another Pap  smear and it comes back in a week, Class  III, though the description changes slightly. I am upset that I do not have her  support.  February,   1982  I receive a call from Rebecca from the  Health Collective. Am I interested in a  support and research group on abnormal  Paps? Three of us talk about our experiences and, based on our questions, begin  work together.  March,   1982  I go to Seattle to consult with the naturopath and have another Pap smear. We discuss the haemophilus and decide that the  cure is not worth it at that time. In the  past year and a half I had taken Flagyl  three times. There aren't many symptoms.  My smear result is Class II,  I begin therapy once a week.  In my readings I come across the passage  about curing infections because they make  cells look abnormal.  I am confused but think I am ok. I feel ok.  I want to prove it to my doctor. I ask for  another colposcopy appointment.  This time Rebecca plans to come with me to  the colposcopy. We have discussed what  questions we want to ask and how she can  support me. At the clinic she is not permitted to come into the exam room with me.  They say that no one has ever done that.  (We knew of women from the Health Collective who had). I am angry. I decide to go  by myself. I ask questions of the specialist. He answers, but offers no additional  information. I tell him that I have an infection. He says, "No you don't." The  nurse makes fun of me for trying to get  more information and figure out what is  happening. The specialist makes a comment  that even if it is better, it's dangerous  to play around with. On the video screen  by cervix looks better and the white area  is much smaller. He never comments on that.  He wasn't going to do a biopsy and I tell  him to take one. He tells me that labs in  the States are inferior and often in places  like garages.  Our group does much research and then goes  to the Cytology Lab for an hour and a half  conversation with a pathologist. I learn  that the procedure for processing smears  includes placing your whole pap history  with the slide to be examined. They are all  evaluated together. They also know whether  you have had treatment or not. Also, when  evaluating the colposcopy report they give  one half weight to the smear result. He  says that there isn't any differences between the labs in the States and here.  What matters is the skill of the technician. Presumably the larger labs see more  slides and therefore are more experienced.  I am convinced that I have to get rid of  the haemophilus and then get a Pap smear  under a different name.  I receive the results of a hair analysis.  They show that my body doesn't absorb  nutrients well, that my diet is deficient  in B12 and that I have a high concentration of mercury (all the low fat fish I'd  been eating). I begin eating eggs and more  chicken and less fish.  May,   1982  I do a two week herbal treatment and rid  myself of haemophilus.  I get a Pap smear under a different name.  I have the last of a number of conversations with Rebecca and my therapist about  cone biopsy and D&C^ trying to work on my  fears of them.  June,   1982     llpi  Research has continued. I begin analyzing  and writing about the causes and natural  history of cervical cancer. I become convinced that I am well and that the system  is faulty.  Pap smear report under assumed name is  Class I.  Seek out your local women's health centre.  If you live in B.C., the following is a-  vailable from the Vancouver Women's Health  Collective, 1501 W. Broadway, Vancouver  V6J 1W6, telephone: (604) 736-6696:  -books and files on remedies for vaginal  infections, cervical cancer and treatments  -a questionnaire for lesbians with abnormal Pap tests  -at Skills Day, one Saturday a month,  cervical self-exam is taught and Pap  tests done  -speculums for sale anytime  These supplements are available from the  Health Collective for 500 postage. Postage  for bulk orders will be worked out individually. Complete bibliographies are avail-  able on request for 50c.  Thank you to:  Those who read the final draft and gave us  \comments,  especially Adrienne and Beth  Present and former members of the Vancouver  Women's Health Collective  Patrice Snopkowski-Kennedy  Elizabeth Campbell  Kinesis staff,  especially Patty  LA Feminist Women 's Health Centre  Those medical people with whom we had useful  conversations:  Susan Kennedy  Dr.  G.H. Anderson  'ñ†   Art Hister February '83   Kinesis  SPORTS  Women organize  for fair play  by Emma Kivisild  Women in sport are systematically hindered, hassled, or ignored - relegated to a  barely secondary status in the sports ,  world. In short, athletics is sexist.  On the other hand, feminist support of  serious female athletes is somewhat sporadic. Athletics is women - daring to be  strong, and agile, and test themselves  together. Surely it is a feminist concern.  Yet the achievements, activities and  struggles of women athletes, coaches and  administrators rarely, if ever, hit the  feminist press.  The Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women and Sport (CAAW&S) is a  women's organization working to tackle  the problem on both fronts - that is,  organizing towards advancing the opportunities for women in sport, and for the  advancement of sport in the eyes of women.  The group evolved out of an eight year  struggle for countrywide conferences for  women in sport, during which time there  were two , culminating in the Female  Athletes Conference at SFU in 1980. Several women noticed that the recommendations  coming out of the SFU meeting were virtually identical to those proposed at a  similar conference in 1974.  Obviously, if anything was to happen, a  different structure and different strategies, had to be formulated. CAAW&S, the  outcome of that decision, is a nationwide association that strives to use as  broad a definition of sport as possible,  in an attempt to pull in women who are  not in sport as a career.  The result is an association that reflects  the diversity of women in athletics:  "recreational and competitive athletes,  health leaders, sport administrators,  housewives, coaches, professors, lawyers  and activists."  The obstacles encountered by women in  sport are numerous. For one think there  are the comments about it being unfeminine  or unwomanly - the fact that the hard  core jock image is still taboo, even in  this era of joggers, jazzrobicists, and  dancersizers.  The mainstream sports media, when it  reports on women at all, plagues women  athletes with questions about retirement,  and settling down, or says that the 'girls'  are lovely to watch.  The sports milieu is completely male dominated. This means that women athletes are  still by and large performing for male  coaches, that funding for women's programs is essentially nil, especially at  the grass roots level, and that women get  grossly shortchanged when it comes to  accessibility of fields, rinks, and gymnasiums .  Working from a feminist analysis of sport,  CAAW&S has identified four main areas of  emphasis: advocacy (provocative lobbying  and publicity); leadership (getting women  into leadership positions, and ensuring  that current leadership betters the status  of women); research (developing a body of  information to work from for change)1 and  communication (promotion, and networking).  "The organization of sport has always been  from the top down, and we want it from  the bottom up," summarizes Betty Baxter  of CAAW&S. - *  Admittedly, the inherent hierarchy and  intense competition of sports as it exists  are problematic from a feminist perspective, in the same way that the goals of  career women well-ensconsed in the patriarchy are questionable. Do we want a bevy  of professional women athletes to parallel  the men? |*^^f$  There is, too, the body-beautiful syndrome  - pressure to be fit is just an added  pressure to be objectifiable. These objections are relevant. Dorothy Kidd of CAAW&S  objects, however, to their simplification.  "They may come out to the gym because of  body beautiful, but that's not why they  stay." She goes on to add that "there are  a lot of women getting a lot of strength  and a lot of bonding with other women  through sport."  We are in the process of discovering our  bodies, exploring issues of health, and  new ways of seeing ourselves. It is time  athletes had a voice in that discussion,  time that sport and fitness became a part  of it.  Feminist  perspective  in sport  by Renate Wilson  Women must develop a feminist consciousness in sport as in other issues,  write  Dr. Ann Hall, Professor of Physical Education at the University of Alberta, and  Dorothy Richardson, a federal human rights  commissioner. Aside from the efforts of  some of the provincial advisory councils  on the status of women, the women's movement in Canada has been noticeably silent  on the issue of sex discrimination in  sport.  Feminist literature is virtually  devoid of discussions about sport.  This  should not be surprising since no matter  what the intellectual tradition,  it has  been fashionable to consider sport so  trivial and insignificant that to spend  time and words studying it was perceived  as a senseless pursuit.  Fair Ball - Towards Sex Equality in Canadian Sport,  by M. Ann Hall and Dorothy A. Richardson.  Canadian Advisory Council on the Status  of Women, 66 Slater St., Box 1541, Station  B., Ottawa KLP 3R5. 1982.  Available in French and English at no cost  from the above address or from the Council's Vancouver office at 1055 Georgia St.,  Vancouver V6E ZPZ, phone 666-1174.  In this impeccably researched book the  authors make a convincing case for a definite feminist presence in the Canadian  sports world. They document how seldom  women have received equal and equitable  treatment and recognition - the first two  female members of the International Olympic Committee were elected only last year I  They highlight sports related eases involving human rights commissions and the  courts, and examine the numerous myths  which have limited women athletes in the  past and which are still a factor today.  In women's sport, they say, the call is  more often "foul" than "fair ball".  However, we are making progress. After all,  there was  Iona Campagnolo as Minister  responsible for sport, and there is  Abby  Hoffman as Director of Sport Canada, but  they still are the exception to the rule.  I highly recommend this book not only to  female athletes, mothers of young athletes,  phys. ed. teachers and coaches, but also  to the men in their orbit.  Renate Wilson is a Vancouver author. Her  books include For the Love of Sport and  Inside Outward Bound. 12   Kinesis   February '83  FILM  Tootsie:  a feminist  film critique  by Maureen Leyland-Moore  I read Black Like Me  in the sixties; it's  a book written by a white journalist who  swallows a substance which darkens his  skin and enables him to pass for black.  His account of the injustice and fear he  experienced opened the eyes of many  whites to the racism in their society.  In "Tootsie", Michael Dorsey, an unemployed actor played by Dustin Hoffman, is  so desperate for a job that he disguises  himself as a woman, and, in the character  of Dorothy Michaels, is hired to play the  part of a non-nonsense hospital administrator in a soap opera.  By his action, Michael places himself in  a position similar to that of the journalist in Black Like Me  and like him, he  rapidly discovers that his new identity  exposes him to. a series of unexpected  problems.  Moments after Michael slips into his  first dress, a taxi driver coasts by -  oblivious to being hailed by Dorothy's  high, light voice. A man shoves Dorothy  aside in an attempt to grab her cab.  When Dorothy arrives at work she is sexually harassed by George Gaynes in his role  as the lecherous head doctor, and after  filming is over he continues to press his  attentions upon her.  This time Dorothy is saved by the appearance of room mate Bill Murray; her suitor  bows out fearfully and finally, realizing  that he's made the grave mistake of offending a man by poaching on his property.  Michael, in his identity as Dorothy, is  expected to know how to take care of a  toddler and to be capable of meaninful  friendships with women. The audience  laughs when Dorothy grips a baby stiffly;  many people think it's cute and funny when  a man exhibits this kind of awkwardness.  The audience sighs when Dorothy shows  tenderness to the same baby; yet it's been  years since the second wave of feminism  stirred up the fossilized notions which  ascribe nurturing behaviour only to women.  Unlike the journalist in Black Like Me,  Michael Dorsey doesn't do more than explore the surface of the identity he assumes. The problems facing women are more  serious than this movie-suggests. Sexism  is portrayed as something with a mysterious genesis; it's just there - and it  affects the lives of men too, unfairly  depriving them of the ability to show  tenderness and so on. This is not feminism - it's the men's liberation message  again.  In "Tootsie" the solution to sexism is  assertiveness. It works for Dorothy  Michaels, after all. She is patronized  just like other women, the movie suggests;  she is called tootsie by the-soap's director - she is even sexually harassed,  but she fights back! As a result she  earns instant respect, a flood of fan  letters, and a contract renewal. As  Ellen Goodman mentioned in her column  on "Tootsie", Dorothy never gets called  any of the names that threatened men use  to describe assertive women.  The most offensive sequence in the movie  is a scene in the soap opera in which  Dorothy prescribes assertiveness for a  woman hospitalized as a result of male  violence.  The most assertive woman in "Tootsie" is  a man. It's a man who teaches women to  fight back. It's a man who encourages  Jessica Lange to dump her lover - the two-  timing, patronizing director played by  Dabney Coleman. After Lange gives him the  heave-ho, she sinks prettily into depression when she realizes - are you ready for  this? When she realizes that she doesn't  have anyone to have dinner with anymore.  This is not a cute metaphor for existential loneliness; it's simply trivial. By  portraying the character played by Lange  as a sweet, fluggy, and seemingly uninteresting human being, the movie reinforces  the sexual stereotypes and promotes the |  notion that the woman with the most dignity, self-respect, and depth in "Tootsie"  is — a man.  While acting in the soap opera, Michael  strengthens Dorothy's role by changing  lines while the show is being filmed.  Once Dorothy impulsively advises a sexually harassed nurse, played by Lange, to  stop feeling guilty and to defend herself  with a cattle prod.  This is one of the sources of humour in  the show: the contrast between Dorothy's  prim ladylike innocence and her flashes  of tough behaviour. The spectacle of a  southern woman genteely picksLogjfipfa *j|  telephone receiver to order cattle prods  generates appreciative delight - audiences  love Dorothy. Finally! A feminine feminist!  In a way the layers of fantasy protect the  audience from uncomfortable realizations.  A man plays an actress who plays a hospital executive. It's not as if a real woman  is angry enough to propose the application  of electric current to the genitals of a  sexual harasser. It's only a character in  a television show within a movie. And the  character is really a man anyway.  When I read Black Like Me  I learned that  racism was more than a matter of unequal  opportunity and the possibility of harassment from KKKers; it's an atmosphere so  pervasive that every aspect of life is  touched by it.  I wondered, ineffectually,  what I, as a white person living in Vancouver, should do about it. Later I read  Fanon, a black writer, and I had to  struggle through each sentence.  The difference? The level of guilt and  defensiveness I was feeling. I didn't want  to accept the fact that I participated in  any way in racism. I didn't want to think  that I was, by an accident of birth and by  my socialization, a member of a privileged  oppressive group. However, my privilege  allowed me both to feel guilty and to  distract myself from my guilt.  In "Tootsie" the message about sexism -  however slight, however liberal - is  delivered by a man. This is far less  threatening to men than if that same  message were delivered by a woman.  .The audience, about fifty percent male  on the night I attended, cheered enthusiastically for Dorothy. Partly, of course,  this is because men are more inclined to  listen to any message delivered by men.  However, partly men's greater ease in  listening to men on the subject of sexism  is similar to my greater ease in reading  about black oppression in a book by a  white writer.  Apparently, although I have been fortunate  enough to miss his appearances, Dustin  Hoffman has been on television talk shows  claiming that now he knows what it's like  to be a woman. According to producer/  director Sydney Pollack, "'Tootsie' is the  story of a guy who puts on a dress and by  doing so becomes a better man." Well, it's  just not that easy.  continued from page 13  first incorporates a hit from the 50's  with a commentary about how things are  changing in the home town, about aging,  and the continuing encroachment on Indian  land.  The second, she has said in interviews,  is a personal song, but also an anthem for  women of her generation who have had  several long term relationships with men  and the joy and confusion that has brought  I feel that each of these albums represents for both women a realization or  part realization of a fantasy. On the  liner notes for Winds of Change,  Watkins  states:  "For a number of years I've dreamed of  working with a larger number of musicians  in an orchestra setting. Pulling this one  off was no easy task ... it has enabled  me not only to experience the sound  coming back to me as a composer arranger,  but actually to participate as a performer."  Joni Mitchell in Musician  said that after  Court and Spark:  " I was trying to become the Jackson  Pollack of music. I just wanted all the  notes and everyone's part to tangle, I  wanted all the desks pushed out of rows.  I wanted the military abolished, everything linear to go. Then at a certain  point I began to crave order again. So  doing this album was a natural re-entry  into it."  Winds of Change  - Mary Watkins - PAC  Records  Wild Things Run. Fast  - Joni Mitchell -  Geffin Records February '83   Kinesis   13  CULTURE  Spiderwoman:  They call it  storyweaving  by Emma Kivisild  Spiderwoman - ribald, colourful, slapstick,  bawdy, musical, moving, outrageous and  serious radical lesbian feminist theatre -  is coming to SFU and Women in Focus this  month. It's women's theatre with no holds  barred, unabashedly challenging, taking  risks, and not above a lot of fun doing it.  The core of Spid  The core ot Spiderwoman is three sisters,  though a variety of other performers have  participated over the years - the group  varies in size, and is a mixture of races,  ages, and appearances.  Gloria and Muriel Miguel, and Lisa Mayo,  are Native Americans, raised in the Italian area of Brooklyn by a father who did  snake oil slide shows, and a mother who  longed to be "white, civilized, and  Christian." In their own words, they  challenge the "one-size-fits-all view of  feminism", making use of the diversity of  their "experiences as women, as American  Indian women, as lesbians, as scorpios,  as women over 50 and women under 25, as  sisters and mothers, and grandmothers."  Spiderwoman takes its name from the Hopi  goddess of creation, who first taught her  people to weave. She always wove a flaw  into her designs, in order to allow her  spirit to make its way out and become  free. This group does, indeed, work as  weavers. The call it "storyweaving", an  interwoven theatrical exploration of  situations, feelings, and dreams, from  which emerge essential threads of an  independent women's spirit.  All of Spiderwoman players have a strong  Watkins, Mitchell  Listening to their inner voices  by Janie Newton-Moss  Two new albums by two very different musicians: Mary Watkins, a black pianist from  San Francisco who, for a number of years,  has been firmly located in the West Coast  Women's music scene; and Joni Mitchell,  probably the best known Canadian singer-  songwriter, who since the early 70's has  both enjoyed and loathed her role as the  dominant woman musician in American main  stream pop music.  The common link? They are both keen experimenters who avoid trends and listen  to their own inner voice. Both share a  love for jazz. This is Watkin's first real  jazz album. Joni's latest, a collaboration with the late Charles Mingus, received mixed reviews and was almost too  jazz oriented for some fans.  Watkin's spiritualism is more exhilarant  and uncontained than Mitchell's understated passion, which is as usual expressed through her lyrics rather than the  way she chooses to put the notes together.  Interestingly, the covers of their re- ,  spective albums are self portraits,  Watkin's being more abstract than  Mitchell's.  The titles, too, share a common understanding of the free spirit. They can,  however, be interpreted as hinting that  we lack one too - an appropriate theme  for the 80's.  I was amused to hear the comments of a  C.J.A.Z.  dj (Vancouver's 24 hour jazz  station) after playing a cut from Winds  of Change.  He remarked that he knew  nothing about Mary Watkins, and that  judging from her album cover she did not  look more than 17, and how early jazz  musicians were starting these days.  Mary Watkins is a contemporary of mine  (and I'm over 30). Not only has she  "paid her dues" as a producer and performer on Olivia Records for many years,  she is also a mother. Young, energetic,  versatile - but definitely not 17.  Winds of Change  is an ambitious project  working with a combo of 7 and an orchestra of 40 musicians. I think Watkins'  strongest work is with the combo. Occas-  sionally with the orchestra she falls  back on a jazz fusion sound which would  not be out of place in elevators.  Nevertheless, in comparison to Somethin'  Movin', her first album (which I still  treasure) this is altogether more experimental. One of the delights is her piano  solo "Mother's Song" which was the highlight of her recent performance in  Vancouver.  It is difficult to believe that Joni  Mitchell has had her 40th birthday.  Wild Things Run Fast  marks a new beginning,  a glimpse of maturity and at the, same time  a return to a more sophisticated pop sound  such as she achieved in Court and Spark.  It has attracted much media attention.  Recently there have been two extensive  interviews: in Rolling Stone,  and the  more highbrow Musician.  It is interesting to note the personnel  she has lined up for this project: Doyen  of the searing sax; Wayne Shorter, leading  light in the soft soul sound; Lionel  Ritchie; and longtime acquaintance James  Taylor. There is no doubt that Mitchell  excels at writing contemporary love songs:  "Couldn't you just love me -  Like you love cocaine  Cocaine head games  I guess you learn to refuse      :-^|Sj  What you think you can't handle  You're acting like a vandal  Wrecking the dream  At the first bad scene.  (Ladies Man)  Personal favourites are, "Chinese Cafe",  "Unchained Melody" and "Man to Man". The  continued on page 12  background in theatre. Sylvia Robinson, a  dancer, and R. Kashaka Snipe, a dancer,  singer, and actress, make up the rest of  the (at present) 5 women collective.  Gloria, Muriel, and Lisa have all studied  drama, and Lisa is a classically trained  mezzo soprano.  The group came together largely as a result of the repression they felt in  mainstream theatre. "You can break into  theatre, but you have to do it by the  establishment rules," says Muriel.  They sought a means of expressing them  selves, not someone else's idea of what  a Native American woman might be.  Muriel was also concerned about the way  members of the group would work with each  other. In her work with other women's  companies, she had felt that "they seemed  to have a pre-occupation with the word ...  I wanted to produce a show that gave the  word, but with some texture, and one in  which the company worked together more as  an ensemble."  Spiderwoman improvises from personal  stories and experiences, and the shows  (presented with minimal sets and props)  are personally expressive, involving for  the performers and the audience. These  women have the guts to bare their souls  on stage, and our souls cannot help but  respond.  At SFU, Spiderwoman will be doing Lysis-  trata Numbah!, a free adaption of the  Greek classic (in which the women withhold their sexual favours to force their  warring husbands to make peace, and take  it to its logical lesbian conclusion). It  is play about sexuality, control, sensuality and power. Created by improvisation  around the thread of the classic storyline , the Spiderwoman production establishes a personal connection to the issues  it raises.  Sun, Moon and Feather  (at Women in Focus)  is Gloria, Muriel and Lisa's story - that  of three Native American sisters growing  up in an Italian part of Brooklyn.  Live theatre, with its direct involvement  on visual, aural, and emotional levels,  is a fantastic vehicle for the complexity  of political expression. Spiderwoman takes  feminism through the paces: we see confident lesbians on stage; we see big, but  agile women; and we see both heroics and  idiocy. This feminist doesn't intend to  miss it.  For dates and times of performances, see  Bulletin Board. Spiderwoman will also be  giving a free lecture/demonstration on  ,  at 12:30 p.m.  at SFU. 14   Kinesis   February '83  REVIEWS  Anti-nuke artists depict radiation horrors  by Michele Wollstonecroft  During January, the Xchanges gallery in  Victoria hosted "Artists Against Uranium",  an Australian travelling exhibition. This  exhibition aims to represent artworks on  themes related to the uranium issues, or  more specifically, atomic warfare, human  rights, direct protest, alternative technologies, aboriginal land rights, ecology,  conservation, rights of future populations of this planet, and health.  The Artworkers Union of South Australia,  organizers of the show, was formed in  July 1980 with the purpose of creating^a  unified message from artists who oppose  uranium mining.  "Artists Against Uranium" attracted contributions from every Australian state,  from artists who react to uranium mining,  nuclear energy and the proliferation of  nuclear arms. Approximately 50% of the  works are made by women.  All works were Sent to the organizers as  35mm slides', then photocopied (in colour) .  labelled and placed in individual plastic  pockets ready for pinning to the display  area. This enabled sculpture, performance,  documentation and installations to be  included alongside photographs, collage,  paintings, drawings and cartoons. The  show originally opened with 150 works,  and travelled Australia since 1981,  accumulating more pieces with each exhibition.  Its Canadian debut, at  Xchanges, includes 216 works.  As an artpiece "Artists Against Uranium"  is interesting both in form and concept.  Some entries lend themselves to Xerox  print better than others, but the most  exciting aspect of this show is to understand it as one, unified, piece with a  variety of ideas"and images represented.  There is humour, fear, cynicism, beauty,  satire, documentation, militant demands,  doom, gloom and some optimism.  And all of this fits into a small box,  easy for packing and shipping. The works  are placed at eye level around the gallery and take the viewer from piece to  piece in order of their submission date.  Margaret Strudwicke submitted a cartoon.  Two women are sitting chatting, one has a  child on her lap. One woman is saying to  the other "Well yes, you could say we're  a nuclear family - Joe's got leukemia and  the baby's got web feet."  A recurring symbol is that of "Australian  Yellow Cake", best explained by Christine  Goodwin's "Yellow Cake Recipe":  5 kg.  uranium bearing land (preferably  wilderness or aboriginal land)  750 g.  multinational interests  300 g. balance of trade  250 g.   international prestige  100 g.  political gain  300 ml.  nuclear propaganda  300 ml.  radio activity risk factor  pinch of plain greed  Method  Separate Uranium from the land and discard land.  Sift together uranium, multinational interests, balance of trade,  international  prestige and political gain.  Pour in nulcear propaganda and radio activity risk factor, milling all ingredients.  Enrich with plain greed,  and then dump  yellowcake mixture into paper patty pans.  Bake at 500 degrees C.  in a 1200 megawatt  breeder reactor,  taking care to avoid  meltdown.  Cool and ice with public apathy.  Store in steel cannisters in a leaky salt  mine.  Serve for afternoon tea,  and savour the  lingering half-life of Australian Yellow-  cake for a million years.  Many of the works picture war, pain and  deformities, and tell us of the oppression  •of the aboriginal people. American fallout  shelter symbols are ubiquitous.  Believe it or not there are optomistic  messages too - a submission from the  Anarchist Feminist Poster Collective is  a picture of a tree with the words "Mother  Nature is a Lesbian". Tess Brady's submission says "but isn't the sun new-clear  energy".  The Artworkers Union have called this  exhibition "a travelling visual petition",  and indeed it is.  Groups or individuals interested in "Artists Against Uranium" should write to:  'S.A. Artworkers Union  Exhibition from Artists Against Uranium  P.O. Box 308, North Adelaide  South Australia, 5006.  Ulrike Ottinger: innovative German filmmaker  by Val Power  Unknown to the general public, there is an  intense pocket of active and innovative  film work being done in the Federal Republic of Germany - Berlin to be more specific. This is not a reference to the  Fassbinders and the Herzogs but rather  their counterparts: von Trotta, Sander,  Perincioli, Reidmeister, Benee, Bruckner,  Ottinger, etc. Some of these women have  been producing films for ten to twelve  years, yet up to now the production and  the producers have remained virtually  unknown.  The lack of circulation of these works  is not surprising as that in itself is a  conscious cultural "phenomenon", promoted  by the ever present male attitude that  "projects by women can not be supported,  because to all intents and purposes none  exist." There have been changes though,  due in part to women's films being entered into National and International film  festivals, and in part to the fact that -  the critics have moved from a denial that  women's work exists to labelling it  "aggressive". That is progress.  One of the more "controversial figures in  German Women's Cinema, Ulrike Ottinger  has been accused by critics of being  esoteric. Three of Ottinger's films,  Madame X,  Ticket of No Return,  and Freak  Orlando  present us with a totally different way of seeing our lives. For example,  by showing the stereotypically ugly as  beautifu3^t3te ■commonplace as extraordinary, and the extraordinary as mundane.  Ottinger works with reality by transporting the viewer into a male territory via  female piracy (.Madame X); into self alienation via a drinking tour of Berlin (Ticket of No Return)  and into a view of our  world via freaks in Freak Orlando.  In the adventure story Madame X  (1977),  the all female pirate ship the "Orlando"  revives the ancient and honourable tradition of real-life pirate women like the  Oriental pirate princesses who terrorized  the China Seas as late as the 1930s.  On her pirate junk, Madame X, the absolute ruler, sends out an appeal to all  women: to trade their comfortable, secure  but monotonous routines f°r doubt, uncertainty, love and adventure. The message arrives in forms unique to the  recipient.  Through various forms of transportation  they arrive at the junk where Madame X  promises "I offer the world", and in  return demands subjection to her absolute  rule. Honoring the rule, they set sail  around the world.  Ticket of No Return  (1979) is about a  woman who wants to forget her past - she  buys a one-way ticket to Berlin-Teget.  In a city that she finds extremely foreign, the hero finds the right climate  to live out her passion to drink,  undisturbed.  Freak Orlando  (1981) is told in the form  of a "little theatre of the world" from  its beginnings to our day. The story takei  place in five episodes and Orlanda/Orlando  takes a different form with each one.  In episode five, Mrs. Orlando, called  Freak Orlando because of her special  preferences, is engaged as an entertainer  and tours Europe with four bunnies. She  is in great demand as an attraction for  openings of shopping centres, family  celebrations, etc. and is finally engaged  to do a show at the annual festival of  ugliness^, where she crowns the winner and  bestows a trophy with the inscription  "Limping is the way of the Crippled."  Ottinger has been making films since  1972. Presently she has a work in progress, Dorian Gray Through the Eyes of  the Gutter Press.    Madame X  is scheduled  to be screened at Women in Focus in  September '83. February'83   Kinesis   15  CULTURE  Going bananas  with Anna Banana  by Anne Rayvals  Anna Banana is a Vancouver artist with a  banana fetish. She has been operating a  mail-art archive at the Western Front for  over two years. Mail-art is a peculiar,  anarchist form of art which includes  artists' books and periodicals, show  catalogues, photographs, postcards, letters, stamps, mailers, project invites  and collages. Most are really off-beat  and all are certainly different. Mail-art \  moves rapidly from one artist to another  from every part of the world.  Performance art is another of Anna Banana's  fortes. She was part of the Women's Festival at Robson Square in 1982, and in  December 1982, she completed a performance  tour of Canada and the United States of  one-woman shows. For this part of her  art she borrows from Italian Futurist  dramas, and also writes her own.  The Futurist dramas were written between  1910 and 1920, and Anna says, "the futurists would take a three-hour drama and  condense it into three minutes, but you  could still understand what is happening."  The original Futurists wrote political  farces dealing with the times. European  audiences were at first shocked and then  delighted. Soon the Futurists had their  own large following.  Ihis year Anna Banana celebrated her 11th  anniversary of 'going bananas'.  Becoming a banana was a fairly slow process for this zany woman in her early  forties. Like all females who bear the  name Anna, the banana tag followed her  for years.  She kept it during the sixties when she  became a school teacher - first in the  Vancouver public school system and then  in the New School, an alternate education  experiment, where she taught a group of  youngsters, self-styled 'the Monkey Patrol.' She felt she was literally going  bananas during this period, but she did  not officially become one, until she got  a strong message at a party where someone  pushed her into a bunch of bananas.  In 1971, following a divorce, Anna was  living alone in Sooke painting smooth  stones and doing batik. She decided she  needed to sell some of her work, so she  set up a booth in Bastion Square in  Victoria.  Finding there was not much interaction  doing this, and searching for relief from  isolation, Anna Banana began wearing costumes and putting on impromptu performan-  Eventually Anna proclaimed herself Victoria's Town Fool. Staid Victoria was  shocked with her performances as their  Town Fool and she added to the reaction  by producing a publication called the  Banana Rag, which gave her readers various  pieces of banana information.  Anna discovered the mail-art network  through the Banana Rag. Her interest in it  continued when she moved to Vancouver in  1972, and after visiting a number of her  mail-art correspondents in the western USA  she settled in San Francisco.  There Anna established herself as a  graphic artist. She married Bill Gaglione,  a Dadaist performer (whose performance  name is Dadaland). She published VILE, a  takeoff on Life,  and held the first Banana Olympics in 1975. These Olympics in San  Francisco were intended as a parody of  track and field events in general, and  the original Olympics in particular. They  included outrageous costumes and events  such as the Banana Relay and. the Banana-  Javelin Throw.  San Francisco was the area where Anna  Banana developed her involvement in art  improvisation. She and her husband toured  Europe performing in Italian Futurist  dramas.  In 1980, they also toured Canada doing  similar pieces from these works. When she  and Gaglione separated, the announcement  was done in typical Anna Banana fashion  by sending out a mailer that had two bananas on it (widely separated) which was  called the Anna Banana split.  The second Banana Olympics came about as  a result of an invitation by the Surrey  Art Gallery in 1980. For openers, Anna  donned a banana costume and raced wildly  in to light the Banana Flame. A typical  event was the bureaucrat's marathon, where  contestants were wrapped in red tape,  walked around the track (in typical official manner), three steps ahead, two steps  back and one to the side.  Her interest in mail-art led to her sending an exhibition of her own mail-art to  California in the spring of 1982. She says  mail-art crosses all borders, and permits,  among other things, artists from Eastern  European countries to exchange information  on gallery shows, books, photographs and  letters with people from western countries.  April Fool's Day used to be as simple as  salt in the sugar bowl, and a discreet  "kick me" sign taped to a shirt back. Not  so for Anna Banana. She interprets a fool  as a clown, and held a Going Bananas  Fashion Contest on CKVU's Vancouver Show  on April 1 of 1982.  The participation from contestants was  exciting and the costumes were original  and weird. One entry included two people  in a makeshift banana boat and another  contestant was dressed as a guerilla from  (you guessed it!) a Banana Republic - all  part of Anna Banana's idea of art being a  performance. CKVU got into the act by  serving Banana daiquiris.  Several years ago, Anna founded the School  of Bananology to publicize 'banana consciousness'. The school, a narrow-minded  institution, awards diplomas to those who -  approach it, thirsting for the truth of  the fruit. No discipline is imposed, but  converts are requested to donate a bit of  banana lore before receiving a Master of  Bananology degree from the Order of Ban-  Besides performance and mail-art, Anna  Banana has another ambitious project on  hand. She has a huge filing-cabinet full  of material on bananas, and plans to publish an Encyclopedia Bananica. Currently  on its way to the publishers is another  Banana creation, which is the summation of  VILE, the magazine she published in San  Francisco.  Anna Banana is funded by Canada Council.  She has had one-woman shows of her batik  in Vancouver and Montreal. Her work with  graphic arts, Futurist Sound performances,  as well as some articles, have been noted  and reproduced in Arts in America, Arts  Canada, Esquire Magazine, California  Living, Oui Magazine, SF Review of Books  and many artists' publications.  graphic by Anne Rayvels  1 iiatus  inai ~  nana!  hlnai 16   Kinesis   February '83  LETTERS  Feminist-socialist  conference scheduled  Kinesis:  Recently a group of feminist-socialist  women have been meeting in Vancouver; we  come from a wide range of political experiences and backgrounds in the women's  movement and on the left. We believe that  feminist-socialist perspectives need far  more discussion.  Along with like-minded women in centres  from here to the Maritimes, we are now ,  working towards a major women's conference, to be held in 1984, on feminist-  socialist perspectives in the women's  movement.  We expect that the process of preparing  for this event will be at least as important as the conference itself. To date  we are planning the following:  1. A series of public discussi.on, debates, panels, etc. on issues of current  concern in the women's movement, to clarify feminist-socialist analysis and views;  out of these meetings should emerge the  issues of focus for the conference, and  it's very possible that a regional conference on feminism and socialism might  develop from this process also.  2. A Newsletter, for distribution in  English Canada (A French version will be  produced by women in Quebec.) We hope that  initially the Newsletter will give basic  information about the plans for the  conference and about activities associated  with it. Eventually, we see the Newsletter  as publishing theoretical articles on the  issues of most concern.  We would welcome women interested in a  feminist-socialist perspective to our  meetings, which are held roughly every  three weeks, at the Britannia Community  Centre. The next two scheduled meetings  are February 3 and 24, at 7 pm.  Each will include a discussion of current  business (approx. 1 hour). The remainder  of both.meetings will be devoted to an  exploratory discussion aimed at clarifying  and developing socialist-feminist perspectives on pornography. Some particular  issues we'll likely look at will be definitions of terms, censorship, alliances,  relation to the state, and strategy and  tactics.  We'd also like your contributions to the  first issue of the Newsletter - one or  two paragraphs giving your reactions to  the idea of the conference itself. Please  send them, as soon as you can, to: Newsletter,, c/o 102-1455 Napier Street,  Vancouver V5L 2M6.  For further information, please phone  253-6222 (messages) or 253-5959.  Cynthia Flood, for Feminist-Socialist  Conference Group  Volunteerism encourages  paternalism and classism  Kinesis:  Neither Jacquie Coinner nor Susan Witter  grasped the point of my article, "Are  Volunteers Cheating the Unemployed?"  published in the November issue of KINESIS.  The number of unemployed in B.C. are more  than a quarter of a million, and growing;  nine out of ten unemployed teachers are  women. Granted there are volunteer organizations who offer unemployed choices in  how to spend their time (which they must  spend pounding the streets if they are to  collect unemployment insurance, looking  for jobs that don't exist) they are at  best turning more people into consumers  and clients at the expense of the volunteer who can ill afford altruism.  Volunteerism contributes to the inauthen-  ticity of caring. Human concerns are delegated to volunteers and their effect is  then neutralized by the assigning of  innocuous tasks that perpetuate the myth  of helping.  Volunteerism encourages paternalism and  classism against the old, the poor, the  handicapped and the unemployed. A change  is called for.  Brig Anderson  BCFW: not all things  to all women  Kinesis:  Pat Feindel has my respect as a clear  thinking feminist. Somehow I fear she  missed out on the most exciting convention  I have ever attended (BCFW convention report: KINESIS Dec/Jan 82/83). This is more  than just too bad for Pat, and while I am  wondering how this could be, I am even  more interested to know how such a negative report came to be used by KINESIS as  the definitive statement of what went on  at convention. There were no other opinions  offered in that issue. Were any solicited?  The article came across less like a report  and more like an attack. Having had, at  some point during the convention, some  positive contact with all of the Status of  Women representatives, including Pat, I  am especially wondering, is this negative  opinion shared by the Status of Women and  Kinesis?  I will admit: I went to" convention in a  bleak frame of mind. Last year's convention in Vancouver had been mostly terrible,  and had alientated a good number of women,  some of them apparently forever.  Even more traumatic, the events of the  last year and the ineffectual attempts of  BCFW to even begin to address the situation, have had a demoralizing effect which  has not been satisfactorily.dealt with.  Bad feelings, the collapse of trust: uncertainty flourishes in such confusion  breeding rigid attitudes, paranoia,  disgust.  Negative passionate feeling leaves long  scars which in turn act as barriers and  impede the progress of the women's movement even more actively and insidiously  than the walls that we have organized to  storm.  I was not questioning so much the goals  and aims stated by the constitution of our  federation, or even our policies which we  are still refining. I was definitely  f%H  worried about the convoluted way women  applied or chose to disregard the morality  that the constition defines.  So I was brooding as I boarded the bus. I  was also preoccupied with thinking of all  the women who weren't going to be there.  This may be my last convention with BCFW,  I thought rather grimly. Would there be  any respite at all in a long weekend with  a group of women with whom I disagreed?  The long ride to Naramata turned out to be  an excellent opportunity to share these  apprehensions and to discover the thoughts  of the other women on the bus. Getting  out of the city and gathering together: by  the time we got there it all began to  focus.  The first evening social lasted late, I  heard. After unloading and going through  the necessary procedures, I could not relate to much more than the still night  (the stars!) and the cold. It felt good!  The voices of the other women floating  over the lawn, the music and the laughter,  gave me a warm hopeful feeling. We were  gathered together to work it out, maybe we  could.  Followed three days of intensive work. The  small turnout worked in our favour. It  was significant that rural women just  about outnumbered the women from the lower  mainland. Most important, everyone present  was able'at some point to express herself  and clarify the needs of her group.  The workshops were all topical and informative and generated new commitment to  action. The Stop Red Hot Video Committee  was formed and the work of last year's  action committees approved and endorsed  for the next year. In the BCFW workshops,  we listed our achievements, zeroed in on  problematic areas, and set about facing  them.  Far from being an excercise in self-  indulgence, this gave us a necessary opportunity to examine how we are functioning, as we do with a minimum of bureaucracy. Not only, is such "navel gazing"  vital in maintaining the health and effectiveness of any body, sharing our doubts  (and our fears), defining our points of  contention, and moving together towards  answers is the only way we can grow.  As an organization still in its infancy,  we are just beginning to deal with the  impact of our decisions and previous acts,  internally and in the world. It's been two  years now that we have dropped our hierarchical structure, long enough to convince  us that this was merely a move in the  right direction. Groups that did not feel  comfortable with this have left.  The partial explanations that Pat offered  to the question of why groups leave are  valid, and must be faced. The other side  of this is that this lower number more  realistically reflects our active membership. BCFW was never intended to be an  organization for armchair or token feminists. Nor has BCFW attempted to be all  things for all women. The drop in membership which has occurred during the last  two years was anticipated with the new  membership requirements of minimum participation of representation at 50% of the  regional meetings.  Theoretically, this will result in more  active and honest involvement, and while  it's always been a bit sad when a group  pulls out, those left are freer to conduct  business. This was especially true for the  Vancouver region, where it has been a real  problem achieving quorum.  Until we have a structure that clearly  meets our needs, it is necessary that we  go through such procedures, (even if they  are tedious) to modify or radicalize our  process and policies as we see fit. Of  course the major questions were not resolved. The process is so often painfully  slow.  The existence of BCFW depends on how we  use it. If BCFW is not meeting the needs  of the women's movement, then it is we  who are responsible for making the changes  needed. BCFW is not the women's movement,  but rather a vehicle for the facilitation  of our work and the magnification of our February '83   Kinesis   17  LETTERS  strength. Primarily, it's the work we do  and our affiliation that meet our needs.  If we can't use BCFW to further our goals,  is it BCFW who has failed, or we who have  failed to use BCFW?  What did come out of convention was renewed commitment and concrete plans to  address some of the needs that partici--.  pants identified as pressing. To familiarize other women with our work and to answer the need for an open women's gathering, such an event is being planned for  the weekend of June 12.  To address internal philosophical differences, the first of a series of strategy  and problem solving days is planned for  the end of January. There is also a plan  for a women's information bus to make more  tangible our connections.  That the women's movement is.plagued with  the usual problems that all liberation  movements encounter, may be a nasty shock.  Once the rush of first awareness has worn  off, it should come as no surprise. Did  anyone ever guarantee it would be easy?  In the harsh light of reality, suffering  from overwork and something like battle  fatigue, we may come to see our task as  insurmountable.  It's only if the women's  movement is a dead horse, that BCWF becomes superfluous.  Miriam Azrael  Did Kinesis censor  Wimmin's Fire Brigade?  Kinesis:  The first thing I did when I picked up the  Dec/Jan issue of KINESIS was to look excitedly for some information on the Wimmin's Fire Brigade. I mean, I figured that  the firebombing of three porno video outlets was one of the hottest actions to  ever happen here! And I really wanted to  hear more about the action itself and  feelings toward it ... some kind of discission and analysis, or even an interview with the WFB. But there wasn't a  thing. Not a mention of it. It was like it  hadn't even happened!  The only conclusion that I could come to,  since I noticed that there was coverage  included of news stories that happened  after the fire bombing, was that it  wasn't reported on purpose. It wasn't that  it was past the deadline, or that you  couldn't find some space for it ... no, it  must have been an editorial decision to  exclude information about work that has  involved women from the Vancouver women's  movement and that is of concern to all of  us.  Those of us who want to get any details  on that action have to rely on coverage in  the straight dailies and American feminist  journals instead of from our Ov-m paper,  "KINESIS: news about women that's not in  the dailies"!!I  What gives you the right to act as a censor of feminist news? Maybe you didn't  support the action, but even the daily  papers report on news items that they  obviously don't support. How do you decide for all your readers which information you should be relaying to us? It  makes me wonder what the point is in  struggling and progressing with our movement, when some merely want control,  censorship, and ownership over it.'ñ†  As far as the Wimmin Fire Brigade's work,  I respect what they have worked hard and  dangerously to achieve. Their work, along  with the work of others, has brought one  of the greatest successes I have ever seen,  because in a really concrete way the porn  industry in Vancouver is being weakened  and may be destroyed.  Many others all throughout this society  have been encouraged by the weight of conviction that the WFB demonstrates. Does  KINESIS need to belittle women's strength,,  integrity or decisions, and courage by  showing such obvious conservatism and control? I say, Right On, Wimmin's Fire  Brigade!  Sisterhood and struggle,  Barbara Valdez  Ed note: KINESIS did not censor the WFB  happenings.  Because of the extensive coverage it received in the commercial media,  we chose not to repeat the news everyone  already knew and instead to advertise the  anti-porn support picket held'in early  December.   We are surprised at the vehemence of your criticism given the wide and  extensive coverage anti-pornography work  and Red Hot Video has received in KINESIS  pages.  Women want adult and  human status  Kinesis:  What do women want? Human adult status.  Human adults do not enjoy being tied up,  beaten, spat upon, mutilated, murdered,  or raped. Nor does an adult human need to  or wish to see such acts performed upon  another.  Depiction of acts such as these against  any persons other than women would be  publicly decried as racist or misanthropic  and banned as hate inciting.  Yet depiction of such acts against women  are not publicly decried as misogynist.  Women are, properly so, tired of profit  being made from hateful acts directed  against them; they are weary of receiving  no legal satisfaction in these matters;  they want it known that women will strike  back when struck.  Perhaps angry women will be taken as a  force with which to reckon if they don't  stop with only asking for what is needed:  full and simple status as adult human  beings.  Native land claims were taken less seriously before the Wounded Knee occupation; black justice became a grave issue  with the formation of the Black Panthers;  it may likewise serve the cause of women's  rights that the Wimmin's Fire Brigade has  stepped beyond words in the firebombing  of Red Hot Video.  We are not members of the Wimmins Fire  Brigade, nor do we speak as representatives for that group.  D.L. Smith R.A. Don  C. Couts M. Tobias  K. Ibbetson  A point of  clarification  Kinesis:  In commending Robin Barnett for her excellent article ("Zionism Obstructs Jewish  Justice") in the last issue of KINESIS, I  would like to clarify one point which may  have been misinterpreted.  "U.S. military aid to Israel is second  only to that given Vietnam", more accura  tely should read: "... to the puppet government of South Vietnam." This was  obviously withdrawn after April 30, 1975  when the American military occupation of  Vietnam ended.  As a reprisal, the U.S. government not  only reneged on the $3*2 million (sic) war  reparation clause of the 1973 Paris Peace  Agreement, but wherever the U.S.A. can  impose its authority, it has ensured that  all financial and humanitarian aid to the  Socialist Republic of Vietnam be terminated.  Canada joins by blocking economic aid for  S.R.V.N, from the International Monetary  Fund and other relevant U.N. bodies, as  well as cancelling its own donation of  dried milk for Vietnam's babies.  This is the fate which awaits Israel and  any other country which dares to spurn  American government so-called assistance.  Claire Culhane  Reader slashes  B.C.'s red tape  Kinesis:  A victorious slash through B.C. government "red tape" was achieved after I was  represented by the Office of the Ombudsman in a case involving the Department of  Vital Statistics.  In May of 1982 as a single parent, I completed the required birth registration for  my daughter, not questioning the statement on the form which told me to complete  within 30 days.  I felt rushed and concerned (for legal  and personal reasons) because my daughter's  father, at that time, was not prepared to  sign the "Acknowledgement of Paternity".  However, I rushed off the papers, minus  father's particulars and paternity signature.  A month later, "father" stated he was  willing to acknowledge paternity and have  his particulars listed on our daughter's  birth registration. What ensued was an  example of the bureaucratic stance taken  by the Department of Vital Statistics.  When I requested that paternity papers be  added to the birth registration, I was  told that that was impossible. Later, I  spoke with an MHR social worker who,  after looking into the matter for a couple  of weeks, reported back to me, "Impossible."  I was not prepared to accept this refusal  and so telephoned the Office of the Ombudsman, wrote a letter outlining my situation  and a month later received a phone call  from their Victoria office. They would  take on my case and deal with the Department of Vital Statistics.  I don't know all of what went on between  these two parties but I was frequently  kept up to date by a considerate and  knowledgeable woman investigator from the  Office of the Ombudsman.  continued on page 18 18   Kinesis   February '83'  BULLETIN BOARD  EVENTS  ANOTHER FUNDRAISING PROJECT for the regional Lesbian Conference is a series of  dances, to be held once a month for the  next four months. All dances will be held  at the Capri Hall,   3925 Eraser Street,  Vancouver. The dances are as follows:  "Winter Madness" - Sat., Jan. 29/83  "February Frolic" - Friday, Feb. 25/83  "March Affair" - Friday, March 25/83  "Spring Magic" - Friday, April 29/83  Come and support the Regional Lesbian  Conference by having a great time at the  dances. Announcements about future fund-  raising events will be available at the  dances. Tickets available at Ariel,  Women's Bookstore, Octopus.  COME TO SISTERS RESTAURANT, 612 Davie St.  Hours: Mon-Noon-5pm; Tues., Noon to  midnight; Wed. - Noon to midnight;  Thurs. Noon to 2am; Fri. Noon-2am,- Sat.  6pm-2am and Sun. llam-4pm (brunch).  Phone 681-6400.  TAX CONSULTANT - Bonnie Ramsey, 251-3803.  ISLAND RETREAT. Bed and breakfast in a  women's farmhouse. Single or couples.  Small groups can be arranged. Reasonable  rates. A weekend in the country in  beautiful Parksville. Children welcome.  Phone Judith at 248-2504 (evenings) for  information and bookings.  JAN LAWRENCE: A SINGULAR DISSECTION, a  monochromatic fibre installation, opens  January 14 at the Cartwright Street Gallery on Granville Island and continues  until February 13. Jan Lawrence will present an illustrated lecture on her work  on Thursday, Feb. 10, 8pm in-the Gallery.  RUMMAGE, CLERANCE, MOVING sale. Video Inn  Fundraiser. Promises of bargains galore!  Sat. Feb. 5, 12 noon - 5pm. 261 Powell.  WOMEN IN FOCUS film series at 456 W. Broadway, Vancouver.  872-2250.  8pm.  Friday, Feb. 4 - Daughter Rite  Cows  BC NDP WOMEN'S RIGHTS COMMITTEE - film and  pub night. Friday, Feb. 11, 7:30 pm,  Swedish Hall, 1320 E. Hastings, Van.  $4. employed; $3. unemployed. "Right out  of History" - Judy Chicago's The Dinner  Party.  WOMEN IN FOCUS. 456 W. Broadway. 872-2250  B.C. Native Indian Women Artists, featuring' Freda Diesing, Doreen Jenses' &  Dorothy Grant. Tues. Feb. 8-llth. Gallery hours 9:30-5pm. Art work for sale.  Mon. Feb.7 - Preview 12-5pm. Opening  8-10pm. All welcome.  Wed. Feb. 9 - 7:30-10pm. Freda Diesing  from Terrace, will give a slide/videotape presentation. Admission $2.00  Fri. Feb. 11 - l-5pm. A wood carving  demonstration with Doreen Jensen and  Freda Diesing. FREE.  Sheila Gostick, Comedienne - Fri. Feb.  18. Doors open: 7:30pm; show,starts:  8pm; tickets $3.00. A co-production with  Western Front.  2x5 = Women's Theatre on Broadway -  Thurs. Feb. 24. Doors open: 7:00pm; show  starts: 7:30pm; tickets: $5.00. Two  groups - "Acting Up" and "Spiderwoman  Theatre" (see article this issue).  THE 1983 REGIONAL LESBIAN Conference Fund-  raising Committee wishes to thank the  many people who supported the Lavender  Elephant Bazaar through contributions  of time, energy, contributions, and  attending the bazaar. Without your assistance this event would not have been  the success it was. Thank you.  SHARON H NELSON'S report on Women Writers  in Canada is not available from the  Status of Women but can be read in its  entirety in Issue 15 of Fireweed.  WEST WIND CIRCLE T-SHIRTS (a women's business) is offering discount prices of  10% off current t-shirt silk screening  prices to all women's groups active in  B.C. Phone Carol 327-5778 or Stella  734-0530.  PEOPLE'S LAW SCHOOL free law classes  through the end of April. Courses include  "Getting Fired - Wrongful Dismissal of  non-union employees"(Feb. 3); "How to use  the unemployment insurance office" (Feb.  15 & 16); "Your 1982 Tax Form (Mar. 1 &  16);"Welfare Rights" (Mar. 9); "Disarmament" (Mar. 17); "Buying or Selling Your  Family Home" (Feb. 9 & 10); "Mortgage  Renewal" (Mar. 10); "School Law" (Feb.14);  "Family Law" (Mar. 14, 21 & 22); "Rights  of Medical Patients" (Apr. 26 & 27);  "Talk Back to Ottawa" (Apr. 28).  To receive a copy of the schedule with  full details of these and many other free  law classes for the public, please call  People's Law School at 734-1126 or 3466  W. Broadway and Collingwood.  CLASSIFIED  I AM PLANNING A TRIP TO PARIS in late May  1983 and would like to share living expenses with a non-smoking woman. If you  'ñ† are interested or know of someone who  might be, please write to Catherine at  P.O. Box 4285, VMPO, Van. B.C. V6B 3Z7.  LA QUENA coffee house, now open. A project  of the Canadian Latin American Cultural  Society. Menu includes numerous coffees,  teas and cold drinks as well as salads  and sandwiches. Live performances each  weekend.  La Quena is a non-profit  centre operated with volunteers.  1111 Commercial Drive.  RECENT ARRIVALS: At the Vancouver Women's  Bookstore, 322 West Hastings St.  Phone: 684-0523  Computers on the Job  $10.95 by Heather  Menzies  Feminine Eye-Science Fiction and the  Women Who Write It  $8.70  Women Race and Class  $17.50 by Angela  Davis.  At Ariel Books, 2766 W. 4th Ave., Van.  Phone: 733-3511  Still Ain't Statisfied  $9.95, Women's  Press  Dreaming the Dark-Magic,  Sex, and  Politics  $9.95 by Starhawk  Second Stage  now available in paperback, $9.50 .by Betty Friedan  .  continued from page 17  Finally in November, after having to send  additional medical and personal information and a second set of registration  papers plus a paternity paper,* I received  a welcome phone call telling me that the  additional paternity information had been  noted on the birth registry and witnessed  by an Ombudsman office staff.  "It's over for you," I recall the Ombudsman staff saying, "but not for Vital  Statistics." It seems that ours was a test  case and that the'Department will have to  look at policy changes and perhaps,  changes in the provincial Act.  I have written the facts concerning this  situation but, as important, are the  feelings I experienced throughout. As I  recall, anger and powerlessness are what  I most felt trying to deal in a system  that deals with paper and policies and  forgets that there are real people "out  there".  Perhaps there are other women "out there"  who are up against similar bureaucracy,,,  Let me encourage you to make your anger  and powerless feelings work for you. Don't  believe that your situation is "impossible". Every dent in the "paper politics"  helps.  Trisha Green  COMMUNITY"  BUSINESS  TRAINING  VANCOUVER, B.C.  MARCH 4-7, 1983^  SESSION  Managerial  and  Organizational  Courses  for  co-ops, community groups  and  worker-owned businesses  Community Business Training combines managerial skills and social activism in  courses designed for the democratic and progressive organization: Financial  Development, Democratic Management, Planning and Community Economic  Development are among those offered.  For a full list and description write today to:  Community Business Training  205 E. 6th Ave.  Vancouver, B.C. V5L 2T9  or Phone (604) 734-3360  a program of the Community Congress for Economic Change February,'?? " Kinesis .. J9  BULLETIN BOARD  UP COMING  SOROMUNDI PRODUCTIONS PRESENTS "The  Wallflower Order", March 4, 8pm,  Centennial Theatre, 23 Lonsdale, N.  Van. $6 in advance; $7 at the door.  Tickets available at Women's Bookstore,  Ariel, Octopus East, Child care provided. For wheel chair accessibility,  call 224-7062.  .THE UBC WOMEN'S CENTRE wishes to announce  that Mary Daly will speak in Vancouver  on the evening of March 19. She is to  be the guest lecturer during Women's  Week '83 at UBC. Her lecture is entitled "Wonderlust/Wanderlust:Remembering  the Elemental Powers of Women". Details  of time and place and tickets will be  forthcoming.  PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ABUSE OF CHILDREN.  May H, 12, 13, 1983. Co-sponsored by  the Justice Institute of B.C. and the  Solicitor General of Canada. Registration and more info. 228-9771; 4180 W.  4th Ave., Van. V6R 4J5.  WORKSHOPS  SOUTH SURREY/WHITE ROCK WOMEN'S PLACE  is holding the following workshops and  events in February. "Self-Defence for  Women" with Marsha Ablowitz, Feb. 12,  fee $15.; "The Goddess Within" with .  Sharon Melancon, Feb. 16, fee $5. and  "Yoga for Women" with Margie Ostroff,  Feb. 26, fee $14. For more info call  536-9611 or write 102-1548 Johnston Rd.  White Rock, B.C. V4B 3Z8.  SKILLS SHARING DAY. On Sat. Feb. 25 from  l-4pm, Van. Os Health Collective will be  offering a health skills sharing -session  We will be demonstrating and practicing  breast self-exam and cervical self-exam  and will be explaining pap smears - how  they're done and how to understand the  results. There-will be time'to discuss  related health problems and preventative  practices according to the interest of .  women in the group.  WORKSHOPS FOR WOMEN- Visualization for  self-healing. Sun. Feb. 20; 10am-5pm.^20  Autogenic training - a relaxation technique. 6 Mondays beginning March 7;  6-7:30pm $25. Call Kristen Penn 872-0431  MADELEINE MORRIS will make MOEV move you  at CO-OP RADIO's second annual benefit  dance on February 18.  See details     WRITING OUR LIVES.The Radical Reviewer is  sponsoring another three workshops for  women who write. Feb. 19 a workshop for  lesbian writers. March 12 women's  fiction and poetry. March 19 a special  workshop on reviewing women's culture.  For further information call Ani at  876-2943 or 876-1436.  KWANTLEN COLLEGE - PROGRAMS FOR 0  Women and Trades - Tues. Feb. 8.  Princess Margaret School. $8. 1 sess.  A Woman's Guide to Emotional Well Being  How Feelings Work- Michaela Johnson.  $6/1 session. Tues. March 1, 7-10pm.  White Rock Women's Place  Anger Workshop for Women - M. Johnson  $20/1 session. Sat. Feb. 26, 10am-4pm  Surrey Campus Rm S206.  Yes I Can-Confidence Building - Dorina  Medland. $45/2 sess. Sat/Sun Feb. 19&20.  9:30am-4:30pm. White Rock Comm. School  Mothers & Daughters Self Defence - Marsha Ablowitz. $25pr./l sess. Sat. Feb.  19 10am-4pm, Surrey Campus Room S421, or  $35pr/4 sess. (Christine Santos) Tues.  Feb. 22 7-10pm Bridgeview Community  School.  The Computer Explosion - Susan Brennan  $30/1 sess. Sat. Feb. 26; 9am-4pm. Surrey  Campus, Rm S409.  What Every Woman Should Know About Her  Money - Pat Mugridge. $20/1 sess. Sat.  Feb 12 9:30am-3:30pm at White Rock  Comm. School or Sat. Feb 26, 9:30am to  3:30pm, Surrey Campus Room S417.  Register by telephone using mastercard  or visa - 588-4411 or in person at  Surrey Campus. For more info call Janet  Patterson - 588-4411. -  WOMEN ONLY group -facilitator Sara Joy  David. Emotional release work, healing,  nurturing, restoring. Feb. 26, 27; 1165  Fairfield, Victoria. Sliding scale fees.  Register by mail before Feb. 11  Power - 4 sessions. Mon. eves. Feb. 21,  March 7, 28, April 11. Co-leaders Sara  David, Joy Gardner, 1165 Fairfield,  Victoria. Sponsored by the Status of  Women Action Group.  NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN AND THE LAW  conference - Empress Hotel, Victoria;  Wed. Feb. 23 - Sat. Feb. 26. Topics for  discussion include Affirmative Action,  Parental Benefits, Pension Reforms, and  Rights and Freedoms under the Law. For  more info, call Mary Ransberry 721-8465.  SIZING IT UP. A weekend workshop for large  women, presented by Large as Life. An  opportunity to examine our feelings and  attitudes towards our bodies. Leaders:  Sally Batt and Joan Dal Santo. March  11, 12, 13. Cost $30. For information  and reg. call 261-4782.  GROUPS  BISEXUAL WOMEN'S SUPPORT GROUP meets regularly. For more information, call  Georgia, 874-1756.  LESBIAN INFORMATION LINE. Want to talk?  Need information? Call LIL Thurs & Sun.  7-10pm. 734-1016. LIL is looking for new  members. Call to join our fun collective.  GO TO CO-OP RADIO's SECOND ANNUAL  Benefit Dance at the Commodore Ballroom  on FRIDAY,  FEBRUARY 18.   Doors will open  at 8 pm; music starts at 8:30.  Three  other groups will be featured: RHYTHM  MISSION,   STANDARD LIFE AND BLAIR  PETRIE.  Tickets are $7.00 in advance.  Available at Co-op Radio and at VTC/  CB0 outlets,  Octopus East Books and  other records stores.  Come on,  all you  Alien Soundtracks listeners, get out  to the new music event of the year.  w«>Lp y&o  •THE ,  SojWAYf'  THE HEALTH COLLECTIVE IS TRAINING VOLUN-  teers. A six week training group for  women who would like to work as non-  paid staff in the resource centre. Interested women need to share our feminist, anti-capitalist perspective and be  able to work one afternoon shift per  week, as well as come to a monthly  meeting. The training group will be on  Tuesday mornings starting mid-March.  Phone the Health Collective at 736-6696  to pre-register.  MENOPAUSE GROUP FOR WOMEN -4 Tuesday  evenings, Feb. 8, 15, 22, March 1.  7:30-9:30pm. Phone 736-6696 for location and to pre-register.  A DISCUSSION GROUP FOR LARGE WOMEN. Beginning March 1, on Tues ams from 10-12:30,  Van. Women's Health Collective will  offer a 6wk group for large women. Topics to be discussed will include: our  body image as large women, the role of -  nutrition and exercise, some visualization and a discussion of dieting and how  to be healthy. This is not a weight loss  group.   For more info call 736-6696.  Childcare available. Register early, no  fee.  1983 REGIONAL LESBIAN CONFERENCE . Interested 'in participating in the conference  cabaret to be held in Van. on May 20?  Share your creations about lesbianism in  song, dance, theatre, poetry or film/  video. No performers fee. If interested  call by March 1, 255-5587 (Leah) or  876-3629 (Rachel). Rural women write to  Leah, 1735 Graveley, Van. V5L 3A9.  THE ORGANIZERS OF THE 1983 B.C. Regional  Lesbian Conference are interested in  addressing the needs of disabled women.  • We would like input and contact numbers.  We have no contact with disabled women  at this time but want to develop good  outreach. Call Baylah 876-0225.  ON THE AIR  WOMAN VISION ON CO-OP RADIO. 102.7FM.  Listen out on Mondays, 7-8pm, News,  views, music on Womanvision, the program that focuses  THE LESBIAN SHOW on CO-OP RADIO, 102.7  each Thursday from 7:30-8:30.  Feb.3 - Pornography, a look at the anti  porn movement in Vancouver; Feb. 10 -  Lovesongs, mush, mush and more disgusting mush for Valentine's Day; Feb. 17  creative visualization - how women are  using this powerful technique in their  lives; Feb. 24 - Nad's Faves - get to  know the Lesbian Show Collective through  their favourite music, starting with  Nadine's  RUBYMUSIC on CO-OP RADIO, 102.7 FM from  7-7,:30 pm each Friday. Join host Connie  Smith for half an hour of the finest in  women's music: pop, gospel, folk, feminist and new wave.

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