History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

The Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: May, 1954 Vancouver Medical Association May 31, 1954

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 THE
ULLETI
OF
The Vancouver Medical Association
EDITOR
dr. j. h. MacDermot
EDITORIAL BOARD
DR. D. E. H. CLEVELAND DR. J. H. B. GRANT
DR. H. A. DesBRISAY DR. J. L. McMILLAN
Publisher and Advertising Manager
w\ E. G. MACDONALD
VOLUME XXX.
MAY, 1954
NUMBER 8
OFFICERS 1953-54
Dr. D. S. Munboe Db. J. H. Black
President Vice-President
Dr. George Langley
Hon. Treasurer
Dr. E. C. McCoy
Past President
Dr. F. S. Hobbs
Hon. Secretary
Additional Members of Executive:
Db. R. A. Gilchbist Dr. A. F. Habdyment
TRUSTEES
Dr. G. H. Clement Dr. Murray Blair Dr. W. J. Dorrance
Auditors: It. H. N. Whiting, Chartered Accountant
SECTIONS
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Dr. W. M. G. Wilson Chairman Dr. W. Ronald Taylor Secretary
Paediatric
Dr. E. Stewart James Chairman Dr. George Gayman Secretary
Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery
Dr. W. H. Fahrni Chairman Dr. J. W. Spabkes__ Secretary
Neurology and Psychiatry
Db. A. J. Warren Chairman        \De. T. G. B. Caunt—,_ Secretary
Radiology
Dr. W. L. Sloan Chairman Dr. L. W. B. Card.
Secretary
STANDING COMMITTEES
Library
Dr. D. W. Moffat, Chairman; Dr. R. J. Cowan, Secretary; Dr. W. F. Bie;
Dr. C. E. G. Gould ; Dr. W. C. Gibson ; Dr. M. D. Young.
Summer School
Dr. S. L. Williams, Chairman; Dr. J. A. Elliot, Secretary;
Dr. J. A. Irvine ; Dr. E. A. Jones ; Dr. Max Frost ; Dr. E. F. Word
Medical Economics
Dr. E. A. Jones, Chairman; Dr. W. Fowler, Dr. F. W. Hurlburt, Dr. R. Langston',
Dr. Robert Stanley, Dr. F. B. Thomson, Dr. W. J. Dorrance
Credentials
Dr. Henry Scott, Dr. J. C. Grimson, Dr. E. C. McCoy.
V.O.N. Advisory Committee
Dr. D. M. Whitelaw, Dr. R. Whitman, Dr. H. A. Henderson, Dr. R. A. Stanley
Representative to the Vancouver Board of Trade:  Dr. J. Howard Black
Representative to the Greater Vancouver Health League: Dr. W. H. Cockcroft
-Published   monthly  at  Vancouver,  Canada.     Authorized   as   second   class   mail,  Post   Office  Department,
Ottawa, Ont. P^§
Page 305 NEW
anticonvulsant for
petit mal epilepsy
"To date MILONTIN is the most
effective succinimide w« have tested....
"... it has the advantage
of being relatively nontoxic.
"... more efficacious in that group
of cases in which standard medication
gave only indifferent-to-fair results,
as well as in those cases having
the lowest frequency
of pretreatment seizures."*
'Zimmerman, E T.:
Am. I. Psychiat. 109:767, J95&,
®
MfLONTIN  KAPSEALS
( M ETHYL PH ENYLSUCCIN1MIOE, PARKE-DAVIS)
MILONTIN, a drug of choice
for petit mal epilepsy, was developed
by the research laboratories
of Parke, Davis & Company following 11 years
of study and clinical investigation.
It is available Mi 0.5 Gm. Kapseals
in bottles of 100 and 500.
mm
k^0W^^^0fS
&&$&£$&¥*&&£
a
4 HOSPITAL CLINICS
VANCOUVER  GENERAL  HOSPITAL
Regular Weekly Fixtures in the Lecture Hall
Monday, 8:00 a.m.—Orthopaedic Clinic.
Monday, 12:15 p.m.—Surgical Clinic.
Tuesday—9:00 a.m.—Obstetrics and Gynaecology Conference.
Wednesday, 9:00 a.m.—Clinicopathological Conference.
Thursday, 9:00 a.m.—Medical Clinic.
12:00 noon—Clinicopathological Conference on Newborns.
Friday, 9:00 a.m.—Paediatric Clinic.
Saturday,  9:00 a.m.—Neurosurgery Clinic.
ST. PAUL'S   HOSPITAL
|||* Regular Weekly Fixtures
2nd Monday of each month—2 p.m. Tumour Clinic
Tuesday—9-10 a.m. \ Paediatric Conference
Wednesday—9 -10 a.m. _._ Medical Clinic
Wednesday—11-12 a.m._ . Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic
Alternate Wednesdays—12 noon Orthopaedic Clinic
Alernate Thursdays—11 a.m—, Pathological Conference (Specimens and Discussion)
Friday—8 a.m Clinico-Pathological Conference
(Alternating with Surgery)
Alternate Fridays—8 a.m Surgical Conference
Friday—9 a.m Dr. Appleby's Surgery Clinic
Friday—11 a.m Interesting Films Shown in X-ray Department
SHAUGHNESSY  HOSPITAL
Regular Weekly Fixtures
Tuesday, 8:30 a.m.—Dermatology. Monday, 11:00 a.m.—Psychiatry.
Wednesday, 10:45 a.m.—General Medicine. |     Friday, 8:30 a.m.—Chest Conference.
Wednesday, 12:30 p.m.—Pathology. Friday, 1:15 p.m.—Surgery.
BRITISH  COLUMBIA  CANCER  INSTITUTE
2656 Heather Street
Vancouver 9, B.C.
SCHEDULE OF CLINICS—1953
MONDAY—9:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.—Nose and Throat Clinic.
TUESDAY—9:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.—Clinical Meeting.
10:30-12:00 noon—Lymphoma Clinic.
THURSDAY—11:00 a.m.-12:00 noon—Gynaecological Clinic.
DAILY—11:45 a.m.-12:45 p.m.—Therapy Conference.
Page 309 -C CONNAUGHT >
INSULIN PREPARATIONS
For Short Duration of Action-
For Prolonged Duration of Action—
Insulin-Toronto — an unmodified solution of zinc-Insulin
crystals, highly purified and
carefully assayed to aid in ensuring a uniform effect from
vial to vial.
Protamine   Zinc   Insulin—an
amorphous suspension prepared by modifying a solution
of zinc-Insulin crystals by the
addition of about 1.25 mg. of
the protein-precipitant protamine per one hundred units of
the Insulin.
For Intermediate Duration of Action NPH Insulin—a suspension of
crystals containing Insulin
and protamine. Chemical and
biological tests are conducted
to control uniformity of the
preparation.
A Handbook for Diabetic Patients, entitled
"INSULIN", is available to physicians upon
request for distribution to their patients.
CONNAUGHT   MEDICAL    RESEARCH    LABORATORIES
University of Toronto Toronto, Canada
Established in 1914 for Publufc/Service through Medical Research and
the development of Products for Prevention or Treatment of Disease.
DEPOT FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA
MACDONALD'S    PRESCRIPTIONS    LIMITED
MEDICAL-DENTAL BUILDING, VANCOUVER 1, B.C. This issue of the Bulletin is intended to commemorate one of the greatest events
;in the medical history of British Columbia—the granting of the degree of Doctor of
! Medicine to the first graduates from the Faculty of Medicine of the University of British
Columbia. This is a matter of intense pride and satisfaction to all citizens of British
Columbia, and in no lesser degree, we think, it is important to the whole of Canada:
for it marks the beginning of a steady stream of well-trained medical men and women,
made available to the whole medical structure of our country.
To these graduates, who, through years of hard and conscientious work, have
so well earned the honour that is theirs, we extend not only the congratulations that
they so deserve, but also our heartiest and most sincere welcome into the ranks of the
medical profession, as our colleagues and professional brothers. Some of us, who speak
from many years in medical practice, can assure them in no uncertain terms that they
have chosen well and wisely, when they entered this sphere of activity—and as the
years roll by, they will find increasing happiness and satisfaction in their profession.
It is not an easy profession to serve—it entails sacrifices, it calls for all that is best in a
man or woman, patience and endurance and integrity, and most of all, sympathy and
understanding. But, with all this, it is still, in our humble opinion, worth all that it
demands of us, and through the ages, the term "Good Physician" has stood very high
in men's esteem.
And they are graduates of no mean school—rather they come from a school recognized by the leading authorities in medical education as second to none. Their school
is one of which they can be very proud now, and of which they will be prouder as the
.years go by. We have yet no million-dollar medical buildings, these are yet to come—
our photographs in this issue show no massive triumphs of architecture—but it is not
in buildings that the greatness of a school lies—it is in the heatrts anjd min?ds an(d
devotion of its Faculty—and the U.B.C. medical school has all of these in ample supply.
Here we would like to tell a little story. In getting photographs for this issue,
we asked your Dean whether we could include\)ne or two of the big buildings associated
with medicine, but not primarily medical buildings. His answer is worth recording, we
think. He said in effect, "We have no big buildings as yet—but I would rather show
the buildings we have, where the students actually do their work"; the small frame
buildings he meant, where you started. It was exactly the right answer. He and his
staff took what they were given, and out of it they have made a medical school, the
equal of any.    So we pay tribute to them, too.
This school is the fruition of the hopes and efforts of many men—it did not just
come into being suddenly—many of our leaders of the past worked for it, and hoped
for it, and did constant battle for it—many of them have gone on, and are nbt here
now to rejoice with us in its success. But they did their share, and deep in the foundations, of this solid and enduring structure which we now admire, and in which we
rejoice, are the foundation stones laid by the work and effort and faith of these men.
So let us think of "our fathers that begat us", and in passing, pay them the tribute that
is rightly theirs.
Page 311 MINISTER OF NATIONAL HEALTH AND WELFARE
OTTAWA,   CANADA
May 17th will be remembered as an important date in the
life of this province, for it marks the graduation of the first class
from the Medical School of the University of British Columbia.
I welcome this opportunity of extending, through the medium of
the Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin, my warmest congratulations to this year's graduates and to all who have had a
part in establishing Canada's newest Faculty of Medicine.
There can be no question that the teaching facilities in
medicine which have now been set up at the University of British
Columbia will fill a long-felt need, not only for British Columbia
and the Western Provinces, but for all of Canada. These added
teaching facilities will help significantly in alleviating the
shortage of physicians while, at the same time, maintaining the
high standards of training and skill that are so characteristic of
Canada's medical profession.
The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine at the University
of British Columbia is a notable addition to this great Institution.
I feel confident that graduates of this, its first class, will begin
a bright, new chapter in an academic tradition that has won an
honoured place in the life of this country.
pa J m
tu
arun
Page 312 THE GOVERNMENT OF
THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
MINISTER OF HEALTH AND WELFARE
VICTORIA
It gives me a great deal of pleasure to extend congratulations on behalf of the Government of British Columbia to
the members of the University of British Columbia Medical
School graduating class.
As you are the first medical graduates in British Columbia, you are living symbols of the tremendous growth and
vitality characteristic of our province. Your training has been
x>f very high standards, and as you take your place in the
medical profession, I am sure you will command respect.
I wish to extend my heartiest congratulations to you,
and express the wish that your future will be successful and
rewarding.
C*ric   ivlartin
Minister of Health and Welfare
v
Dr. Palgfdlc
Biochemical Research
Radio Active Laboratory
Page 313 UNIVERSITY    OF    BRITISH     COLUMBIA
OFFICE     OF     THE     PRESIDENT
Dr. J. H. McDermot,
Editor, The Bulletin of the
Vancouver Medical Association,
3195 Granville Street,
Vancouver 9, B.C.
April 26th, 1954.
Dear Dr. MacDermot:
I should like to express to all readers of The Bulletin, the pleasure and gratification
which members of the University of British Columbia feel on the occasion of the
graduation of our first class in Medicine.
The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine is a particularly important development in the life of any university. It has been a source of great gratification to all of
us in the University to work with the excellent Faculty which Dean Weaver has
managed to assemble in a relatively short space of time.
It has equally been a matter of gratification to enjoy the support which has been
given to the Faculty 'by the medical profession in British Columbia, and by those
sections of the public interested in medical education.
Quite apart from the professional work which the Faculty is pursuing, I would
like to lay considerable emphasis on the general cultural contribution which members
of this Faculty make to the University community.
For all these reasons, I should like to take this opportunity of expressing on behalf
of the Board of Governors and the Senate of the University, the very great pride we
take in making this particular contribution to the welfare and health of the Province.
Yours sincerely,
n -J. m Wucj(e
enzie
Page 314  TO THE FIRST GRADUATING CLASS
UNIVERSITY OF B.C., 1954   g
It is my privilege on behalf of the Canadian Medical Association to extend to
the Dean and the Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, our sincere
congratulations on this unique occasion, and to you, the members of the first graduating class in medicine, the C.M.A. extends its congratulations and best wishes.
It is a great undertaking to organize and to staff a medical school on so high
a level of excellence as yours has proven to be. It is an ambition fulfilled and an
achievement accomplished. To you of the graduating class it is a challenge to meet and
even surpass the standards of the older medical schools across Canada. I am sure you are
qualified to meet the occasion and to do honor to your University and its Medical
Staff.
Recently a prominent University President remarked that the greatest advertisement a University receives is through the medium of its medical school. If this statement is accepted as a fact, it places an additional responsibility on each and every one
of you, for the good name, and therefore the future of your school, will to a large
extent depend on the calibre and behaviour of the students it graduates. I am confident
you will be equal to the responsible task for which you were trained and which you
will presently assume both as medical doctors and Canadian citizens.
There are many factors which contribute to the success of a medical practitioner,
of these I believe two are most important. One is knowledge, the other is personality.
In the competitive field of medicine, to possess a fund of knowledge is in itself not
enough if you are lacking in human understanding and natural sympathy towards your
patients. The easiest opposition you can encounter, even with inferior knowledge, is the
man who lacks personality and a willingness to serve his people at all times. The
young doctor who is reasonably well equipped with knowledge and who is endowed
with a pleasing personality will succeed wherever he chooses to practice. It has been my
observation that he will soon outstrip his more learned colleague who contributes
nothing but his learning to his patients and to his community.
The greatest attribute any medical man can possess is integrity. If you are
honest with yourself and with your patients you will be respected in your community
and by your medical colleagues, and you will make few or no inexcusable mistakes.
Never feel that it is undermining your own prestige to seek more experienced consultations when such are even remotely indicated. By so doing, your patients will
develop on your behalf a sense of security and trust which nothing else can replace.
The best wishes of the Canadian Medical Association go with you in this, your new
undertaking and accomplished ambition to serve the people of Canada. It has been a
long, hard struggle but you will find it worth the years of study and the strenuous
effort.
DR. C. W. BURNS,
President—C.M.A.
Page 316 l&ir~&
^ COLLEGE OF «
«V
_s
ET
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Ow behalf of the College of Physicians and Surgeons may 1 extend congratulations to you, the first graduating class in Medicine at U.B.C. This is indeed an historic
occasion and will not be repeated in British Columbia). Likewise, the University
Authorities and the Faculty of Medicine deserve much credit for a difficult task that
has been well done.
You will presently enter the ranks of a great and honourable profession. From
time immemorial legions have contributed to this greatness m terms of loyalty, understanding and service to mankind. No other calling can surpass these qualities. In a
very real sense you are about to become custodians of this gredt heritage. For the next
generation, the responsibility will be yours to see that the standards and ideals in the
Art and Science of Medicine are held high.
May that satisfaction that is born of service well rendered ever be yours.
Sincerely,
ROY HUGGARD, President,
College of Physicians and Surgeons of B.C.
MEO/c
/^S»«w«5
*
>'*&
B.C. DIVISION CANADIAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
It is a pleasure to extend congratulations to the graduates of Class '54 on this
historic occasion—the graduation of the first class in Medicine from our own University. We have waited many years for this event, and already the impact of a medical
school is being felt throughout the Province. The value of its contribution for the
years to come, in new graduates and in scientific leadership, cannot be over emphasized.
In welcoming you to the ranks of practising physicians, I want to take the opportunity, to impress on you the importance of your Provincial Medical Association.
The B.C. Division of the C.M.A. is here to serve you in any way possible, as you
face the problems of beginning practice. The executive secretary, Dr. Gordon Ferguson,
will be able to give you a wealth of information on such things as standard fees, prepaid medical schemes, Workmen's Compensation, medical ethics, etc.
May I also point out that you have a duty towards your Association. It is only
by the support and participation of all the doctors of the Province, that we can properly
accomplish our objectives. Let me therefore urge you to join our ranks, and acitively
interest yourselves in the affairs of organized medicine.
R. G. LARGE, M.D., Pres., C.M.A., B.C: Div.
Page 317 GOOD WISHES FROM OTHER SCHOOLS IN CANADA
These extracts are from letters written to the President of the Medical Undergraduate
Society of the U.B.C.
From—Dr. J. B. Collep, Dean of Medicine, University of "Western Ontario:
". . . Extend congratulations to the Graduating Class . . . on having successfully completed your medical course, and best wishes for the future^."
From—Dr. J. A. Macfarlane, Dean of Medicine, University of Toronto:
". . . Our best wishes to you . . ."
"The Students and Staff of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of
Toronto salute the Medical Undergraduate Society of the University of British
Columbia. . . ."
From—Dr. A. L. Richard, Dean of Medicine, University of Ottawa:
ff. . . My congratulations to the first graduates and my best wishes of
success. . . ."
"Our sincere congratulations also to your Dean and Faculty. Their courage*
ideals, work and sacrifices have been responsible for this achievement. . . ."
From—Dr. G. Lyman Duff, Dean of Medicine, McGell University:
". . . We are delighted to send our congratulations to the first graduating
class in Medicine from our sister University. . . ."
From—Dr. G. H. Ettinger, Dean of Medicine, Queen's University:
ff. . . We congratulate the University of British Columbia on bringing its
first class of medical students to graduation. We wish the members of that
class success and happiness in their profession. . . J"
From—Dr. H. G. Grant, Dean of Medicine, Dalhousie University:
". . . We would like you to know that already your Medical. School has
gained a high reputation throughout Canada. . . ."
From—Dr. J. W. MacLeod, Dean of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan:
". . . The 'best of wishes as your first graduating class embarks on its exciting
professional voyage.   We are three years behind you, but you have left a good
chart: your fine spirit has been contagious, and as .frank admirers we salute
you.    Godspeed! . . ."
From—Dr. Wilfrod Bonin, Dean of Medicine, Universite de Montreal:
". . . I am happy to extend greetings \to the first class which will graduate in
medicine from the University of British Columbia.
"First graduates of a young and brilliant Faculty, may you be always inspired
by the ideal of contributing to the advancement of your ALMA MATER, to
the progress of medicine, and to the welfare of your magnificent Province. . . ."
From—Dr. John W. Scott, Dean of Medicine, Unptersity of Alberta:'
". . . We are very happy, in this medical school, to have our sister school in
British Columbia assume such an important place in the field of medical
education in Canada.
"May we extend to you our best wishes and congratulations. . . ."
From—Dr. Charles Vezina, Dean of Medicine, Universite Laval, Quebec:
"... .Would you be kind enough to offer my best wishes to your students. . . ."
Page 318 FACULTY OF MEDICINE
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
The graduation of the first class in Medicine from the University of British
Columbia will take place on May 17th. It will be a happy occasion not only for the
nearly three score young men and women who will receive their M.D. degrees, and
for their relatives and friends, but also for all those in British Columbia whose vision
contributed to the establishment of this newest Faculty of Medicine in Canada. It
will be an occasion long to be remembered also by a Faculty which has devoted itself
unsparingly to the task at hand and has produced within the period of five short years
a progressive and fully accredited medical school.
Some significant events in the planning for a Faculty of Medicine of the University
of British Columbia over the past decade are worthy of mention.
Although a medical school had been envisaged from the inception of the University, a familiar combination of circumstances militated against action. However, much
thought was given in the latter days of World War II to the need for starting the
medical school at the University. This was not judged solely on the basis of the
requirements of returning veterans, although it was realized that places in the established medical schools of Canada would be in short supply for some time after the war
ended. With a Faculty of Medicine in British Columbia some of those who had contributed to the defence of their country would have the opportunity to become
physicians who would be denied the privilege otherwise. But there were other important considerations.
It was.~realized that a unique opportunity was presented to the University to
establish a medical school which would serve the province in many ways besides producing qualified practitioners of medicine. British Columbia had grown rapidly in
population and there was every reason to believe this growth would continue. There
would be increasing need for individuals trained in all the health professions and a
Faculty of Medicine would play an important role in the required training programmes.
There would be need for a diagnostic and treatment centre such as rarely is found
except in association with a first class medical school. Not only the physicians in
British Columbia but the public as well would assuredly benefit from the educational
programmes which are sponsored by a medical faculty. There would be leadership and
co-operation in matters of preventive medicine and public health. Finally, and very
importantly, there could be the development of medical research on a plane which is
usually not achieved except in conjunction with a medical faculty.
With such considerations in mind, in January, 1944, the Committee on Medical
Education of the British Columbia Medical Association, under the chairmanship of
Dr. K. D. Panton, presented a brief to President Klinck of the University of British
Columbia and to the Honourable H. G. T. Perry, Minister of Education, advocating
that a Faculty of Medicine be established. On behalf of the University, the Senate
in March of the same year, established a Committee on a Faculty of Medicine under
the chairmanship of Dean J. N. Finlayson.   Joint meetings of the Committees followed.
When Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie became President of the University in 1944, he
and the Honourable Eric W. Hamber, who was then Chancellor, determined that a
thorough study should be made of the problems to be faced should a medical school
be established.
The Honourable John Hart, who was Premier, and members of his Executive
received a delegation made up of representatives from the University and from the
B.C. Medical Association in January, 1945. The hearing was a sympathetic one and
the Legislature subsequently provided a capital grant to provide for the beginning of
a medical school.
Two surveys in medical education were conducted in 1946 to assist and advise
the Senate and the Board of Governors of the University, who were responsible for the
Page 319 decisions in connection with the establishment of the Faculty of Medicine. On behalf
of the University, Dr. C. E. Dolman surveyed leading medical schools in both Canada
and the United States. Dr. G. F. Strong performed a similar service on behalf of the
B.C. Medical Association. In addition, the University invited to Vancouver a distinguished group of experts on medical education drawn from both Canada and the
United States.
With these surveys and the consultants' reports and recommendations in front of
them, the Senate of the University on November 27, 1947, decided "That the establishment of a Faculty of Medicine be planned with the ultimate objective of locating
the Faculty of Medicine as a unit on the University campus. That in the meantime, if
it is impossible to establish it on the campus, the pre-clinical years be given on the
campus and the clinical instruction be provided in existing hospitals when, in the
opinion of the Senate and the Board of Governors of the University, the facilities are
considered adequate."
Dr. Myron M. Weaver, who at the time was Assistant Dean of Medical Sciences
at the University of Minnesota Medical School, was invited to become Dean of the
Faculty of Medicine in February, 1949. He reported to take up his new responsibilities
at the University of British Columbia on July 1st of the same year and immediately
addressed himself to the problems of curriculum planning, admissions procedures,
recruitment of faculty, and the preparation of lecture rooms, laboratories and other
facilities for the basic science departments on the University campus.
The Board of Directors of the Vancouver General Hospital had indicated at an
early date its willingness to set aside beds for the clinical instruction of students. This
generous offer was now accepted by the University so that; atTthe same time the.
Departments of Anatomy, Biochemistry, Pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology and
Public Health were being established or planned for on the University campus, the
Departments of Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Paediatrics, Psychiatry and
Surgery were able to be accommodated or planned for at the Vancouver General
Hospital.
THE FACULTY
During the past four years the twelve major departments in the Faculty of
Medicine have been developed under the direction of the following Heads or Chairmen.
Each has displayed a devotion to his task never surpassed in any medical school. In
the order of their appointment they are:
H. Rocke Robertson, B.Sc., M.D. (McGill), F.R.C.S. (Edin.), F.R.C.S.(C),
F.A.C.S., Professor and Head of the Department of Surgery.
Sydney M. Friedman, B.A., M.D., CM., M.Sc, Ph.D. (McGill), Professor
and Head of the Department of Anatomy.
Marvin Darrach, M.A. (Brit. Col.), Ph.D. (Toronto), Professor and Head
of the Department of Biochemistry.
D. Harold Copp, B.A., M.D. (Toronto), Ph.D. (Calif.), Professor and Head
of the Department of Physiology.
Robert B. Kerr, O.B.E., B.A., M.D. (Toronto), M.R.C.P. (London),
F.R.C.P. (C), F.A.C.P., Professor and Head of the Department of
Medicine.
Alec M. Agnew, M.B., M.D. (Toronto), F.R.C.S.(C), Professor and Head
of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
William C. Gibson, B.A. (Brit. Col.), M.Sc. (McGill), D.Phil. (Oxon),
M.D., CM. (McGill), Kinsman Professor and Chairman of the Department of Neurological Research.
John F. McCreary, M.D. (Toronto), Professor and Head of the Department
of Paediatrics.
Page 320 William  Boyd,  M.B.,   Ch.B.,   M.D.   (Edin.),   M.R.C.P.   (London),   LL.D.
(Sask.), M.D.  (Oslo), D.Sc.  (Man.), F.R.C.S.(C), Professor and Head
of the Department of Pathology.
James G. Foulks, B.A.   (Rice), Ph.D.   (John Hopkins), M.D.   (Columbia),
Professor and Head of the Department of Pharmacology.
James M. Mather, M.D., D.P.H. (Toronto), Professor and Head of the
Department of Public Health.
George A. Davidson, M.D. (Man.), M.R.CP. (London), F.R.CP.(C),
F.A.C.P., Professor (part-time) and Chairman of the Department of
Psychiatry.
Within a Faculty which now numbers over 250 members it would be inappropriate
to single out additional names although there are scores who have made extraordinary
contributions in the development of the medical school. Over ninety percent of; this
staff serve without remuneration and the time which they donate annually to the
teaching of students is well in excess of 10,000 hours.
MEDICAL SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND OTHER ACCOMMODATION
For the most part the first two years of the medical course are taught on the
University campus where the Faculty of Medicine occupies well-equipped laboratories,
lecture halls and offices in a group of excellent frame buildings. The Department of
Public Health occupies quarters in Wesbrook Building and in the Wesbrook Building,
also, the students receive their instruction in Bacteriology. Library facilities, including
medical reference sections and a study area are located in the Bio-Medical Section of
the University Library. The Pathology Museum established by Dr. William Boyd is
already superior to many which are found in much older institutions.
At mid-point in the second year the students begin to receive a part of their
instruction at the Vancouver General Hospital. This instruction includes introduction
to the clinical subjects of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and
Paediatrics.
"Throughout the third year of the medical course the students spend the majority
of their time at the Vancouver General Hospital where they receive lectures, attend
bedside and theatre clinics, and serve as clerks while performing supervised ward work.
In the fourth year the students work in the Out-Patients' department, live-in
hospital during clerkships in obstetrics, and psychiatry respectively, and participate
in clinical pathological conferences and theatre clinics, to mention but a portion of
their- assignments. ^
At the Vancouver General Hospital there is a Bio-Medical Branch of the University Library where current textbooks, standard medical periodicals and reference works
are readily available to both faculty and students.
In addition to the Vancouver General Hospital there are now affiliated with
the Faculty of Medicine the following hospitals:
Children's Hospital
Grace Hospital
Provincial Mental Hospital
Shaughnessy Veterans' Hospital
St. Paul's Hospital
ffip Western Society for Rehabilitation.
Within these hospitals a large proportion of the teaching is at the bedside.
MEDICAL RESEARCH
Since its beginning, the Faculty of Medicine has been acutely conscious of the
importance of research. The Clinical and Basic Science Departments have embarked
energetically on a wide variety of important investigation and the scientific literature
Page 321 is being enriched by an increasing number of publications from the new school. During
the past year, over $100,000.00 in research grants from outside agencies has been
available for original studies in the various departments of the medical school. In
addition, many members of the faculty have participated in investigation going on in
affilated teaching hospitals.
Although there is a considerable staff of full-time research assistants the medical
students are given every opportunity to participate in research activities. They may
undertake original problems in fulfilment of their thesis requirement for graduation.
It is hoped increasing funds will be made available to provide summer employment
for the students desiring to work in the research laboratories. It is most important
for the future of medicine to cultivate the inherent interests in and capacities for
research discovered among undergraduate medical students.
The present is not the time to elaborate plans and programmes of post-graduate
training and other educational responsibilities which the Faculty of Medicine will
undertake.
The Faculty has made good progress up to this point toward many of its fundamental objectives. The undergraduate medical course is established on a sound basis.
An excellent pre-clinical and clinical Faculty is organized. Facilities at the University
are adequate, but temporary, and at the Vancouver General Hospital will remain
cramped until a new medical school building, which is projected, is completed.
Interest at the present time focuses on the remarkable development of the past
five years. The foundation has been well laid. The future can be looked forward to
with confidence.
GRADUATES
Faculty of Medicine
University of British Columbia
Page 322 S"«Ss «»5
^
DEPARTMENT HEADS
Faculty of Medicine
University of British Columbia
Fro»/ Row: (L. to R.) Dr. Alec M. Agnew (Obstetrics), Dean Myron H. Weaver, Dr.
William Boyd (Pathology), Dr. H. Rocke Robmsen (Surgery); Second Row: Dr. John
Z*. McCreary (Paediatrics), Dr. Sydney M. Friedman (Anatomy), Dr. Robert B. Kerr "Jjs||
(Medicine); Third Row: William C. Gibson (Neurological Research^Dr. George A.
Davidson (Psychiatry); Back Row: Dr. James M. Mather (Public Health), Dr. James
G. Foulks   (Pharmacology), Dr. Marvin Darrach   (Biochemistry).
Page 323 GRADUATING CLASS IN MEDICINE
ADRIAN, John J Gretna, Manitoba
ANDERSON, Donald O j Vancouver, B.C.
ARROWSMITH,  Ralph C New Westminster, B.C.
BALLAM,  Charles  F Vancouver, B.C.
BECKETT, Matthew C Vancouver, B.C.
BELL,  William  J Revelstoke, B.C.
BISSONNETTE, G. W Terrace, B.C.
BOGG IE,   AI exa nder Va ncou ver, B.C.
CAMPBELL, William W Ladysmith, B.C.
CARTER,   Harold   R ,.___Alberni, B.C.
CHRISTENSEN,  Ralph M J...Vernon, B.C.
CLARK, Nigel  H Vancouver, B.C.
COX, Albert R : Victoria, B.C.
DEVITO, W. Peter Powell River, B.C.
DODEK,   Morton ,_.Vancouver, B.C.
DUDLEY, John H Nanaimo, B.C.
FOULKES, Richard G 1 New Westminster, B.C.
FULLER, William M - Claremont, California
GALE, Henry H . Vancouver, B.C.
GEREIN,  Alfred  N kelowna, B.C.
GRAHAM, John M Fulford Harbour, B.C.
GUEST, Mrs.  Margaret M.~ Regina,  Sask.
HAMILTON, John D Vancouver, B.C.
HARDER, Fred A 1 .'_..Yarrow, B.C.
HARTWELL, Leagh W Vancouver, B.C.
HENNIGER, James R Grand Forks, B.C.
HEYDON, Gordon   K Burnaby, B.C.
HICKS,  Gerald  F 1 Vancouver, B.C.
JANSCH, Mrs. Marjorie E Metchosin P.O., V.I.
JANSCH, T. I Chemainus, B.C.
JEFFRIES,  Roy C Sidney, B.C.
KNUDSEN, Albert M I New Westminster, B.C.
KRINGHAUG,   Olaf Rossland, B.C.
LEVIS, William H | - Victoria, B.C.
MANNING,  Walter  L.._ Vancouver, B.C.
MARTIN, W. R. J New Westminster, B.C.
MITCHELL,  T.  M | i Vancouver, B.C.
MORRISON,  K. J I Port Alberni, B.C.
MURRAY, D.  G West Vancouver, B.C.
McPHERSON, V. A White Rock, B.C.
PARK INSON,   Raymond Vancouver, B.C.
PAULS,   Henry Abbotsford, B.C.
PONTIFEX, A. H New Westminster, B.C.
PURKIS,   Robert S j Vancouver, B.C.
ROBIN, Edwin P New Westminster, B.C.
ROSS,  William  C Victoria, B.C.
ROUTLEY, John V Vancouver, B.C.
TANNER, W. H. R Calgary, Alberta
TAYLOR, James V i Haney, B.C.
THORNTON, N. M Vancouver, B.C.
WARNER, Donald I § . Vancouver, B.C.
WEBSTER,  Harry  I Vancouver, B.C.
WOODS, John H . , Victoria, B.C.
YATES, George R Victoria, B.C.
Page 324 CANADIAN   MEDICAL   ASSOCIATION
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   DIVISION
1807 West 10th Ave., Vancouver, B.C.      Dr. G. Gordon Ferguson, Exec. Secy
OFFICERS 1953-1954
President—Dr. R. G. Large	
President-Elect—Dr. F. A. Turnbull	
Immediate Past President—Dr. J. A. Ganshorn	
Chairman of General Assembly—Dr. G. C. Johnston .	
Hon. Secretary-Treasurer—Dr. J. A. Sinclair__ , !	
PRINCIPAL DELEGATES TO THE BOARD OF  DIRECTORS
 Prince Rupert
 Vancouver
 Vancouver
 Vancouver
.New Westminster
Victoria
Dr. J. F. Tysoe
Dr. E. W. Boak
Nanaimo
Dr. C. C. Browne
Prince Rupert and Cariboo
Dr. J. G. MacArthur
New Westminster
Dr. J. F. Sparling
Dr. D. G. B. Mathias
Kootenay
Dr. S. C. Robinson
Yale
Dr. A. S. Underbill
Vancouver
Dr. Ross Robertson
Dr.  R. A. Gilchrist
Dr. J. Ross Davidson
Dr. R. A. Palmer
Dr. A. W.  Bagnall
Dr. P. O. Lehmann
Dr. Roger Wilson
Chairmen of Standing Committees
Constitution and By-laws 1 Dr. Carson Graham, North Vancouver
Finance Dr. J. A.  Sinclair,  New Westminster
Legislation Dr. J. C. Thomas, Vancouver
Medical Economics  Dr. P. O. Lehmann, Vancouver
Medical Education I Dr. Charles G. Campbell, Vancouver
Nominations - Dr. R. G. Large,  Prince Rupert
Programme & Arrangements—--- Dr. Myles Plecash,  Penticton
Public Health Dr. J. Mather, Vancouver
Chairmen of Special Committees
Archives - Dr. J. H.  MacDermot, Vancouver
Arthritis and Rheumatism Dr. F. W. B. Hurlburt, Vancouver
Cancer— I Dr.  Roger Wilson, Vancouver
Civil Defence Dr. John Sturdy, Vancouver
Ethics Dr. Murray  Baird, Vancouver
Hospitals ! i ■■  Dr. F. A. Turnbull, Vancouver
Industrial  Medicine Dr.  W.  S.  Huckvale,  Trail
Maternal Welfare  Dr. A. M. Agnew, Vancouver
Membership Dr. L. Fratkin, Vancouver
Nutrition Dr. J. F. McCreary, Vancouver
Pharmacy Dr. B. T. Shallard, Vancouver
Public Relations Dr. A. W. Bagnall, Vancouver
•x
THE MEDICAL SCHOOL AND LOCAL MEDICAL SOCIETIES
This spring, at the University of British Columbia, the first graduating class in
Medicine wijl emerge from its academic cocoon. Nearly all members of the class are
native sons of B.C. Most of them will remain in this Province to practise. Hitherto
there has always been an annual 'return' migration of recent medical graduates who
were native born or bred. They were the minority. A trickle of this migration will
continue, along with some graduates from other provinces or countries. But a new,
strong homogeneous group emerges ne'xt month. Twenty years hence, this class, and
their successors, will be the dominant force in the medical profession of B.C. Whjat
can we do to lif t them up, and strengthen their hand?
The medical students at U.B.C. represent every settled area of the Province.
Through their families, the medical school is linked to many communities, large and
small. But contact between the school and the medical profession at large, outside of
the teaching group in Vancouver, is still ill-defined. The time is opportune for local
and district medical societies to establish a friendly, firm link with the University.
There is no better way, at the present time, to form this initial liaison, than by the
offer of a bursary or scholarship to the medical school.
Page 325 Doctors who are not recent graduates, or who have not had recent close contact
with University students, may have forgotten how narrow is the gap between financial
security and real poverty for many students, and medical students are no exception.
A scholarship may enable a gifted student to enter his medical course, or bursary enable
a needy student to complete a year.
Most medical societies have a bank balance that is sufficient to subsidize an annual
gift of fifty or a hundred dollars, or more, line contribution of a bursary or scholarship
will establish between the donor society and the University of B.C. Medical School a
new and happy relationship.
The gift may be provided to the school with no strings attached, or it may be
designated for students whose home is in a specific area of the Province, or for any other
good purpose that the donor requests. Detailed information may be obtained from
Dean Walter Gage, Administration Bldg., U.B.C, or from the Director of the U.B.C.
Alumni Development Fund at Brock Hall, U.B.C.
Before the first class in Medicine at U.B.C was under way in the first year, the
North Shore Medical Society (North and West Vancouver) established an annual
scholarship. That spontaneous gift was a bright crest on the early horizon, cheered
the Dean, and made a propitious start. This year, 1954, should be the year of the
heavy ground swell.   Now is the Time.
F. T.
MEDICAL or DENTAL
Offices available within 30 days.   Excellent location.   Kingsway near
Joyce Rd.   By appointment.   Phone DE. 4343.   Evgs. CH. 0161.
FOR  RENT
Four unfinished office suites situated near junction North Road on
Lougheed Highway one mile from Royal Columbian Hospital in Burnaby. May be finished in either two# three or four room business suites
to accommodate tenant. ^Parking facilities supplied. For further
particulars write: A. J. Percy,
360 North Road New Westminster, B.C.
or phone after 7:00 New Westminster 3955
Page 326 PUBLIC HEALTH AND MENTAL HEALTH NEWS
G. F. AMYOT, M.D., D.P.H.,
Deputy Minister of Health, Province of British Columbia
A. M. GEE, M.D.,
Director, Mental Health Services, Province of British Columbia
THE HEALTH OF THE PEOPLE
The population of British Columbia was estimated to be 1,230,000 in 1953, an
increase of approximately 32,000 over the previous year. Over 40 per cent of this
increase occurred among the population under ten years of age. However, British
Columbia has a greater proportion of older people than has Canada as a whole. This
characteristic is illustrated by the fact that almost 16 per cent of British Columbia's
population was 60 years of age and over, whereas the Canada-wide figure for this same
age-group was only slightly more than 11 per cent. On the other hand, people under
20 years of age comprised approximately 34 per cent of the Provincial population and
38 per cent of the population of Canada.
The average number of persons in a British Columbia family was slightly more
than three. Of all Provinces in Canada, British Columbia had the smallest average
family group.
Over 68 per cent of the people resided in urban areas (metropolitan areas and
communities with populations of more than 1,000). Only Ontario had a greater proportion of urban residents.
More than 366,000 square miles in area, the Province as a whole had only 3.2
persons per square mile. This population density was the second lowest among the
Provinces of Canada. (Newfoundland had the lowest with 2.4 persons per square mile.)
In the vast regions of the Province outside the highly populated Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island, the density was slightly less than one person per square mile.
All of these characteristics had, and will continue to have, an important bearing
on the approach to public health services and the costs of these services.
The health status of any group of people is generally, and possibly most meaningfully, reported in negative terms; that is, in terms of death rates, causes of death, and
sickness experience.   This will be the principal method used in this report.
Notwithstanding the fact that there has been a steady ageing of British Columbia's population—a fact which might be expected to produce a steady increase in the
death rate—the crude death rate has remained almost constant over the past ten years.
The preliminary figure for 1953 was 10.0 per thousand population, compared with the
final figure of 10.1 for 1952.
Numerically, the three leading causes of death continued to be heart-disease,
cancer, and vascular lesions of the central nervous system, in that order. However, the
Director of Vital Statistics again directs attention to the interesting and important
concept of life-years lost, which indicates that the three conditions listed as leading
causes, on a numerical basis, may not have been the most important causes. This concept
takes into account the fact that the death of a young person is usually a more serious
event than the death of an older person because more years of the anticipated life-span
have been lost. Calculations made on this basis place heart-disease, cancer, and vascular
lesions of the central nervous system in the third, fourth, and seventh positions of
importance and raise diseases of early infancy and accidents to the two most important
positions.
An encouraging change in the tuberculosis death rate has taken place in recent
years. In 1947 approximately 51 persons in every 100,000 died from this disease. In
1953 this rate had dropped to less than 12 per 100,000.   (These rates include the Indian
Page 327 population.) The Director of Tuberculosis Control attributes this decline in deaths
chiefly to improved methods of treatment, including the use of streptomycin and
other antimicrobials.
The decline in the incidence of tuberculosis has not been so marked as the reduction in deaths from this disease, although the number of new cases discovered in recent
years has decreased. This is particularly encouraging in view of the increased efforts to
discover new cases. Analyses of the records over the past ten years reveal that the
morbidity rate is slightly higher for females than males up to age 39. Among the group
over 50 years of age, however, the morbidity rate for males is almost twice as high as
that for females.
The Director of Venereal Disease Control states that the number of venereal-
disease cases reported in 1953, including non-specific urethritis, was 3,671, some 240
fewer than the number reported in the previous year. Infectious syphilis has become
a clinical rarity, and late syphilis and prenatal syphilis, as reported to the Division,
have also shown a marked decline. Non-specific urethritis presents an increasing
problem, and the Division is taking the necessary steps to cope with it. It is encouraging
to note that at the Vancouver City Gaol examination centre the number of niewly1
diagnosed gonorrhoea infections decreased to an all-time low. The Director feels that
this reflects accurately the prevalence of gonorrhoea in Vancouver.
Although many of the foregoing data indicate gratifying trends, there was a large
number of cases of poliomyelitis. The incidence, which was 64.0 per 100,000 population, was the highest of any year to date. (The highest rate previously recorded was
49.6 for 1952.) The epidemic was not concentrated in any one particular area, and
it continued over a longer period of the year than those of other years. However, notwithstanding the greater number of cases during 1953, the case-fatality rate was lower
than in any previous recorded epidemic. The incidence was decreasing slowly toward
the year's end.
Drawing upon earlier experience, particularly that gained during 1952, the Health
Branch officials, the Poliomyelitis Committee composed of experienced physicians, and
other agencies had already made co-ordinated plans to meet the problem and to provide
patient-care as efficiently as existing facilities would permit. Private physicians, the
Vancouver General Hospital, the Royal Jubilee Hospital in Victoria, the British Columbia Poliomyelitis Foundation, and the Royal Canadian Air Force worked in close
co-operation with Provincial and local health services. Further plans are being made
to deal with the situation should there be many cases next year.
An earlier reference has been made to cancer as a cause of death. Although the
statistics, based on cases reported, may vary from year to year, there is good reason to
believe that the problem actually remains quite constant in magnitude. In helping to
combat this disease, the Federal and Provincial Governments share equally in meeting
the operating expenses of the British Columbia Cancer Institute and the nursing home,
both located in Vancouver, and the consultative and diagnostic clinics operating at
ten centres throughout the Province. With this assistance, the British Columbia Cancer
Foundation is able to provide very modern facilities and services.
The total incidence of notifiable diseases, including the four discussed above, was
3,104.9 per 100,000 population for 1953. (Indians are included in the calculation.)
A comparison with the incidences of 3,565.2, 4,092.7, and 3,312.3 for 1950, 1951, and
1952, respectively, indicates that there has been an improvement in 1953.
Among school-children there was the usual number of cases of chicken-pox,
measles, mumps, and rubella, with definite upward trends in certain instances. The
incidence of major infection among school-children was not serious.
The Director of Local Health Services reports that the health of school-children
during the academic year 1952-53 was, on the average, satisfactory and differed little
from that exhibited over the previous four years. A good immunity-level has been
achieved. More than 60 per cent of the pupils have been immunized against such major
Page 328 communicable diseases as diphtheria and smallpox, and a smaller proportion have been
immunized against scarlet fever, whooping-cough, and typhoid fever.
Studies conducted by the Consultant in Nutrition supported earlier findings that
the chief deficiencies in children's meals were milk, a Vitamin D supplement, and foods
rich in Vitamin C. Although meat, potatoes, and bread are eaten in satisfactory amounts
by the majority of children, there is an excessive consumption of sweet foods, such as
candy, soft drinks, and cake.
Records of the past year again revealed that dental decay in children is a serious
problem. The Director of Preventive Dentistry emphasizes the great need of more
dentists, particularly in the rural areas, and the hope which may be placed in fluoridation of water-supplies in meeting the problem.
(Source: Annual Report, 1953, Health Branch, Department of Health
and Welfare, Province of British Columbia).
IMPORTANT NOTICE
It has recently been demonstrated that the early diagnosis and treatment of complete or partial deafness in children materially affects the course of the disability and
its ultimate prognosis. Because of this, permission has been obtained from the B.C.
Division of the Canadian Medical Association to develop a pilot clinic of approximately
12 young hard of hearing children at the Health Centre for Children regardless of the
child's economic status. It is hoped to confine this group to those children in whom
the diagnosis has been made as near the age of one year as possible, but children over
one year of age may have to be included in order to obtain the quota.
The object of the clinic will be to diagnose the severity of the deafness in each case
and instruct the parents in its early treatment. This will be particularly directed
towards the use and adaption of hearing aids. If surgical treatment is found necessary
the Doctor referring the case will, of course, be consulted and it is expected that he
will participate.
An attempt will be made to commence this special hearing clinic as soon as possible
and so the names of any children that might benefit should be referred by May 15 th or
before.
All communications should be addressed to the Paediatrician in Charge, Outpatient's
Department, Health Centre for Children, 715 West 12 th Avenue, Vancouver 9, B.C.
FOR RENT
Space for two Doctors' offices in new concrete building on Nanaimo
Street. Available approximately July 1. For further information
contact P. Genovese, c/o 2396 E.  Broadway, Vancouver  12,  B.C.
Telephone HAstings 3647
OFFICE AVAILABLE
Fully Equipped and Furnished Physician's Office in the Vicinity of
33rd and Mackenzie Street.
For further information write or phone:
Mrs. D. L. Abrams, 6992 Angus Dr., Vancouver 14, B.C.
Phone: KErrisdale 2062-M
Page 329 A LOOK AT MEDICAL COLOUR TELEVISION
Vancouver will be the first city in the Pacific Northwest? to view what promises
to be the medium of the future in medical teaching—colour television—at the Canadian
Medical Association meeting in Vancouver for the annual June conference.
Though medical colour television was introduced to the medical profession—its
first audience—only five years ago, it has already matured to the point where virtually
all new hospitals are designed to provide for installation of colour television equipment.
The uses of colour television as a teaching aid are responsible for this significant
addition to the planning of hospital observation facilities for medical students. Classrooms for medical instruction have been designed to accommodate but a small number
of undergraduates, so as to afford everyone an opportunity for close observation of
clinical material and demonstrations. With televised teaching clinics, it would be
possible to enlarge the classroom, increase the number of students watching any single
teaching clinic, and still provide every student with a "front seat" view of whatever
was being presented.
A member of the Canadian Medical Association taking an extensive tour of the
entire colour television operation at Vancouver need not have the medium's teaching
advantages pointed out to him.  They would be evident from the start of his tour.
To begin his television excursion, he would travel out to the Willow Chest Centre
of the Vancouver General Hospital, where he would be directed to the suite of operating
rooms on the third floor of the Centre. Here, in a converted operating room, a complete
mobile studio has been set up by the Medical Colour Television Unit of Smith, Kline &
French, of Montreal, the pharmaceutical firm that is sponsor and producer of the CMA
colour programs.
Should he look into the studio during the televising of a clinical presentation, a
physician, however, will note the great diversity of pertinent clinical material—varying
in size and description from a minute leson to a huge heart-lung machine—which can
be brought before the cameras in a relatively short time, the ease with which patients
and other doctors can be physically introduced into the presentation, the'relaxed character of patients that is not usually the case in a platform clinic where the subject is
directly confronted with a large audience, and the number of visual aids which the
doctor-participant can employ to illustrate and reinforce his discussion points. Charts,
slides, X-rays, models, instruments, apparatus and equipment—the latter either mechanically or electrically powered—can all be utilized for demonstration during the course
of a single presentation.
The doctor will also see that this great versatility is made possible by the SKF
Unit's use of their two television cameras. One is a studio camera, highly mobile and
equipped with a colour-adapted sliding lens that replaces the three or more fixed lenses
previously required to televise material at different ranges. The other camera is like
none in existence. Affectionately called "Clara Belle" by members of the Unit, it is
a mobile surgical camera, specially built for Smith, Kline & French by the Research and
Development Division of the Columbia Broadcasting System. It is employed for televising wide yiews of the general studio area, and for X-rays and slides. With the two
cameras operating in this manner, not only a smoother picture is sent the audience, but
a more visually interesting one.
Let us assume that our visiting doctor has looked in on an hour-long presentation
concerned with fractures of the lower extremities. The presentation is being conducted
by a Dr. Doe, assisted by fellow specialists. For the first half hour, a round-table
discussion of treatment has been supplemented by the actual application of a cast to a
patient's leg and a demonstration of the function of a bed-mounted traction frame.
After contributing his share to the clinical discussion, Dr. Doe turns the remainder
of the half hour over to the other specialists while he goes to the operating room and
prepares for the second part of the presentation—an operation on a fracture of the
ankle.   The studio camera continues televising the discussion as the surgical camera,
Page 330 now off the air, follows Dr. Doe to the operating room. While the doctor is scrubbing,
an CKF technician focuses the camera head of "Clara Belle" on the operative field, a
clean exposure of the fracture already having been made by Dr. Doe's assistants. Even
as Dr. Doe scrubs, he is being "wired for sound" by another technician. A small
microphone, pinned into a surgical mask, is fitted over the doctor's regular mask and an
earpiece is placed on his ear. Thus, he can narrate the operation, hear the doctor-
participants in the studio and, at the same time, receive cues from the television engineer
in the control room.
Looking through the window in the door of the operating room, our visiting
physician can see the surgical camera suspended three to four feet over the operating
field and immediately above the heads of the operating team. Though the surgical
camera, being spark-proof, can televise operative procedures requiring a potentially
explosive anesthetic, a local anesthetic has been administered for this particular operation.
The operating team is in no way inconvenienced by the cameras; in fact, in a small
way, they are aided in their work by the extra lamps brought in to provide the light
necessary for a television picture of high quality.
While our touring doctor has seen a great deal of medical colour television from
the production end, he has not yet viewed a program as a member of the medical
audience. During the program's noon intermission, he leaves the Willow Chest Centre
for the Vancouver Hotel, headquarters for the CMA meeting. By early afternoon he is
seated with 700 other physicians in the Banquet Room of the hotel, receiving point for
the telecasts.
Having heard from other doctors about the medical colour television program
for the CMA meeting at Montreal in 1951, he had assumed that a dozen or so small
receivers would be lining the walls of the Banquet Room. Instead, he finds but one
receiver and one screen. However, it is evident that the lone screen is more than
sufficient since it measures 4^2 by 6 feet and shows a picture approximately 27 times
larger than the small-screen sets used at the 1951 CMA meeting. The picture is
thrown on the screen from a custom-built projection-type receiver. To give the
brightness necessary for projection of this highly magnified image with good resolution
and clearness, the receiver draws on a power supply of 80,000 volts.
The first presentation on the afternoon program is a dermatology clinic. Four
specialists plan to discuss the subject and demonstrate a group of patients. As the
presentation unfolds, our doctor in the audience has opportunity to notice some aspects
of colour TV which were impossible for him to observe while at the Chest Centre.
It soon becomes evident to every program Viewer that the unique advantages brought
to a Clinical presentation by the medium itself cannot be neglected. The picture
presented to the audience by the camera's eye shows easily and uninterruptedly physicians, patients, clinical material and visual aids. And, unlike any platform or classroom
clinic, an audience of hundreds is brought to within a few feet—or a few inches—of
whatever medical subject matter is being shown, in this instance a series of very small
body lesions. The participants as well as the audience also benefit from the fact that no
activity gding on outside the field visible to the camera can detract in the least from
the picture seen by the audience.
A surgical presentation follows the clinic on dermatology and what is probably
the most significant contribution of colour television to medical teaching comes to
light. The vantage point gained, by the surgical camera affords each physician in the
audience- a view of the operation equalled only by that of the surgeon. A procedure
actually contained in an operative area of approximately one square foot has this
field magnified on the video screen to a size of 16 or 18 square feet. All details of
techniques, no matter how fiine or intricate, are clearly visible to the audience. At
times, unforeseen difficulties arise during the course of an operation and the audience
is then afforded the rare opportunity of watching the solution of an urgent operative
problem.
Page 331 Important as these advantages are, probably the most distinctive asset of the
Vancouver television program is colour. Especially when X-rays and one-colour slides
are shown does the value and importance of colour in medical television assume its
proper status. By contrast, monochrome television is entirely inadequate as a teaching
medium, particularly for the satisfactory reproduction of material whose chief medical
interest lies in its peculiar or unusual colouring.
As the television program for the day concludes, the touring physician of our
story might feel that he could present a convincing argument for the qualifications
of colour television as the medium of the future for medical education.
//
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mutual fund.
^rnuediori ^undicate of L^anada cJLtd.
^rnveitori   rrfuluai of L^anada cJLtd.
NEVILLE ASTLEY 2u^«U^
313 — 744 West Hastings Street — Vancouver
Telephone MArine 5283
Page 332
FRED G.HITCHENS _W fti*
3220 Wetherby Road, Victoria, B.C
Telephone Garden—9556
n*a
er

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