History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

The Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: June, 1943 Vancouver Medical Association Jun 30, 1943

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 The BULLE1
of the
flVANCOUVER
MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
Vol. XIX.
JUNE, 1943
No. 9
With Which Is Incorporated
Transactions of the
Victoria Medical Society
the
Vancouver General Hospital
and
St Paul's Hospital
In This Issue:
Page
NEWS AND NOTES |W|M|Sig^^^B SB^»Bi§^M§^ BB
NOTICE TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION-I^^^^^^^' , ^^^^245
SUMMER SCHOOL PROGRAMME--^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 246
"MEMORIES»*-r-Dr. P. A. McLennan^ ;jflt:'- ~- SIR 2 51
twenty-first annual summer school
Vancouver medical association
hotel vancouver, june 22|ro 26, inclusive
make reservations today JNEB
ACTI
between the
FERROUS IRON
I FERROCHLOR
E.B.S. and
VITAMIN B|.
• It has been established by Lucas & Henderson, and confirmed by other investigators, that^jfewhatever form iron is
ingested,^ must be converted into ferrous chloride, before
it can be absorbed. Toform ferrous chloride, the hydrochloric
acid normally secreted during digestion^inust be diverted
from its normal function to combine chemically with iron,
to form ferrous chloride, before any iron can be absorbed,
unless the iron already be ferrous chloride.
In many secondary anaemias, there is a sub-normal amount
of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice, so that no matter
how much iron is taken in any form, other than the-ehloride,
there is little or no absorption, when it is most needed, and
the normal chemical balance in the stomach is disturbed-
This disturbance is avoided by administering iron in
the form of Ferrochlor E.Br.^ which- is absorbed
whether or not-the normal gastric hydrochloric acid
concentration is prcsent,S§S?hen-'the ferrous iron is
combined with vitamin BM-normal secretion, of
hydrochloric^idkl is promoted and nervous symptoms
are relieved.
Ferrochlor Liquid with Vitamin Bi E.B.S. &*
converiie^; and effective form qpferrous iron, for
treating the anaemias of infancy and childhood, and
■* adult patients.;^;
INDICATIONS: Iron deficiency from any cause,
anaeffljasg-;g^^iflffti|y and^sjehiidhood, chlorosis,
haemorrhage,f&|nfectious diseases, pregnancy, and
lactation^fmenstruatij^^^enorrhagia, hypochromic
and microcytic anaemias.
Ferrochlor Liquid with Vitamin Bi E.B.S. is
supplied in one pound bottles, Winchesters
ana gallons, and Ferrochlor Tablets E.B.S.
are supplied in 100% 500's and 1,000's, and
both products are available on prescription at
all better-class pharmacies. Add the letters
E.B.S. after the item Ferrochlor^^i your
prescriptions.
IN SECONDARY ANAEMIA
(such as the anaemiaefef pregnancy), complicated by nerv^st;
manifestations, Ferrochlo||iraT^
Vitamin Bi E.B^Tapidljc^^
stores haemoglobdS to normal,;
andi atthesami|^ime^^|H,oves:
the patientipjiervojSs cbndtri$|i
and appetitp££
The synergistic actip&|fej^i^p
H$$Si|ii Bi |fid the ferr6^if(^;
l&^errochror pfomot€^|nore
rapid and complete absorptio^f
of iroft, in^^naemias compli-t
Seated by nervous disorder®^
Sis
w&
in
V
:■
h& 1
|
1
s%iSI
Established
1879
THE E. B. SHUTTLEWORTH CHEMICAL CO. LIMITED
TORONTO
MANUFACTURING   CHEMISTS 11 ifelSH COLUMBIA
l   JUN2 5 1943
THEIJIBFA-
THE   VANCOUVER   MEDICAL   ASSOCIATION
BULLETI
Published Monthly under the Auspices of the Vancouver Medical Asociation
in the interests of the Medical Profession.
Offices: 203 Medical-Dental Building, Georgia Street, Vancouver, B.C.
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Dr. J. H. MacDermot
Dr. 6. A. Davidson Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland
All communications to be addressed to the Editor at the above address.
Vol. XIX.
JUNE, 1943
No. 9
OFFICERS, 1943-1944
Dr. A. E. Trites Dr. H. H. Pitts Dr. J. R. Neilson
President Vice-President Past President
Dr. Gordon Burke Dr. J. A. McLean
. Hon. Treasurer Hon. Secretary
Additional Members of Executive: Dr. J. R. Davies, Dr. Frank Turnbull
TRUSTEES
Dr. F. Brodie Dr. J. A. Gillespie Dr. W. T. Lockhart
Auditors: Messrs. Plommer, Whiting & Co.
SECTIONS
Clinical Section
Dr. J. W. Miller Chairman Dr. Keith Burwell Secretary
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Dr. C. E. Davies Chairman Dr. Leith Webster Secretary
Pediatric Section
Dr. J. H. B. Grant Chairman Dr. John Piters Secretary
STANDING COMMITTEES
Library:
Dr. F. J. Buller, Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland, Dr. J. R. Davies,
Dr. A. Bagnall, Dr. J. R. Netlson, Dr. S. E. C. Turvey
Publications:
Dr. J. H. MacDermot, Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland, Dr. G. A. Davidson
Summer School:
Dr. J. E. Harrison, Dr. G. A. Davidson, Dr. R. A. Gilchrist,
Dr. Howard Spohn, Dr. W. L. Graham, Dr. J. C. Thomas
Credentials:
Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland, Dr. E. A. Campbell, Dr. D. D. Freeze
V. O. N. Advisory Board:
Dr. L. W. MacNutt, Dr. G. E. Seldon, Dr. Isabel Day
Metropolitan Health Board Advisory Committee:
Dr. W. D. Patton, Dr. W. D. Kennedy, Dr. G. A. Lamont
Representative to B. C. Medical Association: Dr. J. R. Neilson
Sickness and Benevolent Fund: The President—The Trustees SOP IBB aw/t//utMneed6j&b
0
1
0
0
INDIVIDUALLY
THIAMINE
HYDROCHLORIDE
1, 3, 5 and 10 mg. Mlcrocaps
RIBOFLAVIN
1 and 5 mg. Mlcrocaps
PYRIDOXINE
HYDROCHLORIDE
1 and 10 mg. Mlcrocaps
NICOTINAMIDE
50 mg. Mlcrocaps
CALCIUM
PANTOTHENATE
10 mg. Mlcrocaps
SYRUP
te   Sqpibb
wAMiN 8 COMrUPt
SYRUP
CAPSULES
COMPLEX
PRODUCTS
SQUiBB
WTAHW B COMPiEX
M8UTS
TABLETS
VITAMIN B
COMPLEX SYRUP
An extract of the whole
natural B-Complex as
derived from rice bran,
enriched with thiamine
hydrochloride and
riboflavin.
VITAMIN B
COMPLEX CAPSULES
Contains the whole
natural B-Complex as
derived from high
potency brewers' yeast,
fortified with five crystalline vitamins.
VITAMIN B
COMPLEX TABLETS
Made with a special B-
Complex extract of brewers' yeast fortified with
five crystalline vitamins.
Potent and Economical.
For literature write 36 Caledonia Road, Toronto, Canada.
EmiSQpIBB SlSOJ^OF QpSrADA.LtcW
.MANUFACTURING   ^HIi|*|$TS   TO   §§£   MEDICAL   PROFESSION   $|NCE|&58* VANCOUVER HEALTH DEPARTMENT
STATISTICS—APRIL, 1943
Total Population—Estimated       288,541
Japanese Population  ] Evacuated
Chinese Population—Estimated  5,541
Hindu  Population—Estimated    301
Rate per 1,000
Number       Population
Total deaths     287 12.1
Japanese deaths         1    Population evacuated
Chinese deaths l      18 39.5
Deaths—residents  only  .    345 14.5
BIRTH REGISTRATIONS:
Male, 332; Female, 326    658 27.7
INFANTILE MORTALITY: April, 1943 April, 1942
Deaths under one year of age      12 12
Death rate—per 1,000 births      18.2 22.3
Stillbirths (not included above)      11 4
CASES OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES REPORTED IN THE CITY
March, 1943 April, 1943 May l-ir>, 1943
Cases Deaths Cases Deaths Cases Deaths
Scarlet Fever $-',38 0 41           0 15           0
Diphtheria         0 0 10 0
Diphtheria Carrier      0 0 0 0
Chicken Pox    85 0 67           0 64           0
Measles     662 0 779           0 474           0
Rubella          S 0 11           0 2           0
Mumps 28 0 165           0 85           0
Whooping Cough      0 0 30           0 22           0
Typhoid Fever      0 0 0 0
Undulant Fever ;__     0 0 ...           0 0
Poliomyelitis    I *      0 0 0 0
Tuberculosis    43 24 45         22
Erysipelas      3 0 3           0 10
Meningococcus Meningitis      4 1 2           _ 1
V.D. CASES REPORTED TO PROVINCIAL BOARD OF HEALTH
DIVISION OF VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL
West North       Vane.   Hospitals &
Burnaby    Vane.  Richmond   Vane.      Clinic   Private Drs.   Totals
Figures for March and April not yfet available.
Phone MArine 5411
Res.: MArine 2988
/Zeafiuce QcMofz
CANADIAN PHYSIOTHERAPY ASSOCIATION
GRADUATE McGILL UNIVERSITY SCHOOL
OF MASSAGE AND REMEDIAL GYMNASTICS
Electricity, including Short Wave
House Visits
417 Vancouver Block
Vancouver, B. C.
Page 240 Controlled tests show
bran's laxative action
not dependent on size
or number of particles
fiimi
Tests were conducted
on over 200 healthy
subjects. Bran, in various forms, was added to their normal
diets while strictest
possible control of
conditions was maintained   at   all  times.
RESEARCH in progress at three great
universities under grants in aid by the
Kellogg Company point toward a better
understanding of bran's function in the body.
Recent tests, for example, showed that no
systematic difference in efficiency of laxation
was produced by bran in the following
different forms: vegetable fibre extracted
from bran and pulverized to an impalpable
powder; twice-milled particles as used in
KELLOGG'S ALL-BRAN; extra-fine bran
flour; crude, raw bran.
The old "roughage" theory was disproved
since researchers found that neither quantity
nor particle size of bran ingested seemed to
determine bran's effect on laxation.
Furthermore, doubling the amount of
bran eaten, as 2 ounces (double the usual
cereal serving) eaten daily did not result in a
corresponding increase in laxation. And
while bran eaten every day over an extended
period of time had no adverse effects on
normal intestines, its continued use neither
lessened nor increased its laxative effect.
Reprints of published research on laxation
are available to physicians and others
interested. Just write to:
THE KELL0G6 COMPANY
OF CANADA, LIMITED
LONDON, CANADA
ARTHRITIS and ECZEMA
of endogenous origin
claimed to be allergic, may be
favored or induced by calcium
and sulphur deficiency, impaired
cell action, and imperfect elimination of toxic waste.
LYXAHTH1NE ASTIER
administered per os, brings about
improved cell nutrition and activity, increased elimination, resulting symptom relief, and general functional improvement.
Since the best evidence is clinical
Snce  write for literature and
evidence, wr
sample
L-17
Canadian Distributors
ROUGIER FRERES
350   Le Moyne   Street,   Montreal
11
Nuttn $c
t
2559 Cambie Street
Vancouver, B.C. DIPHTHERIA TOXOID AND PERTUSSIS VACCINE
W      I    (COMBINED) |
The death rate from diphtheria and whooping cough is highest
among children of pre-school age. It is desirable, therefore, to
administer diphtheria toxoid and pertussis vaccine to infants and
young children as a routine procedure, preferably in the first six
months of life or as soon thereafter as possible.
For use in the prevention of both diphtheria and whooping cough
the Connaught Laboratories have prepared a combined vaccine,
each cc. of which contains 20 Lf's of diphtheria toxoid and approximately 15,000 million killed bacilli from freshly-isolated strains
(strains in Phase 1) of H. pertussis.
CONVENIENCE
The combined vaccine calls for fewer injections, and, in
consequence, the number of visits to the office or clinic
may be considerably reduced. It is administered in three
doses with an interval of one month between doses.
EFFICACY
Studies have shown that the combined vaccine
is an effective immunizing agent against both
diphtheria and whooping cough.
DIPHTHERIA TOXOID & PERTUSSIS VACCINE (COMBINED) is
supplied by the Connaught Laboratories in the following packages:
Three 2 cc. ampoules—For the inoculation of one child
Six 6 cc. ampoules—For the inoculation of a group of six
children
CONNAUGHT   LABORATORIES
UNIVERSITY  OF   TORONTO^
Toronto, Canada
DEPOT FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA
MACDONALD'S PRESCRIPTIONS LIMITED
MEDICAL-DENTAL BUILDING, VANCOUVER, B.C. lOifetlt An+tOM+iceA,
DAPTA
FOOD SUPPLEMENT FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN
TO BE ADDED TO WHOLE MILK OR MILK FORMULAE
AN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF RICE BRAN WITH ADDED VITAMINS
A, Bt, D, IRON AND IODINE,
Each 4 c.c. contains:
Vitamin  A
4000 I.U.
Vitamin  D
400 I.U.
Thiamine Hydrochloride
Pyridoxine
Calcium Pantothenate
748 gamma
400 gamma
2500 gamma
Niacin
Choline
Iron
Iodine
Riboflavin
7500 gamma
10000 gamma
7500 gamma
100 gamma
*
Dapta is a food supplement for infants end children. When added
to, or given with, whole milk or milk formulae, the combination will
supply all the established vitamin and mineral requirements—
(except Vitamin C).
* Riboflavin, Calcium and Phosphorus are present in adequate
quantities in milk. The addition of DAPTA supplies adequate quantities of vitamins A, Bx, D, factors of the B-Complex, Iron and Iodine.
V Miscible with milk
V Palatable
V Proper potency
V Stability assured
V Economical
DOSAGE
For children: 1 teaspoonful (4 c.c.) daily
with one quart of whole milk. Addition
of DAPTA directly to milk is recommended.
For infant feeding: Add DAPTA to milk
formula at time of preparation as follows:
2—3 drops (2 minims) to each ounce of
formula or Va teaspoonful (1 c.c.) to each
8 ozs. of formula or 1 teaspoonful (4 c.c.)
to each 32 ozs. of formula.
^bafUa utitlt milk tequiiel no otUet vitamin at mineral
AupfUentent except vitamin G.
S.M.A.—BIOCHEMICAL  DIVISION
John Wyeth & Brother (Canada) Limited
WALKERVILLE, ONTARIO THE   EDITOR'S   PAGE
We welcome this month several eminent men who have come here, from all parts of
the continent, it would seem, to speak to us at the Summer School: which opens on the
22nd of this month (all programmes are published in this issue). We only regret that
we cannot take four whole days off from practising medicine—and spend it all in the
auditoriums of the Hotel Vancouver, and the Hospitals, where Clinics will be held. It
would be a priceless four days.
We publish herewith some notes from the Vancouver General Hospital re nursing
problems in that institution. We urge our readers to study these paragraphs carefully.
There is no need to dwell much on the seriousness of the nursing and hospital situation.
We are all well aware of it: the hospitals are doing their level best to meet it: and it is
up to us, as medical men, to do our share, and relieve the burden wherever we can. We
are indebted to the Hospital authorities for keeping us in touch with their plans, and
for making suggestions which we can easily follow, and by so doing help to avoid bottlenecks and overstrain. And we must face the unpleasant fact that things are going to be
worse before they are better.
The Vancouver General Hospital lost a very outstanding member of its Administrative Staff recently, by the resignation of Miss Grace Fairley, R.N., Supervisor of the
Nurses' Training School. Miss Fairley leaves on a high note. For many years, she has
given of her very best, to the School of Nursing which, already of a very high standard,
has reached even greater heights, under her able leadership. Nor was her energy all
confined to one channel. She has for years been prominent in many national causes, and
has been held as an authority and counsellor on all matters pertaining to nursing,
throughout the Dominion. She leaves the General Hospital in the full tide of her ability
and powers: and while we must all deeply regret that she has seen fit to leave, we shall
all hope to meet her again in other equally important capacities: for a woman of her
ability will not be allowed to remain idle for long. She takes with her the knowledge
that everyone with whom she worked, and we speak especially for the medical men,
wishes her the very best of luck, and is sincerely sorry to see her go: grateful to her for
her help and generosity in the days gone by, and confident that she will continue to
contribute greatly to the good of her country, as she has always done. We take this
opportunity of welcoming her successor, Miss Elinor Palliser, and extending to her our
sincere good wishes, and promise of the best support we can give.
Page 241 NEWS    AND    NOTES
It is with regret that we record the passing of Lieut.-Col. F. W. Lees, M.C. and Bar.
Following outstanding service in the war of 1914-18 Colonel Lees for many years practised in British Columbia. During this war he served as Commanding Officer, Nanaimo
Military Hospital, until the time of his final illness.
Capt. J. H. Black, R.C.A.M.C, and Mrs. Black are receiving congratulations on
the birth of a daughter.
Congratulations to Dr. and Mrs. W. P. Walsh and to Dr. and Mrs. W. J. Frantz on
the birth of daughters.
Our best wishes are extended to Dr. Eleanor Riggs on the occasion of her marriage
to Lieut. Montgomery Wood, R.C.N.V.R.
We are glad to learn that the following Officers in the R.C.A.M.C. have been promoted to the rank of Major: A. R. J. Boyd, formerly with the Metropolitan Health
Board; J. A. Wright, formerly of Vancouver, and C. E. G. Gould, formerly associated
with Dr. Lyall Hodgins.
Dr. Roger Knipe, son of the late Dr. G. W. Knipe of Vancouver, and who, after
serving his interneship at the Vancouver General Hospital proceeded to the University
of Toronto where he secured his D.P.H., has now been appointed as medical officer and
director in the Prince Rupert Health Unit.
Dr. R. J. Macdonald, who has been Director of the Prince Rupert Health Unit, is
entering the R.C.A.M.C.
Congratulations to Lieut.-Col. G. H. Clement, now Officer Commanding, Red Deer
Military Hospital, and to Lieut.-Col. Paul King, in charge of the Reception Centre at
Little Mountain, and to Lieut.-Col. G. A. Bird, Officer Commanding, Chilliwack Military Hospital, on their promotions.
The Chilliwack Medical Society held its annual meeting and appointed the following
officers: President, Dr. A. R. Wilson; Vice-President, Dr. W. E. Henderson; Honorary
Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. G. A. C. Roberts.
The Fraser Valley Medical Society held its annual meeting in New Westminster on
May 20th, and the following officers were elected: President, Dr. J. T. Lawson; Vice-
President, Dr. H. H. MacKenzie; Honorary Secretary-Treasurer, Dr. J. G. Robertson.
The meeting followed the dinner which was attended by all members in practice in
New Westminster. Dr. J. T. Lawson was in good form and contributed several delightful songs. Dr. G. H. Manchester responded very fittingsly when the Society conferred
upon him life membership, he having practised in that area for considerably over forty
years, and being a member of the first Society.
Dr. T. W. Walker, Superintendent of the Jubilee Hospital in Victoria, and Mrs.
Walker are receiving congratulations on the birth of a son.
Dr. P. A. C. Cousland of Victoria has recently returned from California, where he
did post-graduate work.
Page 242 Dr. V. W. Smith of Victoria has been appointed Medical Officer in the R.C.A.M.C.
We are glad to report that Dr. F. W. Green of Cranbrook has now recovered from
his operation and is well and happily back in practice.
Dr. R. B. White of Penticton is reported to be in fine fettle. He hears regularly
from his son, Capt. W. H. (Bill) White. He reports that Bill is well and enjoying
his work with the R.C.A.M.C. overseas.
Dr. W. H. Ormond, who has until recently been at Salmo in association with Dr.
L. E. Borden and Dr. N. E. Morrison of Nelson, is now serving with the B. C. Security
Commission at Slocan City, assisting Dr. Arnold Francis with the Japanese evacuee
population.
*i* *»" 'T »r
Capt. A. G. Naismith of Kamloops and Lieut. F. W. Anderson of Kelowna have
been at Vernon as Medical Officers in the Reserve Army Camp. Major G. A. Lamont,
Capt. A. E. Trites and Lieut. R. H. B. Reed of Vancouver accompanied the C.O.T.C.
of the U.B.C. to camp at Vernon.
Dr. J. S. Daly of Trail travelled to the coast and attended the conference of the
United Church of Canada.
Dr. A. H. Meneely of Nanaimo during the Easter week attended the conference of
the American College of Surgeons at Seattle.
The Spring meeting of the Upper Island Medical Association was held at Qualicum
on May 19th. Capt. S. L. Williams, R.C.A.M.C., was fortunate in being able to attend
as President of that Association.
The meeting took the form of a dinner and was largely attended. Dr. A. H. Spohn
of Vancouver, President of the British Columbia Medical Association, and Dr. F. M.
Bryant of Victoria, Councillor for No. 1 District and President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, provided the lecture programme as guest speakers. Doctor Spohn's
paper on "Endocrine Deficiencies of Children," illustrated by slides, emphasized the
importance of early diagnosis. Doctor Bryant dealt with "Toxic Goitre" and told of
his own experience in a long series of cases, which was helpful and much appreciated by
the members. A vote of thanks was presented to the two speakers for their generous
contribution to the success of the meeting.
Dr. M. W. Thomas, Executive Secretary of the College of Physicians and Surgeons,
also attended and contributed to the discussion during  the business  portion of  the
meeting.
Dr. C. C. Browne, the secretary of the Upper Island Medical Association, is to be
commended for his energetic effort in organizing such a splendid meeting.
Captains V. W. Smith of Victoria, N. H. Jones of Port Alberni, S. A. Creighton,
K. P. Groves, Douglas Telford, Kenneth M. Telford, W. J. Frantz, G. W. Wolfe, J. B.
Fenwick, W. R. Govan and N. F. A. McSweyne, have all completed their course of
training in Eastern Canada.
Capt. Kenneth Telford has just been married in Victoria.    He has the good wishes
of the profession.
*       *       *       *
Surgeon-Lieutenant W. Stanley Archibald, R.C.N.V.R., son of Dr. M. G. Archibald
of Kamloops, is serving on loan with the Royal Navy, and is somewhere in the Atlantic
area.
||§! Page 24} Dr. W. J. Knox and Mrs. Knox of Kelowna has been sojourning in Vancouver.
Doctor Knox was looking particularly fit and certainly has a good many years of useful
service.   We are glad to note this because that dynamic force is needed.
Flt.-Lt. C. G. Morrison, R.C.A.F., formerly of Trail, is now stationed near Vancouver.
We are glad to learn that Dr. E. J. Lyon of Prince George is well again following
his recent illness.
Dr. M. G. Archibald of Kamloops has been in Vancouver as part of a well-earned
vacation.
Capt. Frank Lloyd Wilson, R.C.A.M.C., formerly of Trail, is doing X-ray work in
Eastern Canada. His work in civil life in association with Doctor Coghlin of Trail is
proving of value in the Army.
©bttuariw
It is with sincere regret that we record the untimely passing of Capt. G. D.
Oliver.
Capt. Oliver, following his interneship at the Vancouver General Hospital,
practised at Quesnel in association with Dr. Gerald Baker.    He showed rare
aptitude both as a physician and surgeon.    Under Doctor Baker's guidance and
encouragement he was inspired to go abroad and secured his F.R.C.S.  (Edin.)
just before this War.
He then joined the Emergent Medical Service in Great Britain and had an
unusual experience while stationed at Dover. Capt. Oliver and his wife were
at that point during the evacuation from Dunkerque. He subsequently returned
to Canada, and was associated for a short time in the practice with Dr. R. W.
Irving at Kamloops, but he soon joined the R.C.A.M.C. and became an officer
in the No. 12 Field Ambulance. He then proceeded overseas, but was forced
to return and has been more or less invalided since.
Because of what he was and what he had promise of being, it is particularly
regretted that he should be cut off more or less on the threshold of a fine medical
career both in the service of his country and in civil life.
In the passing of Lieut.-Col. W. H. K. Anderson, D.S.O., who had since his
retirement from the R.C.A.M.C. lived in Vancouver, we have lost a very cheery
personality, who spread goodwill wherever he went.
Colonel Anderson was known to many during the last war, and he was the
Commanding Officer of No. 13 Field Ambulance during the latter part of the
Great War.
In 1939, at the outbreak of the present war, he was recalled from retirement into the Service and willingly served for many months, and because of
his rare experience was most valuable in setting up the arrangements in M.D.
11 in association with the D.M.O. Since the last war Colonel Anderson had
filled many appointments, he having been at one time D.M.O. in M.D. 11. We
shall miss him.
Page 244 TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION
The Medical Board at the request of the General Superintendent and- Director of Nursing has considered ways and means of conserving time.
Because of the shortage of nurses and the demands for hospital service it has become necessary to
economize on nurses' time wherever possible and endeavour to give only necessary service to the greatest
number of patients. A Special Committee of the Medical Board and representatives from the Training
School met on April 28 th and framed the following report which was adopted by the Medical Board on
May 11th and is submitted to you for your information and co-operation.
It can be announced at this time also that Miss Fairley is shortly resigning from her position as
Director of Nursing and that Miss Elinor M. Palliser, her successor, is already here. Miss Palliser will be
pleased to receive any further suggestions from any member of the medical profession.
The report with suggestions follows:
After consideration and discussion, the following recommendations were made.
1. That doctors when visiting patients on ward be requested definitely to excuse njurse who accompanies
him unless her presence is necessary.
2. That as far as possible during meal hours, particularly at noon from 11 to 12:30, doctors should not
expect to have the attendance of the Supervisor when visiting their patients.
3. That parenteral administration of fluids should not be continued when patients are able to take
adequate fluids by mouth.
4. That every effort be made to have patients except for tonsillectomies admitted before 4:00 p.m. and
further that patients for operation the following morning must be in by 4:00 p.m. if they are to be
properly prepared and if the patient is to obtain adequate rest prior to the operation, also if the
patient arrives later than 6:00 p.m. the operation be cancelled (except in cases of emergency). The
hospital administration is urged to be strict in this regard. Cases for tonsillectomy may still be
admitted in the morning two hours before the time of the operation.
5. That present regulations regarding the periodic charting of temperature, pulse and respiration be discontinued .and that T., P. and R. be taken twice-daily, once during the morning from 7 to 9 a.m.,
and once during the afternoon from 4 to 6, and that they be charted as 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 p.m.
recordings. If temperature is 100 or more, temperature, pulse and respiration should be recorded at
8, 12, 4 and 8 or oftener on written order of doctor.
6. That doctors' orders be reviewed each day to check uipon the possibility of discontinuing time-consuming treatments.
7. That the attending surgeon should be in the operating room 15 minutes before the stated time for
operations.
8. That Levin tubes for gastric analysis 'be inserted by nurses on patients in P.W.P. as is done in the
Main Building.
9. That the local press be asked to co-operate in informing the public of the necessity of restricting
visiting as much as possible and to limited hours, and that friends rfefrain from telephoning the hospital for reports of condition of patients.    Friends should direct such inquiries to relatives.
10. That because it would be unwise to ask the Press to publicize the Hospital's request to curtail the
sending of flowers to patients that some satisfactory effort be made to reduce this time-consuming
practice.
11. Realizing the problems and changes that will inevitably arise in the ensuing months, that doctors be
requested to confer with the Director of Nursing at any time they foresee difficulties arising or have
suggestions for improvement of service. On the other hand, the Director of Nursing will not hesitate to approach either chiefs of the various medical services or individual doctors.
B. D. GILLIES, M.D., Chairman, Medical Board,
May 25, 1943. Chief of Staff.
OBIIT "  ,fl$
FREDERICK W. LEES, M.D., CM.,
It is "with very sincere regret that we record the passing of a man who was an honour to
Ids country and his profession both: a gallant soldier and a man among men. Fred Lees won his
spurs in the Great "War, and early in that war. Quiet, modest, unassuming, he commanded the
respect and sincere affection of those he served as Battalion Medical Officer. He was in the thick
of it, in the dirtiest and meanest period of it, and he acquitted himself more than ordinarily
well, as his Military Cross and Bar shewed later. After he left the Army and engaged in
private practice, he still had as patients many of the officers and men of his old battalion: men
who thought of him still as their doctor and their best friend.
In private life, he was just as good: just as well liked. He had as friends all who knew
hint: his patients thought the world of him, and he lived a useful and busy life as a general
practitioner. When this war broke out, Fred was among the very first to get back into the
traces, and he was eagerly welcomed by the authorities of the R.C.A.M.C. He did his usual
good work—but tragedy overtook him, and he suffered a severe stroke, from which he did not
recover.
Page 245 VANCOUVER
n
i b
n
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June 22 nd to 25 th, inclusive
1943
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SPEAKERS
Lieut.-Colonel J. D. Adamson,
R.C.A.M.C,
Consultant in Medicine.
Dr. Brien T. King,
Seattle, "Wash.
Brigadier J. C. Meakins,
R.C.A.M.C.,
Deputy Director General of Medical
Services.
Dr. Edwin M. Robertson,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Queen's University, Faculty
of Medicine, Kingston, Ont.
PROGRAMME
Tuesday, June 22 nd—
9:00 a.m.—Brig. Meakins:  "Effort Syndrome and Allied Conditions in Civil
and Military Practice."
10:00 a.m.—Dr. Cantor: "Hormone Therapy in General Practice."
11:00 a.m.—Dr. Robertson: "The Symptoms, Signs and Management of Labour;
a Lecture Demonstration."
12:30 p.m.—LUNCHEON—Guest Speaker: Dr. Foster Kennedy: "De Propaganda Fide."
2:30 p.m.—Medical Clinic—Shaughnessy Hospital—Conducted by Brigadier
Meakins.
4:15 p.m.—Film—Hotel Vancouver—"The Sulphonamides." (Colour and
sound.) MEDICAL   ASSOCIATION
TUESDAY, JUNE 22nd—Continued
8:00 p.m.—Lt.-Col. Adamson: "Pneumonitis:  Definition and Classification."
9:00 p.m.—Dr. Kennedy: "Neuroses Following Accident in Civilian Life."
Wednesday, June 23 rd—
9:00 a.m.—Lt.-Col. Fahrni: "The Management of Burns."
•10:00 a.m.—Brig. Meakins: "The Syndrome Called Shock and Its Place in Medicine and Surgery."
11:00 a.m.—Dr. Robertson: "Prolapse of the Pelvic Organs."
12:00 Noon—Film—"Peptic Ulcer."    (Colour and sound.)
2:00 p.m.—Surgical Clinic — St. Paul's Hospital — Conducted by Lt.-Col.
Fahrni.
8:00 p.m.—Dr. Kennedy:  "The Treatment of Both Open and Closed Head
Injuries."
9:00 p.m.—Dr. Cantor: "Evaluation of Renal Function."
Thursday, June 24th—
9:00 a.m.—Dr. Cantor: "The Clinical Application of Research in Nutrition."
10:00 a.m.—Dr. Kennedy: "Allergic Manifestations in the Nervous System."
11:00 a.m.—Dr. Robertson: "The Management of Labour in Cephalic, Occipito-
posterior, and Breech Presentations; a Lecture Demonstration."
1:00 p.m.—GOLF TOURNAMENT: Point Grey Golf Club.
8:00 p.m. 1    Round Table Discussion: "Thyroid Disease."
9:00 p.m. J    Chairman: Dr. Wilfrid Graham.
Brigadier Meakins, Lt.-Col. Adamson, Lt.-Col. Fahrni and Dr.
Brien King participating.
Friday, June 25 th—
9:00 a.m.—Dr. Robertson: "How to Treat the Toxaemias of Pregnancy."
10:00 a.m.—Dr. Cantor: "Evaluation of Hepatic Function."
11:00 a.m.—Lt.-Col.   Fahrni:   "The  Newer  Concepts   in  the  Treatment   of
Wounds."
12:00 Noon—Film—"Plasma."    (Colour and sound.)
2:00 p.m.—Neurological Clinic—Vancouver General Hospital—Conducted by
Dr. Kennedy.
8:00 p.m.—Lt.-Col. Adamson: "Chronic Non-tuberculous Pulmonary Disease
in the Army."
9:00 p.m.—Dr. Kennedy:  "The New Medical Attack on So-called 'Mental
Disease', including a Report on the Results of Electric Shock
Therapy." SUMMER SCHOOL
JUNE SESSION
This year, the Summer School will be held at the usual time, from June 22nd to
25 th inclusive in the Vancouver Hotel.
PROGRAMME
Your Committee feels extremely fortunate in being able to present a most outstanding list of speakers and the choice of subjects is such that all will be interested.
One feature this year is the inclusion of three R.C.A.M.C. staff officers: Brigadier J. C.
Meakins, Lt.-Col. J. D. Adamson and Lt.-Col. G. S. Fahrni, all well known as outstanding men in our Canadian medical schools. The Summer School Committee feels
deeply indebted to the Medical Command for supplying these well-known lecturers.
ATTENDANCE OF SERVICE MEDICAL OFFICERS
It is anticipated that a large number of medical men on Active Service in the Navy,
Army and Air Force will attend the School Sessions this year. Arrangements are being
completed by the three Services to make the Summer School Clinics available to as many
of their medical officers as possible.
FEE
In order to cover expenses it has been found necessary to place the fee at $6.00
this year.
GUEST SPEAKER AT LUNCHEON
Dr. Foster Kennedy of New York will be the Guest Speaker at the luncheon to be
held in the Mayfair Room on the opening day. The title of his address will be "De
Propaganda Fide."
ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION
A Round Table Discussion will be held on the evening of Thursday, June 24th. The
subject will be "Thyroid Disease." Dr. Wilfrid Graham, the Chairman, will be glad
to receive questions for discussion. A "Question Box" will be provided at the Registration Desk for this purpose.
TELEPHONE SERVICE
As usual the Summer School will have its own private telephone service in order to
facilitate transmission of messages for the doctors attending.
FILMS
Arrangements have been made to show three moving picture films during the Session.' The first, to be shown Tuesday, June 22nd, at 4.15 p.m., belongs to Lederle's.
The subject is "The Sulphonamides." The second film, slated for Wednesday, June 23 rd,
from 12:00 to 1:00 p.m., is the property of John Wyeth & Bros., and is entitled "Peptic
Ulcer." The third film, on "Plasma," belonging to Sharpe & Dohme, will be shown on
Friday, from 12:00 to 1:00.
GOLF
The Golf Tournament will be held on Thursday at Point Grey Golf Club. Due to
the excellent opportunity of hearing our speakers, your Committee felt that meetings
should be held on Thursday evening.   Therefore no dinner has been planned.
Dr. J. E. Harrison has been selected as Chairman of the Golf arrangements and it
has been decided by Dr. A. E. Trites and Dr. Leith Webster, the committee in charge of
medical tournaments for the season, to combine this tournament with the second regular
golf tournament being held by the physicians in the Vancouver District.
Attractive prizes are being provided.
Page 248 College of Physicians and Surgeons
President Dr. F. M. Bryant, Victoria
Vice-President Dr. H. H. Milburn, Vancouver
Treasurer Dr. G. S. Purvis, New Westminster
Members of Council Dr. F. M- Bryant, Dr. Thomas McPherson, Victoria  (District No. 1);
Dr.   G.   S.  Purvis,  New Westminster   (District  No.  2);   Dr.  H.  H.
Milburn,   Col.   Wallace   Wilson,   Vancouver    (District   No.   3);   Dr.
Osborne Morris, Vernon   (District No. 4); Dr. F. M. Auld, Nelson,
(District No. 5).
Registrar Dr. A. J. MacLachlan, Vancouver
Executive Secretary > Dr. M. W. Thomas, Vancouver
COPY OF MEMORANDUM ISSUED TO VENDORS
BY THE LIQUOR CONTROL BOARD
Re:  Physicians' Prescriptions for Liquor and Sale of Liquor to Physicians Under Special
Permits Issued Under Clause (b) Section 11, "Government Liquor Act."
Effective the 15th of June the following instructions will come into force, and must
be strictly adhered to.
Prescriptions for Liquor.
1. Except as hereinafter provided, the quantity of liquor which can be sold on a
prescription issued by a physician shall not exceed the following quantities:
(a) Spirituous Liquor—1 pint.
(b) Wines—1 bottle.
(c) Malt Liquor—1 doz. pints or equivalent.
When and where it is necessary to issue prescriptions for liquor in quantities in excess
of the above it is necessary for physicians to have such prescriptions forwarded to the
Secretary of the Liquor Control Board, Victoria, for approval before a sale can be
authorized.
2. If on and after the 15 th of June a prescription issued by a physician prior to that
date for liquor in excess of the above is presented, the person presenting same shall have
the option of obtaining the smaller amount authorized, otherwise same will be refused.
3. Not more than one prescription shall be accepted in any one day in favour of
any one patient.
4. The attention of Vendors is directed to Section 7 of the "Government Liquor
Act," which provides that not more than one sale and one delivery shall be made on any
one prescription. -
Sale of Liquor to Physicians Under Special Permits Issued Under Clause (b)
of Section 11 of the "Government Liquor Act."
5. The maximum quantity of spirits, including alcohol, which may be sold to any
physician on a Special Permit issued under the above-mentioned Section is limited to
3 R.Q. in any one month. The sale of wine, liqueurs and malt liquor under Special
Permits is not permitted. Physicians will be permitted to purchase liquor in reputed
quarts only, and may obtain more than one reputed quart at a time if required.
6. Special Permits issued to physicians will be endorsed at the time of each sale.
If one R.Q. is sold, one date endorsement will be made, if 2 R.Q. are sold: then 2 date
endorsements will be made, and if 3 R.Q. are sold then 3 date endorsements will be
made, thus indicating that part of the quota or full quota as the case may be has been
obtained. Vendors and clerks are required to scrutinize the endorsement in order to
ascertain previous purchases if any during the current month.
7. Physicians failing to purchase their full quota in one month will not be permitted
to make up same in any succeeding month.
Page 240 8. In order that physicians may be familiar with these instructions the Registrar of
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia has been duly notified of
same.
9. The purchase of liquor on orders attached to Special Permits issued by physicians
is permitted. The order must be signed by the physician specifically stating to whom
the liquor is to be delivered and the kind and quantity of liquor required and the date.
The signature on the order must be identical with the signature of the physician on the
Special Permit, and same must be attached to the original counter check and forwarded
to the Chief Accountant in the usual manner.
A. H. WYLLIE, Secretary.
British  Columbia  Medical   Association
(Canadian Medical Association, British Columbia Division)
President _ Dr. A. H Spohn, Vancouver
First Vice-President Dr. P A. C. Cousland, Victoria
Second Vice-President Dr. H. McGregor, Penticton
Honorary Secretary-Treasurer Dr. G. O. Matthews, Vancouver
Immediate Past President Dr. C. H. Hankinson, Prince Rupert
Executive Secretary Dr. M. W. Thomas, Vancouver
DEPARTMENT OF MUNITIONS AND SUPPLY
CONTROLLER OF CHEMICALS
ORDER No. C.C. 15-A
QUININE
Dated May 19th, 1943
Pursuant to the authority conferred by Order in Council P.C. 4996, dated July 10,
1941, and by any other enabling Order in Council or Statute, and with the approval
of the Chairman of the Wartime Industries Control Board, IT IS HEREBY ORDERED
AS FOLLOWS:
1. Sections 2 and 3 of Order C.C. 15 rescinded and re-enacted.
Sections 2 and 3 of Order C.C. 15 of the Controller of Chemicals, dated October 1,
1942, are hereby rescinded and the following Sections are substituted therefor:
"2.   QUININE COMPOUNDS
No person shall use Quinine in the making of Quinine Compounds except under
a permit in writing from the Controller.
3.   SALE AND DELIVERY OF QUININE AND QUINIDINE SULPHATE
No person shall sell or deliver Quinine or Quinidine Sulphate except:
(a) Quinine to a consumer upon his certification in writing that it is for use
as an anti-malarial agent, or
(b) Quinidine Sulphate to a consumer upon the certification of a physician
that the quinidine sulphate is for use in the treatment of auricular flutter
or auricular fibrillation.
(c) Under a permit in writing from the Controller."
2. Effective date
This Order shall be effective on and after May 24, 1943.
E. T. STERNE,
Controller of Chemicals.
DOCTORS, PLEASE NOTE:
(a) That your prescription must state that Quinine is for use as an anti-malarial
agent.
(b) Quinidine Sulphate is for use in the treatment of auricular flutter or fibrillation.
Page 250. t«
MEMORIES"
Delivered before the Annual Meeting of the Vancouver Medical Association, May 4th, 1943.
By Dr. P. A. 'McLennan
May I be permitted to embrace the opportunity to express my sincere appreciation
of the very signal honour shown me by this Association in asking me to be the speaker
at its annual meeting. In the course of a somewhat long tenure of practice, I have on
numerous occasions been the recipient of many kindnesses at the hands of my brothers
in Medicine, all of which are jealously treasured in the filing cabinet of Memory. I can
assure you that in such repository, the occurrence of this evening will occupy no mean
or inconspicuous crypt.
Great as is this compliment, I find myself in much the same situation as does the
conscientious objector who has been caught up with by the Draft Board. I feel, however, that my position is less vulnerable, and my reasons for hesitation more valid, than
are those of the man who crawls behind a convenient conscience when his country calls
him. It was not fear for my personal safety that caused my reluctance to accept this
honour (though here I may be overly sanguine), but rather a dread that my audience
might be translated into such a state of boredom as to occasion a serious threat that
complications of a lethal nature might ensue.
My very good friends, as personified in Russell Neilson and Wilfred Graham, have
dragooned me into appearing here this evening, and, if crime is committed, they and
their associates are responsible, and must be apprehended as "accessories before the fact."
To attempt even a partial portrayal of life as I have seen it in the West, is rather a
large order for one evening.    As a result, my remarks must necessarily be abbreviated,
and very incomplete.    These abbreviations and deficiencies will be further accentuated
by the fact that I have never kept a diary, and as a consequence I must speak entirely?'
from memory.
Life in British Columbia during the last forty-four years has not been entirely
devoid of colour, but in many instances the colour has been so vividly tinted as to preclude their mention in public, especially when the audience is a mixed one. Hence many
incidents with amusing angles are out of court before I begin. I'll not "sing thee songs
of Araby," but rather attempt to tell a little, a very little, of some of the men who
"fought the good fight" and "who kept the faith": men who did not march forth with
the serpent-entwined staff of Aesculapius in their hands, but who did cherish in their
hearts the tenets and teachings of Hippocrates, and strove honestly to apply them in their
daily work, with credit to themselves and honour to their craft.
In recounting memories, the use of the first personal pronoun unfortunately occurs all
too frequently. I trust this audience will realize that such is unavoidable, and that it
is not so used with any egotistic intent. I wish to make it perfectly clear at this time,
that in my remarks this evening, my personality is entirely lost and completely submerged. I was, and am still, simply one of the average of the medical men, who helped
to blaze the trails of Medicine on the frontiers of this Province at the turn of the last
century. Scores of other doctors had experiences similar to the ones to which I may
refer this-evening. No man had any pre-emption rights in breaking trail through the
snows deep on the mountain side, or in keeping tryst with the angel of death in a prospector's shack. Or in tending an obstetrical case, miles removed from any woman other
than the patient, where he had to act as accoucher, anaesthetist and nurse. Where, after
delivery had been accomplished, the child had to be bathed and clothed. I can claim
the distinction, however, that of the eight or ten babies who received their first baths
and first clothing at my hands, all lived, and in not a single instance was any of the
clothing sewn into the person of the infant. Neither did any man have a monopoly in
securing unexpectedly good results in the cases which came within his purview. Very
few, if any, would have wished to make such a claim. We had an unusually robust,
hardy, virile people to deal with, most of whom were still in the prime of life. Patients
who might have readily recovered without treatment, or in spite of it.
Page 251 I could tell you of a doctor, now residing on this coast, who had as a patient a man
who had been badly crushed by a cave-in in a mine. There was such complete dislocation of the first lumbar vertebra that it could not only be palpated in the costal angle,
but could be really grasped by the fingers through the anterior abdominal wall. There
was complete paralysis of both lower extremities, with anaesthesia extending up over the
pelvic and gluteal regions. This surgeon had no elaborate armamentarium at his disposal: such was unknown on the frontier. He had, however, resourcefulness and courage.
He had the patient carefully placed on a table, secured ropes to both ankles, and also to
the torso and shoulders, after which he anaesthetized the patient. He then had the
patient's husky friends indulge in a tug-of-war, the men who held the ropes attached
to the patient's ankles pulling against those who held the ropes attached to the torso
and shoulders, with the patient being pulled upon between those two groups. When the
surgeon felt that satisfactory extension had been secured, he ceased to be anaesthetist,
and devoted his attention to the dislocation. He was rewarded by feeling the dislocated
vertebra return to its proper place, accompanied by the characteristic crunch or click,
which was plainly audible to everybody in the room. The patient made a good recovery,
and in time returned to work, practically free from any disability. He.was known to
be working in a mine ten years later.
This same frontier doctor, in the midst of a malignant typhoid epidemic, was confronted one morning with a patient whose condition suggested intestinal perforation.
He had none of the present day refinements of diagnosis at his command; they did not
exist. The patient was in no condition for an exploratory laparotomy, yet, if perforation had occurred, immediate operation was imperative, if the patient was to have the
benefit of the chance which was rightfully his. So trusting entirely to his clinical diagnosis, the surgeon operated, found the perforation, repaired it, and had the satisfaction
of seeing his patient recover. I might here state that at this time, less than thirty such
recoveries from typhoid perforation had been reported in the literature.
I could tell you of another doctor, also now on this coast, who in the midst of a
devastating epidemic of typhoid in a small town, where every bed-, and every available
square foot of bed space, was already occupied by typhoid patients, was called to a shack
to find a man desperately ill with typhoid. The patient's condition was extremely serious. Better accommodation had to be secured, and some sort of nursing care. Where to
secure such was the question. This doctor also was resourceful. He went to a patient
of his who ran a sporting house, and told her of his plight. She rose magnificently to the
occasion. She had her girls move to other locations, closed her house, took the patient
in, and alone nursed him back to recovery and health. The house where so recently
"they had joyed night long with wine and song" was stilled, and for a few weeks at
least, the courtezan became "a lady with the lamp." This woman, despite her calling,
was deeply respected by every man who knew her. She later forsook this life and married,
and I have every reason to believe that her married life has been a most happy one.
Concerning my own experiences during this period, it might be said that I was born
under a lucky star. With this I am inclined to disagree. I know nothing about astronomy, and less about astrology and astronomacy, but I am certain that there was no particular convulsions of the astral system when I broke into life's arena. I prefer to go
back to the Ancient Greeks, and the Goddess of Luck. To Tyche, under whose guidance
and protection I have always existed. All of you no doubt remember her, with the
Cornucopia held high in the left hand, while in her right she held a double rudder, with
which she could steer those in whom she was interested to good luck or ill. She is sometimes depicted with a ball or wheel at her feet, which she manipulated for better or
worse, as the fancy suited her. During my lifetime, I have been most kindly treated
by her. She has used the rudder to steer me from the rocks and submerged reefs, as well
as from the shoals and dangerous rapids and eddies of life: while with the ball, or wheel,
she has been most prodigal in her generosity. It is true she has consistently held the
horn of plenty far beyond my reach, but why should I carp or complain. She has been
most liberal in her other bounties and benefactions, and, if worldly goods have been
Page 252 withheld, it is perhaps as well. They are only dross, and if such were at my disposal,
Mr. Ilsley and his cohorts would speedily find ways and means to relieve me of them in
any event.
To the graduates of more recent years, the practice of medicine as carried on by the
pioneers may seem crude, and even primitive. I can assure them that, with very few
exception, those pathfinders were worthy members of their guild. They all had their
weaknesses and failings, some' in greater degre than others. They were mortal. But in
the main they bore high the torch, and few, if any, were ever knowingly guilty of any
act which in any way soiled or sullied their professional escutcheon.
There is an old adage which says "comparisons are odious," and in no situation is
this more applicable than in attempting to make any comparison with, or draw any
parallel between, the practice of medicine of the present day and what it was four, or
five decades ago. This is not said in any spirit of time serving or apology. The doctors
of that past era had little to explain, and nothing for which to apologize. The continuous panorama of scientific medical achievement which has been, and still is being unfolded before us with such spectacular and kaleidoscopic brilliance, renders it well-nigh
impossible to recognize the Science of today as the lineal descendant of the Art of
bygone years.
To those who would wish to make such a comparison, I would suggest that they
consider well some of the advances made during this period. The improved hospitals,
laboratories, the development of specialism, the establishment of clinics, both private
and in association with hospitals, where several men trained in special work co-operate
and collaborate as a team. The vast development in blood chemistry, blood grouping
and transfusion. The improved armamentarium, as seen in Roentgen rays, the endoscopic and other instruments. The encouraging beginning that has been made in endocrinology. The discovery of insulin and liver extract, the advent of vitamines, and the
tremendous expansion that is proceeding in chemotherapy. The startling progress in
preventative medicine, as exemplified in typhoid, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, diphtheria, beriberi, pellagra, tetanus, gas gangrene and many other diseases. Weigh well
these advantages, and the legions of others with which the practice of medicine abounds
today, and compare the resulting situation with the one that prevailed at the dawn of
this century. If this is done in a spirit of fairness, and the judgment tempered not with
mercy, but with justice, I have no fear of the verdict.
I first saw Vancouver on October 5th, 1899. It was very different from the city of
today. It was simply a sprawling, overgrown village 'of twenty-six thousand people.
Very few houses existed west of Burrard Street; St. Paul's Hospital seemed far out among
the stumps. Main Street, which was then called Westminster Avenue, was the eastern
boundary, with a few houses in Mount Pleasant and Fairview. I remained in Vancouver
until the first of November, when I proceeded to Victoria for the Council Examinations.
There were twenty-six candidates, among whom were Doctors Burnett, Conklin, W. C.
McKechnie and Nicholson, all of whom are still in Vancouver.
The examiners being in a lenient mood, I was turned loose on the public of British
Columbia, and I headed for the Kootenay country, making my headquarters at Nelson
while I looked the country over, seeking a likely spot whereon to pitch my tent. Ymir,
Erie, Salmo and Ainswprth were all surveyed, but none looked at all enticing. Being
advised that Doctor Rogers of Kaslo was seeking a locum tenens, I went to Kaslo to
see him.
Kaslo was a very lively town, and had the reputation of being one of the fastest
cities in a law-abiding way on the North American continent. There was a Comique
theatre, dance halls, gambling was wide open, and, of course, the saloons never closed.
The mines of the Sandon district were simply humming with activity, and at week-ends
men from this district flocked to Kaslo for a carnival of gambling, and of wine, women
and song. I had heard something of this from a parson friend of mine in the East—
Bill—let's call him Blank—who, after his ordination had spent a year in Kaslo, where
he built a church.    I say he built it advisedly, as he had worked manually at its con-
Page 253 struction, with other men of the town—miners, merchants, saloon keepers, gamblers,
bartenders, business men, and all such as cared to lend a hand. He told me of a rather
amusing experience he had had during his pastorate there. He had been invited to sit
in on what looked like an attractive poker game for a certain Sunday afternoon. As
Sunday School was held on Sunday afternoon, and as Billy was teacher of the Bible
Class, he had to do some arranging. He asked the superintendent of the Sunday School
if he would pinch hit for him, as he (Billy) wished to visit a mine that Sunday, and hold
service there. The superintendent rather hesitated, then agreed, after which he explained
that he might be unable to attend, as his plans were a little uncertain for that Sunday
afternoon. He assured Billy, however, that he would take care of the situation, ending
up with the remark, "If I can't be there myself, Mr. Blank, I'll send a prostitute." He
must have secured the prostitute, for when Billy sat in at the game, he found the superintendent was just across the table from him.
On arriving at Kaslo, I interviewed Doctor Rogers, who told me he was very anxious
to get away. He asked me to come and stay with him at his hospital for a few days,
so that I could look over his work. A few days later, he went out to arrange the transfer of his contracts to me for the winter. He returned two days later, and reported that
the eight-hour law which had just come into force had caused a shutdown of many
mines, and so many of the mines with which he had contracts were among those closed
that his practice was a losing proposition for anyone but himself to handle. He was
frank and honest with me in every way, and I have always admired him for his candour.
While I did not know him intimately, I have always felt he was a man very much above
the average, who had more or less gone to seed in Kaslo. He left there a few years later.
Before I left him, he asked me what my plans were. I told him that I thought I would
locate in Nelson. He advised me to do so, and as a last piece of advice, he told me to
stand on my own legs, and to avoid consultations with other doctors, as such was a sign
of weakness in the West. There was much to be said for his advice, as I was to learn
later.
During my stay with Rogers, I had one experience which almost drove me back East.
A man in Calgary had come home unexpectedly, to find another man in a very compromising situation with his wife. He pulled a gun and shot the intruder in the leg.
The philanderer happened to be a brother of a somewhat prominent citizen of Kaslo.
The shooting incident came over the wires as a press dispatch, and was headlined in the
Kaslo evening paper. It happened that next door to the hospital there lived a couple in
whose home there was a great lack of domestic harmony. He seemed a decent enough
chap, while she was a high stepper, who though now showing the effect of her years,
was still very good-looking, and in her prime must have been ravishingly beautiful. The
evening the scandal broke in the paper, she dropped m to see Rogers and the nurses. We
were seated in the living-room when she entered. She immediately brought up the question of the shooting in Calgary. I was startled, and as the conversation became freer,
I was shocked and horrified, and I crouched behind a magazine I had in my hand. I
was not accustomed to conversations of this nature in mixed company. Such things
were just not done. I had not been brought up that way. Suddenly the lady from next
door noticed that I was taking no part in the discussion, so she turned to me and said:
"What do you think of this shooting, Doctor McLennan?"
I know my face was blazing, and I stammered and stuttered. At last I blurted out,
"Well, as a matter of fact, I think the husband did perfectly right."
"Oh, you do, do you?"
To which I replied, "Yes."
She rejoined, "So you think this man was justified in shooting another in cold blood?"
My reply was, "Under the circumstances, yes."
To this she snapped back, "Under the circumstances, rot. Suppose a change of cases
—suppose this woman had come home and found another woman with her husband,
would she have been justified in shooting her?"
I said, "Yes, and in shooting the husband also."
Page 254 At that, she threw both arms in the air, and dramatically shouted, "Great God! will
someone get me a gun?"
Nelson was, and is still a beautiful little city situated on the west arm of Kootenay
Lake. It has a glorious climate with the seasons well marked, and is subject to few
extremes. In the autumn the air is like champagne of rare vintage. The lake affords
wonderful opportunities for pleasure boating of all varieties except sailing, there being
insufficient wind as a rule for this form of sport. There is excellent fishing close to the
city, the trout pools at Ward's crossing and below Bonnington Falls being world famous.
Game of various kinds is near at hand, and covers everything from silvertip to grouse.
Geese and ducks, however, do not frequent those deep waters, as there are no feeding
grounds available. At the time I arrived, Nelson was a commercial centre for a large
area, and there were several mines in operation directly tributary to it. It was a growing as well as a going town. There was marked activity, a street railway was being
laid, gas works were in process of installation, several fine business blocks were in course
of erection, as well as residences of a very attractive type. Enthusiastic citizens claimed
a population of five thousand, though I question if it ever went much beyond four
thousand- Everyone was busy, and there was little excuse for anyone remaining idle who
wished to work. The saloons never closed, gambling was not wide open, but many
games were conducted in the back rooms of saloons and cigar stores. The police were
thoroughly aware of those games, but did not interfere so long as the game was straight,
so that everyone who wished to indulge had a fair run for his money. In fact, Nelson
was a frontier town where law and order prevailed, and where the crook had short shrift.
The people represented all strata of society, from the finished graduate of Cambridge
and Oxford to the rough-and-ready miner, prospector or labourer. Those were the men
who had made the West, and it was the West that made such men. Physically, they
represented the flower of the older countries and communities. Few weaklings ever
tackled the frontier, and what few did arrive did not remain long. In the main, they
were a fine people. A few of the men who had been liberated from the bull pens of
Idaho did sift in, but they respected British law, and never tried any of the murderous
tactics which had characterized the reign of terror following in their wake in the United
States, and which had culminated in the assassination of the Governor of Idaho. On
more than one occasion I have heard members of this gang say, when speaking of some
mine manager, or someone else in authority with whom they disagreed, "If I had that
blankety blank in the United States, I would soon attend to him." When asked why
they did not attend to him where he was, they would admit frankly that they feared
British law.
With those excepted, I can say that I knew few bad men in the West. They might
have rough exteriors, use double negatives, have a vernacular all their own, and murder
the English language with every sentence, but once you got through this crust, you
usually found a man whose word was as good as a bond.
As the years passed and mines closed down, many people moved to other fields. Some
came to the coast, some moved east, some returned to the United States, while others
sought new frontiers in the North, from Prince Rupert easterly along the Grand Trunk
Railway, and farther into the hinterland. Many have journeyed to the "undiscovered
country from whose bourne no traveller returns," sleeping to the drone of Pignon pines
and the sighing cedars, in unmarked graves on a hillsides. A few, a very few, remain
in the city they had helped to create.
I would that time might permit me to give even thumbnail sketches of some of the
outstanding men of Kootenay during the period of my residence there. Many were men
of conspicuous ability. Several served creditably in the Legislature in Victoria, and in
the Federal arena at Ottawa. Some adorned the Bench, one of whom was Chief Justice
of the first Court of Appeal of British Columbia. Others of the legal profession were
eminent as counsel, and rose to leadership of the Bar, several of whom pleaded their cases
through every court of Canada, and before the Privy Council. Among the railroad men,
many rose to positions high in the councils of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
Page 25 5 and other companies. One left the Canadian Pacific Railway and achieved international
fame in the construction of the Panama Canal. Mining engieners and others associated
with that industry wrote their names large in the history of mining in both the Americas
and in countries far removed. Journalists such as John Houston and Bob Lowry were
known far from the scene of their labours. Of other personalities known as characters,
there were many, some of whom were positively brilliant in their eccentricities.
There were eight doctors practising in Nelson when I arrived. In the main they
were good citizens; each had his own good traits and characteristics, some in greater
degree than others. Time will only permit me to briefly mention three, and in addition,
Doctor Doherty, who came later. Doctor Hall, who now resides in Victoria, and I
alone remain.
Doctor LaBau was not only a doctor, he Was a most unique and versatile personality.
He was a real pioneer, having come to British Columbia about 18 88. He was first employed as a stationary engineer at the Blue Bell mine at Pilot Bay, and had practised
previously in Oklahoma, when it was called Indian Territory. As British Columbia
opened up, and as Nelson came into being, he left Pilot Bay and moved to Nelson,
where he began practice. He was an expert mechanical engineer, an excellent cook, a
good gardener, a wonderful raconteur, and a most entertaining host. In fact, he was
good at anything he chose to turn his hand to, including medicine and surgery, and he
knew nothing about either. He was the most poorly informed man on medical affairs
that I have ever known in practice. Yet so long as he chose to give even passing attention to his practice, he could do'over fifty per cent of the desirable practice of Nelson
against all the rest of us. Every spring he would grow restless, and take up some hobby
far removed from medical matters. This he would follow to the complete neglect of
his practice. One year it was a house boat, another it was a launch, another it was a
mine, and another it was photography, and here let me say that to my untrained eye
his work with a camera was the most beautiful I have ever seen, whether done by a
professional or amateur. After a few months of such relaxation, his practice would be
badly dissipated, and he would announce his intention to leave Nelson, and go to Spokane. This would cause his old patients to flock back to him, soon he would be busy,
and would so remain all winter. Then he would again hear the call of spring, and some
new hobby, and his work would suffer another period of neglect.
He was a wonderful press agent for himself, and his advertising varied from a very
subtle to a very blatant type. He loved to tell stories of the early days, and with an
audience of newcomers he was at his best. In the story, he would work in a call on
some prominent citizen, whom at that time he was saving from the grim reaper; a call
to the Phair hotel, where he had some internationally known man as a patient; then a
call would come that he was wanted up the lake, and that a launch was waiting to take
him to some man who had been dangerously injured, and so on, until he had finished his
story, by which time he would have worked in a week's practice, all done in one day.
Other times he used the press, and while his work here lacked finish, it was still very
effective. An operation on anyone from out of town, and sometimes on a person of the
town, was good for four items. First there was the announcement that John Doe had
entered the hospital, and would be operated upon by Doctor LaBau this morning. The
next day the press would announce that John Doe, who had been operatd upon by Doctor
LaBau, was progressing satisfactorily, and on the patient's discharge, the press would
announce that John Doe had been discharged from the hospital, a new man as a result
of the operation performed by Doctor LaBau. This kind of work was hard to combat.
One day I spoke to LaBau, and told him he was foolish to do such advertising, as he
did not need to, pointing out that it only cheapened him among thinking people. He
looked me square in the eye, and with a most engaging smile, he said, "My God, Mac.
Surely you do not think that I put those items in the paper?"
I said, "No, I do not think it, but I am darn sure of it."
Again he smiled and said, "It's those boys at the Miner and Tribune offices. I can't
stop them."
Page 256 I asked him if he did not think that Charley Ink could stop such work at the Miner,
and John Houston at the Tribune, if he asked them.
He said, "No, they are the worst offenders, and they will stick in such stuff any
time they can."
And so we left it.
Some weeks later, a man came over from Rossland and consulted LaBau, who sent
him to the hospital. The usual preliminary notice appeared in the Miner the next morning. LaBau operated; something went wrong, and the man died an hour or so after
operation. This time I wrote the second item, which was slightly different from what
was usually written. It read, "John Doe, who was operated upon by Doctor LaBau
yesterday morning at the Kootenay Lake General Hospital, died at 1 p.m." I had a
friend who was a reporter on the Miner, so I called him to my office and showed him
the item, asking him at the same time if he could get it in the issue of next morning.
He said, "Not a chance. If Charley Ink caught me trying to put that in, he would
crucify me."
I suggested that he could slip it in after Charley had gone home, and told him that
if he could, there would be a box of the best cigars at Thurman's cigar store waiting for
him at my office next day. He took the item, and said he would see what he could do.
Next morning the item was in the Miner, and I chuckled. As I was leaving the hospital
that morning, I met LaBau. I said "Good morning" as pleasantly as I could. He gave
me a look which said, more plainly than words, "You did it," but he said nothing other
than a pleasant "Good morning." I strolled down town, bought a box of fifty-cent
cigars which I took to my office. Later in the day I game them to my friend the
reporter. LaBau never advertised in the press again. There was a big investigation at
the Miner office; I am glad to say, however, that my friend the reporter was never
suspected.
LaBau had a very strong following among the old-timers—men who had come into
the country with a pack horse, or had drifted in by canoe. He and Arthur had ninety
per cent of those old-timers as patients. It was considered almost sacrilege among them
for anyone to consult a doctor who was a recent arrival. The camaraderie that existed
among those old-timers was really a delight to see, even if it was hard for a newcomer
to crash this sacred circle, which was almost a cult. LaBau eventually did move to
Spokane, and from there to Victoria, where he died.
Doctor Hall, whose son so ably carries on the medical traditions of the Hall family
in Vancouver, was a capable, hard working, efficient physician and surgeon, and was an
especially successful obstetrician. He had a large practice, and was later elected Liberal
member of the Provincial Legislature. It was my good fortune to be associated with
him as a partner for a couple of years. This association was a pleasant one for me, and
I have reason to believe it was not unpleasant to Doctor Hall. Our relations were always
happy, and there was never a serious difference between us. As already stated, he now
resides in Victoria.
Doctor Arthur was a real pioneer; I think he was the first doctor to locate in Nelson.
A gentleman at all times, and a most widely respected and kindly citizen. When I
called on him and announced that I was locating in Nelson, he shook my hand warmly,
and said, "I am glad you have decided to stay here. I think there is room for you now,
if not there very soon'will be, as this town is steadily growing. Now if at any time
there is anything I can do for you, be sure and give me a call! and should you ever wish
to borrow any books or instruments which I may happen to have, come over and get
them. If I am not in, the key for this office hangs behind that map in the waiting room.
Take it, open the door, come in and help yourself." He meant every word he uttered,
and my friendship with him will ever remain a happy recollection. A great gentleman
of the frontier was E. C. Arthur.
Doctor Doherty arrived later, and was superintendent of the hospital for a year or
so. He then tried practice in Ymir, Fernie, and Nelson. He was not adapted for private
work, and later moved to New Westminster, where he became associated with the Men-
Page 257 tal Hospital. Here he found his niche, and was soon advanced to the position of superintendent. In the institution at Essondale, which was construmted during his regime,
he has left a monument more enduring than bronze. He was a natural administrator.
He served overseas during the first Great War, and on his return was A.D.M.S. of Military District No. 11 for a time. He died shortly after. Another of my friends had
passed on, one whose memory will ever remain green.
Had time permitted, I would have wished to give in some little detail a short description of the physicians and surgeons in the towns and districts adjoining Nelson.
Here were many men of exceptional ability, whose work would have reflected credit on
the profession of any large centre. They carried on under handicaps difficult for the
present generation to appreciate. Such descriptions, however, would take a whole evening, so for lack of time I shall have to forego this pleasure.
The Kootenay Lake General Hospital was the only public hospital in Nelson. It was
a hospital in little more than name. Its saving grace was an exceedingly competent and
capable nursing staff. The laboratory was a room with a Bunsen burner and a few
test tubes. The operating room had only the most meagre equipment. An X-ray
machine was undreamed of. In fact, there was no X-ray plant in the city until Hall
and I installed a creditable one in 1904. It is true that LaBau had an old static machine,
but this was sheer window dressing. His use of it consisted in demonstrating the wonders of the fluoroscope to lay people. In the operating room we did not wear masks,
and rubber gloves were not used until Hall and I adopted their use in 1904. The ones
we first used were thick and clumsy, and made one feel as though he had six thumbs on
each hand. I was never satisfied that their use improved our results. There were very
few graduate nurses in private practice; we had to depend on so-called practical nurses,
whom we trained for home work. No matter how ill a patient might be, I never saw a
special nurse in the hospital. The staff took entire care of such cases, and did it extremely Well.
In locating in Nelson, I had some difficulty in finding an office as such space was
very limited. I finally secured quarters with an insurance agent. I had a small corner
room with sleeping space beside it, and I shared the insurance agent's office as my waiting room. At this time I made reservations for offices in one of the buildings which
were then in course of construction. I had my name painted on my window, and sat
down to wait for patients. I had not long to wait. The first afternoon a man called
to consult me for a septic finger, which he had injured some days previously. One
glance was enough to make a diagnosis. The left ring finger was grossly swollen, red
and shiny at the proximal interphalangeal joint, and it was plainly evident even to my
untrained eye that the joint was destroyed. I told him that the infected area must be
incised, and that he was certain to end up with a stiff finger. He said to go ahead, and
I proceeded to do so. He was afraid of pain, so I assured him that I would take care
of that. I applied a catheter to the finger as a tourniquet, loaded up a hypodermic with
a tenth of a grain of cocaine (novocaine was not in existence at this time), loaded a
second hypodermic with a thirtieth of strychnia in case it should be needed, after which
I cocainized the finger. I then opened it, and got plenty of pus. I applied a dressing,
and then removed the catheter rather more suddenly than I should have done. In a very
few seconds the man said that he felt queer, and on looking at him, I saw the grayest
countenance I have ever seen. He drew his hand across his brow, gave it a flip, and the
perspiration from it smacked on the floor with a sound as though a wet mop had been
dropped from the ceiling. I got a drink of whiskey into him before he passed out, and
followed this with the hypodermic of strychnia. I slid him onto the floor, and loosened
all tight clothing. Terror stricken, I felt for his pulse, and was not sure that I could
have felt it even had it been present. I then tried to hear his heart with the stethoscope
but could not. In a little while I thought I could feel his pulse, so I listened to his heart
again, and thought I could hear the heart beat, though I was not sure that it was not
my own I was hearing. Soon a little color showed in his lips, and there was undoubted
breathing, which was really deeper than my own, at that time.    I became less worried,
Page 258 and feeling the need of a little personal attention, I poured myself a drink. It was a
liberal one, and I took it neat. God knows I needed it. He soon regained consciousness,
when I ragged him gently over being so chicken-hearted as to faint at the sight of blood,
and I got away with it. Tyche was keeping guard over me. Never again did I inject
cocaine, and through the years my use of it has been limited to a very weak solution
dropped in the eye, when I have been forced to look for or remove a foreign body.
Practice continued to pick up. I had a least one new case each day, and I smugly
thought that I was just what Nelson had been waiting for. What I did not know was
that Doctor Hall, whose office was diagonally across the corner, was out of town for a
few days' shooting, and my patients were all men who had gone to his office, and not
finding him in, or any one in his place, had drifted across the street to my office.
On Doctor Hall's return, practice fell off very sharply. In fact, I had no practice
in a very few days. This was serious, as the exchequer was getting low, and I had
sworn to myself that I would never send east for assistance. So I decided on a rationing
system, and began by Kmiting my meals to two a day. I was young and healthy, and
was experiencing all the beneficial effects of a change of climate and mountain air. I
was hungry all the time, and I enjoyed my food, so you can have some idea what a
sacrifice it was to go on two meals a day. But necessity knows no law, and economy
had to be practised. Even on two meals a day, my funds soon reached the vanishing
point, <and there came an evening when, after paying for my dinner, I found that I had
one two-bit piece remaining. Next day, I struggled through until dinner time, when
the meal I put away was a real masterpiece. The following day, still no patients, and
by dinner time I was nearly famished. I repaired to my usual hotel for dinner, walked
in and stowed away a wonderful meal. One could always get a gamble in that country
in those days, so I walked out of the dining room, and told the manager that I would
shake the dice with him to see whether I would pay him fifty cents or nothing for the
meal. To this he readily agreed. So we shook, and I won in straight horses. He looked
at me and said, "You must be broke to be able to roll the dice the way you have just
done." I was out of tobacco and needed a smoke to settle my fine dinner, so I suggested
we arbitrate to see whether I paid him two-bits or nothing for a cigar. He agreed, and
I won the first horse. He then asked permission to shake first in the second horse, to
see if it would change his luck. Having won the first, it was my privilege to shake
first in the second, but I agreed instantly to his request. He shook, and ended up with
five fives, and giving me a most complacent look, he said, "Go beat that if you can.'"'
The poor devil never had a chance. He did not know that Tyche was at my elbow, and
that it Was she who was rolling the dice, not I. I took the box, gave it a shake, and
spilled them out. There were five sixes waiting to be counted. The man reached for
the cigar box, and as he handed it to me he gave me a searching look, saying, "You're
broke, boy. You're cleaned. In fact, you haven't got a bean on you. No mfan ever
shook dice like that that had any money in his pocket." I told him his diagnosis was
correct, -and that I was flat broke. He then asked me why I was shaking dice for a
meal, and I told him that I had to eat, and that, had I lost, I had a pretty good watch,
rand a fairly valuable ring that I could have put up for the meal. He replied, "That's
not the point, boy. The fact is you needed a meal, and that meal, or any other you
may ever need, you can have here without shaking dice for it." I protested that he did
not know me well enough to grant credit. He insisted that he was willing to take a
chance with me any time, and that I was to take all the meals I wanted at his hotel, and
he would gamble that I would pay for them. I thanked him, and said I might take him
up on that offer.   He replied, "The offer is always open for you." -
I left and strolled down the street. I have made it a rule never to carry money in a
vest pocket. Yet as I walked, I felt in my right hand vest pocket an found an American
nickle. How it got there, I have never known. I was passing a cigar store, so I walked
in, and put the nickle in a slot machine, and shoved down the plunger. Up rolled three
tens—three cigars, for which I took the same number of packages of Old Chum tobacco.
There were more smokes in them than there were in three cigars.   Tyche was still at my
Page 259 side. I went to my office, and though I had been lucky, I was still worried. I would
have to eat next day, and it went sorely against the grain to ask for credit. Soon a
druggist phoned me that he was sending me a patient. The man turned up, and I collected five dollars from him. The wolf had been backed from the door, temporarily at
least, and I smoked in comfort. As I went to bed, I felt that Tyche had rolled the ball
much in my favour that day. The occasional case continued to crop up, and though
funds remained low, I never had to ask for credit. I was very glad a few years later,
when the opportunity presented itself to render my friend the hotel man a real service.
Shortly after this, a young Italian consulted me for severe headaches, and dizziness.
He gave a history of having been struck on the head by a piece of rock from a blast,
some months previously. This had rendered him unconscious for some time, but on
recovery he had carried on, until the headaches became so severe that he could no longer
work. Examination disclosed a depressed fracture almost directly over the occipital
protuberance, into which I could easily put the tip of my finger. I explained to the man
that this was the cause of his headaches, and that removal of this dperessed area might
give him relief. He elected for operation, and I made arrangements for his entry to the
hospital. Here Tyche pulled hard on the rudder, and saved me from shipwreck. I was
very green in practice, and did not know that the proper procdure for me was to fix
matters with the boss Dago before operating. He heard of my proposal, and proceeded
to fix me, and fix me plenty. Taking matters into his own hands, he transferred the
case to another doctor, thus preventing me from suddenly developing into a Horsley
or a Cushing. The other doctor in all innocence took the case, sent the man to the
hospital, and removed the depressed area, which was not much bigger than a twenty-
five cent piece. The patient came out of the anaesthetic a raving maniac, and in a few
weeks had to be transferred to the Mental Hospital in Westminster. Yet some people
say there is no such thing as luck. The man who operated was sufficiently well established to weather such a storm, but such an ending to an operation would have closed
my doors in Nelson.
A short time later, while funds were still dangerously low, a case of smallpox turned
up in Nelson. LaBau was Health Officer. He took charge, and the patient was sent
up the hill to a building which had been built in twenty-four hours. LaBau asked me
to take care of the case, with a male nurse to cook and help me. I was to get twenty
dollars a day. This was attractive, as living quarters and meals were included. I took
the job, and spent forty-seven days isolated on the hillside. On coming out, I found
that LaBau had no authority to have made me the offer which he had. I finally compromised for five dollars a day.
I secured offices—sharing them with a dentist—in one of the blocks which had just
been completed. Work picked up most satisfactorily. Very soon I was surgeon to four
small mines. This brought in about a hundred and fifty dollars a month, which was
nearly all velvet, as no serious illness developed. In addition, I was doing a nice private
practice.    I was really enjoying life, and had few worries.
I now began to get acquainted with Nelson and its inhabitants, and had an opportunity to study both. The people interested me very much, particularly the remittance
men, or younger sons, as some called them. Many were no longer young, those scions
of the old families of Britain. They added a dash of colour to the West. Some were
ear-marked as gentlemen, who in their younger days had sported on the playing fields of
Eton, Harrow and such schools, and some had pulled a good oar for the light or dark
blue. Men who seldom spoke of the land of their birth. Gentlemen who could "roll
to bed with a Latin phrase and rise with a verse of Greek." From those aristocrats, they
varied through several strata, until the class was reached who pigged out an existence in
shacks on the hillside. Men who had let themselves go, and had degenerated into filthy,
unkempt creatures, atavistic misfits, who had been a trial and anxiety to their families,
a disgrace to their country, and were now a blight on the land they polluted with their
presence.    The type of whom it has been written—
Page 260 v r
"Hark to the ewe that bore him
What has muddied the strain
Never his brothers before him
Has shown the hint of a stain.
Hark to the tups and wethers
Hark to the old gray ram
We're iall of us white, but he's black as night
And he'll never be worth a damn."
A few of the more energetic type worked in addition to drawing their allowances. Such
men always made good, and were a distinct asset to the community. They fitted in, and
eventually became Canadians.
Others of the "younger son" type worked and drew no allowance. One such worked
as a waiter on one of the boats of the Canadian Pacific Railway. He was a fine clean
cut lad. One evening he called at my office, and asked me to send him into the hospital.
I asked what was wrong, and he said "Nothing." I explained that Doctor Hall and I
were not sending men to. the hospital and paying their expenses, unless there was a good
reason for sending them there. He then said, "Look, Doc, the Governor is coming in
on tomorrow night's boat. I cannot let him see me, and I don't want to lose my job.
Let me hide out in the hospital, and I'll pay you back." I sent him to the hospital, and
he later reimbursed me. The "Governor" did come in on the boat next evening. He
turned out to be a man high in the Diplomatic Service of Britain, having been Ambassador to Washington a few years before. He was made much of during his two or three
days' stay in Nelson, but I am sure he little thought that the son he had not seen, or
heard of, for over five years, was hiding from him in the hospital of this outpost.
Practice continued to steadily increase, and in the spring of 1901, I received a pleasant surprise by being appointed surgeon to the Silver King Mine, which was the biggest
mine directly tributary to Nelson. One evening, I met the manager, Captain Gifford,
who told me that the men had taken a vote, and that I had been elected. He then asked
me if I cared to assume such a position. I said I would be most pleased to do so. In
saying "Very well," he made it clear that he heartily disapproved of my appointment.
He was a cold, stern, austere man, who had little use for men who had not already made
their way, and who had not an established reputation before they came into any work
with which he was associated. I did not let his attitude disturb me. It was ;a good
contract, and I proposed to hold it. Tyche was again assisting me. I was to need her
aid very sorely in the near future, as I was soon to learn.
My first case from this mine arrived at the hospital a few days later, and was one
of cerebro spinal meningitis. He was delirious; the head was retracted almost into the
interscapular space; there was infra-orbital herpes; temperature 104, fast pulse, and a
history of headache and vomiting at the onset. He was the foreman's brother, and as
the foreman and Gifford were naturally closely associated, the case was not a particularly encouraging one to introduce me to my newly acquired clientele. This was accentuated by the fact that I was thoroughly aware that the Captain did not approve of me
holding the position which I did. There was no serum for this disease at that time, and
the mortality rate was high, especially in cases of this severe type. I had heard before
leaving the east, that a .few cases had been treated in Boston by lumbar puncture, and
though I had no knowledge of the technique, I decided to try it, as it seemed to be the
man's only chance. Using an antitoxin syringe, I sat the patient up in bed, and bent
him forward, while two nurses supported him. I plunged the needle in, and pulled
gently on the piston. Cloudy fluid followed. As I took the syringe from the needle to
empty it, the fluid streamed from the needle, so I let it drain into one test tube after
another until I had filled six. Then feeling that I must leave some fluid in the canal,
I withdrew the needle. (The spinal manometer did not exist at that time.) The man
showed improvement almost immediately. He soon passed into a normal sleep, and
next morning he was quite clear mentally, when he said that he was free from headache.
Page 261 His pulse was slower, and the temperature was about ninety-nine. I stained the speci-.
men, and was able to demonstrate the meningococci. Next day he was not so well, and
the temperature began to rise, so I repeated the puncture. From that time on, he continued to make steady progress, until he had completely recovered. So far as I have
ever been able to learn, this was one of the first lumbar punctures done in Canada. Tyche
was carrying the mine all by herself.
The first aftermath of this case was—that the foreman came to my office with an
account of the whole affair, which filled two large sheets with single spaced typewriting.
This he asked me to proofread, as he was having it published in the Spokesman Review,
a Spokane paper that had a wide circulation in Kootenay. I had to beg and plead with
him not to publish it, pointing out that if he did so, it would make me the laughing
stock of the whole country, and absolutely ruin me. He finally agreed, but was very
disappointed.
The next result was that Mrs. Gifford, who had previously been LaBau's patient,
consulted me. She was an exceedingly plain woman, but one of the most charming I
have ever known. She knew how to handle men, having been many years on many frontiers with the Captain. She was the first decent woman I had ever seen smoke a cigarette. Nature effected a recovery in her case in spite of my treatment, and the Captain
began to definitely thaw out.    This process steadily continued.
It was during this summer that I first opened the pericardium on the living subject.
I was called early one morning to see a young Italian, who, during the night, had been
stabbed with a stiletto in the chest. There was a wound little more than half an inch
long, between the fourth and fifth ribs, about an inch to the left of the sternum. He
had a weak, thready pulse, and there -was an area of dullness extending from well to the
right of the sternum, to the left mid-axillary line. Diagnosing the condition as one of
wound of the heart, with muscle fibres being split, rather than cut across, I recommended
operative interference to attempt repair of the wound. This was agreed to. I exposed
the pericardium (the pleura had not been injured), enlarged the wound, and the heart
wound came into view with each pulsation. This was closed with a figure of eight
suture. The pericardium was emptied of blood, after which the wound was closed with
a gauze wick to act as a drain. He stood the operation very well, and was kept fairly
well under morphia for some days. This, with nitroglycerin and magnesium sulphate,
comprised the active treatment. No infection developed. He was kept in bed for two
months, and eventually made a good recovery.    Tyche was showing her stuff.
In the meantime winter was approaching, and I devoted some attention to a situation
at the Silver King Mine, which had been a cause of concern for some time. This was
the winter epidemic of pneumonia, which had come around with deadly results each
year. In the winter of 1899, there had been twenty-three deaths in sixteen days at the
mine. This pneumonia was of a particularly malignant, fulminating type. Men had
been known to go to work in the morning feeling quite well, and to be dead before
the shift ended at three o'clock. It appeared as though both lungs had become suddenly
and rapidly consolidated. In 1900, there had been about a dozen deaths, and in 1901,
about the same number. Men were afraid to work at the Silver King in winter. Pnue-
monia is always more fatal at the high altitudes than at the sea level, and this mine was
about seven thousand feet above the sea. I investigated the conditions, and thought I
had found the cause of the frequent occurrence of pneumonia, and for its malignancy.
The bunk house was a large three-storey structure, heated by hot air. The men dried
their clothes in the basement beside the furnace, and the air of the whole structure was
polluted. It reeked of the foul odour of drying clothes. (Lifebuoy soap had not
arrived.) I had a new drying room built in one corner of the basement, from which
the foul air escaped to the outside of the building. The hot air from the furnace which
was forced through the building, was now of a purer and fresher nature. I then wrote
out a list of the early symptoms of pneumonia, and had several copies placed at the
mine, making sure that each foreman and shift boss had a copy.    These men were
Page 262 instructed to see that no man went to work that had any of those symptoms. I also
asked that anyone who felt ill, and had any signs of pneumonia, should be placed on a
sleigh, and brought down the hill by manpower to a point where I could have a team
meet him and bring him to the hospital. This policy was carried out, and in the winter
of 1902, about a dozen cases were so brought to the hospital. Perhaps half of those had
definite pneumonia, the rest were colds. All recovered, and for the first time in the
history of the mine, a winter had passed without a death from this disease. Once again
Tyche was backing me up.
In the treatment of pneumonia, we had not the sulpha drugs of today. The oxygen
tent was unheard of. Some men did use inhalations of oxygen, in a crude sort of a
way, but it was a very moot point whether or not it was of any value. The treatment
was largely supportive and stimulating. In Kootenay we used alcohol freely, and I
think with good results. Doctor Bowes of Rossland told me that he used to crowd the
dose, until alcohol could be detected on the breath, and to hold it in that condition. With
patients who consumed liquor freely in their daily life, he crowded it until the breath
reeked of it. Rossland has an altitude of 3510 feet above sea level, and that there was
something of value in Bowes treatment, there can be little doubt, as his percentage of
recoveries was excellent.
There is one date that is fixed very clearly in my memory. It is noon, on April
second, 1902, at which time I was called to the Silver King mine to see a mian who had
been badly injured, and who could not be brought down, owing to the condition of the
trail. I packed a grip, and left at once. The day was clear with a blistering sun. There
was no snow in town, but there was plenty on the hillside. I soon reached it, and sank
nearly every step, some times well above my knees. I ploughed on, and reached the
mine, having walked seven and a half miles, and having climbed five thousand feet on
the trip. I made it in two hours and twenty minutes. One look at the patient told
me that amputation of the arm between the elbow and shoulder was inevitable. This I
did with a bookkeeper giving the anaesthetic. I remained all night at the mine, and saw
the patient before bedtime, when his condition was satisfactory. Next morning I
arranged for him to be brought down by hand sleigh the following morning, when the
snow was frozen, and I would have a team meet him as far up the hill as a team could
go. He made a good recovery. Whta pleased me even more than my surgical success,
was the fact that a man who fancied himself as a musher, heard of my time, and said
he would make the trip, and "Show that sawbones what real mushing was." A few
days later he left town for the mine. The time of departure was taken with some ceremony at town, but if he eVer reached the mine, he never turned in the time of his
arrival.
That early summer I was at the mine one day, and as was the standard custom, I
went to lunch with the Giffords. The weather was still raw and cold on the hill. After
lunch, the Captain had a short smoke with us, and then excused himself, saying that
they were doing some blasting in the mine, and he wanted to be on the job. I could see
he was not well. He was an old-time hardrock miner, who during the years had
accumulated what I would call a chronic interstitial pnuemonia, call it silicosis or sider-
osis if you will today. At times he would take paroxysms of coughing that were beyond
belief in severity. Although he was very friendly with me, he had never consulted me
about himself in any way. After he had gone this day, Mrs. Gifford and I smoked for
a little while, then I got up to leave. As we were going to the door, she asked me if I
would do her a favour. I was only too glad to assure her that I would be most pleased
to do anything in my power for her. She then said it was about the Captain; that his
cough was much worse than she had ever known it to be, and that I must do something
for it. I tried to explain that the Captain was not my patient, and had never consulted
me. I even told her that I was afraid to meddle in what the Captain undoubtedly considered was his own strictly private affairs. Pointing out that the Captain would never
permit me to examine him, and that to prescribe for him without examining him was
Page 263 sheer guess work. She would take no such excuse, and parted from me with the remark,
"I'll leave it to your own good judgment, Doctor, but you must do something." I was
never in a worse dilemma in my life, than I was as I walked down to the mine office.
Here I told Gates, the chief accountant, of the mission that Mrs. Gifford had given me.
He howled with laughter, saying he would get under his desk as the Captain pulled his
gun. Just then the Captain came in. Whether it was the smoke from the blasting in
the mine, the cold raw wind which he had faced, from the head of the shaft to the office,
the heat of the office, or a combination of all three, I do not know. But he broke into
the worst attack of coughing I have ever seen any one experience. His face became
livid, and later almost black, as he struggled for breath. This lasted nearly ten minutes.
To me, it seemed an hour. As he coughed, I saw a chance to tackle him on the matter
of treatment. I sidled over near the door, and when he was breathing fairly easily, and
as a natural colour was returning to his face, I screwed up my-courage, and said, "You've
got a fine pair of lungs, you have, Captain." With a scowl which scared me, he said,
"Huh?" I replied, "You heard me, and further, Captain, if I had a pair of lungs like
yours, I would either petition Parliament for a new pair, or else I would consult a decent
doctor."
"A pile you could do," was his answer.
This gave me my opening, and I shot back, "I'll tell you what I am going to do;
I am going to send you a bottle of medicine, and I will phone Mrs. Gifford to see that
you take it, even if she has to jam it down your neck through a stomach tube."
With that I stepped out and closed the door, and almost ran down the hill to where
my horse was stabled. As I rode back to town, I thought the situation over, and the
more I thought about it, the worse it appeared. I knew nothing about the treatment
of such a condition, if there was any. What library I had was of little assistance, but
I felt satisfied that myocarditis was present as well as the pulmonary involvement, and
that they were interlocking conditions. On arrival in town, I wrote a prescription. If
there were any expectorants or stimulants which were not incorporated in that prescription, it was because I had never heard of them. I wish I had kept a copy. It was the
grand-daddy of all gunshot prescriptions, and the size was sixteen ounces. I phoned
it to Joe Vanstone, and asked him if there were any incompatibilities in it; he was
laughing so hard that he could scarcely reply. Eventually he became coherent, and said
that it would mix, and that it ought to hit something. He sent it to the mine. The
weather cleared, the sun became warm and bright on the hill, the Captain was less in
the powder smoke of the mine, and when he came to town a few weeks later, he volunteered the information that he was feeling better than he had for several years. Tyche
was there with bells again.
Next vear, Doctor Hall asked me to join him in practice, and after giving the matter
some thought, I accepted the invitation, and continued in association with him until I
left Nelson. It was a pleasant arrangement, and the work was congenial. Hall had a
large private practice, and several* contracts, included among which was the Canadian
Pacific Railway.    We had many interesting cases during the time we were associated.
One of these cases was a man who had been struck by the end of a cable from a
crane, which was shifting soil and rocks in a scoop or shovel. The cable was attached
to the scoop by a few feet of chain with large links. The chain broke and it snapped
through the air with terrific force, and with a slightly upward motion, the end link
struck the man on the right supraorbital ridge. The large link tore the right frontal
bone upward and backward, destroying most of the right frontal lobe of the brain. The
bone still remained attached to the scalp. This was the condition which confronted us
when the man arrived at the hospital. The case looked hopeless, we did not have a
Brodie, a Turnbull or an Emmons to advise us, so we decided not to be too meddlesome.
The damaged brain tissue was removed, the edges of the wound were thoroughly cleaned,
the bone returned to its place, the scalp loosely sutured, the man put to bed. He made
a most uneventful recovery. During his convalescence he appeared to be rather mis-
Page 264 chievous. Whether this was his natural bent, or the result of his injury, we were never
able to learn, as we had no chance to observe him after he left the hospital; the Canadian Pacific Railway having promptly shipped him back to his home in Nova Scotia.
One of his pranks was pulled on an oldish man who was in the hospital. A disgruntled
Englishman type, he was never satisfied with anything that was done for him. He had
a sclerosis of the card, and wasn't very ill. One day, as the nurses were at supper, tlA
only nurse on the big ward was called by the nurse in charge of the private wards to
come and assist her for a few minutes. There was no one really sick in the main ward,
but this old man thought it was a case of gross neglect, and he proceeded to sit up in
bed and tell everyone that it was. Our little patient resented this, so he ran out into
the hall where there was a roll of three-inch fire hose, with a three and a half foot nozzle
hanging on the wall. Grabbing the nozzle, he rushed in to the old man's bed, dragging
the hose with him, and said, "Turn over, you old blankety blank. Your blood is too
"damn hot; I'm going to give you a good enema to cool it off." I don't think the old
man was ever heard to complain again.
Among other duties, we were surgeons for the Provincial jail. On evening, Bob
Lemon, the warden, phoned me to come down and make out the transfer papers for a
man who was being moved to the penitentiary at New Westminster. He also said that
he had an insane man who was being sent to the Mental Hospital at Westminster. This
man had a severe toothache, and Bob asked me to extract his tooth before he left for
the coast. On arrival at the jail, I gave the forceps to Bob to sterilize, while I made
out the transfer documents for the prisoner. The insane man was brought in—a big
burly man, weighing over two hundred and twenty pounds, surly, and with a nasty look
in his eye. I asked him which tooth was sore, and he pointed to a lower posterior molar.
I assured him that I would soon attend to that, and picked up the gag. He asked me
what this instrument was, and I explained that it would give me a better view of his
tooth, and help me to get it out. He refused to let me use it, and no amount of talking
would get him to consent to its use. So I told him to keep his tooth, gathered up my
instruments, and walked out. As I closed the door, I heard a wild, maniacal laugh.
Next day, when I called at the jail, Bob told me that as I had left, the insane man had
given a raucous laugh, and said, 'If that big stiff had ever put his fingers in my mouth,
he would never have got them out."    Tyche was holding an umbrella over me.
As the years passed, I was constantly taking stock of conditions around me. I saw
all the mines directly tributary to Nelson close. The Silver King, the Athabasca, the
Granite, and the Poorman, had all lost values with depth. The Ymir district also had
petered out. Whether or not those properties would ever show good ore in paying
quantities at deeper levels was problematical. Diamond drilling did not indicate that
they carried paying values at depth. Disquieting rumours came from Rossland from
time to time. The Granby Company at Phoenix was rapidly exhausting the big glory
hole. The drop in the price of silver, and the penalizing of zinc ores by the American
Smelting Trust, did not bode well for the mines of the Sandon and Slocan districts; thus
another feeder for Nelson was likely to be cut off. So with much reluctance, I was
forced to the conclusion that Nelson had reached its zenith. In which event I must seek
new fields.
In making a selection of a permanent location, only two places came to my mind,
Spokane and Vancouver. Spokane had much to recommend it, and the prospects there
were very alluring. Tyche pulled hard on the rudder for Vancouver, and as usual, she
was most kind to me. Spokane is little better today than it was at that time, while
Vancouver's growth has been breath-taking.
In leaving Nelson, I had many regrets. There were few things about the city that
I did not like. I liked the city itself, its setting, its lake, its mountains, its climate, and
above all, I liked the people with their loyalty and friendship. People who had stuck
by me in fair weather and in foul, of which I could cite many examples. I had no
regrets over the six years I had spent with them.    It was here that I was first thrown
Page 265 upon my own resources. Here I had first stood upon my own legs, and while occasions
arose when those legs were a bit rubbery, and the knees sagged from hard knocks and
heavy body blows, I had never hit the canvass. I had never taken the count. I had
gained experience. I had made friends. I had seen the West. Such a West as Arthur
Chapman had in mind when he wrote:
"Out where the hand clasp's a little stronger,
Out where the smile dwells a little longer,
That's where the West begins;
Out where the sun is a little brighter,
Where the snows that fall are a trifle whiter
Where the bonds of Ixrme are a wee bit tighter,
That's where the West begins.
Out where the skies are a trifle bluer,
Out where friendship's a little truer,
Tlyat's where the West begins.
Out where a fresher breeze is blowing.
Where there's laughter in every streamlet flowing,
Where there's more of reaping and less of sowing—
That's where the West begins.
Out where the world is in the making,
Where fewer hearts in despair are aching,
That's where the West begins;
Where there's more of singing and less of sighing,
Where there's more of giving and less of buying,
And a man makes friends without half trying—
That's where the West begins."
And so I said goodbye to Nelson in September, 1905.
On arriving in Vancouver, I found many changes from the city I had seen "six years
before. The population had doubled, the lumber industry had increased tremendously,
the city was alive, real estate was beginning to boom, the citizens were expectant and
sanguine to a degree that was far removed from the impressions I had gained on my
previous visit.
As St. Paul's Hospital was far out among the stumps on Burrard Street in 1899, so
the new Vancouver General Hospital, now nearing completion of its first unit, was far
out among the stumps on Tenth Avenue. It consisted of wards A, B, C, D, E and F,
with adrninistration offices. It has since expanded until now it occupies four city blocks
and overflows onto four others. The streets south of False Creek were poorly paved,
and the Fairview Belt Line was a rickety, swaying, single-track affair. Many people
were critical of the Directors of the Hospital for choosing such a site. Time has shown
that those Directors were men of broad vision and wise foresight.
Here I met many new faces among the profession, and not a few whom I had previously known. It is impossible to even mention all the doctors who were practising
in Vancouver at this time, so if many are unmentioned, I trust it will not be considered
in any way as an intentional slight. Among those whom I met were, Johnson, R. E.
McKechnie, D. H. Wilson, Tunstall, Lefevre, Weld, Poole, Langis, McGuigan, Carroll,
Senkler, D. M. MacKay, to mention only a few. There were also a goodly number who
had seen service in the Interior,—Power, Loung, Hoyes, Conklin, McKenzie, Coulthard,
and Foster.    We were joined later by Spankie, Boucher, Gordon, Patterson and Browse.
Doctor Johnson was the possessor of the keenest and most brilliant intellect that I
have ever encountered in a medical man. His snap diagnosis were positively scintillating.
As an example, I might cite the day when he was walking out of Ward A with Doctor
Conklin. A patient was being admitted, and behind the screens, the orderly was removing the patient's clothing. Johnson peeked over the screen, and turning to Conklin,
he said, "Too bad, too bad.   The poor fellow has a ruptured jejunum."  The man died,
Page 266 and at autopsy, it was found that the jejunum was torn almost across at the ligament
of Treitz. He was known to have made scores of diagnoses which were just as eerie as
this one. Of R. E. McKechnie, I need say little; master surgeon, gentleman, and doyen
of the Medical Profession of British Columbia. D. H. Wilson was a very outstanding
man in both the medical and business worlds. Unfortunately I saw little of him, as he
was then retiring from practice in order that he might devote his time to his wide
business interests. Tunstall, the polished, finished gentleman, was a prominent figure,
an excellent speaker in either French or English; the ornament of the profession which
owes much to his memory. Power was a graduate of Dublin University, a widely travelled man, and a thorough man of the world. He had served many years with the British
Navy; a holder of the Victoria Cross; a man of vast knowledge; and, in general, an
Irish gentleman. He was first located in Donald, later was in Sandon before coming to
Vancouver. Those, and many more of conspicuous ability arid attainments were in
Vancouver when I arrived. Time will not permit me to discuss them further. Such a
discourse would occupy more than one evening.
By the inexorable laws of nature, the years have sadly depleted the ranks of the old-
timers. Of the two hundred and fifteen physicians and surgeons who were practising
in this Province when I came West, only twenty-six remain, eight of whom have retired.
Of the fifty-six who were practising in Vancouver when I arrived in 1905, only nine
remain, four of whom have retired.
Great as has been this depletion, it is most gratifying to see those empty places being
filled by the very excellent type of young men who have made this city their home
during the last quarter of a century. Young men on whose back the sun is still shining.
Men in that creative period of life, which Sir William Osier so aptly referred to as,
"those fifteen golden years of plenty, the anabolic or constructive period, in which there
is always a balance in the bank, and the credit is still good." I have watched this ever-
increasing group with fascination during the years, always admiring their enthusiasm,
their energy, their training, and their knowledge.
Vancouver has many resources and assets on which to pride itself. A most wonderful port and harbour, vast wealth in the products of the forest, the mine, and the sea,
a mild equable climate, beautiful parks and beaches, and, until a very recent date, we
were even proud of our water supply. To me, it would appear that the richest asset
with which this city is at present endowed, is the enthusiastic and ardent coterie of
young physicians and surgeons, who have pitched their tents in this city. It has been
my privilege to have enjoyed the friendship of many of those men, and I trust the circle
will ever continue to widen.    Such fraternalisms are beyond price.
Goldsmith has said, "I like everything that's old—old friends, old times, old manners, old books, and old wine." And with him I most heartily concur. Dear to my
heart are the tried and proven friends of yesteryear, but while I will ever continue to
cling to old friends, and the ties that bind me to them, I still have ample room to cherish
the friendship of younger generations. Hermippus, the old Roman, when he found the
years becoming heavy upon him, forsook his old friends, and lived only with the young,
and so attained the age of one hundred and fifty-six years. My philosophy is to blend
the dictum of Goldsmith with the practice of Hermippus, and I can see no incompatibility in such a procedure. As it has been a privilege to have had the confidence of my
old confreres, so is it a prerequisite to have the fellowship of my colleagues of a younger
generation. Of the loyalty of my old associates, I shall always rest sure, and if in combination with this assurance, I am permitted to merit and maintain the friendship of a
younger generation, then the seasons may come and go in their appointed order, the
years may continue to pass over my head, but secure in this position, I know that I shall
never grow old.
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DEPENDABLE—Clinitest Tablet Method is based on same
Chemical principles involved in Benedict's test.. • except... no
external heating required, and active ingredients for test contained in
a single tablet. Indicates sugar at 0%, H%, %%, K%, 1% and 2% plus.
ECONOMICAL — Complete
set (with tablets for 50 tests)
retails to the patient for only
$2.00. Tablet Refill (for 75
tests) — $2.00.
Write for full descriptive literature
Clinitest   Urine-Sugar Test  and
* Clinitest Tablet Refill are available
through your surgical supply house
or prescription pharmacy.
EFFERVESCENT   PRODUCTS   INC.
FRED.
WHITLOW    &
Sole Canadian Distributors
CO.,    LTD.,    187    DUFFERI"N
STREET,     TORONTO r
Breaks the vicious circle of perverted
menstrual function in cases of amenorrhea,
tardy periods (non-physiological) and dysmenorrhea. Affords remarkable symptomatic
relief by stimulating the innervation of the
uterus and stabilizing the tone of its
musculature. Controls the utero-ovarian
k    circulation and thereby encourages a     <
normal menstrual cycle.
• MARTIN H. SMITH COMPANY
&, ISO IAMYETTE STMIT. NEW TO«K, N. T.
Full formula and descriptive
literature on request
Dosage:   l to 2 capsules
3 or 4 times daily.   Supplied
in packages of 20.
Ethical protective mark MHS
embossed on inside of each
capsule, visible only when capsule  is cut in half  at seam.
Jlead ealtk Checked
WITH 3 DROPS IN EACH NOSTRIL . . .
PRIVINE"Ciba"
(1:1000 solution of 2—(naphthyl-1—methyl)—imidazoline hydrochloride)
NASAL   DROPS
Clinical investigations on Privine Nasal Drops have proved that
they are excellently suited for the treatment of all forms of nasopharyngeal affections. In head colds, a few moments after the
instillation of 3 drops of Privine in each nostril, the headache and
sensation of heaviness in the head disappear, while the nasal respiration becomes easier, the watering of the eyes stops, the voice regains
its normal tone and the sense of smell is restored.
ISSUED:
In bottles of Vi ounce with dropper, and bottles of 4 ounces.
CIBA COMPANY LTD.
Montreal
1 *&?£'.... Promise
Zephiran Chloride is a mixture
of high molecular alkyl-dimethyl-
benzyl-ammonium chlorides. It
contains no phenol, no iodine, no
mercury, or other metals.
In addition to effectiveness as a
germicide, Zephiran Chloride
offers new important plus properties;
it Rapidity off Action
it Detergent Properties
it Penetration Power
it Non-Injurious Effect
Upon Tissues, in Proper
Dilutions
• Wide Field of Application
it Economy in Use
bade Mark fteguMi
in Canada
CHLORIDE
S*0^:'^ i^lf^l^Jff ii^SiiOnium CJjJcifSlgy*^ •
WBKrifKtVm H
•   NON-MERCURIAL GERMICIDE
Jn ihcifeittfe stageli o£:i&' dev<|bpmes^frj^
.^iii^BHB^^e promise of efcr—1
mind^Uwblepro]oertleswttpH^^^Kii^S
|hee« laxskm^Mj^^tt^^^l^^^^MP0*65!!^^
B Between premise and proof, however*'
line road is hard and long. Through re*
Search.and clinical*' work, Zephiran
preoperative skin  antisepsis* ran exist
with s^rildcid^M|f^^^^^^^^^B
t.*ln}recognition of the proved ability of
I^^PHiR^l^^^^^^^^^^^^^jrilical' '
needs wi|h|||||^^|ii||tage^ the 'Council
^^f*harmacy-and"^aemristry ha^^ra^ted '
I^K^eal ^3^^?epta||^e to |[^ |
Germicide for surgery and obstetrics ...
Skin ... Mucous AAembranes . . . Infected Wounds • UROLOGY
... Bladder Irrigation and Lavage • EYE, EAR, NOSE AND
THROAT •  STERILE STORAGE OF INSTRUMENTS.
(^)    ALBA   PHARMACEUTICAL   DIVISION
— Winthrop Chemical Company, Inc.
Professional Service Office SUCCESSOR Administration and Laboratories
1010 St. Catherine St. W.    - 1019 Elliott Street West
MONTREAL, P.Q. WINDSOR, ONT. nTTTTTTTTTTT EtIIIIIIfllfllltlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllltllilllllllllllllllllllllllllllltlllilirillllllllllllllllllllllllllllltllllllllllllltllllllirillltlflflllEIllIIItlTIIIIIllilttlllilllllllllllllllfllllllllC
A
tt
19
man  gets   grown-up
g| :  faster .
when lie  eafs
his  milk too!
Milk for eating should share equally
with milk for drinking, in supplying
nutrients needed by older children
for normal growth. Carnation Evaporated Milk deserves special consideration in the youthful dietary—not
merely because it is safe, nourishing,
and digestible, but also because it
lends itself admirably to the preparation of milk-rich dishes that children
relish.
In many recipes, and on fruits and
cereals, Carnation may be used undiluted — double-strength — to introduce twice the usual milk solids into
every serving. In a 1:1 dilution for
drinking, it supplies all the essential
yalues of whole milk, in normal proportion—with increased vitamin D,
created by irradiation.... Carnation
Company Limited, Toronto, Ontario.
IRRADIATED
Carnation
'FROM CONTENTED COWS'
Milk
A Canadian Product
iiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiilllllllliuiiiiHitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiittiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiMiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiintiiiiiiiiiiiiifiiiiii iiiii iiimui	 Certiled^uJlifietlRegipred
Atfoeorgia Pha)i^^^^^jg>r^^P^^^^|
are dispensed b^registeredMigrt^cists
—^liiot only certiffed by^iel^rolfege,
bu&lso qualified b^l^hg^xperience;
You can |^e ^^^ieJ^^Bofldenc^^ffi
our service.
Phone
MArine 4161
\*<&dfe&.JUwv&too*\
GEORGIA PHARMACY
1_ |. »wt  I.T E  O
rnmmmr w.
(fattteMc IfywiM $Mk
ESTABLISHED 1893
VANCOUVER, B. Cf
North Vancouver, B. C.
Powell River, B. C.
■ $
0& ^itttf
7
*
ft
New Westminster, B. C.
For the treatment of
NEUROPSYCHIATRY
DISORDERS
Reference—B. C. Medical Association
For information apply to
Medical Superintendent! New Westminster, B. C.
or 721 Medical-Dental Building, Vancouver, B. C.
PAcific 7823
Westminster 288
27

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