History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

The Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: March, 1945 Vancouver Medical Association Mar 31, 1945

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 The . .
of the ...
With Which Is Incorporated
Transactions of the
In This Issue:
SUMMER SCHOOL PR OfiR A M |||jg|||.    jBgjjfi * *4
OSLER LECTURE—The Employment of Leisure.
Howard Spohn,  M.TY   -Cag?/.        >':^^^^fflS^^^"      146
May 29th to June 1st, 1945 (incl.)
Hotel Vancouver
Make Your Hotel Reservations NOW!
March, 1945 The vasodilator Theobromine and
the mental sedative Neurobarb,
act synergistically, relaxing both
musculature and mind.
11 ." " CT..K«. »l       - ..
"he LBS;
THEOBROMINE, well known as a vasodilator,
induces a marked relaxation of the coronary blood
vessels and is frequently all that is necessary for
relief in cases of angina pectoris and of syncope
anginosa. Its prolonged diuretic action rapidly
diminishes dropsical conditions except in cases of
severe renal damage. Theobromine is particularly
useful in the reduction of edema in cardiac dropsy,
which then responds readily to digitalization.
Theobromine, unlike caffeine and theophyllin,
exerts but little effect on the central nervous
system and, therefore, does not increase the
nervous tension so common in "heart patients".
NEUROBARB, E.B.S. (Phenobarbital) provides sedation
by action on the central nervous system, allaying the
anxiety that frequently accompanies high blood pressure.
In Theobarb. E.B.S. then, there are two actions to relieve
1. The effect of theobromine directly on the blood vessels,
producing vasodilation.
2. The indirect effect of the sedative action of Neurobarb,
E.B.S., preventing vasoconstriction.
When prescribing, specify "ESS**
A vfholly Canadian
Cardiac dropsy, hypertensive
heart disease, angina pectoris,
cardiac pain, and following coronary thrombosis.
C.T. No. 691, Theobarb,
Theobromine... ^^9§«i I111
Neurobarb..,||i... p|l§ . H §||
Sod. Bicarb... H^sS j I <""*•
C.T. No. 691A Theobarb Mild,
Theobromine... ~*jsi&£s • 1 g
Neurobarb.. ft*v£yp* • • M or.
Sod. Bicarb.ff|||f^*. 5 Qrz.
Packaged in bottles of 100.500
and 1,000.
Company—Established 1879,
Pulished Monthly under the Auspices of the Vancouver Medical Association
in the interests of the Medical Profession.
Offices: 203 Medical-Dental Building, Georgia Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. H. MacDebmot
Db. G. A. Davidson Dr>*D. E. H. Cleveland
All communications to be addressed to the Editor at the above address.
Vol. XXI.
MARCH, 1945
No. 6
OFFICERS, 1944 - 1945
Db. H. H. Pitts
Db. Fbank Turnbull
Db. A. E. Tbptes
Past President
Db. Gobdon Bubke
Hon. Treasurer
Db. J. A. McLean
Hon. Secretary
Additional Members of Executive: Dr. G. A. Davidson, Db. J. R. Davies
Db. F. Bbodie Db. J. A. Gillespie Dr. W. T. Lockhabt
Auditors: Messrs. Plommeb, Whiting & Co.
Clinical Section
Db. W. D. Keith Chairman Db. S. E. Tubvey Secretary
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Db. Leith Webster Chairman Db. Grant Lawrence. Secretary
Pediatric Section
Dr. John Piters Chairman Dr. Harry Baker Secretary
Db. S. E. C. Turvey, Chairman; D»- F. J. Buixer, Dr. W. J. Dobbance,
Dr. R. P. Kinsman, Dr. J. R. Neison, Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland
Dr. J. H. MacDebmot. Chairman: Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland,
Dr. G. A. Davidson, Dr. J. H. B. Grant, Dr. W. D. Keith, Dr. L. H. Webster
Summer School:
Db. G. A. Davidson, Chairman; Dr. J. C. Thomas, Dr. R. A. Gilchrist,
Dr. A. M. Aonew, Dr. L. H. Leeson, Dr. L. G. Wood
Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland, Chairman; Dr. E. A. Campbell, Dr. D. D. Freeze.
V. O. N. Advisory Board:
Dr. Isabel Day, Dr. J. H. B. Grant, Dr. G. F. Strong
Metropolitan Health Board Advisory Committee:
Dr. W. D. Patton, Dr. W. D. Kennedy, Dr. G. A. Lamont
Representative to B. C. Medical Association: Dr. A. E. Trites
Sickness and Benevolent Fund: The President—The Trustees ^ed$A«tiott-
Also Avoi/ob/e
A special formula for treatment of ophthalmic infections caused by sulfathiazole-
sensitive organisms. -
Supplied in 1-oz. dropper
bottles. Yellow-tinted solution.
Shortens their course in  some instances
Relieves pressure pain in blocked sinuses
Sulmefrin decreases congestion by the )
vasoconstrictor action of dl-desoxyephedrine
hydrochloride, thus assisting the antibacterial
action of sodium sulfathiazole. The vasoconstrictor is also believed to facilitate the' sulfonamide in reaching the deeper layers of the
nasal mucous membrane.
The mild alkalinity of Sulmefrin (pH ap-
prox. 9.0) is preferable according to Turnbull
et al1 for nasal medication because (1) the
sulfonamide has the greatest bacterial action
in the pH range from 8 to 10, and (2) because it allows ciliary action to continue for a
long period of time.
Sulmefrin may be administered by spray,
drops, or tamponage.
For literature write
36 Caledonia Road, Teronto
ER; Squibb & Sons
of Canada. Ltd.
Manufacturing Chemists to the Medical Profession
Total population—estimated  311,799
Japanese Population—Estimated  Evacuated
Chinese population—estimated         ^3 95
Hindu population—estimated  .  335
Rate per 1,000
Number Population
Total deaths  1     366 13.8
Japanese deaths  .            Population Evacuated
Chinese deaths „,  14
Deaths—residents   only   .   318
Male,   308;   Female,   320  628
Deaths under one year of age       14 15
Death rate—per 1,000 births .       22.3 26.3
Stillbirths   (not included above) , ■         6 9
December, 1944       January, 1944       Feb. 1-15, 1944
Cases      Deaths      Cases      Deaths      Cases      Deaths
Scarlet Fever  . ;  49
Diphtheria j  1
Diphtheria  Carrier    0
Chicken  Pox !  87
Measles 128
Rubella  4
Mumps ,  15
Whooping  Cough  14
Typhoid Fever  (Carrier)  1
Undulant Fever .  0
Poliomyelitis 0
'Tuberculosis  46
Erysipelas .  4
Meningococcus Meningitis  0
Paratyphoid Fever  (Carrier) |  1
Infectious Jaundice  2
Typhi-murium   (Carrier)  0
Dysentery  0
North West
Vancouver     Burnaby Vancouver
0                      0 0
0                      1 1
The most effective therapy for waning mental and physical energy,
deficient concentration and memory, reduced resistance to infection,
muscular weakness and debility, neurasthenia and premature senility.
The efficacy of this very potent endocrine tonic has been confirmed by
the clinical evidence of many thousands of cases treated during
Stanley N. Bayne, Representative
Phone MA. 4027 1432 MEDICAL-DENTAL BUILDING Vancouver, B. C.
Descriptive Literature on Request
Page One Hundred and Forty VANCOUVER     MEDICAL     ASSOCIATION
FOUNDED 1898    ::    INCORPORATED 190*
GENERAL MEETINGS will be held on the first Tuesday of the month at 8:00 p.m.
CLINICAL MEETINGS will be held on the third Tuesday of the month at 8:00 p.m.
These meetings will continue to be amalgamated with the clinical staff meetings of
the various hospitals for the coming year. Place of meeting will appear on the agenda.
General meetings will conform to the following order:
8:00 p.m.      Business as per agenda.
9:00 p.m.      Paper of the evening.
April    3—GENERAL MEETING: "Activities of a Field Surgical Unit."
Lieut.-Colonel Rocke Robertson, R.C.A.M.C.
May    1—ANNUAL MEETING: "Plastics."
Professor R. H. Clark, Head, Department of Chemistry, U.B.C.
North Vancouver, B. C.
Powell River, B. C.
Page One Hundred and Forty-one
■M WgSfo ^fc
In the management of "sore throats," in post-tonsil-
lectomy care and in other painful throat conditions
brings acetylsalicylic acid into immediate and prolonged
contact with tonsillar and pharyngeal areas, including those
seldom reached, even intermittently, by gargling or irrigation. In addition, areas of inflammation are laved by a copious salivary flow, and local spasticity and stiffness are
relieved through the gentle muscular stimulation afforded
by chewing.
Aspergum is most palatable, is readily accepted by all,
including children. Its value in post-tonsillectomy care has,
of course, been established for years.
In packages of 16, moisture-proof bottles of 250 tablets. Ethically promoted
—not advertised to the laity. White
Laboratories of Canada, Ltd., Toronto,
Indications:— Nasal Congestion with Obstruction, Coryza, Acute  Rhinitis,  Naso-ph;
>UTH:- SUPPLIED IN BOXES OF 20) AND 40 P> ^4e £ditosir<L PcUfG
We should like to congratulate the Osier lecturer of this year, Dr. Howard Spohn,
on his admirable paper, "The Employment of Leisure." We have just had the pleasure
of reading this paper "in proof," and can assure our readers that it is well worth a careful study. It is one of the papers that reads as well as it sounds: in fact, it is a great
advantage that we can have it to read leisurely.
This is a particularly appropriate time for such a paper—and Dr. Spohn does us a
service when he reminds us of the necessity, the urgent necessity, of leisure in our lives.
It is a dreadful time just now—the pressure of work is not only tiring in itself, but it
robs us of the opportunity to pause and rest, to re-create our energy, to draw on the
wells of strength and vitality that are only to be found by withdrawal and the proper
use of leisure. All through the ages, wise men have stressed the need of leisure, and of
retreat from the market-place, and the hurly-burly of life, to quieter places, where one
can "restore one's soul." That word restore, or re-stock, is the key to the idea we are
trying to emphasize. No battle can go on forever, without rest for the men, replenishment of ammunition and the weapons of war: and we all tend to forget that we cannot
do our best work, cannot perhaps even do good work, without such periods of refreshment and re-creation.
Rabindranath Tagore said once: "Time is money, but leisure is wealth," and it could
hardly have been better put. As a profession, we need a realization of this truth, more
perhaps than any other group of men. For our time is so cut into by sporadic unexpected
demands, and it is so difficult to set times of leisure and quiet, that we tend to give up
the fight, and merely go with the current. Nothing could be more fatal: and the truth
of this is seen in the high incidence amongst medical men of that disease of strain par
excellence, coronary disease of the heart. A recent study by the Mayo Clinic showed this
incidence by occupational groups. The basic group, clergymen and plumbers, we believe
it was, was one—and medical men came far down the line at fourteen or fifteen. This
should point some moral, we are sure.
We tend to be too single-track in our attitude to life. Medicine is a hard taskmaster, and demands close and exacting attention, if we are to attain the heights in its
practice—but it should not be our only concern in life. It is a curious fact that some
of the greatest men of our profession have been the most addicted to outside interests,
to hobbies—and even amongst ourselves, some of our very busiest men seem to be able
to find time for a great deal of outside work, and for the pursuit of interests and hobbies,
often far removed from medical work.
The pursuit of a hobby is a great deal more than self-indulgence, or an escapist
mechanism—if this were all its value, we should be wise to avoid it. But it is a much
greater thing than this. It is an expression of the inner self of the hobbyist. We all
have some urge toward creativeness towards making something "out of our own head,"
which is the creative spirit in us, and the hobby, if it is naturally and wisely chosen, is an
opportunity for us to exercise this creative spirit. It re-creates us at the same time, of
course, but it does more than that. It enables us to find ourselves: and often it enables
us to give to our time and race, something of inestimable value—thus Osier's hobby was
writing and reading, and what a legacy he was able to leave thereby. Oliver Wendell
Holmes is another example—and the chief memory of him is not his medical work,
though this was of the order of greatness, but his books and writings. Sometimes, a
medical man finds through his hobby, that he should follow his avocation rather than his
vocation of medicine—and so we "find Kreisler giving up medicine, and becoming a
master of the violin, and one of the greatest players of that immortal instrument of all
But chiefly, the medical man stays within his chosen field, and is enriched and
refreshed an dre-created by his regular extussions into other fields. He enriches himself,
and he enriches the community, too, as when our own Dr. George Kidd, whose excellence
Page One Hundred and Forty-two as a doctor nobody can deny, goes out into the field of archaeology, and adds to the world's
stock of knowledge thereby. And one could quote Banting with his painting, and many
others. But enough has been said—and Dr. Spohn perhaps has said it so much better,
that we advise you all to read his paper again, and profit by it.
This year's School is being held, as indicated on the Programme, from May 29 to
June 1st inclusive, and we feel it quite unnecessary to dilate much on the advantages
of attending it. This year's Speakers are, as will be seen, chiefly members of the Armed
Forces. They have been carefully selected by the Committee in charge, and we feel
sure that it will be worth everyone's while to attend the Summer School. The Bulletin
will make every attempt to secure copies of the addresses, but that may not be easy this
year as it is. not always possible for medical officers to give their papers for publication.
Female Endocrinology, 1944, by Jacob Hoffman.
Medical Uses of Soap, 1944, Morris Fishbein, Editor.
Clinical Heart Disease, 3rd ed., 1944, by Samuel A. Levine.
A Text-Book of Gynaecological Surgery, 4th ed., 1944, by Sir Comyn Berkeley and
Victor Bonney.
Text-Book of Gynaecology, 2nd ed., 1944, by Emil Novak.
Medical Clinics of North America, Symposium on Neuro-psychiatric Diseases, January, 1945, Chicago Number.
Results of Election
Following are the results of the elections for members of the Council of the College
of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia held on the Second day of April, 1945.
District No. 1
Dr. Thomas McPherson      49 votes
Dr. P. A. C. Cousland     33 votes
Dr. C. H. Hankinson i     23 votes
Spoiled ballots _ , 7      1
Spoiled ballots owing to unpaid dues	
District No. 3
Colonel Wallace Wilson 153 votes
Dr. J. C. Thomas      80 votes
Dr. Henry Wackenroder     27 votes
Spoiled ballots       2
Spoiled ballots owing to unpaid dues     28
District No. 4
Dr. E. J. Lyon—,     43 votes
Dr. Llewelyn Jones :     15 votes
Spoiled ballots owing to unpaid dues       8
District No. 5
Dr. F. M. Auld ....Returned by acclamation
A. J. MacLachlan,
Page One Hundred and Forty-three
fz^i II If !■    SB3a
in a ii I ■>■,
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SI SB SB | aa3
EI II IB | 3 3!
Ballroom, Hotel Vancouver,
May 29th»to June 1st, inclusive
SURGEON-COMMANDER J. W. GRAHAM, R.C.N.V.R., Joint Services Rheumatism
Centre, St. Thomas, Ontario.
LIEUT.-COLONEL STUART D. GORDON, R.C.A.M.C., Adviser in Plastic Surgery,
Joint Services Special Treatment Centre, Toronto.
WING-COMMANDER R. C. LAIRD, Surgical Consultant, No. 1 Air Command,
DR. HENRY JACKSON, JR., Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School,
Boston, Mass.
DR. DAVE) H. WEBSTER, Surgical Director, Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, New York, N.Y.
Tuesday, May 29 th
9:00 a.m. Dr. Webster: "Ocular Injuries."
10:00 a.m. Lt.-Col. Gordon: "Fractures of the Mandible."
11:00 a.m. W/Comdr. Laird: "Surgical Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis.
12:30 p.m. LUNCHEON—Guest Speaker: Major Harold Brown.
2:30 p.m. Eye Clinic: Vancouver General Hospital.
8:00 p.m. Dr. Jackson: "Practical Aspects of Disorders of Blood-Forming Organs"
—Part I.
9:00 p.m. Surg. Cmdr. Graham: "Problems in the Diagnosis of Arthritis."
Wednesday, May 30 th
9:00 a.m.    Lt.-Col. Gordon: "Transplantation of Skin."
10?00 a.m.    Dr. Jackson: "Practical Aspects of Disorders of Blood-Forming Organs"
—Part H.
11:00 a.m.    Surg. Cmdr. Graham:   "The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, with
Special Reference to Gold Therapy and Foci of Infection."
2:00 p.m.    Surgical Clinic: Shaughnessy Hospital.
8:00 p.m.    W/Cmdr. Laird: "Bronchiectasis in Service Personnel."
9:00 p.m.    Dr. Webster: "Glaucoma—Diagnosis and Treatment."
Thursday, May 31st
9:00 a.m. W/Cmdr. Laird: "Common Injuries around the Shoulder Joint."
10:00 a.m. Dr. Webster: "Papillcedema and Papillitis."
11:00 a.m. Dr. Jackson:  "Practical Aspects of Hodgkin's Disease and Allied Conditions"—Part I.
1:00 p.m. GOLF TOURNAMENT—Capilano Golf and Country Club.
8:00 p.m. Surg. Cmdr. Graham: "The Diagnosis and Treatment of Gout."
9:00 p.m. Lt.-Col. Gordon: "The Treatment of Thermal Burns."
Friday, June 1st
9:00 a.m.    Dr. Jackson:  "Practical Aspects of Hodgkin's Disease and Allied Conditions"—Part II.
10:00 a.m.    Lt.-Col. Gordon: "The Treatment of Hand Deformities."
Page One Hundred and Forty-four FRIDAY, June 1st (Continued)
11:00 a.m.    Dr. Webster: "Uveitis."
2:00 p.m.    Medical Clinic: St. Paul's Hospital.
8:00 p.m.    Surg. Cmdr. Graham: "The Medical Aspects of Back Pain."
9:00 p.m.    W/Cmdr. Laird: "Low Back Pain."
The Summer School Committee is indebted to the Medical Commands of the three
Services for supplying once more three outstanding speakers—Surgeon Commander
Wallace Graham, R.C.N.V.R., of the Joint Services Rheumatism Centre at St. Thomas,
Ont., formerly a well-known practitioner in Toronto; Lieut.-Colonel Stuart D. Gordon,
R.C.A.M.C., Adviser in Plastic Surgery at the Christie Street Hospital, Toronto, and
Wing Commander R. C. Laird, who is Surgical Consultant at No. 1 Air Command*
R.C.A.F. Colonel Gordon and Wing Commander Laird were both surgical specialists
in Toronto before the War.
The Committee feels fortunate, too, in having been able to secure Dr. Henry Jackson, Jr., of Boston, as a medical speaker.   Dr. Jackson is Associate Professor of Medicine?
at Harvard Medical School and Harvard Graduate Medical School, and Associate Physician, Thorndike Laboratory, Boston City Hospital.
For the first time in some years there is to be an ophthalmologist on the programme
—Dr. David Webster, Surgical Director of the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. Although this will be of especial interest to the eye, ear, nose and throat men,
Dr. Webster's papers should be enjoyed by all, as he has prepared them with a view to
presenting problems encountered in general practice.
The fee has been set at $7.50—the same as last year.
Medical officers in the Navy, Army and Air Force, .who can attend, are cordially
invited to enroll for the Summer School Course. Complimentary tickets will be issued
on request.
Internes are invited, also, to enroll for the Summer School, free of charge. Tickets
will be issued at the Registration Deck on the opening day to those who hav not managed to obtain them earlier.
A luncheon will be held on the opening day of the School, as usual, and the Guest
Speaker will be Major Harold Brown of Victoria, formerly of Vancouver.
Doctors from out-of-town who are planning to attend the Summer School, are urged
to make their hotel reservations immediately, as accommodation is, if anything, more
limited than ever.
A private telephone will be installed at the Registration Desk for the convenience
of the doctors, and to simplify the transmission of messages.
Those who can, are urged to buy their tickets in advance from members of the
Summer School Committee, at the Hospitals, or in the Library. For those who have not
had the opportunity of registering previously, the Registration Desk will be open at
8:30 a.m. on Tuesday morning, May 29th. Holders of tickets may be requested to
show them at each session.
Capilano Golf and Counrty Club, on the North Shore, will again be the setting for
the Golf Tournament which is to be held on Thursday afternoon, May 31st, and an
attractive set of prizes has been selected.
Page One Hundred and Forty-five OSLER LECTURE:
Mr. President, and Fellow Colleagues:
At each Osier oration, it is appropriate to offer some humble tribute to that Great
Teacher and Man of Science, Sir William Osier, one of our greatest Canadians. Perhaps
no greater souvenir could be offered than a reiteration of some of his old teachings or
parables. Therefore, before proceeding with my paper, I would like to draw attention
to a few quotations from that old Osier Gospel Aequanbnitas. At this particular time,
some of them seem almost prophetic.
Speaking of war, he quotes Marion Crawford, who says, "In all ages the reason of
the world has been at the mercy of brute force. The reign of law has never been more
than a passing reality, and the individual intellect, and the aggregate intelligence of
races and nations have all perished in the struggle of mankind; to revive again indeed,
but as surely to be again put to the edge of the sword." But Osier adds, "And yet who
can doubt that the leaven of science, working in the individual, leavens in some slight
degree the whole social fabric.  Reason is at least free, or nearly so."
Speaking to the Army Surgeons, he said, "Permanence of residence, good undoubtedly
for the pocket, is not always best for wide mental vision in the physician." I confess
that in absenting myself from practice through travelling I have been comforted by this
observation of Osier's.
How true, too, that "Not from without us, but from within, comes, or can ever
come upon us Light."
"The routine of country practice may be corroding, but individuality may be
retained"—and then he warns, "Individuality may be lost with astonishing rapidity in
the city mills that rub our angles down, and soon stamp us all alike."
"Throw away in the first place, all ambition beyond that of doing the day's work
well. The travellers on the road to success live in the present."
"Growth in the acquisition of facts is not necessarily associated with development.
Many grow through life mentally as the crystal, by simple accretion, and at fifty
possess, to vary the figure, the unicellular blastoderm with which they started."
"Shun as most pernicious that frame of mind, too often, I fear, seen in physicians,
which assumes an air of superiority, and limits as worthy of their communion only those
with satisfactory collegiate or sartorial credentials. The passports to your fellowship
should be honesty of purpose and devotion to the highest interests of our profession."
And you will remember in one of his addresses to nurses, "I will keep my mouth as
it were with a bridle," and "If thou hast heard a word, let it die with thee."
And one more to remember: "Nationalism has been the great curse of humanity. In
no other shape has the Demon of Ignorance assumed more hideous proportions, a vice
of the blood, of the plasma rather, it runs riot in the race, and rages today as of yore, in
spite of the precepts of religion and the practice of democracy. Nor is there any hope
of change; the pulpit is dumb, the press fans the flames, literature panders to it, and
the people love to have it so." And then he qualifies this thought with "There is room,
plenty of room, for proper pride of land and birth. What I inveigh against is the cursed
spirit of intolerance, conceived in distrust and bred in ignorance, that makes the mental
attitude perennially antagonistic."
These are enough to refresh, if necessary, our admiration of the far-sightedness of
this great teacher.   His admonitions are needed as much today as when they were uttered.
His extraordinary genius was truly accompanied by much learning and a great insight
into the perplexities of life. His judgments were reached through study aided by great
common sense and an abiding faith. Osier was universally loved and esteemed wherever
he abode, and his courteous and kindly manner won a quick entrance to the hearts of
his patients. He possessed an extraordinary interest in all branches of science related to
medicine, and his example and kindly advice was an inspiration to all his pupils.  His wit
Page One Hundred and Forty-six was abundant, and he loved practical jokes without a sting or motive attached. His
friends always remained loyal, and of him it could be said:
"The greatest is a friend, whose love
Knows how to praise and when reprove,
From such a treasure never part
But hang the jewel on your heart."
On leaving Hopkins he said, "I have made mistakes but they have been mistakes of the
head, not of the heart. I can truly say, and I take upon myself to witness, that in! my
sojourn with you—I have loved no Darkness—sophisticated no truth—nursed no Delusion—allowed no Fear" and then he repeated the line from Tennyson's Ulysses ': 'I am a
part of all that I have met'."
The brightness of his talents, the solidity of his judgment, his great common sense,
and the candour and generosity he displayed, distinguished him always as a fine scholar,
a great teacher, and a true friend. It is fitting that, on these occasions, we each pay
tribute to such a fellow countryman.
Your President has not only conferred on me the great honour of addressing you
on the occasion of an Osier dinner, but has also given me carte blanche in the choice of
a subject. For these two deflections he must unfortunately be responsible, and I can
only hope that both he and you will forgive me for not presenting, as is usual, a scientific thesis. However, even in this there are precedents, for as you will well remember,
some of my more distinguished predecessors of the Osier lecture have chosen diverse
subjects, even to the intimate life of the illustrious monarch and Defender of the Faith,
Henry VIII.
My reasons for presenting an unscientific discourse are that perhaps in wartime a
non-medical lecture would prove less depressing than a scientific oration from one of
those peculiar beings known as Paediatricians, and also because I feel that all of us, and
particularly the medical profession, must readjust our manner of employment of leisure
time. It is about some phases of this use of spare time that I wish to offer some rather
discursive remarks under the caption of "The Employment of Leisure."
The art and practice of medicine demands of its followers so much in energy, time,
and service that in some ways the disciples of Aesculapius often are, not narrow, but
somewhat unworldly in the precise knowledge of Commerce and Industry. This infirmity, though not without merit, often results in insufficient monetary reward for
much work, and brings upon the doctor and his family the necessity of restrictions and
deprivations in relaxation and luxuries which come so often, with much less effort, to
the successful business man. Post-graduate work, travel, the realization of the long-
hoped-for cottage by the sea or in the country are, to many, either too long delayed,
or never arrive, and the medical man often grows old before his time or passes along
without much worldly reward. Once the medical man has accepted the challenge, he is
bound to service for weal or woe, for better or for worse. As Osier says, "While medicine is to be your vocation, see to it that you also have an avocation;—no matter what
it is, but have an outside hobby." It is apparent then that all doctors are seriously in
need of some form of relaxation or hobby that can be picked up quickly where it was
left off——to fill in the short periods of rest between intense periods of work. That such
a sensible plan has been followed by some of our colleagues is well known. Fred Brydone-
Jack is a fine photographer, as is also Frank Emmons, Russ Neilson is an expert carpenter,
Don Cleveland has collected and read through a fine library, Clarence Brown and Bill
Middleton are growing potatoes or fruit, others have acquired farms, and those superlative relaxationists, Whaley and Appleby, indulge in that superb dream of raising the
world's finest horses. Harry Pitts, God bless his trusting heart, sends the odd racehorse
to the post. Wes Prowd says catching fish is much safer, but he, with Anson Frost and
Bill Arbuckle are becoming country gentlemen during week-ends and holidays. George
Strong has a hide-out in the mountains, and Wallace Wilson has become a woodsman on
his estate, while Murray Meekison and Dan McLellan have acquired some fine pictures.
John MacDermot has adopted a very self-sacrificing hobby in his devotion to our Medi-
Page One Hundred and Forty-seven cal Bulletin. Many of us have not the trends or the wherewithal to indulge in many of
these projects, but all of us can do something to keep material worries from cutting too
deep and confining our spirits. It matters not a whit what form it takes as long as it
produces comforting relaxation and adds something of information or culture to our lives.
Aside from the necessity of gainful employment, very few problems are of greater
importance than how the people of a nation may employ their leisure. The manner of
life, when not working, is closely associated with family life; social relationships outside one's immediate family; and partly at least with the stability of a nation. If a nation
does not learn to play sensibly and constructively from a cultural point of view, then
that nation must sooner or later be doomed to mediocrity. Does such a fate threaten us
in Canada? Much of the happiness of Canadian people undoubtedly depends upon how,
after peace has come, the young people of our country employ their spare time. With
the universal social revolution which receded, and which will succeed the war, all people,
even with unemployment, will have more leisure. What are young Canadians going to
do with this gift? So far in Canada we have been between two influences: on the one
hand the English manner of life, coupled partly with some European influences as
French, Italian, Scandinavian, etc., and on the other, the influence of that great hardworking, hard-playing nation to the south of us. Are we going to amuse or occupy ourselves in culture or in play by copying some other peoples, or are we going to be individualists, as our forebears were, and use some personal ingenuity in developing our
leisure time? It has been said of people and religion, "However dilute their religion may
have become, the devout need saints and prophets for inspiration," and most people need
some form of culture or art to defeat dullness and stagnation.
It should be quite evident that one need not be an artist to be inspired by painting
or etching or sculpturing, nor a musician to obtain pleasure from all forms of musical
expression. Granted, one's inspiration or pleasure will be increased by a knowledge or
ability in any art, yet that need not keep any of us who are not gifted in artistic expression from obtaining much relaxation, pleasure, and education by studying, and trying to
* understand the efforts of our more talented fellows. One can in private reading, for
example, be very diffuse—a dilettante, even—without danger of serious criticism. When
opportunity offers, I frequently retire with the New York Times, The Atlantic Monthly,
the odd medical journal a book on art, the Reader's Digest, Time, Life, etc. Amused, my
wife often remarks, "Do you think you are about to start a bedside lending library?"
With such undisciplined reading there is of course a danger: the pleasantness of skipping
from one subject to another becomes a habit. A habit leads one so gently in the beginning one fails to realize that he is being led. The silken threads lead down pleasant
avenues, but soon the silken threads become iron chains. However, even such chains
help to obtain the peace that it necessary for contemplation and relaxation.
On such a premise, I ask your indulgence for presenting tonight some few thoughts
about reading and painting, and also some incidents in the lives of several men who have
done what no other men have done so well, who have achieved through years of study
and sacrifice, and who have found that a profound knowledge of Anatomy was essential
to their success. My excuse for these vagaries is that for over thirty years I have, on the
whole quite happily, if perhaps indolently, spent much of my leisure time in, shall one
say, diffuse reading, and in trying to appreciate without too much effort the accomplishments of men who have achieved greatness in artistic expression. Contrast is the
salt, and pepper, too, of life, and one of the great joys of reading is that one can obtain
contrast with comparative ease, thus providing the thrill of continuing satisfaction.
Wells points out in his "Outline of History" that even the Neanderthal animal was
not wholly a beast, for he collected shells, curious stones, and other odd things, and
apparently wore them for pleasure and adornment. In the later Palaeolithic period drawing and carving appeared, after architecture had been established. In Egypt, owing to
the dry climate, great spaces of wonderfully painted surfaces representing a thousand
aspects of everyday life have been preserved and thus the thoughts and imagination of
these people can be studied carefully.    Also in the Aegean architecture, fresco painting
Page One Hundred and Forty-eight and mosaic were carried to a very high level. Definitely architecture, painting and
carving preceded literature and music. What appealed to the eye furnished the first
impulse for culture and adornment. As the history of a nation cannot be studied or
appreciated properly without pictorial art, how barren must be a nation that cannot,
within itself, develop artistic expression. Canada is a young nation and therefore Cana,-
dian art is in its infancy. We represent one of the most illustrious of all professions.
Have we been as interested and sympathetic as we should in extending encouragement
to sister professions? Consider painting, for example, which is somewhat linked with
our own profession through Anatomy and the depiction of changes in the human body.
Leisure Reading
I would like to discuss for a moment the matter of Leisure Reading. Even in the
most tumultuous lives, there are moments which can be given over to reading of some
kind. Add these moments together and in the course of a year the sum of them will
be many hours. If the choice of matter, even though varied, has been made with some
little care, much information and pleasure has been accumulated and the edge may have
been taken off many worries. The History of Medicine, the lives of the leaders of medical thought, the accomplishments of medical men in other fields, all furnish fertile
material for investigation, and any one of these might furnish the hobby of a lifetime.
Tonight I would like to tell you about a Finnish doctor, who by persistently following a hobby added much to the History and Literature of his country. A few years ago,
when I was visiting Professor Yllpo, a famous paediatrician in Helsingfors, he presented
me with a little book entitled Finland m Summer by an American, F. J. North. It shows
a fine appreciation of a great and supremely unfortunate race. The fate of the Finns is,
however, not what I wish to discuss. What interested me was an account of the development of a hobby by Dr. Eliias Ldnnrot, who entered the University of Helsinki in 1827,
and soon became interested in the stories of Vainamoinen, the hero of Finnish folklore.
While Lonnrot was a student, he wrote a thesis about this subject, and during his University course lived among the peasants, gathering information about folklore and songs,
and later, whenever he Could find time away from his medical practice, devoted himself
to gathering together these previously unwritten tribal poems and legends that the ancestors of the Finns brought with them from Russia. These songs were sung on various
occasions, as weddings, births, feasts, and were also used to charm away illness, misfortune, etc. They were the stories of gods and heroes passed down by word of mouth from
one generation to another, losing a little or gaining a little as time went on, but keeping
quite well to the principal theme. Lonnrot, as he learned the legends, would recite them
to the peasants, and thus get them to recite other legends to him. The method of singing
was to sit hand in hand and recite and croon or sing, sometimes accompanied by a musical instrument known as a Kantele which resembles a zither. The folk poems are called
Runot, and in their construction somewhat resemble Homer's Iliad, The collection of
these songs is known as the Kalevala. The memory of some of these old singers was
remarkable, and Lonnrot tells of one old man reciting to him for several days.
The method generally adopted was to have the leader start with a line or verse, then
someone else would repeat almost verbatim the line the leader had sung, while the next
was being improvised or recollected, hence the repetition and alliteration. I would like
as a matter of interest to repeat a few bits of some of these poems and then the comparison with a great American poet will become apparent.
One is a prologue in Kalevala in which a singer invites a companion to join in telling
of the Land of Heroes:
"Dearest friend and much loved brother,
best beloved of all companions,
Come and let us sing together,
Let us now begin our converse,
Page One Hundred and Forty-nine
Rarely can we meet together,
Rarely one can meet the other,
In this dismal northern region
In the dreary land of Pohja." Another one is when Vainamoinen is telling a young man of the Creation of the Universe:
"You at least were never present
When the ocean first was furrowed
And the ocean depths were hollowed,
When the hills were heaped together
Again in Instructions to Brides:
"Then the tables must be scoured
At the week end at the latest;
Wash them, and the sides remember,
Let the legs not be forgotten;
And the rocky mountains fashioned;
No one yet had ever seen-you
None had seen you, none had heard you
when the earth was first created."
If there's dust upon the windows,
Dust them carefully with feathers,
Wipe them with a wetted duster,
That the dust should not be scattered
Nor should settle on the ceiling."
The resemblance to Longfellow's "Hiawatha" will be quite apparent, I think, and
when it is known that an English translation of the Finnish epic was published in
America in 1842, it is reasonable to assume that Longfellow was much influenced by the
Kalevala in the preparation of "Hiawatha."  One might compare:
"O thou pine tree, shall I take thee
For the boat for Vainamoinen,
And at boat wood for the minstrel."
with "Hiawatha's":
"Give me of your bark, O Birch Tree,
Of your yellow bark, O Birch Tree,
I a light canoe will build me."
Two weeks ago, over the CBC, I heard Claire Wallace in one of her "Stories Behind
the Story," tell of Helen Creighton's published collection of Nova Scotia folklore. Miss
Creighton has travelled among the old folk in Nova Scotia and has gathered from them
songs and stories in English, Gaelic, French, and Micmac language. She carries a musical
instrument with her and where possible reproduces the old tunes. She speaks of one
lengthy poem of "Robin Hood"—another, I think she said, the "Story of Willie McGuire"
with 78 stanzas; and also one, "The Cruel Mother," which may be familiar to some of
the Bluenoses present. She remarked that some of these old folk could go on singing all
day without repeating a song. And so you see, this is another illustration that one will
find there is very little new under the sun if one takes the trouble to read or search for
the original idea or suggestion.
Medical Reading
One can always obtain information and sometimes amusement in reading about the
history of medicine. It is an unquenchable fountain always at hand, and one I need not
dwell on at any length at this time. It is interesting to read that the early Greeks made
little use of medicine. Aesculapius states that the Grecian doctors relied chiefly on
hygienic and psychotherapeutic measures, such as cold bathing, bleeding, anointing with
mud or sand, walking and riding in the open air, not bad prescriptions for some of the
satiated patricians. Medicines were first introduced by the Arabian doctors of Alexandria, and later were used by the Romans. Dioscorides, a surgeon in Nero's army, is reputed to have compiled its first pharmacopoeia, and so the art advanced in stages so that
it is noted in a letter that Queen Elizabeth's ambassador at the court of Henry IV received the following treatment: "The King's physician gave him 'Confectio Alcarmas,
compounded of musk, amber, gold, pearl and unicorn's horn, with a pigeon applied to his
side, and all other means that art could devise.' I can remember my father, who was a
country practitioner, telling me of the Indians splitting a chicken to apply to the chest
in pneumonia. One could also recall that the Art or Surgery is almost as old as the Art
of Medicine, and Chinese manuscripts tell of famous craftsmen who undertook intracranial and intra-abdominal surgery. Hua T'o, who was born in the first century after
Christ, removed the spleen from patients rendered insensitive by means of a drug.  Celsus,
Page One Hundred and Fifty who lived in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, operated for stone, cataract and rupture, and
performed Caesarean sections. When the Roman Empire declined, surgery declined, but
was revived by Ambroise Pare on the battlefields of the 16th century. Hippocrates said,
"War is the only field for the Surgeon." Larry, Napoleon's private physician, also later
advanced surgery. However, at an earlier date, William Clowes, Queen Elizabeth's
private physician, declared that surgeons were no better than renegades, vagabonds,
shameless in countenance, lewd in disposition, brutish, in judgment and understanding.
As time marched on, however, the surgeon's status improved until eventually surgeons
were called upon by physicians to act under their instructions.
It is probably not well appreciated just how much medical men of early times did
for their fellow craftsmen. Physicians were the lineal descendants of the priest physicians of Egypt, and being from the first educated men with university degrees, they perceived the great potentialities of surgery, and gradually elevated its followers from blood-
letters and barbers to members of the medical craft. Anaesthetics and asepsis completed
the transformation and raised the intellectual and social status of the surgeon so that
he is now an honored and respected member of our profession. In fact, the status and
life of the surgeon is such that he might be envied by physicians had they not through
several centuries of trial and effort successfully purged themselves of the besetting sin
of envy.
Bible Reading
Bible reading, of course, furnishes much to the intellect, and one can say, generally
speaking, that the present generation has on the whole somewhat less knowledge of the
Bible from a literary point of view than the preceding ones. I have read the Bible a
great deal, but do not take credit for this. My mother was very religious, and happy in
her religion. Her religion she probably inherited from her Scotch ancestry, and hftr happiness in her religion from the fact that she was an ardent adherent of the Broad Anglican Church. She never believed in exacting many promises, although, like all your
mothers, she was disturbed by the future of her sons. She did, however, as we left for
boarding school, ask that each one of us would each day read some few verses from the
Bible. I have never regretted this promise, and have, of course, been astonished by the
common sense instructions that are applicable to all ages. To those of you who may
have, in the stress of war practice, forgotten some of the less familiar quotations, I
would like, without being accused of preaching, to quote from a few of the passages of
Ecclesiasticus, which, as all of you will recall, is a book of the Apocrypha, i.e. one of
the Biblical books of doubtful authorship and authenticity. As you know, not all Bibles
contain the Apocrypha but it can be found in the Revised Oxford-Cambridge Edition.
I will quote, but not consecutively, about friendship and wisdom, both being virtues
which we need probably as much today as at any time in the world's history.
"Wisdom exalteth her sons,
And £aketh hold of them that seek her.
He that loveth her loveth life
And they that seek her early shall be filled with gladness."
"If he trust her he shall inherit her
And his generation shall have her in possession.
For at the first she will walk with him in crooked ways
And will bring fear and dread upon him
And torment him with her discipline
Until she may trust his soul and try him by her judgments.
Then will she return again the straight ways unto him
And will gladden him and reveal to him her secrets.
If he go astray, she will forsake him
And give him over to his fall."
"A faithful friend is a strong defense
And he that hath found him hath found a treasure.
There is nothing that can be taken in exchange for a faithful friend
Page One Hundred and Fifty-one And his excellence is beyond price.
' A faithful friend is a Medicine of Life.
"If thou hast drawn a sword against a friend, despair not
For there may be a returning;
If thou hast opened thy mouth against a friend, fear not
For there may be a reconciling;
Except it be for upbraiding and arrogance and disclosing a secret
And a treacherous blow
For these things every friend will fear."
And after various admonitions the poet says
"Then give place to the physician for verily the Lord hath created him
And let him not go from thee for thou hast need of him.
There is a time when in their very hands is the issue for good,
For they also shall beseech the Lord
That he may prosper them in giving relief and in healing for the maintenance
of Lif .e"
The poet Cowper has given us a fine distinction between knowledge and wisdom
when he says: |;^
"Knowledge and Wisdom, far from being one,
Have ofttimes no connection.   Knowledge dwells
In heads replete with thoughts of other men;
Wisdom in minds attentive to their own.
Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much,
Wisdom is humble that he knows no more."
The Appreciation of Art and Artists
The Chinese have a saying that a picture is worth a thousand words, and that is
t another way of stating that pictures enter much more into our lives than we often
realize. From earliest childhood, pictorial expression in some form is used to develop
mental conception; and explain new discoveries. The memory of past events and loved
ones are all made more vivid through visual contacts. What people looked like in the
dim past, the manner of their lives, etc., is made realistic chiefly through pictures. To
this Art we are more greatly indebted than most people realize. Many people have a
peculiar idea of artists, but on the whole, they are extremely gifted people who have had
a cultural background, have worked hard, and although often unappreciated during their
lives, the great ones have left, throughout the world, wonderful masterpieces that have
been of inestimable value in History, Literature, and Art. Of a certainty the past greatness of a country cannot be remembered or appreciated without Art, and no country
can be truly great without producing some great artist. Most of you have, of course,
seen the great Art Galleries of London and other great centres. I wonder how many of
you have taken the time or the trouble to thoroughly see the National Portrait Gallery
in London. Near the entrance stands the monument to Edith Cavell, and on its walls
are found the portraits of all the great of England since her inception.   It is one of the
• finest of all places to study Empire History pleasantly, and strangely enough, on a brass
plaque below one of the pictures, I read that "Vancouver is an island named after the
great English Admiral, and is situated off the North West Coast of the western United
Tonight, if you will permit me the time, I would like to bring back to your minds
two great artists, Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt, because they were superlatively
great, because they were two opposite psychological characters, because they were great
anatomists, and because throughout both their lives, irrespective of praise, misunderstanding, incomprehension, and sometimes derision, they kept the inner shrine of their
respective lives burning bright; for they knew that what they were achieving was great
and would live, for as gold in a furnace, their work would be proved and shine forth as
long as this earth of ours remains. gt. |
Page One Hundred and Fifty-two Leonardo da Vinci
That Leonardo, born nearly 500 years ago, the illegitimate son of a not too brilliant
notary and a sixteen-year-old peasant girl, quickly attained an extraordinary ability in
many branches of science and art furnishes food for thought for psychologists. It
demonstrates in part the teaching of Pavlov and Krasnogorski that a normal brain, given
the proper environment, plus the physical ability to endure, and the urge to conquer, can
reach most amazing heights. The Russians in the last quarter of a century have demonstrated how quickly the peasant brain can develop with favorable stimuli, and they,
from a purely peasant class, have already produced men of unusual ability in science,
war and music. For example, Shostakovich in music has revealed something of the new
interpretation of music in Russia.
One usually regards a genius as an individual with exceptional ability in one or perhaps two spheres, but Leonardo was a multiple genius with an even, understanding disposition, and was particularly free of bias, superstition, and resentfulness. No other
human being in all history has a record of so many works created and tasks accomplished
in a span of 67 years. His mother's influence was never encountered, for she, for a consideration, gave up her offspring and married a craftsman. The boy was brought up in
the mountains on his grandfather's estate by a foster mother, but entered his father's
house in Florence at thirteen years of age. His father married four times, and a large
brood of half-brothers and sisters, of no particular ability, soon evinced jealousy of the
illegitimate half-brother endowed with such unusual talent. Under his father's roof he
stayed for only a short period, and was soon apprenticed to Verrochio, a famous artist,
with whom he quickly showed extraordinary progress. He remained in Florence under
the patronage of Lorenzo the Magnificent for many years. Although he lived at court
in luxurious surroundings, he always conducted himself as a serious, painstaking scientist and artist.
Many evenings might profitably be spent in the perusal of his achievements, but one
can only pause for a short time to consider the magnitude of his diverse talents. By the
age of seventeen, he showed evidence of being a mature artist, and had developed his own
style which brought him the opportunity of quick fame and financial comfort. Being a
superior being, he remained a student, giving his time to the study of light and shade in
modeling, the analysis of atmospheric effects, the psychology of emotion as expressed by
gestures and facial expressions, the study of chemistry, geometry and other forms of
mathematics, the intricate study of anatomy, biology and engineering, and he also had
time to learn singing, and invent musical instruments upon which he played.
Throughout his entire life he kept intricate and voluminous records of his scientific
researches and speculations, and preserved thousands of sketches of individuals, machines,
bridges, etc. Many of these manuscripts were not made public, partly because \asi
theories and teachings were too advanced for the world at large, and the governing
bodies. While carefully preserved, much of this knowledge lay hidden for centuries, and
in that space of time, Bacon, Newton, and Watt had produced discoveries, many of
which had been thought out previously by Leonardo. Because of the precision and pictorial detail of all his work and its preservation in manuscript, it has been possible to
establish the authenticity of his works.
When 30 years of age, Leonardo left Florence for Milan—the immediate reason being
to demonstrate bis ability in playing a silver lute that he had constructed in the shape
of a horse's skull, before the Duke of Milan. With his letter of introduction, Leonardo
presented a personal letter describing how his talents might be utilized in his new abode.
Without the knowledge that he could fulfill these promises, the letter might have seemed
rather egotistical.   He summarized his accomplishments as follows:
"I have a method of constructing very light and portable bridges, to be used in pursuit of, or in retreat from, the enemy, with others of a stronger sort, proof against fire,
and easy to fix or remove."  The father of our Bailey Bridge!
"For the service of sieges, I am prepared to remove the water from the ditches, and
Page One Hundred and Fifty-three to make an infinite variety of scaling ladders and other engines proper to such a purpose."  He anticipated the equipment for invasion.
"I have also most convenient and portable bombs, proper for throwing showers of
small missiles, and with smoke thereof causing great terror to the enemy." Thus he
made use of mortars and smoke screens and used the smoke as a psychological weapon.
"By means of excavations made without noise, and forming tortuous and narrow
ways, I have means of reaching any given point, even though it be necessary to pass beneath rivers." Thus he was prepared to tunnel as do the modern engineers.
"I can also construct covered wagons, secure and indestructible, which, entering
among the enemy, will break the strongest bodies of men, and behind these the infantry
can follow in safety and without impediment." He therefore conceived the first tank,
and its use in attack and as a protection to infantry.
"I can make mortars and field-pieces of beautiful and useful shape, entirely different
from those in common use."  Here he suggests improvements in artillery.
"For naval conflicts, I have methods of making numerous instruments, offensive and
defensive, and I can also make powders or vapours for the offence of the enemy." Here
he suggests the smoke screen for sea battle and precision instruments.
"In time of peace, I believe that I could equal any other as regards works in architecture. I can prepare designs for buildings whether public or private, and also conduct
water from one place to the other."  He was both an architect and a municipal engineer.
"Furthermore, I can execute works in sculpture, marble and bronze, or terra-cotta.
In painting I can do what may be done, as well as any other, whosoever he may be."
These things he proved, but as might have been expected with such a diversity of talent
and'works to be done, he left fewer but better paintings than many of his contemporaries
(Michael Angelo was one of his more illustrious rivals).
"I can likewise undertake the execution of the bronze horse which is a monument
that will be to the perpetual glory of my lord, your father, of happy memory, and of
.the illustrious house of Sforza." This was one work he did not finish. He made an
immense plaster model which was erected in a square, but it was finally destroyed when
the French crossed the Alps, invaded Milan and captured the Duke. It is estimated it
would have taken too many tons of bronze to have cast the horse. When the French
arrived, Leonardo jotted down in his notes, "This day the Duke lost his State, his possessions, and his liberty, and none of his works is completed." One can hope for a similar
fate for Hitler and all Dictators.
The rise of Leonardo cannot be properly viewed without some knowledge of times
in which he lived. During his youth, Florence was the powerful centre of a Commonwealth governed by despots and dictators, the greatest of whom was Lorenzo the Magnificent, who overcame individual liberties in a cunning clever manner. Like all dictators, he deprived people of their liberties, increased taxation, but blunted their perceptions. His methods were achieved by gay festivals, feasts, tournaments, and laxity of
morals. He did, however, give encouragement to artists, and became the patron of
Leonardo and others, many of whom became debilitated and debauched. Under such
auspices, a puritanical prophet was sure to arise, and these particular times produced
Savonarola, who lashed the people's conscience for their levity, softness and immorality.
Leonardo showed his perception and greatness by accepting what would help him in
Science and Art, but remained always untouched by the debasing influences about him.
Such a life has inspired many books with which you are familiar, but it is never amiss
among professional people to emphasize that he was, like Osier, always a scholar, a
creative scientist, and a loyal friend and gentleman. His exceptional gifts and fame
never made him assume superiority, and he philosophically accepted criticism, abuse, and
unfair accusations with the same outward indifference he exhibited toward hero-worshipping.
He left for posterity 5000 pages of laboriously prepared records, elucidated by drawings and explained with clearness and precise terminology.    Are there by any chance any
Page One Hundred and Fifty-four non-record writing internes in this audience?   Of his manuscripts it can be said:
"These are better than all the ballads
That ever were sung or said
For they still are living records
When most of the rest He dead."
In another way Leonardo created a record. In all his manuscripts, there is only one
reference to a woman, a certain "Catarina," who worked in a Hospital and had a fantastic face. There is also no' authentic record of a love affair, although he admired "Mona
Lisa," the third wife of Francesco del Gioconda. She was, by repute, exceedingly beautiful and possessed, as we know, from her picture in the Louvre, an enigmatical smile.
Although young, she was married to an unkind impotent old man. Leonardo was not
insensitive to feminine charms, as we can gather from the source of his paintings, but
after careful study, he is understood to have possessed that faculty "so carefully recommended by Osier," of putting his affections in cold storage. The painting of Mona Lisa
was in progress shortly after the loss of her only daughter, and to lighten her grief, and
relieve her melancholy, and sustain her somewhat quizzical smile, Leonardo employed an
orchestra and a bubbling fountain as property effects. Perhaps Cecil De Mille et a! are
students of Leonardo's methods. Historians, not romanticists, are rather well agreed that
Leonardo was a virtuous artist and the Lady of his Interest was not unduly urged to
yield to any passionate appeals. This brings up the story of the old French General
married to a lovely, fascinating, and intriguing young lady. Lake many an old soldier,
he loved to re-fight his battles, but had the unfortunate habit of reciting a battle scene
to his wife each night as they were retiring. One evening, when the old Bonapartist was
called to an adjoining city, this lovely lady told to her companion of the evening this
unvaried custom of her husband. Lounging in the husband's chair in the beautiful lady's
boudoir, the suitor became the receptor of varying emotions, but being somewhat
unstable psychologically, he also became possessed with an urge to narrate in the manner
of the absent soldier husband. He told with great vividness of the Battle of Jena and
its effect of causing the German fortresses to yield within a few weeks to the French.
Many of these capitulated without a fight, as did Magdeburg, the strongest of them all.
The beautiful lady was for a moment consumed with scorn and exclaimed, "How disgraceful, yes, more than disgraceful. If I was a fortress and had 300 guns, I would
never yield myself." But, the narrator informs us, the Beautiful Lady was not a fortress
and had not 300 guns.
It must be remembered that concerning all his promises, Leonardo left proof that he
was a real Superman, not one of the comic strip variety. He left, and they still exist,'
sketches of scientific apparatus, interiors of gun foundries, cannon, hydraulic engines,
median sections of the skull, muscles, bones, fossils, leaves, trees, and cloud formations.
His work shows profound knowledge presented in detailed artistic execution that has
never been equalled. His engineering work is well established as he designed and superintended the building of defences, canals and other public utilities. In recent years
Italian engineers have constructed 200 work models of his various inventions.
It is almost out of place for a layman to discuss his work as a painter. One can,
however, draw attention to several of his masterpieces, e.g. "The Last Supper" and "Mona
Lisa," which illustrate well his power of flow in colour from light to dark. "Mona Lisa**
is the most talked of portrait in the world. It hangs, or it did hang, in the Louvre, and
has attracted world-wide attention. It is the beautifully executed picture of a woman
with a smile that implies almost anything that the individual viewer conceives. I am
told that a smile in a portrait is always an achievement, and Mona Lisa's smile is created
by variations in line of both the eyes and the mouth. It is a smile' that in variations
appears in other portraits of Leonardo, but it is also a smile that has baffled all other
artists. The picture has created an unsolved mystery. What was Mona Lisa thinking
about and what emotional impulses inspired the artist to produce this study of puzzling
composure? Leonardo valued this portrait highly, refused to part with it, and carried
it with him from place to place. *ifl
Page One Hundred and Fifty-five In contemplating the life of this remarkable man, perhaps the first sensation is a
wave of futility. How could such an example happen again in this crazy world? But
one must remember that this prodigy, the offspring of people of humble state, accomplished his works 500 years ago during chaotic and unfavorable times, and in surroundings where personal liberty had been much curtailed. Certainly this life furnishes us a
striking example of the heights that can be reached by the human brain. Perhaps his
life conveys a deeper meaning. May it not exemplify a challenge for greater faith in
ourselves. Leonardo was a man of science, profoundly religious, but broad enough to
invite criticism which came bis way because he opposed suprestition and magic. He was
a man who could understand the admonition—"Ye believe in God—believe also in Me"
—and truly his faith removed many mountains in his chosen field.
Rembrandt Van Rijn
If time permits I would like to say something of Rembrandt, a painter of quite different type but also a great idealist in his Art.
One cannot speak of Rembrandt, perhaps the greatest of all portrait painters, without a short consideration of the rise of Dutch Art which coincided with the great and
heroic struggle of the Dutch against the yoke of Spain, that country that once almost
won the world, but lost it through her arrogance, cruelty and bestiality. It has been
said that no power that achieved such commanding world prominence as Spain has ever
been less creative. The Dutch Peace Treaty with Spain was signed in 1648, and the
Dutch School of Art began with Frans Hals in the early years of the 17th century, and
as a national movement ended with Hobbema who was born in 1638. During this short
period of little more than two generations, the country was overrun with painters,
who all.produced pictures, among the greatest being Brower the tramp, Rembrandt,
Gerard Dpu, Ferdinand Bol, Ter Borch, Albert Culyp, Paul Palter, Jan Steen, Van Ruys-
dael, Peter de Hoogh, Metsu, Nicholas Maes, Vermeer of Delft, and Van Gogh, any one
of which today represents a small fortune to the lucky owner. At the time of their
.production, many of these paintings often fetched hardly more than the price of a few
good meals. Before the birth of the Dutch Republic, painting in Holland was a barren
art, influenced entirely by the Flemish school which was then a sort of Bastard Italian
product. After Dutch liberty was won, the revulsion of feeling against Spain was so
great that nothing relating to Spain or her contemporaries in Southern Europe found
favour in Holland, and so Dutch painting of this period contained few ecclesiastic studies,
but was chiefly confined to the simple people and their occupations and amusements, the
sea, and the picturesque countryside, much of which had been reclaimed from the sea
and converted into meadow lands, flower beds, and quaint orderly clean cities, through
courageous, intelligent hard work.
The Dutch have been described as "a practical, hard working lot, who value their
homes and keep them clean. They prefer a home that is within their means, properly
constructed and paid for, a bicycle to an automobile which is beyond their means, and
real gin to the synthetic alcoholic mixtures." Their pictures followed the same solid simple
requirements. Another interesting thing to note is that with their independence, they
developed their own national architecture, their own method of living and painting, and
that the foundation of most of their national life was built during nearly eighty years
of war. Their artists painted blithely to the roar of cannon and array of troops, a lesson
that much that is creative and lasting in art can be accomplished under adverse conditions by a courageous people.
Rembrandt was born in 1606, the son of a man of comfortable means, a miller and
landowner. He came of earnest, God-fearing stock, but his four brothers and sisters
showed no outstanding ability. Early in life his understanding mother discerned that he
possessed unusual but indubitable talents. She spoke and taught him frequently about
the truths and philosophy to be gained from the Bible. This knowledge of Biblical characters influenced him greatly in later life in the subject of his pictures. Nearly everyone
is familiar with "Christ Healing the Sick," "The Raising of Lazarus," "The Prodigal
* Page One Hundred and Fifty-six Son," "The Supper at Emmaus," "The Holy Family," which is in the Hermitage in
Leningrad. It is interesting to know that there are more Rembrandts in the Russian
Hermitage than in any other gallery. Sometimes we think our medical course too long,
often the artist's apprenticeship is longer. Rembrandt, against his father's wishes, left
the University of Leyden, and apprenticed himself to a local artist. In three years his
work was so exceptional that bis teacher, partly to avoid comparison with his own work,
sent him to Amsterdam to work under a famous painter named Lastman. He remained
only six months, but with his new teacher he learned a novel method of illuminating
pictures by the striking opposition of light and dark. Rembrandt so improved upon the
trap lighting that originated in Italy, that its startling effectiveness has become associated'
with his name. Seven more years of study were spent in Leyden and at 21 he was known
as an accomplished but eccentric painter.
Having won freedom after a long stupendous struggle, one would have thought that
Dutch paintings would depict the honours and glories of successful battle. Such was not
the case: they regarded war as a cruel, stupid, but at times necessary eviL They considered the Spaniards as brutes, the Belgians as undesirable. They regarded all warriors as
brave, but considered it almost unnecessary to reward one by painting him for doing
his duty to his country. They loved peace, and did not wish to be reminded through
pictures of the agonies and suffering of a long harassed race. They demanded in their
pictures, not the fighting, but the thing fought for, not the heroic, but the homely, not
the battlefield, but the quiet meadows, windmills and canals.
Into such times and such impulses came Rembrandt, now regarded as the last of
the great spiritual explorers in creative art. His life was one of great struggles, achievement, success, sorrow, disappointment and misunderstanding. In his fight he occasionally gave ground, and at times lost friends and consideration, and in his later years, weary
and bothered with some of the vicissitudes of Fate, he retired in sombre but solitary
splendour, renouncing fame and wealth to keep his artistic soul free from the demands
of the avaricious and mercenary. Rembrandt was a magician in light and shade. His
production of tone and disposition of shadows is unexcelled—he never considered painting only beautiful objects, and a hideous old man or woman who illustrated some phase
of human expression best was sought after and prized. In fact, he seems to have painted
much more often the troubled and unfortunate than the beautiful. Ruggedness, mystery, gloom,—sorrow and strength, and the implication of divinity in the painting of
Christ, are all done in a manner all his own, and so far have never been equalled. His
idea of his art is best put in bis own words: "Painting is not merely a question of technique. There has got to be temperament, character and personality. Without these,
there is no life in the world, and the world is dull enough as it is."
During his days of plenty, Rembrandt spent lavishly, went into debt and borrowed
from some rich friends. Later, when troubles came, these friends seized all his belongings, house, pictures, antiques, and everything he owned, and sold them at auction.
Some of his pictures brought a mere pittance. They dispossessed him so thoroughly that
all he had left of his studio was a steel needle he had borrowed for etching, from his
friend Dr. Van Loon, and a single copper plate he took away in bis pocket upon which
to start a new etching. The auction brought only about one-seventh the value of his
possessions and much less than enough to clear his debts.
This is not the occasion to go into the details of Rembrandt's life—his early success,
his marriage, the loss of his children, his money and his fame. The fact that interest
us most of all is that he knew he was right in his work. He knew he was not understood,
but even after all the blows of misfortune had struck him, he remained true to his artistic ideals, painted some of his finest pictures in his declining years of misfortune
and ill health, and maintained his method of expression to the end, happy in the belief
that posterity would understand. It is interesting to quote the views of a learned French
critic who knew more about criticism than he did of Art: "In bis efforts to attain a mellow manner, Rembrandt Van Rijn has merely succeeded in achieving an effect of rottenness.   The vulgar and prosaic aspects of a subject were the only ones he was capable of
Page One Hundred and Fifty-seven noting, and with his so-called red and yellow tones, he set the fatal example of shadows
so hot that they seem actually aglow, and of colors that appear to lie like liquid mud on
the canvas." How, unwittingly, he perfectly described the colors—"so hot they seem
actually to glow"—and how many artists since have despairingly failed to spread paint
like liquid mud in the manner of Rembrandt.
Rembrandt had much more than his share of bereavement, poverty, sorrow and
neglect, until the gods were through with him and death closed his failing eyes. He
was dishonoured in death as he was neglected in his latter years, for this man who had
left to the world his hundreds of priceless treasures was buried at the beggarly price of
thirteen florines (about five dollars and twenty cents). Fifty years later his grave was
opened to pay a forgotten tribute and it was found empty.
I have spoken of these two men of great genius because they provide much stimulation from their achievements which will live throughout all time, and because they
were so psychologically different in temperament, and yet in different ways remained
true to the highest conception of their art. Many, like myself, knowing nothing of the
art of painting, have been fascinated by the romance and bravery of their careers.
None of us should let the glories of the past obscure the possibilities of the future,
and Vancouver has much to be proud of in the cultural achievements that are taking
place here. We have a young University fast growing into maturity, and our Symphony
Orchestra is one of the finest on the West Coast. Our Junior Symphony is also doing a
great work and one might ask how many in this audience have shown their practical
appreciation of our orchestras by buying tickets for their performances. One should
also mention the summer concerts and plays in the Malkin Bowl in beautiful Stanley
Park, the Art Museum with its adult and children's classes, the various dramatic organizations and the musical and folk dance festivals. We are all proud of these things but
we have given far too little support to the comparatively small hard-working groups
that have made these cultiural advantages available to the public. With a little more
general effort we could quite easily make this great city a fine centre for Canadian
« Culture.
After taking you through all this, I fear that following a bright and cheerful dinner
you have been submitted to rather a hazy aftermath. I confess, after quoting from here
and there, I feel a bit like Kipling's Cockey in "When 'Omer Smote His Bloomin' Lyre":
"When 'Omer smote 'is bloomin' lyre,
He'd 'eard men sing by land an' sea;
An' what 'e thought 'e might require,
'E went an' took—the same as me!
The market-girls an' fishermen,
The shepherds an' the sailors, too,
They 'eard old songs turn up again,
But kep' it quiet—same as you!
They knew 'e stole; 'e knew they knowed,
They didn't tell, nor make a fuss,
But 'winked at 'Omer down the road,
An' 'e winked back—the same as us!"
Page One Hundred and Fifty-eight College of Physicians and Surgeons
President i '. i—Dr. F. M. Auld, Nelson
Vice-President—-- ; Dr. G. S. Purvis, New Westminster
Treasurer—— 1 Dr. H. H. Milburn, Vancouver
Members of Council——Dr. F. M. Bryant, Dr. Thomas McPherson, Victoria  (District No. 1);
Dr. G. S. Purvis, New Westminster (District No. 2); Dr. H. H. Mil-
burn, Colonel Wallace Wilson (District No. 3 ); Dr. E. J. Lyon, Prince
George   (District No. 4); Dr. F. M. Auld, Nelson   (District No.  5).
Registrar Dr. A. J. MacLachlan, Vancouver
Submitted by the Committee on Economics of the College of Physicians nod Surgeons
The Committee on Economics of The College of Physicians and Surgeons, at a recent
meeting decided to ask The Bulletin for space to publish material relative to discussions that take place from time to time in its meetings. The out-of-town members more
particularly felt that this would be of interest to the profession at large and would
stimulate more study on problems of Economics. We hope that will prove to be the
case. Dr. MacDermot very gladly acceded to our request and we here wish to thank him
and his Board for their generosity.
The increasing importance of Medical Economics was emphasized at the last meeting
of the Board of Directors of The British Columbia Medical Association, when it was
reported that the C.M.A. was contemplating the establishment of a well equipped Department of Medical Economics. This appears to be a timely move and we sincerely hope
that it will soon be done. It seems to be the part of wisdom to make ourselves well
informed about the problems confronting our profession in the matter of Economics in
order that we may help guide any changes that are.likely to occur and be fairly well
prepared when they do take place. We can all plead that we are too busy to think about
matters of this sort but that is not helping to direct the future of medicine or benefit
ourselves in the final analysis. We need some urge and the C.M.A., through a well
organized Department of Medical Economics, could be of real service to the medical
Health Insurance, one of the major issues before the public of Canada, and the
medical profession particularly, does not come within the province of our Committee.
The Committee on the Study of Economics of the B. C. Medical Association, under the
Chairmanship of Dr. G. F. Strong, has been watching developments in this particular,
and is doing it very well indeed. The Committee on Economics of the College has been
dealing with the more immediate problems that face medicine here in British Columbia—
Medical Contracts, Medical Service Plans, etc. Regular meetings are held which are very
well attended; a good percentage of out-of-town members are present at each meeting.
This year the scope of the Committee has been widened with the establishment of Sub-
Committees in various district organizations of the province. There are ten in all and
most of them are very active, studying local problems and contributing considerably to
the success of the whole scheme. A full day's conference on Medical Economics is
planned for the day previous to the Annual Meeting of the B. C. Medical Association
next September, which we are looking forward to rather expectantly. It should be very
interesting, to say the least. We have the utmost respect for the conclusions that medical men reach when they get down to serious sudy of any problem as a group. You hear
various arguments and opinions expressed, but in the end a wise decision is usually made.
Now to review briefly some of the work of our Committee:
1. Medical Service Flans: In the April issue of the C.M.A. Journal, "Medical Service
Plans in British Columbia," were reviewed, which we hope has been widely read.    "The
Page One Hundred and Fifty-nine Comparison of Sickness and Accident Contracts in British Columbia providing for Medical and Surgical Care," should be carefully studied. It is an excellent attempt at explain-
in gthe difference in the many contracts offered by various companies and associations
here in British Columbia and there are many of them—too many I'm afraid, and we
hope after the Royal Commission that is investigating this whole matter has submitted
its report that suitable regulation will be instituted to control them.
You will note that the Committee has gone on record as not approving any plan or
granting discounts to any organization in this field that does not come up to the
standards of the M.S.A.
Companies that sell indemnity contracts we class as Insurance, and they do not concern us particularly. They set down in their contracts what will be paid for any given
case and this does not represent the amount to be paid to the doctor. The transaction
actually is between patient and doctor and any amount received from the Company selling indemnity contracts is on account of medical bills or reimbursement to the client
for monies paid the doctor. The only organizations that have been approved by organized medicine in British Columbia, so far, are: B. C. Telephone Employees; M.S.A.; B. C.
Teachers, Vancouver Teachers; B. C. Electric Office Employees group; Cunningham-
Western Drugs, and East Kootenay Light & Power. These are the only associations that
have been granted a discount off medical bills.
2. Dependents' Allowance Cases: Largely through the suggestion of Ontario, an
average of the scale of fees of the nine provinces of Canada has been struck, and 15 per
cent discount off this is the proposal submitted to the Dependents' Board of Trustees.
The scale was submitted to your Committee and was carefully reviewed. It was felt
that as it is a vast improvement over what was being used by the Board in the past that
we would accept it with the reservation that no discount be taken off amounts under
$5.00. Some minor suggestions in obstetrical fees were also suggested. A copy of the
schedule is in the office of The College. I feel sure there will be less complaints than
there has been.   We surely have had just reason for complaint in the past.
3. Revision of the Scale of Fees of the College of Physicians and Surgeons: A subcommittee has been appointed to go into the whole matter. It will require a lot of
study and there may have to be considerable give and take with the various departments
of medicine before anything final can be done. The work of the sub-committee will not
be easy, but we hope by the time of the meeting in September some progress can be
4. Benevolent Fund: It is time that such a fund is started. Before the war considerable work in this regard was done by a Committee under the chairmanship of Dr. Ainley.
The war interrupted its progress unfortunately, and little has been done since. Last year
at the Annual Meeting of the College of Physicians and Surgeons in Victoria the establishment of a Rehabilitation and Benevolent Fund was decided on with assistance of
funds from the Council. Since, rehabilitation has been taken over by the Canadian
Medical Procurement and Assignment Board at Ottawa, and the various provincial
Advisory Committees. Plans for a Benevolent Fund have to be altered, and we hope
before our next annual meeting that another plan will be ready for the approval of The
College of Physicians and Surgeons.
5. Rehabilitation of men now in the Armed Forces is a problem of tremendous
magnitude, and will require the utmost co-operation on the part of all medical organizations .before very long. How many men can each district in the province absorb?
What about office accommodation? Many other questions have to be studied to help our
confreres when they have been discharged from the Army. We hope to have a good
discussion on this matter at our Economic Conference in September next.
There are other matters that could be mentioned here, but space does not permit
mentioning them at this time. From time to time in The Bulletin we hope to make
contributions when other problems will be discussed. In the meantime we have to
appoint an Editorial Committee and get properly organized for submitting articles on
Medical Economics. Piffl
Page One Hundred and Sixty NOTICE
We would call the attention of our readers (from Vancouver at any rate) to the
subjoined notice. Many of us have long been conscious of the need for such help in
having various legal papers notaried, affidavits taken, etc. We feel sure that this will
be a very helpful move. Mr. Fish is to be thanked for undertaking this work—and we
hope that medical men will make full use of this opportunity.
For members of the profession located in the Medical-Dental and nearby buildings,
the difficulty of obtaining the services of a J.P. to take affidavits is to be eased.
Mr. F. J. Fish, who is a J.P., has arranged to be in the office of the V. M. A. each
Wednesday afternoon from 2 to 5 p.m. and will, for the customary fees, complete any
documents requiring his services.
To make his services worth while, it is suggested that any such documents the doctors may have (unless their completion and return is too urgent) be kept aside for Mr.
Fish on Wednesdays.
Doctors located in nearby buildings can secure bis services if they will phone Mr.
Fish at the V. M. A. office—MA 4622—on Wednesday afternoons.
The Annual Spring Meeting of the Upper Island Medical Association was held at
Crayharven Inn, Parksville, on Monday, March 22nd.
The following members were present: Doctors P. L. Straith, H. A. L. Mooney, T. A.
Brigg sof Courtenay, G. K. McNaughton of Cumberland, E. N. East of Qualicum,
E. D. Emery, A. H. Meneely, C. C. Browne of Nanaimo, S. W. Baker, Ladysmith, G. B.
Helem, C. T. Hilton, W. L. Chisholm, R. W. Garner, A. P. Miller, W. C. Pitts of Port
Also present were: Dr. D. M. Meekison of Vancouver, guest speaker; Dr. H. H. Mil-
burn, President of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Chairman of the Committee on Economics of the College; and Dr. G. O. Matthews, President of the British
Columbia Medical Association.
A report of a meeting of the Sub-committee of the Committee on Economics of the
College held in Nanaimo was presented when problems referred to it by the central
committee were discussed. At this meeting the rumour that a Vancouver group was
considering establishing representatives in some of the towns on Vancouver Island was
discussed. This Sub-committee was unanimous in agreement that such type of medical
practice was inimical to the best interests of medicine and to be deplored, and drew up
a resolution to that effect.
Following the report of this sub-committee the meeting was thrown open for general
discussion on this matter, and the following resolution was passed. "That this Association go on record as deploring the sponsoring by any medical group or clinic of subsidiary
branches in other towns." Copy of this resolution was to be sent to the British Columbia Medical Association and to the Committee on Economics of the College of Physicians and Surgeons.
The speaker of the evening, Doctor D. M. Meekison, was introduced, and the members enjoyed a most interesting talk on the treatment of injuries in the regions of the
elbow, wrist, hand and ankle.
Following a vote of thanks by Doctor Hilton the meeting adjourned.
Page One Hundred and Sixty-one NEW-SAND    NOTES
We regret to record the passing of four members of the profession: Dr. R. F. Greer,
who died on February 18th; Lieut.-Colonel F. H. Stringer, R.C.A.M.C., who was Officer
Commanding, Prince George Military Hospital, on April 6th; Dr. Robert MacKenzie
of Grantham's Landing on April 17th, and Dr. D. J. MacDonald of Parksville, on April
18 th.
Sympathy is extended to Dr. R. H. McCutcheon in the loss of his son, Leading Writer
William A. McCutcheon, who was among those lost on the minesweeper Guysborough.
Dr. and Mrs. William McKeown of Courtenay are receiving congratulations on the
birth of a daughter.
Dr. C. H. Hankinson of Prince Rupert was married to Lieut. N/S Ida Edith Nelson
of Winnipeg on January 15 th.
Congratulations are extended to Captain W. H. (Bill) White, R.C.A.M.C., upon his
marriage in Italy to Lieut. N/S Mary Margaret MacDonald. Captain White, the son of
Dr. and Mrs. R. B. White of Penticton, is with the 8th Canadian Light Field Ambulance.
Dr. H. L. Chambers of Vancouver was married to Miss Evelyn A. Blackhall on
March 29th.
* We are pleased to report that Doctor Gordon Burke has recovered from a recent
illness, and is back in practice.
Colonel Murray Baird of Vancouver has been promoted to that rank, and is now the
Medical Consultant to the Canadian Army in the European Theatre of Operations.
Lieut.-Col. E. H. W. Elkington of Victoria is now Advisor in Ophthalmology to the
Canadian Army in the United Kingdom and in the European Theatre of Operations.
Major G. C. Johnston, who was in charge of a Field Surgical Unit in Italy, has
returned, and is now posted at the Vancouver Military Hospital.
Captain N. B. Hall, who has returned from overseas, has been posted to No. 1 Conditioning Centre in the Pacific Command.
Major T. K. MacLean, who has recently returned from several years overseas, is now
in charge of the medical side, Vernon Military Hospital.
5g» .     t? *<• 5?
Capt. M. M. MacPherson has returned from service in Italy, and is now employed on
the surgical side, Vancouver Military Hospital.
Major R. J. Wride has returned from service with No. 16 Canadian General Hospital,
and is at present recovering from an operation.
Capt. W. H. S. Stockton, who was returned to Canada from Italy as a result of a
fractured leg, is at present employed at No. 11 District Depot, Little Mountain.
Page One Hundred and Sixty-two Major H. R. L. Davis, who left for overseas very early in the war, has returned to
private practice in Vancouver.
Lieut.-Col. A. L. Cornish, who for many months was O.C. of the Lady Neslon and
later the Letitia, Canadian Hospital Ships, has recently returned to the Pacific Command
to be O.C. of No. 1 Conditioning Centre.
Captain W. S. Huekvale, M.C., is being discharged from the R.C.A.M.C. because of
wounds received overseas.   Doctor Huckvale will join the C. S. Williams Clinic in Trail.
Lieut.-Col. P. A. H. King, R.C.A.M.C., formerly president of the Medical Board,
Little Mountain, has recently returned to London, England, where he is again in private
pactice. He has been joined by his family from Canada, and is trying to salvage something from his twice bombed offices.
Major A. L. Buell is now in charge of the Annex of the Vancouver Military Hospital
at Point Grey.
* #        *        *
On April 2nd, 1945, the new Vancouver Military Hospital opened its doors for the
reception of patients. This Hospital will have 400 beds in the main Hospital adjacent
to Shaughnessy Hospital, and 200 beds at the Annex at the University. The Hospital
is under command of Lieut.-Col. F. E. Coy. The Officer in charge of the Surgical
Department is Lieut.-Colonel Rocke Robertson. Major C. B. Rich is in charge of Medicine, and Major Andrew Turnbull is Senior Radiologist for the Radiological work in both
Vancouver Military and Shaughnessy Hospitals.
Lieut.-Col. John U. Coleman, R.C.A.M.C., formerly of Duncan, has recently been
promoted from the rank of major, while serving with the Canadian Army in Italy.
Dr. D. M. Black has resumed practice in Kelowna after nearly two years' absence due
to illness.
* *        * *
Dr. Wilfrid Laishley of Nelson has recently returned from post-graduate work in
* *        *        *
Dr. W. L. Chisholm is now associated with Doctors Hilton and Helem at Port
»*. 4b *'.. «C
*C V ^ 'C
Dr. H. A. Jones and family have recently moved to Victoria from Tranquille.
Doctor Jones has been appointed Medical Director of the Victoria Unit of the Provincial
Department of Tuberculosis Control. Doctor Jones replaces Doctor Frederick Kincaid,
who has retired after serving as Director of the Victoria Unit since its inception.
Major J. E. Walker, R.C.A.M.C., called in at the Library when in Vancouver recently.   Major Walker, who has been on the hospital ship Letitia, is now stationed in London,
* # * *
We are pleased to hear that Dr. E. W. Boak of Victoria is much improved, and hope
that he will be back at work again soon.
Dr. W. M. Carr of Victoria has completely recovered from his recent illness and is
with the Radiological Department of St. Joseph's Hospital.
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas McPherson spent a few days at Comox on holiday recently.
Page One Hundred and Sixty-three Doctors R. A. Hunter and Glenn Simpson of Victoria were out of town for a few
days 'holiday during the Easter week.
We regret to hear that Dr. Arthur Proctor, formerly of Vancouver, has been
seriously wounded while serving in Italy.
Vancouver Branch
The Victorian Order of Nurses is organizing a class for young, inexperienced,
expectant mothers.
Many of these young people, whom the visiting nurse contacts, know little or nothing about handling, dressing or caring for a new baby. They would benefit from group
instruction and demonstration.
The purpose of the class will be:
1. To encourage early and regular medical supervision.
2. To assist the expectant mother to carry out her physician's instruction in respect
to good maternal hygiene.
3. To help with the preparation for the baby, and to demonstrate bathing, handling
and the general care of a newborn infant.
The Victorian Order hopes to have the support and co-operation of the medical
profession in order that the project may be successful in meeting this apparent need.
Phone BAyview 3565 for particulars as to time and place.
[We are glad to publish this at the request of our good friends the Victorian Order of Nurses.
Anything we do to support this will not only help the V.O.N, but will be of great help to ourselves.—Ed.]
Ntmtt &
2559 Cambie Street
Vancouver, B.C.
A complete blood and urine
laboratory service that is fast
and reliable.
blood containers supplied free
of charge on request.
!•••■!• «
Dept. 9
Page One Hundred and Sixty-four TABLETS
(Enteric    coated    tablets
of Gentian Violet "^faooot'')
Drawing of Enterobius
Vermiculoris approximately six times actual
Infestation with pinworm is common in children and
not unknown in adults. The high incidence of infestation revealed in recent surveys makes this condition a
major public health problem. Symptoms may be entirely absent. Diagnosis is best established by using
The National Institute of Health technique of stroking
the skin anal margin with a cellophane swab in the
morning before bathing and examining the swab for
ova of the parasite.
Fortunately, 90% of cases can be cured within a short
time with little inconvenience. Clinical records show
that the most effective treatment is the administration
of gentian violet, in the form of tablets, VERMILET
"eUoddf. These tablets are specially made to pass
undissolved through the stomach and to dissolve in
the lower part of the ileum.
NOTE:—Gentian violet is contra-indicated in heart disease, hepatic
and renal disease, gastroenteritis, pregnancy, and in the
presence of febrile or debilitating diseases.
CHILDREN:—Over 3 years of age,
3/20 gr. (9.6 mg.) for each apparent year of age, divided in three
parts and taken before meals. From
10 to 16 years of age, one tablet of
14 gr. (32 mg.) three times daily
before meals.
ADULTS:—Two tablets of }4 gr.
(32 mg.) three times daily before
Repeat dose daily for 8 days, rest
for one week, then repeat dose for
additional 8 days. No paUent should
be discharged as cored unless 3 or 4
swabs, examined at intervals of a
week apart, show absence of ova.
E.C.T. No. 409 "^wwf
3/20 gr. (9.6 mg.)
E.C.T. No. 410 "^JMlT
1/2 gr. (32 mg.)
A package of swabs and literature
describing technique for demonstrating the ova will be sent free
upon request.
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medicaments, its delicious sherry flavor tempts patients with
poor appetites; provides Vitamin Bi when needed.
Elixir Bewon Wyeth contains 500 International Units of
crystalline vitamin Bi (thiamin chloride) per fluidounce.
Pharmacists dispense any quantity as prescribed.
JL/esynon is synthetic vitamin D (the equivalent of vitamin D of animal origin) in pure
crystalline form. Desynon with vitamin A is a preparation which disperses uniformly in
milk. It is not oily and imparts no odor or taste to milk.
High Antirachitic Potency
Desynon with vitamin A contains 30,000
international vitamin A units and 3000 international vitamin D units per Gram .. . .
The special dropper supplied with each
package delivers 500 vitamin A units and
50 vitamin D units per drop.
For prevention and cure of rickets, 10 drops
daily incorporated in milk. In pregnancy
and lactation and for conditions of disordered calcium and phosphorus metabolism,
from 40 to 60 drops.
Supplied in vials of 7.5 cc.
Brand of pure synthetic Vitamin D.i (Activated 7-Dehydrocbolesterol)
Pharmaceuticals wit merit for the physician WINDSOR, ONT.
Quebec Professional Service Office; Dominion Square Bidg., Montreal Que.
1 '
A study of the literature shows that NUPERCAINE has been
used in these types of local anaesthesia—surface, infiltration,
regional, sacral, parasacral, paravertebral and spinal. We
have, then, in NUPERCAINE, a local anaesthetic of sustained
action with a wide field of usefulness. It has effect in relatively high dilutions. The effect of NUPERCAINE is considerably more intense than that of the usual local anaesthetics,
novocain, etc, but it can be used safely if the directions suggested are followed.
Whenever a product is found which is so universally used,
little need be said further about its merits. NUPERCAINE
(a-butyloxycinchoninic acid diethylethylenediamide hydrochloride) has stood the best test a product can experience
.  .  . time.
Trade Mark Reg'd.
ITAMIN D has been so successful in preventing, rickets during infancy that there has been little emphasis on continuing its use after
the second year.
But now a careful histologic study has been made which reveals
a startlingly high incidence of rickets in children 2 to 14 years old.
Follis, Jackson, Eliot, and Park* report that postmortem examination of 230 children of this age group showed the total prevalence
of rickets to be 46.5 %.
Rachitic changes were present as late as the fourteenth year, and
the incidence was higher among children dying from acute disease
than in those dying of chronic disease.
The authors conclude, "We doubt if slight degrees of rickets,
such as we found in many of our children, interfere with health
and development, but our studies as a whole afford reason to prolong administration of vitamin D to the age limit of our study, the
fourteenth year, and especially indicate the necessity to suspect and
to take the necessary measures to guard against rickets in sick
*R. H. Follis, D. Jackson, M. M. Eliot, and E. A. Park: Prevalence of rickets in children
between two and fourteen years of age, Am. J. Dis. Child. 66:1-11, July 1943.
MEAD'S Oleum Percomorphum With Other Fish-Liver Oils and Viosterol
is a potent source of vitamins A and D, which is well taken by older children because it can be given in small dosage or capsule form. This ease of
administration favors continued year-round use, including periods of illness.
MEAD'S Oleum Percomorphum furnishes 60,000 vitamin A units and
8,500 vitamin D units per gram. Supplied in 10- and 50-ce. bottles and
bottles of 50 and 250 capsules.   Ethically marketed.
MEAD JOHNSON & CO. OF CANADA, LTD., Belleville, Ont. PITUITARY EXTRACT (posterior lobe)
A sterile aqueous extract is prepared from the posterior lobe
of the pituitary gland, and is supplied as a solution containing
ten (10) International Units per cc.
Each   lot is biologically assayed   in
terms of the International standard.
The extract is prepared as a clear, colourless,
sterile liquid with a low content of total solids.
Samples of  each   lot  are  tested  at definite
intervals to ensure that all extract distributed
is fully potent.
the Connaught Laboratories in packages of five 1-cc.
rubber-stoppered vials.
University of Toronto
Tornto 5, Canada
All patients, however severe or mild their symptoms, can be
treated effectively with these orally-active natural oestrogens.
fPremarin" (No. 866) for the most severe symptoms; the new Half-Strength^
"Premarin" (No. 867) when symptoms are moderately severe;
'Emmenin" for mild symptoms.
conjugated oestrogens (equine)
Tablets No. 866; Tablets No. 867
//       w
conjugated oestrogens  {placental)
Tablets No. 701; Liquid No. 927
(No. S67)    JW^
^^0k new potency for those patients whose symptoms, though severe,
do not require the intensive therapy provided by "Premarin" full strength.
Bottles of 20 and 100 tablets
Biological and Pharmaceutical Chemists
S':-' ■''■'*'       305 ******
Chewing one tablet of White's
Sulfathiazole Gum for V2 to 1
hour promptly provides a HIGH
therapeutically active sulfathi-
azole, averaging 70 mg. percent
throughout the chewing period.
Even with maximal dosage, resulting blood levels only occasionally reach 0.5-1 mg. per
cent—so low that systemic toxic
reactions are virtually obviated.
provides an efficient and practical method of effecting
immediate and prolonged topical chemotherapy in oropharyngeal areas not similarly reached with gargles, sprays or
INDICATIONS: Local treatment of sulfonamide-susceptible
infections of oropharyngeal areas: acute tonsillitis and
pharyngitis; septic sore throat; infectious gingivitis and
stomatitis, including Vincent's disease. Also indicated in
the prevention of local infection secondary to oral and
pharyngeal surgery.
IMPORTANT: Please note that your patient requires your
prescription to obtain this product from the pharmacist.
ODVJtf <*
jgft Ui
»t &%&
..m«*/# sovi Handy Andy
"Ml *e to* 111 ever «•+J«
„., ,. »P.I' »"«" S   |   . fe gggij and Adj.*-.-*    •
•    r,  E 's Periodic msp been
* I li tested isdBfifi 1
S€rV,Ce      d asl distinct depose from   H-    • £ WK^
recogn.red os a ,ce ;s on established Unite* M
i   Todoy P. I Jl&fiSfc offices  ^rougHou    «> g^
1   A cHnics, -d;h^ar after  yeor *«Y contra ^
„r>d Canado.    'ea« proved tno«
» . full details
in x-ray °r e»*v" ^m.it.■ •»'*   """-°"^^^
TORONTO: 30 Bloor St., W. - VANCOUVER: MotorTrans. Bldg.r 57aDunsmuir St
MONTREAL: 600 Medical Arts Building • WINNIPEG: Medical Arts Building
Conflicts in the mind of the teen-aged child are numerous and complex.
Great understanding by parents is very necessary . . . Often, you will have
to advise them, as well as prescribe for the patient.
In many instances the doctor has found a simple, direct answer by "considering the blood" . . . With the diagnosis of hypochromic anemia, and
its treatment, an important step has been taken in building up the physical
side of the teen-ager, followed generally by favorable mental adjustments.
For the hypochromic anemia of the teen-ager consider
WALKERVILLE, ONTARIO flfoount pleasant TttnbertakfnQ Co. %tb.
KINGSWAY at 11th AVE. Telephone FAirmont 0058 VANCOUVER, B. C.
*   Breaks the vicious circle of perverted
menstrual function in cases of amenorrhea,
tardy periods (non-physiological) and dysmenorrhea. Affords remarkable symptomatic
relief by stimulating the innervation of the
uterus and  stabilizing the tone of its
musculature. Controls the utero-ovarian
circulation and thereby encourages a
normal menstrual cycle.
Full formula and descriptive
literature on request
Dosage: 1 to 2 capsules
3 or 4 times daily. Supplied
in packages of 20.
Ethical protective mark MHS
embossed on inside of each
capsule, visible only when capsule  is cut in  half  at seam.
effective treatment suggests ike use of
agents to correct mineral deficiency,
increase cellular activity, and secure
adequate elimination  ef toxic waste.
orally given, supplies calcium, sulphur,
iodine, and Iysidln bitartrate — an
effective solvent. Amelioration of
symptoms and general functional improvement   may  be  expected.
Write for Information.
Canadian Distributors
350  Le  Moyne   Street,  Montreal
Colonic and
Physiotherapy Centre
Up-to-date Scientific Treatments
Medical and Swedish Massage
Physical Culture Exercises
Post Graduate Mayo Bros.
1119 Vancouver Block
MArine 3723      Vancouver, B.C.
Bulk Forming Food
To Aid     I
Natural Action
Unlike many medicinal laxatives,
Kellogg's All-Bran does not work on
the colon itself, but acts by helping
to prepare wastes for easy, natural
elimination. For this reason, many
physicians suggest All-Bran in cases
of constipation due to lack of bulk
in the diet. Since the protective nutritional qualities of All-Bran are considerably higher than whole wheat,
it is also frequently recommended as
a nutritious cereal.
details of experiments. Simply fill in coupon and mail
to: Kellogg Company or Canada, Lis., London, Ont.
-Province-. MILK -
Canada'*, Vital
Milk is accepted as the most valuable protective
food because it surpasses all others in supplying
vitamins, minerals, and high quality proteins that
build and maintain sound physical fitness. No
wonder our fighting forces are among the best fed
in the world—their milk consumption is exceptionally high—and no wonder Canada's home front,
too, is by far the best fed!
A quart of milk (4 glasses) gives the following
percentages of your DAILY FOOR NEEDS.
Iron 16%
Vitamin C*% 16%
Energy  22%
Vitamin B 28%
* Values Variable.
Vitamin A „___37%
Protein \ -49%
Vitamin G 79%
Phosphorus    69%
to the medical profession has been uppermost
in our operations for over 37 years—and will
continue to govern every prescription entrusted
to us.
MArine 4161
13 th Ave. and Heather St.
Exclusive Ambulance Service
FAirmont 0080
^**b &*ttff
<V)             ©a. Hxtmtti            *tf+ 1
New Westminster, B. C.
For the treatment of
Reference—B. C. Medical Association
For information apply to
Medical Superintendent, New Westminster, B. C.
New Westminster 288
721 Medical-Dental Building, Vancouver, B. C.
PAcific 7823
PAcific 8036


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