History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

The Vancouver Medical Association Bulletin: July, 1946 Vancouver Medical Association Jul 31, 1946

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Published Monthly under the Auspices of the Vancouver Medical Association
in the interests of the Medical Profession.
Offices: 203 Medical-Dental Building, Georgia Street, Vancouver, B.C.
Dr. J. H. MacDermot
Dr. G. A. Davidson Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland
All communications to be addressed to the Editor at the above address.
JULY, 1946
No. 10
OFFICERS, 1946 - 1947
Dr. H. A. Des Brisay
Dr. G. A. Davidson
Dr. Frank Turnbull
Past President
Dr. Gordon Burke
Hon. Treasurer
Dr. Gordon C. Johnston
Hon. Secretary
Additional Members of Ewecutive: Dr. W. J. Dorrance, Dr. J. W. Shier
Dr. A. W. Hunter        Dr. G. H. Clement      Dr. A. M. Agnew
Auditors: Messrs Plommer, Whiting & Co.
Clinical Section
Dr. E. R. Hall Chairman Dr. Reg. Wilson Secretary
Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat
Dr. Roy Mustard Chairman Dr. Gordon Large Secretary
Paediatric Section
Dr. R. P. Kinsman Chairman Dr. H. S. Stockton Secretary
Orthopaedic and Traumatic Surgery Section
Dr. K. J. Haig t Chairman Dr. J. R. Naden Secretary
Section of Neurology and Psychiatry
Dr. A. M. Gee Chairman Dr. J. C. Thomas. Secretary
Dr. W. J. Dorrance, Chairman; Dr. D. E. H. Cleveland, Dr. J. E. Walker,
Dr. R. P. Kinsman, Dr. J. R. Neilson, Dr. S. E. C. Turvey.
Dr. J. H.  MacDermot, Chairman;  Dr.  D.  E.  H.  Cleveland,  Dr.  G.  A.
Davidson, Dr. J. H. B. Grant, Dr. E. R. Hall, Dr. Roy Mustard.
Summer School:
Dr. L. G, Wood, Chairman; Dr. J. C. Thomas, Dr. A. M. Agnew,
Dr. L. H. Leeson, Dr. A. B. Manson, Dr. D. A. Steele.
Dr. H. H. Pitts, Dr. A. E. Trites, Dr. Frank Turnbull.
V. O. N. Advisory Board:
Dr. Isabel Day, Dr. J. H. B. Grant, Dr. G. F. Strong.
Representative to B. C. Medical Association: Dr. Frank Turnbull.
Sickness and Benevolent Fund: The President—The Trustees. COMFORT
that protects against
Bottles of
100 and 1000
where Salicylate therapy is indicated in
(Ik&u+natic rf-eu&i
Menacyl, unlike ordinary salicylates, does not depress plasma levels
of prothrombin and ascorbic acid at critical doses. Each Menacyl
Tablet provides 0.33 Gm. of acetylsalicylic acid, 0,33 mg. of menadione and 33.3 mg. of ascorbic acid. Thus Menacyl provides adequate protection of prothrombin and ascorbic acid functions. Menacyl
may be administered in massive doses without disturbing these important factors in physiologic balance.
For Literature write
Marsh, Wilde & Co., Distributors.
628 Vancouver Block, Vancouver, B.C. SODIUM PENICILLIN - CONNAUGHT
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SODIUM PENICILLIN is supplied by the Connaught
Medical Research Laboratories in sealed rubber-stoppered
vials as a dry powder which remains stable for at least a
year if stored at a temperature below 10° C. (50° F.).
SODIUM PENICILLIN is available from the Laboratories
in vials containing 100,000, 200,000, 300,000 and 500,000
International Units.
PHYSIOLOGICAL SALINE, sterile and pyrogen-free, is
supplied in 20-cc. rubber-stoppered vials, permitting of the
convenient preparation of various dilutions of penicillin.
As supplied by the
Connaught Medical Research Laboratories,
Sodium Penicillin is of high quality and
is free from irritating substances.
University of Toronto Toronto 4, Canada
Behind the develop!
of KARASAL lies]
modern approach tc
problem of constipa;
intestinal stasis, spl
colitis, indigestion, j
oss of appetite of b
chemical and mecha
stimulation to the b<
reaching     its     maxii
bulk in the alkalinit
the intestines.    Thusl
normal   function   of j
stomach is in no waw
Literature and Samp
on Request^
Bmaiimoab flUfarmamtftrata
Biological and Pharmaceutical Chemists
Total  Population—Estimated 383,850
Chinese   Population—Estimated ' .       6.566
Hindu Population—Estimated  361
Rate per 1,000
Number Population
Total   deaths 337 12.3
Chinese  deaths : r 24 43.0
Deaths,   residents   only     280 10.2
641 65.5
Male  1 J    406
Female  I     382
788 28.7
INFANT MORTALITY:                                                             May, 1946 May, 1945
Deaths  under   1   year  of  a'ge       31 11
Death rate—per  1,000  live births       39.3 23.0
Stillbirths   (not  included   above)       15 10
April,  1946 May, 1946      June  1-15,  1946
Cases    Deaths          Cases    Deaths Cases    Deaths
Scarlet   Fever        12            0                 21             0 9            0
Diphtheria   2       10                  2            0 10
Diphtheria  Carrier       0            0                   0            0 0            0
Chicken  Pox . 136            0               233             0 68            0
Measles        2            0                   9            0 2             0
Rubela         5            0                   6            0 0             0
JMumps   j 245             0               351             0 192             0
Whooping   Cough       0             0                    0             0 10
Typhoid Fever — !       0            0                   10 2             1
Typhoid Fever Carrier       0            0                   0            0 0            0
Undulant Fever .       0             0                   0            0 0            0
Poliomyelitis       0            0                   0            0 10
Tuberculosis    _ 1       0             0                 93           22 0             0
Erysipelas j       10                   10 2            0
Meningoccus Meningitis         3             0                   3             0 0            0
Infectious Jaundice 0            0                   0            0 10
Salmonellosis j     13             0                    2             0 5             2
Salmonellosis    (Carrier)          0             0                 22             0 10
Dysentery i       0            0                   0            0 0            0
Syphilis       0             0               176             0 0             0
Gonorrhoea       0            0               301             0 0            0
Cancer  (Reportable)
Resident .       0            0                 62            0 0            0
Non-resident        0            0                 41             0 0            0
B I O G L A N "C"
Prepared separately for male and female.
Composition: Anti-thyroid principles of the pancreas, duodenum, em-
bryonin, suprarenal cortex, tests (or ovary). Each 1 cc. ampoule
contains the equivalent of approximately 29 grams of fresh substance.
Indications: Graves's disease, hyperthyroidism, exophthalmic goitre,
thyrotoxicosis.   The most effective therapy available.
Stanley N. Bayne, Representative
Phone MA. 4027 1432 MEDICAL-DENTAL BUILDING Vancouver, B. C.
Descriptive Literature on Request
Page 228 The pregnant woman truly has a "whim
of iron." And when she gets a longing
for pickles (usually at 3 a.m;) even the
strongest-rxiinded find it simpler to just
go and get them for her.
The addition to her diet of Squibb
Viophate "D" helps to counteract the
effect of these whims of the mother arj
makes more certain the development j
a healthy babyj 2 capsules of Squit
Viophate "D" 3 times daily converj
ently afford a total of 7.8 grains I
supplementary calcium (about half tl]
daily requirement) with sufficient vitj
min D to assure its utilization.
E. R. SQUIBB & SONS OF CANADA, LTD.        •        36-48 CALEDONIA ROAD, TORONT 7<&e ZcbUvA Paaa
The recent resignation of Mr. E. S. H. Winn as Chairman of the Workmen's Compensation Board of British Columbia marks the end of a thirty-year tenure of this
office. This length of time is in itself a record, and would call for commendation and
congratulation—but there is much more to be said than this. During his thirty years
of duty, Mr. Winn has rendered outstanding service to the people of this Province,
and we believe that, to a degree seldom attained by any man in public office, he has
commanded the respect and confidence of all those various sections of society with
which he has had to deal. His has been a very difficult position—he has had to consider
and adjudge the varying, often widely divergent claims of groups, whose relations to
each other were often antagonistic, always mutually watchful and guarded. With
amazing patience and tolerance, he has handled his many problems, and the record
of the W.C.B. in this Province foir thirty years, is an irrefutable proof of his wisdom
and ability.
Thirty and more years ago, as those of us who were then in practice will remember,
the condition of things in this Province (and in all the others as well) with regard to
the workmen injured in the course of his work, was nothing less than disgraceful. The
so-called Workmen's Compensation Act of the time afforded protection, not to the
victim of the accident, but to he employer, who insured himself through insurance
companies, whose one object would seem to be to avoid payment. The unhappy workman, injured and unable to work, with no money to pay for good legal advice, too often
had to accept a mere pittance in settlement—or, if he managed to secure legal help,
had to sue the insurance company for the damages due to him. Naturally, the lawyer
had a right to be paid—and the only way he could be paid was out of the settlement
finally reached. Too often appeals and prolonged litigation ate up most of this settle-
men-—and we can recall one case in particular, where after some three years of litigation,
the plaintiff got a verdict of $5000.    Of this, his actual share was less than $1000.
From our standpoint, the treatment of industrial accidents was all too often a
total loss from a financial point of view, and most of us shunned these cases as the devil
shuns holy water. To treat these cases was to undertake, very often, a long and difficult
task with no return for our work with the necessity of appearing in court, and frequently with the risk of damage suits against ourselves, if treatment was not entirely
successful.    Alogether, it was a very bad mess.
It is a matter of some pride to us in British Columbia that the present Workmen's
Compensation Act was introduced in this province, first of all Canadian provinces—
and the others have modelled their Acts, to a great extent, upon ours. As the years
have passed, it has been improved and extended—safety measures, first-aid training,
safeguards of every kind have been introduced. As a result, the whole picture is entirely
different, and through the work of the very able Board appointed to put the Act into
operation, everything has been changed, very greatly for the better. Now the workman
is protected, the employer is protected, and we in the medical profession receive remuneration for our work which, on the whole, is fair and adequate—and the scale of
fees for which was set after consultation between the Board and our chosen representatives.
Mr. Winn would be the first to insist that the credit for all this must be shared
by the other members of the Board—but actually, the smooth and uninterrupted progress of this major industrial project, is very largely due to his particularly able leadership. He had unique gifts for this position as head of the Board. He is a competently
trained lawyer, and has a judicial type of mind—and a genuine and sincere desire to
Page 221 see the workman get a fair deal. Those who know him best know how, in the years
that have passed, he has given of his own time and resources to help, by advice and
counsel, and in other ways, those who have been crippled and made helpless byindustrial
accidents—how he has made these cases his personal care and responsibility—and many
a man who has come to know him as a friend and counsellor, quite apart from official
relations, will mourn his leaving.
And as far as the medical profession is concerned, we believe we are safe in saying
that every medical man in the province will view his departure with the keenest regret.
Mr. Winn has been a real friend of ours. We can remember very vividly our first
meeting with him and his Board, when the question of the scale of fees came up. It, was
mainly due to his sincere desire to be fair, and to give claims due consideration, that we
arrived quickly at a settlement which we regarded as satisfactory at the time. Later
we met him again, and secured even better terms. During those first few years, we had
reason to confer with him on many occasions, and his unfailing courtesy and friendliness
made these meetings a pleasure. He trusted the medical profession, and invariably
gave our representations the fullest consideration. We have much for which to be grateful to him.
But all good things come to an inevitable end—and we say goodbye with sincere
regret to this man who has served his community so long and well. May he have many
long and happy years in which to enjoy the rest he has so well earned.
During the last few years the number of requests for delayed registration of birth
has greatly increased. Birth certificates are required for many reasons: Family Allowances, travel permits, pensions, and insurance, to name but a few. The doctor's record
of birth is the best evidence to obtain in order to substantiate an application for delayed
registration.   If this is not available, it is often very difficult to obtain suitable evidence.
Prior to 1920 registration was inadequate. Consequently there are numerous requests for delayed reigstration of birth before that year. Many of the physicians who
attended births before that date are retiring or leaving practice and their records in some
cases are not obtainable. In a number of instances doctors' records have been destroyed
and the results for the individual have been disastrous. Standards for delayed registration have been set in recent years, with the result that it is often a difficult and lengthy
process to obtain delayed registration of the physician's record is not available.
Every possible precaution should be taken to preserve all birth records, partciularly
those which date back a number of years. In order to assist in the preservation of these
records the Division of Vital Statistics is making available microfilming service. The
confidential nature of such records will be fully respected. For further information
address communications to:
Director of Vital Statistics,
Provincial Board of Health,
Victoria, B. C.
fage Two Hundred and Twenty-two Vancouver  Medical   Association
President j Dr. H. A. DesBrisay
Vice-President   Dr. G. A. Davidson
Honorary Treasurer Dr. Gordon Burke
Honorary Secretary . Dr. Gordon C. Johnston
Editor  Dr. J. H. MacDermot
September 9th to 13 th, 1946, incl.
DR. ELMER BELT, Urologist, Los Angeles, Calif.
Surgical and electrosurgical treatment of prostatic obstruction.
Obstructive uropathy in childhood.
Urinary obstruction from infancy to great age viewed in respect to seven age groups.
The use of antiobotics in the control of urinary infections and infestations.
DR. SIMEON T. CANTRIL, Director of the Tumor Institute of the Swedish
Hospital, Seattle, Wn.
The use of artificially radioactive substances in biology and medicine.
Cancer clinic.
DR. RUSSELL L. CECIL, Professor of Clinical Medicine, Cornell University
Medical College, New York, N.Y.
Acute upper respiratory infections and virus pneumonia.
Rheumatic fever.
Rheumatoid arthritis.
DR. J. R. LINDSAY, Professor of Surgery  (Otolaryngology), University of
Chicago, Chicago, 111.
Meniere's Syndrome.  Differential diagnosis and treatment.
The use of chemotherapy in the treatment of ear and sinus infections.
Dysphagia.   Observations on some of the less common causes for difficulty in swallowing. ||v
Normal function and pathologic conditions of the Eustachian tube.    Their importance in the prevention of deafness.
DR. ROY D. McCLURE, Surgeon-in-Chief, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Mich.
Diagnosis and treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers and cancer of the stomach.
Chemotherapy in surgery.
Treatment of burns.
R. N. W. PHILPOTT, Acting Chairman, Department of Obstetrics and
Gynaecology, McGill University, Montreal, Que.
Modern trends in the care of the maternity patient.
Breech delivery—methods of delivery.
Abnormal uterine bleeding—use and abuse of endocrines.
Pelvic peritonitis—diagnosis and treatment.
FEE $7.50 Hotel Vancouver, Vancouver, B. C.
INFORMATION: Dr. D. A. Steele, 203 Medical-Dental Building, Vancouver, B. C.
Page  Two  Hundred  and  Twenty-three NOTICE—Re DEFENCE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION
A meeting of active and retired medical officers of the three services will be held
on Wednesday, September 11th, 1946, at 11:30 a.m., following the morning lectures
of the Summer School, in the Ball Room of the Vancouver Hotel, for the purpose of
organizing a local branch of the Defence Medical Association.
Admission tickets for the Annual Summer School, September 9 th to 13 th, inclusive,
may be obtained in advance at the Information Desk of the Vancouver General Hospital, St. Paul's Hospital and Shaughnessy Hospital, as well as in the Library.
All who can are urged to purchase their tickets early.
HOURS:   (Summer Months)
Monday through Friday, 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.
Saturday, 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.
New and Non-Official Remedies, 1946, American Medical Association.
Pre-operative and Post-operative Treatment, 1946, by Mason and Zintel.
A History of Medicine, 1945, by Douglas Guthrie.
The Effect of Bombing on Health and Medical Care in Germany,  1944, United
States Strategic Bombing Survey.
Supplements of the Acta Medica Scandinavica, published this year:
Experimental investigations of the excretory and reabsorptive functions of the
renal tubules in normal and nephrotic rabbits, by Helge Laake.
Uber Flexner-Bazillen und Flexner-dysenterie, U. P. Kokko.
Creatine metabolism and endocrine regulation, by Erling Wang.
Basal  metabolism  of  girls  and  the  use  of  metabolic  standards,   by Henning:
Studies on the regulation of the serum electrolytes, with a survey of the water
and salt metabolism in the organism, by Ole Jacob Broch.
Supplement, by various authors, dedicated to Gustavo Bergmark.
The specific treatment of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism with anticoagu-.
lants, with particular reference to the post-thrombotic sequelae. The results
of five years' treatment of thrombosis and pulmonary embolism at a series of
Swedish hospitals during the years 1940-1945, by H. Zilliacus.
Arterial hypertension. A follow-up study of one thousand hypertonics, by Paul
Clinical and prognostic aspects of acute glomerular nephritis, by John Rudebeck.
Erythema nodosum. Studies on etiology and pathogenesis in 185 adult cases,
by Sven Lofgren.
Page Two Hundred and Twenty-four ie committee on Medical Economics
of British Columbia
Committee on Economics of the Council of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of
British Columbia and the British Columbia Medical Association
Canadian Medical Association (British Columbia Division)
A Joint Committee composed of representatives from the College of Physicians and
Surgeons of B. C, the British Columbia Medical Association, and the Vancouver Medical
Association, has been engaged for the past six months in studying the necessity for, and
feasibility of, a proposed new "Academy of Medicine" building, the purpose of the new
building being to house the executive offices of the Associations concerned, and the
Library of the Vancouver Medical Association, to provide an auditorium, meeting rooms,
faculties for out-of-town members, and in general to provide a suitable headquarters for
the medical activities of the Province.
The proposed new building has received unanimous approval at the Annual meetings
of the College and the British Columbia Medical Association, and at a special general
meeting of the Vancouver Medical Association.
The Joint Committee has recommended to the parent associations that they set up a
company with a Board of Directors composed of four members nominated by each of
the three concerned Associations. This company will then undertake the necessary
steps to acquire property, and to construct and operate a suitable building for the
purposes of the three Associations.
It is considered that such a building will be a credit to, and of inestimable value for,
the medical profession in British Columbia, and any efforts being made to bring it into
being deserve the wholehearted support of all of us.
The Sub-Committee on Revision of Fees has now received comments and suggestions
on the proposed new schedule from the various District Associations throughout the
Province. The Sub-Committee is now engaged in correlating the suggestions received
into a final revised schedule. It is hoped that the work will be completed in the near
Dr. J. H. MacDermot,
Canadian Medical Association,
Vancouver, B. C.
Dear Dr. MacDermot:
I am sending you a summary of the round table discussion on Mental Hygiene and
Public Health that took place at the Section meeting in Psychiatry at the C.M.A. meeting on June 14th.
Chairman's Opening Remarks
Mental Hygiene as a recognized movement began in 1908. Objectives then were
to overcome the prejudices that acted against the study of problems of mental disease
Page  Two  Hundred  and  Twenty-five and to improve mental hospital treatment and to provide for early recognition and
treatment ofLcases.
A little later the realization that certain signs of poor personality adjustment in
childhood were common in adult mental illnesses led to the hope that mental illnesses
could be prevented by correction of personality faults in early years. However, it has
become apparent that the treatment necessary for the successful removal of established
faults in personality, even in childhood, requires a good deal of time and technical ability.
The extent of the problem is so great and the treatment of recognizable abnormalities
that might be considered as precursors of psychoses and psychoneuroses is so involved
and time consuming that it seems fair to say that effective mental hygiene must become
positive and preventive and cannot depend on correction of early abnormalities, important though that obviously is.
The extent of the problems presented by mental ill health is hard to estimate. In
New York State it has been estimated that of every 1,000 people born, 85 will spend
some time in a mental hospital. A survey in one district in Baltimore in 1936 showed
that 60.5 per 1,000 of the population suffered from some form of severe psychiatric or
behaviour disorder.
A report on British Health Services published in 1927 states that from 25 to 40 per
cent of long illness absences from work mostly certified as being due to organic troubles
such as gastritis and rheumatism are really primarily psychoneurotic.
Military experience emphasized the importance of psychiatric conditions sharply.
I have not seen any final compilation of results but in one year—before it had gone
into action, psychiatric conditions accounted for about one-third of conditions medically
down graded. About 10% of living battle casualties were psychiatric in spite of good
The problem is very great, to cope with it preventive medicine must discover effective positive methods. People must be taught to cultivate good health. There has been
too much emphasis on the evils to be avoided, making life a very hazardous affair. The
present day tendency to small families tends to over-solicitousness towards children
anyway. Health teaching should counteract that but in the past it has probably accen^l
tuated it. r|p
A bill has been introduced in Congress (H.R. 2550) providing for establishment of
a National Psychiatric Institute in the U.S. public health service. Parts of the responsibility assigned is to provide evidence and leadership in the psychological problems confronting the Government in relation to general welfare, also to stimulate research, etc.
Dr. Byrne described the organization and proposed extension of activities of the
Provincial Child Guidance Climes in British Columbia. He spoke of the importance of
directing Mental Hygiene Education towards people in key positions such as teachers
and social workers. The chairman commented on the role of the public health nurse
in teaching something about the principles of mental hygiene in the course of her discussion of her particular problems with her particular family.
Dr. Gordon Hut ton emphasized the necessity for general practitioners to carry a
large part of the load if mental hygiene principles were to be widely applied. Too often,
he thought, general practitioners failed to appreciate the reversibility of the reaction in
most neuroses. Children must be directed to healthy interests, good motivation, and
an appropriate sense of values.
Dr. J. P. S. Cathcart described some of the difficulties of public education in the
field of mental hygiene. He developed the idea that neuroses have a sort of infectiousness. Family attitudes almost always play a part in their epidemiology, consequently
psychiatrists must try to anticipate the unwholesome effect that the patient's symptoms
will have on other members of the family.
Dr. George Stevenson thought that there was great need for mental health education for teachers.    He also emphasized the responsibility of psychiatrists as a group for
Page Two Hundred and Twenty-six helping to improve the general environmental tone of their communities, giving as
examples the unwholesome individual reactions to group feelings of insecurity, fear,
suspicion, etc. Dr. Stevenson also thought that powerful pressure should be brought to
bear on nursing schools to see that more mental hygiene as well as more psychiatry was
included in their curriculum.
Dr. Allan Walters reflected the lack of preparation that handicaps psychiatrists when
they are required to give leadership in the promotion of positive mental health.
Dr. Law son spoke from a point of view of a general practitioner, emphasizing how
slight suggestions improperly interpreted could do a great harm to patients. There was
some general discussion about the selection of individuals with suitable personalities with
key positions.
Dr. Mathers referred to the communicability of psychoneurotic attitudes. He described the preference or the term "social and preventive medicine" instead of the terms
"mental hygiene" and "public health." He spoke of the need to have the psychiatric
point of view taken into consideration in all of the medical students' clinical instruction.
The possibilities of mental hygiene work as part of student health services in universities
Was discussed briefly.
Unfortunately when the discussion was becoming most stimulating, the time ran
out and there was no opportunity for pursuing some of the questions that had been
raised or for summarizing some of the various points of view that had been expressed.
Yours truly,
Director, Mental Hygiene Division.
In view of the current wave of enthusiasm regarding the use of penicillin in the
treatment of syphilis, an editorial appearing in the May, 1946, issue of The Journal of
Venereal Disease Information would appear to be most appropriately timed. To emphasize the present status of this therapy, excerpts from this editorial are presented.
"It cannot be repeated too often nor too emphatically that penicillin therapy of
syphilis is still an experimental procedure. This is true because of the prolonged course
of the disease and its tendency to recur after periods of latency, and applies with equal
orce to any new treatment, drug or procedure. Organized, coordinated methods of study
and observation enlisting the help of clinicians, laboratories, and institutions undoubtedly, speed up evaluation, but there is still a minimum period of 5 years of continuous
observation on several thousands of patients which is absolutely necessary before final
conclusions can be drawn."
The editorial continues by enlarging upon the incomplete state of our knowledge
concerning penicillin therapy, discussing the recent discovery that some penicillin seemed
to have become less effective in the treatment of syphilis.   Scattered reports to this effect
Page  Two Hundred and Twenty-seven by various clinicians and other agencies interested in the treatment aspects of syphilis
confirmed in experimental animals by responsible investigators, during February, 1946,
led to the conclusion that the situation should be promptly appraised.
Accordingly, a meeting was called during March at which all interested agencies
were present. From this meeting it developed that the "K" fraction of penicillin predominated in the less effective product whereas the "G" fraction had predominated in
the .earlier products which have given much better results. It was agreed by manufacturers that an effort would be made to produce penicillin in which the more effective
"G" fraction predominates. In addition, greater attention will be given, in research, to
determining the .effectiveness of the various fractions of penicillin.
The early recognition by clinicians that penicillin therapy for gonorrhoea required
continuous observation to guard against the possibility that the subcurative penicillin
dosage might have suppressed or aborted a concomitantly acquired syphilis infection
leads to the possibility that something of the same situation applies to syphilis patients
treated with penicillin in which the aberrant "K" fraction predominated—they may
have received what was, in effect, a subcurative dosage.
This observation should remind physicians of the importance of explaining to every
patient, regardless of the drug and treatment schedule used, the necessity for completing
treatment and for periodic examinations. With any new type of therapy this becomes
an obligation on the part of the physician to the patient, to the public and to the
advancement of medical .science. .
It was noted that the likelihood of intensive follow-up on most of the patients
treated for syphilis with penicillin is optimistic since many who are properly instructed
on the importance of this phase of their treatment will report voluntarily and consistently for their diagnostic check-up.
Placing emphasis upon an important feature, the editorial continues:
"We reiterate that much remains to be learned about penicillin, its composition and
mode of action, and its ultimate place in the treatment of syphilis. . Despite thfe most
encouraging clinical evidence of its very real value in sterilizing early lesions, and its
great apparent usefulness against syphilis in pregnancy, and central nervous system
syphilis, it cannot yet be said that penicillin is more effective than arsenical-bismuth
therapy rom the standing of producing 'cures'. Several years of observation on several
thousands of patients treated under the various schedules will be necessary before a
dependable evaluation can be made."
In conclusion it is noted that the experience with penicillin species "K" emphasizes
the interdependence of industry, laboratories, treatment sources, and public and private
agencies in promoting the control of syphilis-.
The most recent contribution to the control of venereal disease comes from the field
of psychiatry. Evidence presented in "An Experiment in the Psychiatric Treatment of
Promiscuous Girls" carried out in San Francisco indicates that the application of psychiatric and social work techniques may be a signal advance towards the solution of the
venereal disease problem.
An intensive study of 365 patients, all promiscuous or potentially promiscuous, between the ages of 18 and 25, led to the determination of suitability and desirability to
Page Two Hundred and Twenty-eight consider psychiatric treatment.   Of the original group, 229 were considered suitable for
and willing to accept the treatment offered.
In the treatment, the first step was to help the patient deal with the more superficial
and material aspects of her problem. The patient was then given advice and, where
necessary, assistance in troublesome home and family problems. She was also advised
with respect to occupational and recreational activities.
In addition the psychiatric worker functioned as a sympathetic counsellor to the
patient. This was an extremely important factor in that many of these patients had
no one else in whom they could place trust.
The appraisal of the results of treatment presented many difficulties, but, as outlined, were interesting and encouraging. Six months from the date of commencement
of treatment was taken as a fixed period over which to ascertain the degree of success
which was measured in diminution or cessation of promiscuity.
Complete follow-up was achieved in only forty per cent of the treated cases. Of
these ninety per cent were known to have shown marked improvement with reference
to promiscuity. Fifty per cent of those checked were stated to have stopped sexual
contact entirely except within marriage.
A study of the motivation of promiscuity discredited two hitherto widespread beliefs, i.e., financial gain and sexual desire. Other explanations, therefore, had to be discovered. The chief common denominator in the personality of promiscuous women was
found to be emotional immaturity. In the occasionally promiscuous group affection or
circumstances played an important part, while in the habitually promiscuous, the girl
was generally found to be either in the throes of an emotional conflict, dependent by
nature, or grossly maladjusted. To her, promiscuous sexual conduct was a method of
gaining the security that she lacked.
From a study of these motivating factors it was postulated that personality adjustment and psychiatric treatment would be of extreme value in the prevention of venereal
j    ||§     CLINICS
Monday and Wednesday 10.00 a.m. Gynaecology
Tuesday 9.00-10.00 a.m. Honorary Attending Staff
Thursday 10.00 a.m. Breast Clinic
Friday 9.00 a.m. Skin Clinic
Monday and Thursday Mornings •-
Tuesday and Wednesday Mornings.
Every Day—All Day	
—B. C. Cancer Institute.
X-RAY THERAPY—B. C. Cancer Institute.
Issued April, 1946
Some years ago a discovery was made on the Northern Coast Line of British Columbia
of a large deposit of raw material, a mineral clay, which on spectroscopic analysis,
disclosed the presence of "Rare Earths". Careful analysis and laboratory work has
been carried out with quantities of this natural deposit and some extremely interesting
and conclusive information has been derived therefrom which ties in with equally
interesting clinical results.
A lease was secured on tne deposit from the Provincial Government in order that
it could be developed commercially, and recently the lease was taken over by a local
Vancouver Company, Ray-Vite Laboratories Limited, and thir product is known as
The following general analysis of this deposit was made by Faiza and Company of
London, England. It was corroborated by G. S. Eldridge & Company, J. B. Williams
and J. R. Fehr, all of Vancouver, B. C.
Silica   52.52
Alumina     19.40
Ferrous  Oxide i  4.54
Ferric  Oxide . 1 i  3.75
Titanic  Oxide   1.12
Lime j i  4.33
Magnesia  4.47
Potash .  3.80
Soda     1.57
Sulphuric Anhydride -  .16
Water, Carbonic Anhydride & Organic Matter  4.36
This analysis was also corroborated qualitatively at the University of British Columbia where further tests revealed the presence of "Rarer Elements" including the "Rare
Dr. J. Allen Harris, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, University of British Columbia who has specialized in inorganic and analytical chemistry, particularly as regards
"Rarer Elements" in natural deposits, became interested in this clay originally because
of its unusually high potash content and his interest increased with the discovery of
"Rarer Elements" and "Rare Earths" content.
He has to his credit the isolation and identification of Illinium atomic number 61,
and is a recognized authority on the subject of "Rare Earths". As "Rare Earths" are
found usually associated with Uranium, Dr. Harris tested for radio activity and he
states that these tests gave apparently negative results. Dr. Ure, Professor of Physical
Chemistry, who made similar tests, states that an ordinary clay might show more radio
activity than Ray-Vite. This fact is important in connection with the internal use
of Ray-Vite.
Absor-Vite is the name given to a liquid preparation of Ray-Vite for internal use.
Water is added to the Ray-Vite and the mixture is forced through a series of fine screens
to remove all grit. When allowed to stand, the clay particles of the mixture settle to
the bottom of the water, but after the mixture is heated to 200° F. to sterilize it,
there is produced a permanent suspension of the clay in the water. The result is a
smooth creamy preparation of a bluish gray color. No. explanation has been made of
this suspension but it is a very fortunate phenomenon.
Page Two Hundred and Thirty Dr. Yure reports as follows on the neutralizing and buffer action of Absor-Vite
with Hydrochloric acid.
"I. Sampling
"Samples  were  taken  from  a   16  oz.  bottle of Absor-Vite  as  supplied  by
Ray-Vite Laboratories Limited."
"II. Alkalinity
"Sample taken from the bottle after vigorous shaking showed a pH of 8.03
at 19° C. indicating slight alkalinity."
Buffer Action
"A 20 ml sample of Absor-Vite was diluted to 200 ml. with distilled water
and   titrated  with   0.0986  N  hydrochloric  acid.     The  following  results   were
Vol. of Acid
2.0 ml.
4.0 ml.
6.0 ml.
On Addition
After 25 min.        Equivalent pH
5.65 3.0
4.67 2.7
3.76   (5 min) 2.5
"The last column shows the pH produced by the Comparison of the volumes of acid
noted to 200 ml. of pure water. Comparison of these figures with those in the second
and third columns shows that a definite buffering action is exerted by the preparation.
The figures in the second and third columns, indicate that in addition to the initial
buffer action, acid is being used up by a secondary process which has a slow rate. This
is probably the reaction of the acid with relatively insoluble silicate present in the
suspension, and undoubtedly would continue for a considerable period of time. Rate
measurements, however, showed that this process is most rapid in the first few minutes
after addition of the acid.
"Another phenomenon was observed in a more concentrated suspension of the
material. Titration of a sample of the original Absor-Vite without dilution gave
variable results depending on the rate of stirring. It was found that the material had
formed an adherent layer on the surface of the glass electrode used, thus inhibiting its
reaction to the acidity of the solution. This coating could only be removed by scraping
or washing the glass surface."
"From the second and last columns in the table we may calculate the percent of free
acid neutralized by reactions with the clay as 99.4 percent, 92.6 percent and 85 percent
(Signed)  WILLIAM URE,
Professor of Physical Chemistry.
Dear Doctor Panton:
"I have been very much interested in the clay for a considerable number of years,
particularly since analyses have shown not only an extremely high potash content, but
traces of rarer metals including the "Rare Earths". These are rather a puzzle inasmuch
as while each member of the group is a definite element, all fifteen of them have to
occupy the position of one element in the Periodic Table being chemically identical.
The difficulty of separation has prevented them from being used more commercially.
Much research work has been done particularly in England, on their effect on plant
growth. One part of these trace elements to two million parts of lean soil often results
in a crop of vegetables, rich in vitamins and minerals where formerly they had poor
food value.    These values can be checked with a plant physiologist.    I do not have the
Page  Two  Hundred   and   Thirty-one *
answer but I am wondering whether or not these 'trace elements' have the same effect
in human metabolism as they have been shown to have in plant growth."
"Another factor which has me puzzled is the fact that the clay retains its same consistency for months, even in an open container, yet the moment it is placed in contact
with the skin, all the moisture content is rapidly absorbed."
"I have noted, and this has been confirmed by Dr. Ure as indicated in his report,
that suspensions of this clay leave a film on the glass apparatus, which is extremely
difficult to remove except by polishing, in which case it leaves a highly glossed surface.
Perhaps this same film effect may obtain on the stomach wall.
"The buffering action as noted in Dr. Ure's report is also very interesting. In the
case of Sodium bicarbonate, the only reaction that can take place is that an equivalent
amount of acid will be neutralized according to the bicarbonate added. This is obvious
when one considers the equation representing the reaction, ie:
NaHC03    +    HCL   =   NaCL    -f    H2C03
H2C03    =   H20    +    C02
"In other words there is no buffering action by NaHCOg unless there is an excess
of NaHCOs, and the gas is not allowed to escape. After a person swallows NaHC03
to relieve heartburn he soon belches gas. This is an indication that the chemical action
has been completed, i.e. the NaHC03 is broken down and CO2 is liberated. A further
secretion of HCL results in more heartburn.
"The behavior of this clay according to the results obtained by Dr. Ure, and confirmed by myself working with the preparation known as Absor-Vite, indicates that
it acts as an immediate buffer—that is, the acid concentration is definitely controlled.
There is no immediate violent reaction as occurs when HCL, the normal constituent of
stomach fluids acts upon NaHC03.
"However Sir, what happens in the stomach may be different to what happens in
the test tube, but in my opinion, if, as I have been given to understand the stomach
content of a healthy human being is O.IN.HCL, (and Dr. Ure's tests were based on
concentrations of this value, using a nextremely accurate Bechman pH meter), I cannot myself see any conditions which would alter the conclusions drawn."
Professor of Analytical Chemistry.
This is extremely interesting from a medical standpoint, and explains some remarkable cures of gastric ulcers which would otherwise be considered as freakish. Dr.
Ure's tests show:—
1. Absor-Vite is only faintly alkaline.    It would not produce an alkalosis.
2. The tests show that a maximum of 99.4 percent of free HCL in a concentration
similar to stomach contents was neutralized by Absor-Vite.
3. That the "buffer" action of the Absor-Vite increased and after 25 minutes the
free HCL was further reduced.
4. That the material forms an adherent layer.
Applied clinically, one must agree that Absor-Vite would produce a powerful neutralizing action on HCL in the stomach and in addition a remarkable buffer action.
The adherent layer mentioned would have the effect of forming a soothing and protective covering to the mucosa of-the stomach and to an ulcer crater.
No harmful results whatever have followed the internal use of Ray-Vite. There
are people in Vancouver who have taken Ray-Vite internally for stomach conditions
over a period of ten years and who are today enthusiastic over it. Recently Mrs. P.
suffering from haemorrhages caused by Ulcerative Colitis took large overdoses of Ray-
Page Two Hundred and Thirty-two Vite.    The symptoms promptly vanished but the clay became impacted in the rectum
and a large mass of.it was removed by irrigations.    There were no harmful effects.
The following stomach cases are reported as being typical of the general results
Case No. 1 Mr. H. Age 70, five years ago stopped work because of a gastric ulcer
on lesser curvature. The usual stomach remedies were useless and he refused operation;
diet was very restricted and he received constant sedatives to relieve the pain. His
wife was finally instructed to mix Ray-Vite clay and water and use it instead of his
usual alkalies. In one month she reported that he had less pain; in another month he
was eating a mixed diet, and after four months X-ray examination showed the ulcer
previously seen on X-ray plate was gone. He still gets distress if he neglects, taking
Case No. 2 Mr. C. Age 56, Had stomach symptoms for three years persisting in spite
of restricted diet and the usual alkalies. X-ray showed the crater of an ulcer on lesser
curve of stomach. He was put on Absor-Vite;' symptoms promptly cleared up and in
one month X-ray showed the crater to be smaller. X-ray plate in another month
showed a smooth lesser curve and no ulcer. ' After nine months, he feels well and enjoys
a generous diet but still takes Absor-Vite.
X-Ray reports from Vancouver General Hospital
A. E. C.    September 28, 1945.
At the end of five hours stomach was empty. Head of the meal was in the hepatic
flexure. A definite ulcer crater was seen in the lesser curvature in the middle third of
the stomach; it is about a centimetre in diameter, is freely mobile and shows a moderate
degree of surrounding oedema.
October 25, 1945.
Case 2.   Sept. 28, 1945.
Case 2.    Oct. 25, 1945.
Page Two Hundred and Thirty-three The ulcer crater is definitely smaller than when the patient was previously examined
a month ago; nevertheless, there is still a considerable amount of oedema of the gastric
wall on each side of the actual crater.
November 29, 1945.
Case 2.   Nov. 29, 1945.
The previously reported crater in relation to the lesser curvature is not evident at
Case No. 3. Mr. A. Age 60, In 1918 had a gastroenterostomy performed for a duodenal ulcer. He felt well for six months then pain returned and he had symptoms of
pyloric obstruction. He suffered epigastric pain, heartburn and belching, kept bearable
by a restricted diet and alkalies. He states that he never ate a. meal without vomiting
afterwards. His weight dropped to 115 pounds and he was weak. He took alkalies
constantly and big doses of Milk of Magnesia for constipation. In November 1945,
he had a gastric haemorrhage and required a blood transfusion, to be followed in a
month by a second severe haemorrhage. X-ray showed the gastroenterostomy to be
closed and the pylorus contracted so that a. the end of five hours, half the barium
remained in the stomach. A deformed duodenal cap indicated a duodenal ulcer. He
was put on Absor-Vite. In two days the vomiting ceased and other symptoms soon
disappeared. He developed an appetite, constipation disappeared and he put on weight.
X-ray in one month showed the gastroenterostomy open intermittently and the stomach
empty in five hours. June, 1946, he continues to feel well and is able to digest a
normal diet.    His weight is 135 pounds and he is working steadily.
X-Ray reports from Vancouver General Hospital
W. A.   December 17, 1945.
The gastroenterostomy stoma was not functioning; at the end of five hours the
stomach contained about half the barium, but at the region of the gastro-enterostomy
there was considerable increase in the size of the rugae accompanied by the formation
of quite a large pouch, several centimetres in diameter. No actual ulcer crater was
found in the region of the stoma.    The duodenal bulb filled with considerable diffi-
Page Two Hundred and Thirty-four culty and gives the impression of marked spasm probably associated with ulcer of the
January 25, 1946.
The gastro-enterostomy stoma functioned intermittently during the examination
but most of the meal appeared to empty through the duodenum. A the end of five
hours the stomach was empty and the meal was scattered from the terminal ileum to
splenic flexure. The duodenal bulb was small and constantly deformed in keeping with
the presence of ulceration. No definite constant deformity resermbling an ulcer crater
was noted at the stoma.
On February 21, 1946, another X-ray examination was done but no material change
was noted.
Case No. 4 Mr. B. Age 34, gave a history of stomach distress for two years. Appetite was good but pain came on one hour after eating. He was on a restricted diet
and took alkaline powders constantly, but felt miserable from epigastric pain, belching
of gas and heartburn. No X-ray plates were made. He was put on Absor-Vite and
the pain ceased, he was able to enjoy a liberal diet and after one month* of treatment
stated-that the only things that disagreed with him were pickles and salmon.
Numerous other cases might be cited in which stomach distress was relieved by
Absor-Vite and there were no failures. The dosage is similar to that of other liquid
preparations used in these cases.
Case No. 3, had been booked for stomach resection. The patient had been on
medical treatment prescribed by physicians and druggists for 25 years. Sufficient food
passed the pylorus to keep him alive but he vomited the remainder. The relief of symptoms effected by Absor-Vite was very surprising until the report was received from
Dr. Ure showing its marked "buffer" action and neutralizing properties.
Absor-Vite has been used in intestinal disorders but no definite report can be made.
It contains the elements of Kaolin and must produce a similar soothing and adsorptive
action while its anti-bacterial action should be of value. At present it is the local
remedy of choice in colonic irrigations.
The action of Ray-Vite applied externally is equally spectacular but the results are
harder to explain. The tests given below indicate a marked anti-bacterial action but
in addition it is strongly antiphlogistic and anaesthetic judging from clinical results.
For instance the acute pain of a freshly sprained ankle is relieved in one hour or less
and the swelling is three-fourths gone overnight. The pain of a varicose ulcer vanishes
and the ulcer itself heals quicker than by other methods. The pain and swelling of
phlebitis is controlled. The formation of epithelium over granulating wounds is hastened. The pain of Arthritis and Neuritis is relieved. The pain of a minor burn vanishes and blisters may not form. Inflammatory and painful conditions of the mouth
are improved. In general it may be said that any conditions relieved by hot fomentations can be treated by Ray-Vite. It contains some unknown antiphlogistic and anaesthetic agent, and its rapid absorption through the skin indicates an agent hitherto
For local application it is applied directly to the skin as a pack, l/4 inch thick and
is kept moist and hot for several hours at a time.
Dr. Harris suggests that the presence of "Rarer Elements" may be the answer to
the surprising behavior of Ray-Vite. A tiny percentage of these trace elements has
been shown to have an important place in plant growth, and they are apparently absolutely essential for plant metabolism.
There is evidence that Ray-Vite exerts this action. For instance, it is reported that
a local plot of ground which produced defective cabbages showing club root had pow-
Page  Two Hundred and  Thirty-five dered Ray-Vite sprinkled over it.   The next crop of cabbages was healthy and excellent.
There is also evidence that Ray-Vite has a somewhat similar effect in animal metabolism.
The soil of portions of the Fraser Valley is known to be deficient in mineral content
necessary for plant growth. In consequence dairy men have had great trouble keeping
their herds healthy. In 1945, Mr. P. Z. of the Fraser Valley was greatly discouraged
with his herd, as a number of calves were born prematurely and he lost twelve of his
best cows through these abortions. In December, 1945, he experimented by adding
Ray-Vite to the feed. There was an immediate improvement and this year all calves
have been born at term and the cows are healthy. Other dairy men are now experimenting with the feeding of Ray-Vite powder to improve the general health of the
cattle, and the quality of the milk. It appears to supply the mineral lack in the soil
and in the grass.
It is quite logical to apply the same reasoning to the effects of Ray-Vite on human
metabolism. It can be said it causes a rapid healing of surface ulcers, and stimulation
of epithelial growth, and the same factors may enter into the healing of gastric ulcers.
A wide field is opened up for research including its use as a prophylactic and a curative
agent in malignant conditions.
In March 1941, Dr. D. C. B. Duff, Associate Professor of Bacteriology at University of British Columbia made various tests of Ray-Vite to determine its anti-bacterial
properties.    His conclusions were as follows:—
1. The clay is able to dirninish greatly the growth of Bacillus Coli and of Staphylococcus Aureus under the conditions of the test by removing food substances required
by the bacteria.
2. The clay as submitted does not contain substances of a germicidal nature.
He also states that "The clay is able to extract (adsorb) from the broth nutrient
materials which are required for the normal rapid growth of bacteria. Enough nutrient
is however left for a very slow poor growth of the two bacteria tested. The clay cannot contain a soluble substance which is directly germicidal, since if such a substance
were present in any significant amount no growth would have occurred in the broth
exposed to the clay."
In short, Dr. Duff found that when a large dose of clay was added to a nutrient
broth inoculated with basteria the bacteria failed to grow, but that when a small dose
of the clay was added there was a slow, poor growth of the bacteria. He attributed
that action to the adsorptive action of clay, an action common to many clays and to
Further tests were made this year by Mrs. K. Isobel Smith, bacteriologist, to ascertain anti-bacterial properties and to compare the adsorbtive action of Ray-Vite with
that of other clays and with charcoal. Absor-Vite was added to broth cultures of
Bacillus Coli, Staphylococcus Aureus and Streptococcus Hemolyticus in various proportions. These were incubated at 37° for twelve hours to allow the Absor-Vite to kill
the bacteria, should it possess any germicidal properties. The contents of each tube were
then poured into 10 cc nutrient agar (Blood Agar for Streptococcus). Pour plate*
were made and incubated at 37° C. for 24 hours to develop any bacteria still alive.
The plates were then examined for colonies. The Absor-Vite content of the culture
tubes varies from a maximum of 10% to a niinimum of 0.01%.
Similar tests were made with another clay and with charcoal.
Absor-Vite Plate Counts
Bacillus Coli:
Tube containing 10     % Absor-Vite No growth
1.0 % Absor-Vite 7 colonies per cc.
0.1  % Absor-Vite 5 colonies per cc.
0.01% Absor-Vite .4 colonies per cc.
Page Two Hundred and Thirty-six Staphylococcus Aureus:
Tube containing 10
1 % Absor-Vite
0.1 % Absor-Vite
0.01% Absor-Vite
No growth
No growth
2 colonies per cc.
No growth
Streptococcus Haemolyticus:
The picture was obscured by the clay particles on the plates but when smears were
made from the surface of the pour plates, there was no growth shown with any
dilutions up to 0.01%.
The tests using charcoal and another clay instead of Absor-Vite were all made in
a similar manner. The pour plates were in all cases, so overgrown with colonies that
counts could not be made.
These tests would indicate that Ray-Vite possesses an anti-bacterial property in
addition to the absorptive action suggested by Dr. Duff, and which is not possessed
by the charcoal and by the unknown clay. Further study will be required to define
this action.
In view of this anti-bacterial property of Ray-Vite it can be applied to raw areas
of skin. It has been used with success in various skin infections and when mixed with
Eucerin, it produces a soft soothing ointment which promises to be very useful.
It would therefore appear that Ray-Vite promises to become a valuable addition to
our pharmacapoeia. Undoubtedly other uses will be developed but a wider knowledge
of the results already obtained should not be delayed. The tests reported here, carried
out by experts in their various specialties, all indicate a new and remarkable product?
and they also sponsor the clinical reports which to put it mildly would not be believed
without confirmation.
%Obut 28 March 1946.3
The death of Aubrey Jones after a brief illness came as a great shock. Aged
43, he was in his prime and his passing has been very keenly felt by all those
who were associated with him.
Dr. Jones graduated with the Class of '26 at Queen's. Following a year's
interneship at Victoria he joined the staff of Tranquille Sanatorium, becoming
Assistant Superintendent in 1937. In 1945 he was made Superintendent of
the Victoria Tuberculosis Unit. He had a keen analytical mind and his opinion
on any problem was always sound, and because of this was frequently sought.
Living was a joy to him and he took life as it came. The courage and equanimity with which he faced the end cannot be surpassed.
Our sincerest sympathy is extended to his family.
Page  Two Hundred and Thirty-seven
Obiit. 22nd July, 1946 |
Doctor Robert Beauchamp Boucher was born in Peterborough on December 8th, 1873, the
second son of Doctor and Mrs. Robert P. Boucher. In the family there were two other sons—
George, who predeceased Robert by a few years, and Arthur, who resides in Montreal, two sisters,
Mrs. J. H. Hudson of Vancouver, and Mrs. R. A. D. Bevington of Hammond, B. C.
He received his preliminary educatoin in Peterborough Schools and at Trinity College, Port Hope.
In deciding on his life work it was most natural that Medicine should have been the choice,
as he had literally been born and cradled in an atmosphere of Medicine. His maternal grandfather, Doctor George Burnham, was a distinguished physician of Peterborough, and among others
who had been articled to him were Robert P. Boucher, Frank Buller, and his own son Herbert
Burnham. Robert P. Boucher on graduation established himself in Peterborough, and after he had
wooed and wed his mentor's daughter ,continued his work in that city for the rest of his life. Frank
Buller after graduation rose to great heights as one of the world's leading Opthalmologists. Herbert
Burnham practiced in Toronto for many years. He was Professor of Ophthalmloogy at Trinity University, and was also Ophthalmologist to the Toronto General  Hospital.
With this family history and association ,it would seem a matter of course that Bob Boucher
should study Medicine, and this he did. He entered McGill in 1891, and graduated in 1895, at
which time he was but a few months beyond the required age of twenty-one years.
Following his graduation he took internship in the Montreal General Hosiptal, where he had
further opportunity to study under such masters as Shepherd, Lafleur ,and Wyatt Johnson.
On completion of his hospital year, he joined the Marine edpartment of the Canadian Pacific
Railway on the Pacific, where he served as Medical Officer on the Empress of  India for two years.
In May, 1899, he became registered by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British
Columbia, and practiced for a short while at Steveston. Late that summer or early autumn, he
moved to Phoenix in the Boundary Country, where he began practice. He was appointed surgeon
for the Granby Mining and Smelting Company. Here he remained until 1906, when he decided to
discontinue general work, and to specialize in diseases of the eye, ear, nose nad throat.
Though Phoenix is today a ghost town, at the close of the last century it was a typical roaring
mining camp. With his usual facility, Bob Boucher accommodated himself to his new surroundings
and in a short time he was a very busy man. His efforts were astonishingly successful for one so
young. Even though he was only in his middle twenties, he rapidly became known as a remarkably
skillful and successful practitioner. One whose judgment, diagnostic ability and professional acumen
was such as is rarely encountered except in men rich and ripe and experience. So marked was his
ability that many of his confreres much his senior in years sought his counsel and advice when confronted with serious and critical situations. Here he laid the firm and stable foundation on which
through the years he was to rear the superstructure of a brilliant and successful career.
It was in Phoenix that he met Miss Catherine Fraser, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Frsaer,
pioneers of Vancouver.    Doctor Boucher and Miss Fraser were married in 1904.
In deciding to limit his work to diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat he may have been
influenced by his early association with Frank Buller and his uncle Herbert Burnham. Or it may
be that he had a flair for this department of Medicine. Whether either of those circumstances
influenced him, we do not know. We do know, however, that his attainments were such as to
ensure for him a pre-eminent place in any department of the Healing Art he might choose to follow.
His decision having been made, he left Phoenix and journeyed to London to begin his studies
to fit him for this chosen work, later continuing those studies in Vienna and other European centres.
On his return to America, he carried on with further work in New York, returning to Vancouver in
1909 to begin practice.
His success in Vancouver was almost instantaneous, and in a very short time he had more work
than he could comfortably take care of. And so it continued until a few years ago, when failing
health caused him to ease up in his work, since which time he had confined his work solely to eye
During his years of work in Vancouver, he served long and well as a mmeber of the Staff of
the Vancouver General Hospital. He was always keenly interested in the advances and discoveries
which were constantly being made in the realm of Medicine, and Surgery, ever striving to learn how
those could be applied in his own chosen field. At no time during his life as a specialist did he
ever become narrow or insular as too frequently occurs with specialists who can see little beyond
their own limited horizons. He was too well grounded in general Medicine, had too deep a respect
for the complex human organism to ever think it possible to divorce the general human system from
diseases and anomalies of the eye, ear, nose and throat. To this broad view, and his excellent and
far-reaching grasp of constitutional diseases, can be attributed much of the success which attended
his efforts.
Bob Boucher was of a type all too rarely encountered. A man of attractive and commanding
personality, honorable to a superlative degree ,generous, kindly, broadminded, loyal and dependable,
he made friends easily, and those friends he always retained. A man of strong and pronounced
views, he had the gift of advancing those views without offense to those who might entertain
opposite opinions. It is given to few men to be endowed with the charm and personal magnetism
that was his. When those traits are combined with conspicuous ability, breadth of vision and a
sound reasoning mind, it becomes easy to explain his success as a doctor and a citizen.
He was a most genial and excellent host. One who dearly loved to have a few kindred souls
in his home for an evening's bridge. Here "Bouch," as he was affectionately known by his intimates, was at his best, and his happy and infectious laugh will long echo in the ears of his friends.
He had many interests other than his profession. His sojourn in Phoenix had instilled mining
into his blood, and for years he wooed the fickle jade of mining with very varying results until he
(Continued on Page 239)
Page Two Hundred and Thirty-eight DOCTOR ROBERT BEAUCHAMP BOUCHER
(Continued from Page 238)
and his associates opened up the Pioneer mine, and developed it into production. Here success
crowned their efforts; this property gave good returns, and amply compensated for previous failures
and disappointments.
In the field of sport he had played a prominent role. At Trinity College he carried his bat
from the cricket pitch with an excellent score on many occasions. Tennis was another sport in
which he excelled as a young man, and while attending McGill, he was a valued and efficient member
of the hockey squad.
As a curler he received his early tuition from Sir Joseph Flavelle, one of the very efficient
Ontario skips of a generation or more ago. While in Phoenix, he was an ardent exponent of the
"stane and besom," and when time and professional duties permitted, he would attend bonspiels at
Rossland, Nelson, and such places, and could always be depended on to take home his full share of
tankards and other trophies.
In later years, like many of his medical brethren, he became an enthusiastic golfer. For years
he joined with a small coterie of congenial friends to journey to Victoria in the early spring for a
week-end on the links. Memories of those trips will, never fade from the minds of those who
comprised the party. Until the war causes a suspension of the annual game with Seattle Medicos,
he was always one of the party to represent Vancouver.
When a few years ago he felt that failing health demanded that he eschew golf, quietly and
alone, without ostentation, he repaired to Shaughnessy Golf Club and deposited his bag and clubs
in the locker of one of his old golfing partners (one with whom he had had many happy rounds),
with a brief note asking this partner to accept them as a token of his esteem after an association
of over thirty years.    A typical Boucher gesture.
This was the first real and definite shadow of the event that was to come, and for the first
time brought to his friends a positive realization that all was not well. All hoped that their fears
were not warranted and that "Bouch" had many years before him—that the evening of his life
would be long and pleasant with the sunset far removed. It was not to be, and on July twenty-
second,  1946, he did "rest from his labours."
Now he has gone, and the world that was the richer for his presence is now the poorer for his
passing. Among his grateful patients, he will long be remembered; by his friends he will never be
forgotten, and to many of those there exists a void that will ever remain unfilled.
To his bereaved and sorrowing wife, and all other members of his family there goes out the
heart-felt sympathy of his appreciative patients, and the legion of his devoted friends.
P. A. McL.
Mewd. and JVatel
Dr. Clarence Pitts of Alberni is enjoying a month's holiday. Dr. H. O. Smith,
recently discharged from the R.C.A.M.C, is carrying on in Dr. Pitts' absence.
* sfr * *
Dr. Harrison H. Shoulders of Nashville, Tennessee, President of the American Medical Association, visited Victoria and Vancouver recently on his return to Nashville from
the American Medical Association meeting in San Francisco. Dr. Shoulders, who is
Professor of Clinical Surgery at Vanderbilt University Medical School, was accompanied
by his wife and daughter and by Dr. and Mrs. C. M. Hamilton and daughter. Dr.
Hamilton is Associate Professor of Clinical Dermatology at Vanderbilt.
Dr. J. A. MacDonald of Prince Rupert was a recent visitor in Vancouver while on
a holiday.
*       *       *       *
Dr. and Mrs. G. L. Stoker visited Vancouver recently while on holiday from Dawson
Dr. H. A. Ansley, Assistant Director of Health Services for the Federal Department
of Health and Welfare, has recently spent some time in Vancouver, at the invitation
Page   Two  Hundred  and  Thirty-nine of the Metropolitan Health Committee. Dr. Ansley's services were requested to assist
in the investigation of the increased incidence of Salmonella infections in the City of
Colonel W. Allan Fraser, O.B.E., E.D., R.C.A.M.C, is presently on leave pending
discharge and return to civilian life. Colonel Fraser went on Active Service in September, 1939, as Medical Officer to the 5th B. C Coast Brigade, R.C.A. Shortly afterwards he was appointed Officer Commanding, Esquimalt Military Hospitla. He went
overseas in 1942 as Officer i/c of Surgery of No. 16 Canadian General Hospital. He
returned to Canada in 1943 to take command of No. 12 Canadian General Hospital,
which went overseas shortly after and which was one of the General Hospitals serving
the N.W. Europe theatre of war. Colonel Fraser returned to Canada in December, 1945,
and since then has been Command Medical Officer of the Pacific Command.
5p * Jg» »{• 5p
W have recently been pleased to receive a very cheerful and "newsy" letter from
Dr. Sid Evans from London, England. Dr. Evans and his wife, Dr. Ella Cristall Evans,
are engaged in post-graduate study, and Dr. Evans has recently been awarded a substantial scholarship by the British Medical Council.
Dr. and Mrs. W. H. Fahrni are another Vancouver couple "brushing-up" in England,
and enjoying their stay despite difficulties of accommodation and rationing.
Recent visitors to the office from outlying points have been: Dr. L. M. Greene of
Smithers, Dr. J. D. Galbraith of Prince Rupert, Dr. A. L. Jones of Revelstoke, Dr. R.
B. White of Penticton.
Dr. Lloyd W. Bassett has resumed practice in Victoria following his return from
New York, where he was taking post-graduate training in obstetrics and gynaecology.
Page Two Hundred and Forty Canadian Government
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820 Richards Street   : :   Vancouver, B.C. : :   PAcific 3053
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