History of Nursing in Pacific Canada

[Letters, Ethel Johns to Muriel Uprichard, September 16 1965] Johns, Ethel 1965

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 4519 West Fifteenth Ave*
Vancouver 8 B*C*
Dear 3)r* Uprichard %
Along with this letter I am sending you a marked copy of a little
book which says something about ay professional aafiif tag also sheds some libht on the
early development of the pioneer school of nursing In the Canadian west — the Winnipeg
General Hospital School of lursing*  Iryraduatod from it in 1902 and by 1910 had become
;rintendent of the ifc&sllar General Hospital, *§*t ft'illiaa, Ontario*    oallflca*
tions were far from impressive for 1 Ml only served as a supervisor and as a junior
instructor* Promotion came all too rapidly at the turn of the century*
In my new position* 1 was responsible for     ireetion of the nursing service and of
the school of nursing — a task which gave me a practical (and painful) insight into
the problem of making mire  that the .patients were well eared for   A  at tho earn* ttae
avoiding exploitation of the student nurses* From the oiitset* 1 realized that I was not
qualified for the job 1 had. undertaken to do and* as the months went by, gave more
:e thought ti what w&e     on in the department of nursing education at Teachers
College, Columbia University*  Courses* leading to an academic degree, were offered
and although 1 knew I could not finance mo*e than a year of study, by 1914 I managed
to scrape up enough money to do just t t and no more*
And what a /ear it turned out to be* Here, f..r khi first time in wp  life, I haft
i and opportunity to be a student nyiyse , free from physical strain and heavy responsibility. There were good courses in the basic sciences and in public health principles*
all of them presented from a nursing point of view* And there WJ a good grounding in
teaching methods which I needed gift than anything else* Above all* theti UNI Ubi inspiration and pleasure of living and working in an university atmosphere and environment* <*£#
This golden year c wm  to an end all too soon and so did mp  money* 1 md  to look for a
job    ai lucky enough to be offered the super!    .nop  ■£     -nnipog Children's
■■'.:pifcal* lafeflwiWilti in our sin.   0 -.it ion could, not bo undertaken duri    I war but
once it was ovar prospects began to brighten* All over Canada    I was a growl    and
for public health nursing service especially in the western provinces*  In British Colum-
bia Dr. Henry Esson Young, head of the department of public health * v.as anxious to ea-
^ find
tablish health centres in outlying rural districts but could net aaoy nurses who had the
necessary qualifications from a public L  ft i  point of view.  la an effort to do so* ho
consulted Dr. I-jaleolm :&c,-&chorn* superintendent of the Vancouver fltiftflMftt hospital and l«r#
B* II, Dullia* head of the department of bacteriology in the University of hritish Columbia*
It so happened that Dr. I toll in had previous y had an opportunity of observing the instruction given in the five-year combined course in nursing and health in the diversity of
ft*Seta ! chool of Cursing* Ir, hhchachern aleo hold advanced views on the education of
nurses and it ;t an approach should be made to the SBC In order to find out
'.her  a combined five*/ear course, leading to an aodemic degree aiu* a diploma in nursing,
could, be sot up under the joint auspices of the University and the Tana»aver ^aeml Hospital,
xho  ^r*silent of Wm  University, Btf* L* E* itlinok* proved to be sympathetic With kin general aims of such a course and a preliminary survey indicated that certain essential resources
were already available. Instruction in academic subjects was available within the univer-
sityi the Vancouver General School of Nursing oould offer clinical experience and theoreti-
.:. instruction in nursing principles and methods| Br. lullin himself was willing to
direct courses in public health. Opportunities* for supervised flsldwork in public hoalth
were relatively meagre but nevertheless there was a psop possibility of developing them if
the Victorian Order of ffurses, the municipal school nursing service and several other
health agencies could be persuaded to lead a hand. Bo far, so good* All that had to be done was to find a nurse who Iiad the necessary qualifications to set up a working plan and. to get the wheels turning.  An active search began
hut it was foiand that the rapid expansion of the public health field afforded so many
attractive prospects that ,otential candidates pr^ ferred  not to venture into pioneer
territory. An appeal for help to the authorities of teachers College led them reluctantly
to put forward icy name out they were careful to point out that X did not possess an academic
degree, a ..ualification which they quite rightly held to be indispensable*
I had no idea that all these measures were being taken and was greatly surprised mien
an indirect approach uas made to find out whether 1     lake on tae job. I consented
and was forthwith appointed director of nursing of nursing service and education in the
Vaacouv- r Ital School of Hursing and as co-ordinator of tho academic courses
to he  given at the Universit ,  ly only excuse for such temerity is that I was too brash
aa! inexperienced to realise the implications of the task I had undertake**  At last a door
had opened and for batter or worse I passed through it*
duties begah in September, 1919, The fall torm at Wm  ihiversity was just about to begirt
and there was no time to be lost. A small group of students who were taking the regular art
arts course wished to bo transferred to the combined course in nursing and suitable arrango-
»ents were made for them to so* It was understood that during the fallowing summer* while
University was not in session, they would take the four months preliminary course
offered, bj    OEHXXu VG~ School of Hursing and.if they displayed the necessary aptitudes^
would N accepted as pupil nurses. She following jnftaf roeld be devot-'d to academic courses
at the University*
* time. I toflU to realise m  complexity of the task i bU MttVttM*.  it «* ^
of the Univorsity disapproved of this intra
•ht had nurses to University privileges? Anc
rent tftlt certain aembere of the faculty of the University disapproved of this intnuic
•oup of students in nursing, What
A*~ai  „-hftni  v'har* t»s no school of education,
v/here did they belong? There «M M * ctical echool.    I *P m  «
I not even a department of hoiae economics. It m§  at this juncture ttM fe« MftcEachern and Br, l&llin ca©e to our rescue. 2iey flaaintaincd t,^at our proper place was
in the department of Applied Science, fortunately, fbi hean* r« .-oginald -^rock, agreed
with them* Shift decision heartened aft considerably* I believed then, as 1 do now* that
nursing is aa applied science and that we had     et to be there*
Wm  situation in the Hospital fftg even more serious. Ehe VGH eas one of the largest in
Canada and had close to a thousand beds. Like all other hftftpita&of thex period* it
it entirely on its pupil nurees for the care given its patients* The  fact that
"those University students1* had to ue given special consideration with regard to hours
on duty was resented by overworked head nurses* Quite naturally, it also created discontent
A  pupil nurses mm  had to take the bv.ffet and cushion the shock whenever an oraer-
mp arose which kept them on duty for unduly long hours.    rut of all*
vi&t MHN|f eitii t Ding service (and plenty did) it was attributed fry iiiem&ers of the
medical staff who disapproved of the higher education of nurses* vmm  argued that too *uueh
time and attention was !>.    iven to  the dovelopricnt of the combined course and not caov
to the supervision of the nursing service.   All tais led to such serious friction that if;
oegan to look as though the second year of the experiment might also be its last.
It was clear that so ething had to be done and done quickly* 1 confessed that! 1 could
not ftepc with t.ie dual task 1 ted undertaken and offered to withdraw from both of them.
however* a jlan was ultimately worked out whereby 1 should give up my  duties at the  VGH
and devote my  entire time  to the academic aspects of the combined course as'a very humble
member of the faculty of A «li^r Science*      Q&thleea Kills* a very aula a-Jxiinistrator
and educator*became the tho director of nursing service and of the school of KJTftlllf at
the VGH*  and together we mmtemix  set about making a pattern for t*,e co-orcunation of
our respective responsibilities*
Preliminary and purely tentati'.e arrangements regarding % nts
had already been made between tnc University, the VG« and     *G* Ee&istered Surses .
Association. Ihose  provided for the reduction of the duration of the throo-yoars period -5-
of service exacted by the 7GU from  Its pupil nurses to two i id i half years. In ftpltft of
t If reduction*, the BC i'iegistered **urses Association proreV    tat combined course students who had completed their five-year combined course should do eligible to take its
.rainatioas for Wm  title of .. i    .red lurse. Ike Univorpit/ aVo it  clear that it
• |i assume no responsibility for the t^ree-year course given in the VGH School of luraing*
Students takingxtaaxtta the combined course were its only concern and for them certain
adjustments would be made as soon as it could be demonstrated that these students wore
receiving adequate clinical experience and acceptable instruction in the theory of nursing
in the VGH School of liureieg.  Misa Ellis and I preceded tf   ! out the deatils and things
en to settle down.
By this time* thfl University tod moved fat to its Jte present site and a little office
Doen assigned as the headquarters for thft activities of the combined course, it was bad-
ly needed for there wag now a ©ore insistent flftpftad than ever from tuo provincial department of health for qualified public health nurses* Br* Tcttttg SttggCit    -t a one-year
i± course* leading to a diploiaa should be offered to graduate nurses who ap
:ra£ftuix desirable candidates, Sh Canadian Eed Cross offered the University Bono  financial
support end the proj ct get un    /'. Field worfc^alre^dy arranged for the combined course^
could be developed, and expanded and, by great good fortune* Usury Ardcronie Uachensie* who
had recently retired as head of the fictorain Order of Sursee for Canadaf was willing to
take on the task of directing it.
1 i    .4 more time to consult v/ith K&tft Ellis regarding new arrangements for ti
combined course students who were  receiving their clinical experience and instruction at the
f(SU Obviously*I no lon&er possessed the authority to place them in whatever fterviees seeded i>est in the nlTfUBjtailflftl and it mm  therefore necessary to set up a uratually acceptable
■ and to carry it out with as little friction as possible* Ehis wag not aifiaye easy for
either of us out we managed to Maintain a satisfactory working relationship*
As time went on* things :>vm a bit^ Wm  pros.-nee of nurses on the  campus —6«*
,0  mm  m  en for graatd *  At the VGH t .    ore fever scornful res  I Ift to #*»
ifti Univcrs ty students*n Xn no \uju- rtain fashion* they had demc     m& in  the wards
that they* too* could ta.ee the buffet and cushion the shook when an •..^cr-joncy arose, ilad
and courage
en for the unfailing loyally*of these    | ¥/omen* the  v;hole experiment would have
ended in dismal failure* They were true and steadfast pioneers*
Shortly before the 1924 - 1925 session begaa* we suffered a t;rievous loss* Dr* iJallin
died suddenly, lie  iiad been such a staunch friend an;, wise counsellor that 1 almost l#0t
heart. uowevor* t..     rift had to be kept turning a..      fftlftftntft --ere made for toft to lake
over additional responsibility for the time  ~oing* It daft at this particular juncture that
I r    . d more keenly tfeatt ever how good it vmb  to he able to turn to the President of Wm
versity and the Dean of Applied Science for the direction and support I so badly needed*
Soon after the session ji4 vuido.- way. an unexpected aud ftOfflftWbat alarming visitor
dropped in at the off io/ f   1ft waft a re pre sentative of tue Eockefeiler Foundation mho ex-
plained that he had been  visiting some of the well-established schools of nursing on tt
rift coast and would li e to taki a look at c    s  going on at the IE3C* 1 did. my  best &
m  cuite frankly about what we were trying to accomplish and he was so understand-
lag and sympathetic that I lost all awe of him and quite enjoyed the brief conference* xitiEiflK
Aftet*mjr4t| it did occur to HI tliat the foundation might be thinking of giving a little
i-ioney to the UBC to help us along. But this rosy dream soon faded. Lift fetal month© later.
or* I found a letter ttom tne foundation on my  desk* It apj ftfti that the foundation
ms interested in the development of Schools of Hygiene in several countries of Central
;;urope.. Wm  physic lane directing these institutions wished to establish schools of nursing
which would provide basic instruction in principles and practice of nuTting to young
ft whos v/lshed to enter the public health field.    They had asked thft Foundation    to
iMftft by Delecting   and supporting   a nurse who v;ould be capable    of acting in an
advisory capacity    ih khft organisation of such institutions*    if 1 cared to apply for such a I ositioa* favorable considerstion to my application would. .<  ranted by the ^ouudation*
W\y  I should have been chosen for such a task was (and re&alns} a mystery to rae*  All ti
I was told      I  ft Foundation felt that what 1 I .rued at the UBC and the YGH
might corae in useful in 1     e..e..e.
It was already tvtdeat I     .  | in the set-up of tbfft combined course would oe  necessary before long* 'IMry Ardcronie MftftBWtla*! t.-nu • of office mm  drav;i;..j to a olose
and she did not wish to ream*  it. An approach was iaade to Il&bel Gray who possessed iar
better Qualifications in the public health field tnan 1 had and* in addition* had an excellent background in feftftpltal administration and nursing education.   i the great satisfy
-tion of all concerned* see proved to be willing to take over tue direction of the entire
.ined course.
...    .   i: lo   or ec  ft   W%  i i* * »•** ■ - **
.uring the initial stage-
an only eiai I   I
xm^mmt ft I ieilit
to find s
means or prepa
g thrust upon t
fti m i&ny  physicians v...o (ironically i    }  oppos
could do eas to gat on with i...e Job mm *   ft1 y &y trial an
timy f;nd a more excellent way* And so t
seen compllcattMi •* • emmer anc
notes* hut here they are at last* I
arise. &s best I can*
With kindest regards anc:
sincerely -oers
aar picture of what went on
^n part in it is concer
ft cope      - heavy
• official health authori-
the combined course. 411 I
rror* Perhaps the students
,tioa of
to say* 1 shall be glad to
£&|3 ft     <i>&
jt wishes4
Y ^jU   </ *^^» \c
Pear Dr* Uprichard ; > C^j\l   I °^
Along with this letter I am sending you a little book which gives
certain details concerning ray own career and also sheds mme  light on the early develop-
that of
ment of the pioneer school of nursing in the Canadian west — the Winnipeg General Hospital w
G*»>— I hope A J-^e^C K
--which may prove useful asjft g@aaral-background#   *I graduated in 1902. as6eby 1910-had
become superintendent of nurses at the McKellar hospital in *ort William* Ontario. mAmSBQ
CIII &y.  qualifications were far from impressive.
I had only served as a head.nurse in several departments of the WGS and as a"^feitir instruct
in its school of nursing* Promotion came all too rapidly at he turn of the century.
In my  new position* I acted in the dual capacity of administra^±rax of the nursing service
a task
and head of the school of th school of nursing — axxs^Kzisaaa which gave me a practical i
Z*< l fhjbJj^' ^4<jL^A^*%      while
insight into the problem of making sure that the patients were welln cared for and at the
experience and though
same time avoiding the undue exploitation of the student nurses*    Strenuous though it wa§,
experience and though
I enjoyed the--^ak ajutafcfcix I did not realise it at the time* it was to standi me in good
stead later on.
* From the outset* however* I realized that I was not really qualified for what I was trying
to do and as the months went hy  and became more and more interested in what was going on at
in the department of nursing education at Teachers College. Columbia University* where
courses were being offered at a univereity leve^* Mo opportunities of this sort was then
available in Canada and by 191^ I^managed to scrape up enough money to take a year at
although K/V0 f^uw^A^- $ cuxL jrCvd^
Columbia evenxtkococgk I could not finance the full academic program* Here, I found for the
first assL^aaly time in my lifetime and opportunity to he a student, free from physical
strain and heavy responsibility.   $here were good courses in,the Dasic sciences *W m
the general principles of public health, all of them taught from the nursing point of
view. Above all, there was the pleasure and inspiration of .working in a university
All too^ soon the year came to an end and so did my money. A new job had to be found
and I was lucky enough to be offered the superintendency of the Children's *ospital -2- Uubf
in Winnipeg, (The four years that followed were not easy* Hxxtixm    Experiments in
nursing education did nit flourish in wartime and in 1918 the influenza epidemic made it
carry: on i^A^t^'^a^   CP* r***? &>&   ^ C€>
impossible to do more tVg&JWWfg^^ somehow or other, *ut aa meen as
t±XESsmssbct0x»ftx^ grew
the war wa^ over t3mxKxra:sxaxBJaragBx the outlook ssax brighter. All over Canada ;-an#-€r#fe,
peoially in the western provinces there was a growing demand for public health services.
Out in British Columbia, Dr Henry Esson *oung, then head of the department of-Health in
the provincial government was m^mstadSp  anxious to establish xaraci health centres  in "Sle
outlying rural districts but could not find nurses who possessed more than the most
elementary qualifications. In^m^m§§m^ir-<^e^4m^^e^^e  consulted Br* Malcolm MacEachern.aaaatx
also       in oacteriology and public blfc
8Bjp0M4n«L0Hdsnt of the Vancouver General ~ospital and Dr* E* M* Jiollin* a professor at the
chief interest
University of British Columbia who had previously had an opportunity of observing at close
five-year       in nursing and health at
range the instruction given in the combined course bE±Kgxg±XMXX±xi the University of Minne-
sita Sc-ool of %rsinf# It wat decided tiaxixan approach sto^MxiKxiimbEC±» the University
' tip
of British Columbia and to find out whether a simklar course  could be set under the joint
the University and
auspices of the Vancouver General ^ospital school of nursing.eKB lilhe president of the
University, Dr, Leonard Klinek* proved to be sympathetc to the general aims of the course
axixsc survey ofx^BtsxtstixzBxaazBKX indicated that certain essentail resources were
academic   subjects ?J e
assured. Instruction in the b»g±»XMctagaaPi was available within the University; the
Vancouver Gene al ^ospital School of nursing could afford instruction and experience in
/1/flMJMyK   I ZtjJ^fjL*—^nrv^^sif^
nursing theory and experience. Field, work in public health was decidedly meagre .but there
was a chance that the Victorian Oder of Hurses, the municijgal school nursing j?Mgxwap:x
staff and other health agencies would lemL
Xk. ( ^%
A preliminary and tentative arrangement regarding combined course students had
already been made between the University* the Vancouver General %spital and the
British Columbia Assn of leistered ^urses. This provided for sc reduction of the
duration of the three-year* period of ksapitai service required hy the  hospital
to two and a half years* The University was prepared to make certain concessions
provided that the ^opital was willing to guarantee adequate clinical experience in
all departments aoot as well as acceptable instruction in the theory of nursing*
who had taxsatiiB completed the
The Registered I Association agreed that students iaxtBgxxxch a combined course would
*** Wit i
be eligible to take examinations    whieh would qualify them for the title of Registered
KA |^W-M/xc. responsibiity withjregard    to pupil nurses
Wurse*   l The University assumed no CBiomstiBH whateveor) 5ritthxxxxBBHBi«MagxxtHiKKts
taking the ordinary three-year    course in the VGS School of Horsing. Students taking the
3f±XB»yHaxxBsax combined course were its sole concern,
®o sooner was the poject under way than I began to realize the    magnitude of the task
I had undertaken.    The ?GI^aK±Jc±txx3CBSBKiatBdxxx^xscx wme one of the largest in Canada *
(M^ of the period     fcxtx
axi like all hospitals atxthatxtiaa depended almost entireljm on the papil
nurses    for the care given to its -naJ
The fact that f,thtf University students"    had to be given special
consideration with respect to hours of duty scxst a© well as ^ the length of the
course was aixaagiyxpresented by many of the xtatilx head nurses who were therby
Quite naturally Iffy ft    *pvM*st   l^u^z^o
inconvenienced ,    It also  created a$#e jealousy      among the diploma course--stufle&ts
who had to taice the buffet and cushion the shock whenever an emergency   arose which
kept them on duty for unduly long hours*
It^^a^ot-S^^BBH^ed txatx -however that" ttaxaxx- author it ta#-a3rlog#ther appgavBrl
<$]p Jof the sudden afgsaiq&aace of a group of students in nursing.    What right had tatey to
f ft*
university privileges-aigriip^   WEggXgMIgX£KMpMJ^Iii;gCliaxiJfl     Where did they belong?
The faculty recoiled _
fi*here was no medical school,    %ere was no school of education.    Arts would have none
(J     .    It was
of us.    |!here was not even a department of home economics^to t^ke pity on^jb    Ixxas
at  this  Doint  that Dr Millin name  tr> t.hA fA«ATiA-     ho  «»^—*»;  +u*>±  ~*~ — ^^* ajbu& cCyi
U %(Usui.    C^ ^ —;/ •«^£—   ^
L ^  k^
^  k.U-   £.    »• A^a
et    <^i
A—fc-^ue^   Xie-""^e
I^^^    /e4^rw    t      *~k     ^/-^      (Vy^^_
d^irtx ^O^G^^     %V*W*Hl/ -5- "*.
C.Anything that^went wrong with the nursing service land plenty didjt ^was attributed txx
by members of the medical staff  |>who disapproved on principle of the combined course}
,v      and attention its ^ a^    dL —"  C 	
(i/^|Vthat too much time was being devoted to tkax3texx±mxx±ke development ctx&mxMwmk±Maixx and
to«r«i#fetle to the supervision and direction of the nursing service. This led to such serious
friction that it began to look as though the first year of the experiment might be its last.
^Something had to be done and done quickly. I offered to resign but a plan was ultimately
should give up duties
worked out whereby I g»xBXBpxitaxat±XBB±±BBXB:£xx my pratfctsx at the YGI  and devote my  en-
tire time to the academic aspects of the course as a xsxp humble member of the faculty ef
applied science at the University. Miss Kathleen Ellis, a very able and experienced administrator and educator, bevame the director of nursing at the VGH.
B this time the University had moved out to its present site and a little office was
assigned fsxxlksx as a headquarters ofr ttexxxx combined course activities. It was badly
a more insistent        than ever     provincial qualified
needed for there was now a demand f»xx3pia±±£± from the department of public ks&x for public
health nurses* The Canadian Eed Cross Society offered financial support  and it was decided
to offer a diploma course to graduate nurses who wished to enter the public health field.
Field work already arranged for combined course students could be further developed to suit
their needs if only a qualified person could be found to take charge of it. An approach was
made to Mary Ardcronie MacKenzie who had recently retired after a long and notable service
as the head of the Victorian Order of %rses for Canada, ^ot only was she eminently well
qualified from a nursing point of view ~ she also possessed an academic degree. She was
willing to take sxsx the task but only for a limited time# I think we both wondered whether
we could establish a good working relationship but we managed it.xamHtawcs: A good number of
suitab :e applicants turned up aM the bb^jh&xxx one-afear diploma course got underway.
This liefted^ar-heavy burden^^fri^^^ia^^j^^^^^ gave mm time  to consult Miss Ellis
regarding rum arrangements for the combined course students. Obviously. I no longer had
cvk& oaa-cJVv    themxx in
t3» authority I had possessed acsxxx^^in^y former VS1 position to place cbs&±hb&xb£BXSBx
ft*5SL set up
whatever services seemed best in the circumstances. It was therefore necessary to KBXkXHBt
^ a mutually acceptable plan and to try-toewxkx carry it out with as little friction as
possible. This was not always easy for either of us^butiwe managed tmmmmm*   t -6-
of the UBC was taken for granted and at the VGI there were fewer references to "those
University students"* -*tfH»oiiIo of thcm-woro actual ly elotad-to serve -en^fche--s£IU<gW Council
fUf. It is
it this point that I
cbbbxx acknowledge^with affection and admiration my  debt to
all these young women. Had it not been for their loyalty and courage under difficult
circumstances* the whole experiment would have-bees^a- dismal failure. They demonstrated tfcaix
In no uncertain fashion that they too could "take the buffet and cushion the shock." ^hey
wexejsostiLjmrsew^M  pioneersT wortEy~trr~ the^ujb^&^bs^
Shortly before the 1924 - 1925 session was about to begin, we suffered a grievous loss,
Dr, liallin ±$s&  suddenly.  He had been such a wise counsellor and staunch friend in so
many complex situations that I almost heart, however* the wheels had to be kept turning
and temporary arrangements were made for me to take over certain a^
ties usgigafc33+frw ^miiLlmM^^MiX&z^h^  WBla. It was at this
realized how good it was to be able to wmtfmmm> the President of the University and the
juncture that I
Dean of the faculty of Applied Science for the direction and support I needed so badly*
77, <
SM Soon after the session began* an unexpected visitor dropped in at the office,
was a representative of the Eockefeller Foundation who ea^ferfned that he had been visiting
variBag well-established university schools of nursing on the Pacific coast and thought he
would take a look at what was going on at the UBC, I d4&*^i^a^ what we were
trying to accomplish and he was so undestanding and sympathetic that I lost all awe of him
and quit
ijLMs- c**~. <3l_,
quite enjoyed the brief conference* lZt  did occur to me that the foundation might even
givfythe  UBC a little money to help us along bufcas-#ii^^ rosy dream^aded. Xifluiooa
eaoxit" o$ aeoneielei isws'i eiew enexif H5V ©h* fa bim befuMT^ 10I ne^af saw OfflJ oil* to
lionuoo ^nefoxrt"a edi no eviea of befole ^Xlastfoa e*evt medf to  emoa —    "ttaatefl ^iaisvinU
ax tl     .lleaierl lo frniroooa boos • ***% Wme "rfi/IO aie\alcl  edf ebsrn" medf to em QOJ edf fa bna
of fdeb 10 noifmiMha bna noitfoella dttvi eshslwonioa xmmmxspm of fnmi I fadf taioq ni&f fa
tMuroittib lebnu egaixroo baa    \fia%el ilsdf lot need fon fi bail    .nemow *ym*| eeedt 11a
x&Kafcf bo*a*x;J*3nomel> ^exff  .eiiflial Xarasib a need evarf bli/ow "Ixianiiiceqxe eloiiw edf  %ueomf®mito*iio
\odT    ".iooxia edf noixfauo bna fetlud edf elafn blssoe oof \edf iadt noixfaal aiat'lsWMT on ni
.eman edf to i$i:fiow ateenoiq baa aeaTcm hoog erew
.aaol axxoveiT^ a beieltxra ew tniB®d ot tfxfoda saw xxoiaaea    asei - &&QI edi eiolecf %lfio,,%
oa ai bnoxil hoixira;ra baa lolleaxuroo saJtw a hox/a need ban ell      tXfallftifl feafet niXXuii .id
SHixxmt *qei ed ot bah aloexiw i*# tievewo^    ♦ J'xaaxi juatft I  fMf anoi^arnfrla xeXqmeo ^aam
-iXidx uioqaeT eviuai^ainiitiba niMfieo tevt e^a* o£ em tot sbam ertew ItaiflMp&rnPI 'fMteffUtf bna
I  ifaiij- eijutfomxf, •xaliroitiaq slh* £a aaw fl     ,abaci ecf blxroo fnemfntoctqa van a Xi^nir    aei*
exi£ baa ^iaievixU edf lo itxiebiaeiU edf no %le% of eXcia ed of em fi boos wori hesilaat
*\lhad oa bebeeis I    fioqqsm bna noxd*o8iib edf aol ooaoioa BoiXqqA lo ^tli/oat edf to naeCI
•fi    .eoxllo WW f& xxi iaffMt    tofriaxv bo^ooqxoaxx na taaaed aoiaaea edf tefla aoo3    1DL2
i^iaiv need bah eh taxi* fienialqxe oxiw    noi*abiixrori leXXele^ooH edf lo mtt*t&mWl*% a aaw
exl iiHWCt boa £aaoo oxtioa'I exld* no    s^iaxcrn lo alooxioa *y^ia*xeviii0 bexiaildatae-IIew axroiiav
eiew ow ;J\arlw mih lief of faed ^pa bib I     .DfflJ eh^ *a no B^i°3 ^aw *^w ^*a ^ooi a 9:i£;t    hXirow
fflih to swa XXa J-30X I  Ntft oi^eh^aqm^a bn& snihnaJaebnir oa aaw oh bna riallqmoooa o^ sni^-xt
neve    fdr^tm noital>nxrou eh* f&iif em of tuooo bib fl       ^ooneielnoo lelid  edf be^otne efiup bna
*behal tmetb ^ao^ ad* \d fam arid-nom edf aa fori    gnoXa axr qXeri o* fWIIW eX**il a OSU exi* evis -6-
As time went on things settled dowfc a bit.  The presence of n rses on the campus was take
and scornful
for granted, SLB5Kxtax±Kgxt^xK«^xs2iixs3smr5KX5HBWs4xtxa±xxxKy  %ere were fewer references to "those university students" who were getting their clinical experience at the YSfi.
It is at this point that I would like to sxpxBssxx acknowledge with affection and admiration
Had it
the part that these young women played in ggetting the course underway, XXXJIXXI2L not been
xihBxiMsixx difficult
for their loyalty and c&urage underx±xy±Hg circumstances $z  the experiment would have been
dismal h- ^fcL M^HAc^ &>*  *- 0GT fcu^
a failure, They demonstrated in no uncertain fashion that they too could take the buffet and
cushion the shock, 2?hey were pioneers.
Just as the 1924 - 1925 session was about to begin* we suffered a grievous loss. Dr.
Mullin died suddenly* He had been such a staunch friend and wise counsellor in so many
different situations that I almost lost heart but somehow or other the wheels had to be kept
_ administrative
turning. Temporary arrangements were made for me to assume certain responsibilities until
could be appointed to take over his duties.
a successor to Dr, Hillin co&M take over. HXXX It was at this juncture that I realized
more keenly than ever how good it was to be able to rely on the direction and support of
the president of the University, tne dean of Applied Science and the medical superintendent
of the 7GH,
Shortly after the session began an unexpected visitor came to my  office.   This was
explained that American
a representative of the Rockefeller foundation who had been  visiting various university
schools of nursing on the Pacific coast and thought he would *3dbfceHN» take a look at what
was going on at the UBC, ESKMMM8XIX    I told him qa±±Bxfxaakiyxabout the difficult problems
which had arisen as a result of Dr, Mallinfs iKXiixxxx death  and answered his questions J
were O^T
asxfxxxx about what wetrying to accomplish. He was so understanding and sympathetic that I
It did
lost all awe of him and thoroughly enjoyed our brief conference. XXUX AMZMXMMMM$m&
occur to me that the Foundation might give the University a little money to help us carry on.
rosy e .
But the weeks went by without any realization of so wjfcjtaixa dream.   Aad then one day a
letter came iaxayxiteafcxxx from the foundation asking whether I would be interested n
applying for a position as field director attached to ±kax the Paris office. r^^jJh
Then, one morning* I found a letter from the Foundation on my  desk,  It^appeared that
the foundation was interested in the development of schools of public health in vagieus^yiw A
central     t^V*%~ s ^"^
cfinatries in Europe anfcjjgat fhe medical me*i who were  iaxshaxgKxaf directing i&sjusxx them
wished to establish schools ofxssxistKig ^eafe would provide basic instruction in nursing .
for woung women wishing to enter the public health field, %tgs sohoulg were to be ^sts&Sfsh
^      ~ *" te ^ J#u
€m under the auspices of universitifiefe    and^associated hospitals and would lead to diploma/
out not to^academic degrees.      Thcrps digwtors hadcasaked the Fo^^ation    to find someone
in the preliminary    the organization of--.__
t^w   QCL^L
who could assist in axgaxixlxgxsuch. schools   e^A^n^he-e^tection nuisiixg-leadei^    i~wEo
o&$Mr be  sent abruad~ftH^stuay'^ tf I oswred: >o_to sead^i
an application it would be given favorableconsideration.
' Why the    oundation should
CUrt^C ci^^
told was
se±eo*ed me for such a task remains a mystery.    All that  I
^^tunf^^i^ (mostly by trial and error)
that what I_had learned, at the UBC,and trie YGH might c
ajfxfcaatyxx via useful in the Balkans.    %fe^ll that-4^~anot^er At story^JOaMSQGIIr^mt^
an<*^or-dT7gTr^Eaanrppnftd aa&*
-cfiose to pasa throu^F^tt.
^h^   ~
^=r1^ fe^Ti
C*—^     G*s
e 6^e
the direction
was willing to take over xJMB$HHsifc±i±±;rx
All that need be said here is M ahel F. Gray
for the course at the University of British Columbia and that she Drought to i* the task
qualifications that I had never possessed and whuch ensured her subsequent success.
I am afraid that I have not managed to do what you asked me to do ~ this long screed giv*
no clear picture of what it was that kept maxgsi»g3PCx4»nafc the combined course ) going for
immxtpxStxmx$mmxM$  for nearly five years. ZZZXZSiUEXXXiZlX I was nothing more than a pionee
and following it
seeding a path — mostly by trial and error. -4-
T3ae fall term of theUniversity was just about to begin so there was no time to be lost.
- Arts
It vme  discovered that a small group of students already HHXBiiratx taking the regular course
zasartszz wished to transfer to nursing and azsaagez suitable adjustments ±Hxtto±xxjacBgx»3B3ix
were made to enable them to do so. It was understood that during the following summer*
while the University was not in session* they would take the preliminary course, required by
the VGIn School of ^ursing and* if they passed the necessary tests, would proceed taxiakax
/ academic
the five-year c mbined course in applied science and nursing leading to the degree of
authorities        |
Applied Science (Nursing) and the diploma of the VGA School of Nursing. Tae  University
and the VGI  made it clearxjfekscix
xaugKlxsg that students should be assured of instruction in the theory of nursing and afforded clinical experience xs^sx equal to that required for registration purposes by the
r*v British Columbia Association of Eegistered Curses.  The University assumed no responsibility
whatever for the students taking fhe  diploma course offered by the TGI. Students taking the
five-year course were its sple concern.
No sooner was the project under way than it began to dawn on me that the administration I am afraid that tnis long screed does not give a clear picture of what went on during
the initial stages of the experiment* *°ut perhaps it will serve as bxjBkgxsnsuai source matera
rial for a brief historical reference to it.     So far as wy  own connection with it is
concerned, I can only say that I tried to find a better way of preparing nurses to cope
heavy rt^^ official
v/ith the responsibilities thaixxxsKsrsxhslHg thrust upon them by various health agencies
the  many them the right to instruction at the university
and, ironically enough, by  physicians who denied itaaxxxxihExxigfcfcxmf nurses to hxgksxxxx
level, _
artxf■xiaiiitiTli«YgraH>aAx   I knew that I myself was not academically qualified anil that
all I could do was to get on with the job, mostly by trial and error. Perhaps xttxKKxi±x^a*xx
sacsisx the combined course students would find a more excellent way. And so they did.


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