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Across Canada : Western Lines, east bound Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1922

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  Save the Forests!
Canada's timber reserves are national assets of
incalculable value. To neglect to take ordinary
precautions which ensure them against destruction
from forest fires is to rob civilization. Quite apart
from the danger to the lives, homes and property
of settlers, every acre of forest burned means labor
turned away, reduced markets for manufactured
products, heavier taxation on other property, and
higher lumber prices. Passengers on trains should
not throw lighted cigar or cigarette ends from car
windows. Those who go into the woods—hunters,
fishermen, campers and canoeists—should consider
it their duty to exercise every care to prevent
loss from fire. YE 2
Across Canada
An Annotated Guide to
the Country served by the
Canadian Pacific Railway
and its  Allied   Interests
First Issued in 1887
This Edition Revised to 1925
Canadian Pacific Railway
PRINTED IN CANADA Across Canada by
Canadian   Pacific
THE Canadian Pacific Railway is the world's greatest
transportation system.
With a total length, including lines owned and controlled,
of over 20,100 miles, it serves all the important industrial,
commercial and agricultural sections of Canada, as well as
many parts of the United States. Practically every large
city of Canada is on its system. It reaches famous historic
spots, wonderful vacation and sporting resorts, and some
of the most magnificent scenery in the world.
Its steamship services reach out across the Atlantic to
Europe, and across the Pacific to the Orient. Its telegraph
system extends along the entire length of the railway and
reaches as well every point of importance in Canada away
from it. Its thirteen fine hotels set the standard for hotel
accommodation in Canada. Its express system (the Dominion Express Company) has a world-wide service. Its
land-settlement policy, coupled with the large areas of
fertile agricultural land that it still has for sale in the west,
is helping to accomplish the development of a richer and
bigger Canada. I §
This "Annotated Guide" is a description of the Canadian Pacific
system and of those systems allied or associated with it. While principally dealing with the various cities and resorts from the viewpoint of
the pleasure-traveller, it also pays some attention to the industrial
activities and natural resources of Canada: and while the latter information is not—because of the nature of this publication—of an exhaustive
character, yet it is hoped that it will be stimulative as indicating the
potentialities of this great Dominion.
"Across Canada" is in most cases written as though the reader were
travelling westward, but it can be used equally as easily in the reverse direction. At the head of nearly every page, in italic type (like this) is a list of
stations and a general description of that section of the country; one has but
to turn to the later pages, and to read the station names upwards instead of
downwards, to trace the journey eastward instead of westward.
Below this general description is a more detailed story of the important cities, towns, or sights that are embraced within that section
—set in roman type, like this.
The story of the main line is begun from both Montreal and Toronto,
with branch lines interposed at the appropriate places. Secondary
main lines, and branches not linked with the main line, are arranged
roughly by provinces and as radiating from the principal cities concerned.
"Across Canada"—which is also called "The Annotated Time
Table"—is issued in two parts, Eastern Lines and Western Lines.
Copies can be obtained from porters on transcontinental trains, Canadian Pacific passenger agents, or from the General Publicity Department, Canadian Pacific Railway, Montreal. Table of Contents
\ Page
Montreal to Sudbury. §  4
Iforonto to Sudbury |  14
Great Lakes Steamship Route  65
Sudbury to Fort William  20
Fort William to Winnipeg  24
Montreal to St. John and Halifax  26
Montreal to Toronto (and branches)  49
Toronto to Windsor (and branches)  61
Montreal and Toronto to Sault Ste. Marie  66
Halifax to Yarmouth  36
St. John to Halifax.  33
West St. John to St. Stephen  30
McAdam to Fredericton, St. Andrews and Edmundston 28-29
Montreal to Quebec (and branches)  40
Montreal to Sherbrooke and Megantic  26
Quebec to Sherbrooke  43
Montreal to Mont Laurier, Ottawa (via North Shore), etc 45-46
Branches from Ottawa  48
Mattawa to Angliers  11
Toronto to Hamilton and Niagara Falls..  55
Toronto to Wingham, Owen Sound, Goderich and Bobcaygeon. .57-60
Toronto to Ottawa  60
Renfrew to Kingston  10
Montreal to New York, Boston and Portland  44
Montreal and Toronto to Chicago 64
Toronto to Buffalo and New York  55
Montreal and Toronto to St. Paul, Minneapolis and Duluth  68
Montreal to Sudbury  9
Toronto to Sudbury and Winnipeg  19
Montreal to Quebec and McAdam  39
McAdam to St. John and Halifax  31
Montreal to Toronto and Detroit  51
Index to principal stations  71
Distances by Canadian Pacific  70 Across  Canada
Dominion Square and Windsor Station, Montreal
Montreal is the chief city and commercial metropolis of Canada
and the gateway to most of the Province of Quebec.
It stands on an island formed by the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers,
on the site of the ancient Indian village of Hochelaga; and not only
enjoys the distinction of being a great ocean port nearly a thousand
miles inland, but in point of foreign commerce is the second port of
North America. The city is 150 miles above salt water, but the broad
St. Lawrence forms a highway upon which ocean-going steamers
ascend. The city has a far-reaching trade and great manufacturing
establishments, with many miles of fine concrete wharves, vast warehouses, huge grain elevators with a total capacity of over ten million
bushels, and a large floating dry-dock.
Mount Royal     Prominent from every part of Montreal is Mount
Royal, a large and beautiful public park. From
the Look-out a wonderful panoramic view can be obtained of the city
and river. Nestling in the shelter of the mountain is McGill University, one of the most famous educational institutions of this continent. A sister university, the Universite de Montreal, ministers
to the French-speaking population. Montreal has many fine public
buildings, and numerous churches, convents and hospitals. Notre
Dame is perhaps the largest Catholic church of America, for it can
easily accommodate ten thousand worshippers and has been known
to have housed fifteen thousand. Montreal is the largest bi-lingual
city and the fourth largest French-speaking city in the world; over
half the population of Greater Montreal (900,000) speak French as their
mother tongue.
Historic Historically, although it lives so strictly in the present,
Montreal Montreal is as interesting as Quebec. The village of
Hochelaga was visited by Jacques Cartier in 1535; in
1642 Maisonneuve established a settlement called "Ville Marie."
Wars with the Indians and later wars with the English did not interfere
with Montreal's growth. In 1760 it was the last stand of the French
after Wolfe had defeated Montcalm at Quebec. The section between
Notre Dame and the St. Lawrence is full of quaint old buildings and
ihstorical memories that go with them. (Continued over page).
The correctness of the figures of populations at the different cities and
towns mentioned has been checked with the latest information available,
but is not guaranteed. ' X ■MmhUW^^& ="»- :'
-laf''"' -111'
M* \#&20i&£i
(Above) The Place Viger Hotel
(At side) Notre Dame
(Below) In the Angus Shops
Montreal Harbor
MONTREAL Across   Canada
Chateau de Ramezay, Montreal
Montreal (continued).
Chateau de Ramezay     Not far from the river-front, near Notre Dame.
stands a quaint old rough-cast building known
as the Chateau de Ramezay. This was the residence of the French
governors, and many a brilliant and historic gathering assembled in
its rooms during the old regime. Later in its life it became the property
of the Compagnie des Indes, and was the centre of the fur trade; but
in 1763 it again housed the Governor, this time British. -Thus it
remained more or less for a hundred years, with the interval of 1775-76,
when it was the headquarters for the Continental Congress. Here
Benjamin Franklin tried to persuade the Canadians to forsake the
British flag, and the printing press he brought with him to start a
newspaper is still preserved.  The building is now used as a museum.
The Place Viger    The oldest church in Montreal is quite close to
the Chateau de Ramezay. This is Notre Dame
de Bonsecours, which was particularly the shrine of sailors. In this
historic section, too, the Canadian Pacific Hotel, the Place Viger,
is situated—one of the city's numerous good hotels. This imposing
structure is named in honor of the first mayor of Montreal, and faces
the quiet and graceful square of the same name, about a mile and a
half from Windsor Street. It is only a few minutes' walk from the
business portion of the city and the steamship docks. At the rear
of the hotel is the Place Viger Station.
The city has beautiful suburbs—Westmount, which runs part way
up Mount Royal, Outremont, Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal West
and, across the river, St. Lambert and Longueuil.
The Canadian Pacific      Montreal is the headquarters of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, the greatest transportation
system in the world. The company has two stations, Windsor Street,
the principal, facing Dominion Square, and the Place Viger. From the
former start the transcontinental trains to Western Canada and the
Pacific Coast, and important lines to Ontario and the Maritime
Provinces; from the latter, trains to Quebec, the Laurentian Mountains, and other points north of the St. Lawrence River. In the east
end of the city are the company's Angus Shops, the largest on the
continent, with the most modern equipment for locomotive and car
building and repairing. They cover an area of 200 acres, with 37
acres of shop floor space and 33 miles of trackage. The number of men
employed is 9,500 and a complete passenger and freight train can be
turned out every day. The shop capacity for new freight cars is
6,000 per annum.
Montreal to Winnipeg (Main line)—Next page.
Montreal to St. John and Halifax—Page 26.
Montreal to Quebec—Page 38.
Montreal to New York, Boston and Portland—Page 44.
Montreal to Mont Laurier—Page 45.
Montreal to Ottawa via North Shore—Page 46.
Montreal to Toronto via Lake Shore—Page 49.   Via Peterborough—Page 53. To  the   Nation's   Capital
Montreal to Sudbury: 439 miles
(For Map, see page 9)
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Montreal West
Ste. Annes
Transcontinental trains from Montreal depart from
Windsor Station and run through to the Pacific Coast
without change. West of Montreal are several charming suburbs, many of them independent municipalities
but included in Greater Montreal. Westmount, with a
population of 18,500, is the most important of these; its
fine residential district on the mountain-side affords
a magnificent outlook over the city and the river.
Leaving Greater Montreal at Montreal West we continue across the Island of Montreal, passing a succes-
Caledonia Springs   sion of charming settlements which front on Lake St.
Pendleton Louis,  an  expansion  of the  River  St.  Lawrence.
Hammond Several of Montreal's finest golf courses may be seen
Navan here—courses that in the summer season are extremely
Ottawa popular.
At Ste. Annes the line leaves the Island of Montreal
and crosses the Ottawa River to He Perrot and then to Vaudreuil, a magnificent view of the river being afforded from the railway bridge. Beyond this
the river expands into the Lake of Two Mountains, which the railway skirts
for several miles and on whose shores are the popular summer resorts
of Como, Hudson Heights and Rigaud. Rigaud Mountain is a prominent
landmark known as the "Devil's Playground"; in its rocky bareness it is
sharply contrasted with the luxuriant vegetation of the surrounding country. On the opposite shore of the lake stands the Trappist monastery
of Oka. Five and one-half miles beyond Rigaud the train crosses the boundary between Ontario and Quebec. Running into the Union Station, Ottawa;
we catch a glimpse of the Rideau Canal, which connects Ottawa with Lake
Ontario at Kingston. |g|j
Ste. Anne de Bellevue      (or Ste. Annes) lies at the extreme end of the
Island of Montreal at the confluence of
the Ottawa and the St. Lawrence Rivers. There is a fine steel
bridge here, directly under which are'the locks which lift steamers traversing the river over the rapids. Not far from the station is
Macdonald College, where courses in practical agriculture, household
science and pedagogy are conducted. The college
grounds overlook
the river and are
very beautiful; the
numerous buildings
with their attractive red-tiled roofs
and the well-cultivated fields and
experimental plots
surrounding them
form an imposing
picture. A large
military hospital is
also located here.
Students of literature will be interested to learn that it was at Ste.
Annes that Moore wrote "The Canadian Boat Song."
Vankleek (Population 1,500) is a thriving town with various sawmills and industries depending on the lumber-trade. Caledonia Springs, in the centre of a fine farming district, is widely known
because of the medicinal value of its waters, which are now bottled
and widely marketed.
Branch Line      Rigaud to Point Fortune.'a summer resort 7 miles away on the Ottawa
.    .     . River.   On the opposite shore is the village of Carillon, in which a mem
orial indicates the point where Doilard des Ormeaux and a little band of French-Canadian
heroes withstood, in 1660, the attacks of an army of Iroquois—one of the finest episodes
in early Canadian history.
Macdonald College, Ste. Anne de Bellevue 8
Across   Canada
Dominion Parliament Buildings, Ottawa
Ottawa The capital of the Dominion of Canada stands at the
junction of the Rideau and Ottawa Rivers, its site being
characterized by a picturesque grandeur appropriate to its national
importance. Ottawa is the residence of the Governor-General, the
meeting place of the House of Commons and the Senate, and the
headquarters of the Government administrative departments.
The Parliament Buildings, the first foundation stone of which
was laid in 1860, were partly destroyed by a disastrous fire in 1916,
but the reconstructed central building, which has just been completed,
is a magnificent pile that fitly replaces it. Rideau Hall, the Governor-
General's house, is a charming residence within the city limits and
the centre of much of Ottawa's brilliant social life.
A Lumber City     Amongst the many interesting places that Ottawa
has to visit are the Royal Mint, the Victoria
Museum, and the Hall of Fame, but by no means less engrossing are
the many lumber mills in the Chaudiere district, through which pass
the thousands of logs floated down the Gatineau and other tributaries
of the Ottawa River. Because of the wonderful water-power furnished
by the Chaudiere Falls, which here interrupt the navigation of the
Ottawa River, these mills can easily handle all the lumber from its
large tributary districts.
Beautiful Parks The city stands on high ground, and has a large
mileage of well-laid driveways as well as many
beautiful parks, of which two of the finest are Major's Hill and Nepean
Parks, both overlooking the river. From Major's Hill a beautiful
panoramic view of the river, the city of Hull, and the dark blue Laurentian Mountains in the background can be obtained. The population
of the city is 120,000, which is, of course, considerably augmented
during the legislative seasons. Near Ottawa are many popular summer
resorts, including those along the Gatineau River to the north.
Hull is across the river from Ottawa, in the province of Quebec.
Its population (35,600) is mainly French-Canadian. It is
actively engaged in the various industries arising from the lumber
trade. Pulp, paper, steel, cement and textile establishments are also
located here.
Branch Lines   Ottawa to Maniwaki—Page 48.
Ottawa to Waltham—Page 48.
Ottawa to Prescott—Pages 4849.
Ottawa to Brockville—Pages 48-49.
Ottawa to Toronto—Pages 48-49. II   II,. II
Indicates Double Track
Checked CP.Ry.Feb. 1925
Across   Canada
Lumbering in Quebec
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Hull Leaving
Hull West        Ottawa,  the
Stittville transcontinen-
Ashton tal trains cross.
Carleton Place by the  Inter-
A Imonte pr ovincial
Pakenham        Bridge io  the
Arnprior north shore of
Braeside the Ottawa
Sand Point       River and the
Renfrew city   of Hull,
which lies in
the Province of Quebec. But
from Hull West the line returns to the south shore and,
except where the railway swings
south to Carleton Place, the route followed is along the beautiful valley of
the Ottawa River. This region is well-settled and prosperous, and many
fine well-cultivated farming areas are passed. At points where the railway
skirts the river, travellers will be interested in the enormous quantities of
saw-logs to be seen along the shores, these being held in boom for use in
the mills below. The numerous small towns along the river also show signs
of lumbering activities, and at many points favorable to the establishment
of sawmills due advantage has been taken of the fact. Numerous streams
of clear rushing water join the Ottawa; most of these are excellent fishing
streams, maskinonge, trout and bass being abundant.
Hull—see page 8.
Carleton Place       (Population 3,900) has railway shops, textiles and
other industries.   Nearby is Mississippi Lake,  a
summer resort which offers good fishing.
Almonte (Population 3,000) with a large supply of   available
water-power, has several flourishing industries, including
iron works and woollen mills. It is the distributing centre of a prosperous farming community.
Pakenham      is a small but busy manufacturing centre.
Arnprior        (Population 4,100), situated  at  the  confluence  of  the
Ottawa and Madawaska Rivers, has one of the largest
lumber yards on the continent.   Large woollen mills and saw-mills
are also located here.
Renfrew        (Population 5,000) is a thriving town on the Bonnecheer
River, eight miles from its junction with the Ottawa.
Several flour mills are located here.  Deposits of graphite and molybdenite are found in the vicinity.
Branch Lines   Carleton Place to Smith's Falls  (on the Montreal-Toronto line) and
Brockville on the St. Lawrence River—Page 48.
Renfrew to Egan ville.
Branch Line—Renfrew to Kingston
From Renfrew a branch runs south to Kingston on the
St. Lawrence River, crossing the two Montreal-Toronto
lines at Sharbot Lake and at Tichborne. (See pages 50
and 53). Sharbot Lake, one of the most charming lakes
in the region, is a well-patronized summer resort. Near
Tichborne are Bob's Lake and Crow Lake, tributaries
of the Rideau system. This is a very fine fishing country, especially for bass
and pickerel (dore). In the Calabogie district and near most of the stations
north of Sharbot Lake excellent deer hunting and duck and partridge shooting
may also be had.
Sharbot Lake
Tichborne .
Kingston The Ottawa Valley
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Chalk River
Deux Rivieres
Continuing along the Ottawa Valley, between Renfrew
and Pembroke the line runs through some choice farming
country. Speeding westward, however, we soon find ourselves in the typical north country—a land of rock, lake
and timber. Here and there may be seen clearings of
enterprising farmers, but agriculture is no longer one
of the main pursuits. The chief industry in this district
. is lumbering, and each village has its sawmill or is
engaged in shipping pulpwood to the mills. Fishing and
hunting may be obtained in abundance, particularly in
the neighborhood of Stonecliff, Deux Rivieres and Klock.
Petawawa, on the Ottawa River, was the site, during the
war, of a large military camp and the training-ground,
notably of many crack artillery batteries. Chalk River
is the end of the Quebec District of the railway and the
beginning of the Algoma District,^phich was formerly known as the uLake
Superior Division."
Pembroke (Population 8,000) is the chief town of the Ottawa
Valley and the centre of a good farming district.
Many industrial enterprises operate here, including lumber mills and
the various other industries related thereto. Situated on Alumette
Lake, an expansion of the Ottawa River, Pembroke is an attractive
residential town. A good boat service on the Ottawa River (which
is navigable for fifty miles west) affords access to the many summer
resorts in this section.
Mattawa (meaning "the meeting of the waters") stands at the
confluence of the Ottawa and Mattawa Rivers. Formerly
an important Hudson's Bay trading post, it is to-day the base of all
expeditions into the primitive country of Lake Temiskaming. Near
the town are some large deposits of mica.
Branch Line—Mattawa to Angliers
Mattawa From Mattawa, winding along the bank of the Ottawa
Timiskaming River, a branch line runs north towards the new Rouyn
Kipawa mining regions.  At Timiskaming we encounter the great
Ville Marie pulp and paper industry of the north, and an interesting
Lorrainville visit can be paid to the large mills established here. The
Angliers country around Kipawa is well known to the experienced
sportsman, for the "hiding place," as its Indian name
signifies, is the centre of an intricate network of lakes and rivers, and the
angler need be neither very patient nor very skilful in order to take from the
Kipawa district
a f e w of i t s
abundant pike,
pickerel, trout,
whitefish and
bass. Hunting,
too, is very good,
especially for
moose. Ville
Marie, thelargest
settlement of the
district, is very
situated on Lake
and is ihe centre
of a large trade
up and down that
Lorrainville is a prosperous agricultural territory. Angliers, the present
terminus of this line, is situated on the rocky shores of Lac des Quinze.
Steamer and airplane services connect it in summer with the gold mining
districts situated some distance north.
Timiskaming—The Paper Mill 12 Across   Can ad
North Bay Station
The Province of Ontario
The province of Ontario, through which we travel on our way west continuously for nearly 1,300 miles, covers an area of 407,262 square miles.
It is three and one-half times the size of the British Isles and twice the size
of France. Its population is three millions.
Of all the provinces of Canada, Ontario is one of the most richly endowed
with natural beauty. For five-sixths of its southern border, it has a twenty-
five-hundred-mile coast line upon four of the Great Lakes—Superior, Huron,
Erie, and Ontario—and upon the St. Lawrence River. It has, furthermore,
numerous smaller lake systems and several noble rivers.
Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa and French Rivers roughly divide the
province into two main geographical divisions—Northern Ontario and Old
Ontario. Northern Ontario is mainly a vast region of forests, mineral
lands and lakes. Its immense production of minerals, particularly nickel
and copper, has already made it world-famous; it is rich in timber, and
it possesses a great clay belt containing many million acres of farming
land of great promise. Agriculture in this district, however, is still in the
pioneer stage.
For Old Ontario—see page IS
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Eau Claire In our westward journey from Montreal we have beenfollow-
Rutherglen ing, for the most part, the trail of those hardy adventurers
Bonfield who first penetrated the northern half of the North American
Thorncliffe continent. In 1615—-five years before the Pilgrim Fathers
North Bay landed at Plymouth Rock—the heroic French pioneers,
led by Samuel Champlain, discovered this route up the St.
Lawrence, the Ottawa and the Mattawa Rivers, across Lake Nipissing,
and by the French River into Georgian Bay. By this route, too, long before
they dared the risk of the upper St. Lawrence, Lake Michigan was discovered and explored, and missionaries were sent out while the English
settlers were still trying to obtain a precarious foothold on the Atlantic
North Bay is the headquarters of the Algoma District of the
railway. A city with a population of some twelve
thousand, located on the north shore of Lake Nipissing, it is a centre
from which six lines of railway radiate. One of these is the Timiskaming and Northern Ontario Railway, which co-operates with the
Canadian Pacific in a through sleeping-car service to the well-known
sporting and camping centre, Temagami, and the famous silver and
gold mining districts of Cobalt and Porcupine.
From a vacation standpoint the great charm of North Bay lies in
Lake Nipissing and the beautiful French River. The lake is a magnificent sheet of water, fifty miles long by t\n enty miles wide, plentifully
dotted with rocky islands, and connected with the Georgian Bay by
the French River, which flows out of its south-western corner. Among
the maze of rocks and islands in this region the bass fishing is excellent.
In the clear cold lakes in the country immediately north of Lake
Nipissing other varieties of game fish are to be found.
(For a full description of French River, which is travelled both from its
southern and northern ends, see page 18).
Branch Lines    (T. 4N.0. Ry.) North Bay to Temagami, Cobalt, Haiieybury, New
Liskeard. Timmins and Cochrane. Northern   Ontario
.■^JKfcMip ? '    &■   j
f; WuMm^   ■    -   <"*"/.    v(^1j#
Nickel Smelting at Sudbury
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Sturgeon Falls     Westward from North Bay, the railway skirts the sandy
Cache Bay north shore of Lake Nipissing.    For a considerable dis-
Verner tance the line runs through the bush country of one of the
Warren many Indian reservations scattered throughout the prov-
Coniston ince.   Westward, again, the character of the country
Romford suddenly changes, and the bush land of the reserve gives
Sudbury . way to a well-settled prosperous farming district ex
tending along the line for over twenty-five miles. Some
ten thousand people, most of them French-Canadian, live in this farming
community, the land having been taken up nearly half a century ago by
settlers from Papineauville who came to Ontario with the railway construction gangs. At Coniston we are in the nickel belt, evidenced by the
big smelter which may be seen south of the line, shortly after crossing the
tracks of the Canadian National Railways. For some distance before
Sudbury is reached, the line winds around bays and thunders through rock-
cuts past the winding shores of little Lake Ramsay.
Sturgeon Falls       takes its name from the falls on the river of the
same name. The falls provide the power for the
plant of the Spanish River Pulp and Paper Company which produces
large quantities of newsprint and sulphite annually.
Sudbury (Population 9,000) is in the centre of the world's greatest
nickel deposits, a source of incalculable wealth. A belt
of some thirty miles by sixteen miles is estimated to contain anything
up to five hundred million tons of combined nickel and copper. Smelting is carried on a short distance from the city, the process removing
the large iron content and producing nickel-copper matte suitable
for refining. The nickel content averages 3.09 per cent and the copper
content 2.12 per cent. From mines and smelters in this district the
International Nickel Company, the Mond Nickel Company and the
British American Nickel Corporation ship to their refineries in
Canada, in New Jersey, and in South Wales. Sudbury supplies over
two-thirds of the world's consumption of nickel. Close by is the
immense Moose Mountain Iron Range, which contains one hundred
million tons of iron ore. Backed by these tremendous resources, it is
not surprising that the streets and buildings of Sudbury are those of a
city. Sudbury is also the chief distributing centre of an agricultural
region of 300 square miles, lying within two miles of the city, and
it serves large lumbering interests in the surrounding district.
Branch Lines   Romford Junction is the point of connection with the Canadian Pacific
main line from Toronto to Sudbury and the west—Page 16.
Sudbury to Sault Ste. Marie. St. Paul and Duluth—Page 66.
Transcontinental Journey continued on page 20. 14
Across   Canada
Yonge Street, Toronto
Toronto The transcontinental journey can be commenced at
Toronto as well as Montreal, for
there is a through Canadian Pacific
daily service from here to the Pacific
Coast. Toronto (population 634,000)
is the capital of Ontario and the
second largest city of Canada.
Beautifully situated on the shore of
Lake Ontario, it is affectionately
called the "Queen City" by its citizens. It is the seat of the University
of Toronto and of the provincial
A Manufacturing City     Toronto has
manufacturing establishments, large
and small, numbering over three
thousand, and some of the largest
commercial houses and banks in the
Dominion are located here. Its
population is largely of English and
Scottish extraction or of United
Empire Loyalist descent, but the
city is distinctively North American in the intensity of its activity
and energy. Through its crowded streets throbs a vast hum of commerce. Its educational institutions are well-known; so too is the
charm of its residential districts.
The city has magnificent harbor accommodation, in addition to
which a thousand acres of waste land adjacent to and on the harbor
front has been reclaimed and beautified. Electric power for its industries is obtained from Niagara Falls, over eighty miles distant.
Toronto is a very important railway centre, with branches radiating
in every direction.
Toronto Fair        Toronto's famous Exhibition is  a magnet which
draws visitors from all parts of Canada and the
United States every fall. It is the biggest thing of its kind on the
continent, and the attendance during the two weeks the exhibition
runs is well over the million mark. Representative displays of every
kind of Canadian product are brought together here, while there are
numerous lighter attractions in the Grand Stand and Midway.
The U.E.L. Toronto is very interesting historically. The name
Fort Toronto was given, after the British conquest of
Canada, to a post taken from the French. But the real growth of the
city began with the immigration of the United Empire Loyalists
into Ontario after the American War of Independence. These settlers
left the United States because they preferred to remain under the
British flag, and it was their sturdy patriotism, and the undaunted
tenacity of their descendants, that transformed the province of
Ontario from a wilderness into what it is now, the most populous
province of Canada.
Seeing Toronto       Among the things which the visitor should see are
the Parliament Buildings, the University, the
various museums and art galleries, the downtown sky-scraper district,
the crowded beaches, the delightful residential sections and suburbs—
especially Rosedale—the churches, harbor, theatres and stores.
Yonge Street is one of the best known shopping streets of Canada.
Some pleasant lake trips, also, can be made from Toronto.
Toronto to Sudbury and W. Canada—p 16.
Torontoto Montreal—via Lake Shore—p 49.
Toronto to Montreal—via Peterboro—p 53.
Toronto to Hamilton and New York—p 55.
Toronto to Wingham and Teeswater—p 57.
Toronto to Owen Sound—p 57.
Toronto to Goderich—p 58.
Toronto to Lindsay and Bobcaygeon—p 60.
Toronto to Ottawa—p 60.
Toronto to Windsor and Chicago—p 61. mm
: ^'-ttirv.^sji.;.;;^ ,.;.^
The Parliament Buildings—University of Toronto—Toronto "Fair'
North Toronto Station 16
Across   Canada
Bala—Gateway to the Muskoka Lakes
Toronto to Sudbury: 260 miles
(For Map, see page 19)
Going north, read station names downward.   Going south, read upward.
West Toronto
Severn Falls
Leaving Toronto, the railway line strikes away to the northwest, passing several busy manufacturing suburbs with
large plants adjacent to the tracks. Then for a considerable
time the line traverses some fine farming country, with
many attractive looking orchards. Turning more directly
north at Bolton we enter the prosperous agricultural country
of Simcoe, and pass a succession of small towns, centres of
fine farming areas. After leaving Medonte the character
of the country through which we pass changes abruptly,
the placid meadowlands giving place to forests, rocky
formations and frequent lakes. The Muskoka Lakes and
Georgian Bay districts which we are entering are two of the
finest regions of Canada and attract summer visitors from
all over the North American continent. Near Bolton is
Camp Borden, which, during the war, was one of the most
famous training grounds for aviators on the continent, and still is a large
flying centre. Alliston is a busy centre with flour mills and several fine
nursery gardens.
Toronto—see page 14.
Severn Falls a tourist resort near Severn River, affords excellent
pickerel and bass fishing. In the vicinity are good
camping sites, while the Severn River forms a picturesque route for
the canoe or launch trip from the station to Gloucester Pool and the
lower Georgian Bay resorts.
Bala is the gateway to the popular summer resorts of the Muskoka
Lakes. The principal lakes are three in number—Muskoka,
Joseph and Rosseau. Round their shores are a large number of summer
settlements, ranging in size to suit all tastes and in price to suit
all pockets, and connected by an excellent steamer service. All kinds
of aquatic sports can be enjoyed at Muskoka to the heart's content,
and the elevation of the region, which is about 1,000 feet above sea
level, ensures a healthy atmosphere always charged with ozone;
while the healing balsamic odors of great forests of pine, spruce, hemlock and cedar give to this district a wonderful reputation for the cure
of hay fever. Bala is situated on Bala Bay, a part of Lake Muskoka.
Direct steamer connection may be secured here for all points on the
lakes. Bala connects with Georgian Bay by the Moon River, this
route affording a most interesting canoe trip for experienced paddlers.
Branch Lines   Bolton is the junction for the Owen Sound line—Page 57.
Medonte is the junction for the line between Dranoel and Port McNicoll—Page 54. The  Georgian  Bay 17
Pointe au Baril
Going north, read station names downward.   Going south, read upward.
MacTier The peculiar rock formations so characteristic of the
Barnesdale Muskoka and Georgian Bay regions are outeroppings of
Parry Sound what is known as the Upper Laurentian formation, and
Nobel according to geologists they are part of the oldest
Pointe au Baril       rock strata in the world. A fine steel bridge spans the
waters and valley of the Seguin River and leads into
the pleasant, leafy town of Parry Sound, from which the first glimpse of
Georgian Bay waters may be obtained. Georgian Bay, in reality a magnificent inlet of Lake Huron, is dotted with 30,000 islands, some of them of
considerable size and heavily wooded. Beautiful channels, often resembling
inland lakes, separate these islands and the district offers every inducement
to the camper and fisherman.
MacTier        is a I divisional fpoint, the?end» of. ftheT Ontario and the
beginning of the Algoma Districts of the railway.
Parry Sound (Population 3,600) situated on one of the finest inlets
of Georgian Bay, is the most important town between
Toronto and Sudbury. Large lumber interests are located here. For
charm of natural beauty there are few places more favored. Near
by are many picturesque sites for summer camps, many of which have
already been utilized for the erection of fine cottages. Rose Point,
a charming spot about three miles from Parry Sound, reached by
motor road or by motor boat, is a popular resort for the vacationist
and the fisherman. Seven miles north is Nobel, with large explosive
Pointe au Baril        is one of the most charming regions of Georgian
Bay and hundreds of Canadian and American
vacation-seekers are attracted here each year. Its atmosphere, with
its combination of lake-purified winds, sun-heated rocks and resinous
pine trees, is peculiarly invigorating, and to those who love the wild
and picturesque it spells real adventure. Within a short distance of the
station and fringing the shore for from five to ten miles toward the
open bay are literally hundreds of islands. Fascinating canoe trips may
be taken, threading the waterways between nearby islands or exploring
further afield amid surroundings as primitive as when Champlain
paddled southward from the French River through these same channels, three hundred years ago. Fishing expeditions are equally interesting, the rocky shoals that form the outer rim of the islands providing inexhaustible breeding places. Bass, the Great Northern pike,
maskinonge and pickerel are common, while in October the great
salmon trout furnish exciting sport trolling among the reefs in the open
bay. The wild life abundant in the district gives added interest to
every venture afield and in turn provides certain sport for the hunter
in the shooting season; while in the autumn in their southward passage
the black ducks assemble in flocks in the secluded wild rice-filled
bays. Pointe au Baril possesses excellent hotels and boarding houses,
and a daily steamer service is operated between the station wharf
and the hotels and cottages of the district. During the summer a
special sleeping car service is maintained from Toronto to Pointe au
Baril three days each week. 18
Across   Canada
Going north, read station names downward.    Going south, read upward.
Byng Inlet
French River
Not far beyond Pointe au Baril the railway skirts the
shores of the beautiful Six-Mile Lake. At Byng Inlet the
Magnetewan River district is reached. This river, which
has many lake expansions, lies almost due east from
Georgian Bay, about twenty-five miles south of the French
River, which for some distance it practically parallels
and with which connection can be made through intervening waters. The whole region, inYfact, is a maze of
land-locked waterways many miles in length. Magnificent
bridges span the Pickerel and French Rivers. Beyond
French River, farming and stock-raising are carried on,
as well as lumbering, eight cheese factories being located at Rutter. North
of Burwash, where is the Provincial Prison Farm, we enter a land of great
rock hills and tall pines, the railway winding through deep cuts which
challenge our admiration for the men who conceived and built the line. At
Romford we meet the main transcontinental line from Montreal to Winnipeg
and Vancouver and continue seven miles west to Sudbury.
Pakesley is the gateway to the newly-opened playground of
Ka-Wig-A-Mog, the centre of a maze of land-locked
waterways many miles in length. Pakesley has extensive lumbering
interests, with an annual output of about thirteen million feet.
French River     richly   endowed   with   natural   beauty,    historical
interest and sporting advantages, is one of the most
desirable vacation districts in Ontario. Since the establishment of
the French River Bungalow Camp, it has become a highly popular
resort with both
Canadian and
American vacation-seekers. It
has a peculiar
appeal to anglers andhuhters,
for it is within
easy access of
splendid fishing
and shooting
grounds. In
these vast fishing and hunting
wilds, bass,
pike and pickerel offer great
sport for the
fisherman, while for the hunter there is the best of deer shooting
to be had, some bear, and an abundance of small fur-bearing animals
and game birds.
The district has great historical interest, since it was by the French
River that Samuel Champlain, one of the French pioneers of Canada,
reached Lake Huron from the St. Lawrence River, via the Ottawa and
Mattawa Rivers, in 1615—five years before the Pilgrim Fathers landed
at Plymouth Rock.
The Bungalow Camp        is charmingly located on a rocky bluff which
commands a magnificent panoramic view of
the river for about two miles. It consists of a number of small bungalows accommodating one, two, or four people and a larger central
building for dining and recreational purposes. It is close to good
fishing grounds, and supplementary camps have been established at
two other fishing spots at some distance from the main camp.
Sudbury—see page 13.
Branch Lines    Sudbury to Montreal—Page 7.
Sudbury to Fort William and Winnipeg—Page 20.
Sudbury to Sault Ste. Marie, St. Paul and Duluth—Page 66.
French River Bungalow Camp Indicates Double Track
Across   Canad
Sudbury to Fort William: 553 miles
(For Map, see page 19)
Going, west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Woman River
For the first few miles out of Sudbury the line climbs
steeply, while the district continues to show evidences of the
nickel industry. The Murray Mine of the British American Nickel Corporation is located near the railway not
many miles west of Sudbury, and from Levack a spur runs
to the Mond Levack mine, which contains over five million
tons of nickel and copper ore. In the valley near Larchwood is a stretch of rich farming country unusual in this
rocky, hilly region. Climbing again beyond this, we pass
the high falls of the Vermilion River—creamy, foaming
water cascading far below the train. In this bush country,
where rivers, lakes and muskegs are frequent, game of all
kinds is abundant, moose and red deer being plentiful.
Note the melodious Indian names. Pogamasing means
"shallow gravel rapids" Metagama "a river widened into
a lake," Biscotasing "a narrow filled with water lilies, connecting two
lakes." Nemegosanda, the name of the river we cross shortly before reaching Chapleau, means "the river where the trout live." §j||
Biscotasing        was established before the first spike of the Canadian
Pacific Railway was driven, for here the Hudson's
Bay Company maintained—and still maintains—a trading post on the
canoe route to Flying Post and James Bay. To-day a sawmill is
operated.   From Biscotasing one of the finest canoe trips to be found
anywhere on
this continent
is commenced,
namely, down
the Mississauga
River to Blind
River, on Lake
Huron. The trip
is not a hard
one for those
who have had
experience in
canoe work, and
can be made
in   two  weeks.
Chapleau Station
IS  a
railway   divisional
point of some 2,000 people. Here the Dominion Government has built
an Indian School at a cost of $100,000, and here is the only hospital
between Sudbury and Port Arthur, maintained by the people of
Chapleau, Nicholson, and White River, and named in memory of Lady
Minto, wife of a former Governor-General of Canada.
Nicholson     is a lumbering village with a large saw-mill.   From here,
and from Dalton come many of the jack pine ties on
which the track is laid.
Missanabie (meaning "the pictured waters") is near the divide
which separates the waters flowing south to Lake
Huron from those which run north into Hudson's Bay. From Missanabie most interesting canoe trips may be taken north or south into a
country of wild and fascinating beauty. Capital trout fishing may
also be secured near here.
Franz       is a railway town.   Here we cross the Algoma Central Railway which runs south to Sault Ste. Marie (see page 68).
White River       is a railway subdivisional point where cattle in transit
are rested, fed and watered in the Canadian Pacific
Railway stockyard. Around  Lake   Superior
Jack Fish
Around Lake Superior
Going west, read station names
downward.     Going  east,   read
Nicholson   FromChapleau
Dalton to the shores of
Missanabie Lake Superior,
Franz the character of
White River the  country is
Heron Bay much the same
as that we have
been traversing,   but from
Heron Bay (so
named from a
blue  her on
which was shot
down into the bay), no traveller can afford to miss the magnificent panoramas of grand and impressive beauty which are unrolled before him. The
train runs upon a ledge cut into the face of huge rock cliffs which rise
steeply from the deep cold waters of Lake Superior. It plunges into
deep cuts and rock tunnels, and out suddenly again into dazzling sunshine which turns to blue the distant islands fringing the shore and the
distant promontories ahead and behind. Far from the bustle of cities,
this Lake Superior district is a paradise of forest wilderness. Here roam the
moose and red deer; here are found the grouse, partridge, duck and goose;
in these streams lurk the elusive speckled trout and gamey bass, the pickerel
and maskinonge. The territory west of Heron Bay, the many large islands
of Lake Superior and the Nipigon Lake region which we are approaching,
may be said to be the finest in Canada for caribou and moose. On many
of the islands these stately animals wander at will, undisturbed except when
the sportsman comes in the late fall.
Jack Fish takes its name from Jack Fish Bay, around which the
train winds so sharply that the engine may be seen from
the rear platform of the observation car. Schreiber is a railway
divisional point. Not far from here is a country with good mineral
Rossport       is the headquarters of the lake-fishing industry.   Here
are caught many of the lake trout and whitefish so tastefully served in the Canadian Pacific dining cars.
Nipigon The little village of Nipigon is situated near the tumultuous rapids at the mouth of the Nipigon River. Two
miles from the village, with a station of its own, is the Nipigon River
Bungalow Camp, delightfully located on the southern shore of Lake
Helen, an expansion of the Nipigon River. The Bungalow Camp, like
those operated at French River and Kenora, is characterized by an atmosphere of freedom and informality consistent with its surroundings;
at the same time it provides certain comforts and conveniences of life
which are particularly welcome on returning from fishing or camping
trips. A community building which contains the dining, living and
recreation quarters is surrounded by a cluster of charming rustic
sleeping bungalows. There is an excellent beach in front of the camp,
and highly attractive trips by launch and canoe may be taken to
to points of interest in the neighborhood.
One of the attractions at the Nipigon River Bungalow Camp is a
side trip upstream as far as Virgin Falls. These waters are already
widely known for the size and fighting qualities of the red speckled
Nipigon trout. The Nipigon River is forty miles long, with numerous
lake expansions and surging rapids; its water is pure, clear and very
Thunder Bay Nearing Port Arthur we catch frequent glimpses of
Thunder Bay, with mighty Thunder Cape standing
out into the lake in its solemn and impressive aloofness. The "Sleeping
Giant," a huge promontory of basaltic rock on the other side of the
bay, is said by Indians to be the image of the Great Spirit, keeping 22 Across  Canada
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Hurkett The shores of Lake Superior between Nipigon and Port
Dorion Arthur are deeply indented by Black Bay and ThunderBay,
Loon and the straight course followed by the railway makes only
Port Arthur occasional glimpses down the bays possible. Three miles
Fort William beyond Nipigon the line turns sharply around the base of
Red Cliff. West of this point considerable farming has
been developed, though there are also a number of summer resorts at the
head of the bays, Pearl and[Loon\being1the most popular centres.
watch over his ancient treasure trove, and it is his voice which gives
the magnificent mount the name of Thunder Cape. Just behind
Thunder Cape, to give the legend verisimilitude, lies Silver Island,
a mine which in its day, before it was flooded, yielded much wealth.
Port Arthur The "twin cities" of Port Arthur and Fort William
Fort William together constitute Canada's greatest grain port.
The bulk of the huge grain crops of the Canadian
West are hauled hither by freight cars, transferred to lake steamers
and carried down the Great Lakes to Port McNicoll, Buffalo and other
ports. As many as 369,000,000 bushels of grain have passed through
these two cities in one year. The total capacity of the thirty-six
public terminal elevators is 64,610,000 bushels.
Port Arthur (Population 17,000) is the judicial centre for the District
of Thunder Bay. It has a shipbuilding plant, pulp and paper plants,
lumber mills, blast furnaces, and ore and coal docks, as well as elevators. It is a modern city with substantial buildings, hotels, wholesale houses, factories, fine hospitals and an extensive school system.
A fertile country suitable for all agricultural pursuits, with large areas
of lumber and pulp-wood, surrounds it.
Fort William (Population 23,000) is situated at the mouth of the
Kaministiquia River, and is the divisional point between the Eastern
and Western Lines of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and also the
terminal of the Canadian Pacific's Great Lakes steamer services (see
page 65). Fort William was formerly a very important Hudson's Bay
Company's post, and was the great rendezvous of the himters, voyageurs and chief factors of the company. Previous to that, a fort was
established in 1731 at the same spot by La Verendrye, the French
A Summer Resort As a summer resort the  Twin  Cities  have
many attractions. They are the gateway to
a vast area of forest, lake, stream and mountain. Excellent big and
small game hunting, including moose, red deer, caribou and
brown bear, and superfine fishing—trout, bass, maskinonge—is
to be obtained. There are a number of popular summer resorts
in the vicinity, of which Silver Island, some twenty miles to the
east, is the best known. Kakabeka Falls, twenty miles west of
Fort William. along the Kaministiquia River, can be reached by a
good automobile road. It is also possible to motor over the Scott
Highway all the way from Port Arthur to Duluth.
Industrial Power is supplied to the Twin Cities from Kakabeka
Falls, and from Nipigon. The surrounding district is
well mineralized, discoveries of iron, copper, silver, gold and pyrites
having been made. Pulp-wood is abundant, and much pine, tamarack,
poplar, birch and jack-pine is cut by the lumber mills.
Ignace is a railway divisional point. Dryden (Population 1,000)
is a busy centre with a large pulp and paper mill, serving
a fairly considerable agricultural area. Near Hawk Lake, not far
from Kenora, there are large areas of granite which have been mined
from time to time for construction purposes.
Lake of the Woods       A  little more  than  half-way  between  Fort
William and Winnipeg is Lake of the Woods,
one of the finest tourist resorts in America. This wonderful body of
water, fringed with woods unspoiled by the lumberman's axe, covers
an area of nearly two thousand square miles. Its scenery is distinctly
primitive—bold rock and innumerable islands associated with a
wealth of forest growth. (Above)
Port Arthur
At side)
Nipigon River
(At side)
Devil's Gap Bungalow
Camp, Kenora
Portage Avenue,
Fort William Harbor 24 AcrossCanada
Fort William to Winnipeg: 419 miles
(For Map, see page 19)
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Fort William       Leaving Port Arthur and Fort William behind, the rail-.
Westfort way traverses for nearly four hundred miles a wild,
Kaministiquia      uncultivated region of primeval beauty, with rapid rivers
Upsala and many lakes.   This region was first visited by La
Ignace Verendrye in the first half of the eighteenth century
Dyment when making his explorations in search of the western
Dinorwic sea. Later exploration established it to be a country rich
Wabigoon in mineral possibilities.  At one time great activity was
Dryden displayed by prospectors in this area, and considerable
Oxdrift mining is still carried on in the neighborhood of Murillo,
Eagle River Bonheur, Wabigoon, and Dryden.   During this journey
Vermilion Bay     a fairly considerable ascent is made to cross the water-
Kenora shed between Lake Superior and the Red River Valley.
Several interesting rivers are passed—the Kaministiquia
with its beautiful Kakabeka Falls, the Mattawan and finally the Wabigoon
River—and many beautiful and extensive lakes which offer excellent trout
Kenora (Population 5,500), stands at the principal outlet of the
Lake of the Woods, where the lake pours its waters into
the Winnipeg River by three distinct cataracts. It derives its name
from the first two letters of each of three districts, Keewatin, Norman
and Rat Portage. The town is of great importance industrially, with
large flour mills, pulp and paper mills, lumber yards, boat building,
and other industries. The tributary country is well settled with farmers, and mining prospectors draw their supplies from here, making
it an active wholesale and retail centre. The abundant water supply
has been utilized for electric power, but much development is possible.
The lake affords fine bass, pickerel, jackfish, and maskinonge fishing.
Devil's Gap Bungalow Camp Situated  at  the end  of the  deep
narrow channel known as the Devil's
Gap and within twenty minutes of Kenora station by launch is a
delightful Bungalow Camp. It consists of a cluster of attractive
rustic cabins built on the slope of a gentle hill, some of the cabins
nestling amid a grove of slender birches and others amid murmuring
pines. On the crest of the hill stands the club building, containing
recreation hall, dining room and kitchens. All kinds of water sports
are possible at the camp, ideal canoe trips may be taken, and fish
and game abound in the immediate neighborhood. There is also a
good nine-hole golf couise within easy reach of the camp.
Keewatin three miles west of Kenora and also situated^upon Lake
of the Woods, is a well-patronized summer resort, with
many cottages. It is also a large flour milling and lumbering centre,
surrounded by good timber and unlimited supplies of pulp-wood.
Extensive power development can be undertaken here.
Winnipeg is Canada's third largest city. Greater Winnipeg has a
population of 283,100, the city itself of 199,500. La Verendrye, the first white man to set foot in Winnipeg, arrived in 1738, and
built Fort Rouge, now part of the city. In 1806 Fort Gibraltar was
built by the North-West Trading Company; in 1822, when the North-
West Company amalgamated with the Hudson's Bay Company,
that fort was rebuilt and named Fort Garry. In 1835 Governor
Christie rebuilt Fort Garry in stone. Though this was an important
trading centre for the Western plains, the population of Fort Garry,
as late as 1871, was only two hundred and fifteen.
Winnipeg is beautifully situated at the junction of the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers. The city is handsomely built, one of the most
notable structures being the provincial Parliament Buildings; it is
also the seat of the University of Manitoba and the Manitoba Agricultural College. It is a city of fine boulevards and parks, many golf
courses, and summer and winter sports of all kinds. The Gateway to the West
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
East Selkirk
Bird's Hill
At Ingolf the western boundary of Ontario is passed, and
we enter the first of the prairie provinces, Manitoba.
A gradual change will be noted in the characteristics of
thi country; the rocks and lumber are left behind and are
succeeded by the prairie bush and level plains. We are now,
in fact, entering the great prairie region of the Canadian
west, which, beginning a few miles east of Winnipeg,
stretches roughly speaking as far as Calgary, nearly 900
miles distant, and due north from the international boundary
for at least 300 mile3. This vast region forms a mammoth
agricultural area of almost limitless possibilities. Of the
land area of 466,000,000 acres, the conservative estimate has been made tfiat
at least 200,000,000 acres are first class agricultural land that will raise the
finest of crops. At the present time scarcely more than 35,000,000 acres are
actually under cultivation. Crossing the Red River by a long bridge, we
enter Winnipeg, which claims for itself, and quite justly, the title of the
Metropolis of the"Prairies.
Winnipeg (continued)
Winnipeg is the greatest grain market and grain inspection point
in the British Empire. It is the railway centre of Western Canada, and
commands the trade of the vast region to the north, east and west.
Branch lines radiate in every direction.
The Royal Alexandra owned   and   operated   by   the   Canadian
Pacific Railway, ranks amongst the finest
hotels in the world. It was erected at a cost of $1,250,000, has been
extended to twice its original size, and is most handsomely decorated
and furnished. The hotel is adjacent to the railway station, a magnificent building which is the headquarters of the company's western
system. Immense workshops of the Canadian Pacific Railway are
situated in Winnipeg, and the railway has also the two largest train
yards in the world. One yard has 121 miles of track. The second
is even larger, as it includes seventy tracks with a total mileage of
165 miles.   In connection aEE
with  this  yard develop- ];•?*)
ment the Canadian Paci-       > .
fie has a transfer elevator . ,^?
of a million bushels capacity.
A land office of the railway is located in the city,
and here also are the chief
western immigration
offices of the Government,
and the immigration
sheds. The Canadian
Pacific owns large areas
Of good agricultural land, Royal Alexandra Hotel and Station, Winnipeg
and has a comprehensive
colonization policy for facilitating the settlement of practical farmers.
An Industrial Centre     Winnipeg has made remarkable strides as an
industrial centre. Nine hundred industrial
plants are now located there, with an annual output of $135,000,000.
In Winnipeg and St. Boniface are the largest western stock yards
and packing houses, with enormous flour mills, mills for other cereal
products, rolling mills, iron and steel works, and automobile assembling plants.
Branch Lines From Molson a subdivision runs to Lac du Bonnet (21 miles) adjacent to
the Winnipeg River. This is the site of some of the magnificent power
plants supplying electric energy to Winnipeg, St. Boniface and other points. From some
eight possible power sites there can be developed about 480.000 h.p., although so far only
about 100,000 h.p. is actually used.
The journey beyond Winnipeg is continued in the "Western Lines11
edition of this publication. 26
Across   Canada
Montreal to St. John: 482 miles
(For Maps, see pages 39 and 31)
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
Montreal West
Adirondack Jct.
St. Constant
St. Philippe
St. Johns
West Shefford
The Canadian Pacific route from Montreal to the Maritime Provinces is through the pleasant country south of
the St. Lawrence, through the Eastern Townships, and,
across the State of Maine. Before a direct eastern
course is taken the line swings due west as far as Montreal West and then south. The Lachine Canal, which
is used by vessels to overcome the dangers of navigation
in the Lachine Rapids, is crossed by means of an electrically operated swing bridge that opens to permit the
passage of canal traffic. Not far beyond the canal is
the pretty little village of Highlands and the majestic St.
Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence is the grandest of all
Canadian waterways, a river of charm, beauty and history. To its springs at the head of Lake Superior this
noble river has a length of 1,900 miles. It carries to the
sea all the waters of the five Great Lakes and of scarcely less important
tributaries, draining thereby over 500,000 square miles. From Montreal
to Newfoundland it forms a protected waterway, unimpeded by any
obstacle to navigation, 970 miles long.
Shortly after crossing the river one of the finest farming areas in Canada
is entered, thriving towns and villages being frequent.\
Montreal—see page 4.
The St. Lawrence River Bridge        To cross the St. Lawrence River
the Canadian Pacific Railway uses
a fine steel bridge, 3,657 feet in length and about 60 feet above water
level.   This bridge, which is double-tracked, contains twenty spans,
of which the two
longest are 408 feet
each, and has nineteen piers.   A little
below the bridge are
the famous Lachine
Old Fort Lennox, near St. Johns
St. Johns (Popula-
tionl 1,000)
is a busy industrial
town, prettily situated on the west bank
of the Richelieu
River; for many
years it has been a
gariison town. The
Richelieu River flows
through a country rich with historical associations. In the early days
it was known as the "River of the Iroquois"; and when the French and
English were battling for the supremacy of North America it was of
immense strategic importance. Lake Champlain, the source of the
Richelieu, twenty miles south of St. Johns, has a picturesque setting
of high cliffs, forests and beaches.
Farnham      (Population 3,400) is a prosperous railway town on the
Yamaska River, with cigar factories, textiles and other
industries. jj|
Branch Lines Adirondack is the junction for the New York Central line to New York.
Delson is the junction for the Delaware & Hudson line to New York.
Farnham to Stanbridge, in Mississquoi County.
Farnham to Abbotsford, St. Hyacinthe and St. Guillaume, in Yamaska County.
St. Hyacinthe (population 8,500) has leather, woollen and machinery industries. A famous
organ factory is also located here.
Brookport to Cowansville, Sutton and Newport, one of the border cities in the State of
Vermont. This is the route of the through service from Montreal to Boston and Portland—
Page 44.
Foster to Waterloo, Actonvale and Drummondville (population 2,000) on the St. Francis
Foster to Knowlton and Enlaugra (also reached from Sutton). Knowlton, near Brome
Lake, is a favorite resort for Montrealers. It is a pretty town with several good hotels,
excellent boating and bathing and a sporty golf links. The Knowlton Conference attracts
hundreds of visitors each summer. The  Eastern  Townships
I      **"*■ 1
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
South Stukely
Orford Lake
Spring Hill
The "Eastern Townships," which we are traversing and
of which Sherbrooke is the metropolis, is an old and well-
settled section of Quebec that has a very prosperous agricultural system as well as a flourishing industrial life distributed through numerous small cities. The region was
originally settled by Scottish soldiers after the conquest of
Canada in 1759, but these intermarried very largely with the
French-Canadian inhabitants, with the consequence that
one finds nowadays many French-speaking people bearing
good old Highland—and also some Irish—names. East
of Sherbrooke there are no industrial centres; prosperous
agricultural towns and well-settled farming areas are still
in evidence, however, though as we travel on they become less
frequent.   Soon the country begins to take on a wilder aspec] and we enter
the outskirts of a wonderful sporting region.
Magog (Population 5,000) is the station for Lake Memphremagog,
a magnificent sheet of water thirty miles long, dotted with
many islands, surrounded by rugged, heavily wooded hills, and justly
popular with tourists. Its two famous mountains, Orford (2,860 feet)
and Owl's Head (2,484 feet), are the highest of the whole region. From
Magog a steamer makes trips down the lake daily during the summer
season, touching, according to the day, at all important points. Newport, Vermont, is at the southern end.
Sherbrooke (Population 25,000) is a beautiful residential city,
situated at the confluence of the Magog and St.
Francis Rivers and in the heart of a very rich dairying district. It has
a large industrial life, with a production of over fifty million dollars a
year, deriving power from the falls of the Magog River, in the centre
of the city. Its cotton and woollen factories are among the largest and
best in Canada. It has also fine machine shops. In close-proximity
are a number of highly popular summer resorts.
Lennoxville is the seat of Bishop's College and Bishop's College
School, two very well known institutions that give a
leisured, cultured air to the town. Cookshire and Scotstown are
prosperous little towns, centres of fine dairying areas.
Megantic (Population 3,500) is a rare spot for campers and sportsmen,
its Indian name signifying '/the resort of fish." Bass and
trout are plentiful, moose is also to be found, and plenty of deer, as
well as an abundance of small game. The lake (altitude 1,200 feet) is
twelve miles long and from one to four wide. Twelve miles north of
Megantic are Spider Lake^ind Trout Lake, at the former of which is
located the Megantic Fish and Game Club. Megantic is the end of
the Quebec operating district of the railway, and the beginning of the
New Brunswick district.
Branch Lines   Eastray to Mansonville and North Troy.
Eastray to North Stukely and Windsor Mills.
Sherbrooke to Quebec, via the Quebec Central Railway—see page 43.
Connections at Sherbrooke with the Boston and Maine Railroad.
Megantic to Levis and Quebec—via the Quebec Central Railway. 28
Across   Canada
McAdam Station and Hotel
Going east, read station names downward.    Goii
Long Pond
Brownville Jci
Lake View
At Lowelltown we enter the St
through the same fine sporting
parative wilderness.    Its sc
Us game is very abundant.  We
its chain of lakes, including t
Lake, one of the grandest of all
forty miles long and from one j
wild and varied scenery; its wai
trout, salmon and togue of great
are admirable shooting grounds
game as moose, bear and deer
Kennebec River leaves Moosehe
is also a beautiful stretch of wt
River, which is crossed at M
inducements in Ihe way of canoe trips andfis
outlet of this boundary chain of lakes is the beautiful St.
Croix River, which is not far from, Vanceboro.   At Vanceboro the international boundary is crossed, and we are again in Canadian territory, this
time in the Province of New Brunswick.    The country which we first
dotted hi
\ rugged one, heavily timbered,
d there with little lumbering vit
lakes and streams and
McAdam        is important as the railway centre from which the surrounding areas of fine sporting country may be reached.
At the station is a convenient hotel operated by the Canadian Pacific
Connections Steamer servicesfrom Greenville Junction on Lake Kineo; or MaineCentral
Railway from Somerset to Kineo, further up the lake.
Mattawamkeag to Portland (via Maine Central). From Portland connection is made
for Boston by the Boston and Maine Railroad, the line running through several well-
known beaches, Kennebunkport, Old Orchard, etc. Through cars are run by this route
between Boston and Halifax.
Branch Line—McAdam to St. Andrews-by-the-Sea
From McAdam a branch line runs south to S
a pretty and very fashionable seashore resort sit
quoddy Bay. As a summer resort this is not surf
on the Atlantic Coast. Here the visitor finds agi
bathing, tennis, riding, driving, a fine eighteen-
salubrious climate, and enjoyable social pleasures.   The Algonquin
n Passamc-
v any point
) o at ing and
course, a
IR  Ci
ie centre of
Andrews to
Hotel—the most eastern of the chain of lux
hotels that span Canada from Atlantic to P
social life at this resort.    A through servic]
Montreal is maintained in the summer.
It is interesting to note that this railway is one of the oldest in
Canada. It was incorporated in 1836, with the idea of being carried
through to Quebec, thus to afford a through route from the Atlantic
Ocean to the St. Lawrence. Construction was not, however, commenced until 1852, and the ambitious scheme fell through. New  Brunswick
Y Vi;
,» in t'""'y.  ,
"lyillllsra^lil^ffiS^wiSiffli^i liHlii£iii*sisi
Algonquin Hotel, St. Andrews
New Brunswick       The province of New Brunswick comprises an area of
27,985 square miles, which is somewhat less than
the area of Ireland. It is bounded on three sides by the sea and has a coast
line of about 600 miles, deeply indented with bays and the finest of harbors.
The province was originally one vast forest; the greater part of it still
remains so, but is interspersed with lakes and a network of rivers, some
of considerable size. The St. John River, 400 miles long, runs through
territory famed alike for its productiveness and its scenic beauty, flowing
into the Bay of Fundy at the city of St. John.
The basic industry of the province is agriculture; the soil and climate are
admirably adapted for every kind of farming, and grain-growing, stock-
raising, dairying and fruit-growing are all carried on. With such a large
extent of coast line, it is but natural that fishing should rank as an important
industry and the value of its fisheries and canneries is considerable. New
Brunswick is rich in minerals, coal mining, gypsum quarrying and natural
gas being the most important of the mining industries. Lumbering is also
an important industry, and manufacturing is carried on in several of the
larger towns. The vast majority of its population (388,092) are English-
speaking, although there are still 98,000 of French descent. New Brunswick is a veritable hunters' paradise, and its network of streams and lakes
make access to hunting and fishing grounds very easy. Some of the finest
salmon streams in the world are here, and trout are also found in abundance.
Branch Line—McAdam to Edmundston: 163 miles
Perth Jct.
Grand Falls
Another branch runs north to Edmundston, traversing
a forested country alternated at intervals by well-populated
farming communities and prosperous villages. Passing
through Carleton County, one of the finest agricultural
counties in Eastern Canada, we reach Woodstock, a
prosperous little town with a population of some five
thousand. Beyond Woodstock is a rich agricultural area,
with large fruit-growing interests and a tremendous amount
Continuing north, Grand Falls, which is at the head of
navigation of the St. John River, has enormous hydro-electric resources,
only partially developed so far, and a big lumbering business. Edmundston, at the end of the line, is a large town with a French-Canadian population, a fine sporting centre with extensive lumber activities.
Branch Lines    Debec to Houlton, Maine.
Perth Junction to Plaster Rock, reaching the famous Tobique River, one of
the greatest salmon fishing regions of Canada.
Aroostook to Fort Fairfield, Caribou and Presque Isle through a big pulp producing
of lumbering.
. 30
Across   Canada
Lumbering in New Brunswick
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
Prince William
Fredericton Jct.
Leaving McAdam, we soon reach the basin of the great
St. John River, which is,450 miles long and navigable
for 100 miles; it passes through a region of great beauty
and fertility, possessing rich natural resources in timber,
coal, lime, gypsum, etc., At Westfield Beach, a beautiful
summer resort, we come within sight of the river which
Westfield Beach makes a big bend from Fredericton to its outlet at St.
Grand Bay John into the Bay of Fundy.   The Bay cf Fundy is noted
Fairville for its tremendous tides. Of these, the most marvellous is
St. John at the Reversing Falls at St. John.   The St. John River,
flowing into the bay, has a drop of from seventeen to
twenty-five feet, in a narrow gorge of great beauty; but when the tide rises,
the water more than overcomes this difference of level. The salt water rises
steadily and forces its way up the river bed; as it ebbs again, the half-fresh
half-salt water has to find its way out, and does so at speed comparable to
that of Niagara Whirlpool. At half-tide a level of the two waters is reached
making the Falls area navigable for vessels. The railway crosses the
Falls by a steel cantilever bridge, built in 1921, and enters the city of
St. John.
Branch Lines
Fredericton Junction to Fredericton and the northenfpart of New Brunswick.
Fredericton (Population 8,000) is the capital city of New Bruns
wick, the site of a Dominion Experimental Station and
the University of New Brunswick. The city has a beautiful residential section, is a big wool centre, and is rapidly gaining prominence
for its industrial activity. It is a well-known base for hunters and
fishermen, the moose country of Queen's County being within easy
From Fredericton the line continues north-westerly to North Devon
and Newburg, passing through a busy agricultural region that has also
some very large cotton mills. At Newburg the branch from McAdam
to Edmundston is joined.   A branch runs from Southampton to Otis.
The Fredericton & Grand Lake Coal & Railway Co. and the New Brunswick Coal & Railway Co.'s line runs from Fredericton to Norton, passing through Minto, N.B., where there
are laige areas of coal lands, and where several ccal mining companies are operating. It
crosses the Salmon River at the town of Chipman, and the Washademoak River at Cody's.
Boththese places have freight and passenger boats ruining to and from St. John, N.B.
The line runs through heavy timber country where there is good hunting jiordeer and large
game. ^
Indicates Double Track
Across   Canada
Canadian Pacific Bridge, Saint John
St. John (Population 66,000) is the largest city of New Brunswick.
Located on the northern shore of the Bay of Fundy, at the
mouth of the great River St. John, it is essentially a maritime city, the
alternate winter port of Canada, and its fine docks and harbor are
always interesting. It is the winter terminus of fourteen lines of ocean
steamers operating to all parts of the world. It has three grain elevators, two of which, with a million-bushel capacity each, are operated
by the Canadian Pacific Railway; fifteen ocean berths, nine of which
are provided with grain conveyors; a dry dock, 1,150 feet in length;
oil and coal bunkering plants, cattle shed, frost-proof potato warehouses; direction-finding wireless station, and other aids to navigation.
St. John has many industries, including foundries, sugar refining, cotton mills, lime kilns, etc., and huge lumbering interests.
The city was founded early in the seventeenth century by the French,
but its growth dates really from 1783, when five thousand United
Empire Loyalists settled here. In 1877, the greater part of St. John
was destroyed by fire, but it has since been rebuilt. The site of Fort
La Tour, the Champlain Monument, and the Martello Tower are
amongst the reminders of an historic past that still exist. Across the
harbor is West St. John, reached by a steam ferry. The principal ocean
piers are on this side of the harbor.
West St. John to St. Stephen: 83 miles
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
West St. John
Prince of Wales
St. George
St. Stephen
From West. St. John an important branch line skirts
the shore of the Bay of Fundy and reaches an
attractive fishing and hunting region. West St. John
has a number of interesting historical associations, and
possesses a striking Martello Tower on its heights. A
number of industries centre in this area of the city, which
has also the Immigration Sheds that receive incoming
Atlantic ships. Musquash is a port and a lumbering
centre. A hydro-electric plant has been established by the Provincial Government here, this plant providing electric power for St. John, West-
field, Sussex, Moncton and other adjacent centres. Lepreaux also has fine
potential water-powers. St. George (Population 2,000) is situated on the
Magaguadavic River, which empties into Passamaquoddy Bay, and is a port
of call for coasting steamers in the summer season. TheMagaguadavic Falls
supply power for a pulp mill and several granite works, and there are lumber mills within the town and good lake and sea fishing nearby. Patronized
by moose hunters and trout fishermen, Brunswick is a junction point for St.
Andrews-by-the-Sea (see page 28). St. Stephen (Population 3,600) contains some of the largest manufacturing plants in the province, and lies at
the head of St. Croix navigation. It is also the southern gateway for automobile tourists entering the province of New Brunswick. A small branch
runs down to Milltown, where lumber mills and a large cotton mill are
Branch Line   A short branch connects St. Stephen with McAdam. The  Bay  of Fundy
•-■-■■   ',
. *w SC'";
W**   ,r     -    ,      -55     7-':..
J C±
Saint John, from the Harbor
St. John to Halifax: 196 miles
Dominion Atlantic Railway
From St. John the CanadianPacific Steamer "Empress" crosses the
Bay of Fundy to Digby, N.S., reaching that town in three hours and
there connecting with the Dominion Atlantic Railway both north to
Halifax and south to Yarmouth. Descriptive notes of the Dominion
Atlantic Route will be found on page 36.
St. John to Halifax: 278 miles
Canadian National Railways
(For Map, see page 31)
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
St. John
The all-rail route from St. John to Halifax takes us over
the lines of the Canadian National Railways, following the
two arms of the Upper Bay of Fundy, Chignecto Bay and
the Basin of Minas. Soon after leaving St. John, we pass
the Kennebecasis River, which opens out into a deep and
wide estuary of the St. John River, with both shores fringed
with wooded uplands. The valley of this river contains
some of the finest farms in the province; to the east and south
are found a great many small lakes where trout are abundant. Fine farming country continues until Amherst and
the Isthmus of Chignecto are reached. Between Sackville
and Amherst the boundary between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia is
crossed. Petitcodiac is mainly Dutch, having been originally settled by
Dutch loyalists from Pennsylvania. Sackville is the seat of a fine group
of Methodist educational institutions, including Mount Allison University.
Moncton (Population 20,000) is situated on the Petitcodiac River
in the midst of a very fertile farming region. It has
several important industries and is a large shipping centre for the
Maritime Provinces. The city is supplied with natural gas from wells
eight miles from the city, and in the same territory oil in paying quantities has also been found. An interesting feature of the river is the
"bore" of the incoming tide, when the water rushes in with great force
in a huge wave, occasionally seven feet high. Moncton is an outfitting point for hunters for northern New Brunswick.
Amherst (Population 11,000) is a handsome little city at the head
of Chignecto Bay with several manufacturing establishments. Near by are the remains of Fort Cumberland, of historic
interest as the scene of hard-fought battles between French and
English in the early days of Canada.
Branch Lines    Norton to Fredericton—via the Fredericton and Grand Lake Railway—
Page 30.
Sackville to Cape Tormentine, from which Prince Edward Island is reached by a car
ferry, that maintains rail connection between the mainland and the island the year round* 34
cross   Canada
Nova Scotia is a peninsula thrust conspicuously out into the Atlantic
Ocean from the south-eastern extremity of New
Brunswick. Save for the isthmus, thirteen miles wide, connecting it
with that province, it is surrounded on all sides by salt water. The
eastern portion is really an island—Cape Breton Island—separated
from the mainland by the Strait of Canso. The peninsula is divided
into two nearly equal parts by a range of hills running through its
entire length. The section facing the Atlantic Ocean is rocky, with
numerous lakes and streams, while that facing the Bay of Fundy and
the Gulf of St. Lawrence is exceedingly fertile. From the nature of
the country the rivers are not. large, but their mouths provide many
fine harbors. Many of them are tidal and are notable for having the
highest tidal flow of any rivers in the world.
Agriculture is the leading industry of Nova Scotia. The soil, especially along the bays and rivers of the northern slope, is exceedingly
fertile. The Annapolis Valley, on the southeastern shore of the Bay
of Fundy, is very famous for apples and other fruits. Dairying and
stock-farming have also become important industries. Mining ranks
next in importance to agriculture. There are great coal fields throughout the province, particularly in Cape
Breton. Gold,
of high quality,
and iron ore are
also mined, but
the production
is now somewhat limited.
Fisheries are
also of great
cod, lobsters
and haddock
two - thirds of
the total output.
The manuf ac-
tures of the
province are many, and some of them are of considerable importance.
The great majority of the inhabitants are of Canadian birth, with
English and Scottish ancestry. There also remain many descendants
of the original French settlers. Hunting and fishing may be had in
many parts of the province. Moose and caribou are found in the
southern part; the lakes and rivers are filled with trout; and snipe,
partridge, wild geese and wild ducks are plentiful in season.
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
Spring Hill Jct.    Between Amherst and Oxford Junction the height of
land over the Cobequid Mountains is crossed. Forest-
clad hills run all through this section, generally in
the direction of the coast line. Though the elevation
of the railway is not high, these mountains, along
the north shore of the Minas Basin, reach the height
of 1,200 feet. Soon we find ourselves again in good
farming country, which continues until, skirting the shores of Bedford
Basin, a great spacious inland extension of Halifax Harbor, we reach the
outskirts of the city of Halifax.
Truro (Population 6,200) is a delightful thriving town in the midst
of most picturesque country, and possesses one of the finest
natural parks of the Dominion. It has an experimental farm, several
flourishing industries, and in the vicinity lumber, iron and coal. Good
trout may be obtained nearby, and in the"Stewiacke Mountains there
are moose, as well as grouse, ducks, aiid other birds. Truro is the junction point with the Canadian National Railways to Cape Breton Island.
Branch Lines    Truro to Windsor—via the Dominion Atlantic Railway.
Windsor Junction to Windsor, Kentville, Annapolis, Digby and Yarmouth-
An Acadian Vista
Oxford Jct.
Windsor Jct.
Halifax *v
Across   C anada
■»><-i~v* ;.sm~«* .*»»,
Evangeline's Well, Grand Pre
Halifax to Yarmouth: 217 miles
Dominion Atlantic Railway
Going south, read station names downward.    Going north, read upward.
Windsor Jct.
Mount Uniacke
From Halifax, the Dominion Atlantic Railway, a subsidiary of the Canadian Pacific Railway, crosses the
peninsula of Nova Scotia and follows the western shore
line of the province down the Bay of Fundy. This line
traverses one of the most beautiful and romantic sections
of Canada—the famous "Land of Evangeline," scene of the poetic tragedy
of Longfellow. At the town of Windsor, on the banks of the Avon, we enter
the sphere of the Fundy tides, for the river drains into the Basin of Minas, an
arm of the Bay of Fundy. Two hundred miles distant from the mouth of
the inlet, the river rises, twice a day, forty or fifty feet, and, ebbing, leaves
the bed exposed.
Halifax (Population 70,000). Capital and commercial centre
of the picturesque province of Nova Scotia, Halifax is
charmingly situated on one of the most magnificent natural harbors
of the world. It is one of Canada's two Atlantic winter ports, with
an important trade to Europe, the United States, the West Indies,
etc., and is also a large naval and military station. It is strongly
fortified, chief of the fortifications being the Citadel, elevated 256
feet above sea-level, and commanding the city and harbor. Halifax
was founded in 1749, when 5,000 British immigrants established themselves in an enterprise promoted by the Earl of Halifax. It speedily
became a great naval station, from which campaigns were launched
against the French and the "Thirteen Colonies." When the independence of the latter was acknowledged, Halifax grew suddenly by the
immigration of some thousands of United Empire Loyalists.
Halifax is beautifully situated, with two large expanses of water
available for all kinds of aquatic sport, Bedford Basin and the North-
West Arm. Across the harbor is the charming suburb of Dartmouth.
Halifax is the seat of Dalhousie University, which has recently been
moved to the shores of the North-West Arm, some very fine buildings
having been erected. Since the catastrophe of 1917, a large part of
Halifax has been reconstructed. The Dominion Government is expending over thirty million dollars in the construction of new terminals,
which will make Halifax one of the best equipped ports in North
America. Halifax has about eighty factories, including a large oil-
refining plant.
Windsor (Population 3,500) is a charming old-world town with
a very picturesque water-side. King's College, the oldest
university in the British Empire outside of Great Britain, was originally established here. It is a large lumber-shipping port and has
valuable mineral deposits in the vicinity.
Branch Line    Windsor to Truro, a distance of 59 miles. \
Nova  Scotia 37
Going south, read station names downward.    Going north, read upward.
Hantsport The Minas country through which we are now travelling
Grand Pre is one from which mists of memory rise, for it was the
Wolfville scene of the Expulsion of the Acadians in 1755. Whether
Kentville or not Evangeline ever lived, whether the "Great Banish-
Berwick ment" were a justifiable military act, can now be left
Middleton in the mists of history; sufficient if we say that the
Bridgetown memory of Evangeline has endowed all this country
Annapolis Royal with a singular graciousness.   For some distance the
Bear River country,  which has an unusually charming  pastoral
Digby atmosphere, slopes gently to the Minas Basin.   From
North Range the heights above one beholds a noble sweep of country
Weymouth extending  twenty or   thirty miles in all directions,
Meteghan the rugged Cape Blomidon standing sentinel far to the
Yarmouth north by the Minas shore.   The district is famous for
apple-growing, and in blossom season the scene is one of
great beauty.
Grand Pre If a link were needed to connect this beautiful country
with the Evangeline story, it has been supplied by a
statue of Evangeline that has been erected at this spot. The field
containing the old-fashioned well that local legend calls "Evangeline's
Well" has been purchased by the railway and consecrated as Evangeline Park. An heroic bronze statue of the heroine, by the distinguished
French-Canadian sculptor Henri Hebert, forms the principal feature
of the park, while a chapel, resembling as nearly as possible the
eighteenth century architecture that Evangeline would have known,
has been erected by the descendants of the Acadians.
Wolfville       is a college town, the seat of Acadia University and
Acadia residential schools for boys and girls.
Kentville     (Population 2,700) is the business centre of the Annapolis
Valley.   The Cornwallis Inn, a modest but comfortable
hotel, is operated here by the Dominion Atlantic Railway.
Annapolis Royal       is one of the most historic towns in Canada. Built
by the French in 1606, under the name of Port
Royal, it was for 150 years the scene of part of the long bitter struggle
between French and English for the possession of the New World.
Until 1710, when it passed into the hands of the English, its story is a
succession of captures, re-captures and changing masters; and even
for forty years afterwards it was in an almost continuous state of
siege. The fort is still in good repair, though used only as a museum.
Annapolis Royal is the starting place for many excursions into the
lake-strewn regions of central Nova Scotia. Bear River, a popular
summer resort, is famous for its cherries.
Digby      is another well-known resort, famous equally for its cherries
and its delicate small smoked herring, known as "Digby
Chickens."   It does a large business, too, in catching, drying and
exporting cod, haddock, and finnan haddie.
June brings the summer tourist. Digby has long and lofty piers
jutting far out into the tide, forming a favorite promenade; it has
pleasure boats, fishing boats, yachts, and is abundantly equipped
with summer cottages and hotels, the chief of which is the Pines,
operated by the Dominion Atlantic Railway. There are some fascinating drives in the neighborhood, and for the golfer Digby has a
capital nine-hole course.
Yarmouth     (Population 7,200), the second largest lumber-exporting
port in Nova Scotia, has a somewhat English air, with its
hawthorn-hedge enclosed lawns and its extensive shipping and shipbuilding.
Branch Lines and Steamer Service.
Kentville to Kingsport, on the Basin of Minas, A branch also runs from this one t©
Digby to St. John—via the Canadian Pacific Steamer "Empress," a comfortable three-
hour trip—Page 33.
Yarmouth to Boston—Steamer service twice weekly in winter and daily in summer. 38
Across  Canada
Montreal from Mount Royal
Montreal to Quebec: 173 miles
Going east, read station names downward.   Going west, read upward.
Mile End
St. Martin Jct.
St. Vincent de Paul
Berthier Jct.
Pointe du Lac
Leaving Place Viger Station, we travel north across
the Island of Montreal, over the foaming waters of
the Riviere des Prairies to He Jesus, and then in
a few minutes to the Riviere des Milles lies, which
is crossed to the mainland. From the bridges, magnificent views may be obtained; the rivers, which in
reality are two forks of the Ottawa River, are broad
and swift at this point, with tumultuous rapids and
deeply-indented, heavily-wooded shore lines. Once
the mainland is reached, the route lies across the
lowlands which stretch between the St. Lawrence and
the hills lying at constantly increasing distances
from it. This plain is cut into the long narrow strips
characteristic of French-Canadian farmlands. There
are two reasons for the peculiarly shaped farm. One is that the continual
sub-division of bequeathed estates left no alternative, the other is that a
waterfront was absolutely necessary to each farm, so they extended in long
strips, thus giving each farmer a narrow frontage on the river.
All along one is struck by the conspicuous part the church plays in
village life. Everywhere the church and the presbytery are the most prominent buildings in the compact little villages one flies past so quickly.
Montreal—see page 4.
St. Vincent de Paul     has a charming site on the Rivieres des Prairies,
and many interesting old French houses.   The
Provincial Penitentiary is located here.
is on the Riviere des Milles lies. Limestone quarries
near the town furnish most of the stone used in the
district for railway bridges and other heavy masonry.
Branch Lines   Lanoraie to Joliette, St. Felix and St. Gabriel.   St. Gabriel (on Lac Maskinonge) is a well-known summer resort with very fine fishing.
Berthier Junction to Berthier, a populous river-landing with steamer connection to Sprel
and other points along the St. Lawrence. Indicates Double Track
Across   Canad
The Province of Quebec
The province of Quebec occupies the largest territory of any province
in Canada, with an area of 706,834 square miles, extending from east to
west a distance of 1,350 miles. North of the Saguenay, between Labrador
and Hudson's Bay, the country is very little explored. The St. Lawrence
Valley, which includes the lowlands extending along the river from the city
of Quebec to the western extremity of the province, is a very fertile plain
in which are situated the chief cities and towns. This section is also settled
with prosperous farmers, the Eastern Townships possessing some of ihe
finest farming and grazing land in Canada.
About five-sixths of the population of Quebec are descendants of the
original French settlers, and speak the French language as their native
tongue. The remaining one-sixth, chiefly of British descent, are found
principally in Montreal and in the Eastern Townships.
The rivers of Quebec are most important; there are many large rivers,
which as highways of commerce are of incalculable value. Foremost stands
the St. Lawrence, which is navigable to Montreal, a city 300 miles nearer
Liverpool than New York. There are limitless water-power sites almost
everywhere in the province, and in the amount and value of its manufactures
Quebec ranks very high. Products of the soil are abundant, and large
quantities of hay, oats, eggs, butter and cheese are shipped abroad. Tobacco
is grown extensively in Quebec, which also is a large producer of maple
syrup and maple sugar.
The timber resources of the province are very great. Lumbering is one
of its important industries, and pulp and paper mills are located in many
parts. The most valuable mineral resources are found between Sherbrooke
and Quebec; here are the largest and most productive deposits of asbestos
in the world. In the northern sections, valuable gold deposits have been
located. In its interest for sportsmen, no province in Canada surpasses
Quebec. The forests abound in game, large and small; the rivers and streams
teem with fish, while wildfowl are innumerable.
Piles Jct.
La Perade
St. Basile
Pont Rouge
Going east, read station names downward. Going west, read upward.
Trois Rivieres Between Three Rivers, to give the city its English equivalent, and Quebec we pass through a number of ancient
settlements, originally seigneuries fronting upon the St.
Lawrence. Frequent rivers tumble down from the hills
and so supply these villages with abundant water-power.
The fishing in these useful streams is not to be despised;
one of them, the Jacques Cartier, is a noted salmon river.
All the villages are quaint and picturesque, and French
is the universal language. Portneuf (population 1,000)
is on the Portneuf River, thirty-five miles before reaching
Quebec. It is a thriving factory town deriving power
from the Shawinigan Power Company, and operates
several paper mills. Lorette is mainly a settlement of Christianized Huron
Indians, founded two hundred and fifty years ago. After leaving Lorette,
we are soon in the outskirts of Quebec, arriving shortly at the beautiful
Palais Station.
Trois Rivieres      (Population 26,000), so called because it is situated
at the triple mouth of the St. Maurice, is at the head
of tidal water in the St. Lawrence. Founded in 1634, it played an
important role in the early history of Canada. Trois Rivieres has a
fine harbor, and can accommodate any sized vessel afloat. It is the
shipping point of a large agricultural district. The city has important
Catholic institutions, and is the centre of the paper, pulp and lumbering industries of the region. It has six large lumber mills, a cotton
mill of 75,000 spindles, iron foundries, shipbuilding plants, steel
foundry, wood-turning plant and other industries.
Quebec—see page 42.
Branch Lines Trois Rivieres to Shawinigan Falls and Grand'Mere, on the west shore of
the St. Maurice River.
Shawinigan Falls are 165 feet high, and 250,000 h.p. is now being developed from them.
This electric power is widely used in the various industries of the city, prominent among
which are pulp, carbide, aluminum and textiles. Power is also transmitted to Montreal,
Quebec and other municipalities along the transmission lines.
Grand'Mere (population 8,000) has also enormous water-power resources and a big pulp
Piles Junction to St. Maurice, St. Narcisse and Grandes Piles. This district is interesting not only for its enormous production of lumber but also because its streams are
well stocked with fish, especially the gamey speckled trout, while moose are plentiful also. ^w
The Chateau Frontenac
Across  Canada
Quebec and the Chateau Frontenac
Quebec {Population 120,000)
was the birthplace of North
America. It
was the cradle
of New France,
and with its
name are
linked those
of the heroic
soldiers and
pioneers who
civilization in the New World. The grandeur of its site, the beauty
of its scenery, and the poignancy of its checkered history, endow
it with a special appeal. No other city on this continent has such
individual charm or such definite personality. It might be described
as the Spirit of Romance in an unromantic age.
Memories of the Past      The first white man to visit Quebec was
Jacques Cartier in 1535, but it was not until
1608 that a city was founded by Samuel de Champlain. For a century
and a half thereafter Quebec was the headquarters of French rule in
America, contending with the New En glanders for domination. Laval,
the first bishop, La Salle, the explorer, Frontenac, the intrepid governor, Marie de 1'Incarnation, founder of the Ursuline Convent, and
countless others belong to this glowing period.
In the middle of the eighteenth century the destiny of Quebec
changed abruptly. Part of the wide world drama known as the Seven
Years' War was played in America; and in 1759, at one of the most
famous battles in history—that of the Plains of Abraham—the British
defeated the French, and four years later were ceded Canada.
The French Tradition      The  city retains much  of  its  olcj French
tradition. The architecture of the city is
French, with some buildings of the eighteenth century which no
vandal hand has attempted to destroy, others more modern but carefully built in an artistic attempt to duplicate the essentially French
strain of the old. Then the quaint older part of Quebec, with its steep
cobbled streets, its confusion of high gabled roofs, its quiet alleys
bringing one suddenly to a dim historic spot, its convents, its churches,
its monks, its habitants, its leafy squares and countless statues,
has an individuality which cannot be duplicated on the continent.
Chateau Frontenac     On the site of a building far-famed in Canadian
history, the Chateau St. Louis, now stands the
Chateau Frontenac, at once a perfect hotel and an architectural gem.
Remembering the traditions and practice of French builders, its
creators have reproduced in every stone, of its irregular shape, towers
and cupolas, the architecture of an eighteenth century. The Chateau
Frontenac is one of the splendid trans-continental chain of hotels
operated by the Canadian Pacific Railway. Summer and winter it is
thronged with visitors, winter sports adding to its various other
attractions. In front of the Chateau is Dufferin Terrace, a popular
quarter-mile board walk which extends as far as the Citadel, and
from which one may obtain a succession of wonderfully fine views.
Ste. Anne de Beaupre   Amongst the charming excursions within a
short distance of Quebec is that to Ste. Anne
de Beaupre, which is reached by an electric line in about an hour's ride.
Here is situated one of the most famous shrines of the New World, with
remarkable curative powers. Montmorency Falls, where the Montmorency River plunges into the St. Lawrence over a 274-foot leap,
are passed on the way to Ste. Anne's.
Quebec has some large industries, chief of which is the shoe industry.
It is also a very important port, for several trans-Atlantic lines dock
here, including the liners of the Canadian Pacific Ocean Services. The  Asbestos   Country
Quebec to Sherbrooke: 148 miles
Quebec Central Railway
(For Map, see page 39)
Going south; read station names downward.    Going north, read upward.
Quebec The Quebec Central Railway serves the choicest portion
(Levis) of the immense arable land that lies south of the St.
Valley Jct. Lawrence River, between Quebec and Sherbrooke.  Fur-
Tring Jct. thermore, though originally intended as a colonization
East Broughton    railway, it has become part of the trunk line between
Thetford Mines    Quebec and Portland, Boston and New York.   Shortly
after leaving the Palais station we are on the Quebec
Bridge, which takes us across the St. Lawrence River to
Levis. The Quebec Bridge has the longest span of any
cantilever bridge in the world and the largest ships can
pass under it. For immensity, uniqueness of design,
excellence of detail and boldness of organization, it is
a notable construction in the annals of engineering.
After leaving the St. Lawrence we run through a succession of typical
French-Canadian villages conspicuous by their white cottages and ever-
recurring churches. After passing the Chaudiere Valley, we approach
the absestos mining district, East Broughton being the first of the mining
centres. Several of the mines are near the railway line, and as the asbestos
is mined in pits a fine view of the mining operations can be obtained from
the car windows. Copper is also mined in this district, the largest copper
mines east of the Great Lakes being located at Weedon.
Soon we reach the St. Francis River which we follow into Sherbrooke.
Black Lake
Dudswell Jct
East Angus
Levis Until the Quebec Bridge was built, Levis was the terminus of
the railway and Quebec had to be reached from this point
by ferry. From Levis a magnificent view may be obtained of the St.
Lawrence River, the beautiful Isle of Orleans, Montmorency Falls,
and the city and citadel of Quebec.
The Chaudiere Valley       is the valley by which Benedict  Arnold
reached Quebec in 1775. The valley affords
a panorama of highly cultivated fields, which, in autumn, with the
glorious coloring of the maple woods, present a picture of great
Thetford Mines
is the headquarters
of the Thetford
mining district
which includes
East Broughton,
Leeds, Robertson,
Black Lake and
Coleraine. It is the
principal seat of the
asbestos mining industry of the world.
The mines in this
district constitute
one of the most
prosperous industries in the Dominion of Canada, and are the chief factor in the control of the asbestos
industry, the production aggregating 90 per cent of the world's consumption. Valuable chrome iron deposits are also found at Black
Lake.   At East Angus is a large paper mill.
Sherbrooke—see page 27. jp|
Branch Lines    Tring Junction to Megantic, this branch forming with the Canadian Pacific
from Megantic a short line between Quebec and St. John.
Valley Junction to St. Joseph, Beauceville, St. George and Lake Frontier.
Asbestos Mine at Thetford Mines 44
Across   Canada
St. Lawrence River Bridge, Lachine
Montreal to New York, Boston and Portland
Montreal to New York: 384 miles
Delaware and Hudson Route
Skirting the west shore of Lake Champlain and the rugged slopes
of the Adirondacks, the route runs through a land of scenic wonder
and storied romance via Saratoga Springs to Troy; thence by New
York Central to New York. This trip may be varied in summer by a
steamer trip through Lake Champlain and Lake George, at an expenditure of about twelve hours' additional time and a slight increase in the
cost of the ticket, affording a trip of exquisite natural beauty and great
historic interest.
Montreal to New York: 469 miles
New York Central Route
From the Windsor Station the line runs west to the Canadian Pacific
bridge which crosses the river above the Lachine Rapids; thence
through the Adirondack Mountains passing the attractive summer
resorts of Loon Lake, Paul Smith's and Saranac Lake, via Utiea to
Albany, N.Y. From Albany the line follows the east shore of the
picturesque Hudson River to New York. The trip may be pleasantly
varied in summer by taking the steamer from Albany down the Hudson
to New York.
Montreal to Boston: 340 miles
From Montreal to Boston there is a through service by Canadian
Pacific trains. Leaving Windsor Station and crossing the St. Lawrence
by the Canadian Pacific bridge west of the city, the line runs through
the English-settled portions of southern Quebec and along Lake
Memphramagog. From here, with the Green Mountains in view, the
line runs through the rich valleys of northern Vermont, skirts the
White Mountains of New Hampshire and traverses the most interesting
parts of New England.
Montreal to Portland: 283 miles
From Montreal to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, the same route is followed as to Boston; thence to Whitefield, Fabyans and Crawfords,
through the wonderful Crawford Notch and the famous White Mountains to North Conway. From St. Johnsbury the Maine Central runs
to Portland, where connection is made with both Boston and Maine
and Canadian Pacific trains. The  Laurentian   Mountains      45
Montreal to Mont Laurier: 158 miles
Going north, read station names downward.   Going south, read upward.
Mile End
Ste. Rose
Ste. Therese
St. Jerome
Within easy reach of Montreal lie the beautiful Laurentian Mountains, with their many delightful summer
resorts. Leaving Place Viger station the route takes us
north across the Island of Montreal, the Riviere des
Prairies, He Jesus and the Riviere des Milles lies to the
mainland. At St. Jerome one catches a first glimpse
of the mountains, a long blue line against the sky, and a
Ste. Marguerite    climb of almost one thousand feet is begun.  The Riviere
du Nord is our companion for some time; just beyond
Ste. Marguerite we see it in one of its most turbulent
moods, brawling and fretting among towering fir-clad
hills dark with pine and spruce. At Val Morin, Lac
Raymond fills in a great hollow in the path of the river,
making it navigable for two miles. At Ste. Agathe the
altitude is 1,207 feet and we continue to climb until we
reach St. Faustin, which is fifty feet higher. Between St.
Faustin and St. Jovite, however, the altitude decreases,
the line dropping five hundred feet in about ten miles.
From Tremblant on, the countryside begins to assume a different aspect;
the hills are lower, plains are more frequent and there are fewer signs
of civilization. Every station along the line leads to a region of picturesque beauty, with innumerable lakes and every attraction for tourists and
fishermen.  Fine hunting may also be had in this district.
Val Morin
Ste. Agathe
St. Faustin
St. Jovite
Lac Mercier
Mont Laurier
'^2_ -~-~x&*m»« "7 w-'' .^^^E?- 7-;
X e-~y ~<^r^->-..>^ ~
Ste. Therese (Population
5,000) is a quaint
little French- Canadian town, the junction point with the
North Shore line.
St. Jerome (Population
5,500) is a busy
town, the business
centre for a large
number of agricultural and lumbering Fishing in the Laurentian Mountains
villages. Large M
lumber mills are located here and  several  manufacturing plants.
Ste. Agathe (Population 2,800) is, from the standpoint of summer
and winter sports, the capital of the Laurentian region.
The town is located on the shores of beautiful Lac des Sables. Within
a distance of eight miles there are thirty-three lakes, the picturesque
and winding Lake Manitou being the nearest. The road north-east
from Ste. Agathe runs to two of the largest and most beautiful lakes
in the Laurentians, Lac Archambault and Lac Ouareau.
Lac Mercier is on the shore of the lake of the same name and is overshadowed by Mont Tremblant. It gives access to Lac
Tremblant, one of the larger lakes, which is surrounded by a fine
palisade of hills that stretch from the head of the lake to where the
hump-backed mastodon sleeps, seven miles beyond.
Mont Laurier     is the terminus of the line and gives access to Lac des
lies and a very fine territory offering numerous
attractions to those who seek the wilds—fishing, of the very best,
and hunting. Other popular resorts are situated at or near Ste.
Marguerite, St. Faustin, St. Jovite, etc. 46
Across  Canada
Chaudiere Falls, Ottawa
Montreal to Ottawa
via the North Shore: 120 miles
Going north, read station names downward.   Going south, read upward.
Mile End
Ste. Therese
St. Augustin
Ste. Scholastique
Buckingham Jct.
East Templeton
Besides the main line, the Canadian Pacific Railway
operates a branch which links up the old towns and villages on the north shore of the Ottawa River with Montreal and Ottawa. From Place .Viger station, the
line runs north across the Island of Montreal, the
Rivieres des Prairies, He Jesus and the Riviere des
Milles lies. The two rivers, which are two forks of the
Ottawa River, are swift and full of tumultuous rapids
where the line crosses, and magnificent views may be
obtained from the two railway bridges. Many fine
summer homes have been built along the beautifully
wooded shores of the rivers. At Ste. Therese the North
Shore line takes a westerly direction, while the Laurentian line which follows the same course to this point
continues north. The railway skirts the Ottawa River,
sometimes coming quite close, again drawing away so
that one moment our eyes rest on the leafy green of the forest trees while the
next they catch a glimpse of the silvery river. The trees in many places
are especially lovely, and at Calumet, where the railway crosses the Riviere
Rouge, the scenery is particularly pleasing. The villages are quaint and
typically French-Canadian, and most of the industries are dependent on the
lumbering trade.
Not far from Buckingham Junction we meet the Riviere du Lievre as it
flows into the Ottawa. With the exception of the Gatineau, this is the most
important river draining the western Laurentian Mountains. Rising in
the north, beyond Mont Laurier, it flows toward the south-west, roughly
paralleling the Gatineau at an average distance of about twenty miles.
Not far from Hull the line crosses the Gatineau River, and then the Ottawa
River, the latter by a fine bridge which connects Hull with the city of Ottawa.
Montreal—see page 4.
St. Therese—see page 45.
Lachute one of the most important points between Montreal and
Ottawa, is the centre for all the little lumbering towns
in the district. Its population is 2,400; it has several factories connected with the lumber trade. Lachute is well known as a training
centre for school teachers.
Buckingham Junction      (Population 3,800) is the station for Buckingham, a few miles up the Riviere du Lievre.
In the neighborhood there are phosphate, plumbago and mica mines,
all of which are worked. Abundant electric power is also available.
Hull—see page 8.
Ottawa—see page 8.
Branch Lines    Ste. Therese to St. Lin, a prosperous agricultural town.
Ste. Therese to St. Eustache, a popular summer resort on the north branch
of the Ottawa River. i
Lake Memphremagog—Fishing in the Laurentian Lake District-
Old-time Cottages—Kipawa—Winter Sports
at Quebec City 48 AcrossCanada
(Continued from page 12)
"Old" Ontario is that part of the province south of the Ottawa River
and Lake Nipissing, and lies like a wedge between Lakes Ontario, Erie
and Huron. The importance, commercially, to Ontario of these Great
Lakes and the River St. Lawrence can scarcely be over-estimated.
Old Ontario is one of the most beautiful and prosperous sections within
the British Empire. For varied and high class agriculture the natural
conditions are ideal. With excellent soil and a climate suited to a
wide variety of products, farming has been the chief industry of its
people since the first settlers started their primitive operations over
one hundred years ago.
Manufacturing is also an important industry; its cheap power, its
abundance of raw material, combined with ample facilities for transportation, have made Ontario the chief manufacturing province in the
Dominion. Lumbering also takes a high place among its industries,
and exceeds that of any other portion of Canada.
All the economic minerals, with the exception of coal, are found in
the province. The silver mines at Cobalt, the gold mines at Porcupine
and the nickel mines at Sudbury are among the richest in the world.
Its fresh water fisheries,  also,  are valuable and extensive.     The
delightful climate of the province, the abundance of fishing, the
natural beauty of many of its lakes and rivers, attract thousands of
tourists each season, many of whom are permanent residents during
the summer season.
(For Map, see page 9)
Ottawa From Ottawa a branch line runs north through the beautiful valley of the
Hull Gatineau.  Crossingfrom Ottawa to Hull, one enters the valley, which present-
Chelsea ly takes on the appearance characteristic of the whole—low rolling hills on the
Cascades one hand, and on the other the silvery Gatineau, with "dead heads" here and
Wakefield there serving to remind the traveller that the river carries one million logs to
Alcove the mills at Ottawa every season.   The railway line twists and turns with the
Kazubazua windings of the river. Though summer gives the traveller but scant idea of the
Gracefield enormous activity of the lumber trade which brings the shantymen from far
Blue Sea and near to spend the long winter months in the forests which clothe the
Burbidge Laurentian hills to their rounding summits, history tells us that even in the
Maniwaki days of the "voyageur" lumbering was the industry of the Gatineau Valley.
To-day, with the improvements made by modern ingenuity, it still holds
first place; and though to the outsider the Gatineau Valley is a place to spend long, happy
summers, to those who know it, it represents untold wealth and untiring effort.
Chelsea, Cascades and Wakefield are popular summer resorts in the midst of a good
agricultural territory. At Kazubazua is one of the best ticut streams in the Gatineau
district. Blue Sea Lake is as blue as the Italian lakes; here and there one catches a glimpse
of the pretty summer homes that line its edge. Maniwaki is exclusively a lumbering town,
but with its pictuiesque bridges and beautiful church tower is very interesting.
(For Map, see page 9)
Ottawa From Ottawa an important line crosses the river and follows for a con-
Hull dderable distance the north shore of the Ottawa River, reaching the
Aylmer Waltham district.   This region, like the Gatineau, is a great lumbering
Quyon one: it is also a fine sporting country that affords excellent fishing, Aylmer,
Wyman on Lake Deschene, is a popular summer resort for Ottawans.  Quyon, one
Shawville of the oldest settlements of the district, has back of it many lakes and
Campbell's Bay streams offering fine fishing. The surrounding country is a rich and pro-
Fort Coulonge ductive agricultural one, with Shawville as' one of the principal centres.
Waltham Between Shawville and Campbell's Bay is a very beautiful valley, con
sisting of rolling dowx s, dotted with large farm-houses. Campbell's Bay,
facing Calumet Island, has fine pike, pickerel and bass fishing. Fort Coulonge is prettily
situated at the junction of the Coulonge and Ottawa Rivers; the Ottawa is very calm and
narrow here, and one mey ferry across to Pembroke, on the main line (see page 11).
Waltham is within a short distance of some wonderful fishing waters, as well as being near
Fort William, the summert resort opposite Petawawa.
Ottawa From Ottawa a branch runs south to Bedell and forms the route for the Ottawa-
Kemptville Toronto service, through trains, day and night, being operated on this line.
Bedell Close connection may also be made with the Peterboro-Toronto line.   The line
follows the Rideau Canal and River, from which it is never at a very great distance. Kemptville (population 1,300), on a branch of the Rideau River, hasa Government
Demonstration Farm and Agricultural School. Bedell is on the main line of the Montreal-
Toronto service.   For Prescott—see page 49.
Ottawa From Ottawa a branch runs south to Smith's Falls, providing Carleton
Hull Place and other centres along the line with direct service to Toronto and
Carleton Place    also providing an alternative route between Smith's Falls and Ottawa.
Smith's Falls      From Smith's Falls close connection may be made via the Lake Shore or
via Peterboro to Toronto.   Connection may also be made to Montreal. For
Brockville—see page 49. Eastern   Ontario
Montreal to Toronto
via Lake Shore Line: 340 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
St. Clet
St. Polycarpe Jct
Dalhousie Mills
Apple Hill
Smith's Falls
The traveller to Toronto, the second in importance
of Canadian cities, is offered his choice of two routes—
one via Belleville and the Lake Ontario shore line,
the other via Peterboro and the Kawartha Lake
district. Leaving Windsor Street station, the train
follows the transcontinental main line as far as
Vaudreuil (see page 7), after which it turns in a
more south-westerly direction, passing through a
beautiful farming country with many orchards and
with here and there splendid tracts of original forest.
The province of Quebec is left at Dalhousie Mills,
and the province of Ontario entered. The counties
of Glengarry and Stormont, through which we pass,
were settled originally by British soldiers whose regiments had been disbanded in Canada. Amongst these were some Highland regiments; and
therefore good historic old Scottish names are to be found plentifully in
this part of the country. Rich pasture lands on either side of the line, and
many fine herds of dairy cattle, are seen.
Montreal—see page 4.
Smith's Falls      (Population 7,000) is the end of the Quebec operating
district of the railway and the beginning of the
Ontario district, and a junction point for many branches. It has a
number of important industries; superior bricks are made here, and
good building stone abounds. Agricultural machinery and other things
are manufactured, the falls in the Rideau River affording ample water-
power. This river, which rises near Lake Ontario and flows north into
the Ottawa River, which it joins in the city of Ottawa, is the most
important river of Eastern Ontario. Between its source and Rideau
Ferry, near Smith's Falls, it expands into a beautiful series of lakes,
forming one connected waterway that provides the summer cottager,
motor-boater and fisherman with remarkable opportunities for enjoying whatever is his favorite pastime.
Branch Lines    St. Polycarpe Junction
to Cornwall, on the St. %^|;
Lawrence. This charming little city
(population 8,000) is situated at the foot
of the Cornwall Canal, a waterway
built to overcome the Long Sault
Rapids, and was established in 1784.
It has a number of industrial establish- j
ments utilizing the plentiful water-
power that is available.
Bedell to Ottawa—Page 48.
Bedell to Prescott. This branch
runs south through a prosperous mixed
farming country to Prescott, an old
historic town at the foot of lake navigation on the St. Lawrence. In 1812 the
town played an important part in the
war with the United States. It has a
large elevator with a million-bushel
capacity. A car ferry operates across
the river to Ogdensburg, N.Y.
Smith's Falls to Ottawa—via Carleton Place—Page 48.
Smith's Falls  to Brockville.   This
branch runs south-easterly to Brockville, at the eastern end of the famous \^^^^^^^^^^_ .^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^—
Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence,                                   Kingston
which can be traversed in either direction by steamer.   Brockville (population 9,500) is a prosperous town with a number of
flourishing industries.    It is the centre of a large dairying district, over two hundred
cheese factories being represented on its cheese board.   Brockville took its name from Sir
Isaac Brock, the hero of the 1812 War, and is closely identified with the history of Canada. 50
Across   Canada
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Glen Tay
At Glen Tay the division takes place between the two
routes to Toronto. Following the Lake Shore line, we take
a south-westerly course toward the Bay of Quinte. The
country through which we pass on leaving Glen Tay is in
parts rugged and rocky, dotted with many lakes; in other
areas, however, there are prosperous farms with stretches
of field, meadow and scattered woodland. The railway
skirts Crow Lake and Christie Lake, both stations for
pretty summer resorts. After leaving Shannonville we approach the Bay
of Quinte, a long narrow arm of water that winds in from Lake Ontario
and into which several rivers fall. The bay is very beautiful and at several
places may be seen from the train. Large deposits of marl, which is composed of ancient sea-shells disintegrated and is very valuable in connection
with the manufacture of building materials, are found in this district,
particularly near Roblindale.
Perth (Population 4,500) is a prosperous town with pharmaceutical
laboratories, textile mills and other manufacturing establishments. Quarries of fine building stone and deposits of feldspar, mica
and phosphate are worked in the vicinity. It is also the centre of
a fine cheese-producing area. Rideau Ferry, on the Rideau River, is
about seven miles from Perth. There are a number of lakes within
easy reach of Perth, which is becoming a popular summer resort.
Belleville (Population 12,500) is the commercial and educational
centre of a fertile dairy, grain and fruit-growing country.
It has a busy industrial life, including large cement works, and there
are talc and feldspar mines nearby, and limestone quarries. The city
is beautifully located on the Bay of Quinte, and has fine black bass
and maskinonge fishing. Samuel Champlain, the ubiquitous and insatiable discoverer, is reported to have wintered at Belleville, but it
was not until United Empire Loyalist days that any considerable
settlement was made.
Trenton (Population 7,000), at the mouth of the Trent River, is near
the west end of the Bay of Quinte. It is the southern
terminus of the Trent Valley Canal, which links the Georgian Bay with
Lake Ontario. North of the town and in the vicinity of Rice Lake
were formerly the headquarters of the Mississauga Indians, a branch
of the Ojibways. The neighboring waters afford good black bass
and maskinonge fishing. There is a summer line to Twelve O'Clock
Point Park, three miles distant on the western end of the Bay. Trenton
is the seat of extensive lumber, milling and chemical industries, and the
neighborhood also affords iron, limestone and marble.
Branch Lines   Tichborne to Renfrew—Page 10.
Tichborne to Kingston. Kingston (population 22,000) is one of the oldest
cities in Canada, having been founded by Count Frontenac as Fort Frontenac in 1673.
Situated at the mouth of the Rideau River, and at the point where the St. Lawrence River
expands into Lake Ontario, at the head of the Thousand Islands, it is an important port, with
a number of large industries, including knitted goods and cottons. Queen's University is
located in Kingston, also a well-known military college and a school of mines. In the
vicinity are found large feldspar and mica mines. Kingston is a popular summer resort and
the gateway to splendid fishing grounds. Indicates Double Track
Across  Canada
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Port Hope
Leaside Jct.
out has a very
After leaving Trenton we are soon within sight of Lake
Ontario, with its sparkling, wind-swept reach of blue
waters. Lake Ontario has neither the spaciousness of Lake
Huron nor the limitless horizons of Lake Superior; it is
a smaller, milder lake, tamed to human companionship
by the settlements that dot its shores. But the tonic of the
lake-purified breezes, and the wonderful stretches tf safe
sandy beach along its prettily wooded bays, are great
attractions for summer cottagers, and a succession of
summer resorts alternate with prosperous manufacturing
towns. The shore line of Lake Ontario is the oldest settled
part of the province. The towns through which the line passes
are solid well-established communities, embowered in trees
and surrounded by rich agricultural regions. The district
is well-known for its fine apples, and the country through-
attractive appearance.
Brighton      (Population 1,500) is a beautiful town close to Presqu'Ile
Point, with a splendid bathing beach, good bass fishing,
duck-shooting and a fine breezy atmosphere. It has become a popular
summer resort.
Cobourg (Population 5,500) a picturesque little town, is a popular
summer resort, especially for Americans, with fine-sanded
sloping beaches, good boating  and  golfing.   Twelve miles north is
Rice Lake, which can be
reached by auto stage
(see page 54). Cobourg
has a fine harbor, and is a
busy grain-exporting port.
The Beach at Cobourg
Port Hope (Population
5,000) is the
most important harbor
on the Canadian side of
Lake Ontario between
Toronto and Kingston.
The surrounding district
is a good fruit-farming
one, and the town has
several industries. Port
Hope possesses a good
bathing beach, while, as one of the gateways to the Kawartha Lake
region, it is a stop-over point for devotees of the rod and gun.
Bowmanville        (Population 3,500) is the centre of a rich apple-growing, mixed farming and dairying country,  with  a
large rubber industry and other factories. It has a fine natural harbor,
capable of accommodating large lake vessels.
Oshawa (Population 16,320) is a busy manufacturing city, with large
carriage, automobile and other plants, and is supplied with
power from the Trent River. Here, in pioneer days, was the beginning
of the portage from Lake Ontario to Scugog Lake, and the name of
Oshawa is an Indian one, meaning "the carrying place."
Whitby    is the site of a well-known  educational institution,  the
Ontario Ladies' College.
Toronto If we are going into the Union station at Toronto, we
cross the River Don and then turn abruptly westward
along the shore of Lake Ontario. Some Canadian Pacific trains,
however, use another station, Yonge Street (North Toronto) situated
on the well-known thoroughfare of that name. Yonge Street Station
is one of the handsomest in Canada, combining beauty and artistic
properties with utilitarian features, and designed in the style of the
Italian Renaissance. The building is of grey limestone, and has a
beautiful clock-tower 140 feet high. (For descriptive notes of Toronto,
see page 14; and for journey from Toronto to Chicago, page 61). V
Old   Ontario
Lift Lock, Peterboro
Montreal to Toronto, via Peterboro: 339 miles
Going west, read station names downward.     Going east, read upward.
Smith's Falls
Glen Tay
Sharbot Lake
Montreal-Toronto trains which go by the Peterboro and
Kawartha Lakes route use the same line as the Lake Shore
trains as far as Glen Tay. Branching off at Gley Tay on
what is the older and northerly route, we travel for about
one hundred miles through country that is more or less
broken by rocky uplifts and largely covered with timber.
North of the railway line, at an elevation varying from one
to two thousand feet, are the "Frontenac Highlands,"
presenting a type of country that is not found elsewhere in
the older parts of Ontario—wilderness country, where
settlement is comparatively sparse but wild life very undisturbed, where extensive stretches of almost virgin forest and large lakes
of rugged and picturesque beauty together form a "backwoods" region within easier reach than usual of civilization. Iron, phosphate, asbestos and
other valuable minerals are found here. Toward Tweed the country becomes more settled and we enter a rich farming and dairying district.
Montreal—see page 4.
Smith's Falls—see page 49.
Sharbot Lake      is a railway centre on one of the most charming lakes
of the region. It gives access to fine fishing country,
especially for bass and pickerel (dore). North from Sharbot Lake
is the Calabogie country, reached by the Renfrew branch (see page 10).
At Calabogie itself, on the Madawaska River black bass fishing has
always been good; this is also good country for deer, duck and partridge.
Kaladar is the station for Lake Mazinaw, a fine sporting region
about eighteen miles north. Bon Echo, a charmingly
situated tourist resort, reached by motor trip over a good road, is
located on this lake. On the east side of Lake Mazinaw, rising
abruptly from its surface, is an unusual and dominating feature—a
magnificent cliff of granite, two miles long and about 400 feet high.
Mazinaw affords safe bathing on several fine beaches; many interesting
canoe trips may also be taken. Good fishing (small-mouthed bass,
lake trout, etc.), and deer and partridge in season may also be
obtained. Within fifteen miles are almost seventy lakes accessible
by road or canoe.
Tweed   (Population 1,400) on the Moira River, a logging stream, has
deposits of granite in the neighborhood.   It has numerous
small industries and is the centre of an extensive agricultural district.
Havelock " is a railway sub-divisional point. The finest part of the
Trent River may be reached from here. The Trent River
forms the last link in the Trent waterway system which connects Lake
Ontario and Georgian Bay. The river runs from the eastern end of
Rice Lake in a circuitous course toward Lake Ontario, which it enters
at Trenton.
Branch Lines
Sharbot Lake south to Kingston—Page 50.
Sharbot Lake north to Renfrew—Page 10. 54
Across   Canada
Grain Elevators, Port McNicoll
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
At Peterboro we reach the Otonabee River. The river is
part of the Trent waterway system, two hundred and fifty
miles of channelled lakes and rivers from Georgian Bay to
Lake Ontario. At this point there is a drop of 150 feet
within a few miles, affording an immense water-power that
is utilized by numerous industries. The connecting link
between the two levels is overcome by an immense lock—
the highest hydraulic lock in the world—which will lift a
vessel from the lower to the higher level in two minutes.
Burketon Jct
Peterboro (Population 22,000), on the Otonabee River, is the birthplace of a famous canoe which has carried the name of
"Peterboro" to all parts of the world where youth enjoys itself in water
sports. The city is the home of many industries, including a large
milling plant, electrical factory, woollen mills, dairy machinery, etc.
One of the Provincial Normal Schools is located here. Peterboro is
the eastern gateway to the Kawartha Region. (See also page 60).
Motor bus services connect Peterboro with some of the lake-side
points, supplemented by motor boat services, while good roads also
connect Peterboro and Lakefield with many other resorts.
Rice Lake     usually considered as one of the Kawartha chain of lakes,
is reached by a delightful sail down the Otonabee River
from Peterboro.  The immense wild rice beds of Rice Lake make it a
natural home for wild duck.
Toronto—see page 14.
Branch Line—Dranoel to Port McNicoll
Port McNicoll
This branch runs in a northwesterly direction and affords
direct connection between Peterboro, Lindsay, Orillia and
Georgian Bay. Until Medonte is reached the line runs
through splendid agricultural country. From this point,
however, the farming areas are tess frequent and
less extensive, the land becoming rougher and rockier.
Medonte is on the Toronto-Sudbury line (see page 16).
Lindsay—see page 60.
Orillia is one of the most attractive summer towns of Old Ontario.
Situated at the junction of Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching,
the town has thirteen miles of water-front within its municipal borders.
On the lovely strait which connects the two lakes are several good
summer hotels and charming summer homes nestling among the trees,
while there is good boating, bathing, fishing, duck-shooting and golf.
Port McNicoll     on Georgian Bay, is one of the two eastern terminals
of the  Canadian   Pacific  Great Lakes Steamship
service.   A large grain elevator with a capacity of 4,200,000 bushels
and all the latest facilities go to make this new port one of the finest
of the Great Lakes.   Fishing and shooting in the vicinity are good;
and the boating amongst the islands cannot be surpassed.
Branch Lines   Burketon Junction to Lindsay, Bobcaygeon and the Kawartha Lakes—
Page 60. The  Niagara  Peninsula
Toronto to Hamilton and New York: 539 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going south, read station names downward.    Going north, read upward.
Toronto From Toronto through trains run to New York via the Cana-
Sunnyside dian Pacific Railway, T.H.&B.Ry., M.C.R., and N.Y.C.
Hamilton Leaving Toronto, a rapid run is made to Hamilton, in full
Welland view all the time of Lake Ontario. From Hamilton to Well-
. and we run over the rails of the Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo
Railway. The line climbs the height of land which extends eastwards from
Hamilton and from the elevation thus secured a magnificent view may be
obtained of the fruit and grape orchards along that part of the Niagara
Peninsula, their regularity and symmetry giving the country much the same
appearance as a huge green checkerboard.
Toronto—see page 14.
Hamilton (Popu-
lati on
121,000) is beautifully
situated at the head
of the navigation of
the lake, on a landlocked arm named
Hamilton Bay. It is
one of Canada's most
progressive cities,
sufficiently so to
justify its claim to
the title of the
"Ambitious City."
It is the third manu-
Canada as regards
value of output, for
in recent years, in
addition to the large
number of native industries that have established themselves here,
there have also been numerous branches established of important
United States factories. With cheap electric power, natural gas,
and excellent shipping facilities by both rail and water, the city has
close to 800 manufacturing plants. It is situated, also, in the heart
of the productive fruit belt of the Niagara Peninsula, in the centre
of the Provincial Government's system of permanent highways, and
as a distributing centre serves a large area.
To a great extent, however, Hamilton has escaped being a mere
"factory town," for it has preserved the characteristics of a charming
residential city. It nestles in a green valley at the foot of what is by
courtesy called "The Mountain," with beautiful water vistas obtainable at many points. It has handsome public buildings, very attractive
residential- sections, and tree-bordered streets. Burlington Beach,
where the bay joins the lake, is a very popular bathing and boating
resort, with many other beauty spots in close proximity, such as
Dundurn Park, the Stony Creek Battlefield, etc. The site of Hamilton
was discovered by the French explorer LaSalle in 1669, although no
settlement was attempted until about a hundred years later. George
Hamilton, who gave the city its name, made the first survey in 1813,
at which time the village numbered only 130 souls.
The Niagara Peninsula is one of the most beautiful and fertile fruitgrowing districts in the British Empire.
Here peaches and grapes are grown extensively, and cherries, apples,
plums, pears and small fruits yield bountiful crops. Probably nowhere
else in Canada are scientific cultivation, exceptional soil and climate,
Branch Lines    Hamilton to Guelph Junction on the Toronto-Windsor line—Page 61.
Hamilton to Biantford—via Toronto, Hamilton and Buffalo Railway—Page 61.
Hamilton 56
Across  Canada
Niagara Falls
Going south, read station names downward.   Going north, read upward.
Niagara Falls
New York
From Welland we may go direct to Buffalo via Bridgeburg and the Michigan Central Railroad; or we may
go via Njagara Falls. From Buffalo the New York
Central carries us through Rochester, Syracuse, Utiea
and Schenectady to Albany, and thence down the eastern
shore of the Hudson River to New York.  Several through trains a day are
run in each direction.
easy transit, co-operative marketing, and nearby markets found in
such favorable combination as in this section of Ontario. Large
canning factories handling both fruit and vegetables are to be found
in many centres.
Welland     (Population 9,500) is a flourishing industrial centre on the
Welland Ship Canal, which provides a safe waterway for
vessels between Lakes Ontario and Erie, the Niagara River being of
course unnavigable.
Niagara Falls       (Population 12,000) is an important industrial city
quite apart from its proximity to the famous Falls.
The district is vividly associated with Canadian history, for it was
near, here, at Cayuga Creek, that LaSalle launched the first sailing
vessel to spread sail on the Great Lakes, while the War of 1812 produced the outstanding figure of General Sir Isaac Brock, hero of the
battle of Queenston Heights.
The Falls of Niagara       Niagara Falls still retain their hold upon
the imagination and interest of everyone, and
are annually the Mecca for hundreds of thousands of pilgrims, not
only from North America, but from all parts of the world. There are,
it is true, waterfalls of greater height in the world, as well as some
which are situated amongst scenery of greater splendour, but the
immense volume of water and the sheer descent of the unbroken
plunge give to Niagara a grandeur which height alone cannot impart.
The tumultuous rapids above the falls, and the deep gorge and rapids
below, add much to the impressiveness of the scene.
In addition to their aesthetic and spectacular value, Niagara
waters now play a most important part in the domestic, commercial
and industrial life of communities in both Canada and the United
States because of the enormous amount of electrical power that is
developed. The actual amount of water available at the Falls for the
generation of power is governed by a treaty between Great Britain
and the United States; the present diversion permitted totals 56,000
cubic feet per second, or about one-quarter of the total flow in the
Niagara River. The total amount of power generated on the Canadian
side of the Niagara River in 1924 was about 700,000 horse power. Branches   from  Toronto
Toronto to Wingham and Teeswater: 130 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going north, read station names downward.    Going south, read upward.
Streetsville Jct
Mount Forest
Leaving Toronto we follow the Toronto-Windsor line
for 21 miles as far as Streetsville Junction, where
we leave it to turn in a north-westerly direction. Just
beyond Cataract we join the Owen Sound line and
travel over it as far as Fraxa, where we turn directly
west, continuing to pass a succession of prosperous
small towns. Brampton (population 4,600) is the
centre of a very rich dairy and apple-growing district.
It has numerous industries, including several cut-
flower nurseries, one of which covers an area of 24 acres.
Mount Forest (population 2,000) has manufactures of
threshing machines, etc. Harriston (population 1,500)
on the Maitland River, makes caskets, stoves and furniture. At Wingham
Junction the line divides, one branch running north to Glenannan and
Teeswater, the other south to Wingham. The latter is a very busy town
of 2,500 inhabitants with several small industries.
Branch Line    Cataract to Fergus and Elora.   Fergus (pop^ation 2,000) on the Grand
River, has manufactures of farm accessories and building stone.   Elora has
also deposits of. limestone of very high quality and manufactures furniture.
Toronto to Owen Sound: 121 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going north, read station names downward.   Going south, read upward.
Owen Sound
Leaving Union Station, the route is for some miles that to
Sudbury, until at Bolton we branch off and turn eastward.
From Caledon onwards we find ourselves in one of the highest
parts of Old Ontario—"the roof of Ontario," as it has been
called. Orangeville (population 3,100) is a very prosperous
community with several industries, including woollen mills.
In fact, the country through which we are passing is a
succession of very thriving small industrial centres, set in
the midst of a rich and fertile agricultural area. The line
continues in a north-westerly direction through several fine
towns, and terminates at the city of Owen Sound, situated
on an arm of Georgian Bay at the mouth of the Sydenham
Owen Sound (Population 12,500) is one of the two eastern terminals
of the Canadian Pacific Great Lakes Steamship
services, and splendidly equipped steamers leave here regularly during
the summer season for Port Arthur and Fort William. The city has a
fine, well-protected harbor, the sound being twelve miles long and
navigable for the largest
vessels. The beach nearby
is a popular summer resort.
A large number of industries
are located here, the principal
being iron and steel, furniture,
agricultural implements,
woollen mills, brick making,
etc. Electric power is obtained
from Eugenia Falls, 30 miles
distant on the Beaver River.
Branch Lines Saugeen to Durham,
Hanover and Walkerton, all situated on the Saugeen River,
which falls into Lake Huron. Furniture
manufacturing is an important business
ia each town, in which there are also ■3^^^m.. ,_,        _
several other industries. Inglis Falls, near Owen Sound 58
Across   C anada
*3%   iff^m   SL     + *
Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph
Toronto to Goderich: 135 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going north, read station names downward.    Going south, read upward.
Guelph Jct
The branch to Guelph and Goderich serves one of the most
prosperous agricultural and industrial sections of Ontario.
The Toronto-Windsor line is followed as far as Guelph
Junction, whence the branch leads in a north-westerly
direction to Guelph; thence it continues in a westward direction through a very fertile and productive country towards
Lake Huron. Huron County has many fine farms. The
growing of flax, for seed and for its fibre, has recently
received a great deal of attention in this region.
Guelph (Population 19,000) is the home of one of the best known
institutions of its kind in the world, the Ontario Agricultural
College. This college, which has large grounds and handsome buildings just outside the city, has an average of 1,200 students, both men
and women, from many countries. The city, which was named after
the British Royal Family, was founded as far back as 1827, and in its
laying-out a very successful attempt at town-planning was made, with
the result that Guelph has a much more spacious atmosphere than
numerous cities that are considerably bigger. It is built on a series of
hills around the River Speed, one of the hills dominated by a very
striking church. Guelph has a very busy industrial life, and is a noted
centre for grey iron castings; it also has a large linen mill. TheOntario
Wmter Provincial Fair, held at Guelph, is an annual event which attracts a large attendance, and is one of the best sheep shows in Canada,
through trams between Hamilton and Guelph via Guelph Junction
are run daily.
Elmira      (Population 2,250) is a busy industrial town, making several
manufactured articles.   It is the centre of a thriving: agricultural area.
Goderich (Population 4,500) is situated on the east coast of Lake
Huron, at the mouth of the Maitland River, which is
crossed by a fine bridge just before entering the town. Situated on a
high plateau Goderich gains the full benefit of the breezes that make
summer by the lakeside so refreshing, and has become a popular summer resort. There is a lovely park overlooking the harbor, and both
bathing and fishing are good. Large deposits of salt are found in the
yicnnty, and provide one of the principal industries, another of which
is that of flour milling. Many of the large grain steamers deposit their
cargoes here.
Branch Line
Linwood to Listowel (population 2,500) which has a large dyeing industry in THE PROVINCE OF ONTARIO
Golf at Kenora—Lake of the Woods—Bass Fishing, French River
Ontario Ladies' College, Whitby—Brantford 60
Across   Canada
On the Kawartha Lakes
Toronto to Lindsay, Bobcaygeon and the
Kawartha Lakes: 85 miles
Burketon Jct.
This branch follows the Peterboro route of the Toronto-
Montreal main line as far as Burketon Junction, where it
turns north to Lindsay and then north-east to Bobcaygeon,
the central gateway to the Kawartha Lakes. Kawartha is an
Indian word signifying j 'Bright Waters and Happy Lands. \ \
The Kawartha Lakes comprise fourteen beautiful stretches of water—
Scugog, Sturgeon, Cameron, Balsam, Pigeon, Bald, Sandy, Buckhorn,
Chemong, Deer, Lovesick, Stony, Clear and Katchewanooka, to which may
be added Rice Lake, twenty miles down the Otonabee River from Peterboro.
This chain of lakes aggregates over one hundred and fifty miles and constitutes one of the most popular of Ontario's summer playgrounds. The
lakes, six hundred feet above Lake Ontario, enjoy climatic conditions that
are both agreeable and healthy. There are almost unlimited opportunities
for sailing, canoeing, yachting, and motor-boating, while the district is well
served by good roads for motoring. Pigeon Lake has an altitude of 806 feet
above sea-level, and Stony Lake an altitude of 774 feet. The Kawartha
Lakes are particularly attractive to the fisherman, especially for small-
mouth bass and maskinonge, which are caught in the larger lakes, while
there is good fishing for speckled trout in some of the smaller lakes.
Toronto—see page 14.
Lindsay   -      (Population 8,000) on the Scugog River is a busy little
manufacturing   point   with   a   Dominion   Government
arsenal.    The neighborhood provides fine scenery and good hunting
and fishing, making the town a popular summer resort.
Bobcaygeon        stands near the narrow channel that connects Sturgeon
Lake with Pigeon,-and is itself a resort unequalled
for the city family. Good motor roads radiate in every direction and
boating, bathing, golf and tennis are at one's doorstep. From Bobcaygeon west one can quickly reach Sturgeon Lake, which in beauty
rivals any in the Kawartha chain. Within fairly easy reach either by
launch or by automobile are Sturgeon Point, Sandy Point, and Fenelon
Falls, which last-named stands at the junction of the lake with Cameron Lake. From the southern end of Sturgeon Lake the Scugog River
flows into Scugog Lake.
Branch Line     Lindsay to Peterboro, Orillia and Port McNicoll—Page 54.
Toronto to Ottawa: 263 miles
Direct service, with first-class equipment, is provided between Toronto
and Ottawa, several day and night trains being operated. The routes are via
either the Lake Shore or Peterboro, according to the train (see pages 49 and
53). Western  Ontario
Toronto to Windsor: 226 miles
(For Map, see page 51)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
West Toronto
The journey from Toronto to Windsor, through the Western
Ontario peninsula, is pleasant and extremely interesting
and introduces the traveller to a well-settled territory,
including some exceedingly fertile and prosperous farming
country and a number of thriving industrial centres, several
of considerable size. Leaving the Union station, the train
for some time runs through the suburbs of Toronto.
Lambton and Islington, though not an integral part of
Campbellville Toronto, are outlying residential suburbs, the train service
Guelph Jct. bring supplemented by tram and auto-bus service to these
Galt points.    Lambton has a well-known golf club.   The old
village of Cooksville had the first vinery and urine-making
establishment in the district. Streetsville was once the scene of great
lumbering activity, being located beside what were once the rapids of the
River Credit. -4.-
Toronto—see page 14.   From Toronto to Montreal—see pages 49-54-
Galt (Population 13,000) is a city which is not only a busy indus
trial centre but also an attractive residential community.
The industrial section, comprising some seventy_manufacturing plants,
is located in the valley along the banks of the Grand River. The
products of these industries include engines, boilers, iron and woodworking machinery, woollen and knitted goods, paper boxes and many
other varied products. The residential districts on the higher slopes
above the valley are very attractive. Many of the public buildings,
churches and residences are built of stone, giving the city an air of
substantial permanence. Several beautiful parks enhance the attractiveness of the residential districts.
Branch Lines Streetsville Junction to Elora, Orangeville, Wingham and Teeswater—
Page 57.
Guelph Junction to Guelph and Goderich—Page 58, and Hamilton—Page 55.
(Grand River Railway) Galt to Preston, Hespeler, Kitchener and Waterloo. This line,
operating in close connection with the Canadian Pacific, serves an intensive industrial
section and a magnificent agricultural district. Preston has some very well-known mineral
springs. Kitchener (population 22,000) and its sister city, Waterloo, besides possessing other
industries, together form the principal furniture centre of Canada.
(Lake Erie and Northern Railway). Galt to Paris, Brantford, Waterford, Simcoe, and
Port Dover. Paris (population 5,000) has a large knitted-goods industry. Brantford (population 33,000) derives its name from a celebrated Indian chief of the Six Nations tribe. It is
also noteworthy in another direction as the birthplace of the telephone, and a monument
commemorating Dr. Alexander Graham Bell and his invention has been erected at the
inventor's old homestead. The city is an important manufacturing one, with a very large
output of agricultural implements. Simcoe has a large canning factory. Port Dover, on
Lake Erie, has fisheries and nurseries, and is also a popular bathing resort. 62
Across   Canada
London, Ontario
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Ayr Splendid farms, flourishing villages and thriving towns
Drumbo are found all along this route, the whole country showing
Innerkip evidences of prosperity.   Most of this Western Ontario
Woodstock peninsula is of fairly old settlement. Old Country names
abound, and reveal the nationality of the pioneers as English
and Scottish, who perpetuated their affection for their
motherland by bestowing such names upon what were then
dense forests. London, for example, is on the River Thames
in Middlesex county.   Zorra was settled by a colony of Highlanders in 1820.
Woodstock (Population 11,000) is situated in the rich agricultural
county of Oxford, at the east end of the beautiful
Thames Valley. It is a great market place, the produce of farm and
garden being handled in large quantities, while its industries have a
big output. Noteworthy amongst them are organs, pianos, furniture,
and textile products. Woodstock is regarded by its admirers as the
prettiest inland city of Ontario, its tree-shaded streets being delightful.
London (Population 61,800) suffers somewhat by the inevitable
comparison which the visitor makes with the Old World
metropolis, for it not only carries the same name but also pushes the
parallel much farther, possessing many streets with names famous in
the English capital, such as Cheapside, Piccadilly, and Pall Mall.
This condition is due partly to the fact that the site of London was
originally intended by Governor Simcoe, in the early days of last
century, for that of the capital of the province of Upper Canada.
But the parallel ends in these names, for London is essentially a
Canadian city. It is the commercial, financial and educational centre
of the prosperous Western Ontario peninsula, and a manufacturing
and distributing point of considerable importance. Its industries
number over 450; these include rolling mill products, motor trucks,
agricultural implements, boots and shoes, petroleum refineries and
brick and tile works. It is the seat of the Western University and of
one of the Provincial Normal Schools. Surrounding London is a
fertile and well-cultivated agricultural country.
The city is a very attractive one, with fine public buildings, large
parks, and a charming residential section. London "grew up" as a
backwoods settlement created by pioneers, and attained the rank of a
city in 1855. During the last thirty years it has witnessed a very
striking growth in its industrial life. Within an hour's ride on an
electric line is Port Stanley, a very popular bathing and summer
resort on Lake Erie.
Branch Lines Woodstock to Ingersoll and St. Thomas. Ingersoll (population 5,500) is a
pretty town that is linked with a well-known brand of cheese that bears its
name; it also produces other kinds of dairy products and textiles. St. Thomas (population
18,000) is a busy city at which a number of railways concentrate, with several thriving
industries. From Ingersoll a branch runs to Tillsonburg (population 3,500), an old-established town with both agricultural and industrial interests, and Port Burwell, a coaling
station at the mouth of the Otter River, on Lake Erie.
Zorra to St. Mary's, a town (population 4,000) that is beautifully situated on the Thames
River, with several large industries and large stone quarries and cement works.
-■j . The  Border   Citie
Going west, read station names downward.    Going east, read upward.
Belle River
The counties of Middlesex, Kent and Essex, which lie
between London and Windsor, are very prosperous. Many
salt wells are found in this area, from which brine is obtained
and evaporated to obtain the commercial product. In Kent
and Essex tobacco is extensively grown. Both the soil and
the climate are found to be suitable to its cultivation and the
product is a very fair quality. Continuing westward we
reach Lake St. Clair and the southern extremity of Canada.
Lake St. Clair is very shallow, and only by dredging is the channel kept
open between the St. Clair River, which connects it with Lake Huron and
the Detroit River, which connects it with Lake Erie. Glencoe (Population
1,000) serves a fine farming district. Several sawmills and door factories
are located here.
Chatham (Population 16,000) is the centre of a prosperous agricultural section producing large crops of fruit, tobacco,
sugar beets and flax. It has the second largest sugar beet
factory on this continent, with a capacity of from 1,200 to 1,500 tons
per day, a large packing plant, wagon-manufacturing plant, and large
automobile industries. It is a pretty city, with charming maple-lined
streets, fine parks, and many educational institutions.
Tilbury      (Population 2,000) is the centre of a fertile farming district
which also  supplies timber,  crude oil,  flax,  fruits  and
vegetables.   There are large natural gas wells in the vicinity from
which upwards of twelve million feet a year are produced.
Border Cities These comprise Riverside, Ford, Walkerville, Windsor, Sandwich and Ojibway, the total population
being 67,000. They are situated along the shores of the Detroit River
and Lake St. Clair, opposite the American city of Detroit. During the
past ten years this community has increased more rapidly than any
other in Canada. Hydro-electric power is available; coal may be
brought in at a low rate via the Great Lakes. Civic service facilities
are strictly up-to-date and the district is easy of access from the
United States. This has resulted in marked industrial development,
there being two hundred and six operating plants in these centres.
It is not surprising, in view of the fact that Detroit is "America's
Great Motoropolis," that over forty cf these plants in the Border
Cities are engaged in the manufacture of automobiles, motor-trucks,
etc. Windsor is the largest city, with a population of 40,000. Ferries
operate between Windsor and Detroit and also serve a number of
charming summer resorts along the river. The trains, however, use
the Michigan Central Tunnel underneath the river.
The surrounding district is exceedingly fertile and picturesque,
with a most genial climate and a long growing season. Agricultural
prosperity in this district is as marked as the industrial development
of the cities. 64
Across   Canada
Windsor to Chicago: 286 miles
Michigan Central Railroad
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Ann Arbor
Battle Creek
The journey to Chicago is continued from Windsor to
Chicago over the Michigan Central Railroad. Passing
under the Detroit River from Windsor through reinforced
steel tubes, we reach Detroit. The journey continues
thereafter through a succession of very prosperous smaller
cities. Ann Arbor is a great educational centre. Jackson
is a rapidly developing industrial and commercial city.
Battle Creek has a Well known sanatorium and manufactures many brands of health food. Kalamazoo has
extensive manufacturing industries, and is the centre of
a large celery and peppermint growing territory. Niles, on the St. Joe
River, is one of Michigan's oldest cities, and was, in the early days, the
western terminal of the Michigan Central. Gary, widely known as the
Steel City, was a desert of sand less than twenty-five years ago, but now
boasts of a population of almost 60,000.
Detroit (Population 1,234,000), the fouith largest city of the United
States, is an attractive and rapidly growing city that is
famous as the centre of the automobile business of that country, and
almost of the entire world. It has an immense production of cars, and
also of drugs, tobacco and shoes.
Chicago is the second largest city of the United States. Beautifully
situated overlooking Lake Michigan, it has the high skyscrapers and busy streets that endow it with the typically American
atmosphere. It has a great industrial area, many very attractive
residential sections, and rapidly developing extensions of the central
commercial district. It is one of the most important railway centres
of the continent, has imposing public buildings and office structures,
and a fine shopping district. It is the headquarters of the meatpacking industry of the continent.
The journey beyond Chicago is continued in the "Western Lines"
edition of this publication. Across  the   Great  Lakes 65
Great Lakes Steamship Trip
Port McNicoll and Owen Sound to Fort William
(For Map, see page 19)
Toronto During the summer months an extremely agreeable
Port McNicoll variation to the railway journey to western Canada is a
Owen Sound trip up the Great Lakes on board a Canadian Pacific
Sault Ste. Marie      steamship.   These ships ply from Port McNicoll to
Port Arthur Fort William twice a week, and from Owen Sound
Fort William once a week.  The trip takes a little less than two days.
The steamers are Clyde-built, offering luxurious
accommodation for three hundred passengers. They have spacious decks,
airy cabins, daintily furnished ladies' rooms, splendid smoking rooms, and
commodious dining rooms, with a sheltered after-deck which is a verandah-
cafe, lounging place, and outdoor dance-room.
Port McNicoll—see page 54.
Owen Sound—see page 57.
Across the Great Lakes     Plenty of breezes,  beautiful scenery,  and
a comfortable ship-life make this journey
one to have a permanent place in the memory. The route is across
the Georgian Bay through the Thirty Thousand Islands into Lake
Huron, past Manitoulin Island, the largest of that lake, through the
Soo Canal, and thence across Lake Superior. In the long twilight the
dark islands slip past, while the cries of the birds and the soft lapping
of the waves against the side of the ship lull one into a dreamy repose.
Morning breaks over the still, green banks of the St. Mary's River, gay
with cottages. Soon we enter St. Mary's Channel, and the well-known
canal and locks which are identified with Sault Ste. Marie, otherwise
and better known as "The Soo."
The Soo To overcome the long, dangerous rapids of the St. Mary's
River which at Sault Ste. Marie is compressed into a very
narrow channel two canals have been built, one on the Canadian and
one on the American side. The Canadian Government canal, built
from 1888 to 1895 at a cost of about four million dollars, is 7,472 feet
long, with a lock 900 feet long and 60 feet wide, raising the water level
eighteen feet. The traffic through the canal is mostly western grain
and iron-ore coming down the Great Lakes. Sault Ste. Marie could
really be called the pulse of the grain traffic, for all the vast volume of
water-borne grain traffic passes through one of these canals, in long
steamers built especially for the business. This fleet, in fact, can move
more than eight million bushels of wheat simultaneously in one voyage.
A greater volume of tonnage has in some years been registered in
these two canals than in either the Suez or the Panama.
Across Lake Superior     Leaving the canal, we sail under the large
bascule bridge over which the Soo branch of
the Canadian Pacific from Sudbury crosses the river. Swinging into
Whitefish Bay, we enter the majestic Lake Superior, across which we
travel for over eighteen hours, losing sight of land entirely. This is
perhaps the most delightful part of the journey, for we have made
numerous acquaintances, we have cooled off, and we have acquired
some startling appetites. Presently, however, we begin to near shore.
One of the most striking headlands is Thunder Cape, a huge promontory that juts out into the lake. In a short time thereafter, we sight
the giant elevators of the "twin cities" of Port Arthur and Fort
William, the outlet of the great grain crops of Western Canada.
Port Arthur—see page 22. g$£
Fort William—see page 22. 66
Across   Canada
A Pulp and Paper Mill
Sudbury to Sault Ste. Marie: 179 miles
(For Map, see page 19)
Going west, read station names downward.   Going east, read upward.
Copper Cliff
Blind River
Sault Ste. Marie
An important branch line leaves the main line at
Sudbury, and runs in a south-westerly direction to
Sault Ste. Marie. It traverses the great Mississauga
Forest Reserve, a block of land 4,896 square miles in
extent, exceedingly rich in lumber resources and to some
extent in minerals. The country here is wild and broken,
a land of stern rocky hills and swift eddying rivers,
and the enthusiast for outdoor life will find through
this region some of the finest opportunities anywhere
on this continent. After leaving Webbwood, a railway
sub-divisional point, we enter the country on the shore of
Lake Huron. Evidences of its chief industry, lumbering, are to be seen all along the line. All the rivers
which the railway crosses—the Spanish, the Blind, the Thessalon and other
important streams—carry great quantities of logs to the waters of Lake
Huron, on whose shores they are converted into commercial products.
Soon we find ourselves in pleasant farming country, and through trees and
cottages catch the silvery gleam of the St. Mary's River, which we follow for
some time to Sault Ste. Marie.
Sudbury—see page 13.
Copper Cliff     is the location of the Creighton Mine, owned by the
International Nickel Company.  It is the largest nickel
mine in the world.    It is linked up with Copper Cliff by about eight
miles of good auto road.
Whitefish is the gateway to Lake Penage, which affords some
of the best bass fishing in Canada. At Worthington
one of the Mond nickel mines is located and near by, at Turbine,
the International Nickel Company runs a standard railway into their
power plant.
Espanola     (Population 4,000) has a large mill operated by the Spanish
River Pulp and Paper Company, 300 tons of newsprint
being produced daily.
Cutler    affords a convenient point from which to take steamer to
Manitoulin Island, another great sporting district that lies
in the North Channel of Lake Huron.
Blind River      is the usual terminus of the long canoe trip down the
Mississauga River from Biscotasing   (see   page 20).
It is a great lumbering centre, with planing mills, and box and door
is a popular summer resort, not far from Sault Ste. Marie,
and is the port for St. Joseph's Island. ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES
Canadian Pacific Bridge at the Soo—On Lake Superior
The Canadian Locks, Soo Canal—Thunder Cape —
Steamship "Assiniboia" 68
Across   Canada
Sault Ste. Marie      (Population 28,000) is an important city that lies
on the St. Mary's River, which separates it from
the twin'city of the same name situated in the State of Michigan.
Historically Sault Ste. Marie has great interest. The first settlement was formed by French fur-traders and Jesuit Fathers about
1632.1 The city has great steel mills, paper mills, and large tar and
chemical factories.
Sault Ste. Marie is a port of call for the Canadian Pacific Great
Lakes steamship service. (A description of the remarkable Sault Ste.
Marie Canal will be found on page 65).
The St. Mary's River, a very rapid one with dangerous rapids,
is bridged by nine 240-f t. through truss spans. On the Canadian side the
Canadian canal is crossed by a swing span 410 feet long, and on the
American side, the United States canals are crossed by a 98-ft. swing
span and a 430-ft. bascule span. This latter span is the only one of its
kind in the world; the two arms are so locked together in the centre,
when the bridge is closed, that the trusses act as a single span from
pier to pier, but when canal traffic demands it, this huge span automatically uncouples in the centre and the two halves open upwards on
their trunnions like two gigantic cranes.
500 Line
Sault Ste. Marie to St. Paul and Minneapolis
501 miles
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.   From Sault Ste. Marie the Minneapolis, St.
Manistique Paul and Sault Ste. Marie Railway, better known
Gladstone as  the   "Soo Line,"  crosses the St.  Martfs
Rhinelander River to the duplicate city of the same name that
Prentice lies in the State of Michigan. Leaving it behind,
Cameron we run through a prosperous and settled farming
Osceola territory.   Shortly before reaching St.  Paul,
St. Paul we cross the St. Croix River, the boundary line
Minneapolis between the States of Minnesota and Wisconsin.
The Dalles, which may be seen from the train,
have been set aside by both states as an interstate park. Connection is made
at Minneapolis and St. Paul for points north, south and west.
I     Sault Ste. Marie to Duluth: 420 miles
Sault Ste. Marie, Mich.   The Duluth, South Shore and Atlantic Railway
Marquette affords a direct line from Sault Ste. Marie to
Negaunee the fast developing commercial centres of Duluth
Ishpeming and  Superior,   at  the  extreme  south-western
Nestoria corner of Lake Superior. The territory traversed
Superior is historic, much of it having been explored by
Duluth the early French voyageurs, who were the first
to map the south shore line of Lake Superior.
It is a country, too, which is rich in minerals, particularly iron and copper.
Many of the mines may be viewed from the train, and form an unusually
interesting scene for those who are making their first step through a mining
Minneapolis Canadian
Twenty Thousand I
miles of railway in Canada and the
United States—reaching the principal
agricultural, industrial and commercial
regions, as well as the most wonderful
mountain scenery and hunting and fishing territory in the world.
Two Fleets      j
of ocean steamships—the Empresses of
the Pacific from Vancouver to China and
Japan, and the Empresses of the Atlantic
and the Monoclass Cabin Steamships
from Eastern Canadian Ports to Europe.
Thirteen Magnificent Hotels
—in the Canadian Pacific Rockies, at
the Pacific Coast, on the Prairies, and
in the East—Eleven delightful Bungalow
Camps in the Rockies and in Ontario.
{See back cover for list.)
(Dominion Express Co.)
Canadian Pacific
/i 70
Across   Canada
Table of Mileages
Principally in Eastern Canada
(By Direct Route unless otherwise stated)
Montreal     Toronto     Winnipeg Vancouver Chicago
Bala. Ont  119 1113 2587 632
Belleville, Ont  221 119 1352 2826 632
Boston. Mass  340 598 1752(a) 3226(a) 1110(b)
Brantford. Ont. Cc)  419 78 1311 2785 476
Brockville. Ont  156 239 1472(b) 2946(b) 751
Buffalo.N.Y  441 101 1333 2807 613(b)
Calgary. Alta  2244 2065                832                642 1612
Chapleau, Ont  609 430                802 2276
Chatham. Ont  519 179 1411 (b) 2885 (b) 333
Chicago, 111  853 512                913 2254 ....
Cobourg, Ont  264 77 1309 2783 589
Cornwall, Ont  69 329 1481 (a) 2955 (a) 841
Detroit, Mich  569 229 1197 (d) 2537 (d) 283
Duluth, Minn  1038(f) 859(f)
Edmonton, Alta  2260 (e)        2081 (e)          848 (e) .... 1806 (h)
Fort William, Ont  992 813                419 1893 ....
Fredericton, N.B  459 799 1870 3344 1311
French River, Ont  555(b) 215 1017 2492 727
Galt, Ont  398 57 1289 (b) 2764 (b) 455
Goderich, Ont  475 135 1367 (b) 2841 (b) 647 (b)
Grand'Mere, Que  122 463 1534 3008 975
Guelph, Ont  395 54 1287(b) 2761(b) 567(b)
Halifax, N.S. (g)  678 1018 2089 3563 1530
Hamilton, Ont  380 40 1272 2746 552
Hull, Que  113 .... 1299 2773
Ingersoll, Ont  437 97 1329 (b) 2803 (b) 433
Joliette, Que  55 395 1466 2940 907
Kenora, Ont  1286 1106                126 1600
Kingston, Ont  208 209 1442 (b)         209 (b) 721 (b)
Kitchener, Ont. (c)  410 70 1302 2776 467
Lindsay, Ont  409(b) 69 1301 2775 581
London, Ont  455 115 1347(b) 2821(b) 398
Magog, Que  88 429 1500 2974 941
Megantic, Que  175 515 1587 3061 1028
Minneapolis. Minn  1119 (f) 939 (f)         453 1794 460
Montreal, Que  340 1412 2886 853
New York, N.Y  384 539 1796 (a) 3270 (a) 1052 (b)
Niagara Falls, Ont  432 92 1324 2798 604
Nipigon.Ont  923 310                489 1963
North Bay, Ont  360 339(f) 1052 2526 851(f)
Orillia, Ont  383 (b) 42 1275 (b) 2749 (b) 555
Oshawa, Ont  303 37 1270 2744 550
Ottawa.Ont  Ill 265 1300 2774 777
Owen Sound, Ont  461 (b) 121 1353 (b) 2827 (b) 633 (b)
Pembroke, Ont  220   1191 2665
Peterboro, Ont  #262 76 1309 2783 589
Pointe au Baril, Ont  520 (b) 180 1052 2526 692
Port Arthur, Ont  988 809                424 1898
Portland, Maine  283 624 (a)        1695 (a) 3169 (a) 1136 (a)
Quebec. Que  173 513 1584 3058 1025
Regina. Sask  1768 1589               357 1117
Renfrew. Ont  186 236 1226 2700
St. Andrews, N.B  439 780 1851 3325 1292
St. Hyacinthe, Que  67 408 1479 2953 920
St. Jerome, Que  33 374 1445 2919 886
St.John, N.B  482 822 1893 3367 1334
St. Johns, Que  29 370 1441 2915 ..882
St. Paul, Minn ' 1109(f) 929(f)          464 1805 449
St. Thomas, Ont  463 122 1355 rb) 2829 (b) 450
Sault Ste. Marie. Ont  618 439 1152 (f) 2626 (f)
Shawinigan Falls. Que  116 457 1528 3002 969
Sherbrooke, Que  106 447 1518 2992 959
Smith's Falls. Ont  129 212 1444 (b) 2918 (b) 724
Sudbury. Ont  439 260                973 2447 772
Thetford Mines. Que  173 514 1585 3059 1026
Toronto, Ont  340 .... 1232 2706 512
Trenton. Ont  231 109 1341 2815 621
Trois Rivieres, Que  95 436 1412 2981 948
Truro, N.S. (g)  690 1030 2101 3575 1542
Vancouver, B.C  2886 2706 1474 .... 2254
Victoria, B.C  2969 2789 1557                  83 2337
Welland, Ont  418 78 1310 2784 590
Windsor, Ont  567 226 1458(b) 2932(b) 286
Winnipeg, Man  1412 1232 .... 1474 913
Woodstock, Ont  428 88 1320 (b) 2794 (b) 424
Yarmouth. N.S. (g)..'  593 933 2004 3478 1445
(a) via Montreal, (b) via Toronto, (c) via Galt, (d) via Chicago, (e) via Saskatoon,
(f) via Sudbury, (g) via St.John and Digby, (h) via Calgary. "V
Across Canada
Index to Principal Stations
Abbotsford, Que 26
Actonvale, Que 46
Adamsville, Que... .26
Adirondack Jct.,Que.26
Alliston, Ont 16
Almonte, Ont 10
Amherst, N.S 33
Angliers, Que 11
Annapolis Royal,
N.S 37
Arnprior, Ont 10
Arthur, Ont 57
Aylmer, Que 48
Ayr, Ont 67
Bala, Ont 16
Batlscan, Que 40
Battle Creek, Mich. .64
Beaconsfield, Que... 7
Bear Biver, N.S 37
Beausejour, Man 25
Bedell, Ont 48,49
Beeton, Ont 16
Belair, Que 40
Belle Biver, Ont 63
Belleville, Ont 50
Berthier, Que 38
Biscotasing, Ont.... 20
Blind River, Ont 66
Blue Sea, Que 48
Bobcaygeon, Ont—60
Bolton, Ont 16,57
Bonfield, Ont 12
Boston, Mass. 32, 37,44
Bowmanville, Ont... 52
Braeside, Ont 10
Brampton, Ont 57
Brantford, Ont..55, 61
Bridgetown, N.S 37
Brighton, Ont...... 52
Brockville, Ont.. 10, 49
Brownville Jct., Me. 28
Buckingham  Jct.,
Que 46
Buffalo, N.Y 56
Burbidge, Que 48
Bury, Que 27
Byng Inlet, Ont 18
Cache Bay, Ont 13
Calaboeie, Ont...... 10
Caledonia Springs,
Ont   7
Calumet, Que 46
Campbell's Bay,
Que 48
Caribou, Me 29
Carleton Place,
Ont 10,48
Cartier, Ont 20
Chalk River. Ont.. .11
Chapleau, Ont 20
Chatham. Ont 63
Chelmsford, Ont 20
Chelsea, Que 48
Chesterville, Ont 49
Chicago, 111 64
Chipman, N.B 30
Cobalt, Out  .12
Cobden, Ont 11
Cobourg, Ont 52
Cochrane, Ont 12
Colborne, Ont 52
Coniston, Ont 13
Cookshire, Que 27
Copper Cliff, Ont.. .66
Cornwall, Ont 49
Cowansville, Que... .26
Danforth, Me 28
Debec, N.B 29
Delson, Que 26
Detroit, Mich 64
Desbarats, Ont 66
Deux Rivieres, Ont. .11
Digby, N.S 33,37
Dorval, Que   7
Drumbo, "Ont 62
Dryden, Ont 24
Duluth, Minn 68
Dundalk, Ont 57
Durham, Ont 57
East Angus, Que 43
East Templeton,
Que 46
Edmundston, N.B.. .29
Eganville, Ont 10
Elmira, Ont. 58
Elora, Ont 57
Erindale, Ont 61
Espanola, Ont 66
Fairville, N.B 30
Farnham, Que 26
Fassett, Que 46
Fergus, Ont 67
Flesherton, Ont 57
Fort Coulonge, Que. .48
Fort Fairfleld, Me.. .29
Fort William, Ont.
22, 65
Foster, Que 26
Franz, Ont 21
Fredericton, N.B 30
Fredericton Jct., N.B.
French River, Ont... 18
Galt, Ont 61
Glencoe, Ont 63
Goderich, Ont 58
Gracefield, Que 48
Grand Bay, N.B 30
Grand Falls, N.B....29
Grand'Mere, Que 40
Grand Pre, N.S 37
Grandes Piles, Que. .40
Greenville Jct., Me. .28
Guelph, Ont 58
Halifax, N.S 33,34
Hamilton, Ont 55
Hammond, Ont   7
Hanover, Ont 57
Harriston, Ont 57
Harvey, N.B 30
Havelock, Ont 53
Hespeler, Ont 61
Highlands, Que 26
Houlton, Me 29
Hoyt, N.B 30
Hudson, Que   7
Hull, Que..8. 10,46,48
Iberville, Ont 26
Ignace, Ont 24
Ineersoll, Ont 62
Islington, Ont 61
Jack Fish, Ont 21
Jackman, Me 28
Jackson, Mich 64
Joliette, Que 38
Kaladar, Ont 53
Kalamazoo, Mich.. .64
Kazubazua, Que.... 48
Keewatin, Ont 25
Kemptville, Ont 48
Kenora, Ont 24
Kentville, N.S 37 •
Kingston, Ont 10
Kipawa, Que 11
Kitchener, Ont 61
Knowlton, Que 26
Labelle, Que 45
Lachevrotiere, Que. .40
Lachute, Que 46
Lambton, Ont 61
Lanoraie, Que 31
La Perade, Que 40
Lavaltrie, Que 38
Lennoxville, Que 27
L'Epiphanie, Que.. .38
Levack, Ont , .. 20
Levis, Que 43
Lindsay, Ont 54, 60
Listowel, Ont 58
London, Ont 62, 63
Lorette, Que 40
Louiseville, Que 38
MacTier, Ont 17
Magog, Que 27
Maniwaki, Que 48
Mansonville, Que... 27
Markdale, Ont 57
Marquette, Mich 68
Mascouche, Que 38
Massey, Ont 66
Mattawa, Ont 11
Mattawamkeag, Me. 28
McAdam, N.B.
28, 29, 32
Megantic, Que.. .27, 43
Merrickville, Ont... .49
Metagama, Ont 20
Meteghan, N.S 37
Middleton, N.S 37
Mile End, Que.
38, 45, 46
Millbank, Ont 58
Milton, Ont 61
Minneapolis, Minn..68
Minto, N.B 30
Missanabie, Ont... .21
Moncton, N.B 33
Mont Laurier, Que. .45
Montreal, Que.
4, 38, 44, 46, 49, 53
Montreal West, Que.
7, 26
Mt. Forest, Ont 57
Newburg, N.B 30
Newcastle, Ont 52
Newport, Vt 26
New York,N.Y.44, 56
Niagara Falls, Ont. .56
Nipigon, Ont 2l
Nominingue, Que.. .45
I orth Bay, Ont 12
North Devon, N.B. .30
N orth Stukely, Que. 27
North Troy, Vt 27
Norwood, Ont 53
Orangeville, Ont.... 57
Orillia, Ont 54
Oshawa. Ont 52
Otis, N.B 30
Ottawa, Ont.
8, 46, 48, 60
Owen Sound, Ont.
57, 65
Pakesley, Ont 18
Papineauville, Que. .46
Paris, Ont 61
Parry Sound, Ont.... 17
Pembroke, Ont 11
Pendleton, Ont   7
Perth, Ont 50
Perth Jct., N.B 29
Petawawa, Ont 11
Peterboro, Ont 54
Pickerel, Ont 18
Plaisance, Que 46
Plaster Rock, N.B... 29
Pointe au Baril, Ont. 17
Pointe du Lac, Que. . 38
Point Fortune, Que.. 7
Pont Rouge, Que 40
Port Arthur.Ont. 22, 65
Port Burwell, Ont... 62
Port Dover, Ont.... 61
Port Hope, Ont 52
Portland, Me 28, 44
Port McNicoll, Ont.
54, 65
Portneuf, Que 40
Prescott, Ont 49
Presque Isle, Me 29
Preston, Ont 61
Quebec, Que 42, 43
Quyon, Que 48
Renfrew, Ont 10
Rigaud, Que   7
Rossport, Ont 21
Rutherglen, Ont 12
Ste. Agathe, Que 45
St. Andrews, N.B.. .28
Ste. Anne de Beaupre,
Que 42
Ste. Annes, Que   7
St. Augustin, Que...46
St. Basile, Que 40
St. Boniface, Man... 26
St. Clet, Que ..49
St. Constant, Que.. .26
St. Eustache, Que.. .46
St. Faustin, Que 45
St. Felix, Que 38
St. Gabriel, Que 38
St. George, N.B 32
St. Guillaume, Que. .26
St. Hyacinthe, Que. .26
St. Jerome, Que 45
Saint John, N.B.
30, 32, 33
St. Johns, Que 26
St. Joseph Beauce,
Que 43
St. Jovite, Que 45
St. Lin, Que 46
Ste.Marguerite, Qu«.45
St. Martin Jct., Que.38
St. Mary's, Ont 62
St. Maurice, Que.... 40
St. Narcisse, Que... .40
St. Paul, Minn 68
St. Phillippe, Que.. .26
St. Polycarpe Jct.,
Que 49
Ste. Rose, Que 45
Ste. Scholastique,
Que 46
St. Stephen, N.B 32
Ste.Therese, Que.
45, 46
?t. Thomas, Ont 62
Sault Ste. Marie,
Ont 65, 66, 68
Sault Ste. Marie,
Mich 68
Schreiber, Ont 21
Severn Falls, Ont.. .16
Sharbot Lake, Ont.
10, 53
Shawbridge, Que 45
Shawinigan Falls,
Que 40
8hawville, Que 4S
Shelbourne, Ont 57
Sherbrooke, Que. 27, 43
Simcoe, Ont 61
Smith's Falls, Ont.
48, 49
Staynerville, Que.... 46
Streetsville, Ont 61
Streetsville Jct.,
Ont. 57
Sturgeon Falls, Ont.. 13
Sudbury, Ont.
13, 18, 20, 66
Superior, Wis 68
Sutton, Que 26
T eeswater, Ont 57
Terrebonne. Que.... 38
Thetford Mines, Que.43
Thessalon, Ont 66
Tichborne, Ont.. 10, 50
Tilbury, Ont 63
Tilsonburg, Ont 62
Timiskaming, Que.. .11
Toronto, Ont 14, 49
54,55, 58, 60, 61, 65
Tottenham, Ont.... 16
Trenton, Ont 50
Trois Rivieres, Que..40
Truro, N.S 34
Tweed, Ont 53
Tyndall, Man .25
Vanceboro, Me 28
Vankleek Hill, Ont. .  7
Vaudreuil, Que 7, 49
Verner, Ont 13
Ville Marie, Que.... 11
Wakefield, Que 48
Walkerton, Ont 57
Walkerville, Ont 63
Waltham, Que . . 48
Warren, Ont 13
Waterloo, Ont 61
Waterloo, Que 26
Webbwood, Ont 66
Welland, Ont 55, 56
Westfield Beach,
N.B..! 30
Westfort, Ont 24
Westmount, Que....  7
Weston, N.S 37
West St. John, N.B..32
West Shefford, Que. .26
West Toronto, Ont.
16, 61
Weymouth, N.S 37
Whitby, Ont 52
White Fish, Ont 66
Whitemouth, Man. .25
White River, Ont. . .21
Winchester, Ont.... 49
Windsor, Ont 63, 64
Windsor, N.S 34, 36
Windsor Mills, Que.. 27
Wingham, Ont 57
Winnipeg, Man 25
Wolfville, N.S 37
Woodbridge, Ont 16
Woodstock, Ont 61
Woodstock, N.B 29
Yamachiche, Que.... 38
The Canadian Pacific Railway has established a Bureau of Canadian Information as
a branch of its Department of Colonization and Development, with the object of
disseminating reliable and up-to-date information as to agricultural and industrial
openings in all parts of Canada. W$M
Well-equipped Canadian reference libraries have been establishedat Montreal, New
York, Chicago, and London, England. These libraries contain the fullest information on all matters relating to Canada and her undeveloped resources, and are kept
supplied with the latest information pertaining to new developments through the
medium of a news service organized through the co-operation of the other departments of the Company's service. The information on hand in these libraries is
available without charge to those interested, and inquiries addressed to any office
of the Department will receive prompt attention.
If you are interested in the mining wealth and ever-increasing mining industry of
Canada, or in the development or supply of the very great variety of industrial raw
materials available from resources along the Canadian Pacific Railway, you are
invited to consult this Branch. An expert staff is maintained to acquire and investigate information relative to these resources and to make examinations of deposits in the field. Practical information as to special opportunities for development,
use of by-products and markets, industrial crops, prospecting and mining, given on
The Company has yet for sale many acres of choice farm lands in Western Canada
at low prices and on long 34-year amortization terms. In certain districts lands will
be sold without settlement restrictions, but the Company is prepared to grant
special concessions to those who will settle upon and develop their farms. In its
irrigation district in Southern Alberta, the Company also has irrigated lands for
sale at reasonable prices and on similar terms.
Lists of selected improvedf arms, available for settlement in the Maritime Provinces,
with the names and addresses of their owners, may be obtained on application at any
office of the Department.
. Bureau of Canadian Information, 347 Windsor Station.
.J. N. K. Macalister, Supt. of Colonization, C.P.R. Station.
.L. F. Mowrey. Asst. Supt. of Colonization, Madison Ave. at
44th Street.
.C. A. Van Scoy, Asst. Supt. of Colonization, Hackney Bldg.,
4th and Jackson Streets.
.Bureau of Canadian Information, 167 E. Ontario Street.
. R. C. Bosworth, Asst. Supt. of Colonization. 702 First Ave.
. L. P. Thornton, Asst. Supt. of Colonization, 208 Railway
Exchange Bldg.
LONDON. Eng...A. E. Moore, Manager, European Organization, 62-65 Charing
Special Representative,     Asst. Commissioner, Chief Commissioner,
MONTREAL.        MONTREAL.        MONTREAL. Canadian  Pacific  Hotels
Name of Hotel
St. Andrews, N.B.
June 28
Golf,    Bathing,    Boating,     Yachting.
McAdam, N.B.
to Sept. 6
(Passamaquoddy Bay, SL Croix River.)
McAdam Hotel	
All year
Hunting in Season.
Quebec, Que.
Chateau Frontenac.	
All year
Scenic and Historical interest, Golf,
Motoring   (Plains of Abraham, SL
Montreal, Que.
Anne de Beaupre).
All year
Historical Monuments and buildings.
Mount Royal, St. Lawrence River,
Golfing, Boating, Yachting, Motoring,
Winnipeg, Man.
City founded by Maisonneuve 1642.
The Royal Alexandra	
All year
Golf,   Motoring,  centre   of   Canadian,
Calgary, Alta.
West.   (Site of old Fort Garry.)
Hotel Palliser	
All year
Golf, Motoring, Fishing (Trout).
Banff, Alta.
Banff Springs Hotel	
May 15
to Sept. 30
Mountain drives and climbs, Golf, Bathing, Fishing, Boating, Riding (Rocky
Lake Louise, Alta.
Mountain Park).
Chateau Lake Louise	
June 1
to Sept. 30
Boating, Mountain climbs, Pony trails
Fishing, Lakes in the Clouds, Moraine
Emerald Lake (near Field),
Lake, Glaciers.
Emerald Lake Chalet
June 15
to Sept. 15
Boating, Fishing, Pony trail3 to Yoho
Valley, Takakkaw Falls,  Riding to
Giaoler, B.C.
Summit Lake and Twin Falls.
June 15
Pony trails, Climbs, Exploring Glaciers,
Sloamous, B.C.
to Sept. 15
Great Nakimu Caves.
All year
Rowing, Canoeing, Motor boats, Trout
Vancouver, B.C.
Fishing.   (Sicamous Lake.)
; ...1
All year
Golf,   Motoring,   Fishing,   Steamboat
Victoria, B.C.
-.Empress Hotel	
All year
Golf, Motoring, Yachting, Sea and
Stream Fishing.
CAMPS AND HOTELS (reached by Canadian Pacific)
Digby, N.S.
The Pines A
Kentville, N.S.
Cornwallis Inn jjj A
French River, Ont.
French River Camp JV
Nipigon, Ont.
Nipigon River Camp A
Kenora, Ont.
Devils Gap Camp A
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Storm Mountain Bungalow A
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Vermilion River Camp A
Banff or Lake Louise, Alta.
Radium Hot Springs Camp..A
Lake Louise, Alta.
Moraine Lake Camp A
Hector, B.C.
Lake O'Hara Camp A
Hector, B.C.
Wapta Camp a
Field, B.C.
Yoho Valley Camp a
Lake Windermere, B.C.
Lake Windermere Camp A
(Operated by Invermere Hotel
Penticton, B.C.
Hotel Incola a
(Owned and operated by the
Okanagan Hotel Company.)
Cameron Lake, B.C.
Cameron Lake Chalet. A
Vancouver Island.
Strathcona Lodge Stn., B.C.
Strathcona Lodge ,
Vancouver Island.
June 20
to Sept. 15
All year
June 15
to Sept. 15
June 15
to Sept. 15
June 15
to Sept. 15
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
to Sept. 15
June 1
to Sept. 15
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
July 1
to Sept. 15
All year
May 1
to Sept. 20
May 15
to Oct 1
Golf, Tennis, Sea-
into the Land of
In the heart of the
Motor   boating,
Motor    boating,
Motor   boating,
Hiking, Motoring,
•fishing.   Excursions
Land of Evangeline.
Canoeing,    Fishing,
Canoeing,    Fishing,
Canoeing,   Fishing,
Mountain  climbing.
Hiking, Motoring, Fishing, Mountain
Hiking, Motoring, Fishing, Mountain
climbing, Swimming in hot radium
Head of Valley of Ten Peaks, Consolation Lake. Trout fishing, Pony trails,
climbs, etc.
Riding, Walking, Mountain climbing.
Trips to Lake McArthur and Lake
Oesa, also Alpine Hut, Abbot's Pass.
Centre for Explorations. Excursions to
Lake O'Hara, Yoho Valley, etc.
Drives, Kicking Horse Canyon.
Half-way between Wapta Camp and
Emerald Lake Chalet, by road and
trail. Takakkaw Falls, Twin Falls,
Summit Lake, Yoho Glacier, etc.
Centre for Riding, Camping, Motoring,
Bathing, Boating, Fishing, Excursions
to the Glaciers of the Selkirks.
Boating and Fishing, Okanagan Lake.
Splendid Motor roads.
Fishing    (Trout),    Boating.   Splendid
forests.   (Salmon fishing adjacent.)
Fishing   (Trout),   Swimming,   Tennis,
Mountain climbing, Motoring.
A—American Plan.      E—European Plan. %


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