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Manitoba : the Canadian north-west, testimony of actual settlers Canadian Pacific Railway Company 1886

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Full Text

 TESTIMONY
ACTUAL SETTLERS. icft •eft"
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IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT,
Compliments From
Dr. Wallace B. Chung
ge) payments for
The */&*"/>£&/*    L   /^^ruZ^U    /&H  ?
fA
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J^Jt   V~y%j&
7^x7*.
g" cultivation.
rOT IN ADVANCE
VN      y —   | // ttler, or son of a
C M^t/   ^A^   0vo£cl+j( SJ~CC£eM>  S*jl,
world offers such
l settlement.
■£/6*&*£&->&
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PI ***>* /-Cd/   ?&< let rmsu
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IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT,
» -4»» «
Under the Land Regulations now in force (see next page) payments for
land are
SPREAD OVER TEN YEARS
instead of five as heretofore,  without conditions requiring cultivati&n.
INTEEEST PAYABLE AT THE END OF EACH YEAE, AND NOT IN ADVANCE
B ,    ASFOEMEELY.  ' 1    »
Under these Regulations, and considering that each settler, or son of a
settler can obtain
160 ACRES FREE
from the Government, it is believed that no country in .the world offers such
favorable inducements to those desirous of taking up lands for settlement. The lands within the Railway belt, extending 24 miles from each  side of the main line,   will be
disposed of at prices ranging from
§§      J    $2.50 PER ACRE
upwards, according to location and quality, without any conditions requiring cultivation.
These Regulations are substituted for and cancel those hitherto in force.
TEKMS  op if^^^e^t.
If paid for in full at time of purchase, a Deed of Conveyance of the land will be given;   but   the
purchaser may pay one-ten til in casll, and the balance in
with interest at six per cent. per annum, payable at the end of each year.    Payments may be made in 1
Land Grant Bonds, which will be accepted at ten per cent, premium on their par value and accrued
interest.    These bonds can be obtained on application at the Bank of Montreal, Montreal, or at any of its 1
agencies in Canada or the United States.
OS^STEZE^-L   OOlsroX'X'XOatf'S- I
All sales are subject to the following general conditions :
1. All improvements placed upon land purchased to be maintained thereon until final payment
lias been made.
2. All taxes and assessments lawfully imposed upon the land or improvments to be paid by the
purchaser.
3. The Company reserves from sale, under these regulations, all mineral and coal lands ; and
lands containing timber in quantities, stone, slate and marble quarries, lands with water power thereon,
and tracts for town sites and railway purposes.
4. Mineral, coal and timber lands and quarries, and lands controlling water power, will be disposed
of on very moderate terms to persons giving satisfactory evidence of their intention and ability to utilize
the same.
5. The Company reserves the right to take without remuneration (except for the value of buildings
and improvements on the required portion of the land) a strip or strips of land 200 feet wide, to be used
for right of way, or other railway purposes, wherever the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or any
branch thereof, is or shall be located.
Liberal rates for settlers and their effects will be granted by the Company over #s Railway.
For further particulars, apply to the Company's Land Commissioner,
JOHN H. McTAVISH, Winnipeg.
Montreal, January, 1886.
NOTE.HSOVTHERN   MANITOBA.
The Manitoba and South Western Railway (leased by the Canadian Pacific) has now been extended
from Manitou to the neighbourhood of Whitewater Lake (see map), and applications for lands along
this line will now be received. These are among the choicest lands in the Province, and will be sold on
very reasonable terms to actual settlers.    Apply to Mr. McTAVISH for prices and conditions. a*sst*
tag r wm*^* * ^I^W^H^
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H
MBODIED in the following pages are plain facts from farmers in the Canadian North-West
on many points of interest to intending settlers. It should be stated that circular letters
king for information were sent out to all farmers in the country whose addresses could be
"ocured. The replies received were so numerous as to make it quite impossible to embody
tern all in one pamphlet. Those given in the following pages relate chiefly to the main ques-
ons present, in the first instance, to the mind of an intending settler.
The full address of each settler is given in the first instance only.     It is, of   course,
>mpetent for any reader, by writing to the address given in each case, to verify the accuracy
" the answers now published.    Questions were asked as follows :—
When did you first settle in the North-West ?
! How much capital did you commence with ?
I What do you consider the present value of your farm ?
[ These questious elicited the following answers from actual settlers :—
Name.
roctor, Henry. \.
oung, John M.L.
urrie, William..
imeron, G. A...
ickson,J. W....
fagner,   W.   (M.
X •   JT• ). • • • •   • * • *
[ercer, James....
ole,J	
ittle, James	
■ield, Edward,...
ntch, Angus....
ralker, J. C	
andervoort, G...
nart, George. ..
enny, David W.
orton, Thos. L..
iwson, James...
Postal  Address.
Woodlands, Manitoba.
Moosomin, P. O. Asa..
Chater, Man	
When
Settled
Indian Head, N.W.T..
Arnaud, P.O., Man....
Ossowa, Man.
Black Ox Farm, Gren-
fell, N.W.T.
Regina, N.W.T.
Manitoba	
Shell River, Man...
Griswold, Man	
Glendale P.O.,Man,
Alexandria	
Holland, P.O ,
Wott Cteek, Sec. 31, T
15, R. 10, Asa	
Gladstone, Man	
Mountain City, Sec. 16,
T  2. R. 6, W. Man.
1873
1881
1880
1882
1882
1871
1872
1883
1879
1867
1881
1877
1876
1879
1883
1873
1877
Capital at Commencement.
Nothing	
I was in debt $10	
Had no money to begin with, but made
about $2,000 the first two years with
warehouse on river	
Carpenter's trade was all the capital I had
None, but what it cost to build, and all
of that I made by working out	
None	
Value of Farm.
None; I had to be an agricultural laborer
at first	
Not any	
I had a team of horses, waggon, plough
and harrow....	
None	
None	
None whatever	
No capital at all.    Upon entering on my
homestead I had not one dollar left..
Nothing	
What paid the passage for my family
and freight *	
Nil	
Not any	
$12,000^
$1,600
About $10,000 to
$12,000.
$2,000   to  $2,500
$2,500
I was offered$2oper
acre and refused ..
$900
$2,000
I have  320 acres,
which is  worth
$7,000 :     town
property $Iooo«
$2,000
$3,000
$2,000
$3,000
$2,000
$1,000
$3>5oo
Say about $5,000. PLAIN  FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Chambers,  S. • • •.
Agnew, James....
Bruce, George....
Perley, W. D	
Postal Address.
Wattsview, P.O., Man.
McGill, George. ..
Harward, Fred...
Rorison, W. D....
Davis, John B....
Troyer, Christian.
Pollock, John....
little, J	
"Wilson, James....
McGregor, D....
Riddell, Robert...
Hall, P	
Bolton, Ferris....
Carter, Thomas...
Warren, R. J	
McCorquodale.. • -
Taylor, William .
McDonald,Duncan
Burgess, J. W....
Garratt, R. S.(J.P)
Lawrie, J. M	
Kines, William,. •
Brandon, Man	
Gladstone P.O., Man.
Wolseley, N.W.T....
Carrolton P.O., Man
Littleton, Man	
Oberon P.O., Man	
McLean, Assa, N.W.T
Sec. 22, T. 3, R. 2, W,
2, Alameda, N.W.T
In   Southern    Man
1879	
Wolf Creek, Assa.,
XN • VY • X  ••••••   •••#
Neepawa, Man	
Stodderville, Man	
Griswold, Man	
Salisbury, P.O., Man..
South Antles, N.W.T.
Calf Mountain, Man...
Woodlands, Man	
Oliver, Man........
Morden, Man
Manitoba	
Baie St. Paul, Man....
Fleming, N.W.T	
Kenlis, N.W.T	
Birtle, Man	
Big Plains, Osprey,Man
Capital at Commencement.
1879
1882
1879
1883
1882
i8£i
1877
1882
1882
April,
1884
1869
1877
1882
1871
1882
1877
1879
1878
1882
1874
1872
1882
1878
1881
188:
No cash capital. Had one year's provisions, one yoke of oxen, cow and some
implements	
I was a poor man, and had but little
capital	
Not 5 cents,	
Not much	
Very little after landing in this country
I had $2.50 when I landed at Emerson,
$5	
$15 1	
I borrowed $40 to come here with......
$100	
$100 cash, 1 yoke of oxen, two cows and
a good stock of clothing	
$150 1
$240....	
$300	
$300	
$380 jj	
$400, with $1420 to follow in n
months. The collector absconded,
and the 1420 never came to hand....
About $400	
About $400	
About $400 •	
$400	
$400 • I	
$400	
$475, with a wife and three children....
$<;oo	
Value of Farm.
$8,000
$1,000
I cannot say .1 have
only 80 acres.
Situate within two
miles of Wolseley
it   ought   to   be
worth $3.25 an acre
As farm property
does not change
hands, can make
no estimate....
$2,500
My
$11,000
$5,000
wife
$10,000
says
About $1,500; if I
were   selling   it
would be $2,000
$8,000
$6,000
$2,500
$5,000
$2,500
$4,000
Have remsed$40oo
will not take less
than $5,000
About $1,000. I
have 1,000 in
implements, and
$2,000 stock.
$3>5o°
1,088 acres, valued
at o 25 per acre
At least $5 an acre
$2,000
10 per acre.
Sold my homestead
and pre-emption
last  Spring   for
$2,000 PLAIN  FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST,
Name.
owlord, C. (J.P.)
gjPJ W. B	
Chester, A	
Postal Address.
Tate, James
lonnorson, James.
McCormack, David
Kempt, John	
Connell, T. K....
Beestey, John G..
McKitrick, Wm..
Rogers, Thomas..
Sheppard, Jos....
Farmer, W. A...
Ogletree, Francis.
Bonesteel, C. H..
When
Settled
Ossowa, Man ,
Headingley, Man..
Harringhurst, Man.
Sec. 30, T. 2, R. 2 W.
Alameda P.O., Assa.
Minnewashta, Man....
Sec. 22, T. 11, R. 30,
Fleming P.O., Man.
Austin, Man	
Osprey P.O., Man....
Moose Jaw, Assiniboia.
Rose Bank Farm, Crystal City P.O., Man..
Railway View Farm,
Moose Jaw, Assa...
Indian Head, N.W.T..
Headingley, Man.....
Portage la Prairie, Man.
Pheasant Plain, Kenlis
P.O., Assa, N.W.T
[Anderson, George
[McCaughey, J. S.
Heaslip, J. J	
[Day, Samuel	
Stevenson, G. B ..
Doyle, W. A.(J.P)
[Wat, James	
Haney, A. W....
Hind, Brothers...
Reifl, Alex	
Reid, E. J	
Drew, Wm. D. ..
Lambert, W. M..
Heaney, Jonathan.
Knight, W.G(J.P)
Grenfell, Assa. N.W.T.
Alameda P.O.,N.W.T.
Alameda P.O ,N.W.T.
Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30,
Fleming, N.W.T...
Brandon, Man	
^eulah, Man.	
Brierwood, P.O., Man.
Wolseley,  N.W.T....
Pense, Assa., N.W.T.
Of Messrs. Callender
and Reid, farmers
and general storekeepers, Millford,
Man	
Plum Creek, Man....
Brandon, Man	
Regina, N.W.T	
Meadow Lea P.O ,Man.
1869
1858
1882
Oak Lake, Man
Capital at Commencement.
$500..
About
$500..
;oo,
1882  $500
1878
1882
1882
1878
1883
1880
1883
1883
1869
1869
1883
1882
1882
1882
1882
1879
1879
1883
1883
1883
1880
$500.
00.
Value of Farm.
1883
1882
1882
1880
1879
$700	
$700	
$860	
I brought $800 in cash with me, but a
young man will make a fair start in
life with $400, that is, if he can get a
wife easily	
$1,000 ; increased it by another $1,000.
$1,000	
$1,000 s	
About $1,000	
Under $1,000	
Under $1,000,
$1,000	
$1,000.,,...
$1,000	
,000
About $15,006
$2,000; but i would
not sell it for twice
that amount.
$2,000
$10,000
$7 per acre
(320 acres).
$3,000
$9,000
$2,OOC
I consider my tarm
worth $4,000 <to
me.
$3,800
About $1,200.
,250
$1,500	
$1,500 to use in starting	
About $2,000	
My  partner  and   myself  had   $2,000
between us	
$2,000	
About $2,000
$2,000	
2,000.... ...
>2,ooo,
360
$16,000
$14,000
per acre; I would
not like to sell it
for   that,   but   I
suppose  I   could
not     get      more
than    that    just
now.
,000   to    $5,000
$10 per acre
$3,000
.000
About $10,000
$10,000
About $4,000
About $3,500
,000,  what it is
assessed for.
,000
About $5,000
600/. to $4,000
I would not care to
take $4,000
Assessed at $4,000
and stock $3,000
=$7,000 PLAIN  FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Postal Address.
Chambers, W....ISec.  18, T. 21, R. 26
W., Birke, Man.....
Lawrence, Joseph. Clearwater, P.O., Man.
Miller, Solomon.. Alameda, P. O., Assa..
Hayter, W. H Alameda,Assa.N.W.T.
Robertson, P j Rapid City, Man	
Gilbert, Josiah.... Durham   Park   Farm,
Regina P.O.,N.W.T.
McEwen, Donald. Brandon, P. 0.,Man.
*Malhiot, Zephrin.. Wolseley, N. W. T ..
McKnight,R.(J.P) Carman P. O., Man...
Grigg,  Samuel... Sec. 7, T. 11, R. 18, I
W. Brandon, Man (
Moosomin, N. W. T..
Dalton, Brandon Co ..
Sourisburg, Man	
Harris, James....
Armstrong,George
Elliott, Joshua ...
Bobier, Thomas..
Mclntyre, John...
Harrison, D.H...
Wright, Thomas^
Sons	
Moosomin, Assiniboia,
*   N.W.T	
Milton     Farm,     near
Regina, N. W. T. ..
Newdale P. O., Man..
Thistle and Wright
Farms, "Qu'Appelle,
Assa, N. W. T	
Wnen
Settled
1882
1879
1882
1882
1882
1883
May,
1884
1882
1879
April,
1884
i882
1880
1880
1882
1883
1881
1882
Capital at Commencement.
$2,500	
About $3,000	
$3,000 1	
$3,000.    I have a large family	
$4,0001	
About $4,000	
,000	
$5,000	
$5>°oo.	
$5,000	
$5>ooo	
$5>2oo	
About $6,000	
My two sons and self fetched $7,000 in
cash, stock and implements	
$10,000	
$30,000	
$30,000 invested up to 1st September,
1884	
Value of Farm.
$5,000; more when
we   get   M.   Ni]
WesternRailway!
All  my   lands are
worth $12,000 or]
$15,000.
$6,000.
Do not want to sell..
$6,000 to  $7,000.
It should be worthy
$5,000.
I  would   not  sell11
under $15 per acre1
$32,000.
$10,000.
8,000 for the one 1
I live on.
! 12,000 for the sec. j
$15,000.
From  $12,000   to 1
$15,000.
$1,200, that is my
half section.
$50,000.
Have   s e v e r al;
1 worth from $loj
to $12 per acre.
$12 improved and
$7    unimproved
per acre.
Following are the names and addresses of other settlers whose testimony recurs throughout the Pamphlet:—
Name.
Anderson, George. .
Bailey, Zachary....
Bartley,  Noah	
Barnes, F. A.. .....
Battell, H. C	
Bedford, Jacob	
Bell, C.J	
31ack, G. R	
Address.
Manitoba.
Lothair P.O., Man.
Wattsview P.O., Man.
Morris, Man.
Moose Jaw, Sec 2, T.   17,
R. 27, W.2.
Calf Mountain, Man.
Postmaster, Belleview.
Wellwood,   Norfolk, Man.
Davis, W. H,
Day, John F...,
Deyell, John..,
Dick, David
Dickin, George.
Dickson, Philip.
Downie, John..
Address.
Sec.   27,   Tp.   I   R.   12,
Crystal City P.O., Man.-
Fleming, S. 4, T. 13, R. 30.
Souris P.O., Plum Creek..
Moline P.O., Man.
Manitoba.
Chater, Man.
Oak River P.O., Man.
Elliott, T. D I Alexandria P.O., Man PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Address.
Blackwell, James.
JBlythe,  R i
poldrick, Robert,
Boulding, G.....
EBowers, John....
grown, W.J	
jCafferata and Jefferd.
I Cameron, Wm. C...  ...
Campion, Brothers
Campbell, Robert.
Carroll, A. H....
[Champion, W. M.
Connell, Robert..
jjCoay, Thomas...,
iCox, William....
Cox, John T	
Daniel, Joseph...
Elliott, Robert W,
JElson, John	
iFannery, W. J.
jFargay, John H.,
Finlay, James
[Fisher, Henry  ...
Fraser, John S...
|Fraser, John......
Fraser, D.D	
[Garratt and Ferguson,
[Gibson, William ,
Gilmour, H. C..
jGordon, Leslie..
!Graham, Mark..
[Grang, J	
[Grimmett,  D. W.
[Haddow, James.	
IHall, David	
Hannah,  S.    (Reeve    of
Whitehead)	
IHarris, A. B	
Hartney, James H .....
I Hoard, Charles........
Hope, George	
Hornor, T. R	
jHowey, Wm	
Virden, Man.
Blythewood, Wapella.
Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T.
Regina, N.W.T.
Sec. 25, T. 9, R. 26, Virden, P.O., Man.
Pomeroy, Man.
Sec. 24, T. 18, R. 24,
Pense P.O., N.W.T.
Edgeley Farm, Qu'Appelle.
Manitoba.
Bridge Creek P.O., Man.
Carrolton P.O., Man.
Reaburn P.O., Man.
Osprey P.O., Man.
Manitoba.
Millford, Man.
Box 44, Rapid City, Man.
Postmaster and Farmer,
Moosomin, N.W.T.
McLean, N.W.T.
S.34,T. i,R. 11,W.Man.
McLean, N.W.T.
Manitou, Man
Shoal Lake, Man.
Regina, N.W.T.
Beulah P.O., Man.
Sec. 13, Tp. 12, R. 19,
Brandon, Man.
Oak River, Man.
Kenlis P.O., N.W.T.
Longstone Farm, Wolseley, N.W.T. '
Moose Jaw, N.W.T.
Qu'Appelle. N.W.T.
Portage la Prairie, Man.
Cartwright, Man.
Sec. 26, Tp. 8, R. 28,W.
Elm Valley P.O., Man.
Manitoba.
Austin P.O., Man.
Griswold, Man.
Beulah P.O., Man.
Souris, Man.
Lake Francis, Man.
Carberry, Man.
Pendennia, Man.
Warleigh P.O., Man.
Hutchinson, A	
Hume, Alex	
Ingram, W. A	
Jeffrey, William (Junr.)
Johnston, James	
Jones, James	
Kennedy, Thomas	
King,  M	
Kinnear, J. H...»	
Lang, Robert	
Leepart, R. N	
Lothian, James	
McAskie, James	
McBean, Angus	
McDiarmid, Colin	
McDonald, W. W	
McDougall,    Adam   G.
(Reeve of Wallace)...
McGee, Thomas	
McGhee, James	
Mcintosh, Archbald....
Obee, F ,	
Oliver, Thomas	
Orr, James D	
Osborne, Daniel. ..... ^
Parr, James E	
Parslow and Healey....
Patterson, Abr.
Paul, James M.
Paynter, W. D.
Paynter, J. E.,
Phillips, S.... ,
Pierce, Stephen,
Plunckit, Robert..
Pollard, Alfred. •..
Pollard, E. Sep.. \
Pollard,   H	
Powers, Charles F.
Prat, John	
Reid, William.
Rutherford, Johnston
(P. M. and J. P.)....
Screech, John	
Shipley,  Martin	
jShirk, J. M	
Address.
Craven P.O., near Regina
Chater P.O., Man.
Millford, Man.
Rapid City, Man.
Brandon, Man.
Portage la Prairie, Man.
Stoddartville, Man.
Belle Plain, N.W.T.
Plum Creek, Man.
Oak Lake, Man.
Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T.
Pipe Stone P.O., Man.
Beaver Creek P.O., Man.
Brookdale P.O., Man.
Gladstone P.O., Man.
Fleming, N.W.T.
Virden P.O., Man.
Burnside, Man.
Blake, Man.
Broadview, Assa., N. W.T.
Glenboro' P.O., Man.
Burnside, Man.
Cartwright P.O., Man.
Fleming, Man.
Crystal City, Man.
Sec. 20, T. 19, R. 20, W.,
Regina, N.W.T.
Alexandria P.O., T. 2, R.
6, W., Man.
Sec. 15, T. 15, R. 12, W.
Beulah, HiO., Man.
Beulah, Man.
Rapid City, Man.
Sec.   28, Tp. 12,  R. 30,
Fleming Station, Man.
Manitoba.
Sidney, Man.
Manitoba.
Sidney, Man.
Brandon, Man.
Rounthwaite, Man.
Sec.   16, Tp.  13,  R.  20,
Rapid City, Man.
Silver Creek, Man.
Rounthwaite, Man.
Wavy Bank, Man.
Tp. 8, R. 18, W. of  1st
Mer., Rounthwaite P.O. 8
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Name.
McKellar, Duncan..
McKenzie, Donald.,
McKenzie, Kenneth.
McLane, A. M	
McLean, John A..
McLennan, Thomas,
McMurtry, Thomas.
McRae, Roderick. .
McTellan, John-..
Malcolm, Andrew.
Middleton, Alex...
Miller, Robert S...
• • • • •
Mitchell, John.
Address.
Mitchell, J	
Moore, George.
Mooney, John.,
Muirhead, Thomas
Nelson, Robert
Newman, Charles.,
Nickell, William. ,
Niff,J.R	
Nugent, Arnold J..
Rapid City, Man.
Arrow River P.O., Man,
Burnside, Man.
Chairman Municipal Ccl.
S. Qu'Appelle, N.W.T.
Gladstone, Man.
Asessippi P.O., Man.
Sec. 18, T. 3, R. 2, Alameda P.O., N.W.T.
Minnedosa, Man.
Minnedosa, Man.
Minnedosa, Man.
Balgonie, Assa.,  N.W.T.
Hanlan P.O., Man., Sec.
18, T. 13, R. 1, W.
Postmaster, Brookdale,
Man.
Littleton, Man.
Sec. 4, T. 17, R. 1, 2 W.
Sec. 20, Tp. 7, R. 16,
Milford, P.O., Man.
Carberry P.O., Man.
Birtle, Man.
Ossowa, Man.
Lucas, Man.
Moosomin, N.W.T.
Emerson, Man.
Name.
Sifton, A. L....
Sirett, Wm.F...,
Slater, Charles B
Address.
Smith, William..
Smith, W. P....
Stevenson, F. W.
Stirton, James...
Stowards, R. C..
Speers, A. R ;
Taylor, John	
Taylor, William
Thompson, Stephen.
Todd, P. R	
Tulloch, Andrew.. .
Upjohn, Frank	
Urton, W. S	
Warnock, Wm	
Webster, A	
Whitney, Charles
Wilmott, H. E...,
Wood, James H. .
Wright, Charles. .
Yardley, Henry...
Brandon, Man.
Glendale P.O., Man.
E. % S. 34, T. 14, R. 23,
W. 1, Wapella, Assa.
Beaver Creek, Man.
Souris, Manitoba.
Griswold, Man.
Calf Mountain, Man.
Maryville,   Arrow   River
P.O., Man.
Griswold, Man.   *
S. 32, T.7,R.25,Belleview
Beulah P.O., Man.
P.M., Beaver Creek, Man
Griswold, Man.
Broadview, N.W.T.
Lake Francis, Man.
Moosejaw, N.W.T.
Neepawa, Man.
Sec. 34, T.i7,R.i4,2W.5.
Qu'Appelle Station.
Balgonie, Assa., N.W.T.
Douglas P.O., Man.
Birtle, Man.
Beaconsfield, Man.
P.O. Oak Point, Man.
Infoimation for the Guidance of Intending Settlers.
On arriving at Winnipeg or any other of the principal stations along the line of
the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first step should be to visit the Land Offices
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, where the field notes and maps descriptive of
the lands may be inspected, and the most minute details obtained as to the soil
and general character of each locality. This will enable the intending settler to
choose a locality in which to seek his farm. The land grant of the Canadian Pacific
Railway along the main line has been divided into agencies as far west as the Rocky
Mountains, within the limits of which lands belonging to the Company can be purchased
from the Agents of the Company at the stations hereinafter indicated.
BRANDON.—Lands in main belt, ranges II to 23 (inclusive) west of First Meridian.
VIRDEN.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 24 to 28 (inclusive), excepting townships 14, 15, 16,.
west of First Meridian. PLAIN  FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
MOOSOMIN.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 28 (part of) to 33 (inclusive) west of First
Meridian.
BROADVIEW.—I^ands   in   main line belt,   ranges   1   to    7 (inclusive) west   of Second
Meridian.
WOLSELEY.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 8 to 13 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian.
REGINA.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 14 to 23 (inclusive) west of Second Meridian.
MOOSEJAW.—Lands in main line belt, range 24 west of Second Meridian to range 10 west of
Third Meridian.
SWIFT CURRENT.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 11 to 20 west of Third Meridian to Fourth
Meridian.
MAPLE CREEK.—Lands in main line belt,  range 20 west of Third  Meridian to  Fourth.
Meridian.
MEDICINE HAT.—Lands in main   line belt, from Fourth Meridian to range  u west  of
Fourth Meridian.
CROWFOOT.—Lands in main line belt, ranges 11 to 20 west of Fourth Meridian.
CALGARY.—Lands in main line belt, range 50 west of Fourth Meridian to summit of Rocky
Mountains.
The business of the Swift Current and Medicine Hat Agencies is foi the present
being attended to by the agent at Maple Creek, and that of Crowfoot Agency by
the Agent at Calgary.
The Agents at the Land Offices have, for free distribution, maps showing the
lands open for sale, and those already disposed of, plans of the town plots, and
pamphlets giving descriptive notes of the lands within their agencies..
The Government have established Intelligence Offices at various points along
the line, in charge of officers, who will give the fullest information regarding homestead lands. Attached to these offices are Land Guides, whose services are always
available gratuitously for locating those in search of homesteads. . *
Settlers arriving in Winnipeg should, before going west, call at the Land
Department of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the office of which is located in the
station. There they can ascertain what lands are open for homesteads, and the situation
of the Government Intelligence Offices.
How to Obtain Government Lands.
The Dominion Government makes a free grant of 160 acres of agricultural land
to every British subject over the age of 18 years, and also affords settlers the right
to pre-empt another 160 acres; that is, the settler may take up the additional 160
acres, making a payment of from 2 to 2^ dollars (8 to 10 shillings) per acre at the
end of three years of settlement. Settlers taking up Government free homesteads are
required to reside on their farms for at least six months of the year during the first
three years.
In the case of taking free homesteads, pre-empting or purchasing from the
Government, the business will have to be transacted at the nearest of the following
Dominion Land Offices :— 10
PLAIN  FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Agency.
Post Office.
Agent.
A. H. Whitcher.
W. H. Hiam.
W. M. HlLLIARD.
W. G. Pentland.
E. C. Smith.
J. A. Hays.
W. H. Stevenson.
J. McTaggart.
J. McD. Gordon.
P. V. Gauvoreau.
Geo. Duck.
Liberality of Canadian Land Regulations.
The land regulations of the Canadian Government, combined with the advantages
offered by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, are the most liberal of any on the
North American Continent. The fee for taking up a homestead in the Canadian
North-West is only $10, whereas it is $26, and in some cases $34 in the United States;
and the taking of a homestead does not in Canada prevent the pre-emption of other
government lands, or the purchase of Canadian Pacific Railway or Government lands.
y The Climate.
Following are  the  opinions of actual residents  in regard to the climate.    The
questions asked were:—
About what time does winter regularly set in, and when does it end ? Have you suffered
any serious hardship or loss from the climate in winter ? Is the climate healthy |
For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8.
Dickin, George
Hind Brothers.
Urton, W. S..
1st week in November, and   1st week   in April.     No  loss oi  hardship.     I
travelled 20 miles with ox train in the worst blizzard last winter.    Climate very
healthy.
Latter end of November, till middle of March.    Climate can't be better.
Begins end of November.    It is always very pleasant in the daytime.    No loss or
hardship j you need endure none if you are careful.     It is most certainly the
healthiest climate 1 have seen.
Yardley, Henry About 10th November to about 20th April.   Climate very healthy indeed. PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TOjTHE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
11
Hutchison, A
Proctor, Henry.
Knight, W.G..
Smith, W. P.
Blythe, R...
Field, Edward	
Lawrence, Joseph ....
Screech, John	
Cameron, Wm. C	
Lothian. James	
Gibson, Wm,
Bruce, George..
Middleton, Alex,
Warnock, Wm.
Reid, Alex....
Fraser, John.
Perley, W. D
McGill, George..
-Grimmett, D. W,
Purdy, Thos. F.
Answer.
2nd   week in  November to last of  March   or   first of  April.    No hardship
whatever.    Climate very healthy indeed, probably one of the healthiest in  the
world.
About 15th November to about 1st April.    Our family (Father, Mother and   14
children) have been very healthy.
5th  November to   5th  April.      Three years  ago  I was living in a small tent
until the end of November, my house not  being built.        The  thermometer
registered considerably below zero at times.       The  climate  is  undoubtedly
healthy,   the exceeding  dryness  of the  air in winter being very favorable to
the healthy and vigorous action of the lungs.
Begins middle of November.    Climate very healthy.
About 15th November to beginning of April.      Had  several  slight  frost  bites.
Climate decidedly healthy.
About 15th November ; very often later and sometimes earlier.      No   hardship
or loss.     Climate very healthy.
About 20th November to about March 20th.     I never lost   a dollar from  the
climate in winter.    Climate as healthy as any under the sun.
Middle of November to 20th April.    No hardships or loss ; with care there is no
danger.    Climate very healthy
2nd   week in   November to end  of March.     No hardship  or loss whatever.
Climate very healthy.
A-bout 2nd week in November to end of March.      I  have  ploughed for  three
seasons up to the 7th November.     No serious hardship or loss.     I believe the
climate to be very healthy.
Last year nth November to  middle of March.      No  hardship or loss as  yet.
I can say the climate is very healthy, as  two  of  my   children   had  had  bad
health in Scotland, and we have all had the best of health since we came here.
The snow generally goes away about the second week of April.    I like the winter
well, good steady weather, no slush and mud here.    Climate healthy.
Frost   set in 2nd week  November,   1883 '»   first be.avy snow about middle of
December; had fine weather after 22nd February ;   winter ended first week in
April.    Climate very healthy.
For farming operations from middle of November till last of March.     No  hardship or loss.    The climate is cold, but steady and healthy, and stock do  well.
There is very seldom any really cold weather   in   November.      I   have  always
been better here than I was in Scotland   in   winter.      Climate   very   healthy
indeed.
About 15th November, ends in March.    Have been very comfortable.      Climate
very healthy ; no better in the world.
Not much dependence on open weather  after   1st   November.      Some   people
sowed in March this past season.    I like the climate much;    it   is   dry   and
immensely healthy.
1st November to middle of April.    No hardship or loss ; persons soon learn to
avoid them both.     Climate undoubtedly healthy ;   never hear a person cough
in church.
6th November to middle of April.    No hardships Or loss.      Have   chopped   in
woods in January with hat and mittens off.    The climate is the best I have seen
as yet.
Last year frost came on the 7th of November, but no snow  till  the   end.      No
material loss or hardship, no worse than from Belleville  to  Montreal   and  in
Western Ontario.    Climate very healthy; those that come here wiil find that
out when they come to feed themselves. 12
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE  CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Rogers, Thos	
Downie, John	
Anderson, George..
Young, Jno. M. L..
Doyle, W. A.
Oliver, Thomas	
Sheppard, Joseph	
Stevenson, T. W	
Blackwell, James	
McGregor, D	
Powers, G. F	
Rutherford, J	
Carter, Thomas	
Bobier, Thomas	
McKitrick, Wm	
Cameron, G. A	
Bailey, Z	
Black, G. R	
McLennan, Thos	
Fairer, W. A.... ...
Answer.
Last year,   ioth  November to   15th  March.      No loss or hardship whatever..
Climate very healthy indeed ; can go three good square meals every time.
Ploughing stops 5th to 7th November.    Winter doesn't begin till, say„ from   1st
to   ioth December.      No   hardship compared with the settlers of Ontario..
Climate perfectly healthy ; clear, dry atmosphere.
About 15th November to generally the 1st of April.     No hardship or loss.    My
wife and family suffered in Ontario, but not here.    Climate healthy.
I can hardly say that winter always begins as early as November, but it generally
ends between March 15th and April 1st.      No hardship or  loss.      I drove   a.
yoke of oxen 140 miles in six successive days,  starting  February   1st,   about
the coldest  time  we had,   and did not  suffer.      I consider the climate very
healthy, far ahead of Ontario.
About 20th to 30th November to about last of March.      No   hardship   or   loss
whatever,      i have  frequently  in travelling  slept  in the snow rolled up in
a buffalo robe and have never been   frost-bitten.      The   climate   is   certainly
healthy   except for  consumptives in late- stages ;   for them the winter is too-
severe.
About the  middle  of November.      I like the winter, as it is always dry and a
good deal of fine weather.    Climate very healthy.
Last year loth November, and opened for seeding on the  25th  March  if I  was
ready.    This is a good climate to live in.    It is healthy because the air is pure
and the nights cold.
Last year 9th November.    No serious hardship or loss, but frost-bites  now and
then.    Climate extremely healthy.
Latter end of November till generally the end of March.      No loss or hardship..
Climate very healthy,
iot'h November till April 1st.'   A little loss both years.    Climate healthy.
About the middle of November to about 1st of March. No hardship or loss at all..
All stock winter well.    Climafe very healthy.    My wife  came here weighiug
130 lbs and sickly, now she weighs 184 lbs. and has good health.
About 1st November till 1st week in April.     No hardship or loss.      Stock   do-
well if half cared for.    Climate the most healthy in the world.
About 20th November till about 15th March.      No   hardship   whatever.    .My
fowls   also   do   well   in winter.    I have a few black  Spanish fowls, and my
Brahmas also do well.    I know the climate to be very healthy.
About 1st November to end of March.      The snow being dry a person never has-
wet or damp feet during winter.    The climate is most decidedly  healthy, that
is one of the reasons I am in this country.
15th   November   to   1st   April.      I  can say from experience this is a healthy
climate,
loth or 20th November.      No hardship or loss.      Climate is healthy ;    I never
heard any one deny it.  .
Middle of November till April.    No hardship or loss.     We have all been very
healthy ;    consider climate very healthy.
Middle of November and breaks up in the beginning of April.    No hardship or
loss  whatever,   and  I  have roughed is as  much   as  any   of  the   settlers.
Climate very healthy.
About 15th November to   1st April.     A little hardship;   had to  sleep out1
15  or   16  nights, but  no  loss   whatever.     Climate healthy, could not  be
more so.
5th Nov. to I5tlf March.    No hardship or loss.    Climate very ]>Hthy. PLAIN FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
13
Drew, D. W.
Ogletree, F,
Thompson, S...
Bonesteel, C. H.
Anderson, Geo
McDougall, A. G.
Hume, Alex....
Stevenson, G. B
Wagner, Wm,
Nelson, Robert.
Mcintosh,
Bolton, F.
Morton, Thos. L.
Wilson, James.
Slater, Chas. B.
Connerson, James.
McKenzie, K,
Kennedy, Thos.
Harris, A. B.\
Burtley, Noah.
Chambers, W
Carroll, A. H
Answer.
About the middle of November; we are apt to have some good weather after
that. Winter ends about end of March, but some grain was sown in March
this year. No hardship or loss. Climate healthy, myself and family all having
good health here.
Three years since I came, we ploughed until the middle of November, but
oftener the ground is closed the latter part of October. Never suffered
any hardship; am well pleased with the winter. I consider the climate
very healthy.
1st week In November till about April.    No hardship or loss.    I haveTbeen
out a good deal with team in winter ; never been frozen yet.
About the last of November, and ends in April sure.      I suffered no loss from
the  climate  last  winter.      I consider  it a very fine winter, much more so
than I ever expected to see here.    Climate very healthy.
Ioth to 15th November and ends in March.    No hardship or loss, and don't know
of any one in this section having suffered anything serious.
About 15th to 20th November, ends about 1st April.     No  hardship   or  loss.
Climate the healthiest in the world.
It freezes up about the 1st Nov,    No hardship or loss.    Climate healthy.
Have ploughed three years till 5th November.      No hardship or loss.    Climate
healthy.
1st to 15th November till 1st April.     No hardship, but by the neglect of mv
stableman I have lost two calves through being frozen ; cow calved during
night.   Very healthy climate.   I left Toronto with a fever, ague and rheumatism,
and to-day, 65 years old, I am strong and healthy.
About the 5th November ttll 1st April.    Can't say I have suffered any hardship or loss, but have found it  cold, and  I   lost   some   poultry.     Climate
healthy upon the whole.     Climate, as far as I can judge, is favorable to successful settlement.
Have not suffered any serious losses.    Climate extremely healthy.
About 20th November till 20th March.    No hardship or loss.    Winters are cold
but  dry, and therefore  I  prefer it to softer climate.     Climate  particularly
healthy.
Averages from 15th November to 15th April.     No hardship or loss whatever.
Climate very healthy.
Ploughing stopped about loth Nov.    No hardship or loss.    Climate healthy.
In 1883, November 15th, ended 25th March,   1884.     No hardship  or loss in
the slightest.    Extremely healthy.
About 15th November to 17th March.      No hardship or loss.     Climate by all
means healthy.    All the family in perfect health ;   was twenty-eight years in
Holland, but never so well and happy as here.
Ploughing stops about 7th November, but generally fine weather after.    Ends
about latter end of March.    No hardship or loss.    Climate healthy.
About 5th November till the ioth to 20th April.    No hardship or loss.    Neither
myself nor family have had any sickness since coming here.
1st November to 1st April.    No hardship or loss.    Climate very healthy. %'"'"''
1st November to ioth April.    No hardship or loss in any respect.    Climate
considered very healthy by almost everybody.
About 1st November to middle of April.      I have found the winters most enjoyable.    I have been in various countries, and can say that this is the most
healthy of any I have ever lived in. 11 fj
About the last of November till the latter end of March.    No hardship or loss"'
enjoyed the winters exceedingly.    Climate very healthy. 14
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Garratt &■ Ferguson,
Bole, J	
Garratt, R. S	
McLean, J. A	
Bedford, J	
Elliott, Joshua.....,
Todd, P. R •
Dickson, Phillip....
Hoard, Charles
Connell, Robert	
Cox, William ,
Answer.
About last week in  November.     We have only lost one ox, and that was
through neglect in the first winter in the country.    Climate very healthy.
Between the 15th and last of November, ends about the 20th April.    A man
can do   more   work  and  with greater comfort than he can do in Ontario.
Climate healthy.
From 1st to 15th November, ends from  March   15th to  April   1st.      I   say
emphatically I have suffered no hardship or  loss.     Climate healthy,   very
much so.
About 15th November, sometimes later.   No hardship 05 loss whatever.   Climate
certainly healthy ; I find it so, and so do a good many more.
Commences at different times in November, breaks up in April.     No hardship or loss.    Climate healthy for young and healthy people; too severe for
aged and infirm.
The plough is generally stopped by frost 1st to 15th November.     We  have
suffered considerably from cold, but do not know that we have lost much,
Climate very healthy.
Ground frozen November 7th, not much snow in  November.     Cattle  began
to graze about April 1st;   some snow till   18th  April.     No  hardship   or
loss.    Climate healthy.
About last of the month to 1st of April.    No hardship or loss.    Climate healthy,
more so than any country I have been in.
About 1 st to ioth November till about end of March.    No loss or hardship.
Climate wonderfully healthy.
Beginning of November, sometimes in October.    Not very many hardships or
losses.    Climate healthy, but wants plenty of clothes in winter.
November 15th to April 15th.    No hardship or losses.    No healthier climate
could be desired.
The Farming Seasons.
The following are the seasons :—
Spring.—April and May. Snow disappears rapidly, and the ground dries up
quickly. Sowing commences from the middle to the end of April, and finishes in
the beginning of May.
Summer.—June, July, August, and part of September. Weather bright and clear,
with frequent showers—very warm at times during the day; night cool and
•refreshing,    Harvesting commences in August and ends in September.
Autumn.—Part of September and October and part of November, perhaps
the most enjoyable season of the year, the air being balmy and exceedingly pleasant.
At this period of the year the prairie fires take place, and the atmosphere has rather
.a smoky appearance, but it is not disagreeable.
Winter.—Part of November, December, January, February and March. PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
15-
In the early part of November the Indian summer generally commences, and then
follows the loveliest portion of the season, which usually lasts about a fortnight. The
weather is warm, the atmosphere hazy and calm, and every object appears to wear a
tranquil and drowsy aspect. Then comes winter, generally ushered in by a soft, fleecy
fall of snow, succeeded by days of extreme clearness, with a clear blue sky and
invigorating atmosphere. In December the winter regularly sets in, and, until the end
of March, the weather continues steady, with perhaps one thaw in January, and
occasional snow-storms. The days are clear and bright, and the cold much softened by
the brilliancy of the sun.
Summer Frosts.        §
In considering answers to the question " Are summer frosts prevalent or exceptional r^
it should be remembered that last year a most exceptional frost appeared on one night in<
September throughout the whole northern part of the United States, and in some parts
of British North America. The damage done to crops in the Canadian North-West was
proved by Government statistics to be much less than that generally experienced on the
continent of North America ; and the facts that the following replies were given immediately
after a frost, even though it was most exceptional, adds largely to the value of the
testimony.
It should further be remembered, as will be seen from the testimony of many settlers>
that ill-effects from summer frosts may be, in almost every case, avoided by a system of
early ploughing; so that each settler has his remedy in his own hands.
104 farmers   answered,  "Exceptional."    Following are replies of others, whose
•g jo 'I '9 '£ -f '£ s3§Bd uo punoj aq Ami S9ss9jpp^ jtfisod
Dicken, G. ..
Urton, W. S.
Hutchison, A
Smith, W. P.
Blythe, R. ..
Field, E	
Lawrence, J..
Screech, John
Lothian, J. ..
McGhee, J...
Bruce, G....
"Warnock, W.
Answer.
Exceptional, doing little or no damage if wheat land is autumn ploughed1.    Have
seen frost by chance in July, in England.
Exceptional; most certainly not the rule.
Have never experienced any.
I believe exceptional.    This  year up to date (September 13th) no frost to nurt
the greenest grain.
We have had two slight frosts, but not to do much harm.
I should say exceptional;   but after first week in September we generally get
frost.
I never lost a dollar by summer frost.
There has been none here to do any harm.
Very rare.    I have only seen it once, and that nothing to speak of.
No summer frosts here.
We have never suffered from frost during summer.
Are the exception, the frost of 1883 being the only one I have seen in six year*
to do any harm. 16
PLAIN  FACTS  AS TO   THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Reid, Alex	
Grang, J	
Perley, W. D	
Grimmett, D.W	
Purdy,T. F	
Leepart, R. N........
Ingram, W. A	
Anderson, G	
Young, J. M. L	
Doyle, Y£. A	
Newman, CF	
Lang, R	
* Sheppard.  J	
Stevenson, F. W	
j Finlay, J	
Walker, J. C	
Honor, T. R.....   ...
Wat, J	
Malcolm, A...,	
-Pollock, Jno	
Reid, E.J	
Rutherford, J	
Robier, T	
Little, James.	
McKitrick, W	
'McFellanJ	
Troyer,  C	
'Vandervoort,  G	
Wood, J. H....	
"Brown, W. J	
Chambers, S. W	
Patterson, A	
little, J	
Black, G. R	
Wright 6>* Sons	
Whitney, C..........
Answer.
The exception from all I can learn from men who have been ten years in the
country. • Very seldom coming before the 25th September.
Once in four or five years, there is frost about 7th September.
We do have slight frost, but not to do any general  or serious damage.    As  the
country becomes cultivated I feel sure they will disappear, as all new countries
in British America have had that experience.
Very rare in growing season.
I think they are exceptional.     Cultivation will improve that as the turf gets
worked off the land.
No frost this summer.
Exceptional in our locality—Souris district.
Last year was the first that I have seen to injure.
Summer frosts that are injurious are very exceptional.
I have not lost $10 (2/.) per year by frosts.    Late-sown grain is never safe from
September frosts.
Not hurt anything,^except last year.
I can answer for Oak Lake only by experience.    None whatever.
They are exceptional; this is my second year, and they have done no harm.    I
have peas, the second crop in blossom to-day (September 12th).
Prevalent,  but  seldom  do  harm.    Vegetables not injured this year till  7th
September.
Summer frosts do no harm here.
Last year was the only frost that did any damage since I came here in 1877.
I have grown four crops, and had one damaged by frost.
Cannot tell yet, but I hear they are exceptional.
We have occasional summer frosts,  but not often to do much damage.    Grain
that was a little late has been damaged twice during my seven years residence
here*
They are prevalent here to a certain extent.
They are no worse than in Ontario.
We have, but seldom to do much harm.
Last year was considered the worst in ten years, and I raised   1,400 bushels of
grain and did not have 30 injured by frost as it all was sold for seed.
There was frost on 1st July, 1883, but did not do much damage.
Light frosts are prevalent in my district, but heavy frosts are exceptional.
Never suffered but once in nine years.
I have never had anything frozen.     They  are the  exception,   late  sowing the
cause.
We generally have a light one in this part about the first of June.
I have not* suffered from summer frosts.
They are never looked for.
No, not to any serious extent;  still they are not exceptional in this part.
They are more exceptional than where I came from (Ontario).
I have farmed for 15 years and have never had frozen grain with the exception
of once.
Exceptional.
Have seen no serious summer frosts.
There was not the slightest frost this season from the first week in May until the
seventh September.
Jk PLAIN  FACTS AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
17
Name.
Answer.
McLennan, T. Exceptional, I think.    Never did me any harm, and I have had three crops.
Gilbert, J,
Grigg, S	
Fraser, D. D..
Gilmour, H. C
Drew, W. D..
Ogletree, F
excepting  September,
Harris, Jas	
Smart, G	
Elson, John....
Elliott, T. D...
Mc Arkie, J	
Osborne, D....
Harrison, D. H.
Thompson, S...
Chester, A...
Bonesteel, C.
H ■. i.
Nugent, A. J....
McCormack, D..,
Lambert, W. M..
Bowes, J	
Champion, W. M.
Mclntyre, J.:....
Tate, James	
McMurtry, T. •..
McCaughey, J. S.
Stevenson, G. B •
Shipley, M
Wagner, W. (M.P.P.).
We have had no frosts this summer.
Hoar frosts are exceptional.
Not common.    Cut my first frozen wheat last season.
Here we have had none.
Summer frosts  have done no harm   here since I came,
1883.
They are not prevalent in this part of the country.    In my experience of sixteen
years the frost last year was the first that ever injured wheat, except patches
sown late.
None to hurt this year, nor last either.
Exceptional, such as last year, but often have slight frosts, not iujurious.
Not prevalent in Southern Manitoba.
We were hurt with the frost last year t none any other year.
Never saw any before the 7th of September, and that last year only.
None this year to hurt.
Exceptional; not more frequent than in Ontario.
Last year we had early frost.      The cucumbers are not hurt yet (September
19th).
They are the exception, not the rule.
I have not been here long enough to be certain, but I think they are exceptional.
Last summer we had frost, this summer none.
The exception till this season.
None.
We have had no frost to do any damage.
None in June, July and August this year.
The exception since I have been here, as the frost of September 7th, 1883, is the
only one I have seen.
No summer frost this year.
Summer frosts have done no damage in this part.
We are not troubled with summer frost.
In some localities prevalent, in others exceptional.
Have not seen any.    Had an early frost last fall.
late grain was hurt.
I have only seen one in eleven years do any harm worth mentioning.
Not prevalent; last year was the first one which did damage to my knowledge.
I lost nothing by it, and only
Heaslip, J. J.. Exceptional; none since I came here.
Nelson, R.
Stirton, J,...
Bolton, F....
Morton, T. L.
Campbell, R.
Sifton, A. L.
McDonell, D.
Hall, P	
McGee, T....
McEwen, D.,
Day, Jno. F.
My experience is that there is some danger from it.
Have had no summer frosts to hurt even the tenderest vegetables.
Exceptional.    1883 is the only year frost did any harm since I came here.
Exceptional; only one year since 1873, I think  1875.    Barley and  oats were
cut on ioth June, but no damage.
Summer frosts are not prevalent in this part.
None in this part.
Very exceptional in this part; one this summer in the latter end of August.
None where I am.
Exceptional.    More seasons without than with frost.
We have had slight frosts this season from the 5th September, but so far no
damage to growing crops.
Never seen any. 4f* t
18
PLAIN  FACTS AS  TO  THE  CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Fargey, J. H,
Connerson, J
Rorison, W. D	
McKenzie, Kenneth.
Daniel, J <
Nickell, Wm	
Harris, A. B	
Bartley, N. ..,
Chambers, W,
Paynter, W. D,
Hayter, W. H.,
Wilmott, H. E,
Wright, C	
Answer.
Johnston J	
Garratt, R. S. (J.P.)..
Day, S. and A. ......
McDonald, W. W....
McLean, J. A	
Beaford, J	
Elliott, J	
Todd, P. R	
Boldrick, R	
Dickson,  P	
Cafferata &> Jefferd
Connell, R	
Fisher, H	
(settled in 1884)
Miller, S	
They are exceptional.   We have only had one frost in seven  summers—-viz. y
September 7th, 1883. p^
About the ioth of June and 10th of September we had very slight frost, but little *
harm done.
Prevalent from 7th September in this part.
They are not prevalent, only exceptional; more exceptional than in Ontario.
Not prevalent.    Seldom seen.
Prevalent in some districts about here.
When grain is sown in April, or up to the 15'th May, there is no danger of frost
after that time it has to run chances.    For five years we have had frost^be-
tween the 25th August and 6th September.
I should say exceptional.    Some light frosts sometimes cut tender plants.
My first year's experience was in 1882;» first severe frost that killed my tomatoes
took place on the night of September 26th.    I think them exceptional.
Generally free from frost from the middle of June to end of August.
No worse than Ontario.
They are prevalent in this district.
We have always slight frosts in this part in June and early September, but they
seldom do harm.
Exceptional and not generally injurious.
Prevalent in certain localities.    They are exceptional generally.
Haven't seen any yet.
They are exceptional ; never seen any.
We were visited with summer frost twice since I came here
Exceptional, generally once, the latest the first week in June.
Not in middle of summer, but it comes too soon for grain sown late.
Have ripe tomatoes grow in open air.
Summer frosts that do any serious harm are exceptional.
Have had frost in June, but never suffered from it.
No frost here from first week in April till September 7th.
Very prevalent this summer, but not done any damage.
■I fear to some extent prevalent, but with good cultivation and activity in spring
a farmer can escape ill effects.
We have had no frost to hurt any vegetable in the summer since I came to the
country (May, 1882). PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
19
Winter and Summer Storms.
In many parts of America, anxiety is felt by farmers on account of winter and
^summer storms. Manitoba and the Canadian North-west are happily, for the most part,
outside of what is sometimes called the | storm belt," and it is but rarely that the country
is visited in this way. This may be seen by the following testimony, and it is noteworthy how great an umber have experienced no loss whatever; as many as 150 thinking
the damage of so little real importance as to simply answer it by the words " No v* or
I None." Storms do, it will be seen, occasionally visit some few parts of the country,
but it is undoubted that they are exceptional.
The question asked was :—f Have you suffered any serious loss from storms during
either winter or summer?"—In reply 112 farmers simply answered "iVb," and 42
answered "None" Following are the replies of the remainder. Their full names and
postal addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
Answer.
Urton, W. S	
Hutchison, A	
Prector, H	
Warnock, Wm	
Fraser, Jno	
Perley, W. D	
Miller, Solomon	
Purdy, D. F	
Davis, W. II	
Rogers, T	
Kines, Wm	
Doyle, W. A. (J. P...)
McRae, R..	
Walker, J. C	
Honor, T. R	
Graham, M	
Malcolm, A	
Rutherford, J....
Little, James
McKitrick, W...
Cameron, G. A.
Warren, R. J...,
Chambers, S. W
Howey, Wm
Mercer, J	
No ; they are rare.
No loss whatever.
Very little.
No ; not worth mentioning.
No ; weather very pleasant.
This country has not suffered from storm.
Not to the value of 10 cents.
Nothing uncommon to Ontario.
Partial loss two seasons with hail.
None whatever, so far.
Not much.
None; nor has any portion of this community.
Never.
I had my house roof blown off in June, 1884, but no other damage.
I have never suffered from storm.
Never until this year.
Three years ago my grain was all cut down with a hailstorm, but it grew up
again and I had a good crop.
We never have had any storms or blizzards here yet, and suffered no loss.
No; not yet.
Nothing serious from storms.
A little last year from hail.
No; we have had no bad storms here as we had in Ontario.
No loss of any kind.
No, never.    Never saw a bad storm here.
Not in winter.    I  have  lost a great deal of hay through the heavy rains in
summer. 20
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Lawrence, J
McLennan, T.
Gilmour, H. C.
Ogletree, F *
McAskie, J	
Harrison, C. H. ..
Thompson, S	
Chester, A	
Bonesteel, C. H..
Anderson, G	
McCormack, D...
McDougall, A. G.
Dickson, I. W. ..
Lambert, W. M..
Hume, A	
Tate, James	
McGill, G	
Answer.
Stevenson, G. B	
Shipley, M	
Wagner, W. (M.P.P.).
Nelson, R	
Orr,J.D	
Upjohn, F	
Bolton, F	
Morton, T. L.	
McDonnell, D	
Heaney, J	
McBean, A	
Connerson, J	
McDiarmid, C	
Rawson, J	
Bartley, N
Chambers W	
Bole,J	
Garratt, R. S	
McDonald, W. W ... .
Mitchell, John	
Jones, James	
McLean, J. A	
I lost part of my crop this year by hail storms, but it is the first I lost since I
came here 5 years ago.
No, never saw a bad one in this part.
Have never  suffered any loss from  storms   of  any kind,   either winter  or
summer.
I never suffered.
Yes, this harvest from hail storm,
N o, we are not in the storm belt.
Have had the top blown off stacks, not hurt much.
I have never suffered any loss from storms.
I never have, and think that last winter was a very fine one.
No loss whatever.
From hail this summer, but crop has come along well again.
Yes, one hail storm last summer.
None yet of any kind.
None whatever.
I have not.
Have not suffered in any way from storms.
Lost none by shelling first year ; lost some last year and this year ;  none from
winter.
A little three years ago, by hail.
Nothing worth mentioning.
Never.    We had this year an hour's hail, but did no damage to any amount.
No, nothing to speak of.
Yes, all my crop in 1883.
Never until this harvest.
Not in the least.
None in winter.    In 1876 hail destroyed half crop.
The storms never injured the stock or house and stables, d^c.
There was a little hail this summer which did a little damage.
Yes; lost all crop by hail in 1883, and badly damaged by rain 1884.
No; had no damage whatever in six years.
Only from hail.
Yes, twice in summer from local hail storms and frost on 7th September,  1883,
though quite exceptional.
Not any, except by thunder and lightning, which destroyed outbuildings, stock
and implements.
Never have seen a storm other than thunder since I came.
This part is not4 subject to storms in summer.
A hail storm destroyed my crop in 1883.
I have never suffered or seen any bad storms
Last year I lost all the grain I had, about the middle of August.
Not so far.
I suffered some one year by hail storm during growing season. PLAIN  FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
21
The Soil.
The high average yield of crops in Manitoba and the Canadian North-West—more
than double that of the United States—is in itself a practical proof of" the rich quality of
the land, and of its adaptability to agricultural purposes. Still, it is interesting to study
the chemical properties of this extraordinary agricultural tract excelled by none and
equalled only by the alluvial delta of the Nile.
Dr. Stevenson Macadam, of Edinburgh University, an undoubted authority, says
the soil is | very rich in organic matter, and contains the full amount of the saline
fertilizing matters found in all soils of a good bearing quality." The soil is in general a
deep black argillaceous mould or loam resting on a deep tenaceous clay subsoil, and is
so rich that it does not require the addition of manure for years after the first breaking
of the prairie, and in particular places where the loam is very deep it is practically
inexhaustible.
The question asked on this point was : " Please state the nature of soil on your farm,
and depth of black loam?" The description of one farm in each district only is
given to economise space. Where, however, the description of lands in the same
district differ, the answer of each settler is given. (For postal address of each
settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
District.
Hind Brothers....
Cafferata   and
Jefferd	
Urton	
Rogers	
Beesley	
Phillips	
Hutchinson	
Proctor	
Mercer	
Pollard	
Lawrence...	
V-/I X    4  • • * • )    ••*•••
Screech	
Hoard '...
Upjohn	
Harward	
Cameron	
Lothian	
McGhee	
Gibson	
Bruce	
Pense
Pense
Moose Jaw...
Moose Jaw...
Moose Jaw...
Rapid  City -..
Craven ,.
Woodlands....
Grenfell	
Sidney ,
Clearwater..
Cartwright...
Rounthwaite.,
Lake Francis.
Lake Francis.
Littleton	
Qu'Appelle...
Pipestone
Blake	
Wolseley.. ..
Gladstone
Answer.
Rich black loam, average depth 18 in.
Sandy loam : about 9 in. of black loam.
Soil various, all good ; loam 6 to 12 in. deep where tested.
Deep rich clay on clay subsoil.
Alluvial soil, 4 ft. of loam.
2 ft. black loam on clay subsoil.
Sandy loam on gravelly clay subsoil, loam from 9 in. to 2 ft.
Black loam, with clay under, 2 ft. deep.
Depth of black loam 18 in.     Under black loam is gravel and
sand.
Sandy loam, with clay subsoil.
Black loam, 18 in. to 2 ft., with clay subsoil.
Soil is good, with foot of black loam and clay subsoil.
Soil heavy, black loam 15 in.
Soil is good but somewhat stony and bushy ; black loam 6 in. to
I ft., with clay subsoil.
Depth of black loam 8 in. to a foot.
Soil is varied, clay, sand, gravel and shale from 6 to 24 in.
Black loam, clay suhsoil; loam 8 to 12 in. deep.
Clay loam, from 16 in. to iyz ft. black soil.
Sandy soil, from 18 in. to 2 ft. deep
Black loam 2 ft. deep, on a clay subsoil.
There is a small creek through my place, which also  divides
the soil, the one half is sandy loam and the other black loam. 22
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Name.
District.
Answer.
Millford	
Sandy loam, with 2 ft. of black loam.
Black sandy loam, 4 ft.
320 acres of clay loam, with black loam 30 in.; 160 acres of sandy
loam 24 in. deep.
From 12 to 18 in. of black loam, then yellow clay mixed lightly
with sand.
Black loam, \% to 2% ft. in depth; clay subsoil.
Sandy loam of 4^ ft., with clay subsoil.
Black loam, top depth 2 ft.; clay bottom.
Some of it clear prairie j depth of soil 15 to 20 fc.; some scrub,
with 3 ft. loam.
Considerable alkali, 2 ft. loam.
Bell	
Mitchell	
Reid	
Loam 3 ft. in depth.
Black loam, 20 in.        *
Good rich soil; 2 to 3 ft. black loam ; clay bottom.
Rich loam, depth 1 ft.; clay bottom.
Rich black loam, average 15 in. deep.    On level prairie 2 t©3 ft.,
rich alluvial soil on river slope.
Black clay loam, all alike as far as you may go down; now and
then you strike gravel 25 or 30 ft. down.
Heavy clay, loam depth, 20 to 30 in.
Black loam, depth from 1 to 2 ft.
Black loam ranges from 8 in to 22 in. deep, with sand on clay
subsoil.
Clay soil; black loam 6 in.    There is also a gravel, ridge running
througn the farm.
Black loam about 2 ft., and generally clay subsoil.
Clay, about 3 ft. of black loam.
1 black loam, or vegetable soil-    Black loam from 18 to 36 in.
8 in. black loam, then clay below.
2 ft. of loam ; clay subsoil.
McGill	
o
Portage la Prairie.
Hall	
Top soil blaqk loam, about 20 in. subsoil clay.
Clay loam, about 12 in.
8 to 12 in. of black loam, with clay subsoil.
Heavy black loam, varying from 1% ft. to 2% ft., with clay subsoil 6 ft.
Black loam and clay, 15 in. black loam, clay subsoil.
Black sandy loam, from about 1 to 2 ft. deep.
Clay and part sandy loam, black loam 10 in.
Black loam, slightly mixed with sand, depth of soil l}£ to 3 ft.
2% ft. very black rich loam, very heavy clay under.
Black loam and clay subsoil, 1 to 3 ft.                                     S|&
Little	
Olive	
The black loam is about 18 in. in depth, and 2 ft. of white marly
clay j below that, clay and gravel.
Sandy loam black, depth about 2 ft.
Clay loam, from 1 to 3 feet.
Sandy loam, from 2 to 3 ft. deep.
Sandy loam, varying from 6 in. to 2 ft. on black loam.
Clay subsoil, with 12 to 18 in. of black loam.
Sandy loam, with clay subsoil, black loam about 18 in.
Black	
McCorquodale.... PLAIN  FACTS AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
23
Name.
Connerson. .
Whitney ...
Boldrick ...
McLennan. .
Smart	
King	
Elliott	
Harrison... <
Thompson. .
Chester
Nugent ....
Kenny	
McCormack
McDonald..
Dickson....
Barnes	
Speers	
Champion. .
Hume	
Shiplev ....
Wagner
Mcintosh...
Stirton	
Coay	
Campbell . .
Hall	
Wilson
Kemp .... .
Heaney....
Slater
Rorison. ...
Nickell. ...
Harris	
Paynter....
Bartley....
Chambers .
Lawrie..
Wilmott
Wright ...
Dick .....
Garratt ...
Elliott
Sutherland.
Hanna....
Speers....
District.
Minnewashta
Balgonie....
Balgonie....
Asessippi
Holland.....
Belle Plain..
Alexandria..«
Newdale	
Beaver Creek....
Marringhurst	
Emerson	
Wolf Creek	
Fleming	
Fleming	
Arnaud	
Morris	
Griswold	
Reaburn	
Chater	
Wavy Bank	
Ossowo	
Answer.
Broadview	
Calf Mountain..
Westbourne....
Bridge Creek,.
South Antles..
Stoddartville...
Austin	
Meadow Lea...
Wapella	
Oberon	
Lucas I
Beulah	
Beulah	
Birtle	
Birtle	
Birtle ..
Douglas
Beaconsfield .
Moline	
Kenlis......
Sourisbourg .
St. Andrews,
Griswold ...
Griswold....
First-class, can't be beat; loam 4 ft.
Subsoil of grey clay, with about 3 in. of black loam.
Clay loam ;   6 in. black loam.
Black loam from 18 to 24 in.
Sandy loam, 4 ft.
Heavy clay loam, 3 ft. deep.
The soil is first-class, black rich soil 1 ft, then a rich brown clay
for 6 ft.
18 in. black loam on a clay subsoil.
Sandy loam, black loam from 12 to 18 in.
Clay subsoil, with from 11 to 12 ft. black loam.
Black rich loam, depth 4 to 5 feet.
Black loam, from 6 in. to 2 ft.
Black loam, 12 to 15 in., with clay subsoil.
Clay loam, 18 in.
All clay, and about I ft. of black.
Black loam and heavy clay.
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft.
Heavy black loam 14 in.   Clay subsoil, morejor less limestone.
Heavy clay, loam about 12 in.
Part sand loam, and part clay about I ft.
Black loam from 5 to 12 in., with limestone,rgravel or scrub, under
which is heavy clay.
Black loam on top from 10 to 16 in., with clay and loam subsoil.
Black sandy loam ; clay subsoil from 16 in. to 2 ft.
About 3 ft. on clay subsoil.
Black loam, on clay subsoil, 12 to 15 in. deep.
Clay bottom, 10 in. black loam.
White clay subsoil, black loam from 2 to 6 ft.
Black sandy loam from 2 to 3 feet deep.
Clay loam, about a foot on average.
1 ft- to 2% ft. of black loam.
Black-loam, 2 ft. deep.
Black loam, clay subsoil, 10 to 12 in. of loam.
Black loam, 12 to 36 in. clay and gravel subsoil.
Sandy loam, with gravel ridges. 18 in.
A rich sandy loam, 12 to 18 in.
The part of my farmer under cultivation is grand gravelly" loam
warm early soil;  the black soil is from 1 ft. to 18 in.
Black loam from 8 to 24 in. deep, clay subsoil.
A black clay loam with clay subsoil the black loam from 8 to  ic
in. deep.
Sandy clay loam,  I to 2 ft.
Clay loam, 2 ft.
Clay loam, from 1 to 3 ft. of black loam.
Black loam from 1 to 2 ft., with clay subsoil.
Black loam from 6 to ic Inches.
Black loam 2 ft., yellow clay subsoil.
Dark clay loam, depth about 4 ft. '.
•24
PLAIN  FACTS AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Fuel and Water. |§
Recent investigations show that in addition to the clumps of wood to be found
dotted here and there on the prairie, and the timber with which the rivers and creeks are
lined, there is in these new regions an ample supply of coal. The coal-beds in the Bow
.and Belly river districts, tributary to Medicine Hat on the main line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, are the first to be worked, and settlers now obtain this coal at moderate
prices. Other mines have been discovered immediately on the line of the railway, between
Medicine Hat and the summit of the Rocky Mountains, and some of these will be in
operation during the present season. Valuable and extensive coal-beds also exist in the
Souris district in Southern Manitoba and the south-eastern and western part of the
North-West, and these wll shortly be opened up by the projected Manitoba Southwestern and other railways.
As regards the water supply, the North-West has not only numerous rivers and creeks,
but also a very large number of lakes and lakelets in almost every part of the country,
and it has been ascertained definitely that good water can be obtained almost anywhere
throughout the territory by means of wells; in addition to which there are numerous
clear, running, never-failing springs to be found throughout the land. An ample supply
of water of different qualities may always be found on the prairie by sinking wells which
generally range in depth from eight to twenty feet. Rain generally falls freely during the
spring while the summer and autumn are generally dry,
On these two points the farmers were asked : I What sort of fuel do you use, and
is it difficult to obtain ? | 1 Have you plenty of water on your farm, and how obtained ?
If from a well, please state depth of same." The full name and postal address of each
settler may be found on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
^JSTame.
Dickin, George.
Hind Brothers..
Urton, W. S..
Yardley,  Henry
Hutchison, A..
Proctor, Henry.
Mercer, James..
Knight, W. G..
Jeffrey, Wm.. •,
Fisher, Henry..
Answer.
Wood getting scarce ;  will be able to get coal.    Plenty of water, springs rising
to surface, usual depth 7 ft. to 20 ft.
Wood within four miles.    Plenty of water from wells 15 to 20 ft. deep.
Wood, close at hand, is rather scarce, but there is plenty within 15 miles:   Coal
is cheap here.    Plenty of water from two wells 22 ft. each ;  one in house, one
in stable with pumps.
Poplar, about three miles distant.    Plenty of water for general use  in summer ;
well, 4 ft. 6 in.    I get water for cattle in winter at a swamp up to the middle
of February.
Wood is easily obtainable at present.    I have Long Lake on one side of farm;
also a spring of good water, and a well 30 ft. deep.
Plenty of poplar wood in this settlement.   Five wells of the best water, depths
20, 25, 26. 30 and 36 ft.
Poplar ;  no difficulty, lots of it here.    Plenty of water, the  Qu'Appelle River
runs through my farm.
Wood, and there is plenty in this district.    Plenty of water from small lake for
cattle, and a well for house 7 ft.
Wood.   I have never been short of fuel.    Plenty  of water from a  spring, the
water rising to the surface.
Wood, chiefly, but it is costly.    Water from Wascana Creek. PLAIN FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
25*
Name.
Smith, W.P	
Blythe, R	
Field, Edward	
Pollard, Alfred	
Orr, James D	
Screech, John. -	
Robertson, P	
Harward, F	
Hall, D	
Lothian, James.	
Bruce, Geo	
Bell, C. J	
Warnock, Wm	
Haddow, Jas	
Reid, Alex	
Perley, W. D	
Prat, Jno ,
Miller, Solomon	
Grimmett, D. W	
Leepart, R.N	
McBean, Angus	
Young, Jno. M. L	
Doyle, W. A	
Newman, C. F	
Sheppard, Jos	
Armstrong,  George...
Pierce, S	
Graham, Mark
Malcolm, A..
McGregor, D.,
Answer.
Wood, hard to get.    Plenty of water, not very good.    All neighbours have good
water at 15 ft.
Poplar; easily obtainable from the bluffs.     Plenty   of water from   wells and
sloughs ; deepest well at present 16 ft.
Poplar ; no difficulty.    Plenty of excellent water from well 22 ft. deep.
Dry wood (poplar) in abundance.    Splendid water by digging 12 ft.
Dry poplar and oak, which are not difficult to procure.    Not too much water ;.
two wells, one 23 ft. and the other io ft.
Poplar poles, but rather  scarce.    Surface water for the cattle; well for house
6 ft.
Wood, getting difficult to obtain.    Plenty of water ; wells 10 to 20 ft.
Poplar wood.    I have plenty on my own place.    Plenty of water, a lake 6 ft.
deep and a stream running in summer.
Poplar wood ; no difficulty to obtain.    Water from running creek.
Wood, poplar; about nine miles to haul.    Good water for home use in well 16
ft. deep.
Poplar and hardwood; I have a good deal on my place.    I use river water in
winter and well water in summer.    3 ft. deep.    The finest water in the province-
Coal and wood ; both are now difficult to get here.
Wood, poplar and white birch, easily got.    Plenty of water ; spring creek and
well 20 ft. deep.
Wood ; it is difficult to obtain, and so is water, on my farm.
Wood, no difficulty in getting it.    Plenty of water.    Oak creek runs through it.
Wood, and plenty in this district, at $3.00 per cord at your house.    A good
lake, and could get water bydigging a short distance.
Wood, quite close to the house.    Plenty of water from a well about 4 ft. deep.
Coal and wood ; wood three miles to draw, coal about 25.    Plenty of water j.
water from well 25 ft. deep
Elm and maple ; enough on my farm to last twenty years.    One elm measured
11 ft. 5 in. in circumference.    Pipestone Creek runs through corner of njy farm 5-.
depth of well 3 feet.
Poplar; ten miles to get it.    Water from well 16 ft. deep.
Wood very difficult to obtain.    Plenty of water, boggy creek ; wells 12 to 14 ft.
deep.
Poplar, very handy.    I have always had plenty of water from a well 6 ft. deep.
Wood, dry poplar ; an ample supply here.    Water from two spring creeks and:
several good springs.
Poplar or ash, plenty of it.    Plenty of water from a well 15 ft. deep and out of
my little lake.
Poplar wood, costs, six miles from my house, $1.50 per cord.    Water is rather-
hard to get in some places, but easy in others.
Wood, to be had for the drawing and a fee of 50 cents for enough for a year's.
use, for house, stable and some fencing.    Water for cattle from a deep pond
and for domestic use from wells.    Have one well at 17 ft. never failing, and
another at 28 feet.
Wood in bluffs on homestead.    Plenty of water.
Wood, poplar and oak.    Not very difficult to obtain.    Plenty of water by digging
about 12 ft.
Wood ; is plentiful here.    Plenty of water from a living spring.
Elm.   Plenty of water from Assiniboine River. 26
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Bobier, Thos,
Warren, R. J...
Niff, J. R	
Chambers, S. W
Bailey, Z	
Black, G.R....
Champion Bros.
McKenzie, D
Fraser, D...
Farmer, W. A..;,
King, M ,
Thompson, S	
Anderson, George
McDougall, A. G
"Tate, James	
McMurtry, Thos.
McCaughey, J. S
Heaslip, J. J	
Bolton, F	
Campbell, Robert
Paynter, J. E
McEwen, D. i
Connerson, J...
Kennedy, Thos
Johnston, Jas..
Answer.
Wood ; have to draw it six miles, but intend using coal, as I hear we are going
to have it at $6,50 per ton.    Good water from wells 8 ft. deep; all of my
neighbours get plenty of good water by digging from 8 to 20 ft.
Wood; have got plenty on my farm.    Plenty of water from wells and springs ;
depth of well 14 ft.
Poplar; difficult to obtain, but will use coal. Plenty of water from well 18 ft. deep.
Wood, any amount of it in this district.    Plenty of water ; a spring for home
use, and a spring creek for cattle.
Wood, rather scarce, but coal, which is superior, is easily got at Railroad Station.
Plenty of spring and river water, wells 10 ft.
Poplar; any quantity three miles off.    Plenty of water and good well 38 ft. deep.
Dry oak and poplar; not difficult to obtain.    Generally plenty of water, one
well 5 ft. and another 16 ft. *
Poplar fuel.    We have plenty yet, handy by.   The Arrow River runs through
my farm.    I have a spring at my house.
Wood getting scarce; expect to use coal soon.    Plenty of water.    Ponds and
wells 14 ft. and 30 ft.    Any amount in latter, could not be bailed dry.
Wood and coal.    River water.
Wood from Qu'Appelle, and coal at $9.00 per ton on Canadian Pacific Railway.
Water is very scarce, and draw it five miles.    Have no well yet.
Wood;  from three to five miles off.      Plenty of water.    Beaver Creek runs
through the farm.    Wells are from 8 to 12 ft.round here.
Wood, abundance in this district; the Weed Hills, Woolf Hills and Qu'Appelle
being very adjacent and well timbered.    Price to townspeople 12s. per cord.
We depend on slough water in summer for stock.    Wells range from 6 to 35
ft.in depth.
Wood.    Coal this year $6.50 per ton.    Plenty of water from well 14 ft. deep.
Coal in winter, wood in summer, both of which are easily obtainable.    Get water
from a never-failing spring.
We use coal, it is quite handy.    We get water from a well about 12 ft, deep.
Coal and wood  easy to obtain.    Water from well 25 to 40 ft. deep.
Coal from Souris, 18 miles from here; not difficult to obtain.    Plenty of water
from a well 15 ft. deep.
Poplar and oak wood in abundance ;   haul three miles.    Wells 28 ft. deep.
Ponds for cattle in summer.
We get our fire wood, fencing and building timber from the Riding Mountain,
four miles to draw.    We get our water from Stoney Creek, a spring creek
rising in the mountain and running all the year round.
Wood, difficult to^obtain.    Plenty of water from a well 7 ft.
Wood at present, but intend using coal for winter.    Expect to get it at Brandon,
about $7 (28s.) per ton.    Plenty of water, well and sloughs.    Wells, one 20
ft. another 35 ft.
All  oak wood; in abundance.    Water in abundance all the year round from
% Dead Horse Creek."
Wood, not difficult to obtain in my case, but some have to buy.    It  costs
about $2.50 per cord.    Plenty of water.    Have a good spring creek.
Wood and coal.    Have had no difficulty so far to obtain supply.    I have a nice
creek crossing farm, but  supply buildings by wells from 10 to 15 ft.    First-
class water.
Mclean, J. A  Poplar, oak and ash; very easy to obtain.    I have to dig for water, the depth.
is from 8 to 12 ft. PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
27
Grain Crops.
The following tables, taken from official sources, will show at a glance the average
yield in bushels per acre of the crops of Manitoba during the last six years :—
Wheat.
Oats ...
Barley.
Peas ...
Rye
Potatoes
Turnips
Carrots
Flax...
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
32
26U
26K
26^
29K
3°
32
27
51
S9U
59^
58
57U
59
51
56
41
40H
63
372A
41
40
37
35
32
32
34
32X
38K
38
30
3°
30
40
40
35
229
3°4
308
302
3i8
320
278
259
583
400
"
28
General
Average.
29
56
42
34
35
287
583
400
28
The following are the chief averages of the chief wheat-growing countries of the
World, as officially given for a series of years :—
Manitoba, average yield per acre in bushels...
Great Britain and Ireland •	
Minnesota (the Empire Wheat State of the Union)
United States	
Ontario	
South Australia	
Wisconsin . t...	
Iowa	
Ohio	
Indiana	
Illinois	
Wheat.
Barley.
1
29
42
28-8
34'2
114
S2'5
13
13-6
8
2467
n*3
6-6
24*5
20-8
!3'3
io-8
16*4
26
8*2
£gjj
Oats.
56
43'2
35*&
39
28 &
26 2
277
23
33*4
Asked as to the probable yield per acre of their wheat, barley, and oat crops
Farmers replied as follows :— 28
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Sheppard, Joseph
Stevenson, T. W	
Little, James	
Morton, Thomas L....
McLean, John A	
Paul, James M	
Rutherford, Jonathan..
Wat, James	
Boulding, G. T	
Stowards, R. C	
Day, John F    ...
Leitch, Angus	
Daniels, Joseph	
Reid, E. J	
Robier, Thos..	
McKenzie, Kenneth...
Todd, P. R	
McBean, Angus	
Harris, James	
Osborne, Daniel.
Slater, Charles B	
Wright, Charles	
Proctor, Henry	
Smith, W. P	
Robertson, P •.
Lothian, James	
Bruce, George	
Webster, A
Downie, John
Sirett, W. F.
"Young, John.
Finlay, James -..
Deyell, John
Bailey, Zachary
Patterson, Abr.
Howey, Wm...
'Grigg, S	
Elliott, T. D...
McRae, Roderick
Armstrong, George..
Yield of Wheat per acre
in bushels.
About 40,
40 !
Average 40
40 at least, I had 45 last
year....
40	
About 35.
35	
35	
Expect 35
35	
35	
35
Barley.
40,
40.......
About 30.
25	
5°	
About 35	
32	
32, very good
32	
32	
About 30 or 40.... ,
From 30 to 35 ..., ,
Between 35 and 40,
3° to 35 	
Between 30 and 35,
Average about 30..
A certain 30	
30	
3°	
3°	
30 •	
30	
30	
Oats.
50 ■
40.
40
30
30	
About 40 or 50
40 to 50	
35	
Black barley average 25
40 last year	
35	
About 50.
Partly 70 and partly 40.
Average 70.
50-
Some 60 and some 80.
About 50.
46.
65.
Expect 70.
60.
60.
30-    ;	
30 last year, and my crop
is better this year....
3°	
30	
30	
3°	
30	
30	
On   account   of  a   dry
spring  it will not go
over 30	
Over 40, I should think,
not thrashed yet....
30 on this season's
breaking   ....
50, the best I ever saw
40	
I have none ; but my
neighbors' will yield
about 45	
30	
5o	
40	
35	
40	
5o	
About 40
5o.
50 to 60.
About 45.
f5o.
About 80.
50 to 80.
About 60.
40 to 50.
60.
Average 50, good crop.
70 at least.
35-
60.
Badly  wasted by hail  storm.
40 on this  season's breaking.
60 to  70.
40.    They did not do well this
year;    too   dry
the spring.
50 to 60.
60.
70.
40.
About 60.
60.
5o.
60.
5o-
A [dry  spring makes  a  small
yield, say 35.
m PLAIN FACTS   AS   TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
29
Name.
Chester, A	
Obee, F*	
Muirhead, Thos	
Mcintosh, Archd
Hall, P	
Speers, A. R	
Mitchell, Jno	
Miller, Solomon
Hope, Geo.
McLane, A. M.
Gibson, John.
Thompson, S.
Haney, A. W,
Hall, W. B	
McKellar	
Harrison, D. H.
Taylor, Wm,...
Stevenson, G. B
Heaslip, J. J....
Coay, Thomas..
Pollard, Alfd....
McGhee, James.
Austin, A., senr
Purdy, Thos....
Smith, Wm
Lang, Robt
Yield of wheat per acre
in bushels.
Certainly expect 30....
3° :	
Average will be 30....
10	
30	
30	
Expect average
probably 28 or 30..
About 28	
28	
About 28	
I expect it will yield 26
as it is a good crop..
20	
26 on land broken last
year, not backset...
25 to 30	
25 to 30	
25 to 30	
25, and likely 30
25 to 30	
25 to 30	
Averaging 25..,
25	
About 25	
Estimated at 25.
About 25
25	
Barley.
40	
35	
Average 30...
Good maturity
40	
5o or 55
40 	
3° 1	
35 on Spring backsetting	
40,
About 30,
40 ■
About 30,
Fully 50.
About 25
Averaging 60,
35	
25 ; land not well tilled
40
35'
Oats.
50 to 60
5o
Average 50
5o
60
70
Probably 40
Between 50 and 60
5o
25, on Spring backsetting
50
About 45
75,  on land broken last  year,
and not backset.
About 40
40
50 to 60
About 40
Only about 40; last year
I had 65
From 50 to 70
About 50 or 60 on average
Averaging 50
40
About 40
40, badly tilled;  on ac- \
count of dry  weather,
last year did not rot.
40
45 .
Roots and Vegetables.
All root crops yield well, turnips standing next to potatoes in area of cultivation.
They are in no reported instance infested by flies or other insects. Mangold-wurzels
and carrots are not cultivated as field crops to any great extent.
All garden vegetables produce prolific crops, and the Province sustains an extraordinary reputation for their production. During recent years a very large and general
increase has taken place in the acreage devoted to the cultivation of garden products.
In the earlier years of the Province's history new settlers had but little time to devote to
gardening, but once having got their farms into good working order, they are
tdevoting more attention to it, with most satisfactory results. 30
PLAIN FACTS AS TO   THE   CANADIAN   NORTH-WEST.
The following are instances taken from farmers'  reports  of success  in  the growth
of vegetables, and in conjunction with these reports it must be remembered that very
few, if any, of these farmers used special means to produce these results.     The question
asked was : | What yield of vegetables have you had, and what is your experince in
raising them ?" For postal address of each settler, see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
Dicken, George.
Yardley,  Henry
Proctor, Henry.
Knight, W. G,
Jeffrey, William
Blythe,  R	
Field, Edward,
Pollard, Alfred.
Orr, James D..,
Lothian, James.
McGhee, Jas	
Gibson, Wm	
Bruce, George,
Mitchell, John.
Middleton, Alex
Answer, in bushels per acre.
Have had carrots 12 inches round, and grown cucumbers successfully in the open.
Beans and potatoes very good, better than I ever raised in England with 20
years' experience.    Turnips very good, and mangolds good.
Potatoes, 300.    I have grown in the garden beans, peas, carrots, parsnips, beets,
cabbage, (several kinds), onions.    With attention all do well.
Potatoes, 300, well manured ; turnips,* 600, well manured;    Carrots   and peas,
beans and flax, have also done well in small lots.    I  have grown almost all
kinds of vegetables with the best results.
Potatoes, about 160.      All  kinds of garden produce grow luxuriously ;  that is,
all and every kind that can be grown in England, and do  not require manure^
for some years.
I have grown almost all kinds, and the quality is splendid.
Potatoes,   150,   on  the breaking;  my beans were frozen.     The first year it is-
not well to sow vegetables  on the breaking, except for home use,   otherwise, after the ground has been properly worked, nearly all vegetables thriv i
well.
Potatoes, 300 ;  turnips, from 500 to 700.    Carrots, peas and beans, I have only
grown on a small scale;  the yield is good.    Vegetables are a great success in.
this country,   and come  on very rapidly.    I have grown potatoes, onions,
carrots, beets, corn, cucumbers, parsnips, radishes, lettuce, cabbage, broccoli,
cauliflower, melon ;  in fact same as we grow in England.
Potatoes, 300.    An abundant crop of turnips, carrots,  peas and beans.    My
vegetables have this year generally been a failure.    I have grown almost every
description of vegetables with great success.
Potatoes, 300 ;  turnips, 400.    I have only grown vegetables in the garden, but
they all do extremely well.
Potatoes, 300.    Have raised cabbages, carrots, onions and beet, all of which did
well.    With a little experience of the climate, I believe gardening can be made-
a success in all sorts of vegetables.
Potatoes, 100.    This country is second to none for vegetables.
Potatoes, 200.    Cabbage, Scotch kail, rhubarb, onions, carrots, turnips, parsley,
peas, pumpkins and sage, all do well with climate and soil.    We have   used
potatoes two months after planting them.
Potatoes, 400.    I have grown almost every kind of cabbage and garden stuff you
can mention.    I have lifted cabbage this fall 20 lbs. in weight.
Potatoes, 180.    Turnips, carrots, onions, beets,  parsnips,  parsley, lettuce, and
radishes all grow  well.     I  have  not made  such headway  with   cabbage.
Rhubarb grows splendidly.
I find no difficulty in growing any of the vegetables I  was acquainted  with in<
Scotland.    They all require to be sown early in the season. PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
31
Name.
Answer, in bushels per acre.
Perley, W. D..,
Prat, Jno	
Miller, Solomon
McGill, George
Smith, William.,
Ingram, W. A.. \
Lawrie, J. M...,
Doyle, W. A...,
Sheppard, Jos...
Stevenson, T. W
Depell, John....
Walker, J. C...,
Mooney, Jno....
Horner, T. R...
Davis, Jno. B...
Powers, C. F....
Rutherford, J....
Potatoes grow splendidly, and of fine quality, without manure.    Carrots will
grow fine, but have not had much experience.    Peas grow splendidly.    I believe manure would help and produce a large crop, but for quality, the present
can't be excelled.
Have some parsnips grown on land which had a crop of peas and potatoes on it
last,  and no manure put on it,  and took one or two potatoes, a week ago,
which were 2% inches in diameter, and long in proportion.
Potatoes, 400 ; turnips, 750.
Potatoes average 250 bushels (of 60 lbs.) per acre.    Never saw a better crop of
potatoes, in any country, than I have this year.   Turnips, carrots, peas, beans,
and fla^f, are good.
Potatoes, 300; turnips, 800.   Have also grown carrots, parsnips, onions, cabbage,
cauliflowers, pumpkins, melons, citrons, cucumbers, lettuce, squash, tomatoes
and raddish.
Potatoes, 300 to 500 ; turnips, carrots and beans do well; peas 30, and flax 20.
Everything in the way of vegetables does immensely, except Indian corn and
tomatoes, which I do not find as yet a success.
Potatoes, 250.    Only raised turnips and carrots in garden, but they would do
well here.    My experience is that vegetables cannot be raised more successfully
in any other country.
Potatoes, about 250; peas, about 25.    Have never seen vegetables equal to those
of Manitoba.    We cannot raise squash,   melons or pumpkins to maturity,
however.    Carrots, beets, maize, onions, salsify, celery, chicory, radishes and
cucumbers all do unusualy well with us.
Potatoes, 200; peas, 60 lbs. per acre.    Vegetables very good; you can raise every
kind to perfection.
Potatoes, 300.    Turnips not  attended  to  would have produced 400 or  500
bushels per acre.    I  never saw  as  fine  vegetables  anywhere else, except
turnips.
Potatoes, 359; turnips, 800.    Peas do well.    Vegetables do very well.
Potatoes, 300; turnips, 600; carrots, 300; peas, 30 and beans, 40.    Have grown
with good results; potatoes, turnips, mangold-wurtzels, beets, carrots, parsnips,
onions, radishes, cabbages, cauliflowers and many others.
Potatoes, from 300 to 400.    Turnips 600, and peas 30.    All vegetables do well.
Have also grown carrots, beets, cabbage, tomatoes, squash, citron, onions,
rhubarb and pumpkins.
I never saw vegetables grown to better success than here;  in fact, they are the
surest crops we can grow.   I have grown potatoes, turnips, carrots and beets
with perfect satisfaction.
Potatoes 300, turnips 600, carrots 600, peas 30, beans 25, and flax 30.    Have
also  grown cabbage,  beets,  tomatoes,   radishes, onions, salsify, pie plant,
lettuce, pumpkins, grapes, artichokes, pepper and parsnips.
Potatoes 200, turnips 500, carrots 400, peas 30.    Beans do well.    All vegetables
can be grown with great success.
Potatoes 350, turnips 600 to 800, carrots 400 to 500, and peas 40 to 50.    I have
grown   successfully:—Cabbage,   carrots,   parsnips,   beets,  onions,   lettuce,
radishes, beans, dr»c. 32
PLAIN FACTS  AS TO  THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Bobier, Thos
Patterson, Abr..
Fraser, D. D. ..
Osborne, Daniel
Harrison, D. H.
Thompson, S...
Rawson, James.
Answer, in bushels per acre.
Stevenson, G. B..
Stirton, James
Slater, C.B......
Burgess, J. W...,
Connerson, James
Potatoes, about 300.    Turnips generally have not done well this year, the weather
being very dry when they were sown in the spring.    I never grew any except
in the garden; these are excellent.    Have grown peas two years;  they do
first-class here.    Beans can be grown here in abundance.    I have grown the
finest potatoes that I ever grew in my life, both in quantity and quality.
Carrots, cabbage, cauliflowers and other garden stuff grown in this country,
are of the very best quality.
Potatoes, from 250 to 300, and turnips, 500.    Carrots average 450.    All kinds
of vegetables grow well.    I have also grown beet, onions, radishes, cabbage,
cauliflower, melon, citron and cucumbers.
Potatoes, turnips, carrots, peas, beans and flax do very well, without any care
and trouble.        If the seed is only sown early, with care and cultivation, the
yield is enormous. ,i'i        -^y
Potatoes, 200 bushels from half acre.    The yield of turnips and carrots was poor,
owing to the drought in the spring.    Flax was good.    Vegetables did fairly.
All cullender vegetables do well here.
Potatoes, 300; really magnificent.    Also turnips, carrots  and mangolds ; the
latter yield well.    Cabbages and cauliflowers do well.
Potatoes, about  350.    I had nine waggon loads  (about 30 bushels each) of
turni*ps off half an acre last year.    Carrots, 500; peas, 50 bushels off two
acres one year; beans, 40 to 60 ; flax 15.    All kinds do well here ; cabbages,
cauliflowers, beets, melons, cucumbers, cVc.   Onions do splendidly.   Tomatoes
are not  a success;  we have lots of them,  but they are green yet  (September. )
My potatoes are the best I ever saw in this country.    Turnip, very heavy yield,
also carrots; peas, 30.    This equals any country for the growth of vegetation.
Have grown beets, onions, melons, citrons, cucumbers, pumpkins, tomatoes,
radishes, celery and lettuces.
Potatoes, 400, and peas 40.    All garden vegetables usually grown on a farm,
grow first class.     Onions  and cabbages grow extra large and are of fine
quality.
I had a fair crop of potatoes this year.    My turnips were poor on breaking.   The
yield of carrots was good, but frost killed my beans.    Carrots, cabbages, onions,
parsnips, potatoes and beets are all doing well.
Potatoes 500, turnips 1,000.    Have also grown beets.
Potatoes 200, turnips about 250, and peas and  beans from 14 to 15.    I think
I could   raise   about 300   bushels of carrots   per   acre.    Vegetables   grow
first-class.      Sweet   corn,   cabbages,   carrots   and   long   and   turnip   beets
grow to perfection; tomatoes splendidly; onions in abundance.    Have also
grown celery, musk and water melons, cVc.    Took $15  prize money two
years ago.
Yield of potatoes and turnips heavy ; carrots are simply immense ; peas are not
good here,   the land is too heavy;  beans do well, and flax yields from 20
to  30.     This is a splendid country  for vegetables.     I  have  also grown
mangold-wurtzels,   onions,   beets,   parsnips,  tomatoes,   cucumbers,   melons,
citrons, squash, celery, cabbage, cauliflower, radishes, kail, brussels sprouts,
lettuce, salsify and mushrooms.    I have the Provincial Diploma for the best
collection of garden vegetables. PLAIN  FACTS AS  TO  THE  CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
38
Name.
Chambers, W.
Bole, J....
Day, S. D.
McDonald,
McLean, J.
x\ * • * • ••••
W. M....
A	
Speers, A. R,
Answer, in bushels per acre.
Potatoes 300, turnips 1,000, and white Belgian carrots 500. Drought affected
my peas this year, but they will yield 25 ; beans do well here. A little
capital invested in flax seed culture and the manufacture of twine or cord for
our self-binding machines, would result in great wealth. Onions, table carrots,
parsnips, beets, turnips, radishes, lettuces, melons, tomatoes, peas, parsley,
and all sorts of garden and field vegetables can be grown here to perfection ;
at least, that is my usual experience.
Potatoes 300. All kinds of vegetables do well in the North-West when the
ground is properly prepared.
Potatoes about 400 ; turnips 600, and peas 20. Have very fine cabbage, carrots,
turnips, beans, parsnips, beets, onions, lettuce, spinach, rhubarb, radishes and
cucumbers.    Have raised tomatoes and Indian corn, but not with success.
Potatoes 500; turnips 1,000, and peas 30.
Potatoes 409, sometimes more; turnips from 400 to 600. Peas and beans do
well. Any and every kind of vegetable does wonderfully well in this couniry.
I believe there is no better country in the known world that can come up to the
country for vegetables.
Potatoes 400, turnips 1,000, peas 30, flax 40. Carrots remarkably good crop ;
beans yield splendid.
The Use of Manure.
Fertilizers are not used in the North-West, for they are not needed, and common
manure is used but sparingly. The land is, indeed, in most cases, so rich that the using
of it during the first years of cultivation would be apt to encourage the growth of straw,
and make the crops too rank. After the second year manure in limited quantities may
be used with advantage to prevent any exhaustion of the land.
This is the general experience of settlers to be found related with their opinions on
many other useful subjects in an additional pamphlet, to be had free on application to
Mr. Begg, Canadian Pacific Offices, 88 Cannon Street, London:—| When you have it,
put it on your light land, don't waste it; but it is. not necessary for years." One settler,
Mr. William Gibson, of Loganstone Farm, Wolseley, says : " I have used manure to a few
potatoes to try the effect it had along with others planted without manure, and they did
no better with it."
Stock Raising and the Hay Supply.
The general healthiness of the climate and the favorable conditions for feeding
horses, cattle, and sheep, make stock-raising a most profitable industry. The boundless
prairies, covered with luxuriant grasses, giving an unusually large yield, and the cool
nights for which Manitoba is famous, are most beneficial features in regard to stock ; and
the remarkable dryness and healthiness of the winter tend to make cattle fat and well-
conditioned.   The easy access to good water is another advantage in stock-raising.   The 34
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
abundance of hay almost everywhere makes it an easy matter for farmers to winter their
stock j and in addition to this there is, and always will be, a ready home market for
beef.
Owing to the abundance and excellence of prairie hay, little has hitherto been done
in the cultivation of grasses, though what small quantity is cultivated is largely of the
Timothy and Hungarian classes. The average yield of hay per acre is 2^ to 3 tons-;
sometimes 4 tons are gathered, and in wet seasons as many as five tons. The crop of
1882 was an abundant one, and was generally saved in good condition, while, in 1883
almost a double yield was gathered.
On these points the experience of settlers is especially valuable. Their statements
answer the questions : " How many horses and cattle have you ? Have you plenty
of hay, and do cattle thrive on the wild prairie grasses ? How do your animals
thrive in winter, and where do you stock them ?" For postal address of each settler,
see pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
Dickin, George
Hind, Brothers,
Urton, W. S..
Yardly, Henry.
Field, Edward,
Answer.
Philips, S....
Hutchison, A.
Mercer, Jas..
Knight, W. I
17  cattle.    Can cut  20  tons, and can get other on government land.   Cattle
do equally as well as they did in pastures in  England ;   they thrive   well  in
winter with the same shelter they get there, pole and hay stable.
1 horse and ten head of cattle.    Yes.    Cattle do well; wintered first-class.
5 horses and 1 cow.    Yes.    Cattle do splendidly, better than on English hay.
They are stabled in winter during very bad days, but are  turned  out most
days.
I have 3 oxen and two yearling steers.   I have sufficient hay for 20 head of cattle;
they thrive first-class.    Last winter I took 12 head of cattle from a neighbour.
They came out in the spring equal to when I was in England.    I kept them in
open sheds with yards last winter.    My neighbour has his in stables, and they
do not do as well as mine.
30 horses and 20 head of cattle.    Plenty of hay ; cattle get fat in summer on the
prairie grasses.    I house them in a log stable during winter.
20 head of cattle, 3 horses,  19 sheep  and 2 pigs.    Yes; cattle get very fat on
the  prairie grass in summer; they do well  in the stable in  winter.    I fed
them on hay alone last winter; this winter I intend using grain and roots in
small quantities.
9 head of cattle at the present time.    Plenty of hay.    Cattle thrive well on wild
grasses.    Is have wintered over twice the above number of cattle.    I stable
young cattle, large cattle run loose in open sheds.
No  horses,  45 head of cattle    Plenty of hay.    My thoroughbred short-horns
have nothing but the wild grasses of the country, and they are in splendid
conditon, in fact quite fat.    I should take a prize for Christmas beef in England ; the beef cannot be beaten.    Cattle thrive well in winter, on hay only.
Some are in stables and some out.
Plenty of  hay.    Cattle undoubtedly thrive well in  winter, and get very  fat
in summer.    Both horses and cattle do well in the winter in the stable at
night.     Heifers,   steers,   cVc, in open sheds.     Native horses and half-bred
horses  thrive well out  on the  prairie all winter, if you  have no work for
them. PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
35
Name.
Pollard, Alfred	
Robertson, P ,
Cowlord, C	
Gibson, Wm	
Bruce, George	
Middleton, Alex ...
Warnock, Wm....
Reid, Alex	
Fraser, John.	
Perley, W. D	
Malhoit, Z........
McGill, Geo	
Grimmett, D. W...
Purdy, Thos. F....
Downie, Jno......
McBean, A	
Answer.
A scarcity of hay in this part.    Cattle thrive wonderfully. > I house them in
winter, and feed them on straw, hay, and roots.
3 horses and   12 cattle.     Plenty of prairie hay,  and cattle do  well  on it.
They get   on   well   in stable in winter.    I let them   out every  day,  if
possible.
67 cattle and 3 horses.   Cattle do all that I can wish.    I winter them in log
stables.
3 horses, 2 colts, I pair of oxen, 2 cows, 1 bull and 2 sheep.    I have hay in
abundance ; cut it this summer 66 inches long; and cattle get fat on it without
any other seed in winter.    I winter cattle in log stables, and they get nothing
but hay.    Horses have hay, with a little oats.
18 head of cattle.    They do well on prairie hay, and do well all winter.
2 work oxen and cow and 2 calves. Hay has been difficult to put up owing to
light crop. Cattle thrive on wild grass. When well housed; they thrive well
in winter on hay and water, with a little salt.
3 horses and 15 cattle. I have enough hay for present stock j they do better on
wild hay. I winter my horses and milk cows in stable; steers and young
stock in shed open to the south, and they thrive well.
Plenty of hay.    Cattle do splendidly on the wild grasses, better than on some
hay.    They thrive well in winter ; I stable them at night and let them out
during the day.
7 head  of cattle and learn  of horses.    Plenty of hay,  and cattle come out
fat on with nothing but prairie hay in spring;  they do well in stable in
winter.
1 have only a small stock, but they do fine in winter. I have not much hay,
but the prairie grass all over the N W. far exceeds the best quality of cultivated
hay in the East. I never saw so fine and fat animals as this prairie grass will
make.
18 horses. Plenty of hay ; and cattle are doing very well. I winter them in a
frame stable, and they do first-class.
2 horses, 3 cows, and some young stock. Cattle winter better on prairie hay in
this climate than they do in Ontario. A better name for it would be | lawn
hay," a quality well understood in Europe. I keep the cattle in rough weather
in winter, and they winter easily. \
1 yoke oxen and 2 ponies. Plenty of very nutritious hay. Cattle fatten on it
in winter. I can put it up at 200 dols. per ton, and make money. I winter
my stock in sod and strew stable, and they thrive well, that is, when I fatten
them.
6 horses, 4 oxen, 2 cows, and 2 yearlings. Hay plenty in certain localities. Cattle
do splendidly; never saw them get so fat on grass. I have a barn 16 by 45
dug in bank; it will house 16 head, horses and cattle. Loft on top ; will
hold 10 tons of hay.    The cattle do well in winter.
2 horses and 12 cattle. Plenty of hay ; cattle fed on the hay here are fit for the
butcher in spring. I keep them in winter most generally in stables; they are
rolling fat in the spring on hay and water.
15 horses and 50 cattle. Cattle thrive well on wild grasses ; I winter them all
inside and they thrive very well, where feed can be obtained. 36
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NOHTH-WEST*
Sirrett, Wm. F,
Doyle, W. A.
Lang, Robt ..
Riddle, Robt.
Pollock, John
Powers, C. F.,
Rutherford, J.
Bobier, Thomas.
Little, James.
McKnight, R
Vandervoort, Geo,
Black, G. R...
Howey, Wm.-
Gilmour, H. C.
4 horses and seven head of cattle.    Plenty of hay ; cattle do better here than on
the cultivated grasses or in the woods of Ontario.    I stable them at night
in the winter and keep them in a yard in the daytime ; they thrive well.    I "
milked my cows nearly all winter, bull and young stock lived at the straw
stack all winter.
i horses and 47 head of cattle and hogs. Plenty of hay; my cattle do not
not seem to want anything but the wild hay if well cured, and they
winter well without buildings if in tinchel out of wind. The working
bullocks, milk cows and calves are stabled in winter, the balance have
sheds as windbrakes severely, and a belt of tinchel to shelter from winds
also.
10 horses and 35 horned grades which do well. Plenty of bay. Never saw
cattle do better ; my stock does well in log stables during winter.
2 horses and head of cattle. I have an abundance of hay. Cattle do well. I
winter my stock in the open-air sheds, and they thrive well.
1 have 1 yoke of cattle.   "Plenty of hay, and cattle do very well on it without
grain.    They do splendidly in winter in a stable of sods or logs.
10 horses,  10 cattle and 20 sheep.     I have 20   acres  of Timothy, plenty of
wild hay.     Cattle all do well.     I  winter my stock in stables made  from
logs,   and   covered   with   straw.     Cattle   and   sheep   do   belter   than   in
Ontario.
2 horses, 1 yoke of oxen, 3 cows, 2 two year olds, 1 one year old, and 5
calves. I winter my stock in the house when very cold, otherwise let
them have their liberty, as stock thrive best to get their liberty to move
about.
I cut 100 tons of hay (handless). Thousands of cattle in Ontario, and had
600 acres under pasture there, but never had cattle do so well in Ontario.
Cattle and horses do very well in winter, and the gr*-at reason is that there are
no rain or sleet storms here during winter. I winter my stock in a stable built
of poplar posts sunk in' ground, sided with lumber and sodded, covered with
poles and straw.
All kinds of stock do well here. There is all the hay that I require. I winter
my stock in stables, and some out of doors where there is shelter.
4 horses and 29 cattle. Any amount of hay. Cattle do well on prairie grass.
In winter I stable my stock at nights, and run out during days; they are no
trouble to keep fat.
3 horses and 2 cows. There is a goodly supply of hay, and cattle thrive better
on wild hay than they do on cultivated. In winter I stable horses and milch
cows, but let the young run in an open shed around the straw stack. They
thrive splendidly, only I think horses require a little more grain than they do
in Ontario.
9 horses  and cattle.    No hay, but cattle do exceedingly well on the wild
" have
little
gram.
I
grasses.    I stable my stock in winter with straw and a
no trouble.
4 horses,   and 8 head of cattle ; lots  of hay; cattle keep fat  on it  all  the
winter.    I winter  my  cows in stables, young stock outside, and they do
well.
We have a te'am of horses, and 28 head of cattle.    We have plenty of hay, and
cattle do exceedingly well on it.   They winter well in a log stable on the open
piairie. ''m£ PLAIN^FACTS^AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
37
Name.
Hartney, J. H.
Smart, George
Elliott, T.D..
Answer.
II horses, 2 mules and 4 head cattle. Plenty of hay, and horned cattle thrive
exceedingly well on prairie hay. Up to this time I have wintered my stock
in log stable, covered with poles and straw, and they thrive well.
2 horses and 5 cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle thrive well on wild grass. In
winter I feed my stock on prairie hay, and let them run at straw stack.
They are as fat in the spring as in Ontario in the fall.
13 horse kind and 10 of cattle. Plenty of hay, and cattle do well. They all do
well in winter in sheds made of straw.
Sheep Raising.
Sheep-growing is now becoming an important industry in the Canadian North-West,
and the climatic conditions are such as to render the yield of wool much finer and the
fibre considerably shorter than that from the same class or breed of sheep elsewhere.
Sheep have been entirely free from disease in the North-West, and foot-rot has never
occurred so far as can be ascertained.
I Do sheep thrive in the Canadian North-West, and is sheep-raising profitable |§
In answering this question 57 settlers replied i Yes."   The replies of the others are
given below.   The full name and postal address of each settler are given on pages 3, 4,
5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
Dickens, G...
Urton, W. S..
Yardley, H...
Hutchinson, A
Proctor, H.....
Mercer, J	
Lawrence, J •...
Pollard, A....
Robertson, P..,
Answer.
Yes, only cannot get them here to suit the settlers in small lots.
They thrive well and are very profitable.
In my opinion sheep will do well; very profitable.
Am testing the above now, and believe they will both thrive and be  profitable.
Very profitable and do well.
Yes, sheep thrive well and are profitable.
Yes.    I don't think there is anything that will pay better.    They do much better
than in England or Ontario.
Should like to go in for this branch largely, if means were forthcoming.
Sheep require a great deal of attention in this country.    No doubt they could
be raised to pay well here. 38
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Name.,
Upjohn, F
Harward, F,
McGhee, J	
Bruce, G	
Warnock, Wm,
Fraser, John..
Grang, J	
Purdy, T. F..
Davis, W. H..
Rogers,
Downie,
T,
J-
Anderson, George.
Young, J. M. L.
Doyle, W. A....
Armstrong, Geo
Walker, J. C...
Riddle, R   ,
Wat, J	
Powers, C. F..
Rutherford, J...
Carter, T	
Robier, T	
Warren, R. T...
Mcknight, R....
Chambers, S.W
Patterson, A.
Little, J	
McLennan, T..,
McKenzie,  D.,
Gilmour, H. C,
F,
Ogletree,
Harris, J....
Smart, G...,
Elliott, T. D,
Shirk, J. M.,
Chester, A..,
Lambert, W. M..
Boulding, G. W..
Mclntyre, J •
Wagner, W.....
Answer.
SKs,
In this location they do well.   No stock pays so well, and they are neither
trouble or cost.
Sheep are scarce, but do well.    I find them unprofitable for want of mills in my
neighborhood.
They do very well.    Sheep raising is very profitable.
Sheep thrive well here and are very profitable.
Yes ; have found them do splendidly, with fair profit.
Yes, sheep do well; very profitable.
Yes, for those who have capital to put into it. _
Sheep do well; very profitable at present.
Sheep thrive well, but would not pay in this part yet, as there are no woollen
manufactories in this part. *
Sheep, I feel sure, will do well, and be profitable.
The best sheep I ever saw were raised in Manitoba.    I saw mutton with three
inches of fat on the rib".    Sheep raising is profitable.
I have some sheep; they thrive well, and would be profitable.
Sheep do well in some parts, but the spear grass in some places gets into their
wool, and is severe on them.
Yes; will be profitable when market for wool is obtained.
Yes, particularly well, being profitable for mutton.
Sheep do well and pay well.
They thrive well and are profitable.
Yes, if we had a market for wool.
I think the most profitable of any stock.
Thrive well and are profitable to those who have them.
Where there is no spear grass they do well and pay well.
They do well, and will pay the man that raises them, as the wool and meat are
needed in the country.
Thrive well.
Sheep do well, they are a paying stock.
Sheep thrive well.    Nothing I know of would be more profitable.
Sheep thrive well, and L think would be profitable if there were more.
Sheep thrive well and are very profitable.
Yes,   sheep thrive, and  sheep .aising is profitable.     It would be more so if
there  were  wool  factories  in   this  neighborhood.     Good inducements for
some enterprising man.
Sheep do well;   they are profitable.
have a small flock of sheep, and they do exceedingly well.   I think it very
profitable.
They thrive well, but I do not consider them very profitable at present.
Sheep have been tried in this country and do very well, and are profitable.
Yes; no demand for wool, as yet, in this part, else it would pay better.
This is a first-class sheep country.
Yes, it is considered profitable.
There are not many sheep here.    What there are do well.
Sheep do well and are profitable.
Do well, with profit.
Sheep thrive well and are profitable.
Yes, and pay well.   Farmers get from 12 to 14 cents per pound in carcase, PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
39
Name.
Nelson, R	
Stirton, J  ......
McDonell, D	
Wilson, J	
Heaney, J	
Fargey»J- H	
Connerson, J	
Rorison, W. D. ••••••
McKenzie, K ....*....
Kennedy, T.	
Harris, A. B	
Bartley, N	
Chambers, W	
Garratt and Ferguson.
Todd, P. R	
Sutherland, W. R	
Hoard, C ••»
Speers, A. R	
Cox, W	
Answer.
Yes, they do well and will pay.
Sheep do splendidly, and pay better to raise than any other stock.
Sheep thrive well in different parts of the country.
Sheep raising is very profitable, if on a high scale.
They thrive well.
Do veay well and pay well.
It is a first-class country for sheep raising.
Yes, very well and profitable by keeping them dry in winter.
No, unless on cultivated land.
They thrive well and will be profitable.
Yes, I believe it would be profitable if properly attended to.
They thrive well, but get too fat to breed to advantage.    No fair trial hasjyet
been made in this vicinity.
Sheep are considered very profitable and thrive well.
All the sheep 1 have seen are doing well and will be profitable.
Yes, they thrive well and it will be profitable to keep them.
Our sheep do exceedingly well; they run the prairie in summer, and are under
shed in winter.
Sheep thrive well and are profitable.
They do splendidly.
Yes, very profitable.
Sheep thrive very well and are found to be very profitable.
Horses, Pigs and Poultry.
The raising of horses has not as yet assumed any considerable proportions, though
what has been done in this direction has met with success. There are few countries
where the horses have such immunity from the diseases of stock as they have in the
North-West.
As to pigs, the Berkshire breed seems best suited to the country, as the pigs of this
class mature rapidly and fatten easily, living on the grass and making good pork in six
or seven months with proper feeding. The breeding and fattening of pigs increased
considerably in 1882 and subsequent years, and no disease was reported among them.
Poultry do exceedingly well in the North-West, especially turkeys, owing to the dryness of the climate. Manitoba is itself the home of the wild duck, goose and chicken, and
those who devote care and attention to the raising of poultry are sure of a good re'turn.
It is important to add that no disease of a contagious or infectious character exists
among the cattle and sheep of the North-West, and that every care is taken by the
Provincial Government to promote the interest of breeders. Among the more' recent
measures adopted is the appointment of veterinary surgeons in each county, to look after
the interests of stock raisers, and to carry out the stringent regulations now in force to
prevent the introduction of disease among cattle and horses. 40 PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST.
Raising of Bees.
Apiculture is successfully carried on in the North-West, as bees require a clear, dry
atmosphere and a rich harvest of flowers ; if the air is damp, or the weather cloudy, they
will not work so well. Another reason why they work less in a warm climate is that-
the honey gatheied remains fluid for sealing a longer time, and if gathered faster than it
thickens, it sours and spoils. The clear bright skies, dry air and rich flora are therefore
well adapted to bee culture.
f Fruits.
Wild fruits, attaining to great perfection, abound in Manitoba and the North-West.
Wild plums, grapes, raspberries, gooseberries, strawberries, cherries, cranberries, and
other berries of various kinds abound and are of luscious quality. Little attention has
hitherto been paid to fruit growing, owing to the time of settlers being too much occupied with the important work ot erecting buildings, and getting their lands fairly under
cultivation, but as the general improvement of the farms progresses, fruit- culture will
doubtless receive its due share of attention. Following are but a few representative
statements from farmers on the subject; a remarkable array of testimony on the subject
may be found in the pamphlet tp be had free on application to Mr. Begg, Canadian
Pacific Railway Offices, 88 Cannon Street, London, E.C.
" Strawberries, currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and in fact all small fruits, bear in the greatest
abundance and give every promise of being very profitable.
"W. A. Farmer, Headingly."
" Planted twenty apple trees two years ago, which are growing very well.
"Arthur J. Moore, Nelsonville."
" I have over 1,000 apple trees doing very well, and also excellent bleck currants.
"James Armson, High Bluff"
(' Strawberry, raspberry, brambleberry, gooseberry, black currant, cherry, cranberry, saskatoonberry,
and others.    Mrs. Gibson has made over ioo lbs. of jelly this summer from wild fruit.
1 William Gibson, Loganstone Farm, Wolseley."
" I planted this spring currants, gooseberries, and mull berries, and so far they are doing well.
"John Prat, Rounthwaite."
"Currants, gooseberries, strawberries,  plums, cherries, raspberries, huckleberries,   in profusion.
Only commencing with apple trees and cultivated fruits; going in for a nursery.
I Thomas. Rogers, Railway View Farm, Moose Jaw."
" Plums, black, white, and red currants, strawberries, raspberries, and saskatoons.     Rhubarb does
remarkably well..
" W. F. Sirett, Glendale P. O."
Hops.
I Wild hops, pronounced by brewers to be of excellent quality for brewing purposes,
attain to a luxuriant growth in nearly every portion of Manitoba, the soil and climate
being apparently thoroughly suited to them. Hops from these parts have for some time
past commanded good prices, and the cultivation of the hop plant is believed to be most
profitable to the grower.     A resident settler, writing on this subject, says:— PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST. 4l
" Hops will do well cultivated. I have planted wild hops out of the bush into my garden along the
fence and trained on poles, bearing as full and fine and as large as any I ever saw at Yalding and Staple-
hurst, in Kent, England.
"Louis Dunesing (Emerson)."
Flax andf Hemp.
These important crops were cultivated to a considerable extent by old settlers many
years ago, the product being of excellent quality ; but the universal complaint at that
time was the want of a market, or of a machinery to work up the raw material, and this-led
them to discontinue this important branch of husbandry. Its cultivation has been
renewed extensively by the Russian Mennonite settlers, on whose reserves in the
southern portion of Manitoba a considerable quantity is produced. At West Lynne alone
over 6,000 bushels were brought in during the first week in December, alone, in one
year, averaging 80c. (3s. 4d.) per bushel. Flax is peculiarly suited to the Province, and
so much is this felt that an English capitalist has started in Winnipeg an extensive
linseed-oil mill. This fact and the demand for flax seed that must necessarily arise, will
still further increase the area of its cultivation. It can only be raised successfully in a
cool region, the warm climates of the south causing the bark to become brittle and hard,
and the rapidity with which it there matures preventing the lint from obtaining consistency
or tenacity. On account of their extremely favourable climate for this cereal, Manitoba
and the North-West territories are likely to prove formidable rivals to northern Europe
in its cultivation.
Shooting and Fishing.
There is excellent shooting everywhere in the woods and on the prairie, as may be
seen by the following list of birds and animals to be found:—Small Game; Prairie
chickens, ducks, geese, pheasants, partridges, pigeons, cranes, snipe, plover, rabbits,
&c.; Large Game : Moose, deer, antelope, buffalo, elk, and a large number of fur-
bearing animals.
The rivers and lakes abound with the following fish :—Sturgeon of large size, white
fish, pickerel, pike, bass, perch, suckers, sunfish, gold eyes, carp, trout, and maskinonge.
m   Markets.
Small centres of trade are continually springing into existence wherever settlements
take place, and these contain generally one or more stores where farmers can find a
ready market for their produce. The stations along the line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway are not more than eight or ten miles apart, and the liberal course adopted by
the railway company in dealing with persons willing to undertake the erection of elevators
for the storage of wheat and other grains has led to the establishment of a large number
of these warehouses along the line of the railway in Manitoba alone. These have a total
capacity of over 1,500,000, and enable farmers to dispose of their grain at good prices
almost, at their doors.      A    glance   at   the   map   demonstrates   that   Manitoba, 42 PtAlN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NOkTH-WEST.
via the Canadian Pacific Railway, will have closer connection with t'ne seaboard than
Minnesota, Dakota, or any of the more Western States now have with New York; so
that the export of grain from the Canadian North-West at remunerative prices is
assured. The very large influx of people, and the prosecution of railways and public
works will, however, cause a great home demand for some years, and for a time limit the*
quantity for export.
Success of Settlers.
" Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the prospects ahead of you ? §
This is, after all, the most crucial question. For what are enormous yields and substantial profits, if the country cannot be made a home—a resting place of comfort, of
independence and of freedom? There are, of course, drawbacks in the Canadian North-
West, and in these pages the settlers speak their own minds fully on these points. But
what country under the sun has not some drawbacks ? If so, it were indeed an earthly
paradise. How will old England or bonnie Scotland stand in the matter of drawbacks ?
The point is this :—Are the drawbacks of the Canadian North-West anything approaching in importance those under which I am now living ? Is the North-West a desirable
place for settlement in my own peculiar circumstances ? Can I hope to live there with
greater comfort and less anxiety for the future of myself and my children than in the old
country ? No impartial reader will have difficulty in answering for himself by the aid of
these pages.
In regard to the replies to this particular question, it should be borne in mind that the
Canadian North-West is an immense country. Its perfect development is naturally a
work of some time. Railways have been during the past year or two built there at a
rate perhaps unknown in human history, and the work still proceeds. But there must
yet be districts without immediate contact with the iron horse, though another year may
see these very districts the centre of a system as has been the experience in the past. It
is of course natural that each farmer should want the railway running through his farm and
even close to his own door. But such a thing is impossible even in long established
Britain ; how can it be expected in newly-settled Canada ? It rests with each intending
settler to choose his own land; there is still ample to be had with good railway facilities.
In answering the question, Are you satisfied with the country, the climate, and the
prospects  ahead of you?     84 farmers replied simply | Yes."      Following  are  the'
answers given by others.    Their -postal addresses are given on pages 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 or 8.
Name.
Urton, W. S..
Yardley, H..,
Hutchison, A.
Answer.
Very well satisfied.
Yes, I am quite satisfied.    If I had more capital, could make a fortune in a few
yeai s.
Perfectly satisfied. PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
43
Name.
Fisher, H..	
Field, E	
Lawrence, J	
Screech, J	
Upjohn, F	
Harward, F	
Cameron, W. C...
Lothian, J	
McGhee,J	
Bruce, G	
Bell, C.J	
Middleton, A....
Warnock, W	
Reid, A	
Fraser, John	
Grang, J	
Perley, W. D....
Kinnear, J. H....
Miller, Solomou..
Webster, A	
McGill, G	
Grimmett, D. W..
Purdy, T. F	
Davis, W. H	
Rogers, T.... ...
Smith, Wm	
Downie, J	
Kines, Wm	
Ingram, W. A...,
Anderson, J	
Young, J. M	
McRae, R.	
Oliver, T	
Lang, R  ..
Sheppard, J......
Stevenson, F. W..
Armstrong, Geo.,
Deyell, J	
Walker, J. C.....
Robertson, P. <*..
Answer:
Settled in June, 1884; more residence is necessary to answer this question, but I
think with capital a man will do well.
Very,
I am well satisfied with the country and climate.
Perfectly satisfied.
Yes, very.
Yes, fairly so.
Yes, by all means.
Perfectly satisfied with the country, and prospects~are fair.
Very.    Prospects good.
Satisfied.
Yes, very well.
I am quite satisfied with the country, climate and future prospects.
Yes.    Except to go on a visit,  I have no desire to go  back to the Old
Country.
Yes, I am perfectly satisfied, if only a little more railway facility in this district
(Milford).
Yes, perfectly contented and good prospects ahead.
Yes, if we had railway communication to this place (Cartwright).
Remarkably well.    It is a most wonderful country, and with energy and perseverance skilfully directed a fortune can be made soon.
Well satisfied.
I am well pleased with the country and climate, and if we had a railroad here
(Alameda) I would be well pleased with my prospects.
Yes, fully.
Yes.    So far as climate, it is more desirable than Great Britain or Ireland on the
whole.    Winter is clear, dry and healthy j no need of umbrella, mud-boots or
top-coat round home.
Well satisfied.
Very much indeed.    I think this will be a great country.
We require railway facilities in this place (Crystal City).
Perfectly satisfied.
1 am satisfied.
Perfectly satisfied, and would not go back to Ontario to farm if paid for it.
There is not half the hard work here that there is in Ontario.
Satisfied with country and climate. I
I am.    In this locality (Milford) we want a railroad, or a market where we can
go there and back in one day.
Certainly satisfied.    All we want is railway facilities to this place.
I am perfectly well satisfied.
Yes, you bet I am.
Yes, 1 am, if we had railways through the county (Burnside).
Perfectly.
I am.    Although 62 years of age I am determined to make this my home for
the future, as it is a farming country.
Perfectly with all   Lovely weather is the rule here.
Yes, fully.
I am, if we had a branch railway here (Plum Creek, Souris).
Perfectly.
I like the climate, the only drawback is the rather long winter. 44
PJLAIN FACTS As TO titE CANAblAN NORTH-WEST.
Name.
Blackwell, J,
Honor, T. R,
Hope, G .,.
Malcolm, A	
Pollock, Jno	
Reed, E.J	
McGregory, D	
Powers, C. F	
Rutherford, J. (J. P.).
Carter, T	
Bobier, E	
Little, J as....
McKitrick, W,
Taylor, W	
Warren, R.J	
McKnight, R	
Troyer, C	
Vandervoort, G	
Wood,J.H	
Chambers, S. W	
Baily, Z	
Little, J	
Black, G. R	
McCroquodale, C.T.C.
Wright <&° Sons	
Whitney, C	
McLennan, T	
McKenzie, D...
Fraser, D. D...
Gilmour, H. C
Drew, W. D...
McKellar, D...
Hartney, J. H.<
Ogletree, F....
Harris, Jas.
Smart, G..,
Shirk, J. M,
McAskie, Jas	
Osborne, D...<
Harrison, D. H,
Chester, A	
Answer.
Am satisfied with the country and climate, but the country wants more railroads
to make it prosperous
I am satisfied with the climate and natural resources of the country and my own
prospects ahead.
Well satisfied.
I have no reason to be dissatisfied.    There are drawbacks here as well as in
other countries, but I know of no place where I can go to better myself.
I am very well satisfied in every respect.
Well pleased.
No.
Three sons and myself all well satisfied with the country.
I am, and have great confidence in the future of the country.
Right well. I
I consider it ahead of Ontario for farming and health.    I am well pleased with
the country, or I would not be here if I was not.
Yes ; I find this country ahead of Ontario and better for crops and stock.
The country and climate are better than I expected; the scarcity of timber and
railroad facilities are drawbacks to this part (Crystal City).
Satisfied.
Yes, as I was worth 80/. when I came, and now I am worth 1,400/.
Perfectly satisfied and prospects are good.
lam, with one exception, railway facilities to this place (Alameda).
1 am well satisfied with everything, even to the C. P. R.
Perfectly.
Yes, more than satisfied.
Perfectly satisfied.
Perfectly satisfied.
The country and climate can't be beaten : the prospects are fair.
Entirely so.
Well satisfied.
I am well satisfied.
Yes, very well satisfied with the country, climate and prospects, if we only get
the railway to this place (Asessippi).
I am well satisfied.
Certainly.
I am very well satisfied with the country.
1 am well satisfied, and have unbounded faith in the future of the country.
Satisfied.
Perfectly, if wejhad a branch railway to this place (Souris).
I am well satisfied with the country, the climate and prospects ahead.    I would
not change under any consideration.
Yes, very much.
Yes, if we had a market and railroad here (Holland).
Personally, not exactly, as I have been rather unfortunate in losing animals, ^c,
but think the general prospects are good.
Very well; the winter is pretty cold;  the spring, summer and fall  are delightful.
Very well satisfied.
Very much, would not leave.
I am well pleased with the country, the climate is good, and I am sure this must
be a grand country yet. PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
45
Name.
H
Bonesteel, C.
Nugent, A. J	
Obee, F	
Anderson, George.
Answer.
G.
Kenny, D. W.
McDougall, A
Muirhead, T.	
Barnes, F. A	
Lambert, W. M	
Bowes, J	
Champion, W. M	
Boulding, G. W	
Tate. J	
McMurty, T	
McCaughey, J. S	
Taylor, Wm	
Stevenson, G. B	
Wagner,  W. (M.P.P.)
Heaslip, J.J..... ....
Nelson, R	
Mcintosh, A
Stirton, J ...
Bolton, F	
Morton, T. L.
Campbell, R.
Cox, J. T... |
Sifton, A. L..
McDonell,D.
Wilson, Jas..
Kemp, J	
Paynter, J. E.
McGee, T....
Heaney, J...
McEwan, D.
Slater, C. B..
Frazer, J. S..
Connerson, J
Rawson,
Nickell, W	
Harris, A. B..,
Bartley, N	
Chambers, W..
Paynter, W. D.
Hayter, W. «..
Very well satisfied as yet.
All right, if change in Government policy, still I am a good Conservative.
I am well satisfied.
I am thoroughly satisfied with the country and climate, and my prospects are
good.
Perfectly satisfied at present.
With the country decidedly, but want a little more capital in my business.
I am quite satisfied.
Yes, and prospects are good ahead.
Yes, they are all that can be desired.
Most decidedly.
This country has done well for me.
Very much.
Am satisfied with country and climate.
I am satisfied with the country.
Yes, I am ; all we want is a railroad to this part (Alameda).
Well satisfied.
Yes, well satisfied.
Yes, very much.
Yes, perfectly, if we had a railroad here (Alameda) ; otherwise no.
As to country and climate, yes; As to my own present prospects, no.
I have no reason to complain.
Quite satisfied with the country and climate, but want free trade in lumber and
machinery, and the Hudson Bay Railway.
Yes, winters are a little too long j but think this country equal to any.
Most decidedly so.
Yes, if the Government would see fit to remove the duty off implements.    I
think it would be all right.
Yes, well satisfied.
Perfectly satisfied with country and climate.     The only drawbacks are Want of
additional shipping facilities, and high tariff on implements.
Yes, very satisfied.
With the country and climare, yes.
Yes, the country and climate are first-class.
Not entirely.
I am.    I came to the country without any experience, and am well satisfied
with it.
I am very well satisfied.
Yes, perfectly.
Yes, perfectly.
Yes, if we had a railroad here (Beulah).
Yes, I feel happy, and all my family, six sons, four daughters,  and twenty
grandchildren.    All in Manitoba; all well and happy.
With the country and climate, yes.
Fairly well satisfied with the country.
I am, if we get railway accommodation here (Beulah).
Yes, providing we can get market and railroad facilities here (Wattsview),
If I were not satisfied I would have left long ago.
Yes, if we get railway accommodation here (Beulah),
Yes quite^satisfied, 46
PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH>WEST.
Name.
Answer,
Parr, J. £....	
Yes, very well.
The country is all right, but we want more railways in this part (Beaconsfield).
Quite satisfied, if we can get our grain sold at satisfactory prices.
I have faith in the whole country,
I am satisfied with all of them.
I shouId like it better if December, January and February were warmer.
Well satisfied.    Only objection is a little too hard frost; storms are nothing
like what I expected.
I do not know where I could better myself.
Perfectly satisfied.
Yes, perfectly.
Certainly.
Satisfied with the country and climate.
Wright, C...........
Garratt and Ferguson..
McLane, A. M„.....,
McLean, J. A....... •
Bedford, J	
Todd, P. R	
Boldrick, R	
Tullock, A	
Speers, A. R	
Caffer rata and JelTerd.,
v''Aj       VV .     llMIIII   MM
Yes.    Our only drawback is the lack* of local railway facilities (Milford).
The Class Of Se* tiers now in the North-West.—The great
number of settlers come from the Eastern Provinces of the Dominion, Ontario contributing
by far the largest portion, composed principally of the very flower of her agricultural
population. The arrivals from Europe are principally English, Scotch, and Irish,
including tenant farmers, laborers, servants and others, most of whom readily adapt
themselves to their new life. There are also a good number of Germans and
Scandinavians, hard-working, law-abiding citizens, whose co-patriots have proved themselves to be among the most valuable settlers in the United States. Some settlers are
contributed by the American Union, a small portion being repatriated French-Canadians,
principally from the State of Massachusetts, and the balance, farmers and farmers' sons,
almost entirely from the Western States, while there is also a large settlement of Russians,
Mennonites, and Icelandics, who are now comfortably settled, contented and prosperous,
the last named having formed an Icelandic settlement at Big Island, Lake Winnipeg.
The French-Canadians settled along the Red River, who emigrated from Boston and
other cities in the New England States of America, are reported to be in good circumstances, and, their crops having yielded largely, their prospects are excellent. Speaking
generally, the people of the North-west are highly respectable, orderly, and law
abiding.
*
Farm I^sihour.—It is difficult to give definite information on this point.
There is no doubt it has been high, especially dujjng harvest time, when there is a great
demand for men to take in the crops, but the very large number of people going into the
country during the past few seasons has tended materially to reduce the scale of wages.
One point should be remembered—that the farmer in Manitoba, with his immense yield
and fair prices, can afford to pay a comparatively high rate of wages, and still find his
farming very profitable.
Churches.—The utmost religious liberty prevails everywhere in Canada,
Churches of nearly all denominations exist and are in a flourishing condition, and where HLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEfcr.
47
a settlement is not large enough to support a regular church, there are always visiting
clergymen to do the duty.
Schools*—Means of education, from the highest to the lowest, everywhere
abound in the Dominion. The poor and middle classes can send their children to free
schools, where excellent education is given; and the road to the colleges and higher
education is open and easy for all. In no country in the world is good education more
generally diffused than in Canada. It is on the separate school system, and receives not
only a very considerable grant from the local government, but there are also two sections
in each township set apart by the Dominion Government, the proceeds of which, when
sold are applied to the support of schools. There is a superintendent to each section,
and teachers are required to pass a rigid examination before they are appointed. A high
class of education is therefore administered.
Municipal Government.—There is a very perfect system of municipal
government throughout the Dominion. The North-West country is divided into municipalities as fast as settlement progresses sufficiently to warrant it. These municipal
organisations take charge of roads and road repairs—there being no toll charges—and
regulate the local taxation of roads, for schools, and other purposes, so that every man
directly votes for the taxes he pays; and all matters of a local nature are administered
by the reeve and council, who are each year elected by the people of the district, This
system of responsibility, from the municipal representative up to the General Government, causes everywhere a feeling of contentment and satisfaction, the people with truth
believing that no system of government could give them greater freedom.
Last Words of Settlers.
The last request made of settlers in the course of the enquiries dealt with in this pamphlet was that they would supply such information as they might " deem desirable to
place the Canadian North-West before the world in its true position as an agricultural
country and a land suitable for successful settlement." Space will allow of the publication
of but a very few here.
C. H. Bonestbel, of Pheasant Plain, Kenlis, P. O., Assiniboia, N.W.T., says:—"I
consider this country a grand field for emigration for all that are homeless and farmless,
not only in the old country, but in Ontario. Why, I know of hundreds where I come
from that are working for daily and monthly wages, who, if they only knew or could be
persuaded what this country is, or the chances that there are here for them to get a home
of their own, they would come at once. Even if they only took a homestead, 160 acres,
which they get for io dollars (£2), it would make them a good farm and home, which
they can never hope to get where they are.    This is my honest belief."
Messrs. Campior Brothers, per R. E. Campior, who omit to forward their
Manitoba address, says :—" This country is surer and safer for a man with either small or
large capital, being less liable to flood and drought than any part of the Western States
of America, speaking from experience. Intending settlers on landing should first know
how to work and drive a team aud stick to it, and they are bound to succeed." 48 PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
William Wagner, M.P.P., of Woodlands, Ossowa, Manitoba, writes :—"Very few
inhabitants have visited Manitoba and North West as myself. I have seen the settler in
his first year, and again after three and four years, and what a difference. The first year
much misery, then again comfort. I have seen a good many English settlers in the first
year; they are a great deal disappointed ; but after they have been accustomed to our-
ways, they are happy and contented. We have in Woodlands about thirty English
families, who had but little, and they belong to-day to our best of farmers, and with us we
have never heard of any discontent."
James Connerson, of Minnewashta, Manitoba, writes thus :—" Keep back from
whisky, contract no debts, sign no notes, stick hard at work for two years, and be up and
at it. If one has no means, work out with a farmer for a time; pay as you go along.
That is my humble advice to all intending settlers. I know hundreds of very decent
people in Glasgow (Scotland), also in Holland, who would be thankful to come out here
and get a homestead free." *
James Little, Postmaster, of Oak River, Manitoba, says:—" This is the best
country in the world for settlers to come-'to ; for instance, they can get their land for
nearly nothing, and in three years be worth between 4,000 and 5,000 dollars (^800
to ^t;ooo) just in the rise of the price of the land; besides, he can raise all the stock he
requires, perhaps the same amount or more. There is not much work to do, it can be
done with machinery, and a man that is fond of sport can shoot all the fowl he wants,
I can kiil hundreds of all sorts of wild fowl here, geese, ducks, prairie chickens, snipe
and wild turkeys in abundance.
Thomas Carter, of Woodlands, Manitoba, says:—"The Canadian North-West
needs no vindication. It will soon be as well known to the world as is the Rock of
Gibraltar. As for the cold, I have been more miserably cold on the heights of Shorn-
cliffe, Kent (England), than I ever have been in the North-West. Of course a man may
allow himself to freeze to death if he chooses, or if he is standing near a fire he may
allow himself to burn if he chooses—it's all a matter of taste."
G. A. Cameron, of Indian Head, N.W.T., writes—"As good a place as a man can
find if he has plenty of money and brains, or if he has no money, but muscle and pluck.
Send as many here as you can and they will bless you for it."
William Taylor, of Beulah, P.O., Man., says:—| Settlers should be used to labour
with their hands without kid gloves, unless provided with ample means.    The grumblers
here are composed of men raised idle at home, who have not means to carry it out here.
Labouring men and hired girls coming out with those that hire them do not want to be
bound for any lenghth of time, as wages rule much higher here than in the old countries."
Christian Troyer, of Sec. 22, T 2, R 2, W 2, Alameda, Assiniboia, N.W.T., says:
—11 should advise intending settlers to encumber themselves as little as possible with
extras, with the exception of clothing, and be cautious on their arrival to husband their
resources. As I claim to be a successful north-wester I would be pleased and most
happy to give advice and information to intending settlers free."
J. R. Niff, of Moosonim, N.W.T., states :—" The fact that I settled shows that I had
confidence in the country, and after two seasons' experience I am more than satisfied.
As a grain growing country I believe, with proper cultivation and energy, it cannot be
exceeded." mm
PLAIN  FACTS  AS  TO  THE CANADIAN  NORTH-WEST. 49
George Vandervoort, of Alexandria, Man., says :—11 consider Manitoba or the
North-West is the proper place for a man to go to get a home with ease."
George H. Wood, of Birtle, Man., writes :—" Speaking from what I know as one
of the leaders of one hundred and fifty in this locality, I don't know a single instance of
a sober, industrious person who has not benefited by coming here, and I do know of
many who always lived " from hand to mouth | in Ontario, who are getting rich. All we
require is a railway to get on well, and all get rich. Farming pays here, the Farmers'
Union grumblers to the contrary notwithstanding."
S. W. Chambers, of Wattsview P.O., Man., writes thus :—" After more than five
years' experience in this country, I am satisfied that no other country in the world can
approach the Canadian North-West as a field for agricultural productions. And to the
man who is willing to rough it first and to roll up his sleeves and work for two or three
years, it offers a comfortable independence in a very few years, with very little capital
expenditure."
G. R. Black, of Wellwood, County Norfolk, Manitoba, says :—" This country is
the best place for a man with a small capital to make a home that I have seen, and I
have been through eight states of the United States, and I have seen nothing to compare
to this Canadian North-West. I would advise settlers coming from Europe to bring
nothing but clothes and bedding and light materials. I would say in explanation that I
have raised as high as 40 bushels of wheat and 75 of oats, but that is not the rule."
Mr. A. R. Speers, of Griswold, Manitoba, writes :—11 consider this the greatest
grain producing country in the world without any exception, and as I have handled
considerable stock here I know that to pay well. Last spring I sold one stable of cattle
for 100 dollars (^20) per head for butchering. My sheep have paid well. Milch cows
do very well, and also poultry, and in fact everything I have tried. No man need fear
this country for producing anything except tropical fruit."
Mr. P. R. Todd, of Griswold, Manitoba, writes :—t I believe that any man who is
willing to work, no matter how small his means, can improve his circumstances financially
in this country, and there is a good chance for a man of means or large capital to run
business on a large scale profitably."
Mr. W. H. Hayter, of Alameda, Assiniboia, N. W. T., writes:--" A single man
can come here and farm on a small capital, say 500 dollars (;£ioo). I have a family of
six boys to start.    We are well satisfied with the prospects ahead."
Mr. James Rawson, of Mountain City, Sec. 16, Township 2, R. 6, W., Manitoba,
writes :—" Persons coming to this Province should have 500 dollars (^100) in cash to
start with; not but what a person can get along with less, as I have done, but it is
difficult. Magnificent country for persons who have plenty of money. Climate healthy,
water good, plenty of game."
Mr. Thomas McGee, of Burnside, Manitoba, writes :—11 think that the Canadian
North-West is well for industrious hard working people, either laborers,. farmers or
mechanics. I was a mechanic before I came here, and am satisfied that the country is a
good one for people that want to make homes for themselves."
Mr. John Kemp, of Austin, Manitoba, writes :—"The soil is immensely rich, and
will raise large crops for a long time without manure. I am a Canadian by birth, and
have travelled over a good part of the States and Canada, and, all things considered, I
have seen no part of America to equal this country for agricultural purposes." 50 PLAIN FACTS AS TO THE CANADIAN NORTH-WEST.
Mr. Thomas L. Morton, of Gladstone, Manitoba, writes :—" My land is all brush,
which I consider the best in the end, but more labor. I have twenty acres dark loam,
sown with Timothy, red top and clover; 25 head of stock, and 50 acres of crop, which
pays far better than 100 acres of crop.    Pigs pay well.    Native hops grow well."
Mr. Robert Campbell, Bridge Creek, P. O., Manitoba, writes :—| My opinion 'is
that any man with, say, from 500 to 1,000 dollars (£100 to ^200) and energy to go to
work, will have no difficulty in making a comfortable home for himself and family."
Mr. John T. Cox, Box 44, Rapid City, Manitoba, writes:—| As an agricultural
country it is a splendid one—that is the crops must be put in early, and then they will do
all right."
Mr. Duncan McDonell, Baie St. Paul, Manitoba, writes :—" The Canadian North-
West, if once settled, will be and is the best agricultural country of all I have travelled
through I I
Mr. Joshua Elliott, of Sourisburg, Man., says :—11 consider this country the best in
the world for all classes of farmers. For the capitalist, plenty of room and safe returns ;
and the man of limited capital, to secure a good home and be independent. I have
given you a true statement of my own experience. You have my address above, and
persons wanting information by sending a stamped envelope I will answer it, and give
them the benefit of all my experience."
Mr. Samuel Day, Sec. 34, T. 13, R. 30, Fleming, N.W.T.-—" I should like to see
the emigration agents go more into the farming districts of England, and induce more
farm laborers to come to this country. I would suggest Devonshire, as labor is plentiful
there and wages low. I am afraid some of those city people will not make good settlers,
and hence have a bad effect by writing home bad accounts. I am satisfied this is one of
the best countries for an industrious man with energy."
Bolton, Ferris, of Calf Mountain, Manitoba, says :—" I firmly believe that this
country has advantages over all others for growing grain and raising stock, and would
advise all young men who have not made a start, and all tenant farmers with limited
capital to come here."
Testimony such as is contained in the foregoing pages could be produced indefinitely. The bountiful resources of our Great North-West as
herein to a small extent shown, cannot fail to impress the reader with the
knowledge that we have indeed a country whose resources and attractions
are boundless.
Montreal Herald Print. *
£ori{|jGi.u i^lsu^juuiboE1 SOUTHERN MANITOBA-THE GARDEN OF THE PROVINCE-The lands along the Line of the Manitoba and Southwestern Railway, leased by the Canadian Pacific, and comprised within the uncolored belt in Southern Manitoba are now open for sale.   Apply to John Hi MgTavish, Land Commissioner, Winnipeg. I TEGE
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
ALL RAIL CANADIAN ROUTE TO
WINNIPEG. MANITOBA, AND THE NORTH-WEST.
»>4
Trains leave Montreal Daily except Sundays, for
WWt 11TIIE ST. IGIACE, BAT
AND ALL POINTS IN
Manitoba,   the   North-West,   and  the  Rocky  Mountains,
WITHOUT CHANGE, WITHOUT DELAY, and WITHOUT CUSTOMS CHARGES.
» ■«♦>» «-
The Journey Between MONTREAL and WINNIPEG is performed in 65 HOURS.
* <•* •
If you travel for Business or Pleasure, Necessity or Eelaxation, EAST, WEST, NORTHWEST or SOUTH-WEST, you can be accommodated best by the CANADIAN PACIFIC
EAILWAY, their trains making close connection at St. Thomas with the Michigan Central
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Connections made at Montreal for BOSTON and all points in the NEW ENGLAND
STATES, and at Quebec for places in NEW BRUNSWICK and the LOWER PROVINCES.
To ensure Safety and Satisfaction, travel bv the Grand National Highway between the
!ELA_ST  -A-JSTJD  west.
k
MAGNIFICENT PARLOR, DINING AND SLEEPING CARS
Attached to all Through Trains*
Ticket Offices in every Town and City, where Agents of the Comnanv will cheerfuilv give all
information, &c. on annlication.
x ii J , ,JJ|^#.
/~
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
—IS  THE —
Most Direct, therefore the Safest and Quickest Route
BET'"V7"EEi3Sr
Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, St. Thomas, Detroit, Chicago
AND ALL POINTS EAST AND WEST.
»»4
The object of the Projectors was to make this the Very Best New r,ine Ever
Constructed on the American Continent, and with this object in view every care
was taken in its construction. |||| p|i
The Bridges, resting on Massive Stone Piers, are of steel of twice the ordinary
strength; the rails are of the very best material, and the track has been constructed in such a
)ermanently substantial manner as to insure the best possible results as to Speed and Safety.
§§ THE FINEST PASSENGER, PARLOR, SLEEPING and DINING CARS ^|
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abound in the Passenger Equipment of this magnificent road. Cool air and freedom from dust
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ft TRAINS  ARE   RUN  STRICTLY  ON  TIME, JK
and every precaution id taken for the Safety of Passenger Trains, every appliance of proven
value, switches, &c, having been adopted.
THE EMPLOYEES OF THE COMPANY ARE NOTED FOR THEIR UNIFORM POLITENESS,
When the through Ocean to Ocean All .Rail Route to British Columbians opened in the
approaching Spring, the journey will be one of uninterrupted magnificence. The beautiful Ottawa
River, the picturesque Parliament Buildings at Ottawa, and the magnificent Falls of the Lievre
at Buckingham, are scenes of surpassing beauty which greet the eye of the traveller when
journeying in that neighborhood.
The scenery along the line of the North Shore of Lake Superior must be seen to be
appreciated, no pen, however fluent in poetical description can do justice to the transcendent
loveliness of some of the lake views, or to the awful grandeur, approaching to sublimity, of the
views obtainable from the dizzy heights of the Rocky Mountains; rivalling and eclipsing those
of Switzerland.
"V

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