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Quebec : summer and winter Chateau Frontenac Company 1897

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Chateau Frontenac Co.
Copyright, 1894, by the Chateau Frontenac Co. QUEBEC,   FROM   LEVIS. QUEBEC-SUMMER AND WINTER.
Here sailed Jacques Cartier bold, and great Champlain,
Here vigorous Frontenac with iron ruled;
Here fell two heroes ; one in victory-
Scarce realized; his rival in defeat
Scarce known.    Peace from their glorious graves has schooled
The ancient discord, till our minstrelsy
Sings growth united in war's vacant seat!—Alfred Thorold.
THERE is not a spot in all America richer in historic treasure, or more lavishly endowed
by Nature in the beauty, grandeur, and splendor of its surroundings, than the quaint old
walled city of Quebec, which, guarding the portal of the great inland waters of the continent, has not inaptly been termed the " Sentinel City of the St. Lawrence." Historically it
stands pre-eminent. Here the germ of European civilization was planted in this new northern
land, and the two greatest of old-world monarchies battled for half a continent; where mediaeval
ideas of fortification and defence may be seen ; and where the bold fortress-crowned rock
and the majestic river flowing with the watery tribute of the whole western world at its
feet, show Nature in her most wonderful works.
It is of Quebec that Henry Ward Beecher said: "Here is a small bit of mediaeval
Europe perched upon a rock, and dried for keeping — a curiosity that has not its equal in
its kind on this side of the ocean." And the wondrous beauty of the city's environments is
thus described by another gifted writer: " The majestic appearance of Cape Diamond and
the   fortifications,   the   cupolas   and   minarets   blazing and  sparkling in the sun,  the   noble QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
basin like a sheet of purest' silver, in which
might ride with safety the navies of the
world, the graceful meanderings of the river
St. Charles, the numerous village spires on
either side of the St. Lawrence, the fertile
valley dotted with the picturesque habitant
houses, the distant Falls of Montmorency,
the park-like scenery of Point Levis, the
beauteous Isle of Orleans, the grim purple
mountains, the barriers to the north, form a
picture which it is no exaggeration to say is
unsurpassed in any part of the world."
It is the purpose of this brochure to
furnish in a concise form such information
concerning this ancient city, its approaches,
surroundings, and accommodation for tourists
as may assist that numerous and yearly increasing brotherhood, or such of them as may
desire to visit the St. Lawrence, in forming their plans to ensure the maximum of recreation
with the minimum of trouble.
The city of Quebec is such a convenient resting place between Montreal and the
several points of interest on the Lower St. Lawrence, and is of itself so interesting
and so unlike other cities of the continent, that very few making the tour of the St.
Lawrence pass its memorable walls without spending a few days within them. They
desire to see where Cartier, the Columbus of the North, first landed, where Champlain
founded the first French colony, where Wolfe fell and Montcalm received his death
wound, and where Montgomery, the American general, who was killed while besieging
the city on 31st December, 1775, breathed his last within the English lines. The
streets of Quebec are redolent of the religious and military history of early Canada, and
more historic memories  linger  about   this ancient  stronghold  than   around  any  other  city
on the continent. Every spot now dismissed in a sentence was the centre of events which
seemed to the actors of them to be fraught with far-reaching consequences, as indeed many
of them were. It is over three hundred and sixty years since Jacques Cartier anchored off
what was then the Indian village of Stadacona, and of course
claimed the rest of it, all, whatever it might prove to be, for
the King of France. He made no permanent settlement
here, but in 1549 the Sieur de Roberval spent one winter
with a small colony he had brought out, and then retired.
In 1608 Champlain arrived and succeeded in establishing
the French possession of the country and commenced to
provide material for history. His romantic reign as practical King of the St. Lawrence, and the eventful times of
his French successors, have been so frequently and so
well described by Parkman, Kingsford, Stewart, Le Moine,
Bourinot, Chambers and Harper, that it is not necessary
to say more of them here. Quebec has seen more war,
probably, than any other place on the continent.
The mere sight of the city recalls to memory the long
succession of historical events in which many nations were
deeply interested. The French, the English, the American,
and the aboriginal Indians have all played their parts in
the stirring drama whose scenes were laid around the
fortress-crowned rock; and the final struggle for Canada
between the French and English which closed on the
Heights of Abraham, saw the end of France in the northern half of the continent, and commenced the regime
which was inevitably destined to result in the self-governing liberty which Canada now enjoys.
QUEBEC is easily reached from all directions.    From Montreal, which may be regarded
as the starting-point for the Lower St.  Lawrence, there is a choice of routes by rail
and river.    By the Canadian Pacific Railway it is about five hours' run along the north
bank  of  the   river, through the old French settlements that in many places are  almost as
primitive as in the days of Champlain and Frontenac.    The railway runs directly under the
walls   of, and  yet   into, the city, which has largely  outgrown the area enclosed within the
defences.    The   Grand   Trunk, on  the  other side of  the St.   Lawrence,  runs to
Levis,   directly   opposite   Quebec,   the   river   being   crossed   by   steam   ferry.
During the  season  of  navigation  the  steamers  of  the  Richelieu   &   Ontario
Navigation Co. ply between Montreal and Quebec.    Tourists from the New
England States who do not wish to visit Montreal can reach the Ancient
Capital by way of Sherbrooke, thence via the Quebec Central or Grand
Trunk Railway, or by Dudswell Junction, and thence by Quebec Central   to   Levis.     Those   from   the   Maritime   Provinces   reach   Levis
either by the Canadian Pacific Short Line to Megantic and thence
by the  Quebec  Central, or by the   Intercolonial   Railway;   and in
summer   numerous   steamships   from    European   and    Lower   St.
Lawrence ports all make Quebec a stopping point.
THE Chateau Frontenac, a magnificent new fireproof hotel, erected by a number of capitalists
of   Montreal, stands at the eastern   end  of  a
splendid esplanade known as the Dufferin Terrace,
just   below   the   King's   Bastion   of   the    Citadel,
commanding delightful views of the St. Lawrence as far as the eye can reach, —down past
the Isle d'Orleans, across to Levis and beyond, up stream to Sillery, and, to the left,
the country along the beautiful valley of the St. Charles River. The grandeur of the
scenery is indescribable ; it is matchless in diversity and charming in effect. No grander
site for such a structure could be found on the continent, and it would not be easy to combine
the advantages it possesses in any place the world over. This elegant hotel, on which
nearly $1,000,000 has been judiciously expended, is erected on an historic spot of more
than ordinary interest — the site of the old Chateau St. Louis, so famous in Canadian
history, and once the vice-regal residence of the Governors of Canada, both before and
after the conquest. "A massive, shapely edifice is this grand hotel on Dufferin Terrace,"
writes the well-known authoress, Faith Fenton; "a veritable old-time chateau, whose
curves and cupolas, turrets and towers, even whose tones of gray stone and dulled brick
harmonize well with the sober, quaint architecture of our dear old Fortress City. Chateau
Frontenac has been planned with that strong sense of the fitness of things. In exterior it
blends with its surroundings; it is part of the wondrous picturesqueness. The interior
magnificent outlook and hotel luxury are so commingled that neither seems to have been
sacrificed to the other. The architect, Mr. Bruce Price, must have a cunning brain to
have thus devised this horse-shoe hotel — for thus it is shaped — and so mapped out its
interior that all the offices and service-rooms, even the main entrance hall, with its
pillared gateway, look out upon the inner curve, leaving every bit of the outer circle,
that faces the magnificent stretch of river and
sky and far-off hills, to be devoted to guest
rooms. It was a clever and difficult planning; it
required an equally clever and difficult furnishing;
for this horseshoe edifice possesses as many interior curves and corners as outer ones. It is
delightfully unexpected in its ways. Rooms that
are bow-shaped, crescent-shaped, circular; rooms
that    are    acute-angled,    obtuse-angled,    triagonal, martello tower. QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
sexagonal — everything except right-angled. And then the stairways — they are everywhere, and equally pretty and unique in effect. Every corner that one peeps into along
these wide, curving corridors holds an inviting little stairway — bright and soft, with
rich crimson carpeting and oak banisters — that tempts one to ascend or descend just
to find where it leads. The broad entrance hall and offices, the great rotunda and
reading-room, have tessellated floors, and are large, light, airy, and finely furnished. The
stairways and banisters are of oak — a wood that is much used throughout the building.
Ascending the main stairway, which leads by easy turns from the vestibule, we come
upon one of the most artistic effects in the building, for, standing in the broad corridor,
beautiful with its white panellings, oak floor, and crimson Axminster, we look between
large, creamy, daintily-moulded pillars into the long drawing-room, and beyond it into
the ladies' pavilion. It is a wonderfully pretty and artistic entrance that these white,
carven pillars afford. It brings a suggestion of the Renaissance and the white and gold
days of Louis Quinze. The ladies' pavilion is delightful. It might be called the
ladies' rotunda, for it corresponds with that of the one below. It is perfectly round,
of course, with those fine square carven pillars forming the entrance way, and a central
round pillar supporting the graceful sprays of lights. Half of the circling wall is
filled with windows that look out upon a scene, than which no fairer one exists. From
the gray Citadel, along and adown the river, to Isle d'Orleans — with Lower Town lying
beneath the Terrace and all the landscape beauty across the rapid water—truly, it is
a superb eastern portal, a fit correspondent for Canada's magnificent mountain guardians
of  the west."
There are many suites in this big hotel, some of them containing as many as eight rooms,
and of one the following description is given: " Two dainty bedrooms and two equally dainty
bathrooms, in white marble and gold, lead from either end of a bow-shaped boudoir, whose
curve is one unbroken line of beautiful windows, richest Axminster of glowing crimson,
creamy panellings, tinted walls and ceiling, deep window-seats — all these the room possesses,
but one sees them not; they are as nothing compared to the great curve of radiance
that shines  and sparkles from this  splendid bow of  light.    .    .    .    The hotel throughout  io QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
is carpeted with Axminster and Wiltons in deep crimsons and moss greens — our footfalls
press away into softest plush. The furniture is chiefly oak. The bedroom furnishings are
much alike throughout-—handsome brass bedsteads, oak furniture, and cosy upholstering
in each room.
" It is one of the features of Hotel Frontenac that, from lowest to topmost story, everything is of the best. It is equally a feature that the fourth, fifth and sixth stories are more
desirable than the lower ones, for the higher one climbs the wider the panorama of river, hill
and sky that unrolls to one's view.
" The dining hall is rich and in absolute harmony with the Louis Quinze conception. It is
a very large, square, airy room, with windows looking out upon the river. The floor is of oak,
in herring pattern. The wainscoting is of leather, studded with brass nails. The wall above
is freely panelled in oak, and decorated between with richly tinted tapestries representing
an important event in the Roman empire. This warm, dull, tinted tapestry, crowded with
quaint figures, is an amusement and delight to the eye, and under the soft electric glow
the result is absolutely satisfying. ... A peep into the kitchen—a great, wide, cleanly
place, made busy at that moment with dinner preparations — is a revelation. One of the
things a woman notices first is the table furnishings. And these at Chateau Frontenac
have been chosen with perfect taste ; from the simple silver-rimmed castor, with its square-
cut bottles, io the tiny fruit spoon — everything harmonizes in the most  satisfying way."
Another writer, Mr. E. T. D. Chambers, in his "Guide to Quebec" says: "How homelike and comfortable are the rooms in the princely Chateau, and how unexcelled anywhere
are the cuisine and menus, have been testified to by the Earl and Countess of Aberdeen
and their suite, by the Goulds, the Vanderbilts, the Astors, and thousands of prominent
tourists from all parts of the world."
THE   pride   and   the  glory  of   Quebec  is   Dufferin  Terrace,   an   unrivalled   promenade
and   public   rendezvous.      From   it,   or   better,   from  any   of    the   windows   in   the
Chateau Frontenac, which stands at its eastern limit and at the base of  the Citadel,
a   view,   unsurpassed   for   beauty   and   grandeur,   bursts   upon   the  beholder.     The  broad QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
promenade is fully a quarter of a mile long, and
erected on it are five handsome kiosks, to which
the names of Plessis, Frontenac, Lome and Louise,
Dufferin, and Victoria have been given, besides
another for the use of bands of music, which
at times are those belonging to British and French
men-of-war visiting the port. Elevated 200 feet
above the St. Lawrence, which here contracts its
high banks until but a mile separates them, it is
a point of vantage from which to drink in the feast
of scenic spendor which is spread out before one.
There is the mighty river—described by Howells
as the "Little Giant"—on whose bosom floats
craft of every description, from the huge ocean
greyhound to the primitive canoe of the Indian ;
across the water is Levis, on whose crowning
cliffs, rising higher even than those of Quebec,
are three immense forts erected by the British
Government at a cost approaching $1,000,000; down
the stream is the beautiful Isle d'Orleans — the
Isle of Bacchus of Jacques Cartier, and at a later
time known as Sorcerer's Island, for in the firefly
lights that danced over its swamps the native
Indians and the early French settlers saw the work
of His Satanic Majesty and his uncanny followers.
Farther away is Cape Tourmente, and along the
shores are the quaint villages of the habitants
and the narrow-stripped farms which excite the
surprise   and   curiosity  of   the   traveller.      To   the
left the St. Charles gracefully sweeps and blends its waters with the greater stream.
Forest and river and mountain and cultivated broad acres combine to make gorgeous landscape, and in the rear tower the Laurentian Hills, whose purpled crests lose themselves
in the fleecy clouds. At one's feet is the bustling Lower Town and the ships in port,
and above is the frowning Citadel whose hoary walls have environed Quebec with a
glamour of romance and renown.
Every foot of land here is historic ground ; the very air breathes of deeds of valorous
daring and military prowess, which even the peaceful aspect of the present or the hum and
bustle of everyday business near by fails to dispel, for here the Kings of Old France sent their
men and treasure to build up a New France on this side of the Atlantic, where these gallant
adventurers lived and plotted and fought and wrested countless leagues of land from the savages,
and whose prowess shed lustre on la belle France. Looking down from the Terrace front the
narrow street bearing the name of the founder of Quebec is seen, and its long length followed
to the foot of the Citadel cliff, just beyond which is the narrow pass where heroic Montgomery
fell mortally wounded while gallantly leading his men in a rash and daring attack on the city.
Almost directly under the northern end of the Terrace, where the cliff stands back farther from
the river, and the streets and buildings huddle closer together, is the historic Church of Notre
Dame des Victoire, and a little to the south is the Champlain market hall, and very near its site
the first building in Quebec was erected in 1608 by the adventurous and chivalrous Champlain.
It included a fort, a residence, and stores. Here was the first clearing made ; the next was that
upon a portion of which the Chateau Frontenac now stands, where Champlain erected the
Chateau St. Louis, which played so prominent a part in Canadian history, at a later era being
the castle whence the French governors exercised undisputed sovereignty from the mouth of
the Mississippi to the great inland lakes of Canada, and along the shores of the St. Lawrence
and its Gulf. Its cellar still remains under the wooden covering of the present Durham
Terrace, immediately adjoining the Chateau Frontenac. In the rear of the Chateau St. Louis
was the area of the fort now covered by the Place d'Armes and a part of the hotel, which
was frequently attacked by the intrepid and ferocious Iroquois, who, having overthrown the
outposts, more than once threatened the fort itself, and just  beyond are the  high   peaked QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
Commissariat building of the Imperial Government, the Kent House, where resided Her Britannic Majesty's father when commandant of the
Imperial forces in Canada, the headquarters of
Montcalm, and the place where that gallant soldier
died, the old building having been replaced by a
modern structure now occupied as a livery stable
and numbered 45 and 47 St.  Louis Street.
THE Citadel occupies the most commanding
position in Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence and the country round, and having a
clear range for its guns in every direction. It stands
303 feet above the river, and at one time was a
formidable position of defence, so much so that
Quebec has sometimes been called the Gibraltar of
America. Though still a fortress, its present chief
use is as a barrack, and in it are kept immense
military stores and arms for 20,000 men. Access is
gained to the trenches by the Chain gate, and to the
Citadel by the Dalhousie, named after a former
Governor. The Citadel is about ten minutes' walk
from the Chateau Frontenac.
THE Governor's Garden is a public park a little
in the rear of the Dufferin Terrace, and between the Chateau Frontenac and the Citadel.
It is a pretty little retreat, and in
it is a dual-faced stone column to
Wolfe and Montcalm, erected in
1827 and 1828 in joint honor of
the illustrious generals, to whom,
in the words of the inscription,
"Valor gave a common death, history a common fame, and posterity
a common monument."
THE Plains of Abraham is one
of the chief points of interest.
Here was the battlefield where
Wolfe fell and Montcalm fought his
last fight. The plain is the tableland on the crest of the heights on
the north bank of the St. Lawrence
River, which were thought to be too
precipitous for an enemy to
climb. The heights were,
however, quietly and successfully scaled, and on 13th
September, 1759, the memorable battle fought on their
edge which decided the fate
of Canada. A tall marble
shaft now  stands  to  mark
the spot where Wolfe fell, mortally
wounded, and bears the inscription :
"Here died Wolfe victorious." His
illustrious rival, Montcalm, also
wounded, retreated within the walls
to die there. On the plains, where
some of the heaviest fighting occurred in the famous battle, are three
Martello towers, not erected, however, until 1812, which, while formidably built, were weakly constructed
towards the city, so that in case of
capture they might easily be destroyed. The field of the battle is a
short and pleasant walk or
v drive from the hotel, a little
XCc        beyond  the   St.   Louis  gate,
;^N on   the   road   to    Spencer
Wood, the official residence
of   the   Lieut.-Governor   of
the   Province   of    Quebec,
and in olden days the home
of the Governors-General of
Canada.    A short distance
off,  on  the escarpment
overhanging    the    St.
Lawrence, is the path
by   which   the   British
troops scaled the cliffs QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER. 15
on the night before the battle, and at the foot of the rocks is Wolfe's Cove, two miles
above which is Sillery, a place of historical interest, where Maisonneuve spent his first winter
in Canada, and the scene of the horrible massacre of Christian Hurons and their missionaries by savage Iroquois in  1655.
THE Ursuline Convent is directly connected with this important battle on the Plains of
Abraham, by reason of its containing the remains of Montcalm, whose body is buried
in the Convent, while his skull is kept in the chaplain's parlor, to which visitors are
freely admitted. This, the oldest convent in Quebec, was founded in 1639, destroyed by
fire in 1650, rebuilt to meet a similar fate in 1686; but the original foundations and the
walls of the second building are still utilized in the third structure. The convent is a
pile of massive stone edifices, and the chapel contains the remains of Montcalm and what
are claimed to be the following relics: the body of St. Clements from the Catacombs of
Rome, brought to the Ursulines in 1687; the skull of one of the companions of St. Ursula,
1675 ; the skull of St. Justus, 1662 ; a piece of the Holy Cross, 1667; a portion of the
Crown of Thorns, brought from Paris in 1830. It is open to visitors, who may there see
some rare works of art, including paintings by Vandyke and Champagny, the property of
the Sisters of the Convent.
THE Plotel Dieu, a convent and a hospital, founded by a niece of Cardinal Richelieu, contains some fine pictures.     In the chapel of the convent is the skull of Jean de Brebeuf,
the great Jesuit missionary, of whose doings Parkman and Charlevoix have given a most
interesting and trustworthy account.    The establishment is open to visitors on application to
the Lady Superior. 16 QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
THE Laval University is the chief French University, and the oldest in Canada. Laval
grew out of the Seminary of Quebec, founded in 1663, which was liberally endowed by
the first Bishops of the See. The buildings are valued at $1,000,000, and that one
known as the Minor Seminary is interesting to Americans, from the fact that the officers
under Montgomery and Arnold who were captured during the siege of 1775 were incarcerated
in it. Laval has an excellent museum, a library of 100,000 volumes, and many art treasures in
its keeping. In its gallery of paintings — a miniature Vatican collection—are two Salvator
Rosas, three Teniers, a Romenelli, a Joseph Vernet, a Puget, two Vandykes, a Perocei
Poussin, and many other masterpieces.
FACING the historic old market square, which dates back to 1686, where in olden times
stood the public pillory, is the Basilica, the mother church of Roman Catholicism in
North America. Its erection was commenced in 1647, and since its definite opening in
1657 services have been held in it uninterruptedly except during the period required for making repairs necessitated by the disastrous siege of that year. The design of the chancel is in
faithful imitation of that of St. Peter's at Rome. On its walls hang a rich collection of paintings, many of them invaluable works of art, which were rescued from destruction during the
Reign of Terror in France, when the mob pillaged churches and monasteries. Amongst other
paintings is Vandyke's Christ on the Cross. Adjoining the Basilica and Laval is the palace
of His Eminence, Cardinal Taschereau. In its grand salon de reception are the throne of the
Cardinal, busts and portraits of all his predecessors, and his rare gifts from the Pope. ;..">. ;•■•       -,m.mM
i *'
TN the northern facade of the post-office, on Buade Street, opposite the Canadian Pacific's
A city ticket office, is the gilt figure of a dog gnawing a bone, about which exists a legend
which Kirby has woven into a charming romance. Under the French regime, a coffee
house stood upon the site now occupied by the post-office, and its owner, having a disagreement with Intendant Bigot or some other high official, revenged himself by placing this sculptured tablet in front of his house, with accompanying lines in French, the translation of which
reads: —
I am a dog gnawing a bone,
While I gnaw I take my repose,
The time will come, though not yet,
When I will bite him who now bites me.
ERECTED in the first  years  of the present century by the British  Government, is  an
interesting spot, not for its architectural beauty, but for its historic associations and for
the splendor of its mural monuments, chancel window and elaborate solid  silver communion service, the latter costing $10,000 and being a present from King George  III.
There are many other buildings in Quebec interesting to a visitor who is or who desires to
place his mind en rapport-with the early history of Canada, and there are modern edifices, such
as the City Hall (on the site of the Old College of the Jesuits, erected in 1637, which after the
estates of that Order were escheated by the Crown was occupied by British troops, and was
known as the Jesuits' Barracks), the Legislative buildings on the Grand Allee, in the fashionable residential quarter^ custom-house, Y. M. C. A. building, court house, armory and drill
hall, etc., and modern public works like the immense tidal basins, which can hardly fail to
attract attention. Sauntering about the city the American tourist will constantly meet with
curious and unaccustomed architectural sights.    The Grand Battery, on the very edge of the QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER. 19
cliff overlooking the river, mounted with guns and mortars of obsolete pattern, is a favorite
resting place from which splendid views of the river and surrounding country are obtained.
At its southern extremity, overlooked by the Chateau Frontenac, formerly stood the Canadian
Parliament buildings, which were twice destroyed by fire. The "Break Neck Steps" (leading
from Mountain Hill to Little Champlain Street, once a leading thoroughfare), although demolished and replaced by a modern structure, will yet strike him as well deserving their name,
and in that portion of the city called "Sous le Cap" he will see a great contrast to corresponding portions of any American city he is acquainted with.
'THE gates which pierce the fortifications are comparatively modern structures, and only
A two remain — Kent and St. Louis, the former being named after the Duke of Kent,
father of Queen Victoria, who at one time was commander of the British forces in
Canada. St. John's is being demolished to give right of way to the invading electric car. The
last vestige of the original portals — St. Louis, Palace and St. John — disappeared many years
ago, and the structures with which they were replaced, with Hope and Prescott gates, built by
the British since the Conquest, have within recent years met a similar fate, with the exception of St.  Louis, which was erected in  1879.
The walls of the city, which afford a pleasant promenade, can be reached by stone steps at
either St. Louis or Kent gates or along the glacis at the Esplanade, an expanse of tree fringed
verdure extending from St. Louis to St. John's gates. The walk on the walls can be extended
in one direction to the Citadel and in the other to where the Palace gate once stood.
THIS historic little edifice is one of the interesting sights of the Lower Town, having been
partially destroyed by the fire of the Levis batteries during Wolfe's siege of Quebec in
1759, and subsequently rebuilt upon its old walls.   The fete of Notre Dame de la Victoire
was established in sacred commemoration of the defeat of the British invaders under General 20 QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
Phipps in 1690, to be annually celebrated in the church on October 7th, and after the shipwreck of the second British invading fleet, fourteen years later, which the French inhabitants
regarded as a miraculous interposition of Providence in their favor, the edifice was given the
name it still bears.
OVER in the valley of the St. Charles, the gaunt ruins of the famed Chateau Bigot still
remain. The tower in which perished by poison, at the instigation of her fair rival, the
young Algonquin mistress of the profligate Intendant, still stands in the midst of the
forest labyrinth ; but the ruins give only a faint conception of the immensity and grandeur
of the original building. Another of Bigot's palaces stood within a stone's throw of the
Canadian Pacific Railroad station, its solid foundation walls being utilized by a brewing company in the erection of one of its offices.
FROM Levis a magnificent view of Quebec and its surroundings can be obtained. The
military forts, on the heights above, from which, during the summer of 1759, the cannons
of the English bombarded the city with shot and shell until the whole of the Lower Town
was a confused mass of ruins, are worth visiting, and so is the Engineer's Camp at St. Joseph
de Levis,—magnificently wooded meadows, once the camping ground of the Royal Engineers,
whose name it has continued to bear. A splendid vista is to be obtained of both shores of the
St. Lawrence, and in a great cleft in the high northern bank of the river the Falls of Mont-
morenci leap down into the stream in full view of the camp. Near by is the Government
graving dock, a massive piece of masonry.    It is a pleasant drive to the  Falls of Chaudiere..  which may also be reached by train or steamer. En
route is Etchemin (or New Liverpool), which possesses one of the handsomest churches in America,
its frescos eliciting the admiration of all who have
visited the edifice.
A SAIL down the river to this beautiful island,
where a number of wealthy Quebecers have
summer residences, is one of the attractions
which should not be missed, and an afternoon can
be pleasantly spent by taking steamer immediately
after luncheon and returning to the Chateau Frontenac in time for dinner.
THESE are situated about seven miles below Quebec. The drive to them — a favorite trip with
all visitors — is through an almost continuous
succession of French Canadian farms and cottages.
On the road is Beauport, a place bombarded by
Wolfe, and now containing one of the principal
Canadian hospitals for the insane. The Falls of
Montmorency are ioo feet higher than those of Niagara, and in winter a large cone of ice, which is frequently utilized by pleasure parties from Quebec as
a toboggan slide,  usually forms at  the  foot.    The
Natural Steps, about a mile above the falls, where the river dashes wildly through a deep canon,
are amongst the grandest features of Montmorency. The riverside parishes of L'Ange Gardien
and Chateau Richer, the former of which was destroyed by Wolfe's soldiery in 1759, afford
excellent fishing. The tourist may also go to Montmorency by the Quebec, Montmorency &
Charlevoix Railway, and by steamer in summer.
THE shrine of Ste. Anne de Beaupre, for over 250 years the Mecca of devout pilgrims seeking restoration of health, is twenty-one miles from Quebec, and is reached by the Quebec,
Montmorency & Charlevoix Railway which closely follows the bank of the St. Lawrence,
or by steamer in summer. Tradition relates that in the early part of the seventeenth century
some Breton mariners, who were overtaken by a violent storm while navigating the St. Lawrence, solemnly vowed to Ste. Anne that, if delivered from the dangers which encompassed
them, they would erect a sanctuary in her honor on the spot on which they should land.
Their prayers being heard, they built a small wooden chapel in fulfilment of their vows, which
has since become famous, and which then, as now, was called by her name. The primitive
little church was replaced by a larger structure in 1660, which was subsequently rebuilt and
enlarged. Across the street, in wide contrast to this unpretentious building, is the magnificent
edifice which was raised to the dignity of a Basilica by Pope Pius IX. It is a fine specimen of
Corinthian architecture, and is of immense proportions. A colossal statue of Ste. Anne, of
marvellous beauty, surmounts the facade between twin towers rising to a great height. The
interior of the sacred edifice rivals the most famous cathedrals in the world in beauty and
imposing grandeur, the magnificent paintings and statuary representing the life of Christ from
Bethlehem to Calvary. On each side of the entrance are large pyramids of crutches and canes
and trusses and splints left by former owners as mute testimony to the efficacy of the saint's
intervention on their behalf. Near the altar is also another statue of Ste. Anne, resting on a
column of marble, to which some deeply venerated relics are attached; and in the sanctuary are
a fragment of a finger bone of the saint procured by Laval, the first bishop of New France ; a
part of the saint's wrist sent by Leo XIII.; and a portion of the rock from the grotto in which 24 QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
Ste. Anne gave birth to the Virgin Mary. The Scala Santa, or "sacred stairs," which the
zealous supplicants ascend upon their knees, is built in imitation of Pilate's Palace at Jerusalem,
each step containing a relic of the Holy Land. Thousands of tourists visit this fragment of
old-time Palestine, as Ste. Anne de Beaupre has been called, impelled by the curious scenes
witnessed there and the costly works of art possessed by the sanctuary ; and the high esteem
in which the patron saint is held is shown by the remarkable increase in the perennial pilgrimages to her shrine. In 1874 there were 17,200 visitors; in 1884, 61,000; in 1889, 100,000;
in 1893, 130,000; and in 1894 about 200,000, which number was largely exceeded in 1895, and
was almost doubled in 1896. Formerly the pilgrimages were from the Province of Quebec
only ; but now they are from the other provinces of Canada and from the United States and
Europe. Accommodation is provided for visitors on a large scale. Six miles away are the
beautiful Falls of Ste. Anne, and beyond them again are the Seven Falls.
LORETTE is another place to which visitors are fond of driving. It is an Indian village on
the St. Charles River, about nine miles from Quebec, and there are some beautiful falls
in the immediate neighborhood, differing widely from the cataract of Montmorenci, but
equally as striking in their beauty. Here will be found the remnant of the once powerful
Hurons, who, after the treacherous massacre of their tribe by the Iroquois, sought refuge near
Quebec, and, adopting the religion and language of the early French settlers, allied themselves
with them in resisting the incursions of the common enemy. The village was first settled in
1697. The Lorette Chapel, nearly 200 years old, is of the same model and dimensions as that
of the Santa Casa, from which the image of the Virgin, a copy of that in the famous sanctuary,
was sent to the Indians.
In every direction around Quebec the country affords charming drives, and at the French-
Canadian villages, which occur with more or less frequency, a stranger will be able to compare the peculiarities of life amongst a people who, more than any other in America, have preserved the traditions of their ancestors, with the essentially modern customs and lines ot
thought which characterize the rural settlements of other parts of the continent.  26
ONE hundred and ninety miles from Quebec, via the Quebec & Lake St. John Railway,
through a country whose wild grandeur has earned for it the title of "The Canadian
Adirondacks," is the great inland sea — Lake St. John. It is a favorite resort for health
and pleasure-seekers, Roberval, on the lake, having magnificent hotels. The fishing is excellent. Tourists, in summer, are offered an enjoyable round trip from Quebec to Lake St. John
and thence to Chicoutimi by rail, and down the famed Saguenay, whose scenery is awe-inspiring, and back to Quebec by steamer.
A PLEASANT trip down the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence is afforded the visitor to
Quebec. Passing Cape Tourmente and Grosse Isle, the quarantine station for Quebec,
and indeed for the entire St. Lawrence trade, many islands of remarkable scenic beauty
dot the river. Murray Bay, Riviere du Loup, Cacouna and Tadousac, at the mouth of the
Saguenay, are fashionable watering resorts, with good hotel accommodation and excellent bathing facilities. The trip can be extended down the Gulf to Prince Edward Island and to St.
John's, Newfoundland, Halifax, N.S. ; and to New York, Boston, and other American ports.
WHILE Quebec is pre-eminently a charming summer
resort and an interesting city at all times, it perhaps
possesses the greatest attraction to many during the
winter months. At the first appearance of snow and frost
the city awakens into new life, and prepares for the merry
season which is prolonged into the early days of spring.
The   whole   country  is   covered   with   a   spotless   white QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER. 27
mantle of snow, on which the northern sun plays in. dazzling brilliancy; glorious sunsets
flood the heavens, burnishing the city's minarets and spires with a golden tinge, and, as
the shadows of evening creep on, the matchless aurora borealis, the dancing rainbows of
the northern sky, entrance one with their ever-changing, resplendent beauty. The streets
of the city take on a new appearance : thronged with warmly clad groups* and hundreds
of carioles, queer little sleds peculiar to this quaint old place, dash along, their jingling bells
filling the air with silvery music. The season is one of pleasure and recreation, and there are
countless means afforded for indulging in delightful pastimes that are invigorating and health-
giving— tobogganing, most exhilarating and exciting of sports; skating in mammoth covered
rinks, snow-shoeing, curling; sleigh-driving, and other seasonable pleasures which find a fitting
nightly finale in the social functions given by the most hospitable of people. Glorious sport
is obtainable during January and February in fishing for tommycods through the ice of St.
Charles river, whose estuary meets the eye from the Chateau. In those months countless
little cabans occupied by fishermen, many of whom are visiting tourists, dot the river's frozen
surface. " The city itself and the winter life within its walls," writes Julian Ralph, the well-
known correspondent, " are prime curiosities. The great granite walls capped and flanked with
snow ; the narrow curving streets heaped with snow ; the houses all fringed with ponderous
icicles ; the trees whose every limb is outlined with a coating of snow; the sleighs all buried in
furs; the people in blanket suits and furs and moccasins ; the gorgeous snow-shoers ; the
priests and soldiers and nuns — all these shown off beside the ice-glutted river are quite enough
to satisfy the tourists without the added trifles of a curling match or a masquerade on skates, or
even a vice-regent's ball." These days of delights are accentuated in carnival times, when the
Merry Monarch occupies his winter capital. Quebec is an ideal carnival city, and contrives to
evolve from its winter's rigors a series of fairy-like spectacles that can only be dreamed of as
happening in an enchanted land. The city is en fete; mirth and jollity and good-fellowship
prevail; and visitors, whether inclined to participate in the festivities or not, enjoy a season of
unalloyed delight and sightseeing without parallel in the world. Huge ice castles and fortresses,
aglow with a thousand scintillating lights, are stormed by a host of gaily-costumed snow-
shoers, armed with weapons whose discharge is followed by elaborate pyrotechnical displays ; 28 QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER.
magnificent arches of ice and evergreens beautify the streets so profusely and of such a varied
character as to be almost bewildering; the public squares are adorned with historic figures
neatly shaped in ice; there are grand military pageants, and picturesque Indian, lumber and
sugar camps, which give a glimpse of a curious life strange to many ; and the accustomed outdoor sports are indulged in with augmented vigor. The days and nights are replete with
innocent and healthful amusements, to which zest is added by the keenness of the climate,
which inspires one to live out-of-doors, and not infrequently by an old-fashioned snow-storm.
In these bright, glorious days, the stranger is advised to wrap warmly if he would participate
in the mid-winter pleasures of the snow-mantled "White City of the North," whose clear,
invigorating, hyperborean air is not less delightful in its season than are the balmy breezes
which waft gently from the old Laurentians and make the ancient capital an ideal resting place
in the summer days. _ A.
1V/TONTREAL is second only to Quebec in historic interest. It is picturesquely situated on
-LV1 an island in the St. Lawrence River, at the head of ocean navigation, and yet over
600 miles inland, and is the commercial metropolis and railway centre of the Dominion.
Montreal ranks amongst the most beautiful cities of the continent, and has very many attractive and historic spots which cannot fail to interest and delight sight-seers. It distinctively
presents all the aspects and elements of metropolitan life, with evidences of material wealth
and prosperity on every hand. It is pre-eminently a city of churches, surpassing Brooklyn
itself in this respect, and in the midst of the bustle of the city's commerce are gray old sanctuaries and stately cathedrals which rival the grandest edifices of Europe in splendor and historic interest. The cathedral of St. James, modelled after St. Peter's at Rome, the church of
Notre Dame, the Jesuit Church and College, Bonsecours Church, erected in 1771, the English
Cathedral, St. James (Methodist), and Erskine, St. Paul's, and St. Andrew's (Presbyterian), are
worth seeing. Mount Royal, from which the city takes its name, affords a delightful drive (or
it can be ascended by elevated railway), and from its summit is seen one of the grandest pano- QUEBEC —SUMMER AND WINTER. 29
ramas of the picturesque valley of the St. Lawrence that is obtainable. Beyond the Belceil
peaks eastward the Green Mountains of Vermont can be distinguished on clear days ; to the
south are the Adirondacks ; and along the north runs the Laurentian range, oldest of the
world's mountains. Other points of interest are the Victoria Bridge spanning.the St. Lawrence, McGill University, Windsor Station and offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.,
Nelson Monument, Champ de Mars (the military parade ground of the early days), the Maison-
neuve Monument on Place d'Armes, the Sir John Macdonald Monument on Dominion Square,
Windsor Hotel, new Royal Victoria Hospital, the City Hall, Court House, Place d'Armes,
Chateau d'Ramezay, Bonsecours Market, etc. A run down the Lachine Rapids and a visit to
the curious old Indian village of Caughnawaga, opposite Lachine, the home of the remnant of
a once powerful nation, St. Helen's Island, Back River, or any of the numerous city parks and
public buildings, are worth making. Montreal has an admirable electric street car system, and
its cab service is noted for its excellence and cheapness.
VISITORS to Quebec, via Montreal, can easily reach Ottawa, the Capital of the Dominion,
by the Canadian Pacific or other railways, or by river in summer, the railway run being
less than four hours from the commercial metropolis. The site of Ottawa for picturesque grandeur, it has been stated, is only second to that of Quebec. It is located on the
Ottawa River, where the Rideau and Gatineau join, and where the waters of the first named
hurl themselves over the Chaudiere Falls into the seething cauldron below. But it is the
national buildings which are the chief pride of Ottawa, and the principal objects of interest to
tourists. They stand out boldly on Parliament Hill, overlooking the Ottawa, in all the beauty
of seemingly varied architecture. They were erected at a cost of about $5,000,000. The
octagonal-shaped library in rear of the Houses of Parliament is one of the most complete in the
world, and contains 155,000 volumes, some of which are exceedingly rare books.   Other objects 30
of interest are Rideau Hall, the home of the Governor-General of Canada, Rideau Canal, built
in 1827 for military purposes, Major Hill Park, the city buildings, extensive 'saw-mills, and the
timber slides by which the square timber from the Upper Ottawa passes down without damage
into the navigable waters below. To go down these slides, as nearly every visitor does, is an
exciting and exhilarating experience. Opposite Ottawa is the French city of Hull, and combined they have a population of over 60,000.
The Citadel,
Plains of Abraham,
Martello Towers,
Grand Battery,
Wolfe's Monument,
Laval University,
Cardinal's Palace,
French Cathedral,
English Cathedral,
Ladies' Protestant Home,
Short-Wallick Monument,
Chateau d'Eau,
Beauport Asylum,
Lake St. Charles,
Cap Rouge,
Wolfe's Cove,
Forts of Levis,
Sous le Cap,
Dufferin Terrace,
Chateau Frontenac,
Governor's Garden,
Duke of Kent's Residence,
Montcalm's Residence,
The Esplanade,
The City's Gates,
Ursulihe Convent,
Parliament Buildings,
New Court-House,
Falls of Montmorency,
Lake Beauport,
Quebec Seminary,
Notre Dame des Victoires,
Shrine of Ste. Anne,
Chaudiere Falls,
Isle d'Orleans.
Ghateaa Ffontenae
Rates from $3.50 to $5.00 per day.
Rooms Single or en Suite.
Special Arrangements with
# Large Parties and
* Those Making Prolonged Visits.
; *
... ISSUED  BY THE: . . .
Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
Guides to the Principal Cities of Japan and China.
'BANFF."    "ALASKA."    "HAWAII.5
I OSTof these publications are handsomely illustrated, and contain much useful information in interesting shape. _ " Time-Table with Notes" will be
found a valuable companion for all transcontinental travellers. Other pamphlets descriptive of the Dominion—"Western Canada," " British
Columbia," " The Gold Fields of Cariboo and Kootenay," " The Yukon Gold Belt," " New Ontario Gold Fields," etc., — are also issued by the
Company. Copies may be obtained FREE from Agents of the Company, or will be mailed, to any address oh application tp undersigned. The
Company have also published a new map, on the polar projection, showing the whole of the northern hemisphere,^ and the Canadian Pacific Railway's
Around the World Route in a novel and interesting way, and another of Canada and the northern half of the United States, showing the entire system of
the Company in detail. Thege maps will be given away for public ana* prominent display.^ The Company now have on. sale, in, their hotels, principal t
ticket offices, and on the trains, several series of handsomely finished views of scenes along their line of railway. Size: io by 12 inches, in portfolios suitable
for the table (twelve views in eaqh series), Price $1.50; and views, 22 by 28 inches, suitable for framing (three views in the set), in mailing tube, P^iceJJi.oo.   /
c. e. Mcpherson,
Asst. General Passenger Agentj
1 King St., East, Toronto.
District Passenger Agent,
, 197 Washington St., Boston.
District Passenger Agent,
■    , St. John, N.B.
J. P. LEE,
General Agent, Passenger Dept.,
232 South Clark St., Chicago, III.
District Passenger Agent,
Vancouver, B.C.
Traffic Manager, twines West of Lake
Superior, Winnipeg.
'        General Eastern Agent,
353 Broadway, N.Y.
General Passenger Agent, Soo Line,
Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent, Soo Line,
St. Paul, Minn.
European Traffic Agent,
67. and 68 King William St„ E.C., and
30- Gpekspur St., S.W., London, Eng.
7 James St., Liverpool.   67 St. Vincent
St., Glasgow*
Asst. General Passenger Agent,
H'H'i Montreal.
Passenger Agent,
Cor. Third and Chestnut Sts., Philadelphia,   and   203   East   German  St.,
District Passenger Agent,
Chronicle Bldg., San Francisco.
General Passenger Agent,
D., S. S. & A. Ry., Marquette, Mich.
General Agent China, Japan, etc.,
Hong Kong.
Passenger Traffic  Manager, Montreal.^ CHATEAU   FRONTENAC,   DUFFERIN  TERRACE,   QUEBEC —WINTER.


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